# 10/25/2012

CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING & GRAPHICS CH (1+2)
Lecture 10: Structures – types & Loads
Dr. Mohsin Siddique Asst. Prof. Dept. of Civil Engineering FAST-NU
24/10/2012

Structure
• Structure is a system of connected parts used to support a load
• Analysis of Structures
▫ - Strength ▫ - Rigidity

• Design of Structures ▫ - Safety ▫ - Esthetics ▫ - Serviceability ▫ - Environment ▫ - Economy

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Structural Engineering
• What does a Structural Engineer do?
▫ A Structural Engineer designs the structural systems and structural elements in buildings, bridges, stadiums, tunnels, and other civil engineering works (bones)

▫ Design: process of determining location, material, and size of structural elements to resist forces acting in a structure

Engineering Design Process
• Identify the problem (challenge) • Explore alternative solutions
▫ Research past experience ▫ Brainstorm ▫ Preliminary design of most promising solutions

• Analyze and design one or more viable solutions • Testing and evaluation of solution
▫ Experimental testing (prototype) or field tests ▫ Peer evaluation

• Build solution using available resources (materials, equipment, labor)

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Design Process in Structural Engineering
• Select material for construction • Determine appropriate structural system for a particular case • Determine forces acting on a structure • Calculate size of members and connections to avoid failure (collapse) or excessive deformation

Examples of Typical Structures

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Classification of structure Structural supports

Classification of structure Structural elements
• Tie member/ Tension member • These are subjected to tensile forces • Column • The are generally subjected to axial compressive forces

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Classification of structure Structural elements
• Beams/flexure members • Subjected to bending moments • Classification depends upon end/support conditions • Beams column members • Subjected to both axial compression and bending moments

Classification of structure
• As an engineer, you must be able to classify structures according to their form and function and you must also be able to recognize various types of structural elements • Structural System- compose of structural members joined together by structural connections. Each structural system may be composed of one or more of the four basic types of structures ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ 1. Trusses 2. Cables and Arches 3. Frames 4. Surface structures

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Classification of structure Trusses
• Trusses consist of slender members, arranged in a triangular pattern • Planar trusses are composed of members that lie in the same plane. They are frequently used to support bridges and roofs • Space trusses have members extending in three dimensions and are suitable for transmission line towers

All members are connected together by PINS which are free to rotate literally !! Truss members are usually subjected to axial forces only (tension and compression)

Classification of structure Trusses
• Truss members use less material to support given load. But they require a lot of fabrication • Trusses can be used in the 30-400 ft range. • Trusses spanning greater than 400 ft have also been designed.

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Classification of structure Cables and Arches
• Cables and arch type structures are used to span long distances • Cables are usually flexible and carry their loads in tension • The external load is usually applied vertically. As a result the cable deforms with a sag • Cables are commonly used to support bridges and building roofs • Cables have an advantage over beams and trusses, especially for spans greater than 150 ft

Classification of structure Cables and Arches

Cable Bridge, Washington, USA.

Golden gate bridge, San Francisco, USA.

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Classification of structure Cables and Arches

Hussaini Bridge (Passu, Pakistan)

Classification of structure Cables and Arches
• Arch has reverse curvature of a cable and it achieves its strength in compression • The arch must be rigid in order to maintain its shape • It is primarily subjected to compression • Arches are used in bridge structures, doom roofs and opening in masonary walls

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Classification of structure Cables and Arches

Arch Dam

Arch Bridge

Classification of structure Frames
• Frames are commonly used in building structures • Frames are composed of beams and columns that are connected together • Planar (2D) fames with all members in one plane • Space (3D) frame with all members in more than one plan • Steel frames: structural elements made of steel • RC frames: structural elements made of RC

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Classification of structure Frames

Flat Plate

Classification of structure Surface structures
• Membrane, plate or shell type structures with much less thickness as compared to other dimensions • The structures is subjected to in-plane (tension or compression forces mainly) • Surface structures may be made of rigid material such as reinforced concrete • The structures may be shaped as folded plates of cylinders etc • The are referred to as thin plates of shells

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Classification of structure Surface structures

Shells

Forces Acting in Structures
• Forces induced by gravity ▫ Dead Loads (permanent): self-weight of structure and attachments ▫ Live Loads (transient): moving loads (e.g. occupants, vehicles) • • • • • Forces induced by wind Forces induced by earthquakes Forces induced by rain/snow Fluid pressures Others

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Forces Acting in Structures

Vertical: Gravity

Lateral: Wind, Earthquake

Global Stability

Sliding

Overturning

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Forces in Structural Elements
100 lb

100 lb

Tension

Compression

Forces in Structural Elements (cont.)

100 lb

Bending

Torsion

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Forces in Structural Systems

Arch

Forces in Structural Systems

Truss C

C

T

C

T Forces in Truss Members

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Forces in Structural Systems

Frame

Forces in Structural Systems