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The difference between “univariate” and “multivariate” analyses is that a “univariate” analysis has only one dependent variable (with any number of independent variables / predictors). A “multivariate” analysis, on the other hand, has many dependent variables (again, with any number of IVs). The goal of our analysis is to look for an effect of one or more IVs on several DVs at the same time. Therefore, we’re going to use the familiar “general linear model” command in SPSS, but choose a “multivariate” analysis.

This dataset has information about whether a person is in one of several different experimental groups (“group”), and their scores on three different types of memory tests (recognition, free recall, and cued recall). The difficulty level of each memory task is also rated. We will treat the three different memory tasks as different examples of a single phenomenon (“memory”). Therefore, we will look at all three together as dependent variables in our analysis.

In a multivariate analysis. Now. In this case. It should look very similar to the dialog box that we’ve been using for the past two weeks (except that it says “multivariate” up here.A dialog box will appear. In the “fixed factor” box. you have more than one DV. . put the predictor that we’re looking at: experimental group membership. we have three different memory tests and we want to test for an effect of the IV on all three of them at once. instead). so you can select many DVs and put them into this box together. hit the “Options” button to go on.

Again. Click on the “observed power” button to get the statistical power of the multivariate tests. Hit “Continue.” and then. . this “options” dialog is very similar to the used in the univariate analyses. back in the main dialog box. hit the “Model” button to go on.

” or you can select just certain variables to be included in the model. Go back to the main dialog box. . you can use the default value of “full factorial. As usual.Here’s the “model” dialog box. and hit “OK” to run the analysis. again very similar to the one for univariate analyses.

007 .007 . as a group.053 17.777 c As usual for these F-test results.834 .683 2.000 3.000 .947 . there are four different ones.The output has two segments.000 9.044 24.000 . The statistic is an upper bound on F that yields a lower bound on the significance level.000 1. If you are asked “overall.368 122.567 24.000 9.464 .044 749. ignore the section labeled “Intercept.681a 249.000 .000 132.006 Parameter 749.000 44.330 Observed Powerb 1.000 42.681 a Noncent.05).044 749.” then you would run a MANOVA and look at these multivariate tests for your conclusion. These results tell you if there is a significant effect of the IVs on all of the DVs.000 3.147 19.000 42.864 .” These four numbers give you the p-values for the four different multivariate tests. Multivariate Testsd Effect Value Intercept Pillai's Trace Wilks' Lambda Hotelling's Trace Roy's Largest Root group Pillai's Trace Wilks' Lambda Hotelling's Trace Roy's Largest Root a. The first part gives you the results of the multivariate tests.000 3.874 249.000 . Computed using alpha = . Exact statistic b. is there a significant effect of something on some set of variables.326 F 249.044 749. .007 .000 102. considered as a group.592 . so we can conclude that Group Membership did have a significant effect on the three different memory variables.834 17.000 1.000 Error df 42.000 1.000 .000 Sig.941 .940 .282 14.000 9.681a 2. d.737 2.698 4.597 . . Hypothesis df 3.05 c.000 42.681a 249. In this case they’re all significant (p < . Design: Intercept + group . Remember that there’s no one single multivariate test.000 3.

688 708831. the results of the Cued Recall Test (p = . all stacked on top of one another.773 . Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Source Dependent Variable Type III Sum of Squares Corrected Model dime nsion Noncent. They are the results of three separate univariate ANOVAs that are done as a “step down analysis” after you ran the MANOVA. Computed using alpha = .865 762.583 d 1 Intercept 827662.132 2768.000 801145.083 26000.000 .721 .018 .083 8666.019 .Here’s the second part of the results section. R Squared = .333 955649.917 Cued Recall Test Free Recall Test Recognition Test 1 group dime nsion Cued Recall Test Free Recall Test Recognition Test 1 Error dime nsion Cued Recall Test Free Recall Test Recognition Test 1 Total dime nsion Cued Recall Test Free Recall Test Recognition Test 1 Corrected Total dime nsion Cued Recall Test Free Recall Test 1 a.083 75177.979 41343.396c 8305. if you look at all of the rows with blue print. This is something like doing post-hoc tests after a significant .000 613814.000 1.743 5712. Please note that the results in this table are not the results of a MANOVA.743 5712.000 .132 2768.149) b.019 Parameter 11. df 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 44 44 44 48 48 48 47 47 47 Mean Square 8666.767 1. These p-values tell you that Group Membership had a significant effect on the results of the Recognition Test (p = .528 2317.130) d.000 127986.688 708831.343 3.061 357.186 (Adjusted R Squared = . You could do similar re-arranging to get the individual F-tables for the other two variables.343 3.000 .028).528 827662.021 572470.739 3. This gives univariate tests for the effects of Group Membership on each of the different DVs.080 414.229a 17136. R Squared = .018 .217 10.019).030 11.018).739 3. you could put them all back together into a single F-table.767 Recognition Test Cued Recall Test Free Recall Test Recognition Test dime nsion 26000.687 357.313 92313.061 Observed Powerb .028 .721 .865 762.000 1.203 (Adjusted R Squared = .217 10.021 572470.583 101986. .871 F 3. Think of this table as several F-test tables.408 3.396 8305. R Squared = .146) These cells (the shaded ones) are the ones we’re most interested in.080 414.000 .687 Sig.583 33038.030 11.408 11.05 c.773 .201 (Adjusted R Squared = . and the results of the Free Recall Test (p = .028 .581 750. For instance.866 1708.229 17136.

The univariate results together do not add up to the multivariate test.one-way F-test. look at the first table of the output instead. If the multivariate test is really what you are interested in. and add a covariate to the model. . If the univariate tests are really what you’re interested in. The question here is “does the effect of experimental group membership on the three memory variables remain significant after controlling for the item difficulty of the memory tasks?” To do this test. enter “test item difficulty” as a covariate. skip the MANOVA and just do the three different univariate tests – but you will need to do a correction to your alpha level to control for inflated Type I error when doing multiple tests! MANCOVA in SPSS Now let’s go back to the main dialog box for the multivariate analysis.

(But that’s the default setting. so you don’t actually need to do anything here).” in order to get a test of the effects of each variable after controlling for the effects of the others. You do have to leave the Sums of Squares setting on “Type III.” and then in the main dialog box.Here’s what the “model” dialog looks like. . (Again. Hit “Continue. hit “OK” to run the test. you can get the same result by leaving the model on its default setting. “full factorial”).

007 . Computed using alpha = .002 . Design: Intercept + group + difficlt . Again.879 ..732 2. d. the effect of the various predictors on “all of the memory tasks”). just in the rows for the IV called “Group”.000 Error df 41. Hypothesis df 3.673 .083a 2.939 .445 .016 F 6.007 .016 .585 .224a .862 . all four multivariate tests are significant.308 .675 2.942 .002 .000 3.334 . look at the multivariate test results.934 119.000 41.05 c. Again. We use this term because we have: --one nominal-level predictor (or “fixed factor”) --many I/R-level DVs --and an I/R-level predictor (as a covariate) Paul F.250 18.Here are the results—again. Multivariate Testsd Effect Value Intercept Pillai's Trace Wilks' Lambda Hotelling's Trace Roy's Largest Root group Pillai's Trace Wilks' Lambda Hotelling's Trace Roy's Largest Root difficlt Pillai's Trace Wilks' Lambda Hotelling's Trace Roy's Largest Root a.016 .007 .000 41. The statistic is an upper bound on F that yields a lower bound on the significance level.523 24.000 3.224 c Noncent.000 3.879 .879 Parameter 18.089 .250 18.873 .673 .000 3.000 Sig. so we can conclude that the effects of group membership on the three memory tasks are still significant. .940 .e.006 .354 .000 99.083a 6. University of Colorado Denver. the first section shows you the results of the multivariate tests (i.000 9.078 19.472 .000 129. even after controlling for the effects of test item difficulty on people’s performance on the three memory tasks.089 .000 3.089 a .000 43.002 .000 41. Congratulations! You have now completed a one-way multivariate analysis of covariance. or MANCOVA.242 14.942 .002 .694 4. Exact statistic b.083a 6.942 .673 .785 . Center for Nursing Research Updated 1/10 with SPSS (PASW) version 18 .000 41.984 .250 18.089 . Cook.673 Observed Powerb .083a 6.000 41.445 .250 24.879 .000 9.224a You can see that “difficulty” has been included in this model as a covariate.000 3.000 3.692 .000 41.000 3.942 .224 a .000 41.000 9.611 .

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