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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Home Security Systems
Home Security System is a complete system that secures a home from various threats including home intrusion. There is a lot of external threats that can endanger our home and family, ranging from break-ins and theft to fires and carbon monoxide poisoning. Keep our loved ones and assets safe from such dangers with a home surveillance system from a security company. These systems go far beyond traditional house alarms and are comprised of several different security devices to monitor all aspects of our home, such as smoke detectors, motion sensors and security cameras. When one of these devices is triggered, the security company is immediately notified and can dispatch emergency responders if we or our home is in danger. By understanding the purpose of each part of a home security system, consumers can be sure they are protecting what is danger to them without spending an excessive amount of money on items they do not need like spending on safeguard purpose and safety manpower. . By paying a small fee, a homeowner can be assured their home is constantly being monitored.

What is Necessary for a Home Security System? A Basic Home Security System in market consists Of :
            Panel Door and Window Contacts Motion Detector Monitoring Alarm/Alarm system Battery Back-up Bells/Sirens Burglar Alarm Carbon Monoxide Detector or Monitor CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) Central Monitoring Center Chime or Bell Mode

A homeowner can also ask that . we can keep track of when our kids leave or come home. It will also pick up the movement of someone getting up for a midnight snack. so they aren't effective in high traffic areas. If an alarm is tripped. but will not go off if a dog or cat is moving in the room. There are "smart" motion detectors that will recognize a human moving about. It is attuned to the sound of breaking glass. This includes windows. the alarm would go off. Then. motion detectors can sense intruders within our home.The alarm company will typically install the control panel inside a closet or some other concealed area of our home. Door and Window Contacts Contacts are hidden devices that detect the opening of protected windows and doors. Motion detectors can usually be programmed so that they will only go off if a large animal or person sets them off. A window contact will not cause the alarm to go off if the window were broken. Monitoring When a home security system is monitored. broken or home security system is disarmed. Motion Detector A motion detector protects the entire room. they are a great addition to a home security system while everyone is out of the house. a signal will also be sent to the central dispatch center. We no need to worry about our pets stopping us from installing a home security system. authorities can be summoned when an intruder is detected. This helps to cut down on false alarms.Our control panel can keep a log of when these contacts were broken so that. if we choose. a chime will sound. However. An employee of the monitoring center will telephone the authorities. If a window were broken.                       Carbon Monoxide Detector or Monitor CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) Central Monitoring Center Chime or Bell Mode Digital Video Monitoring System Door and Window Contacts DVR/CCTV Recorder Electronic Surveillance System Emergency Phone Emergency Response Locator Fire Detector and Alarm Glass Break Detectors Handheld Remote Heat Detectors Interior Sounder/Bell Interior Sounder/Bell Keypad Panic Buttons Keypads Light Activation Low Temperature Sensors Paging Features Phone Activation Smoke Detectors Two-way Keypad Panel This is the "brains" of the home security system. If we have a monitored motion detector. a contact sensor is triggered. and a signal is sent to dispatch if the system is alarmed. Some motion detectors also have a glass break sensor. the home security system usually calls a monitoring center. This is absolutely necessary for your system to work. When a door or window is opened. Every other part of a home security system is wired into the panel . When the system is not turned. When they are turned on. the security system is able to use the telephone line to call the authorities if a break-in occurs.

This is why it is sometimes referred to as the “silent killer. If the Carbon Monoxide Monitor is tripped then a signal will be sent to dispatch and the proper authorities will be alerted so that EMS (Emergency Medical) can respond to your situation. Bells/Sirens Visual and audible bells can alert your family and neighbors that there is a problem in your home. When installed. The device monitors the presence and levels of carbon monoxide gas in a particular area. Alarm An alarm system is essentially any mechanism or series of mechanisms that trigger an alert that there is a problem in the house. If your carbon monoxide monitor goes off. there wouldn’t be any bells or whistles when something goes wrong. Another sound might be the ‘chirp’ that is sounded when contacts have been broken.” A monitored carbon monoxide detector can alert authorities when high levels of this deadly gas have been detected. These are used in the disarmed mode for a variety of reasons. Digital Video Monitoring System .he or she be called first in case of an alarm. When an alarm is triggered by an intruder or fire. Once the central monitoring center receives a distress signal. they will notify the proper authorities right away. There are several different alarm system monitoring companies that you can choose from. Carbon Monoxide Detector or Monitor Carbon Monoxide is odorless and colorless. a homeowner can be assured their home is constantly being monitored. If it is a monitored burglar alarm then the local authorities will be notified at the time of the incident. Then. Otherwise. CCTV is mostly used for businesses but can also be employed as part of a home security system. it might be a good idea to advertise the fact that there is a burglar alarm in the house. The battery back-up keeps the home security system operational if there is an electrical failure. Chime or Bell Mode – A programmable internal system that lets you know if someone has entered a zone while the system is disarmed. If a burglar sees that the home has a home security alarm system installed then they will be less likely to want to deal with that particular home. Get everyone out of the house as quickly and safely as possible. By paying a small fee. CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) A video surveillance system that allows you to watch certain areas of your home. Central Monitoring Center – This is the dispatch center where distress signals are received. This is to ensure that the security system has not been accidentally set off. If you have small children and a swimming pool then there are many steps that you should take in order to try to keep them safe. However. It is operational 24 hours a day. don’t wait for EMS to arrive. if there is an emergency. they will immediately call the home in order to make sure that it was not a false alarm. A home security alarm can be one of the first lines of defense when it comes to invasions or the threat of fire. Battery Back-up A battery back-up is part of the control panel in most home security systems. Most of these home security companies have a national scope. One of the best uses for the chime or bell mode is to let you know that someone has opened a door. Burglar Alarm A burglar alarm is an electrical system that is primarily used to scare off burglars with a loud noise. It’s a good way to keep track of teens or to know if a toddler has entered a portion of the house that is not safe. If carbon monoxide is detected then an alarm is sounded. such as a backyard with a swimming pool. a signal is sent to a team of operators who will then get the proper authorities notified immediately. you should never use your chime or bell mode as your only way to safeguard your children from dangers such as swimming pools.

DVR A Digital Video Recorder (DVR) is an electronic device that records video and saves it on a computer hard disk. Your control panel can keep a log of when these contacts were broken so that. Emergency Response Locator This is a sign that you put in your yard in order to help deter burglars and also to help fire. This can come in handy if you happen to have teens. Emergency Phone Some home security monitoring companies offer phones for emergency assistance and personal alarms. They are commonly referred to as home security systems and can include burglar alarms that notify the police. police and medical personnel find your home quicker. It does no good to summon the police or fire departments if they can’t find your home! Fire Detector and Alarm Fire alarms detect smoke and/or heat. they can gain entrance without disrupting the contacts. This type of DVR is typically used in malls and other shopping places but can come in handy for home security systems as well. . Electronic Surveillance System These systems can protect homes from break-ins. Door and Window Contacts When a door or window is opened. This is an extra layer of defense that many homeowners choose to pass up.These are video security systems that can be used with a VCR. or personal computer. a contact sensor is triggered. Make sure that your DVR hard disk has adequate storage capacity. a chime will sound. if you choose. and a signal is sent to dispatch if the system is alarmed. An electronic surveillance system usually includes wireless security cameras. You can use a DVR in conjunction with a video monitoring system so that sequences of time can be recorded and played back at your convenience. Some systems are ‘motion sensitive’ so that they only start recording if there is something going on. you might need to use it in a portion of your property that is not monitored by your home security system. When the sound is detected an alarm can be sent to a Local Monitoring Station if the sensor is part of a monitored home security system. These signs should be marked with reflective numbers and should be easy to spot whether it is day or night. if you are in your garden and you start to feel faint and think that you may be having a medical emergency. you can use your mobile device in order to summon help right away. The persons responsible for monitoring the alarms can then notify the fire department or other emergency responder to come to your aid. If you have a panic button. DVR. DVR or PC. DVR CCTV Recorder Records action on a surveillance camera on closed circuit television so that it can be seen later. They have been known to reprogram a home security system so that their comings and goings go unnoticed. if you are in the yard and a stranger hops over your fence. These ‘emergency phone systems’ are meant to speed up the process of alerting the authorities that you are in need of help. This saves tape on a video cassette and space on a DVR or PC. If a burglar breaks a ground floor window. When the system is not turned on. you can keep track of when your kids leave or come home. If it is a monitored system then it can send a signal to a monitoring center. For instance. You can use a wireless surveillance camera in order to tape actions that occur in a designated area and have those actions recorded and played back by using a VCR. Other products may include the medical emergency pendant or the panic button. and a variety of other devices. Just keep in mind that teenagers can be fairly crafty and they are generally good with modern day electronics. and assault. You might want to take this into consideration when setting your password. For example. Fire detectors should be thoroughly tested at least once per year. Glass Break Detectors These are devices that trigger an alarm when the sound or vibration of breaking glass is detected. burglary. wireless security cameras or CCTV. The door and window contacts can only go so far.

.Handheld Remote If you have a hand-help remote control then you can arm or disarm your home security system. On some systems. a fairly quiet chime may sound. You can even choose to not have one at all. Excessive heat can be a precursor to combustion. This can come in handy if you are at work or school. When used in conjunction with a home security monitoring company. There might be a burglar in there! Phone Activation Some security systems can be turned on and off over the phone. you shouldn’t just rush home and enter your house. It can be setup so that there are different sounding signals for each type of event. other products or combustion. Light Activation Some home security systems can turn on lights when an intruder is detected. Low Temperature Sensors – Alerts a monitoring center when the temperature inside your home drops below a specified level. you should have a certain day of the year that you religiously use to change the batteries. The keypad is typically located close to the main entrance of your home so that you can turn off your alarm when you first come in the door. This can come in handy if you live in an area where the outside temperature frequently dips down below freezing. When the system is not armed. Two-way Keypad This is a device that can check the status of your security system from outside your home. It can be placed in a hallway or somewhere in your home that is centrally located and convenient. If you receive a page that your alarm has gone off. These are typically used in convenience stores as ‘the under the counter button’ but they can also be installed as part of a complete home security system. Keypads The keypad allows you to interact with your home security system. Interior Sounder/Bell This is a siren or bell in your home that will notify your family that there is a fire or an intrusion. lights can also be turned on with a remote control. Keypad Panic Buttons These are used in order to send out a silent alarm alerting the authorities that you are in need of assistance. This could come in handy if you are away on vacation and you need to let the neighbor enter your home to take care of your animals. If your smoke detector uses a battery. It can also come in handy if you arrive at work only to remember that you forgot to activate your home security system! Smoke Detectors Gives early detection of a fire by an audible warning. a very loud bell might ring throughout the house when the home security system is armed. They typically will detect smoke. For instance. Heat Detectors Heat detectors can determine excessive heat in your house or building. If a burglar enters your home and all the lights immediately go on. You should use caution with these devices. This can be a stand alone fire detection system or can work in conjunction with other security systems. nine times out of ten they will simply do an ‘about face’ and march right back out the door. The type of remote control that you choose is completely up to you. Some remotes can also be used in order to open your garage door or turn on the lights in your home. A large portion of burglaries and home invasions take place while the homeowner is at work during the day. emergency services can automatically be alerted that you have a possible fire. Paging Features Some home security systems employee a paging feature that can alert you if there is an intrusion or fire.

An electronic motion detector contains a motion sensor that transforms the detection of motion into an electric signal. They form a vital component of comprehensive security systems. A motion detector attached to an outdoor. Motion detectors have . Most motion detectors can detect up to15 – 25 meters (50–80ft). automatic light. A motion detector may be connected to a burglar alarm that is used to alert the home owner or security service after it detects motion. for both homes and businesses. it is a device that contains a physical mechanism or electronic sensor that quantifies motion that can be either integrated with or connected to other devices that alert the user of the presence of a moving object within the field of view.MOTION SENSOR DETECTOR A motion sensor is a device for motion detection. This can be achieved by measuring optical changes in the field of view. That is. Such a detector may also trigger a red light camera.

Tomographic sensor A tomographic sensor detects disturbances in radio waves if they travel via areas that have a lot of network nodes. Some of these applications include motion-activated outdoor lighting systems. It only has one output pin and another two pins is connected to 5V and GND separately. This sensors measure infrared radiation emanating from objects in the field of view. PIR Passive InfraRed A popular motion detector system is the PIR detector. The Motion Detector System A motion detection system is a type of security alarm which can quantify motion. it is a motion detector. there are also motion detector systems that use ultrasound (ultrasonic motion detector). this type looks for a source of body heat in order to detect movement. This type of detector system is effective in detecting movements at an average of 50 feet to 80 feet. Defined as a passive infrared (PIR) detector. Types of Motion Detector System A number of houses nowadays already prefer a wireless motion detector because of the convenience of not seeing visible wires that make the place a little messy. There is also a type for this detector that contains a timing device. In simple terms. The newer systems already work on dual sensors in order to better improve the detector’s ability to ‘sense correctly’ and avoid false alarms. Aside from the PIR detector. SYSTEM OVERVIEW PIR stands for Passive InfraRed. motion sensor street lamps and motion sensor lanterns.found great application in domestic and commercial applications. These forms are all classified as a wireless motion detector. which is the one most preferred by users to secure their homes or businesses. Apparent motionis detected when an infrared emitting source with one . This motion can then be connected to other gadgets or equipments that signals the user that there is motion occurring in a particular area. Microwave sensors Microwave sensors use microwave pulses to measure a moving object’s reflection. microwave motion detectors and tomographic motion detectors. This is because the sensor with the timing device prevents unoccupied spaces (like public comfort rooms) from lighting up. This detector system can also be linked to an intruder alarm system that immediately alerts security about a possible burglary. A motion detection system is considered vital in securing a home or a business. An ultrasonic sensor sends out ultrasonic waves and then measures its reflection off an object that is moving.

but can be prone to false alarms if not properly installed as their detection can pass through walls. Microwave detectors are much more sensitive to movement than PIR detectors. The unitoutput is high whenever there is motion detected. PIR detectors monitor the infrared radiation emitted by all objects within their field of view. PIR detectors provide excellent protection. such as indoor lighting How do motion detectors work? There are two types of motion detectors . such as human body. However. It will remain high for longer if H from the jumper is selected. personal safety. A moving object is identified using the Doppler effect comparing transmitted and reflected signals. In some hostile environments PIR detection on its own may not be suitable as it can be sensitive to thermal radiation interference. After all. the output remains high. For instance. Consequently. Aftermotion stops. or both). such as wall.temperature. the output remains high for a few seconds (depend on the variable resistor adjusted). For this project. The Application of a Motion Detector System It would not come as a surprise if homes nowadays have a motion detector systeminstalled in it. . A PIR detector will alert your security system when it detects movement of a source of infrared radiation against background radiation levels. Microwave detectors on the other hand can be sensitive to radio interference. with the fast pace that technology is improving. users by alarm systems for the protection of their properties (residences or business establishments. Motion detectors which combine PIR and microwave detection are called 'dual-technology' (or 'dual-tech') and are relatively immune to interference. In most applications. the resistant of variable resistor is adjusted to as low as possible so that the output of the sensor would not remain high for long time after motion stops.Passive InfraRed (PIR) and microwave. Dual-tech sensors also provide the additional benefit of anti-masking functionality. Microwave detectors transmit an electromagnetic signal and compare the reflected signal from all objects in their field of view. If the signal matches preset detection criteria an alarm is triggered. a motion detector system can also now be used to manipulate appliances and all other amenities in the house. as well as your family’s safety is always of utmost importance. aside from detecting a possible burglar in the house or in the store. Applications of this Alarm System Primarily. passes in front of source with another temperature. they have a low false alarm rate as both technologies have to detect simultaneously in order for an alarm to be triggered. If the motion is continuous. other uses have also been found for this alarm system.