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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study A United States Committee in 1916 defined Social Studies as those subjects

whose subject matter relates directly in the organization and development of human society and to man as a member of a social group (Ogundare, 2001). Many theoretical frameworks have been designed for the proper identification of Social Studies since 1895 in the United States of America. It should at this point be noted that Social Studies originated out of the concern of a very few scholars, teachers and citizens; that the teaching of formal disciplines, primarily, History and Geography, as practiced in schools up to early 1900 provided an inadequate and inappropriate preparations for democratic citizenship, (Ogundare, 2000). Social Studies therefore, is designed to accelerate the pace and level of integration of various points of the country, thereby ensuring a responsive citizenry whose understanding of the need and challenges, aspirations and capabilities of their country goes beyond their immediate environment. The consensus at the conference was that the objectives and the methods of teaching the subject should reflect the peculiarities of each country. Thus,

Social Studies of different brands are found in different countries. There is no gain saying that the laudable objectives that Social Studies is expected to achieve are capable of bringing about national consciousness needed to move the country to a greater height. The subject is also resource dependent, in that it will be badly taught without adequate use of instructional materials. In the light of the above, constant evaluation of students performances from time to time is advocated. It is hoped that this will solve the problems resulting from the usage or non-usage of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Social Studies in our schools, particularly at the junior secondary school level. Over the years, there has been a seeming wide gap in educational achievements between secondary schools located in urban areas and those in rural areas. To what extent does the usage or non-usage of instructional materials contribute to academic performance of students of Social Studies in urban and rural schools respectively? It is in the light of the above question that the differences in academic performances in Social Studies among students whose residences and schools are located in the urban areas and those of students located in the rural areas become a source of concern. Instructional materials add elements of reality by providing concrete examples to learning.

Many authors have written on the use of instructional materials both in teaching social studies and other related subjects in order to enhance teaching for desired social and behavioural change. These authors include McLuhan (1964), Alaka (1978), Kochhar (1986), Okafor (1988), Mkpa (1989), UNDP (1998), Heeks (1999), World Bank (1999), Aguokogbuo (2000), Koert (2000), Greenwood (2001), Bozimo (2002) Nwanna-Nzewunwa (2003) and Adekeye (2008) More specifically, it was emphasised in the works of these authors that the use of instructional materials is a sine qua non in affecting behaviuor of learners of every field, especially social studies. It was equally shown by some of the authors that these materials are important catalysts of social re-engineering and change. It is obvious that social studies teaching and learning cannot be well accomplished without the use of instructional materials. The reason is not far-fetched: advances in technology have brought instructional materials especially the projected and electronic materials to the forefront as the most radical tools of globalization and social development which have affected the classroom teaching-learning situation positively. Such technological breakthroughs as networked and nonnetworked; projected and non-projected; visual, auditory, audio-visual

electronic materials are important landmarks in knowledge transfer. With them both teaching and learning become very pleasant A comparative study of the academic performances of rural and urban junior secondary schools students in Social Studies will help to throw more light on the effects of the use of instructional materials in Social Studies, and to chart a course of action that is capable of remedying the situation. The school is one of the social institutions and it is the social responsibility of the society. The government is to ensure its survival, particularly by focusing on the curriculum, what school programme should be and it is to be properly funded by the government. Education as a socio-politicizing agent become the best tool to be used in realizing the goals of emerging socio and civic nationalism; this is the focus of Social Studies as a school subject, bearing in mind that equal pace at achieving these goals by every sector of the society, urban or rural, remains the only way to sustainable and all-encompassing national development. Generally, the implication of uneven educational achievement among rural and urban students portends a great set back to Nigerias quest for national integration and development.

Statement of the Problem

This research is to carry out a comparative study of learning outcome of Social Studies student in schools located in rural and urban areas based on the effects use or non-usage of instructional materials. There has been concern over the perceived gap between the schools in the rural areas and those in the urban areas. This gap manifests in the academic achievements of students graduating from these schools. This study will investigate the effects of the use or non-usage of instructional materials on the perceived gap in educational achievements of Social Studies students in urban junior secondary schools and those of rural junior secondary schools.

Scope of the Study This study will cover the effects of instructional materials on academic performance of Social Studies students in selected secondary schools in both urban and rural areas of Ijebu-Ode Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The JSSCE results in Social Studies for the years 2007 and 2008 will form part of the basis for comparison coupled with the availability and usage of instructional materials by Social Studies teachers in the schools.

Purpose of the Study

This research work is aimed at studying the differences in academic performances of Social Studies students in rural and urban areas taught with or without instructional materials. The nature of Social Studies is such that is resource dependent; therefore, this work will determine the effects of the usage or non-usage of verities of instructional materials on teaching and learning outcome in Social Studies, bearing in mind the differences in and effects of school environments.

Significance of the Study This study is aimed at making the teaching and learning of Social Studies better. It will investigate the disparities in the academic achievement between rural and urban students of Social Studies at the junior secondary school level. It will shed light on the effectiveness of instructional materials as one of the factors that determines educational achievements generally, and specifically in Social Studies. Socio-economic development can only be achieved if equal educational opportunity is given to all citizens. The identification of barriers to the effective teaching and learning of Social Studies will bring about the achievement of those objectives stated in the National Policy of Education (NPE 2004) among which are: a. to building a free and democratic society

b.

to build a just and egalitarian society; a united, strong and self-reliant nation a great and dynamic economy; a land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens. More so, the findings of this study will equip the relevant government

c. d.
e.

agencies and Non-governmental agencies on ways to improve on the teaching and learning of Social Studies. It will particularly enhance the role of Inspectorate divisions of the Local Governments under focus. It will give an insight into the attitude of teachers and students towards the effective use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Social Studies. It will provide school administrators with the right information on the nature of students academic performance vis--vis teachers and resource inputs, with the purpose of improving on teaching and learning process.

Limitations to the Study This research work is constrained by some factors such as time constraints; the sample for the study was limited to Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area. It may also be difficult to fully get available information at the disposal of schools due to official reasons or personal disposition of respondents; poor record keeping will make the task of getting all relevant school records

needed for this research more difficult. However, it is viewed that the limitations might have no adverse effect(s) on the overall findings of this research work.

Research Questions 1. Are there more qualified Social Studies teachers in rural Junior Secondary Schools than urban Junior Secondary Schools? 2. Do students in urban Junior Secondary Schools perform better in Social Studies common examinations than their counterpart in rural Junior Secondary Schools? 3. How often do the Social Studies teachers make use of instructional materials during teaching? 4. What are the various instructional materials for teaching Social Studies?

Research Hypotheses In the course of this study the following hypotheses are going to be tested. (a) H0 There is no significant difference in the number of qualified

Social Studies teachers in rural and urban secondary schools.

H1

There is significant difference in the number of qualified Social

Studies teachers in rural and urban secondary schools. (b) H0 There is no significant difference in academic achievement of urban and rural Social Studies students. H1 There is significant difference in academic achievement of urban and rural Social Studies students. (c) H0 There is no significant effect of the use of instructional materials on academic performance of Social Studies students in urban and rural secondary school. H1 There is significant effect of the use of instructional materials on academic performance of Social Studies students in urban and rural secondary schools. (d) H0 there is no significant difference in attitude towards utilization of instructional materials by urban and rural secondary school teachers. H1 there is significant difference in attitude towards utilization of instructional materials by urban and rural secondary school teachers.

Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this research work, some words and phrases are given working definitions. This is in order to avoid ambiguity that their unintended interpretations could create. The meaning and definitions of some terms used in the study are: Instructional Materials: These are materials that are used to aid in the transference of information from one to another. For example, a teacher may use instructional materials to aid in the learning of subject matter for a class. These instructional materials could include: Power Point presentations (visual aids), Books, Articles, Materials for project development. Urban Schools: Schools located in cities and industrialized areas with presence of headquarters of government offices and infrastructures. Rural School: Schools located in the village or un-industrialized areas where the main occupation is subsistent farming and presence of few or no social infrastructures. Qualified Teachers: These are specialized teachers in a particular subject area, having undergone academic and professional training in Social Studies and have obtained certification. Academic Performance: this is the measured outcome of learning after instructional process usually determined through an evaluation tool.

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Teaching: The process of transmitting learnable content to learners usually in formal situation. Teaching Methods: It is the approaches adopted by a teacher upon which all learning activities are based. Environment: The place in time and space where the school is located and learners are residing. It may be urban or rural. Social Studies: This refers to a subject taught in schools whose content is designed to bring about better understanding of the nature of interactions of man within his physical and social environment; but it is not a combination or amalgamation of Social Sciences Socio-economic Background: The economic status of the home from which the students come from.

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CHAPTER TWO Review of Related Literatures Historical Development of Social Studies The United States of America can rightly be described as the home of social studies; a look at the development of the subject portrays and lends credence to this fact. The term Social Studies began to be used during the 1880s to early 1890s. In 1890 the term gained momentum at the conference on the teaching of History, Government, and Economics in Madison, these subjects were grouped under the common title Social Studies. It therefore follows to say that an examination of the history of social studies and its development, means an assessment of the developmental stages of social studies in the United States of America the home of Social Studies although there are peculiar nature of the

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development of the subject in different countries, the United States of America has prominence in this regard. The history of Social Studies Education in U.S.A can be divided chronologically into five periods. The first period - up to 1893 - covers the emergence of history in the social studies curriculum with some inclusion of geography and civil government. A second period 1893 1916 marks the period in the development of secondary school curriculum for the teaching of social studies. It was drawn with the view that the subject is a maturation of history as the Social Studies curriculum under the leadership of important national committees with peripheral concern for civil government and some physical geography economics and sociology. Obviously, at this time, people still felt that history should be the core subject of social studies and that all the other subjects are to play supportive contribution, (Isolated Pocket Report 1965). The third period 1916 1936, according to (Social Studies Report 1965), it was during this period that genuine Social Studies came into being, challenging the strong hold of history and witnessing the inclusion of contents from Political Science, Economics, Human Geography and Sociology as separate or cross-disciplinary subjects. This was an era of scientific approach to education which focuses more attention on individual

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differences. It is this development in education with great concern for the need of the students which consequently encouraged new experimental Social Studies, (Museum of U.S Bulletin of General Studies Association vol. 4, (1965:16).

The fourth period 1936 1955, was the period covering the time of the 2nd World War, which was fought between 1939 1945, (Iyamu, 2000), Ezegbe, (1989), opined that Social Studies actually took its shape and origin in the United States of American in 1950s. They noted that the subject originated from the experience and the issues that arose from the 2nd World War. But there is another understanding that this period was a very fascinating one for the subject. There was a lot of heat and discussions as the public clamor for a locally determined curriculum to strengthen societal needs, citizenship education and individual adjustment. However; the world wars made people to seek for a more relevant education that would make people perform to the best of their ability, more than anything else, to be able to function harmoniously by adjusting to the society.

The fifth period 1955 till date; it was the era of scientific approach coupled with greater attention to the structure, and tradition of society. This

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current period takes advantage of technological growth and was attempting to unite all students, societies and social sciences in order to produce individuals knowing the workings and method of the social scientist, applying enquiry process to new problem in Social Studies. But whether the content of social studies is to be organized along the line of separate subject discipline or along a cross line approach seemed a remote question, ever since this era, the United State has been leading in the production of materials for the teaching and learning of social studies. The aims and objectives of social studies in the U.S.A, according to Ken Worthy (1981:7) cited Bruce Joyce (1972), are listed in three goals areas, they are: Humanistic Education: Through which Social Studies would help the child comprehend his experiences and find meaning in life. This according to Ezegbe (1989:19), will make the child appreciate, evaluate and utilize his experiences in life; to enable him or her to see the realities of life and understand the implication of social living. This is called Personal Education. Citizenship Education: Through which the child get socialized to participate effectively in the dynamic life of the society. This will lead the child to become a good and active citizen who will be prepared to contribute his best to the improvement of the society, this is called Social Education.

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Intellectual Education: Which leads the child to acquire the analytical ideas and problems solving tools that are developed by scholars in the social sciences? It is believed that as the child matures, he learns to ask fruitful questions, make enquiries, examine critical ideas in social situations and make objective assessment and analysis of issues and events, (National Council for Social Studies, (NCSS), 2007).

Introduction of Social Studies in Africa The idea of Social Studies as a school subject in the continent of Africa emerged at the Conference of African Educators held in Mombassa, Kenya, from 16th 30th August, 1968. This conference had eleven African counties in attendance; other participants at the conference were the United States of America, Great Britain and African Educators. The conference was a follow up of an earlier conference held at the Queens College, Oxford, England from 10th 16th September 1967. The Oxford conference was summoned to discuss the needs and priorities in curriculum development in Africa. At the Mombassa conference as reported by Ezegbe (1989:31), it was suggested that the member countries should introduce Social Studies into their primary and teachers training colleges, as part of their curriculum reforms. It was further agreed at the conference, that such countries should

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adopt the integrated Social Studies approach. The decision on the use of integrated social studies approach was taken because of its success in the Aiyetoro experiment of the teaching of Social Studies.

Development of Social Studies in Nigeria The first serious attempt to develop Social Studies in Nigerian secondary schools was made by the staff of the Comprehensive High School Aiyetoro in Ogun State in 1963. Before this time however, western Nigeria had participated in a programme known as the Ohio Project, organized by the University of Ohio, U.S.A in 1958. This project which included Social Studies for the teacher training college curriculum, was aimed at upgrading Nigerian primary school teachers. However, the efforts were not sustained and the programme had to lapse (Makinde 1979). When the subject was re-introduced at the Aiyetoro Comprehensive High School in 1963 with more vigor and seriousness, it was initially restricted to classes one and two in secondary schools and it later spread gradually from there to other schools. The spread of the subject in the former western region was necessitated by the conference that mandated the staff of Aiyetoro High School the duty of producing a social studies text book for form one and two. As part of the curriculum development in Nigeria, seven

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members of the Social Studies department of Aiyetoro High School to attend a five-week workshop on social studies in Washington University, U.S.A (Comp. High Sch. 1968). After the workshop, the committee produced an edition of the proposed book which was presented to a critique conference of university professors and secondary school teachers held at the University of Lagos in 1968 under the auspices of the Ford Foundation and the Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (C.E.S.A.C) of the University of Lagos. The final edition of the work was issued in 1968 as Social Studies for Nigeria Secondary School Book I and II. This conference further helped in the spread of social studies in the then Western Nigeria. The conference also suggested the introduction of the subject in the primary schools. In 1969, there was a fourteen days seminar on Social Studies held at the Co-operative College, Eleyele Ibadan. Teachers from all parts of the country attended the conference and it was at this conference that Social Studies Association of Nigeria (SOSAN) was formed. The association has been concerned with the development of the subject in Nigeria. The National Curriculum Conference of 8th 12th September 1969 recommended that social studies be taught in all classes in the primary school and in classes one and two at the secondary school. The Nigeria Education Research Council (NERC) formed at the conference has been

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greatly involved in subsequent curriculum conferences and such conferences have helped in the development of Social Studies in Nigeria at the various school levels.

Objectives of Social Studies in Nigeria In the primary school, the objectives of Social Studies which was formulated in line with National policy on Education (1981); To develop the ability to adapt to the changing environment, inculcate national consciousness and national unity, became good citizens capable of, and willing to contribute to the development of the society; and inculcate the right values and attitudes (core curriculum for primary school social studies 1984:1). At the secondary school level, some of the objectives are: To develop a capacity to lean and acquire basic skills including those of listening, reading, speaking, writing, and calculating together with those of observation, analysis and inference which are essential to the formation of sound judgment. Create an awareness ands understanding of out physical environment and the evolving social and cultural processes; inculcate positive attitudes and appropriate values of honesty, integrity, hard-work, fairness, justice and togetherness for the development of the nation.

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At the tertiary level, Social Studies is aimed at; giving the learners proper information and knowledge about the world; equipping the learners with the skills, abilities and competence to help contribute towards world development and progress; equipping him with the right type of values and attitudes that will enable him contribute towards the improvement of world peace and international human relationships.

Conceptualizing Social Studies Education Unlike other disciplines, it is not part of Social Studies to fund a common definition. The question is why is social studies not having a common definition? Unfortunately, such straight-jacket definition is not possible for Social Studies; there are divergent views on the meaning of social studies. For example, Mezieobi (1992), identified at least eight different schools of thought in Iyamu (1999), these are:
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The school of though which seems to see Social Studies as a simplified form of social studies;

The school of thought which perceives social studies as a synonym of the social sciences;

The school of thoughts which sees social studies as a combination or amalgamation or federation of selected aspects of the social

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sciences without each of these distinct and discrete subjects necessarily losing its separate identity. This was the nature of Social Studies since its inception in Nigeria being a combination of History, Geography and Civics; The school of thought which, perceives social studies as an integrated filed of study which derives, fuses or blends materials, ideas, concepts, principles and generalization mainly from the various subjects which make up the social sciences, and sometimes, the humanities and other disciplines;
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The school of thought thinks of Social Studies as a supplement or complement of the traditional subjects which constitute the social sciences and humanities;

The school of thought who sees Social Studies as a subject meant to displace or replace such traditional subject as history, government, geography and the like due to their slow responses to social change.

The school of thought which sees Social Studies as citizenship education; and the school of thought which view social studies as an applied social science.

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To answer the question earlier asked, it is important to examine certain factors that tend to give room for the diverse perspective on the observed that most definitions of Social Studies tend to reflect the interest and views of those who make them. Since peoples interest and views differ, their concept of Social Studies is not likely to be the same. The interest and views of a moralist are bound to be different from those of a politician or economist, Iyamu (1999). Hence, they tend to see things from different perspectives. To a large extent the prevailing problems in mans environment influences his behaviour, reactions, thought patterns and indeed conceptualization. It is normally said that no one transcends his time and space. Osunde (1989) observes that definitions and explanations of the meaning and objectives of certain concepts are not universally applicable. Most definitions and clarifications are made by scholars to suit specific circumstances and context. In fact, it is the relationship between social conditions and human conceptualization that makes knowledge useful and relevant for the solution of problems. Iyamu, (1999) Social Studies is an interdisciplinary field by nature, it cut across various subject areas, with particular reference to those subjects in the social sciences and humanities. The identity of social studies is often from the subjects it borrowed its

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content. Iyamu (1999), sees Social Studies as a coat of many colours and therefore difficult to describe. As Social Studies is still faced with the problems of conceptualization and vocabulary. The fact that Social Studies is an off-shoot of the social sciences and humanities, leaves the teaching of the subject in the hands of non-professionals; as a result, their concept of Social Studies is still largely influenced by their training. Kissock (1981), social studies may be seen as a programme of study which a society uses to instill in students the knowledge, skills, attitudes and actions it considers important concerning the relationship human beings have with each other, their world and themselves. The definition of Kissock focuses on the needs and problems of the society, its goal focused and it has man as the central point. Adaralegbe (1980) opined that Social Studies is a subject which studies man in his environment. It is the study of how the environment influences man and how man in turn influences the physical, social, political, economic, psychological, cultural, religious, scientific and technological environment. The problem with this definition is that it has its scope on too much concepts and issues, that are can hardly imagine just one subject functioning to play these roles too wide in scope. However, Adaralegbe did not also tell us what it is not. Adaralegbe (1980) asserted

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that Social Studies is not the study of history, geography, religious studies, government, civics economics or economic history, anthropology or sociology as individual or discrete subjects nor is it an amalgamation of these subjects under the big umbrella of Social Studies, (1980). In the light of the above clarification, Iyamu (1999) believes that the above caution helps to disabuse the minds of those who see social studies as a new version of the Social Sciences and humanities. But rather it is a synthesis of fuse or blend of collected concepts, ideas and generalization in these disciplines so long as they are relevant in the understanding of the interrelationships between man and his environment. It is not far from the truth to say that this integrated nature of Social Studies have influence scholars in their concept of Social Studies. In this vain, Onyabe (1980) sees Social Studies as an integration of knowledge and experience concerning human relations for the purpose of effective citizenship. Ololobou (1989) sees Social Studies as an organized, integrated study of man and his environment, both physical and social emphasizing cognition, functional skills and desirable attitudes and actions for the purpose of creating an effective citizenry. Contributing to the above debate, Okobian (1984) views Social Studies as: an interdisciplinary curriculum that attempts to unify the various disciplines of social studies in dealing with

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social problems of health, family relations civic affairs, community life, production, recreation, conservation. The best approach to the solution of mans problems of living is to address the linkages among theme; this is the integrated approach which forms the bedrock of Social Studies. Also the Comparative Education Studies and Adaptation Centre (CESAC), sees Social Studies as dealing with man in his environment. It is not only concerned with the acquisition of knowledge for its own sake but it teaches the ways of life. It is a means by which people know what they ought to know as members of a society (1980). Social Studies is a problem-solving discipline. It develops from and focuses on the problems of man and society. Thus, its major concern is not to discover new knowledge but to identify and analyze problems as well as seeking solutions to them using ideas, concepts, principles and generalizations drawn from several other disciplines.

Towards Effective Social Studies in Nigeria Schools The success of social studies as a tool for social reform, social mobilization, social orientation and conscientization in Nigeria depends largely on the foundation laid for its teaching in the nations school system, Iyamu (1999). He further identified some strategies for the effective teaching

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and learning of Social Studies in Nigerian schools. The following are some of the issues he identified: a. b.
c.

Clarification of objectives Identification of significant topics to develop the content Training of Social Studies teachers; to inculcate pre-service training in-service training, conferences and seminars

d. e. f. g. h.

Effective pre-primary education Adequate parental support Identifying and use of appropriate teaching techniques Consideration of relevant materials Identifying appropriate evaluation procedures

Meaning of Instructional Materials The beginning of the use of media for instructional purposes in Nigerian schools dates back to the era of the teacher training colleges during the Colonial Period. During this period, teacher trainees were encouraged to produce low-cost instructional materials and improvise teaching support materials. Teacher-trainees were expected to exhibit these materials and use them as part of their practical teaching exercise (Agun & Imogie, 1988).

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The blueprint which the Federal Government rolled out for guiding educational technology practice which was based on the report of the Joint Consultative Committee on Educational Technology in 1991 was a new innovation to educational institutions in Nigeria. However, the adoption of any new innovation depends on a number of factors. One of these factors is the perception of the end users of the innovation. Perception about a particular object is a reflection of the attitude toward that object. Therefore, in order that the new guidelines for educational technology practice are adopted by teachers, who are the users, their perception about the use of instructional media must be seen to be positive. Abdi (1981) and Imogie (1979) ascertained that media use was lowest among teachers who have negative perception about instructional media. Instructional materials are those materials that teachers use to assist in teaching and learning activities i.e., they are materials used by the teacher to make lessons interesting. They have been found to be facilitators of learning. Dele (2000) defined instructional materials as those materials used to assist the teacher to make lessons interesting. They are used to complement the teachers task. It promotes meaningful communication and ensure better retention, it stimulate and motivate the student to learn. Instructional materials help to develop interest in other areas of learning and encourage

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active participation because it allows students to manipulate the materials used. Ozigi and Canham (1998) described instructional materials as anything which helps the teacher to teach and the learner to learn. They classified instructional materials into three groupings namely; temporary, permanent and display aids. One of the most significant developments in the past twenty years in various schools is the growing interest in the use of instructional materials in teaching. The teacher and materials should interact so that effective learning can take place because the goal of using instructional materials is to make pupils learn. Many institutions established educational resources centers, there was however no standard practice, which led the federal government to prescribe a number of facilities and resources, which should be made available for instructional purposes at the various educational levels (National Policy on Education, 1981). Anchor (2001) delivering a seminar paper on the problems of educating NCE teachers of Social Studies warned that, the extent to which a Social Studies teachers can be resourceful, flexible, and adjustable in his teaching to suit his environment depends on the availability of instructional material such as pictures, cards, models, films etc in the classroom.

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The effective use of these instructional materials can only enable Social Studies to achieve its objectives with qualified teachers and this chance can be ruined in the hands of unqualified teachers. Mansary (1983) comment that instructional materials are to assist in the achievement of stated objectives. Akanbi (1989) defines instructional materials as any form of information carriers that can be used to promote and facilitate learning process. Therefore, the definition above presents instructional materials as a teaching device that appeal to multi media sense of the learners which help the learners conceive, perceive, interpret and transfer the experiences gained to similar or different learning situation. Accurate description of the importance of instructional materials is summarized by Akanbi (1989) when he said instructional materials are important tools for enriching, visualizing, amplifying and accelerating the teaching and learning process. According to Imogie (1984) the Social Studies teacher can use educational technology to promote teaching of the subject particularly as several of the education media and equipment can contribute to the pupils acquisition of factual knowledge, understanding habits and skill, motivation and interest in learning. He went on to say that various contribution of non human resources to the teaching of Social Studies can be better utilized when the Social Studies teachers awareness and application of teaching

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materials, its process and tools are enhanced through training (in service workplace). The training of teachers for Social Studies is imperative because it will enable them to be creative with the subject and will not all the time depend solely on the government as to provide instructional materials. In order to buttress the sense of creativity in teachers, Ogunsanya (1984) said that Social Studies have the widest range of teaching and learning materials which can be found locally. This view is now very popular among many Social Studies experts who try to make teachers realize that most of the materials we interact with in real life situations are potential teaching and learning materials for the subject. Therefore, teachers and learners should try to make use of local materials which they can provide on their own instead of waiting always for government supplies. In the light of the above, it might be right to say that teachers should not depend solely on factory made or government supply materials for their lessons. The time has come for teachers of Social Studies in particular who are aiming at promoting knowledge, skills and values among their students to look into their environment, and as such, try to produce their own instructional materials. Textbooks are of greatest importance in learning and teaching of subject in the school curriculum and one major problem facing the issues of textbooks for teaching Social Studies is not

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only that of quantity but also quality. Most textbooks used in the schools and colleges have much left uncovered while some are out rightly not relevant to the subject objectives and the philosophy of Social Studies. In the words of Dubey (2000), most of these textbooks are geography and history presented traditionally under cover, with Social Studies title. Although it should be made clear that this problem of inadequacy of content in some social studies textbooks is not peculiar to Nigeria alone and it is a course of concern for stakeholders. In essence, the use of various instructional materials in the teaching and learning process, ranging from human and non human materials can not be over estimated. In order to attain maximum results in teaching, relevant instructional materials must be provided to the various schools.

Types of Instructional Materials There are various types of instructional materials. They can be classified into three main groups and each group is further divided into sub-groups. The main groups are visual, audio and audio-visual materials. Visual materials - Printed materials - Textbooks

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- Supplementary reading materials Boards - Flannel boards - Magnetic boards - Bulletin boards Still pictures - Project slides, films strips - Non-projected, photographs, illustration Audio materials - Radio - Record players - Tape recorder

Audio-visual materials - Films - Motion pictures - Television

Visual materials: - These are teaching and learning devices that require the use of students sight i.e. According to Weaver and Bollinger (2000) visual materials are devices used to aid learning
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through the eye. Verbal expression is supplemented by visual materials, interest is created and attention attracted. There is also retention of information and visual image. Examples of printed materials are boards and still pictures. As regards printed materials, students can read carefully and re-read. They can check for information and review it. Printed materials have the advantage of being available to students for continuous study in or out of the classroom. Brown (1992) said that a large proportion of the instructional materials found in most schools are printed and this is because they are most accessible and easy to use.

Audio materials: - It appeals to the sense of hearing. It can be subcategorized into radio, record players and tape recorders.

Cable (1995) said that battery operated record players have made it possible to extend the use of educational resources in those rural areas which previously were not possible due to non-availability of electricity. He went on further to say that recordings have been used to supplement printed courses like Social Studies. Ogunranti et al (1991) while speaking about tape recorders opined that they are widely used to record various activities and events in the school and the classroom. They are used to evaluate students progress in listening skills, concepts building and appreciation.

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Audio-visual materials: - audio-visual materials appeal to both the student sense of seeing and hearing simultaneously. Examples of such materials are television, motion pictures and films.

Novak (1997) remarked that audio-visual materials can be used for individual study or group instruction. Curzon (1996) said films are capable of bringing into teaching a wide range of stimuli assisting in the realization of objectives in the affective domain and of aiding the acquisition of those skills and techniques included in the psychomotor domain.

Importance of Instructional Materials Instructional materials promote meaningful communication. It ensures better retention, stimulate and motivate students to learn. They help to develop interest in other areas of learning and encourage active participation especially if students are allowed to manipulate the materials used. Ogunmilade (1994) listed the following as the importance of instructional materials. Enriching learning Allowing students to learn at their own rate and challenges students sense of creativity Promoting better planning and scheduling on the part of the teachers.

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Dele (1991) said that through the wise use of instructional materials, the world can be brought into the classroom, for instance, we could make the past came alive, make the present a rich experience. He went on further to state that instructional materials; Supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and hence reduce meaningless word response of students. Make learning more permanent; offer a reality experience, which stimulates self-activity on the part of students. Develop continuity of thought Provide experience and contribute to the efficiency, depth and variety of learning. Also, Ogunsanya (1984) was of the view that with the use of appropriate teaching aids, a teacher will be able to give pupils the chance to learn through their five senses. Selection of Instructional Materials In selecting instructional materials, the teacher should first of all determine precisely what the performance objectives are. Also the suitability and availability of the materials must be considered. Some criteria should be considered in the selection of instructional materials; these criteria are Identification of types of performance desired.
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Identification of those procedures most relevant to the desired performance. Selection of those materials that are more practical and those that are appropriate. Oniyide (1993) listed the criteria as follows: Level of pupils and previous knowledge Suitability of aids Availability of aids Portability of aids

Effective Use of Instructional Materials For a more effective use of instructional materials a number of fundamental steps should be considered. These steps include familiarization of oneself with the materials (that is the teacher should be familiar with the materials) arrangement and positioning of the materials to be used. Adequate introduction and evaluation of materials are also important. Agun (1976) opined that in order to use teaching aids effectively to bring about improvement in teaching-learning activities, however, the teacher must:

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Have some knowledge of the range and variety of teaching aids that are available Develop interest in using them Acquire basic skills and knowledge about their uses Know how to evaluate the materials contributing to learning.

Teaching Methods and Instructional Materials in Social Studies One major pre-disposing factor in the teaching and learning of Social Studies is the selection and appropriate use of instructional materials. The place of instructional materials cannot be undermined in the teaching and learning of Social Studies this is due to the nature of the subject, it is a resource based subject. Instructional materials are therefore inevitable in the teaching of Social Studies at the class room level. The aids facilitates instruction, vivify instruction by making learning more concrete for effective understanding of the concept that is being taught. The level at which Social Studies is taught (primary and junior secondary schools) are foundational, hence, it should be properly presented to the learners because it is expected that at this levels, the objectives and goals of Social Studies should be realized. The learners at these stages are not

37

reasoning at the formal operational level, which Piaget identified as stages of child development. The child needs help in the understanding of most abstract concept in the classroom practice of Social Studies. Instructional materials ensure transfer of learning from the school setting especially as they are familiar with objectives instructions. Instructional materials help the teacher in the achievement of his objectives, specifically the affective objectives that requires intensive manipulations of events in Social Studies. A fundamental question to be asked is if there are adequate and relevant instructional materials for the teaching of Social Studies. The major objectives of instructional materials in teaching are to improve on the efficiency and effectiveness of the teachers and the whole process of learning Famwang (2004). Coombs (1970) categorized education into two distinct component namely inputs and outputs. Inputs according to him consist of human and materials resources while outputs are the goals and outcomes of the educational process. Potentialities of teaching aids cannot be overemphasized. Norwood (1949), observed that though there are vast quantities of Social Studies materials, yet, there are two important considerations which the teacher must face in using these aids effectively; (i) The Social Studies teacher must know where he can find these instructional materials

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and (ii) the teacher must select these materials which will best fit his particular needs. Norwood (1949) goes further to highlight some other considerations in selecting classroom materials, these includes the need for materials to be adaptable in content, format and style to the age and reading level of the group using them. These considerations are fundamental to Social Studies teaching and learning. Savoury (1958) asserted that a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse student interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think out themselves. Nicholio (1975) argued that teaching aids should not be used solely because they are attractive or solely because pupils might enjoy using them. Among others, teachers should guide the selection of teaching aids by appropriateness, availability and cost effectiveness. Bozimo and Stephenson (1999) the major reasons for using instructional materials in education include to concretize abstract issues or topics; to motivate the pupils interest in the topic under discussion; to help in developing a continuity of reasoning and coherence of thought; and to same time.

39

Olaogun defined instructional materials as simply anything that can help the teacher to promote and transmit learnable materials through instructional process, (2001). Materials in social studies may be visual, audio-visual or audio. By design, they are learning resources that carry messages. Examples of instructional materials include books, journals, newspaper, projected maps, non-projected media, charts, film strips, overhead slides, models and puppets, tapes, television, computer etc. Instructional Design Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the practice of maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. Ideally, the process is informed by pedagogically and andragogically (adult learning) tested theories of learning and may take place in student-only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with analysis of phases, design, development,

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implementation, and evaluation. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology.

Methodologies for Social Studies Education Social Studies in addition to specific content and objectives, has instructional methodologies suitable for its instruction (Bozimo 1999). These methodologies metamorphosed from the ideas propounded by great educationists and philosophers of old. Estvan (1968:200) provides a list of these thinkers and their approaches to education, Bozimo and Stephenson (1999). The list follows: (i) Francis Bacon (1561-1626) advocated an inductive approach involving actual observation and the methods of science as the basis for teaching. (ii) John Comenius (1592-1670), a Gech, champion of sense realism, urged teachers to depend less on words in communication with the students and more on actual object-or representational materials when that was impossible. (iii) John Lock (1632-1704) taught: that a childs mind was not a treasury of innate ideas or predispositions but merely a tabula

41

rasa, a blank tablet, on which ideas, values, and knowledge were impressed by experience.
(iv)

Jean Jacques Rousseaus (1712-1778) doctrine of naturalism, based on the inherent goodness of human nature, led to teaching which stressed freedom, growth, interest and activity.

(v)

John Dewey (1859-1952) believed that education was a social process and that teaching consisted of directing the energy and activities originating in the individuals psychological needs into socially useful channels (Estvan 1968:200). Generally, instructional methods can be described as the procedures

through which content is presented in order to achieve instructional and programmed objectives. Instructional methods or strategies are used to help students gather data, develop comprehension, and present results or conclusions of their study, Kissock (1981:79), and Taba, according to Joof (1984:59) says that teaching method is a pattern and sequence of teachers behaviours which are consciously and systematically designed to accommodate all important variables. However, while some of the methodologies can only be used to achieve some specific objectives, others can achieve multiple objects simultaneously. This agrees with the views held by Oyetunde, (1990:72) that

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there is no single method to teach a class. He contends that; A method which fails with one student may be very helped to another, (so) the teacher may need to employ several methods during a singe lesson/ Therefore, what will firm the criterion or criteria for the selection of appropriate social studies methodology (ies)? Pincent (1962:346) believes that teaching methodology should be based upon the expectations of various subject matter, while Barr et,al (1977:59) insist that it should be based on the three social studies Tradition namely, Social Studies taught as citizenship transmission, Social Studies taught as social science, and Social Studies taught as reflective inquiry. The controversy seems to have been resolved by Joof (1984:59) when he holds that: The objectives and assumptions about the learning process primarily resolve the problem of how to teach, the teaching strategies and learning experiences to provide. To teach Social Studies effectively, there are three important acts to be carried out. These are planning, which is completed before the teacher comes to the class to teach, implementation, which is the exercise of teaching; and facilitating learning to take place. This exercise take place in the classroom or somewhere else predetermined for the act. The third act is evaluation in which the activities of the teacher and those of the learners are assessed.

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Some or all these features always recognize an unprepared or unplanned lesson; incomplete subject matter; incorrect facts; lack of detail and illustrative materials; and disorderly presentation of information. In his contribution Farrant, (1964:223) observes that, a well prepared lesson can be taught without any notes but a good lesson cannot be taught without planning. A teaching method can then be defined as a way of teaching; it is a process, a course of action or a way of operation, which varies according to circumstances. It is a systematic procedure in teaching. Despite the fact that well-meaning and experienced teachers would probably argue that both knowledge of the subject matter and the methodology are equally important, Adeyinka cited in Iyewarun (1989), explain that all social studies teachers should bear the following assumption in mind that; (i) There is no best method to teach a subject as a result, the teacher should select the teaching strategies and tactics most suitable to the objectives stated. (ii) The nature of Social Studies, as an academic discipline, makes it imperative for teachers and students to emphasize an open-ended, problem solving, inquiry or discovery techniques. (iii) The teachers should place more emphasis on the general process of teaching rather than information.

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(iv)

Social Studies teaching today, must be related to real life situation within the society. From the foregoing, it is pertinent to emphasize that superiority of any

method of teaching for all learning situation has not been established by research. However Aina et,al (1989:658) classify methods of learning into four modes: (a) (b) (c) (d) Expository mode/technique Inquiry mode/technique Discussion mode/technique Activity mode/technique It is therefore understandable that so many other strategies are derivable from the above teaching techniques as identified by Aina et,al (1989:658).

Teacher Quality and Students Academic Achievements The future of society lies in the hand of those who handles education, because education is a socio-economic tool for societal reconstruction, perpetuation of knowledge and values of the society. Nwandiaini (1965) concluded that the future of society lies in education and the feature of education lies in teachers. It is the teacher who can make and more education most easily by their attitude, orientation and disposition if they are

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not properly trained and adequately motivated. The teacher creates situations that encourage exploration discovery and investigation on environment which challenges students to become critical observers and decision makers. In other words, it is the teachers who create an environment that is planned around the integration of understanding skills acquired by the society, development of right attitude and moral values required for societal living. Aladejan, (1985) said a child should not be regarded as a dumping grounds, the teacher therefore, should strive to help pupils to internalize the learning experiences for everyday work and life activities. The role of the teacher is to set the condition for creativity to come to manifest. Although creativity is quality deeply embedded and rooted in the human personality the main function of the teacher is to maintain certain physical, psychological, sociological, emotional and intellectual conditions within the classroom. This will stimulate creativity to group and develop. To effectively encourage creativity, the teacher needs to be interested in fostering curiosity, independence and self reliance among the learners. Herzbeig (1969), in his contribution declares that the teacher plays a decisive role in the experiences that are open to the child; he said the teacher brings a variety of materials from which ranges of choices can be made by the learners. The teacher is expected to help in facilitating an

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atmosphere that is conducive where learning can take place. On the other hand, student performance is also a function of the type of school management and organization, this is crucial to students academic performance school authorities should therefore make simple rules that will regulate the conduct and actions of staff member and students. In order words, the level of discipline in the school will affect the academic performance of learners. The schools where all stake holder, both staff and students do their work will record improvement and sustain academic excellence. Environment and Learning The environment of man influences the type of life style he or she leads. The child in school is no exception to the above observation. A happy child is most likely to have self concept and would interact with outsiders with a complete sense and air of confidence. In the investigation of inverse correction between intelligence and family size, it was found out that large family results in low intelligence, mainly because the young children in a large family are closely spaced in age and not given sufficient time and attention by their mothers. Berustern (1978), specified that the larger the family the less the contact and individual attention each child can expect to have from parents;

47

parents with few children can afford to give close guidance and monitor closely the actions and development of their wards. The United States Office of Education, quoted in Coleman (1961) says massive study on equality of educational opportunity came up with the conclusion that: (i) Poor children were doing poorly in their schools than middle class children are doing in school. (ii) Minority children of middle class tend to perform better if they found themselves in class with majority of middle class children; and their achievement rose by the expense of the majority middle class childrens performance. Vernon (1972), working on innate of intelligence observe many of the standard text-books describe intelligence as a general innate capacity underlying all our abilities and therefore fairly constant throughout life. Piaget (1950) showed up or acquires his perception and benefits and even his thinking through contact with his physical and social environment and that the level he reaches at any stage or age as affected considerately by the kind and amount of intellectual stimulation that the environment has provided him. It is the opinion of many that the differences in achievements rates will be better explained in terms of variation in environment.

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It is pertinent to note that good environment is a sequence to higher academic achievement, this environment should not be taken to only mean urban or highly populated towns alone, and such towns also have negative implications for learning and learning outcomes. In the last few decades, a third tradition has been emerging after the first, experimental, that originated in the work of Wundt and Pavlov and developed methodologically in the variance analysis of fisher. The experimental tradition in educational research has generated hypotheses on how conditions and process of institution particularly immediate stimulus variables can be employed to optimize learning. The second tradition, correlational had origins in the approaches of Galton and spearman and became grounded in the covariance techniques of Pearson and Thurst one. The correlational tradition in educational research has focused on individual differences, their interrelationship and structure. Findings from this tradition have provided data and schemes for the accurate prediction of learning and selection for instruction. Cronbach (1957), Lindquist (1953), and others have reminded us that these two traditions must eventually be brought together and that in general psychology, stimulus and organismic variables must be investigated simultaneously. The third tradition that emerged in social science research

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i.e environmentalism, the focus is on the context of behaviour particularly the social-psychological aspects. With origins in Darwin, it was applied to the study of society by Herbert Spencer and was incorporated into the main streams of sociology and psychology by George Herbert Mead and John Dewey. It became known as social or symbolic interractionism. Environmental variables themselves can be manipulated (Anderson, Walberg and Welch), 1969, and predicted from the class size, the biographical characteristics of its members mean intelligence, prior interest and achievement, and instructional variables, QWalberg and Ahlgren (1970). Moreover, powerful interactions have been identified between environment and both instructional variables, Walberg, (1969a) and individual differences in aptitudes and personality (Anderson, 1968; Bar-yam, 1969). Improving the Teaching and Learning of Social Studies The success of Social Studies as a tool for social reform, social mobilization, social orientation and concretization in Nigeria depends largely on the foundation laid for its teaching in the nations school system, Iyamu, (1999). Looking at the failure of Nigerian Educational system to meet the challenges of changing needs and aspirations of the society, it is only proper to become curious about the strategies, infrastructure, human

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and material resources, public support and general environment for the teaching of social studies in Nigeria schools, Iyamu (1999). Iyamu, (1999) identified some variables which influence the teaching and learning of Social Studies; which themselves are to be manipulated in some positive ways to lay good foundation for the teaching of Social Studies in Nigeria. These variables are: (1) Clarification of objectives; the following questions were raised, vis: (a) (b) (c) Are social studies objectives clear enough to avoid ambiguity? Are school teachers aware of these objectives? Are school teachers able to clarify their instructional objectives

well enough? These questions became important because if school teachers are to be relied upon as vehicles for the implementation of the Social Studies syllabus, they need to have a sound knowledge of its objectives. Corroborating, Osunde (1988)to the effect that primary school teachers perception of the objectives of Social Studies are similar to those in government documents. While this awareness does not guarantee effective clarification of instructional objectives, his findings were contradicted by sample of opinion of some primary school teachers enrolled for the sandwich NCE programme at the College of Education, Agbor, which showed that some of

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them were yet to set their eyes on either the National Policy of Education or the National Social Studies Syllabus for primary schools for the first time.

(2)

Identification of significant Topics: for the selected Social Studies content to be valid, they must be significantly relevant to the objectives which they are meant to promote. Objectives remain abstract if there are no topics or content to be taught for their realization. The selected topics for Social Studies according to NERDC (1971) satisfy this criterion. However, Iyamu (1999) opined that the content fail to provide pupils with enough knowledge concerning themselves by concentrating on their environment, e.g. topics relating to the nature of man; biography etc. The issues raised by Iyamu, (1999) needed to be looked into, if Social Studies is to properly function as expected.

(3)

Training of Social Studies Teachers: The quality of education cannot rise above the teachers. It goes without saying that the training of teacher should be the focus of any society that desires a turn around positive educational development. One of the factors affecting the quality of education in the country is lack of proper training for teachers Iyamu, (1999).

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The training of teachers according to Iyamu (1999), should take three main stages, namely: (a) (b) (c) (4) Pre-Service Training In- Service Training Conferences and Seminars Effective pre-primary Education: Iyamu, (1999) based his arguments on the National Policy on Education, the purpose of pre-primary education includes; (i) (ii) Inculcating social norms Inculcating in the child the spirit of enquiry and creativity through the exploration of nature, and the environment. (iii) Teaching cooperation and team spirit, quoting (Ikewumelu, 1988), these have been identified because they have relevance for Social Studies. He also noted that it is difficult to asses the performance of Social Studies teaching in the primary school due to the widespread privatization of schools and lack of standards or harmony in their programmes. The government should therefore invoke the National policy on Education as it applied to pre-primary education. Iyamu, (1999).

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(5)

Parental Support: The role of some parents leaves much to be desired, in terms of how far it goes to frustrate the effort of the school in educating the child.

(6)

Identifying and use of Appropriate Techniques: One of the criticisms leveled against the teaching of social studies in Nigerian schools is that the teacher still rely on the traditional methods of chalk and talk, telling and writing of notes on the chalkboard for pupils to copy, Iyamu (1999).

The teachers must realize that Social Studies is a problem solvingapproach discipline which should be taught through problem solving techniques. In order to achieve this, he identified the following techniques for the teaching of social studies in Nigerian schools vis: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Question and answer technique Discussion technique Assignment technique Community work Enquiry Field trips Gathering materials Demonstration/role playing

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(i) (j) (k) (7)

Supervised study Case studies Interviews Consideration of relevant Materials: The effective use of resource materials for Social Studies teaching in primary school depends on the following considerations relevance of material to the topics and their objectives; the pupils level of understanding and development; using them at the appropriate time in the lesson; the teachers ability to manipulate the materials and the suitability of the materials to the environment. The use of resource materials in the teaching of Social Studies has the advantage of providing authentic data for the study and understanding of man in his environment; increasing learning possibilities by interrelating the symbolic abstract with the objects of verbal symbolism; making teaching and learning Social Studies interesting especially for the slow learner; transcending time and space barriers in teaching and learning experiences.

8.

Identifying Appropriate Evaluation Procedures A giant step in the history of education planning is the replacement of

the old system of evaluation in schools with continuous assessment. As

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such, rather than determine the outcomes of learning by a single examination, the teacher now monitors the childs progress in

understanding, attitudes and skills on a continuous basis. The Social Studies teacher needs to be provided with important information and knowledge concerning how to evaluate teaching/learning processes because teaching cannot be said to have taken place, unless evaluated, it is a process of making decision or judgment concerning the extent to which the set objectives have been achieved or not. Such hints include clear formulation of objectives and the identification of reliable instruments of evaluation. These include tests {essay and multiple choice tests}, anecdotal records, rating scale, observation, self and peer evaluation and interview.

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CHAPTER THREE Research Methodology Introduction This chapter describes the research design, the population of the study, the sample and sampling techniques, research instrument, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument and method of data analysis. Research Design The study will be carried out based on descriptive research design with survey method to be used in collecting data. A descriptive research design shows the characteristics and similarities or differences between two or more variables. This study design is meant to investigate the effects of instructional materials on academic performance of rural and urban Junior Secondary School Social Studies students. Data will also be gathered on available instructional resources available in rural and urban schools, as well as the number of qualified Social Studies teachers in each school.

Population of the Study Population of study is a census of all variables that possess the characteristic or have the knowledge of the phenomenon being studied. Therefore, the population of the study includes Social Studies teachers in secondary

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schools located in the rural and urban setup of Ijebu-Ode local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Sample and Sampling Techniques From the population of study, 10 secondary schools will be randomly selected and a total of one hundred teachers teaching Social Studies will be selected irrespective of their academic qualifications. This will allow equal opportunity for every member of the population the chance of being selected and it will ensure that all variables that have the characteristics of the population are not left out. The schools are situated at Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. The schools selected are:
1. Isanyin Grammar School, Isanyin.-

(rural setup) (Rural)

2. Ogbogbo Comprehensive High School 3. Odua Secondary School, Imoru 4. Molipa High School,Molipa 5. Ifesowapo Comprehensive High school 6. Muslim Comprehensive High School 7. Moslem College 8. Our Ladyof Apostle Secondary School
9.

Government Technical and Science College

10. Adola Odutola College

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The school classified as urban setup is located in the heart of Ijebu-Ode Local Government metropolises, the head quarters of the local Government, while the school designated as rural setup is located at the outskirt of IjebuOde Local Government, bordering Ijebu-North-East Local Government and Odogbolu Local Government Areas. The area is without much presence of modern social, commercial and industrial activities, as well as sparsely distributed population who are predominantly peasant farmers. Research Instrument The research instrument for this study is a structured items questionnaire designed for Social Studies teachers. The questionnaire will be divided into three sections (A) on background information of respondents, section (B) contained a comprehensive checklist of some specific instructional materials in order to determine its availability in the selected schools and (C). Section is to demand the attitude of teacher towards constant utilization of instructional materials and the opinion of respondents on factors militating against it. The degrees of responses are ranked based on Likert scale, vis; (A) Agree, (SA) strongly agree, (D) Disagree, (SD) and Strongly disagree.

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Validity of Instrument The content and face validity of the instrument (questionnaire) would be achieved by making sure that it covers all the dimension of the variables of the study, and face validity will be made on the instrument by my supervisor. All amendments will be incorporated into the draft before it is administered. Reliability of instrument To text the reliability of the instrument for its internal consistency, In the first instance, the instrument was administered on twenty Social Studies teachers from four secondary schools that are not part of the study, two schools from urban area and two schools from rural area. The data from the pre-test sample were analyzed using the Cronbach Coefficient Alpha. The reliability coefficient of 0.71 was obtained which attested to the reliability of the instrument. Method of Data Analysis The hypotheses will be tested and the results will be presented in tables. Simple percentage will be used on one hand and on the other hand T-test for the mean of students performances in Social Studies based on the hypotheses on the differences in academic achievements of Social Studies

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students in rural and urban schools as a result of the use of instructional materials will be calculated. The T-test formula is given as:

t=

( X R ) ( X U ) 2 2 X n + XU n 1 1 R U ( + ) nR + nU 2 nR nU
2 2 R

X R XU

t = -3.9509

References Adaralegbe .A 1980, The Nigerian Social Studies Programme: Retrospect and Prospects. In NERC. Social Studies Teaching- Issues and Problems. Benin City,Ethiope Publishers. Adedigba .A 2001, Social Integration in Nigeria. In Ogundare (Edt) Foundations of Social Studies. Oyo, OYSCE Pub. Series.

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Agun, I & Imogie, A.I.(1988) Fundamentals of educational technology YBooks, lbadan

Bozimo G.O, Ikumelu S.N,1999. Issues in Social studies Education. Owerri, Whyte and Whyte Publishers. Famwang W.W 2001. Historical Perspectives of Social Studies. Jos, Deka Publications Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1981. National Policy of Education. Lagos. Hanatu I, 2004. Educational Technology and Social Studies. In Current Trends in Social Studies Education. (Bozimo)Ed. Academic

Trust Fund,FACOED, Pankshin. Imogie, I.A: Student Practice Teaching and ProfessionalTraining of Teachers in Nigeria; the Need for a New Startegy for the 21st Century. First Faculty of Education, University of Benin Seminer Series (1999). lmogie, A.I. (1979) Instructional media use by faculty members in Ahmadu Bello University: A case study' of factors related to educational innovations in a Nigerian University context. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing. Iyamu E. O.S,1993. Contributions of Social Studies to Mobiliztion of Rural Dwellers for Community Development. (in) Jurnal of Social Sudies Association of Nigeria, vol.11, No 1 and 2, Lagos.

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Kissock C, 1981. Curriculum Planning for Social Studies. New York, John Wiley & Sons NERC 1991, Curriculum Guildlines fro Nigerian primary Schools. Federal Ministry of Education, Lagos. Nigeria Journal of Social Studies, 1993. Vol 2, No 1and 2. Ikorodu, SOSAN Publications. Ogiegbaen, S.E. A, 2006. Assessment of Teachers' Perception of Instructional Media use in Colleges of Education in Southern Nigeria. International Journal of Instructional Media Olaogun L.2001, Population Education Studies. In Ogundare (Edt) Foundations of Social Studies. Oyo, OYSCE Pub. Series.

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