You are on page 1of 32

Research Methodology

Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

Lecture-1( 02/11/08)

Research:

Find out new information based on previous information is research. It would be new information about
science or literature. Information may be positive or negative.
 Research is the search or find out new information based on previous information.
 Research is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.
 Research is a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any
branch of knowledge.
 Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested
solutions: collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching
conclusions; and last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the
formulating hypothesis.
 New information must be collected in a research work.
 Research may be positive or negative. It would be new information of Literature, Science,
History, socioeconomic condition etc.

Two types basically based on theme:


(I) Development or Applied Research:
 Development or Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate
problem facing a society or an industrial or business organization.
 Research aimed at certain conclusions facing a concrete social or business
problem is an example of applied research.
- For example: starch or some other components are found in rice, find out livelihood pattern of a
particular family or environment.

(II) Fundamental or Basic or Pure Research:


 Fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the
formulation of a theory.
 Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics
are examples of fundamental research.
- For example: If we use fertilizer in agricultural field, we can grow more rice. We can control fire by
using CO2, if we use any sort of chemical with CO2 it would be more applicable.

Page | 1
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 Data collection method: Data collection methods are two types:


(I) Observation method
(II) Practical or Experimental method.

 Factors affecting the data collection method: Data collection method may depend on:
 Title
 Problem and Time period.

Types of data collection based on aim and study: There are mainly two types of data:
1) Primary data collection:
The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to
be original in character. Which data are not collected by anyone earlier.
2) Secondary data collection:
 The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which
have already been passed through the statistical process.
 The secondary data are those which already have been published earlier in Journal or Paper or
Thesis or Books or Report , newspaper etc i.e. any form of publication.
- Type of data collection will depend on aim / title.
 Types of research based on data collection technique:

Research can be divided into two categories based on data collection technique:

(I) Primary research:


 Primary research is done by based on primary data and secondary data.
(II) Review research or Secondary research:
 Review research or Secondary research only can be done by the use of
secondary data.
Data: Data is information which gathered in different ways and which will give us new information.
Questions :

 What do you mean by research ?

Page | 2
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 What do you mean by research methodology ?


 Discuss the types of research ?
 What do you mean by data ?

Lecture-2: (03/11/08)
 Types of Secondary data: Secondary data are mainly two categories:

(I) Observatory data:


 The data which is gathered or collected by different or any kind of
observation is known as Observatory data.
 There is no exact information.
 For giving the qualitative data we need this kind of data. Example: Buying
rice from market, Bad smell, color etc of water.
(II) Experimental data:
 The data which is gathered by any types of experiment is known as
Experimental data.
 There is exact information.
 For giving quantitative data we need this kind of data.
 Example: Comparing the nutrient level and test of any fruit, BOD, COD, P H
etc. test of water.
Experimental data are mainly two types:
1) Experiment in lab
a. Internal laboratory
b. External laboratory or field laboratory
2) Experiment in field
 Most of the research or for a good research Observatory data and Experimental data both are
necessary.
 As an example different Maps and Photographs are supporting data for research work.
Source of Secondary data: Secondary data sources are:
 Burro of Statistics.
 Journals
 Books
 Library

Page | 3
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 Internet
 Website hosting
 News papers
 Annual reports
 Meteorological department
 Geological department
 Department of Environment (DOE)
 Department of water resource planning and management
 Department of forestry
 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture
 Agricultural department
 Department of Human resource development
 Department of Public Health
 Department of Housing and Sanitation
 Local Government Officials
 Non Government Organizations (NGOs)

Again primary data are two types. This are-


i) Field data- area based data. This kind of data is mainly needed in social study. Agriculture
and forest research are done based on field data.
ii) Laboratory data- remarkable area or restricted area data. Biochemical analysis, tissue
culture analysis are done based on laboratory data.
Laboratory data may be two types-
a) Internal laboratory data- calculation of COD, BOD.
b) Field laboratory data- measuring of co2. It has both observatory and experimental data.

 Types of Primary data:

Primary data are mainly four categories:


(I) Observatory data
(II) Experimental data
(a) Primary experimental data

Page | 4
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

o Field experiment
o Laboratory experiment
 Field laboratory
 Example: Agricultural research.
 Internal laboratory
 Example: Biochemical research.

(b) Secondary experimental data


(III) Primary research data
(IV) Secondary or Review research data

Photograph / Map:
- is a source of data.
-Supporting data of above observatory and experimental data.
Research is dependent on time period.
1) Under supervised research (For academic purpose all researcher should need a guide)
2) Independent research
As we are the students of environmental science we should aware about this i.e. considers all sorts of
factor. If we have neglect any factor then we will not get a good result and that will be invalid for the
betterment of our natural environment.
PRA (Participatory rural appraisal) -group discussion

Important of research in environmental science:


Our country is an over populated one; on the other hand our natural resources are limited. For our own
need we over exploited these natural resources. Thus the environmental conditions are degrading day by
day. So we need to protect as well as conserve this natural resources. For this reason research is very
important.
Research is important in environmental science for the following reason:
 Several scientific disciplines like biochemistry, physics, mathematics, biotechnology,
chemistry, botany, toxicology, remote sensing and engineering have an inter-face with
environmental science. i.e. Environmental science is a multidisciplinary subject and all
problems that are arising are related to this, so environmental science is research based.

Page | 5
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 Environmental science is primarily concerned with how humanity affects and in turn is
affected by other living organisms and the non-living physical environment.
 Students get an exposure to varied subjects such as biodiversity, microbiology, pollution
control methods, disaster management, environment impact studies and conservation of
natural resources.
 Environmental science students can research on pollution control, public health, irrigation
and agriculture, chemical industries, Industrial Toxicology, Environment Protection and
Training.
 Environmental Science has become an important part of urban planning including the
construction of houses, sanitation, water management and waste disposal.
 Any course of development today requires the guidance of an environmental specialist who is
basically expert in research work.
 For solving or minimizing any kind of problem we need research.
 Livelihood pattern are decreasing today because of increasing population. For improving the
livelihood pattern and social environment we need research. Both of this two are related to
environment.
 If we can make a good social environment, we would be able to make a good natural
environment also. Good social environment is also dependent on the natural resources like
forestry, fisheries, biodiversity etc. which all are related with environment.
 For sustainable use of natural resources research is very much important.
 To make a good environment we do research because research provides good idea to manage
natural resource in step by step.
 Research provides some methodology to collect the data.
 Social conflict, political environment, educational condition, health condition, natural
resources etc. are related to each other in the environment. so For improving our
environmental condition we should do research.
 If we would be able to confirm people about food, cloths, residence, recreation etc. then
political environment will also be good. We can also be able to use our natural resources in a
sustainable way.

Questions :
 Discuss the relationship between research methodology and environmental science ?

Page | 6
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 Discuss the relationship between research methodology and environmental science ?

lecture-3:(16/11/08)
Primary data:
-Impact of market prize on the family.
-Impact of salinity on the child health.
-Impact of water decreasing of Padma river.
-Impact of fish scarcity on the people.
 Example of some experimental field of research:

 Increasing the Market price of rice and its impact on livelihood pattern or Environment.
 Environmental impact of salinity in livelihood pattern.
 Impact of decreasing water flow during dry season in Padma floodplain.
 Impact of Cyclone in chorlands.
 Impact of fish scarcity in livelihood pattern of fisherman in coastal area.
Major data collection procedure:
1) Interview
2) Questionnaire survey
3) Case study
4) PRA ( Participatory Rural Appraisal )
5) FGD ( Focus Group Discussion)
1) Interview:
- Short period of time, personally / indirectly by telephone.
- Method varies from person to person. It depends on our aim and objective.

Page | 7
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

- Based on some selective question. Ask a particular person about a particular subject.
- It gives us rational information.
- We get both positive and negative data.
- We should be a trained person and also have the idea about the locality.
- Interview language also considers.
(a) Personal interviews:
o Personal interview method requires a person known as the interviewer asking
questions generally in a face-to-face contact to the other person or persons.
o It is done by based on some selected question.
o This sort of interview may be in the form of direct personal investigation or it may be
indirect oral investigation.
o This method is particularly suitable for intensive investigation.
Advantage of personal interview method:
 More information and that too in greater depth can be obtained.
 Interviewer by his own skill can overcome the resistance.
 There is greater opportunity to restructure questions, specially for unstructured
interviews.
 Observation method can applied to recording verbal answers to various questions.
 Personal information can be obtained easily under this method.
 Samples can be controlled more effectively as there arises no difficulty of the missing
returns.
 The interviewer can usually control which persons will answer the questions.
 The language of the interview can be adopted to the ability or educational level of the
person interviewed and as such misinterpretations concerning questions can be
avoided.
 The interviewer can collect supplementary information about the respondent’s
personal characteristics and environment which is often of great value in interpreting
results.
Weakness of the personal interview method:
 It is very expensive method, especially when large and widely spread geographical
sample is taken.

Page | 8
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 There remains the possibility of the bias of interviewer as well as that of the
respondent.
 Certain types of respondents such as important officials or executives or people in
high income groups may not be easily approachable under this method and to that
extent the data may provide inadequate.
 This method is relatively more time consuming, specially when the sample is large.
 The response of the interviewer on the spot may over-stimulate the respondent.
 Under the interview method the organization required for selecting, training and
supervising the field stuff is more complex with formidable problems.
 Interviewing at times may also introduce systematic errors.

(b) Telephone interviews: This method of collecting information consists in contacting


respondents on telephone itself. It is not a very widely used method, but plays important part
in industrial surveys particularly in developed regions.
Advantages of telephone interview method:
 It is more flexible,
 It is faster than other methods.
 It is cheaper than personal interviewing method.
 Recall is easy, simple and economical.
 There is higher rate of response.
 Interviewer can explain requirements more easily.
 No field stuff is required.
 Representative and wider distribution of sample is possible.
Weakness of telephone interview method:
 Little time is given to respondents for considered answers.
 Surveys are restricted to respondents who have telephone facilities.
 Extensive geographical coverage may get restricted by cost considerations.
 It is not suitable for intensive survey.
 Possibility of the bias of the interviewer is relatively more.
 Questions have to be short and to the point.
Demerits:
 The person should be a trained one

Page | 9
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 We would not be able to collect more data at a time.


 The dignity of the interviewer should be knows.
 Exact data cannot found. Gather of more data is not possible.
 It is based on some selective question.
 Time consuming
 Expensive one
 Have to spend more money and time.
Question:
 Discuss the data collection by interview method. Answer: Merits and demerits.
 Discuss the different methods of primary data collection ?

lecture-4:(17/11/08)
2) Questionnaire survey:
This method of data collection is quite popular, particularly in case of big enquiries. It is being adopted by
private individuals, research workers, private and public organizations and even by governments.
- By developing some question based on our objective step by step.
In this method a questionnaire is sent to the persons concerned with a request to answer the questions and
return the questionnaire. A questionnaire consist of number of questions printed or typed in a definite
order on a form or set of forms. The respondents have to answer the questions on their own.

The following type of questions should generally be avoided as opening questions in a questionnaire:
 Questions that put too great strain on the memory or intellect of the
respondent
 Question of a personal character
 Question related to personal wealth, etc.
- We can collect data from large area at a very short time.
- Here we can also collect the answer of the supplying question by post method.

Page | 10
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

- When we supply question into more people, we can get more significant data.
- We can get more than 80% significant data by this method.
- Manipulation is very poor here.
- Possibility of getting correct information here more.
Advantages of questionnaire survey method:
 There is Low cost.
 It is free from the bias of the interviewer.
 Respondents have adequate time to give well through own answers.
 Large sample can be made use of and the can be made more dependable and reliable.
Demerits of questionnaire survey method:
 Low rate of return of the duly filled in questionnaires.
 It can be used only when respondents are educated and cooperating.
 The control over questionnaire may be lost once it is sent.
 It is difficult to know whether willing respondents are truly representative.
 This method is likely to be slowest of all.
 By post we will not get 100% feedback.
 This is a difficult process, when data collector is not honest and information is
collected from illiterate person.
3) Case study:
 The case study is a very popular form of qualitative analysis and involves a careful and complete
observation of a social unit, be that unit a person, a family, an institution, a cultural group or even
the entire community.

 The case study places more emphasis on the full analysis of a limited number of events or
conditions and their interrelations.

 This method is done particularly on affected person, family of the study area.
 If we study on total life pattern of any family round the year or twelve month is case study.

 Case study is essentially an intensive investigation of the particular unit under consideration.

Page | 11
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 The objective of the case study method is to locate the factors that account for the behavior-
patterns of the given unit as an integrated totality.

 Good method of developing sustainable management plan or mechanism of a particular problem.

 This is not short time study.

 Only one case deals with one problem.

 This is a kind of study which we are doing on a particular family on a particular issue round the
year otherwise we would not be able to get reliable information.

 This is a good method to develop sustainable manipulate information in social condition of a


particular family.
Advantages of case study method:
 The case study method enables us to understand fully the behavior pattern of the concerned unit.
 Researcher can obtain a real and enlightened record of personal experiences.
 This method enables the researcher to trace out the natural history of the social unit and its
relationship with the social factors and the forces involved in its surrounding environment.
 It helps in formulating relevant hypothesis along with the data which may be helpful in testing
them.
 The method facilitates intensive study of social units.
 Case study method has proved beneficial in determining the nature of units to be studied along
with the nature of the universe.
 This method makes possible the study of social changes.
 Case study method enhances the experience of the researcher and this in turn increases his
analyzing ability and skill.
Limitations of the case study method:
 The danger of false generalization is always there.
 The assumptions of the case study method may not be very realistic.
 The usefulness of case data is always subject in doubt.
 Case study method can be used only in a limited sphere.

Page | 12
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 Response of the investigator is an important limitation of the case study method.


 Spend minimum one year for getting the real picture.
 Spend a lot of money i.e. money consuming.
 Time consuming also.
 Only one case deals with one problem.
 The study should be around the year otherwise we cannot get exact information.
 It needs monitoring and regulatory in season to season.
Question:
 Discuss the methods of data collection in the field level.
 How can you collect the data by following Interview, Questionnaire and case study methods?

lecture-5:(23/11/08)
4. PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal):
- It is one kind of interview process.
- In this process we can collect all information within a very short time.
- Here we go to a village or house and call all members of that houses, then ask question.
- Here we get the common idea because we ask common question to all and after discussion we get
common information.
- To get all information’s from a particular area PRA can be used. As for example- Collect the
information from a fisherman community in Sundarban area.
- This type of study mainly done in a rural area.
- This is as like as conference.
- It also called participatory approach.
- Here we can collect real or exact information.
- This is more applicable than others.
- This type of survey is mainly done by NGOs.
- All points would be gathered by PRA by the additional information which can contain some new
information.
- This is important for any kind of socioeconomic survey.
- We can get socioeconomic culture, indigenous knowledge etc.
- All points which we like to highlights will get from here.
- This is one kind of social study, community study.

Page | 13
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

- Better manipulation is not possible here.


Advantages:
- A common idea can be found.
- We can get real data. It is more applicable than questionnaire survey method.
- All points which we are wanted to highlights can be found in addition to this we can get more
additional information through discussion.
- Data manipulation is not possible.
- It insures the participation of all communities.
- All data can be collected within short period.
Limitations:
- It is more expensive for this it is not applicable for student to apply these methods.
- It is only applicable for NGO’s.
- There may arise conflicts between different communities.
- Individuals can do it.
- Time consuming.
- Spend money.
- Students can choice a family in PRA. Here possibility of getting real information is less.
- Social conflict is a problem.
5) FGD (Focus Group Discussion)
 This type of survey is not applicable for students, this is done by organization and costly.
 This is the study which ensuring the participation of all stakeholder in all level.
 Here we can divide focus group into four:
(a) Beneficiary group
o It may be small group in number.
(b) Marketing group
o Marketing group actually collect the information from beneficiary group.
(c) Elite group
o Sometimes they are creating some problems.
o They are totally different from beneficiary and marketing group.
o They are almost educated and rich people like Government official, legal
adviser etc.
o Politician is major participator in Elite group.
(d) Government or Non-government organization.

Page | 14
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

o Government or Non-government authority or members.


o Law and order committee.
o politician, local government i.e. member, chairman etc.Gobs, NGOs

 This is the best way to find out the problem.


 In this process focus on some groups for a discussion to collect the new information.
 After getting information we can draw a conclusion.
 For this types of study money are necessary that can be funded by NGOs or
Government organizations.
Example: Sunder ban
 This is a place where we can do any kind of research.
 Here we shall discuss with people those are dependent on Sunder ban for natural resource.
 Chairman, member, politicians etc. include here.
 After discussion of the survey on the above four groups we can conclude.
 Here at first we will go to the 1st, 2nd then 3rd and 4th. This is the best way.
 These are practicing for last ten years.
 This type of study is very difficult for a student.
Advantages:
 It is the best way to find out problem.
 To compare all the data of an area FGD is done.
Limitations:
 It is expensive.
 It is very much tuff.
 Here emphasis on a particular group is given.
 Monitory problem and Contradiction or conflict.
Another type of data collection method is spot interview. It is good for manipulation and development of
a problem. In spot interview method information of a spot is gathered. This type of study is applicable for
non stationary sources of pollution like air pollution. This type of study can be also done when time is
very much insufficient for a research.
Questions :
 What is FGD and PRA ?
 Discuss the advantages and limitations of FGD and PRA.

Page | 15
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

lecture-7:(12/01/09)
Data analysis:

Correlation two types-

1. Simple correlation or regression- between two parameters. The relation between X and
Y is simple correlation. Simple relation may be positively (+) significant or may be
negatively (-) significant.

2. Multiple correlations- more than two parameters The relation between X with X1, Y1,
Z1 is multiple correlations.

X1

Y1

Z1
Both relations may be or may not be significant relation and may be positive or may be negative relation.

Equation:

r= ............................................................... (I)

Where,

 By using calculator (SD mode), correlation result can be calculated.

 We always make the relation with rows to rows data.

 “ r ” value will be always less than 1 ( r<1 ).

Significant relation is if any relation have some impact.

Page | 16
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

Example: if the market price of rice is increased 1 taka then if the market price of other price
increased then it is positive significant relation. If the market price of other product decreases
then it is negative significant relation. If the relation may show more than 70% then it is
significant one. Raw data is not suitable for correlation.

T-test:

The relation is significant or non significant can be analyzed by T-test. It is the initiative of any
program.

ANOVA:

The full meaning of ANOVA is Analysis of Variance. By ANOVA table we can show the multiple
variance relationship between different variables. PH and CO2 show negative relationship. If any
water body contains CO2 then CO3 will not present. So there will be a negative relationship. PH
and CO3- alkalinity show positive relation.

Anoxia:

Total absent of O2 in a water body is called anoxia. BOD will be high in this water body. So the
relation will be a negative one.

Some other example:

 If Ca increases in a water body then total hardness will be increase. So the relation will be
a positive one.

 There is a positive relation between DO and transparency.

 There is a negative relation between TSS and TDS.

Mean data, X = ∑X/ N

Standard deviation, SD = √(X1- X) 2/ n. If data variation is high then it will be high.

lecture-8:(18/01/09)

Page | 17
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

Spot analysis: Spot will become a column heading. Parameters will be co-related with spot
headings. After a basic primary table we have to draw a secondary table which will show the
relation between different parameters.

Secondary table will base on primary data which will show the relationship. For paper
publication comparative table is needed. In thesis paper both basic table and comparative table is
needed. There is also needed statistical table. Table should always present in result and
discussion.

Difference between observation and result:

Result Observation

Result is a final presentation of a research Real feature of an object which is observed


data or design. is called observation

Result is a summary of an observation. Observation is one kind of result.

Result can be used as a tabular form of data Observation can be used for supporting
or as a graphical data form explanation of a data but can’t be used as a
data form or table form

It is a mathematical process It is an observation process

Mention in mathematical term. Not mention in mathematical term.

It can be shown in table form It cannot be shown in table form

Mention in data form. Not in data form.

Always showing the total scenario of Always used in mentioning or supporting.


observation

It is a self observation techniques All observation is result

It cannot be done for the explanation of a It can be used for the explanation of a data
data

It can present in a graphical form It can’t be present in a graphical form

It shows the total scenery of observation It can be used for mentioning and for
supporting

It is the adjective form It is the adverbing form

- Observation and result are related with each other.

Page | 18
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

- Result is one kind of observation and observation is also one kind of result.

 Graphical Presentation:

 Data which are represented graphically is known as graphical presentation.

 It is represented generally by X and Y axis.

 X – axis showing the name of parameter and Y – axis showing the time frame.

 Graph are various types:

i) Bar graph:

Presentation of data in a bar or pillar mode is called bar graph. In a bar graph we can show more
than two parameters at a time.

100
80
60 East
West
40
North
20
Parameters Legend
0
1st Qtr 2ndQtr 3rdQtr 4thQtr

Page | 19
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

ii) Pie chart:

In pie chart we can show only one type of data items.

1stQtr
2ndQtr
3rdQtr

iii) Line graph:

Presentation of a data in a line form. It acts as a bar graph.

100
80
60
40 Ea
20 st
0
1st 2nd 3rd 4th
Qtr Qtr Qtr Qtr

Column graph

Page | 20
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

Area graph

Stock graph

Doughnut graph

Bobble graph

Radar graph

Page | 21
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

XY (Scatter)

 For diagram representation “Legend” should be used.


 The parameters which can be showed in a similar graph depends on the results of the
parameters.
 Graphical scaling is so important for representation of exact data.

Limitation of graphical presentation:


 We have to use only the similar kind of data.
 We cannot interpret lot of data at a time because the width and length will be increased.
 In graphical presentation we will not get exact result. Only data can be gathered. Line graph
arises clumsy condition.
Question:
 Discuss different types of data collection procedure ?
 Also their limitations ?
 What do you mean by graphical presentation of research findings?
 Discuss the graphical representation of research findings?
 Discuss the types of graphical presentation.
 Discuss the limitations of graphical presentation.
 Discuss the scaling of graphical presentation of the data.

Page | 22
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

lecture-9:(19/01/09)
Report:
Report may be different types. Such as-
1. Project report
2. project thesis
3. Thesis for M. Phil/M.S./PhD
Project report:
Project report may be different kinds. This are-
1. Small project report- time limitation is < 1 years
2. 5 years project report- time limitation is 1-5 years
3. Long time project report( > 5 yrs )
four types of report. This are-
1. Primary report- based on primary survey
2. Intermittent or interim report- after 3or 4 months report based on project proposal.
3. Draft report- before final report we have to submit these report.
4. Final report- the final presentation of a report.
SEMP- Sustainable Environmental Management Program.
Project report is a development research.

Project thesis:
It is one kind of Academic research which is done in under graduate level for the fulfillment of the
degree. Time period is less than 1 years.

Page | 23
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 Types of project thesis:


I. Undergraduate thesis.
II. MSc thesis
III. PHD thesis
The designated part of a project thesis:
A project thesis must have the following designated parts-
1. Introduction
2. Materials and Methods
3. Observation and results
4. Discussion
5. References

1. Introduction:
Introduction should include the following things
 Background or rationale of the study
 Aims and objectives
 Review of literature
2. Materials and Methods:
Materials and methods should include the following things
 Study area description
o Map
o Scale
o Position ( latitude and longitude )
o Study area map
o Study spots map (within study area)
o North arrow direction
o Rainfall
o Forest cover
o Vegetation etc.
o Rainfall and temperature
o Geographical information
o Longitude and latitude

Page | 24
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 Collection of the samples


 Discuss the methods
 Methodology (with references)
Observation and Results
 Data presentation
 Only our own findings (without any references)
Discussion:
- Interpret data.
- All causes and also interpretation ship between all factors discuss here. Then conclusion.
- Conclusion should be included here in a very nutshell and under subtitle condition.
- Conclusion as another chapter in the academic part not necessary.
- Here we have to compare our data with other data i.e. previous data.
Example: PH, BOD, COD, TDS etc.
of any water. If TDS is more, COD is more then relationship is positive and significant.
- The data are recorded should be discussed here.
- In academic research recommendation not necessary. Recommendation comes from seminar,
symposium, workshop; conference etc.
- Recommendation can only given by a certified scientist and qualified personals.
- Recommendation can be given for a large survey where new information can get.
- We should give reference then.

References
 References can represent in various ways.
Two types:
1) Original reference
2) Not seen in original paper
Reference should be written in the following way:
 Rahman, A. M. 1998. Impact of Environmental changes on the topdying of Sundary. Journal of
Environmental Science 16(2): 67-72.
-Writer name-Year of publication-Title-Journal name-page number.
-For example: Rahman, A. M. 1998. Impact of Environmental Changes on the Sundari tree. Journal of
Biological Science16 (2): 62-71.
-If more writer then in the following way:

Page | 25
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

Rahman. M. A, A. K. M Islam, M. Rahim and A. Z. M. Firoj.


Contents:
- List of map
- List of table
- List of figure/photograph
- List of abbreviation
Abstract:
Include following four things:
1) Title
2) Time period
3) Basic findings/Result
4) Basic conclusion

Academic research:
- Academic research is necessary for acquiring particular degree.
- Workshop, seminar, symposium, not necessary in academic research.
Format of a Academic Report:
 Title
 Dedication
 Declaration
 Certificate
 Acknowledgement
 Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 List of Maps
 List of Abbreviation
 Abstract
 Title
 Time period
 Basic findings
 Basic conclusion.

Page | 26
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 NGO project thesis:


 Various parts of a NGO project thesis:
 Introduction
 Materials and Methods
 Findings
 Summary
 Conclusion
 Recommendation
 References
 Project report should give the:
 Financial report
 Establishment report
 Time period
 Experts
 After completing workshop and submitting Inception report with modification and correction
of the research proposal, final report will made and then have to start the research or study.
 Scientific paper report:
 Parts of a scientific paper report:
 Title
 Authors name
 Abstract
 Title
 Time period
 Basic findings
 Conclusion
 Keywords
 Introduction
In methodology references must be used such as APHA, 1998. If there is more than two
researcher is present than we have to use et al.
Result and observation: There should be no references. Only findings can be mentioned.

Page | 27
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

Questions :
 Discuss the procedure to write a academic thesis.
 Discuss the procedure to write the references.
 Discuss the necessary components for preparing a academic thesis or research report.
 Discuss the procedure to write a academic thesis.
 Discuss the procedure to write references.
 Discuss the procedure of necessary components for preparing Academic research report or thesis.

lecture-10:(25/01/09)

Developmental research:
- This is held by NGO or Governmental organization.
- Introduction
- Materials and methods
- Findings of this thesis
- Summary
- Conclusion
- Recommendation
- In recommendation some suggestions and brief project finding are included which should follow for
solving the problem.
- Literature review is not necessary here.
- Points are included in results and discussion chapter.
- Photographs and activity chart are included in material and methods or findings.

Page | 28
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

- Emphasis on graphical representation.


- Preamble is necessary before starting every chapter in developmental research.
- They explain only the activities which are done within the given time.
- TOR refers Terms of References.
- Developmental Project report give the financial and establishment report.
- At first establishment report are necessary after introduction and it includes number of people engaged,
time duration, purpose of the result etc.
- At last financial cost and it includes travel expenses, printing cost, binding cost and paper cost and other
expenditure.
- Symposium, seminar and workshop are necessary for developmental research and on the basis of these
final reports are made.
- Project proposal by an organization or donor agency is also necessary.
- Organization or donor agency would give the budget step by step according to their quaternary activities
and would visit the project at any time also.
- For large money project especially greater than 20 lakh taka project researcher should arrange a work
shop before going to the field survey of the research. This is called inception work shop. Here researcher
submits his proposal, methods and methodology.
-Physeability study or base line survey should complete before this workshop.
Development research is done by the NGO’s and GOB’s.
Differentiation between academic research and development research are given below
Development research Academic research

Done by different NGO’s and GOB’s Done by the academic fellow

Literature review is not necessary Literature review is necessary

It gives the emphasis on graphical presentation It does not gives the emphasis on graphical
presentation
It should include the following topics- It should include the following topics-Introduction,
Introduction, Materials and Methods, Findings of the Materials and Methods, Observation and results,
research, Summary, References Discussion, References

Summary is given on the top of the research Summary is not given

Page | 29
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

References are not compulsory References must be given

Seminar, workshop are necessary Seminar, workshop are not necessary

Activity chart must have given Activity chart is not compulsory

Lot of photographs are present A few photographs are given

Financial report and establishment report must given Financial report and establishment report is not
necessary
Preamble are necessary Preamble are not necessary

TOR- Terms of References


In development research references are given in terms of references chapter.
Activity chart:
Explain the responsibility of researcher and time period. Here describes the involvement of a scientists
and their working period.

Financial report:
Financial report should include the following things-
 Travel cost
 Primary cost
 Different expenditure cost such as printing cost

Procedure of presenting a project report:

Project proposal based on Budget presentation Activity chart and


feasibility report and inception establishment
work report
Inception report Financial report
Interim report

Final report

Budget can be changed before inception report. After inception report no change is made.

Page | 30
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

Report publication procedure / Research paper:


1) Title (within 13 wards)
2) Authors name and address
3) Abstract (Research problem, time period, result and conclusion are present)
4) Key wards (Not more than five wards, it is the findings of the research)
5) Introduction (Problem i.e. why we choose this tropic, similar study mention, importance of the
chosen topic)..
6) Materials and methods
(should be cleared, description of the study area, geographical location, longitude,
latitude, sampling procedure, collection of data, references for methods, for instrument
model no. country name are include)
7) Result and discussion (At first result and include table no. figure no. and references. Last Para
draw a conclusion)
8) Acknowledgement (Not all time necessary, if we take any help from any organization).
9) References

Material and methods:


 Include description of sampling site or location, longitude, latitude, temperature.
 Geographical location
 Sampling spot
 How to collect sample
 Interpretation
 Here information is also necessary.
 Incase of instrument model number.
 Country name also included
 In case of plankton, plankton net size must mention.
Question:
 Difference between academic research report and developmental research report.

Page | 31
Research Methodology
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline

 Discuss the details on presentation of academic thesis of development project or project report.
 Prepare a project proposal for any developmental research.
 How can you prepare a project report?
 Discuss the details procedure to prepare the final report of a project.

Research Methodology
Made By ----
Muhammad Mahadi
Environmental Science Discipline.
A Student Of Environmental Science Discipline
Khulna University.

Page | 32