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AINU OF JAPAN
CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE LONDON
S. ' ' BATCHELOK ' MISSIONARY TO THE AINU COMPILER OF 'AN AINU-KXGLISH-JAPANESE DICTIONARY* AUTHOR OF AN AINU GRAMMAR TRANS LITER ATOR OF THE NIPPON SKI KOKAI KITO BUN' AUTHOR OF 'SPECIMENS OF AINU FOLK-LORE NOTES ON THE AINU ETC. 65 ST PAUL'S CHURCHYARD AND 164 PICCADILLY 1892 . JOHN C. ' ' ' WITH EIGHTY ILLUSTRATIONS LONDON THE RELIGIOUS TEACT SOCIETY 56 PATERNOSTER Row.THE AINU OF JAPAN THE RELIGION. AND GENERAL HISTORY OF THE HAIRY ABORIGINES OF JAPAN BY THE EEV.M. SUPERSTITIONS.
series. especially in Japan. but which are not easily obtainable. I manners and customs. Moreover. again. however. entirely new. others about and some. it But. perhaps prove interesting to the public put Hence the appearance of this work. having received the many letters inquiring about their Ainu some asking questions concerning their religion. Many of the illustrations which enrich the volume . who naturally take in Mission work. before I had finished the was thought by perusal if my friends that what I was writing for private might into book form.N PREFACE THE major portion of the chapters contained in this volume were not were written as a great interest originally intended for publication. of the chapters contained in this book Some com- prise short articles and legends which I have published elsewhere. but letters to relatives. of their special superstitions have the more readily fallen in with the suggestion. is The greater part of the volume.
at The subsequent chapters They have been set down work if it odd times. are merely notes by the way.THE AINU OF JAPAN are from photographs . above all. and I that only the outside of the subject has been touched in this book. . and collected as the writer has had cause to inquire into things whilst prosecuting his special amongst the Ainu. if it leads them to feel to renewed interest in the efforts that are being made bring them under the civilising influence and the saving grace of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. but my best thanks are due to my wife and helper for the great assistance she has rendered me in the matter of drawing the large number reproduced from her sketches. No doubt a very great deal more might be said about feel the Ainu. strange race But his object will be attained leads his readers to appreciate the good points of this . and.
CONTENTS CHAPTER .
30 36 44 46 47 51 54 56 60 62 64 69 73 77 78 . .78 . A 17 21 28 25 27 . . 88 90 91 96 100 ' .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE AN AINU AINU. OB ABORIGINES OF JAPAN Frontispiece 15 HAIBY SPECIMEN OUB AINU SERVANTS ANOTHER HAIRY ONE BACK VIEW OF AINU HEAD OF HAIR AINU CHIEF'S COAT (BACK) AINU MAN ABOUT TO DRINK AINU WOMAN AND CHILD AN AINU CRADLE AINU WOMAN'S DRESS AINU MAN'S COAT AINU TREASURES AN AINU VILLAGE AN AINU HUT A STOREHOUSE HUT OF A NEWLY-MARRIED AlNU JAPANESE HUT WITH AINU ROOF AN AINU FAMILY TAKING A MEAL PLAN OF AN AINU HUT AINU SPOONS A COMMON MOUSTACHE LIFTER A CEREMONIAL MOUSTACHE LIFTER AINU PESTLE AND MORTAR PARTS OF A LOOM AINU WOMEN WEAVING A TARA TOBACCO PIPE-HOLDER AND Box " INAO NETOBA. . OR THE CHIEF INAO OB THE SHAVED BACKWARDS CHI-EHOROKA-KEP.. . 102 . . . . 78 79 81 ' . . . . . . 84 . ' .. . A NUSA. OB CLUSTEB OF INAO NUSA AND SKULLS AT EAST END OF A HUT AN AINU FAMILY AINU MEN SALUTING .83 .
..... .. OK JEW'S-HARP 106 117 129 UKABA THE HOT-WATER OKDEAL THE STAKE ORDEAL IPAKKE-NI..12 THE AINU OF JAPAN PAGE 103 105 AINU MEN SALUTING AINU WOMAN SALUTING SALUTING A CHILD AINU BOAT AND BRIDGE THE MUKKURI. OR DEER DECOY AINU DECOYING DEER (from a Japanese drawing) SPRING-BOW SET THE SPRING-BOW AN OTTER-TRAP READY SET AN OTTER-TRAP (IN SECTIONS) RAT-TRAP (IN SECTION) RAT-TRAP (SET) A MAREK. A . 149 149 151 151 152 154 170 172 175 A BEAR CAGE THE CROWN WORN AT BLUNT ARROWS A BEAR FEAST ANCIENT WAR-CLUB.... OR SALMON-SPEAR A SPEAR USED TO CATCH PIKE A POISONED ARROW 183 136 137 144 145 147 147 . 213 214 216 220 289 296 299 299 301 303 306 307 311 311 315 .. 17(5 180 180 184 185 186 187 189 208 211 ... SHOWING PLACE FOR THE STONE ANCIENT WAR-CLUB A KAMSCHATKAN CANOE A DOG-SLEIGH A SLEDGE A SNOW-SHOE HANGING BY THE HAIR TOMBSTONE OF AN AINU MAN TOMBSTONE OF AN AINU WOMAN A WIDOW'S BONNET EXTERIOR OF THE HUT IN WHICH THE CHILD DIED INTERIOR OF THE HUT IN WHICH THE CHILD DIED CHIEF PENRI DESCENDANT OF AINU AND JAPANESE FLINT KNIVES STONE-MALLET SWORD WAR-CLUB PREHISTORIC POTTERY INSCRIPTION AT OTARUNAI STONE ADZES PROBABLE SHAPE OF KOROPOK-GURU'S HUT PLAN OF KURILE HUT EXTERIOR OF KURILE HUT AINU Bow AND QUIVER ..
THE AINU OF JAPAN CHAPTER THE AINU 1 THE Ainu. and almost every house of importance in England and America has something in the way of art of either old or young Japan foothold in in it. the most fierce of whom were the Ainu. though very indeed has so far been discovered about this peculiar race.D. of whom these pages treat. of Japan. and in it the following sentence When our august ancestors descended from heaven in a boat. are the aborigines said Much has been and written about the Japanese of late years. But the Ainu were in Japan ages before the present race of -Japanese obtained little their those islands.' This. they found upon this island several barbarous races. The oldest book of which the Japanese can boast was written occurs ' : A. translated into modern matter-of-fact . 712.
birch. XXL. though short. This ancient race has been gradually driven from the south of this the north. magnolia. and Saghalien. which is now a part of Russia. the subjects of his Imperial Majest}^ the Em- peror of Japan. The present home of the Ainu is Yezo and the Kurile Islands. The mineral wealth con- . they found the country already inhabited. The island. there are but sixteen or seventeen thousand of them left.739 square miles. now Hokkaido. belonging to the Japanese Empire. limes. Only the Yezo Ainu. and there is often a while the summers which is are singularly hot. with oak. in Yezo.14 THE AINU OF JAPAN when the present race of language. till. The winters are very severe heavy snowfall . its area being 35. and from latitude 41 30' to latitude 45 30' north. ' Land of the Rising Sun ' towards at the present day. are spoken of in this book. The country is well wooded sharp. and water is very plentiful. This subject will be more fully discussed in Chapters XX.000 Ainu and 350. officially called Yezo. abounds in volcanoes though not often and earthquakes are frequent. and pine. .. is an island of North Japan. very mountainous. who have immigrated to this island. chestnuts. simply means that. and those who take an interest in general ethnology are referred to those chapters. Japanese first came to Japan in their ships. The population consists of about 17. extending from longitude 139 50' to longitude 146 east.000 Japanese.
sulphur and copper ore. subsist. deer. when obtainable. and. The and principal animals are bears. otters. and the principal fish. herrings. are trout. hares. OR ABORIGINES OF JAPAN in great codfish. whale and walrus. measure swordfish. upon which the Ainu AINU.THE AINU sists 15 chiefly of coal. wolves. . salmon.
which describes the descent of the Ainu from a human being and a Therefore. he really means. is if emphatic and henceforth all vital. . endeavoured to .' Such a term should be studiously avoided. of course. It would be well. when any person uses the word Aino. while this race who have written of have called them Aino and Ainos. for way blamed using the form Aino. mongrel ' ' or ' half brute beast. writers would discard the Japanese nickname. Aino a Japanese nickname to the and it is always applied by them of Ainu when they speak them. are not to be in any English writers. and has by degrees come into common use. But the name this race of people themselves use is ' Ainu. and use only that native word by which these people designate themselves. The word Aino means mongrel or half-breed. which means man ' or ' men. By this tradition of their origin the lower class of Japanese have. It is a term they anciently used to express their contempt for them. and not directly from the people tli em selves.i6 THE AINU OF JAPAN Objection may be taken to our spelling the others name is of these people Ainu. since it unavoidably came to them at second-hand through the Japanese. in their ignorance.' The sound is very similar. but the difference of meaning between the two words therefore. half human being. dog. whether knowingly or not. which is foreign.' and has refer' ' * ence to a degrading Japanese tradition.
We should naturally expect that conspicuous specimens of B . yet there are very many individual members of the race A HAIRY SPECIMEN who This are not a bit hairiness more hairy than ordinary Europeans.THE AINU account for the hairiness of the Ainu. which is noticed by writers . has been greatly exaggerated. hairy is 17 That they are all a matter of fact.
his dirty appearance. The Ainu people are not a handsome as individuals. . but that is no reason for the conclusion that are so thickly covered with hair as some would have us believe. his first . and. is a good illustration of an extreme The body of the man depicted is completely covered. and he must not turn up Foreigners. thick-set. the race built is nation. to pression many people they quickly become filth. not very creditable has been A person who intends to visit the Ainu must be prepared to shut deal. though. is his moppy hair. though could point to five or six nearly as well covered. The accom- panying engraving form of hairiness.chested. The thing that strikes first one fine on meeting an beard. should he be near at hand. squarelychief and full. especially on account of their Perhaps this is the reason is why so much that is not quite true and that written about them. upon acquaintance. and sparkling eyes next. Ainu for the time . but not so thickly that the skin cannot be seen there are not and I many I so hairy as he appears to rivals be. repulsive. poor clothing. have not his eyes to a very great his nose at a little dirt. as a rule. odour. strong. The Ainu certainly do not. produce a very favourable imin fact. much cared to mix with such a filthy and degraded-looking race.i8 THE AINU OF JAPAN men would be found hairy among them all . know of but one other man who him in this respect. and have hence .
are as good as gold. been by their side in sickness and in health. See him in a bear hunt. general outward appearance. and you will have the opportunity of seeing both his bravery and his kindness. and that a diamond needs cutting and polishing before its beauty can be fully seen. gentle. they are really a fine-looking The heart must not always be judged by the people. at their religious exercises.THE AINU not taken the trouble to seek and find out what 19 lies beneath the rough and very rugged surface. It is a great mistake B 2 . After more than and after eight years' experience amongst this people. The Ainu only need sympathy and kind treatment out their real character. Nothing is truer than all that glitters is not gold but it should also be remembered that some things which do not glitter ' ' . When the Ainu are dressed in their best garments. or meet him directly after . seen them and been present when the of death has been hand is prepared to upon them the present writer affirm that a more kind. he has killed a bear. and have been washed and trimmed. having lived with them in their in their daily tasks own huts and mixed with them both and amusements after having listened to their troubles. to bring But they do look dirty. and hear are him describe the scene or ask his help when you in trouble. and they generally wear a depressed look. But the Ainu nature is as truly human as that of any other race. and symdifficult to pathetic people would be very find.
breeds are smaller. The sun . The skin is whiter than that of bushy the Japanese.' The average height of true Ainu men that is. for they do not possess the bilious-looking set eyes. one which I think has not fact. a curious before been and handsome dark beards. and at is the same time think treated how very foolish the who him ' so. and the bounds of habitation. and the women five feet. shaggy eyebrows. to be a Treat him but man. and heads of hair. will act as a child. complexion so prevalent in the latter race. as we have often proved during our fourteen years' experience in Japan. or as to say that the irreclaimable as they appear. having deter- mined their appointed seasons. him as a child. and he show himself and he man one . those who have no Japanese blood in their veins is five feet four inches. and that of the women five feet one and a half or two inches. But the Ainu and Japanese halfThe men average five feet two is This inches. and noticed. faithful They can be the most and honest servants. Close acquaintance with them adds one more to the : many on all proofs of the truth of those words of of one every nation of Scripture God hath made men their for to dwell the face of the earth. The Ainu as a treat is very much what will others make him.20 THE AINU OF JAPAN Ainu are as degraded as they look. high foreheads. sparkling dark brown or black deeplyfine The men have very prominent cheek-bones.
giving them a brunette complexion. The hair and beards turn grey .THE AINU 23 ANOTHER HAIEY ONE has tanned the parts exposed to his rays.
THE AINU OF JAPAN
early, thus giving comparatively
a venerable and patriarchal appearance.
of both the
men and women is
cut behind in
the shape of a quarter moon, the fore part sometimes
being allowed to reach to the shoulders, whilst the nape
neck and the fore part of the head are clean
There are no barbers, however
do the shaving
to say, each
the appearance of her husband.
This operation must
very ancient times, and was pro-
bably performed by the aid of sharp stones.
use Japanese' razors.
shows the general length of hair,
The women cut
coining into contact with those Ainu
reside near or
upon the Japanese
help noticing that before strangers they have an air of
renders them in
and general depression, which appearance the reverse of interesting and
pleasing to the eye.
They are apt
either to excite con-
tempt and disgust, or to arouse one's pity. They very seldom wash their persons, and less often their clothes.
carry a somewhat
large burden of
minute but robust-looking, well-fed insects about their person and apparel.
This state of things
only what might be expected
the Ainu been treated by the Japanese
during the slow march of the ages
conquered and crushed under foot
They have been Each by them.
of the soldier class used, so the
BACK VIEW OF AINU HEAD OP HAIR
make every Ainu he met go down upon
head upon the bare hands and knees and him. ground, or thrust his nose into the very dust before
the downtrodden Ainu did not do this before these
THE AINU OF JAPAN
high and lofty ones, his head was nipped
twinkling of an eye.
any wonder, then, that the
wear a slavish look
to look up,
They never received and if they did ever
dare to exert themselves for their fatherland and their
was only to receive a more crushing blow and deeper wound. But, thanks to the growth which the cause of humanity is making in all and
parts of the world, very
of this kind of oppression
whole-hearted reparation could be
The Ainu people
are most malodorous at times
should be borne in mind that the
men and women
fifteen miles a day in a broiling sun with a heavy load of unsalted, sun-dried fish upon their backs. Such fish have by no means a pleasant
sometimes walk ten or
when once the odour
gets well into
most tenaciously remains
ful to sit
Not only so, but it is sometimes quite painhut with an Ainu who has lately been
of dried fish, particularly the skate.
makes the breath
There appear to be only two occasions when the Ainu condescend to wash themselves, and then only their faces and hands are cleansed, and that but
These are bear feasts
course there are individuals
who wash more
even sometimes take a bath.
But, on these occasions
above mentioned, the Ainu, both
their hair, shave
men and women,
AINU CHIEF'S COAT (BACK)
and put on
their best or embroidered clothes
At such times the people are greatly and are not at all a badtheir
THE AINU OF JAPAN
unwashed and uncared
covered with incrustations of
Ainu men love
inaction, as far as
in the gardens
nothing an Ainu loves so
as hunting, excepting, perhaps, getting intoxicated.
They have a wild nature, which hreaks out every now and then. Servants have to be allowed to go off to the
for a day, to
have a good run in the fresh
or sometimes a horseback ride, or a day's fishing.
No Ainu man
done by his
do any manner of work that can be
too frequently his willing slave
predestined to minister to
man's wants, and
to do everything that can be
the shape of manual labour.
Thus, whilst the
gardens, the men,
are hard at work in their
not fishing, or hunting, or drinking,
or sleeping, or gossiping, or riding horses,
be found helping their wives in the gardens, either with
hands or with
However, they love
by the Japanese.
are very good
will quickly find
They ride and drive a
the mountains, and
large drove of horses into
any track they wish
the paths they will gallop
them, and most
head them and bring
These are the droves of wild horses Miss
colts, of course,
Miss Bird has written, in her popular and widely-read book, Unbeaten Tracks in Japan,' to the effect that it is
nonsense to write of the religious ideas of a people who have none, and of beliefs among a people who are merely
who formulates an Aino
creed must evolve
from his inner consciousness.
infinite trouble to learn
their religious notions are,
that they have told
they know, and the whole a few vague fears and hopes, and a
suspicion that there are things outside themselves
than themselves, whose influences
obtained, or whose evil influences
libations of sake.'
be averted, by
should be noted,
not an Ainu word, but
thus in fun, and
They probably named it would be just like the Ainu if they did.
In ancient times the Japanese used to trade with the
They never allowed the Ainu to have but when they purchased skins, fish, deer's
horns, and other commodities from them, the Japanese used to pay in household utensils, clothing, and sake,
Ainu did any work
they were usually paid
for their labour in sake.
quite possible that the
AINU MAN ABOUT TO DRINK nation of drunkards. drink because they were exas though practice It it pected to thrive upon were milk or food.30 THE AINU OF JAPAN ' milk was given evil to this it. strong drink has become it such a power among them that by many is supposed to be absolutely necessary for the acceptable worship of . In fact. The effects this has had upon the has made them a Ainu may easily be imagined.
They feel guilty and ashamed. I have known Ainu women their huts to hide their have too. and this the first They are beginning step towards amendment of life. 31 So that Miss Bird ' is right when she says that the Ainu think the selves. is They have is learned that drunkenness a vice. five Fully ninety- per cent. also. the power of the Gospel to be felt by those Ainu with whom we beginning have been most is in contact. . and endeavour to hide their bottles behind them. It will also be easily seen that the Ainu do not look upon drunkenness as wicked. Nevertheless. seen us about to look in drunken husbands.THE AINU the various deities. enough sake. or turn their evil influences away from them if they offer libations of sake. get drunk whenever they can obtain and to be drunk is their ideal of supreme happiness. or a thing to be detested. sent to the Japanese wine- when they have been vendors to purchase drink. when they upon them. look remarkably guilty when they meet us. The leaven good. to know. and views of what true happiness really are becoming rush into higher and purer. that the use of strong drink is not absolutely necessary to the acceptable performance of religious service. is is gradually working in their look hearts for The way the people is upon their drunkenness steadily undergoing a change. Children. powers outside themwill exert their more powerful than themselves/ good influences upon.
and with disagree their present words and actions. and from their highly-prized. That. as one from his inner who has spent more years I shall with them than Miss Bird did weeks.' are As a matter these all people exceedingly religious. when I could have almost unreservedly endorsed what Miss Bird has stated in the passage just quoted concerning Ainu religious ideas. .' yet. in a later chapter. but Miss Bird clearly in the she implies that the Ainu are without religion. wrong when of and of beliefs ' among a people is who are merely adult children . it And. was before privilege to dwell it had been my lot and among life. however. I entirely with Miss Bird's views little it upon the ' religious notions of this peculiar and understood people. carefully transmitted traditions.32 THE AINU OF JAPAN There was a time. though they fact. notwith- standing that has been said to the contrary. to give an Ainu creed. and after continuous experience of their everyday dwelling with them and visiting after them in times of sickness and of health. however true may be that a mere it ' traveller who formulates an Aino creed must evolve consciousness. venture. Everyone will agree that would be nonsense to write of the religious ideas of a people who have none. and a patient comparison of their early traditions with one another. This creed will be evolved from their -daily life and words. may be ' merely adult children. and much personal intercourse with them. these people. too. But after long residence in Ainu huts.
and events of daily suggest or occasion It is no matter for surprise. and the various items that It compose comes to life it are often disconnected and incoherent. as though he had learned it by rote. Creeds carefully drawn up according to theological order. and hold them a at hand ready for use. therefore. when asked. full ac- count of his religious faith when invited to do over. light as the circumstances it. like people of higher faith that and more cultivated mind. . it is ignorant his religious beliefs and observances. mediately repeat off-hand what he believes. untrained.THE AINU It 33 must not be thought that I intend to maintain that the Ainu have formulated the various articles of their faith. im- Nor do I mean an Ainu can. if More- there is anything an Ainu is likely to be reticent is about when talking with a stranger who of his language. and uncontroversial race as the Ainu. unpolished. and well- ordered thought do not belong to such a primitive. that Miss Bird's Ainu Shinondi could not give her any so. Their faith is rugged. logical sequence.
and . garments slovenly. and with the opinion that it would be no great loss to But humanity if the Ainu were to become extinct. do they look. untidy. and their coun- tenances sullen and dejected. feet are unshod . sootycoloured tattoo marks upon the upper and lower lips. Various patterns are enTheir grained upon the backs of their grimy hands. surprising that some of those who come into contact with these people. perhaps. such It is not the writer's view. intellectually speaking. Pitiably miserable and They have dark. are In addition this. It is not. is a nobler race. dispossessing the Ainu. the Japanese. is true indeed that. and cut in a kind to all crescent shape behind. and after a very slight acquaintance with them. their hair.34 THE AINU OF JAPAN CHAPTER AINU II WOMEN sight AINU women appear dirty. and thoroughly unattractive at first astonishingly ugly. and sometimes a line of the same disfiguring ornamen- tation across the foreheads. reaches is down of their to the shoulders in front. should go away disgusted. spiritless. matted and unkempt.
especially the younger ones. particularly the stranger male sex. but.AINU WOMEN that his disappearance or absorption is 3-5 possibly being rendered necessary by the wonderful events which have taken place in Japan of late years. however. They themselves. that by tattooing they enhance their beauty. tattooing and the free use of soap and combs would soon work marked improvement in their looks that is. and place the hand as over their lips. of pity. believe their mouths. c 2 . It is is then that their beauty may be Their smile . Some of them. are ugly. of course. We once took quite a young Ainu girl into our service. Owing women in middle life look inelegant. and The discontinuance of in old age are positively ugly. and hands. but of practical It would. perhaps. round. according to Western ideas. they are not so shy. are quite good-looking. seen. a sign of reverence and respect. however. foreheads. if They are shy. for the Ainu is worthy not only and help. will Before women. sympathy all that. is and of the before a stranger. they fix their eyes upon the ground. be a calumny to assert that all the hard-working Ainu Their features are a women little . pleasing and their eyes dark and sparkling their voices are soft It is figures well formed. but look up and talk. and musical. and the cheekbut their complexion is bone somewhat high pleasant. and their the tattooing that makes the to this elder the women so unpleasant to the eye. of a rosy kind.
and my wife was particularly careful to request that she should not be .36 TffE AINU OF JAPAN that she might be the better able to learn house-work. When she came to the age of twelve years. there was AINU WOMAN AND CHILD not a vestige of tattoo upon her face.
takes several years to properly decorate a person. very primitive and simple. not being as they. our little away two months. so therefore this. and. till the under part well Birch bark is : a wonderful thing for pro- ducing soot and blackness hence its use for tattooing purposes. disfigured with tattoo. and when we returned servant had had her face partially . Some of this colouring is put round the mouth. leaving the girl and her aunt in charge of our goods and chattels. done so. a brought is and burnt under the pot blackened.AINU WOMEN tattooed. It is The process of tattooing is somewhat painful. 37 After having lived with us left for about two years. and an iron pot or little hung over Next. follows. she replied * : and I felt lonely. rings are stained various patterns placed upon the backs of the hands and upon the arms. We were behold. some cases. with reference to tattooed. in into the base of the fingers. one stripe drawn across the forehead. fire is made. and It hence only a little is done at a time. Some ash bark . Upon asking her why she had All the other girls are tattooed. is first The process is as procured and put into birch bark is a pan to soak kettle then a it.' must we The tattoo of which the Ainu women are so fond is bluish-black in colour. So soon as the bottom of the pot is thoroughly . particularly her The old people always say. we that village for a trip elsewhere. ' force of habit upon her parents. Our ancestors were thus be.' The real cause was the mother.
They till are regarded almost as slaves. well washes the tattooed parts. and. From morning and from one year's end to the other. with perhaps a morsel of uncooked dried fish by way of . In the spring time the women. both old and young. dipping into the ash-bark liquor. though there seems to be no special rule about it. crawl out of their sleeping places in the small hours of the morning. it is work. then the lower lip.38 THE AINU OF JAPAN woman takes a knife. work. hands. . then takes some of the soot upon her finger and rubs it well in it . but very is altogether out of the question. touches. upon. perhaps. night. Now and then a marriage occurs. the centre of the When upper children are operated lip receives the first and so on alternately until The forehead. eat a hasty meal of cold vegetable stew. variety in their toil There that is excepting which necessarily brought about by the seasons. Their whole life a slavish drudgery. and arms appear to be done after marriage. be quite so bad that little is if men shared their labours . a part to be tattooed. They have next to no recreations or special amusements to brighten up their dull lives a little. the marks reach almost from ear to ear. and at very long intervals a bear feast little comes to give them a pleasure. work and their work is manual labour of This would not. cuts a few dashes into the black. she then takes a piece of cloth. the heaviest and most tiring kind. Ainu women are treated as of the inferior beings is by most men.
and can carry heavy loads upon day without touching a particle of food. the evening perhaps twice or thrice as much as an Sometimes they eat a good meal.AINU WOMEN relish. good deal clothes. In the early spring the women and girls go to the mountains to get the fibre from elm-trees. for about half an hour. . During the summer months they have not quite so much to do in their gardens they therefore work a .' I am in a state of knowing that I have Some women appear backs all able to go without food for a their very long time. cloth. with which they make a kind of cloth called attash. . ' It is on such Ibe occasions that one sometimes hears the expression aeramushinne eaten. then take another. to dig up the soil and sow the seeds. and proceed to the patches of land they call their gardens. and retire to bed in quite a happy frame of mind. making and mending and coarse thread. 39 shoulder their tools. rest ordinary person. and the potabarley and millet toes dug up and stored. the beans and peas gathered. all are astir. and again They often take but two meals a day one in the early morning. returning to their huts at sunset only to take another meal like that of the morning. and the other at night but then they make up for the midday meal by eating in lie down to sleep. wood. and cutting twisting string But as soon as the autumn comes round and the at weaving crops of have to be reaped and harvested.
so that thousands deer. by what they can catch such things as grow naturally. upon thousands of animalsdied. which are used as an article of food among them. for it consists of walking through the gardens off the millet straw is left and barley heads with sharp shells. and mash up into a pulp. then make into cakes and dry in the sun for winter food. boil. she cares about. and rats for this. that ever the gardens fail. . then is that go to waste and take a fresh plot. Then. When- the Ainu live by hunting in the in the sea. The Ainu understand nothing about agriculture they have no idea as to how to cultivate the land. little later on. About the same time they dig up the These they wash. bears. by A few generations ago there was a very great famine in Yezo. roots of the dog-tooth violet. just before the snow begins to the women and children go away into the forests to pick up chestnuts.40 THE AINU OF JAPAN The Ainu mode of reaping is a long process. quite necessary. a fall. upon the banks They This cultivate one piece of land for two or three years let running. would not have minded the famine so much but The death of the animals was far worse than the failure . foxes. for they use no manure. or mountains. and pinching The that. So long as a woman can procure sufficient food for is all her family to last through the winter. The Ainu wolves. The Ainu gardens land. standing the Ainu have no use for . generally consist merely of small patches of of rivers or in a valley.
as cooking has not yet attained to any very high perfection. starved to death. 41 for the staple food was flesh. particularly during the latter part of November and the assist the early part of December. she must surely lead an easier life at home. covered with nearly a foot of black earth. split. where they were kept alive by eating shell-fish tuber culata. the women men to net or spear the large salmon After which are found in the rivers about this time. with little rest and next to no comfort. the beans and peas and a thousand and one other little things to. attended It Thus is the woman if the slave of the man. or ' the Haliotis sea-ear. In the winter time. an Ainu woman's lot is hard and laborious out of doors. this the main stock of wood for winter firing has to be cut. The cooking must be attended to. task. about two miles from Mororan. ancient famine is quite true for near the sea- shore. But this is not a very formidable comfort.' These fish are I very plentiful the story of about Chiripet and Mororan. and stored away. and there find rest and a little But even here she has a great deal to do. The who towards the south of Yezo saved themselves by fleeing to Mororan. Then millet shelled. this believe . in Volcano Bay. The . might be thought that. In no sense are the Ainu epicures. dragged or carried home. there are some very large lumps of sea-ear shells to be seen. must be pounded. A great number people of the Ainu lived died.AINU WOMEN of the crops .
Nevertheless. very little scullery work to be done not. There is. because the utensils are in every case scarce. hopeless look. sorrow. and have a Ainu widows are particularly unfortunate. fire and drying of fish full . washed ? They will be used and dirtied again directly therefore let little ' them remain dirty. and the mending and making of clothes. and no bright Their whole time and thought . but because the Ainu do not see why an at all. Ainu women being one of such trial. no thought or care not capable of learning anything about God. smoking. all Nor do the Ainu women have any religious solace in The men seem to think that they are their cares. By no means may they be present where prayer is going on. indeed. the future. as well as to every other rule. be . The existence of They have no hopes for special joys in the present. specially hard time. or platter need be washed casions. it is not to be wondered at that many of them have a downtrodden. shell. then. and hard work. to the cleaning. must keep the going and the water- must look after the children.' . only food that goes into our utensils why need they. or are such inferior beings that the gods take about them. and pay due see to attention to their husbands' wants. there are a few exceptions to this. to be sure. for their presence is barely tolerated. eating cup. all excepting upon very rare oc'it is 'After they argue.42 THE AINU OF JAPAN also women butt must attend .' Hence there is very wash- ing-up' in an Ainu hut.
suspended from the roof in their cradles. when about a month old. Ainu women do love lie their children is but to let a child to in its cradle its and cry but ' not only a part of thought its be good * for lungs. Babies.often left quite alone in a hut. this is not from want of . little the poor mites.' .' it So the way to keep a child quiet is to let It cry as much as it will. is Such.AINU WOMEN are given to the necessary tasks of everyday life. Ainu women are very fond of their children. at any rate. die this being the favourite to despair. Some. It is about two and a half or three and twenty inches or so wide. are. are like talkative men and women best they must have their say. the Ainu feminine belief. For a married couple to to have no children is is sup- posed to be a great disgrace. is education. soon learns to grow tired of howling. wonder that some of them. think life a burden and sorrow. But way of committing suicide. for the Nevertheless. 43 A No woman may do all she can. thus tired by their own hand. They hang themselves. feet in length. is An Ainu to cradle made of wood. feeling. and the belief that by them traced one or other of the parties has . and give way of living. and yet receive neither thanks nor encouragement from her husband. overcome by the troubles and worries of everyday existence. say they. and is generally suspended from a beam in the hut in such a manner as hang feet in a warm place by the fireside.
therefore. it is and people were placed in it If. as a child ill. to stay at home wrapped up by the fire. committed some This world ' is named Uaremoshiri 'the multiplying world to increase and multiply. no children are forthcoming. himself very ! The idea seems to have been that life was passing from the father into his child. But the wife. therefore. poor creature had to stir about as much and as quickly as possible. . less AN AINU CKADLE A curious custom used to exist amongst this people.44 THE AINU OF JAPAN sin. The author knows an Ainu who has divorced no than three wives because they bore him no children. Having no offspring used to be considered an amply sufficient reason for divorcing a wife. As soon was born. considered to be a special punishment from the gods. the father had to consider and had.
' And. Those Ainu who can afford it prefer to wear Japanese clothing. bark has been taken. only solid.trees. and the fibres divided into threads and thread until it is wound up into balls for made in the same way. which they worn by the Ainu is a long attush. that all is Sewing chewed becomes round and When the threads have been prepared. the women sit down and proceed with their weaving.45 CHAPTEK III CLOTHING AND ORNAMENTS THE chief article of dress call ' garment. to soak it is When sufficient carried . use. . Such garments are very are exceedingly when dry. The elm bark peeled off the trees in the to flow up- early spring. the dresses are made from elm. as the these words indicate. This word really or * means simply inner bark of brittle * elm fibre elm thread. These garments are very rough indeed and are of a dirty brown colour. and the layers of bark separated. just when the sap commences ward to the young shoots and newly-forming buds. but when wet they is strong. and put into water sufficiently and get soft home and when soaked it is taken out of the water.
took woman during a whole year to make. and are very tasteful in their colour. AINU WOMAN'S DRESS with Japanese stuffs and coloured threads and cottons upon a groundwork the spare time of a of their own elm-bark cloth. in the writer's possession. or fancy needlework. . arrangement of both pattern is and done This embroidery. One up all of these dresses.46 THE AINU OF JAPAN The women take pride in fancy needlework.
CLOTHING AND ORNAMENTS The work 47 of different villages presents different patterns . the people he meets can with almost certainty tell where he comes from by the patterns of his coat There are patterns suitable for men. when an Ainu of one district goes another. AINU MAN'S COAT into another clothed in an embroidered dress. those of one are not necessarily the 'same as those of In fact. and others for ! .
he will storm finely. rings. or fox skins fibre upon the back of their attush or elmand wear skin shoes. and they are exceedingly particular about having the corners of their ornamental patterns properly turned. For winter wear. wear leggings made of grass or rushes. The men take great pride in their wives' needlework. silver. both their heads in summer and winter. not in such things as gold. but they especially on the occasion of a bear feast themselves prefer a good show of beads. and both men and women sleep with wrapped up in a cloth or head-dress. these articles of dress are dispensed with. wolf.48 THE AINU OF JAPAN No man would on it women. The women's gar- ments are not so highly decorated as those of the men. These shoes are garments. or precious . the women sew dog. bear. deer. nor would a which are recognised as belonging to woman put on a coat that had patterns appropriated by the men. away and sometimes make it all his wife unpick her work and do over again. scarce. Formerly they used also to wear skin trousers but as skins are now somewhat . The wives take a pride in dressing up their husbands. patterns think of wearing a coat with women . set off with a tastefully tattooed mouth. earrings. If a curve is not quite so well it turned as a man thinks should be. made of deer and salmon skins. and bracelets. or a line not quite straight. The treasures and ornaments of well-to-do Ainu consist. The women. finger . necklaces.
but in Japanese lacquer-ware 49 vessels and old ' swords. of beauty The former ' are called shintoko that ' is. who buy have not the money required about for the purchase. and placed upon the beams of the huts. but some come from Corea. in return for the skins of animals and and were sometimes bestowed upon the of distinction. Finally. and worth about sixpence to Hakodate. made white metal. ancient swords old heirlooms.' The shintoko used to be paid to the people. however. are now bladeless. which.CLOTHING AND ORNAMENTS stones. shining things. sold the Ainu women for six shillings and rings which sell at a shilling in Hakodate If those sold in Piratori for twelve shillings. at the earnest request of the buyer. though they haggle a great deal it. well filled fish. things and the latter tonibe that is. for the Ainu were not allowed by the ancient Japanese to have any blades in their swords. with wine. chiefs as a mark They are nearly all of Japanese manuThe tombe are facture. Ainu women are very childlike in their fondness for toy-like ornaments. They also set a high value upon old bows and arrows and tobacco boxes. they condescend to take skins or fish in payment. but called in For instance. earrings made of silver. In this way two or three fox skins or a deer skin go for a pair of metal earrings ! D . are . These bladeless swords are usually stowed away in long boxes. the pedlars do not mind. and some of the wary Japanese pedlars have taken advantage of this weakness and large profits out of it.
wear earrings. They are sometimes made of lead. Ainu women are also very fond of fastening their shells clothes together by means of any . The necklaces of the Ainu women and children are generally homeThese consist of a collar of leather or made. cloth. Russians and Manchurians. been speaking to the Ainu about the brotherhood of man. The women of Saghalien wear belts of the same shape. Finger rings others some made of brass and called gold. The Ainu. and called silver are also and many a pedlar has made a good eagerly acquired harvest out of such gimcrack trumpery. both men and women. had.So THE AINU OF JAPAN Besides earrings. although those the men wear are nothing more than pieces of red material. others have come from China. . which strike their fancy as being pretty but if they can get hold of an old sword-guard. Japanese which melted white metal is fixed in shape upon something like a flower. made of white metal . Some of these beads are of Japanese make. Beads which cost a penny or two in Hakodate are sold to the Ainu for three shillings. and their happiness is complete. one evening. they place it in the fire to make it look like bronze. the women are extremely fond of glass beads. but ornamented with Chinese cash instead of lead. The Ainu believe that the ancients got them from the Rushikai that is. This fact reminds peculiar I me of a circumstance of a somewhat nature which happened a few years ago.
D 2 .
I fear. race. would have made matters worse had I attempted to explain to them that I desired to raise them up I to the Christian level . to a nullity because I refused to have my ! ears bored and a piece of red it cloth stuck far through Of course. colour. .CLOTHING AND ORNAMENTS whatever the country. The address was well received. and appeared have made some impression on the listeners. upon finishing my address. or tion 53 civilisa- might to be. and to I was. politely invited have my ears bored. that my brotherhood with the Ainu race might thereby be sealed! Much of what good feeling may have been stirred up by my address was reduced. and Christian ideas in these things for they might possibly have thought this was looking down upon them on account of custom of ear-boring. language. and it always behoves us in such cases to be careful about causing any unnecessary offence.
as sideration. for amongst quite a secondary con- AN AINU VILLAGE If they can secure bare existence and animal sustenance. seen from a distance.54 THE AINU OF JAPAN CHAPTEK IV HUT-BUILDING AND HOUSE-WARMING AINU huts are most uncomfortable this race household comfort is places. they are content. situated. Ainu villages. appear quite picturesque. .
for some of the men and women But all quite a pride in thatching their homes. of a to which the thatch is tied. and a long ridge-pole at the upper. for the huts are almost entirely thatched with reeds. picturesqueness and the beauty disappear upon a closer inspection. In building their huts the Ainu commence at the roof. especially of elm-trees. After a few weeks or months some people think a few days fully sufficient spent in one of them. poles about five or six feet long are driven into the earth at a dis- tance of four or five feet apart. This takes several days to finish. the forks at the top of the uprights.HUT-BUILDING AND HOUSE-WARMING they generally are. These poles they are have each a fork or branch in the top. a Japanese hotel seems a very paradise for comfort. from the ridge-pole of the roof to the bottom of the uprights. and across these again are laid smaller poles. are used as rope or strings for tying the separate poles together. along the banks of rivers. all set When up in their proper places. to which the thatch is fixed. The inner layers of bark. This consists of bare rafters tied to horizontal poles at the lower end. and across these smaller pieces of wood are lashed. the roof is lifted bodily and the bottom horizontal poles allowed to rest in up. As soon as the roof is finished. which are stuck into the . The thatching is then proceeded with. and thus the walls hut are formed. and pieces of creeping plants. individual huts in 57 And the some districts are neat and prettytake the looking buildings.
made just beneath the eaves. but a hole is purposely left in the west-end angle of the roof for the escape of the smoke. according as circumstances require or the occupants desire . is This. together with the two winall considered fully sufficient for practical pur- . it. There are no chimneys in the huts. dows. made these. of rushes or reeds are placed on the outside of also. for earth.58 THE AINU OF JAPAN Both men and women work at house-building. which serve as windows one in the Screens and the other on the south side. may for the strings or cords to which the screens and shutters are attached pass upwards under the eaves. and in some cases wooden shutters These let are all so fixed as to admit of being drawn up or down from the inside at will. both to . by expectorating or throwing anything The south window is often used for both of it these purposes. is furnished with two holes. to look in at an east window peculiar sacredness is for a attached to that part of the hut. and the spring and autumn are the proper seasons this occupation. Every hut east end. and is a positive insult. It is not considered polite to look into a hut through it the south window. and the people are very superstitious concerning Men often worship towards the east or sun-rising through the east window. and over the horizontal roof-pole into the hut. and they are very careful not to desecrate out of it. gods and men.
Outside. A way few of the larger huts are furnished with a door- in the south wall of the main or dwelling part of the building. call which the Ainu is a sliem. This doorway is situated near the eastend corner of the hut.HUT-BUILDING AND HOUSE-WARMING poses . the Ainu generally place a square piece of wood. little This lodge placed upon piles. and shelling peas and beans. Peas. At the west end of a hut is directly into a porch or ante-chamber. The dogs also are allowed to inhabit this part of a house. beans. 59 but the smoke is sometimes very trying to the a door which leads eyes and throat. In the south wall of this air. pounding millet. The reason why these buildings are placed upon piles is to keep the rats and mice from making raids upon the stores. is which leads into the open This porch used for various purposes. such as storing firewood. and a short distance from the west end of is the hut. which makes for a rat to enter millet. placed the family godown or storehouse. and is fitted with a sliding door door of the porch The outer somewhat resembling a Japanese amado. it next to impossible by climbing up the pile. but the inner porch doorway has both a mat and sliding door. and other garden products are stored . Upon the top of each pile. is fitted with a hanging mat only. The wooden doors are is closed only when the household away from home or gone to bed. another door. and between it and erection consists of a the floor of the godown. pumpkins.
This consists of a few poles. and casual visit to some Ainu villages. but such is not the case. and also of a large number Of course of inao for and nusa. bears. that these buildings were Ainu temples \ This is statements people will make upon an example of what untrue subjects of which they really know nothing. foxes. reverently approach these skulls and shavings and offer worship. then had the audacity to state. together Twice a year. They are offer- ings to the various gods a sort of thankoffering or least. and other kinds of animals killed which in have A STOREHOUSE been the hunt. or death in the family. at with his the owner of the hut. one traveller. autumn also whenever there It is is a birth. has what might be called his temple for to him it is really his special place of worship. immediate friends and relatives. memento. about five or six yards At the east end of every hut. east window. the want better information.6o THE AINU OF JAPAN At least in these places. first who made a guessed. of many persons have. upon which are placed the skulls of deer. thought these inao are placed there for worship . and near the sacred from it. a sickness. the Ainu . a touching sight to see the . This takes place in the early spring and the .
They will not be so foolish as to rob she desires to have. for supposed by some that the spirits of the slain animals reside there.HUT-BUILDING old AND HOUSE-WARMING and 61 men with grave and reverent faces sitting before skulls. the fire goddess of that which This. few things were saved. and and that they are pleased to accept the sacrifice of wine. the Ainu deny. mistake. Japanese affirm that the Ainu fear a fire and the fire goddess so much that if a house once takes it fire they will not even attempt either to extinguish or save any of their property. and the fact fire is made a The Japanese have that when an Ainu hut for once catches there is no time to save anything. so senseless as to attempt the impossible a burning hut to put out the flames of but they do all they can to save their treasures. especially their heirlooms. these sun-dried praying to their gods. the which the Ainu are very much afraid. plot of land fire. The Ainu are not that is. as a return for the devoutness and thoughtfulness of the offerers will render them successful in the hunt. and they were both In one case a burnt down in than fifteen minutes. and the clothes they had on. I have seen two huts on less fire. Each hut generally has a small itself. but in the other the household only just managed to save themselves. or at least often visit their remains. it is Libations of wine are often offered at this place. to This is done as a protection against of In fact. however. and to prevent the . the thatch naturally burns very rapidly indeed.
The first dwelling almost always .62 THE AINU OF JAPAN from spreading. unearthly noise. differs slightly in according to the length of time the occupiers have been married. the third larger and the husband can afford to build one of the proper dimensions. When a newly-married couple com- mence housekeeping. weird. The chief's hut larger than the rest in a village. somewhat resembling the the note of the screech-owl. HUT OF A NEWLY-MARRIED AINU Amongst the common people the hut size. men is generally call Wool little Ainu huts vary very generally a little in size. The women can out ' best utter the scream ' ! . fire The Ainu call or alarm of fire is a shrill. still. and can be heard for a great distance. till their first hut is very diminutive. so on. their second is a little larger.
but the roof when a deputation of his brethren waited that. and the second to the thus all is not labour in vain. unless upon him and informed him he put a roof thatched after the approved Ainu style upon the house. if man or amongst them desires to make some improvement all other. he was the proprietor of a large fishing station. and so on : ever. for an Ainu. as the illustration shows. it is needless to say. or Every time a new house is an addition made to an old one. Howthird. wine has built. to be procured. It is exceedingly difficult to get them one to change any of their customs. he cannot do so unless the other Ainu and in his village are made who. He intended to improve on the Ainu mode of architecture. this. for That house has. A man at Horobetsu.chamber and the main dwelling-place. joyful with strong drink. was a rich man. In short. As soon as a new hut is built. He was obliged to listen to he would be boycotted. and build He had finished all his house in the Japanese style. and a feast given. and immediately after . determined to build a new house.HUT-BUILDING AND HOUSE-WARMING 63 forms the porch to the second. a hut never consists of more than two sections. even in so slight a matter as adding a few planks or boards to his hut. The Ainu are nearly as conservative a people as the Chinese. and these are the porch or ante. a proper Ainu roof upon it. so led to give their consent. millet pounded and made into unleavened cakes or dumplings.
which are presently boiled. has a cup of wine given him. work of building. all assist in the and people of his village. Sake is procured from the Japanese wine -vendors. in a circle at the east or sacred sit down end of the hut. made damp is pounded into dough in wooden mortars. When all things JAPANESE HUT WITH AINU ROOF are ready. in turn. having the tub of wine in the centre the honoured chiefs and landlord first. some all this is is liquor made by fermenting millet. who. and kneaded into cakes. Of with water. according to age and the common people after. the chiefs. Each and dignity.64 THE AINU OF JAPAN moved into it. them to the house-warming Millet. failing this. together with the men. keep the moustache out of what they may be drinking . and invites feast. the family has relatives the owner sends to his and the chiefs by-the-by. They then proceed to worship the various gods as Each man dips the piece of wood used to follows. or. course done by the women.
and out-houses. seated behind their and daughters. paraphernalia another the god who is supposed to look after the pots. one . for they do it grudgingly who. and drinking and when they have little satisfied their appetite they give a wine very little. and invoke the gods who guard preside over the different places the water-springs paths. have to to their wives take what they please to give. 65 and offers three drops to the particular god or gods he multitude deities.HUT-BUILDING AND HOUSE-WARMING into the wine. and goods within the hut have been duly honoured. the their eating men return to the hut. kettles. whilst another worships the gods who keep the windows and doors. and delights in getting as drunk They often quarrel because they fancy some one person has had more than his share of drink The hut is a pitiable sight after one of these feasts. or At this particular feast the Ainu make . husbands and fathers. of fire another the god of the sleeping places another the god who presides over the treasures and hunting . and continue . their inao. all Each man likes to obtain the wine possible. garden plots and After this. the floor being covered with men dead drunk. and the east and west ends After all the deities who are supposed to of the huts. man addresses the goddess . pans. the men go round the outside of the hut. may wish to worship. as he can. water-tubs. In this way a of blessings are invoked from innumerable For instance. and other household utensils.
Were the goddess of the water. at the east window. must be solicited with proper words and in a manner. some. again.' This is a right this moment what and godly act.66 THE AINU OF JAPAN shavings of willow wood of different forms. and daily providence for In Christian lands Christian to it is customary every true acknowledge God's providential goodness by ' saying grace. sentient Being higher than . in The house-warming feast is a most important affair Ainu daily life. If the who preside over the sleeping places were omitted. But think for a act implies and involves. for example. some to hang inside. misfortune and befitting famine. to stick up by the next the sleeping places. in the treasure corner. she might revenge herself by drying up the springs and ceasing gods to give water. without any exception. of the huts .spring. None must be left out. and others outside fireside. and at the doorways . and others at the springs in the gardens. forgotten. life emphasises the it Ainu have a and illustrates the way in which of the they believe in the ubiquity gods. at the corner where the water-butts are kept. The favour of the gods. lest they be and revenge themselves upon the inhabitants of angry the hut by bringing disease and death. all they might take away very sleep from the family. and by the out- houses. It implies a knowledge of a living. fact that This the common act of creed.
venison. mean to say they always so. Ainu food.. But amiss at a pinch. And I have never yet met the Ainu who does not. it our Nourisher. then. and the idea of dependence upon that an act of worship indicating a proper It further implies that sense of devotion. fresh salmon. potatoes. self. by this common everyday act.' for this food bless to the service of my we Here. codfish. bear's flesh. get one article of Ainu religious faith viz. when properly cooked. when I first visited the Ainu. and give I do not all Him in a thanks before eating. does not. come For example. I whom he calls God. E 2 . that he believes in a power above himself. but they are taught to do and that set formula. the worshipper believes himself to possess some natural yet mysterious to faculty or power by which he can approach that living Being thanks. many of them. to see families. before drinking wine. do this. One of their forms of ' grace is : : '0 God. and peas. it involves it is Being . on whom and whom he can approach in prayer and thanksgiving by a faculty within himhe depends for his daily food. make ' his salutations. and whom he returns was very much surprised. worship and thank the gods for their benefits. stroke his beard. millet. beans. especially the heads of acknowledge God's goodness. though not in every case that which Europeans prefer. are all good in themselves when cooked properly.HUT-BUILDING AND HOUSE-WARMING 6? man . I thank Thee body.
and passes it one for whom intended. for fish is sometimes roasted before the fire. strangers the lower end. A hungry man can make a good and enjoyable meal off They are very fond of salmon. in the way of flesh. One advantage of this is. and whale and. young sharks. as vegetables for . salmon trout.up to the to be done. on the side of the fireplace that is to the left-hand on The rest of looking into a hut from the west-end door. . the haunch . bear's fat and marrow-bones. strongly flavoured with badly- and almost every article of food is the stewpot. They are remarkably fond of stew. cast into However. and many water plants. and honoured guests the east or sacred end of the hearth. while grouse. a person gets his dinner really hot. the roots of some kinds of lilies. sit together with her husband and youngest children. swordfish. and potatoes are baked in the ashes upon the hearth. near the door. as well as leeks and onions. and meat and pudding covers are not required. and any part of a horse or bullock.68 THE AINU OF JAPAN Ainu do not the know how to cook. dried fish. it The mistress hangs over the it is ladles the food out of the stewpot as fire. There is no dishing. wild geese. and is there completely spoiled. and cranes serve game. are used of venison. the mistress of the house. the family occupy the right-hand side. such things. When taking a meal. Seaweed and various herbs. their food is not always cooked in this manner.
remaining members of the family. two or more have to use the same cup. as she . or for instance. for When is a person wishes more food. the correct thing to ask the mistress If she to replenish his cup.HUT-BUILDING AND HOUSE-WARMING 69 Visitors are generally served first. at all inclined to be familiar. for each the whole AN AINU FAMILY TAKING A MEAL member of a family has generally his own cup or shell safely stowed away near it is his sleeping place. The Ainu have a very limited supply of eating utensils. too much is. Now. engaged. ever ready to be produced when required. But this is not often the case. if the cups are not sufficient to go round and lastly the number taking food. then the husband.
Bear's flesh is also very scarce. but have nearly all been killed off by the Japanese hunters. This exterminating process went on till now hardly any deer are left. worthy of remark that the index finger is Ainu Itangi kem asliiklpet that is.' It is so called because people first generally cleanse their eating cups by inside of it! wiping the them with their index finger and then licking Various kinds of animal food the Ainu eat have been mentioned are well larder. who came with guns and proceeded to destroy them wholesale for the factories which the Government of Yezo established their for the canning of venison. have and have from lately pro- hibited both Japanese and Ainu alike is killing deer. and therefore called in for still their eating cups. Salmon . . for their cleanliness The Ainu cannot be commended in the treatment of food. she simply removes the pot-lid and points to the ladle. as there are so few deer about. thereby indicating may help himself. the finger ' licking the cup. but it must not be supposed that they of the people do not or always in possession of a well-stocked Nowadays many know the taste of venison. off. They very seldom wash less their It is pots and pans.70 THE AINU OF JAPAN friends among her own that the person and relatives. The officials at last seen the folly of this. anyone Hence venison now must be struck off the list of articles fine is and a imposed if of Ainu food. caught hunting them. They were very numerous a few years ago.
HUT-BUILDING AND HOUSE-WARMING 71 only comes at particular times each year. and . They dry a few fish in the sun but fish so prepared is remarkably odoriferous. and do not even possess salt. and the people know nothing about the art of preserving fish by salting. of a very high flavour. .
heirlooms. and upon bows and . and as the tuna is and venison are hung to a kind of framework with a few bars as a bottom. or millet are placed in mats for and put upon it. held sacred. that they may be cured ready threshing and pounding into flour. which a long open space surrounded with pieces of wood. and is set apart for special strangers and visi- tors. wheat. as already stated. The right-hand all the Ainu treasures are kept. That part of the fireplace to the hut extending from the head of the east window is. the beams over these. This instrument is called tuna.72 THE AINU OF JAPAN CHAPTEK V FURNITURE THERE is not much furniture is in an Ainu hut. old swords. also a great number of family inao and n-usa . as In this space many as three or four fires can be kept burning at one time if necessary. Above the fireplace is suspended from the roof an apparatus or frame containing pot-hooks and all kinds of cooking paraphernalia. Above this necessary piece of furniture. barley. particularly for corner is the place where honoured guests. fish. dry . bear's flesh. The centre of the building is taken up with the hearth.
spears. 73 and fishing implements are stowed away. special In long boxes next to these are preserved the ornamental clothes and important things belong- of the hut. hung round After the bed comes the private corner of the mis- . ing to the master EAST WIN DO IV SLEEPING PLACE PUT UP fOf) ME 1 GUESTS PLACE oO PLAN OF AN AINU HUT WATEK TUBS Next to the sacred east corner comes the bedstead of the heads of the family. having a screen of mats it. This consists merely of a raised platform or bench.FURNITURE arrows.
and other nicknacks. when a hut can boast of two doors. tubs. who was very eager in to assist me. to spread a mat for a person a chair. master and mistress and younger members of the family look upon the right-hand side of the hearth as their special place. Honoured guests take the head visitors and common remain at the west end of the hearth near the doorway. and the rest of the family occupy the of the opposite side. These are used and chairs to is instead of stools sit upon. through jokingly telling an that I would roll him in a mat. Friends sleep at the east end. After this the sleepfind a place. made and upon these they spread yet another of rushes and grass. place mats made of a hard kind of reed upon the floor . Sometimes the Ainu. An old man. near the window. box in which are stored her little beads. then the doorway leading into the ante-chamber. Hence. rings. I equal to offering him Ainu once got into a dreadful scrape. though quite unintentionally. softer mat. necklaces. On this occasion 1 was packing up some paying a visit to of my things preparatory to another village.74 THE AINU OF JAPAN where she keeps a little tress. ing shelves of the male members Then The comes the south door. pots and pans are generally found. On the other side of the doorway the water-butt. fireplace. especially when they expect visitors. would insist mats for transportation the things I on rolling up did not want to . Next to this is the sleeping place for the daughters of the family .
burning. and causes the eyes to smart and run with water. and was quite at a loss to understand why he should be so angry. hence I had to keep myself warm with the hard and dry untanned skins of animals and hot-water bottles Ainu huts are remarkably cold in winter. The smoke. when they die. that. in winter. at roll last. are up mats and buried they are not placed in coffins. On one occasion I had mats hung up round but me for in the attempt to keep efforts it my candle burning all my were of no avail. even a board bed becomes quite a comfortable and healthy place for a The chief difficulty about a board bed is tired body. I 75 jokingly said.FURNITURE go. beetles. As for fleas. is a great nuisance. the dried fish. some of which hangs rotting in the for roof. I have since learnt that to tell an Ainu one will roll him up in a mat is equivalent to informing him that you are ready to bury him ! This rolled is due to the in fact that Ainu. the boards seem to throw out no heat . . consisted of bare boards. theless. . The man passion at once. and there was nothing but to retire early to bed. emits anything but a savoury odour. Moreover. after a few weeks' practice. that old unless he ceased flew into a I would him up I too. and other too. for it My bed was Never- somewhat hard. Ainu huts are so unsubstantially built that at times the wind whistles through them at such a rate that it is next to an impossibility to keep a lamp or candle all .
Snakes occasion- ally visit the thatch of the roof in search of mice and sparrows' nests. dishes. and pounding mortars are home. when that morning. but others are quite nicely carved. and appear have a special liking for white man's I arose in the blood. as are also their weaving looms. . the huts in swarm with them during the summer months. The domestic implements used by the Ainu are not very numerous. 1 Sometimes pap made of millet is given to young children with a wooden spoon or with a piece of shell sometimes with the fingers and occasionally mothers . travellers in Intending Ainu-land should carry with them a large supply of Keat ing's insect powder. is It is certainly not a cleanly habit. my body was completely covered with say. . The cups. Fleas are the most troublesome of the to insects. give their offspring food is from their own mouths. spoons. strange to night they have been unable to make any impression whatever upon me. On one occasion. ever since bites . Ainu children are not brought up on pap administered with silver spoons. This a favourite method of take medicine. made. pots and pans are all of Japanese manufacture but trays. and quickly done. but very effectual. Wooden spoons are quite sufficient for them. By this making very young children means even babies are made to swallow noxious physic before they know what has it taken place. but. Some of them are very simply made.76 THE AINU OF JAPAN some districts objectionable insects.
but they call for no special remark. and called into use ing. used only the men. are There other \ spoons of patterns and sizes.FURNITURE 77 The spoons used for cooking purposes are of various shapes. for with the end of it they offer drops of wine to the gods to are whom they pray. The engravings on the next page represent two moustache lifters. and two of the most common patterns are shown in the illustrations. Further. of course. tion taste. They by are. only when drinkis Its purpose two- AINU SPOONS use it The men invariably when they are at worship lifters . millet cakes That marked 1 is used for stirring when they is are being cooked for a feast. fold. It is a curious is instrument. That marked 2 used for ladling out millet or rice or stew from the pot. is The ornamentamere matter is of and to devised ac- cording the carver's own fancy. the moustache used to keep the moustache out of the cup whilst the men drink. It is considered to be very unseemly and impolite to allow .
at a funeral house-warming feast the Ainu use what they call a kike-ush-bashui. / ~^f7 A CEREMONIAL MOUSTACHE LIFTER At drinking ceremonies or that is to say.78 THE AINU OF JAPAN it is one's moustache to go into the wine as It is disrespectful to being drunk. All of these instru- ments. do not have shavings to attached AINU PESTLE AND MORTAR their abilities them r . however. . ' a moustache lifter having shavings tached to are it. have bears carved upon them.' at- They made of willow. of these. but the men w ho pride themselves on hunting They are very proud them. is the persons present. and set great store by The mortar and pestle are also in common use in . A COMMON MOUSTACHE LIFTER . and thought to be dishonouring to the deities.
PARTS OF A LOOM .
However. also for This paste is beating millet into flour and paste. so that has really two ends. like a comb. The illustration .winder. used for threshing out wheat and millet. 2 is is called an osa.8o THE AINU OF JAPAN hut. It is a simple affair. It is No. an Ainu These instruments are home made. shows what they very No. No. The mortar used is and each is consists of a solid piece of wood. and therefore requires a great amount of patience. used for carrying the thread of the woof from one side of the cloth to the between the threads of the warp. 3 the shuttle. be easily is understood that this very primitive mode of weaving most tedious. are. 4 is called a peka-o-nit. They consist of a piece of stick split at one end. Ainu candlesticks and lamps are not very elaborate affairs. something straight. the Ainu do not understand anything about the value of time. is and used to keep the warp No. Next to implements used in the preparation of food. the weaving loom is a most important article. 6 is merely a small piece of wood used as a It will beginning or foundation for the cloth. for making cakes for the special feasts. It is called ahunka-nit. No. called attush-bera. 1 is called a kamakap It is it much resembles a ship's log. the purpose of changing the warp threads. 5 is used to knock the woof close home. and is used for other. It takes a very long time to weave a yard of cloth with such a machine. consisting of six parts. . it The pestle held by the middle. It is No. used to keep the warp thread separated.
and use their heads to help carry their bundles. and a piece of lighted fixed in the split end. throws the main part of the weight of the load is on the lower F2 . These were worked so that the sparks upon touchwood. upon their A TARA They prefer to have their hands free. But as soon as the Ainu came into closer contact with the Japanese. for the bundle. it Birch bark burns gives is very well indeed. or whatbacks. which takes fire easily and quickly when fell dry.FURNITURE This stick birch bark is is stuck into the hearth. may be. of it. or wood. but the light glaring kind . The person about to carry a bundle ties what is called a tara or chi-ashke-tara it round on to the back. much work for the head to do as one would expect. a very one cannot see to do much by Fire used to be produced by rubbing very dry pieces of the roots of elm-trees together. Friction is said by the people to work quicker upon this kind of wood than upon any other. they bought and used flints and steels. and places the There is not so headpiece of the tara over the forehead. however. matches of Japanese use. make are in daily The Ainu loads of ever it like to carry their fish. Now.
which is a mat rolled up. Smoking was . any more indigenous to Yezo. The preceding illustration that part which represents a tar a. showing particularly It has cloth and cotton worked goes over the forehead. end. into it.84 THE AINU OF JAPAN It is part of the back. TOBACCO PIPE-HOLDER AND BOX The Ainu do not use baskets much. in a measure. and a piece of cloth sewn over each . astonishing what heavy loads can be carried in this way. This also carried by means is of the tara. which keeps it. Smoking tobacco than tobacco itself is not a real Ainu custom. This article is is very common. from hurting the carrier's head. It is called chitarabe. though they have a few but they have invented a kind of bag.
although they are smashed to pieces before being thrown into the grave. for very difficult to get hold of so good a the Ainu prize them very highly. and the pipe-holder prettily set. The box They are made has some small pieces old. Certainly. though the younger do not.FURNITURE probably learned from the Japanese. is of deer bone It is inlaid. and pipe-holder shown in the itself engraving are said to be very of walnut wood. 85 many of the pipes used are of Japanese origin. The little piece of wire which is is attached to the top of the pipe-holder pipe. though some old appear to have come from Manchuria. and sometimes have them buried with their owners. carved. The women smoke as well as the The tobacco box men. . used for cleaning out the bowl of the put the and the round hole through when at the bottom is to pipe finished with.
. or shrines to hold their gods. there are ten white wands. As a matter of fact. led astray on this point. correct as she generally is. mistakes have frequently been to the Ainu. These assertions are mere guesses. Writing on this subject. at the left the furnishing of every house.86 THE AINU OF JAPAN CHAPTEK VI INAO. though perhaps very natural. gods ! more was . Another visitor has told us that inao or willow. and others female. or chapels.shavings are household gods . OR RELIGIOUS SYMBOLS MANY curious and most amusing. with shavings depending from the upper end. while a third has gravely remarked that some of these willow -shavings represent male. wrote them in his Ainu Temple beneath them. and nothing and even Miss Bird. of the entrance. He developed his negative. meeting-houses. ' : she says Household gods form an essential part of In this one. to made by visitors For example. printed ' ' off some pictures. stuck in the wall. and placed shop window for sale. in which to meet for public worship. a photographer once came Ainu-land and took a photograph of a storehouse or granary. we have already noted that the Ainu have no temples.
but she not them sacred offerings to to them show the faith They are not gods. and are gods. Inao. they are white wands with shavings depending from the upper end. as Miss Bird says. having the shavings top . they go by the name ^of Nusa silk is the name the Japanese give to certain pieces of they hang up in the Shinto temples before the gods. and when a number nusa. When placed about singly are put together they are called inao.' They are gods chief ' because they are of the highest import- ance. then. and the great god. with spirals of shavings depending from the top. are symbols or signs presented to the * distant gods.' By distant gods they mean the . explaining this fact is very peculiar. since they are specially made for the who of to are supposed to stand first in order. The Ainu way and well serves illustrate their general ideas about the Godhead. These inao netoba. offered as a token thereof. 'the chief inao.' The engraving represents one particular kind.INAO. near the wall on the left Miss Bird is accurate as to these shavings being is placed in different parts correct in calling of the hut. is always planted in the side.' floor. OR RELIGIOUS SYMBOLS 87 another projecting from the [window which faces the sunrise . but and they are made especially and devotion of the offerer. briefly denned. are pieces of whittled willow wood. a white post. left ' attached to the or. two feet high. they say. which goes by the name of inao netola called ' that is. .
in the first instance. or . This class of inao. in contradistinction to the at minor deities.' often made and and the ' ' placed. before the hearth. goddess of or ' fire.88 THE AINU OF JAPAN who are remote from chief gods. or sometimes also known as the is 'household inao. Oil THE CHIEF INAO men to be fashioned after the model of human govern- ments with their kings and officers. or those near hand. and the more in number are the intermediary gods through his lesser and thus whom he acts. We find the Ainu idea of the government of the world and I. the greater and higher off is and more honourable the god. For. be it understood.\AO XETOBA. chisel koro inao.' called upon to notify the Creator. the further dwelling. who is often goes by the name of angel messenger. or those human beings.
Some of these wands have three sets of shavings left attached to them. are made by being shaved downwards from the top instead of upwards from the bottom. quite certain The Ainu themselves do not appear to be on this point they seem to fashion them . upon the hearth. prayer is inao is made by shaving the wood upwards. of the deities. OR RELIGIOUS the goddess of the Sun. with prayer. When done with they are placed in the sacred north-east corner of the hut and when they have become very dry and brown with age they are further removed and placed outside the hut opposite the east window and when they have . they are extremely careful about having six dis- tinct shavings in each cluster upon either side of the . while others have but two.' is which appears to rank next in imthe chi-ehoroka-kep that is. though they of clusters of may not be particular as to the number shavings they leave on one stick.INAO. after their uncertain ideas about able. that SYMBOLS 89 who is looked upon as the chief an offering has been made to them. . as their name implies. what will be accept- But. I exact have never been able to learn the rule which governs the number of sets of shavings which should be left in given cases. and respectfully burnt. and no supposed to be acceptable to the gods without This particular kind of this peculiar sign of devotion. The kind portance wards. The inao are always presented with prayers. become too shabby to remain there they are brought indoors. 'the shaved backof inao These.
this kind of inao are often seen by the springs of water.' By this term they mean those gods who are supposed to be between them and the higher gods. who CHI-EHOROKA-KEP. OR 'THE SHAVED BACKWARDS' are too honourable to act immediately and selves. by thus be observed that this special kind . in the gardens. upon the river banks. of them- Thus. the sacred or perfect number of the to These chi-ehoroka-kep symbols are made as offerings the Ehange Kamui. near precipices.90 THE AINU OF JAPAN is stem. for example. It will lesser deity is being invoked. when a the fireside. and sometimes. for six people. which signifies the gods near at ' hand. by the side of out-houses.
INAO. upon as charms. they never quite lose their religious value and A NUSA. hung up from in the Being but shavings. and considered safeguards The nusa. and appear to be used as ornament as for offerings to the gods. OR RELIGIOUS of offering is SYMBOLS 91 presented to the local deities. and are looked evil. is can hardly be called a kind of inao. OR CLUSTER OF INAO significance. However. A third kind. since the word applied especially to a cluster or great number of inao . inao-kike much by way of that is. to which reference has already been made. inao shavings are simply shavings of willow. they are windows and doorways of the huts. as being associated with worship and made of the sacred willow-tree. or those deities who are thought to be more * in direct touch with ' men.
boats and lines and go home without any Shi acha . these clusters as they appear These offerings are called keina-ush inao. being of a benevolent all character and a quiet. end of of the dwelling huts. and benefit the Ainu race. quiet winds and good weather with him. Mo pursuing and Mo acha acha. the wild and malignant elder brother.' or inao having legs.' Mo acha. so that the Ainu are obliged haul in their fish. and persecuting his younger brother. Then it is that the Ainu fishermen launch their boats and go fishing.' sea is One of these.' They are placed upon the sea-shore as as offerings to ' one of the two sea gods. He comes settles down by the sea-side. and brings still.92 THE AINU OF JAPAN Such clusters placed together. and their They are ' names are Shi acha. the younger. or gods. which go by the name of kema. appear. thought to be good. kindly disposition. the elder.' and they are so called be* cause they are tied to stakes stuck in the ground. ever ready and anxious to do chases his all the harm he can. at the fishing stations. But and Shi acha. does to live in he can peace. and ' Mo ' acha. may and be seen upon the at the east sea-shore. The engraving represents one upon the sea-shore. or 'legged inao. and the other brothers. strange it may evil. is Shi acha means the rough evil or wild uncle. or ' legs.' and he supposed to be of a very to be continually and restless disposition. called Hep un kamui. and to bad weather. means uncle ' of peace. comes and brings peaceable brother away.
antagonistic the one to the other . Pet-ru-mh mat. when the men go to fish in the rivers. There are other gods who are supposed to have their home in the rivers and they go by the general name of . There one particular goddess who has to fish.' are supposed to have the oversight of all rivers They and streams from their source to the sea.INAO OR RELIGIOUS SYMBOLS is 93 supposed to be the originator of all storms and shipwrecks. they always . is said to be evil are ever they always have been and always sea. ponds. waterfalls. who are supposed to be good. and hence the nusa.' but to the peaceable and good god. The good and the incessantly raging. streams. Thus. a principle of good and a principle of evil. are frequently worshipped. it ' The river deities watery gods. which means where the fresh and in ' and out.' It is to this waters goddess that nusa are set up upon the banks near the mouths of rivers. lakes. the ' wild uncle. are not presented to him. are called Wakka-ush kamui. These deities. evil will be. l the females of the waterways. the female salt possessor of the places mingle. Thus. one good and the other gods who so there are good and are supposed to preside over the rivers. which are placed upon the sea-shore. watch the mouths of rivers and allow the larly the spring and particu- Her name is autumn salmon. This dualism or struggle between two principles. to go Chiwash ekot mat. as there are two gods of the evil.' They are feminine. and all is their province to watch over springs. is and rivers.
is The ceremony as follows. Then. made of pounded all and drink- ing a good proportion of sake. they single file. close to the shoulder. either by drowning or otherwise.94 THE AINU OF JAPAN make them successful . point upwards. the chiefs of the people assembled proceed to chant dirges and worship the fire god. women their their head-gear. The men draw their swords and hold them. if they are descending rapids. When an accidental death has taken place. is who goes by name of Sarak kamui. at forward to the full same time stretching extent the right hand with the the sword. ask the gods to or. go out of doors in the men leading. proceed to perform a ceremony frequently called Sarak kamui. Sake is procured by the relatives of the and messengers are sent to the different villages to invite the men and women to join in the proceedings. ' Wool ' ! Then the . and then altogether they or knives. after eating some cakes. they never forget to ask for guidance and protection. Its evil are not confined exclusively to the fresh waters. On arriving at the appointed hut. take a step with the left foot. in the right hand. Sarak a word meaning god deeds accidental death. and the victim. millet. as if with one voice. to make But there the is also the evil god of rivers. the Ainu. or and Sarak kamui appears to be a demon who presides over accidents. and they always remember offerings of inao and nusa. but are the cause of all land accidents. as soon as they find it out. and calling. The men bring their swords or long knives.
and when he returns home again it will be nearly the first place he will visit. it is no matter for surprise of various orders As these inao . the sword the place of accident is the same time being drawn back. for to sacred place he him it is the most knows upon earth. supposing that thus they are driving away This finished. they continue to weep and howl during the whole ceremony. too. intoxicated. and with dishevelled hair. To this place he comes and worships the last thing before he sets out on a journey. threshed her millet and corn places the skulls of deer and here. the people return to the house of the deceased in the same order as they came forth. This is continued till reached. a continual howling Arrived at some time.INAO. and the wool repeated. the hunter and bears and wolves he may have killed in the hunt. strike hither is kept up for and thither with their swords. sad to say. feast. the place of accident. drink sake. OR RELIGIOUS right foot is SYMBOLS at 95 moved forward. called The ceremony horibi. their head-gear hanging over the shoulders. The women follow the men. and the men the evil Sarak kamui. of and get attending Sarak kamui is which are to be seen Niwen The outside larger clusters of inao the sacred east-end of every Ainu hut may be called the Ainu temple. Here the mistress of the house generally throws her chaff after she has . and. and descriptions are thus seen to be so extensively used and so closely connected with prayer and worship.
the chief of the village. them to be gods in fact. They are made and offered upon almost every occasion of prayer. to the various deities. dwelling-places.96 THE AINU OF JAPAN . They are merely offerings though they hold a very important NUSA AND RKULLH AT EAST END OF A HUT place in the Ainu religion. when a person his friend or relative. and placed in the domain of particular titular deities. Thus. . and near their is supposed taken ill. it would have been a great wonder had they not done so. But enough has been said to show that in no sense can these that travellers have taken willow-wands be called gods.
and rind. He next addresses her by the name to go to the 'messenger. The Ainu never go to fish in the sea without a small G . to look kindly upon the sick one. stick fire. * up another. In like manner. ask Him to render them successful. outer it and shaves the it into an When is finished he places in the corner of the hearth near fire the fire. peels off the inao. The idea seems to be that the Creator is too sick one. to kindly accept the inao ' great a personage to condescend to do the healing Himself. and fire make God of and. who is supposed to be a great purifier from disease. using the goddess as mediator. and asks the goddess. saying.' to heal the prayers. when they build their lodge ' sleep in. to hear his and to allow her. thy spring please look us. to they will most devoutly. before beginning the hunt. and do us good. the morrow. goddess of water.' upon our offering. we awake.INAO. OR RELIGIOUS gets a SYMBOLS 97 new piece of willow wood fresh from the forest. when the Ainu are out hunting. goddess of ! we present this inao unto thee pray watch over us to-night.' they set At the spring where they get their water. and watch over offer it to the great On the all. they first kind of inao. the fire goddess.' and requests her Creator and ask Him he has just made. sitting down before the stick fire. we ! come to drink at this. and ask the deities to grant us success when fire. up the second kind of inao before their At the same time they will say.
of Of course he death. in the spring and autumn. same time offering up a prayer that they may be saved. . or. In such a case.98 THE AINU OF JAPAN wood and a knife. they hastily make at the a few inao shavings. fishing. Every Ainu is supposed to make his household inao at least once a year. and they therefore desire upon God to help them. twice a year. and cast them into the sea. if possible. usually during the winter. piece of willow This is in case a to call storm should arise. or or makes some on the occasion any at feast or when he has been successful hunting The ordinary and extraordinary circumstances guide the Ainu in making these offerings.
o 2 .
When living in an Ainu hut. or as taken a sign of ignorance and ill-breeding. . Of course I endeavour. when rightly and cause him to be regarded .101 CHAPTEE VII ETIQUETTE probably no race. I have often seen also always as though I were one of themselves. for example. as I have done two for many months men saluting one another. which has not some special and recognised forms of is THERE etiquette which must be observed in the social life of its individual members. Now. is at once a common. and about the observance of these they are very particular indeed. at a time. These. The salutation of the men. and his negligence either as a personal insult or slight. he is is looked upon with disfavour. duly performed by a person. however barbarous or savage. the Ainu have various matters of national decorum. part of Ainu decorum. and yet an important and curious. as an individual of good-breeding if neglected. in Personal behaviour is a subject which the Ainu are always careful to instruct their youth. The people saluted me after the orthodox Ainu style.
when the throat has again been cleared. looking next proceed to gently rub their hands together.102 THE AINU OF JAPAN according to the best of thing in return. is saluting goes through similar both attentive and respectful. tion. and sits down before the master. after the my ability. by The person he drawing back a first one hand and then the other in such way as to allow the points of the fingers to rub the of each palms hand alternately. to do the proper most correct manner. is The first step is to give a low clear the throat before entering a hut. bare-headed and cross-legged. done. cough and gently After this visitor in. he stretches forward his hands as shown in the illustraa tailor. as though he were AINU MEN SALUTING Then. This is done for some . and if no one comes out to invite the he walks steadily up the centre of the hut by the right- hand side of the hearth. The two actions.
While rubbing the hands. upon their native place. and to tell his business. manner as long as the as This is a very tedious affair. when AINU MEN SALUTING part of the performance has been satisfactorily gone through. and express a wish that every heavenly blessing first may be bestowed. and. after a short interval. again proceeds to rub the palms of listener also his hands. is Sometimes long time. lastly. one at a time. especially . form of salutation kept up for a at others for only a few moments. as shown in the engraving. ask after each other's health. then upon this their and families. the visitor. according of business there to circumstances and the amount this may be on hand. like The always rubs his hands in speaker does. the parties. wives upon each other. When this preliminary salutation is over. next upon their relatives. each at the same time making a soft rumbling sound in his throat.ETIQUETTE little 103 time. However. they finish by each stroking his own beard.
AINU OF JAPAN the palm rubbing goes on very often for twenty minutes or half an hour. involves an prayer. am aware. to their of salutation very curious. She then brushes back the front locks of her hair and places the right hand over her mouth. as will be seen. This common salutation of the men is in a sense a religious exercise. the master of the house intimates by a few familiar remarks that all formality is at an end. The women's mode They never. They then stroke their own beards to each other and commence to talk in a natural and unrestrained manner. and this.104 THE. that the All this is preliminary. she draws the index finger of the right hand to gradually up the middle of the the shoulder . She then waits for an invitation to speak. When she sees man she desires to address has condescended to look at her. because in the first part of the cere- mony and act of they ask God to bestow blessings upon each other their families. so far as I sex. perform the ceremony to own but only the men. and close . As soon as the particular matter which is has led to the interview settled. left and up the arm then from left to right across the upper under the nose. they salute them in exactly the same way as they do is their fellow-men. When worshipping their unseen gods. ending by stroking and lip smoothing the forelocks of her hair behind the ears. On entering a it hut the woman removes left her head-dress and hangs neatly over her arm.
their sisters and other female relatives. in in seizing one another by the shoulders upon each other's necks.ETIQUETTE When the 105 women have been away from and again meet their native villages for a long time. I have seen women In position for half an hour or more at a time. this position they will chant to each other their whole . they appear to take great delight AINU WOMAN SALUTING and weeping in this fact.
This possibly partakes more of the nature of a caress shoulders. than of a salutation. The men salute the boys and girls by seizing their heads and stroking their hair from the crown to the SALUTING A CHILD The engraving shows how this is done.106 THE AINU OF JAPAN Questions are put personal history since they last met. sing-song fashion. and answered in this weeping. Whenever a person desires to visit a hut he should .
he-he- he-he-hem. These rules are binding upon alike. rush either in or out of a hut. you. beardand all the formalities of salutation. person who desires to enter belongs . as there are no is wooden doors to knock at. to turn her woman back upon a man. always go out walking also say side- after calling ways. Never go eavesdropping. to the village. There are served. women. like he-he-he-he-hem before entering a and as soon as they get inside make an obeisance that which has been already described. a person has to throat . all. must go through the palm-rubbing. but always go steadily and Never look into a hut through the window. Women hut.ETIQUETTE never enter without being asked. make a noise with his something If the like a long guttural sounding. many minor rules which have to be obNever Never enter a hut with a head-dress on. heard the noise comes out and takes him side Once in- he stroking. who never remove their head-dress. They leave It is impolite for a a hut by walking backwards. except widows. and children dress off The women are always expected to take their headwhen they meet a man. what to be done ? Being unable to knock. but always wear the . Never address a stranger unless he or she speaks first to softly. he is he goes in without more ceremony but if a stranger he must wait until someone who has in. Men. upon a person. 107 But. men. especially the end window.
they see a coming. and make room for him to pass.io8 THE AINU OF JAPAN Women always step out of the way when widow's hood. They always salute a man when they meet one by cover- man ing their mouth with the hand and fixing their eyes upon the ground. . They keep out of the way as much inferior as pos- and consider they are quite an order of beings. and never answer them back when they speak. sible. They ought to be obedient to their husbands.
a careful regard to their elder brother. but not heard. inclination and the weather were the only forces which made them work. By no means were they allowed to interrupt their elders when engaged in conversation. and the sea schoolmasters. to set spring-bows in the trail of animals to decoy deer. The first and chief duties that the children were taught were obedience to parents. of They were when spoken and at other times to be seen. . to make bows.109 CHAPTEB VIII EDUCATION AINU children used never by schools or The mountains. and to judge of the weather by the skies. and reverence to speak for the old men to. their village. and traps . to be troubled . the rivers. The men attended the to the education of the boys. fish The boys arrows. and even then only a few were taught the secret. . and women looked after the girls of a family. were taught to and hunt . They were never taught to make poison for the destruc- tion of animals until full-grown. were their school-house necessity was their instructor .
and quickest routes to different places. the proper course to pursue in the various ceremonies also. . to cut wood. broider. so that they when out on but not a hunting expedition. their They were also instructed in the art of tattooing arms and lips. and a thousand and one other things. tli9 ancient traditions. and what forms . and how to weep and howl for the Lastly. and they were in- structed to never forget to enter a hut with the face towards the household. to work in the gardens. instance. and respect and wait upon the men be spoken to before addressing them always to wait to . least.i io THE AINU OF JAPAN Next they were taught the names and shapes of certain mountains and hills. might not get They also had to learn the secret And inao last. they were particularly taught to honour . and em- to sew. to thatch huts. of prayer to use upon occasions the various salutations and . diligence was encouraged and idleness following curious fable. and to go out backwards. children. discouraged by the is : Its title . dead. for Moral lessons were enforced by certain tales. of their way when they came along a path to cover the mouth with the hand when meeting them and to un- cover the head in their presence . to cook. Thus. always to get out . the names and courses of the chief rivers and lost streams. to prepare bark The women taught the girls to nurse and weave it into cloth and mend . they were taught how to make and nusa different offerings.
Salmon ? and straightway he was seized by the salmon. as a warning to all people.' The Ainu which ' give a curious explanation of this legend. tool.' : Greediness was discouraged by the following tale . and who to fetch water so." Again. me ! you soft. he was the fireplace with an edged " Ah. you do not have to draw water. whether they be good or evil. taking the ladle and the bucket. for the instruction of all people. : is as follows Though the and sat lad was ordered to idle. descending thence." Then. being a door-post. me you. For this reason. ! draw water. chopping at As he went out he struck the door-post. flabby creature. how do you do. he said Ah. you awfully bony creature you do not have to draw water. Thus did the angry gods to him who disliked to draw water. he went . to which " he said.EDUCATION THE MAN ' in IN THE MOON In ancient times there was a lad who would neither even disliked obey his father nor his mother. do not have to draw water. " How do you do. must be obeyed. let all the world understand that the words of parents. put him in This the side of the moon." Then. because you " : seeing a salmon-trout. me ! are a fish. he saw an autumn salmon. saying. placed in the moon. is the man in the moon. Mr. and. the gods being angry. . down saw a " to the river little and when he came to the river he : fish coming up the stream. to which he said Ah.
" So the clothes were hung in upon it." Wh he had heard Pen'ambe withdrawing. : The Lord " of Even thus it Matsumai. Hang out my best clothes to air. : Pan'ambe ! have forestalled us. and I will tell you. " Here said. ^ and you you abominable Pan'ambe. clothing were hung and After a time." Hang all my clothes upon So all the short-sleeved garments and good out. said " ThL is the very thing we ourselves had intended to do. " My dear Pan'ambe. that " Pan'ambe replied.ii2 THE AINU OF JAPAN A TALE OF THE FOXES (Characters 1 -Pan'ambc and Pen'ambe) rich. to air. so that he gained a whole houseful of things and became very rich. he went his tail across the cr down he all to the sea-shore and stretched the sea to Matsumai. having a great desire to become tail stretched his across the sea to the town of Matsumai. " This a pole sent from the gods. " Coir you have become so rich ? and take some refreshment. seeing the pole move. Pan'ambe. hearing of his good fortune. Pan'ambe drew back his tail. When Lord of Matsumai saw it. But Pen'ambe. he said. being become rich. There came a ." So saying. began to withdraw a great hurry to his tail too quickly. all the soft silky garments and good it clothing adhering to came also . said happened once before. When is it the Lord of Matsumai saw the tail. called upon him and said. you disgusting en all. what have you done. Pen'ambe. is a pole sent by the gods.
Now again a pole has come. old and the old woman a useless to reaping-hook. 113 but a thief upon which we hung our clothes to stole the pole away. there- by saving half a tail Pen'ambe was left with but so he drew it in.e. he . if and was in a very sorry plight.' bare idea of assistance. very Now.EDUCATION pole from the gods. at So they caused the ancients laugh them. came together and broke and bent their swords [upon that tree]. the ancients. the Ainu laughed at the such an old couple coming to render the ancients were unable to cut down that " Old man and old woman. be quick. only listened to Now. might have been a rich person and able to live but he did not like to be advised. pole. so they said: ' Even have you come hither to do?" The old man replied.] [That is. what Pan'ambe had Pen'ambe had said to him. The old man had a ignoble. but had obtained nothing.' Pieverence to old people was taught by the following legend * : At the head of Japan there was a metal [i. Then there came a very old man and a very old woman upon the scene. and we all became but look there appears to be a poor. useless old axe in his girdle. so he became a very poor man. what tree. and we have hung it. H . ! our clothes upon thief about. air . both noble and hard] pine-tree." So the officers all ! drew their swords and cut the the clothes. and cut the gods' pole in two.
The metal pine-tree.' were no other than the great hero Yoshitsune (Okikuslightingly.scabbards. drawing her it useless old reaping-hook. and yet the people did not at know them ! This curious legend probably enshrines the of memory ' some ancient battle with the Japanese. Then the old man and the tree and cut through.' Therefore Ainu say ' : Let not the younger laugh at the elder. saw this and greatly wondered. cut a way into it. for rumi is his Ainu name) and first his wife. striking little " We man old said this he the metal pine-tree. in If that be so.' Also they say ' : Do not treat strangers you never know whom you are enterThese strangers who appeared to the Ainu taining. The education of the mouth and actual work. There are reasons for believing that was buried at Piratori. Yoshitsune was pro- bably killed helping the Ainu against his own he countrymen." As the old drew his useless old axe.' or 'trees. for even very old people can teach their juniors a great deal. And the woman. There was a mighty crash the earth trembled with the fall. even in so simple a matter as felling trees. and. Ainu was done by word of They never had schools or . and then they understood that it was Okikurumi and his the wife. struck . woman passed up upon the sound thereof.' were possibly Japanese warriors in their armour.ii 4 THE AINU OF JAPAN have only come that we may see. and a fire The ancients was seen upon their sword.
made and carry off a certain book the only book the Ainu chief of Saru had in his possession. Yoshitsune. he had been in the family some time. nor did she nor her father trust him.EDUCATION literature 115 They do not like. It is. She asked him in what he H 9. and told her that neither did she love him. gave him after One day. the name of a Japanese book on strategy. many art. The tale of the theft runs thus ' : When Yoshitsune came Yezo he was kindly taken in by the Saru chief. On that day he reproached his wife greatly and refused to eat. The name of this book is said to be Tora no maki mono to steal . however. to admit that they never had any books or writing materials. of any kind. and origin. This chief had to amongst his treasures a very ancient book called Tora no maki mono. work as was his wont. ink. Japanese of them tell us that their ancestors did understand reading and writing. Yoshitsune pretended that he had bad eyes. so that he might just as well go back to his native land. and his younger daughter in marriage. word for book itself is of Notwithstanding all this. but he would never allow Yoshitsune to see it. for they seem ashamed of being such dunces. who had his residence at Piratori. in fact. . but that they have now lost the They have inis vented a tale by which the Japanese hero. a purely Japanese name. After a time the chief adopted Yoshitsune. There is not even a native word for either pen. or their paper. and could not go out to So he stayed at home.
As he neared home he saw Yoshitsune fleeing down the river in his fatherin-law's very best ' and swiftest boat. this his wife fetched the and let him . with him. He therefore his work to return. which he could cast.ii6 THE AINU OF JAPAN was mistrusted. not only with the book. the chief always carried two harpoons about with unerring aim." says he. Now. He therefore cast the white one at the stern of the boat fixed it. look at quite well and I shall Now. a black one and a white one. he had never produced Why was book he so distrustful ? Upon it. and the line in two.' is also with the harpoons and the This legend tries to account for what undoubtedly the fact. to any distance. but boat." Yoshit- " " had put the book. Then the black harpoon was cast. but that. my eyes are go to work to-morrow. that the Ainu have no literature. and he replied that he had heard that his father-in-law had an ancient book somewhere in his possession. see all his other treasures. although he had let him it. Now far was happened that Yoshitsune's father-in-law away in the mountains. and trans- but Yoshitsune filed the cunning man had a file with him. so as soon as an opportunity presented itself he stole it and ran off sune noticed where his wife with * it. . and fled. but he felt within himit self that something wrong was going on left at home. Upon this Yoshitsune stood up in the boat and reviled his wife and her father. with a similar result.
to his hut. Okikurumi took a sly glance furniture. But Okikurumi was cured A little bird flew to the cause of this the object of his affections.EDUCATION The The 119 following legend of Okikurumi (Yoshitsune). ' they cannot obtain the objects to look too and never much after the The great Okikurumi ill. may be of interest to some. this And. the bird begged her to have mercy upon poor Okikurumi for the sake of Ainu-land. of it seems to be to teach young lovers if never to despair. he became very exceedingly love-sick . She was brought and ornaments. he laid down in his hut in sullen . in short. An unreal. affliction. ' Dear. in love with an object Ainu maiden. and would eat neither good food nor bad he was. dear.' says the legend. Therefore. deeply in love . at her through his arm-hole or sleeve. even of their affections. his deep-seated love little Word was brought critical condition. The intercession was successful. fell . all happened through taking just one glance at a beautiful woman. of his dangerous malady. unsubstantial with woman was made in the likeness of the beauty whom Okikurumi was smitten. ready to die of love. to her of and The pretty in the lady's bird if ear that wagged Okikurumi its tail and whispered died. the soul of Ainu-land would also depart. softer sex. he was encour- . and forthwith proceeded to arrange the mats. let ' how badly he felt ! Therefore the young beware. he lost his appetite and bodily strength despair. mark you.
was revived and This done. she returned into the hut backwards. upon the what she saw so . in terrace-like masses. [By in love. aged felt ture she was not.120 THE AINU OF JAPAN he got up. The following is the explanation of the legend. goes outside in an aimless kind of way. and scans the horizon. The Ainu say that she was paying respect to the brilliant beauties of Nature. there was nothing to he done. which she saw depicted upon the heavens . which she sees its is very beautiful in grandeur. . and gazed upon the inside and surveyed the outside of the hut. She reviews and returns into her hut. rejoiced. the clouds being piled one upon another backwards. the lady took her deparstrong again. But we are told that she returns This is a sign that she was paying great respect to something or some one outside. The goddess (i. and now felt a little lonesome. and behold ! the clouds were and waving about in beautiful terraces Yes. and took down her needle-work. . he saw and. or tired. ate food. What then did Okikurumi do in the ? Why.' ' that he had been deceived woman. She gets up. Her eyes had been wandering about from one object to another with weary solitude. floating She went out. as said. . like a sensible man. that is horizon over Ainu -land. this we are taught how it was Okikurumi with first fell caught sight of this beautiful woman whom he She had been sitting in the hut. the beautiful maiden) felt lonely.e. restless. nothing to be he got well again.
] called ' Then came a sat water. [The water-wagtail is much esteemed by the Ainu. she looked to the point of her needle. and was sent thought to be a special favourite and companion of the gods. Hence it was that this bird to convey the intelligence of Okikurumi's love-stricken heart and critical condition to this beautiful and industrious damsel.' and its and down. [That is to say. seeing you.] Then two chirps and three chirps came to her. on your account.' placed before he refused fish is [Two good and two bad merely an expression . side. Now. and waved for up from right to left. thereof. deities at all never worship any I therefore venture to think that she was paying her respects to Okikurumi. they consider it to be a bird of good omen. and fixed her gaze upon the eye -end little bird. It is it upon the window. she paid great attention to her work. and wagged tail supposed to be the is first bird that was created. and what she heard was this ' : The mighty Okikurumi.wagtail. has fallen ' ill of Jove fish And though two bad him for food. went out of doors for a little while.EDUCATION 121 hence she came into her hut reverently walking backwards.shutter. and touched the inside surface of her ears.] whom she saw out- Again. and. women never pray . who is the governor of all Ainu -land. and two good fish were to eat.
got up. . Have mercy upon us. how badly he the sent felt ! Therefore form of a woman to resembling the goddess was made and down . dear. but there was nothing to be done and nothing to say. that Okikurumi may so sick iish live.' Thus. then. Kurohonguwan Nimamoto no Yoshitsune. greatly rejoicing. [Let everyone take warning from these last words. so he got well. little bird called ' water-wagtail. the soul of Ainu-land will depart. Okikurumi.' waving ' spake two words to her and said.122 THE AINU OF JAPAN meaning that whatever food was placed before Yoshitsune he could not touch it. he was so love -sick. Okikurumi was deceived by the mere shadow of a woman. if Okikurumi should die. Then Okikurumi looked through his sleeve the beautiful woman.' Then the its tail. then.] ' Now. Okikurumi fish fell of love that and two good were set though two bad before him he could not eat. Dear. He and ate some food . He gone.] So much. by simply looking out upon the world. strength came back to his body. for the hero. The house was sent set in order that woman who was and saw down put things to rights. the woman was Okikurumi saw he had been deceived . Benkei. and his servant.
Thus. dancing. music. In fact. of music to This is the kind child- which we have been accustomed from of the hood. the arts and pleasures of life demand some attention. so that their airs cannot be written down.123 CHAPTEE IX THE ARTS AND PLEASURES OF LIFE PASSING from Ainu education. with their crescendos and diminuendos. are not very highly developed amongst such a crude race as the Ainu. when they have returned from Hakodate to I have seen them sit for an hour at a . But the songs and chants fixed notes or tones. they are Ainu do not to run in bound no scale. and girls Some and it of the is women have really rich voices. and chief among these are These things. the Ainu have music without tune. and games. very pleasant to hear them hum their songs. I have sometimes sat and listened to our servants their homes. The men and women make up some very pretty tunes in which to recite their recent acts and experiences. Those who belong to Western nations are apt to suppose that all music must be formed of notes in scale. of course.
and show a good deal nature of the Ainu. 3. 2. too. . how the : fishing all and hunting and gardening has gone on. AN AINU LEGEND OF A FAMINE 1. Their friends. for they give many ings of the mind. Nor have the Ainu anything that we can call metre. In the window of the house there was a large cup filled to the brim with wine. or verses accurately is measured in syllables. Here are two legends which show the manner which the Ainu recite or in chant their traditions. what they have seen.124 THE AINU OF JAPAN and relate in chant stretch or : song that which has happened to them whilst away where they have been. mind . upon which floated a cere- monial moustache-lifter. and poetry exists only in the Ehyme. who have married. too. and It is such things. and this very often ceases to be poetry when translated into Japanese or English. The ceremonial moustache-lifter was dancing about upon the top of the wine-cup. and what they have heard. very interesting to listen to these a peep into the inner workof the true chants. quite unknown. have in the same way made known to them what has taken place in their midst what children have been born. There was a woman who was ever sitting by the window and doing some kind of needle-work or other. who have died. and their ways of looking at things.
and the Ainu were dying for want of food yet with what little rice-malt and with what little millet they had they made : (a cup 7. of) wine. And they were well pleased with that delicious wine. And the great God had mercy upon saw that us. in order that our relatives might eat. and that the Ainu had nothing to 9. in truth. 8. while the scent of the wine filled the whole house. produced both deer and fish. was blind ? 6. forth from the end. the great God had mercy. the tale runs thus look. 13. 11. desses of the Then the goddesses of the rivers and the godmouths of rivers danced back and forth in laughed with smiles upon the house. therefore He eat. 125 In explaining the subject from the beginning.THE ARTS AND PLEASURES OF LIFE 4. and. do you think that the true God. in Ainu-land there was a famine. Therefore were all the gods led in. Now. Then was that cup In a very little of wine emptied into six lacquer-ware vessels. 10. and it setting 5. and. 14. : Now do you think that the great God. . this all the gods their faces . looked upon us. Upon . In Ainu-land there was a great famine. and the gods of places were brought from everywhere all 12.
to worship Him than by offering wine and whittled pieces of willow wood. hunting. Hence it is that there are inheritors to this The following curious lines were sung to me by an aged Ainu. And whilst they looked at the goddesses they . then appeared two herds of deer skipping upon the mountain does.126 THE AINU OF JAPAN 15. to whom I had just been explaining the dangers and I evil of drinking too to had been endeavouring much wine. one of bucks and the other of and. blew them over the rivers . and the beds it were. 20. as it were. 21. Hence is that from ancient times now there has been hunting. it Hence it is that Ainu-land till is so good. 17. 19. And. and likewise the tops of the rivers were exceeding crowded. as Then they plucked out two scales from a fish. and to whom show how much better it is in truth. saw them pluck out two hairs from a deer 16. 18. blow them over the tops of the mountains. Then the Ainu went fishing and caused their boats to dance upon the rivers. The old in spirit God and . The young men now found fish and venison in rich abundance. tops. So the things called fish filled all the rivers to the brim. of the rivers were so crowded with fish that they scraped upon the stones.
we find that there was a famine in Ainu-land. tradition. and are pleased.e. This song. or whatever called. 7. this reason itiao and wine were offered to the gods. i. Now. There was something upon the seas bowing and raising its head. is it may be typical of the way in which the Ainu convey their thoughts on religion and other serious matters to one another. 6. when we look at the matter. eat. And we see that a large sea-lion was cast upon the shores of the 5. Thus the Ainu were For able to obtained food. of the The remote ancestors Ainu race are represented as having seen some . 2. mouth of the Saru river. So the gods to whom these offerings were made intro- were pleased. The first and second of these verses are an ductory statement of the theme. still and are delighted when the devout worshipper indicates his sincerity by setting these things before them. at the time of the famine indicated below. 3. And when they came it to see what fast it was. they found to be a monstrous sea-lion asleep. the gods were. notwithstanding had said. pleased with these offerings. 1. legend. 4.THE ARTS AND PLEASURES OF LIFE man's object in singing enforce I 127 this tradition to me was to all upon my mind the fact that. which they seized and brought ashore.
Saru. in looking back this sad calamity. and rising and falling with them.128 THE AINU OF JAPAN and curious object floating about large upon the tops and go and it of the waves of the sea. Verses six and seven are intended to show that libations of wine and the offering of inao have always been a well-pleasing sacrifice to the gods. and that they them now is seen from the fact that food is still Hence one great reason why this race of extended to the Ainu race. They it is find is a mighty sea-lion (shietashbe) They then seize the animal. please They pleased the gods at that time. be. and. and that the Ainu of to-day. too. such ancient religious customs should not be abolished. according to men have no its cause to Ainu reasoning. regarded by the Ainu of the south of Yezo as the chief district in this island . what the therefore. see in the sleeping sea-lion the upon hand of the gods. Hence. bring it by some means or other (how ashore. and the Shishiri-muka is the largest river in Saru. change one form of rites religion for and accompanying ceremonies and another. The men. should be remembered. launch their boats object see may . and therefore are so now. working to preserve the race from starvation is and certain destruction. not stated). The third and fourth verses make known the fact that at this particular time there was a famine in Ainuland. . said to have been cast This mighty sea monster upon the shores of the it mouth of is the Saru river.
sudden jerk. is The Ainu name of this instrument mukkuri.THE ARTS AND 'PLEASURES OF LIFE Thus we are by no see that the Ainu. 129 though without knowledge. This instrument is about five inches . A piece of string is attached to the THE MUKKURI. This instrument holding it to the lips in the England hold the Jew's-harp. is played by same way as children in Then the player breathes through the space in which the tongue is. . If there is little to say with two strings. lated. OR JEW'S-HARP butt end of the tongue. long. The Yezo Ainu possess but one musical instrument. said to have a kind of fiddle I The Karafuto Ainu are never seen these. a kind of Jew's-harp made of bamboo. means without reason nor are they so stupid and easily led as some people would suppose. and gives the The tone produced is regustring a sharp. and has a thin narrow tongue up the centre. It is not used by full-grown people but the children are very fond of playing it. and another with three. which measures about four inches in length and the eighth of an inch in breadth. by the breath of the player. but have about Ainu music and musical i .
and. and as far back as possible when performing this dance. and appears mixture of the others. at the same time calling out is ikken-ho-hum. The dancers generally form a ring. (4) heshkotoro.' These are dances accompanied by bacchanalian songs. Ikken-ho-hum consists in attempting to make oneself look as much like a see- saw as possible. and when the women dance they call The two This they principal tapkara. continue to bow to one another. thus bringing their heads nearly together in the centre of the ring. ' ' the voice of wine. . to be a Heshkotoro all indescribable. there also very little to tell about dancing. the voice of drinking. i. . quite devoid of elegance or grace. are call tonoto hau. attempt to The clwma dance appears to be an imitate the movements of some kind of bird. In the dance called heranne the performers form a ring and join hands. .' The second is called chikup hau.e.130 THE AINU OF JAPAN is instruments. i. by bending the back and head forward far as and back as one can. or men's dances. .e. and continually call out clwma in unison. When the men dance it is called it tapkara rimsei. These are and (1) ehoma (3) ikken-ho-hum (2) hcranne . possibly the heron. firot. They also incessantly bend their backs forward. and the men always require plenty of wine before they can produce the voice of wine ' ' ! called The women have four principal dances. Ainu dancing is a senseless performance. and the word heshko- toro is called out during the performance. incessantly calling out hcranne.
takes a ring or hoop. making it run and bounce along the ground. about six inches in diameter. and gives 2 very good exercise. and throws with all his might to the opposite party. Both men and boys think a great deal of a game i. However. these are divided into two parties of ten a side. it to the earth. resembling a spear. Then the hoop is thrown back in the same way by a strong arm. belonging to the which leads off. the game again. side A strong person.THE ARTS AND PLEASURES OF LIFE The Ainu do not much engage facts of daily life. i . Each individual is armed with a long stick or light pole. roughly it made of a piece of vine. and endeavour to transfix If successful they win. ' called karip-pashte.' This amusement appears have been invented in order to teach the children to spear salmon in the rivers. the people indulge in a game or two sometimes. Those to whom it is thrown then cast their sticks or spears at it as it passes them.e. to causing the hoop to run. party are finished. take up their time. other side comes over to and one person from the theirs. and is played in this way: Suppose twenty boys and men take part. 131 in games. separated from each other by about twenty steps or yards. all And is When the individuals of one brought over to the other. It is and the opposing sides cross over and begin really quite an exciting game. thus the game continues. The hard such as looking out for food to eat and clothes to wear.
and so on.round a stick and fastened with a piece of string. beating : one another with a war club. . some- times.they . when asked about look very wise and grin.3.one wrapped Then man exposes his hack. neatly . blood is drawn from the back But there in a suspicion that the art consists not so much w hat f a person can bear. only The operators.call has the appearance of a painful It consists in is experience rather than a game. in fact. apparently with his might.2 THE AINU OF JAPAN : - . of the sidered to be the real champions. . He the who has been champion most whacks is day Some of the Ainu despise a stick with cloth wrapped round it they prefer a bare war club.1. and. A second person takes all the club and proceeds to beat him. leans forward. When off. and fourth. he calls is out or runs Then a second comes forward and able to stand the ! operated upon. seizing a post or tree . and a third. There is a knack in appearing to hit very is hard. the subject has had enough. : The men.. whilst in reality the subject all. It is wonderful what bear ! a number of strokes some is of the men can . It in a very curious game . These are con. sometimes indulge ukara. and played thus is Some soft material. as in the number of stripes a man can give. hardly touched at this point.with his hands. and kindly offer to practise on the back of the questioner. such as a coat.
unless the judge well assured of the person's guilt. moment. procured. A very large cauldron. such as the Japanese use for boiling fish when was they desire to extract the oil for lighting purposes. mode of punishment. Curious and very effective methods they were. when the arm was . the guilt of the subject was assumed or if. If afraid to arm into a pan of undergo this test. we and people were pretty This ordeal also are informed. in the agonies of the confession. Here the person was compelled remain till he or she. This was fire. . made a full Such an ordeal was never resorted to. The following were the chief : 1. The barbarous hot-water ordeal. Another hot-water ordeal consisted in making an accused person thrust his or her boiling water. filled with cold water and placed fairly over a blazing As soon as the water was it. constituted one 2.135 CHAPTEK X JUSTICE AND MARRIAGE THE Ainu used to to adopt a variety of methods by which compel a person to confess a fault or crime. warm the victim was put into as shown in the illusto tration.
136 THE AINU OF JAPAN A was scalded. a drink the water. the arm came 3. This does THE HOT-WATER ORDEAL say to it is not look so very the for- midable. Of course. but Ainu most painful. a person's in- nocence was fully established. If success followed the . and keeping it there till confession was made. The hot iron This consisted in merely placing a piece of hot iron or a heated stone in the palm of the hand. 4. or stone ordeal. The drinking sit or- deal. al- The mouth was not lowed to be taken away from the tub. guilt was supposed person was only declared innocent if it thrust into the water to be proved. attempt not. innocence was proved to be guilty. if person was supposed . This consisted in making a person before down of a large tub water and remain there till the whole was drunk. out uninjured. if the heated in- strument did not burn the hand.
having the ashes out of the pipe into a cup of water. the legs were treated in the tied same manner. he was proved guilty. THE STAKE OEDEAL This consisted in tying a of course. A favourite way several of trying of women knocked was to make them smoke pipes tobacco. The stake ordeal. and. extent and tied to the Next. AND MARRIAGE 137 The cup ordeal. ill. If the innocence of the individual blished 6. till Anyone up confession was made. women who smoke the tobacco and drink the ashes without feeling . 7. in this way had of to remain there Hanging by the hair the head was sometimes . he was made to throw the cup behind him. person to two stakes driven into the earth. guilty. cup lighted the right way upwards. . over his head. full The arms were stretched out to their stakes. When this was done. This consisted in causing a person to drink a cup of water.JUSTICE 5. compel the to woman Those could drink it. were innocent those who could not were. Tobacco ordeal. the was supposed to be esta- if otherwise.
seem to have no such custom. divorce all or He could. however i. The husband could do as he for pleased with his wives and children. Suppose any single household to move away from all this How came to . He has to consult with his com- panions. He could punish any members of his family as he thought proper. be so can easily be explained. who are great bear worshippers. since each village has established a little republic of little its own a member of a village can do very as an individual. and the ordeal an Ostyak went through when he swore was exceedingly curious. was that also a favourite all of method. this life or in that to and whilst biting it he would if call upon the bear to bite him in the world to come he forswore himself. instance. any of his wives (the Ainu were polygamists). that he might bite at it. or was guilty of a charge laid against him.I 38 THE AINU OF JAPAN Beating with a thorn bush resorted to as an ordeal. resorted and inflicted as punishments for crime. to down future punishment either in come.e. A bear's head was brought in. upon occasion. Now. Some of these ordeals were so painful that to some Ainu have been known have the it commit suicide rather than test applied. or disinherit his children. But the Ainu. for oaths Among to the Ostyaks of Siberia call was usual be uttered. But it should be remarked to these methods were. In remote times the chief authority was vested in the head of a family.
or either of them.JUSTICE friends AND MARRIAGE in the wilds at 139 and build a home village. A person could not. the young people do their . marry whom they please. Both the young man word in the matter. in course of years. as comes on. Such a thing has been done by the A single family has often made a new settle- ment. for necessity. he retires. and the bride. A kind of republican government. as the community increases in numbers. the whole village naturally desires to have something to say in any matter affecting any one of them. who. therefore. have a final In short. as new huts him for accommodation of his sons as they get married. some distance from any Ainu. the young to marry into people may. desire though the parents of a young woman or man them any particular family. Then. Such a settlement necessarily the commences under are built near the rule of the father. at his death naturally head of the community. or not to ally themselves with some other specified party. touch any member of his own family without giving offence to every other individual in the village. because each household is related to every other. remains head of the growing clan. old age Then. after hearing the wishes of the parents and relatives expressed. to became a The Ainu consider marriage be a social and family arrangement or contract which affects the parties immediately concerned more than anyone else. and and his eldest son more and more acts in succeeds him as his stead. this reason. Hence.
But if the bridegroom did the wooing. Persons who marry ' in their own villages are called uiriwak. blood relato be tions ' . into their own hands. or her parents. own and no one grumbles at this arrangement. . . goes to live with him. have been the main movers in the business. If.' uiritak. she gets her to call mother and father If all is well. if a if woman of one village chooses a . adopted. the young couple take the law build a hut . and become husband and wife without any ceremony good in Ainu society. He is. agreeable. If the and that relation stands young woman or bride. agreeable. the upon the parents marriage takes place at once if the parents will not agree. in fact. but those who remove from ' their homes married into some distant family are called 'relation taken away. she. or his parents is were the prime movers. the bridegroom is removed from his own family to take up his abode close to the hut of his father-in-law. Let us suppose a young couple to have made up their If the young man made the first proto marry.' or distant relations. goes to live with her a if man chooses a woman who all resides at a distance. however. parents of his chosen one and try to arrange for a minds marriage to take place. adopted into his Or. the bride family.140 THE AINU OF JAPAN courting and wooing . if of another. he. it was the young of her choice. he asks his father and mother to call upon the posal. man or. woman who did the wooing and courting.
the very best embroidered and dances.JUSTICE The Ainu consider AND MARRIAGE 141 their daughters to be marriage- able at about sixteen or seventeen years of age. The The men marry when youngest marriage took place register. Should her husband she is always known by the name of her childhood. Then inao are made. Of course. and the bride and her mother pound the millet and make the cakes. have yet seen amongst the Ainu age.looms. at which There the bridegroom's father tells the father of the bride how happy he is with the arrange- ment . It . though not But even in general. seems to have been an ancient custom. garments are worn on this occasion. but not called by her . prayers are said to the different deities. is When own that maiden name. she is merely called So-and-so's wife to say. such as beads and earrings. Then they each give the bridegroom some of their treasures as heir. The wife does not take old her husband's name. to sometimes betroth children. so long as her die. and the women give the bride a few trinkets. retains her one. according to the when the bride's Japanese was sixteen years. about I nineteen or twenty. husband is living. usual feast of millet or rice cakes and wine. and the ceremony is finished up with bacchanalian songs The wine is provided by the bridegroom. likewise the bride's father tells how proud he is. consists of nothing but the The marriage ceremony the bride officiates.
' ' Deer catcher. .' 'Kettle.speaker. Or. Thus Miss Pot remains a though she should marry a Kettle. Good.' 'Chop-sticks. when the time marriage arrived. I believe. and that is jvery generally given between the ages of one and ten years. person has but one name. have been pitched upon. or at least in her village. homes.' Light. again.. we sometimes that such words as 'Pot. as any particular trait of character asserts itself. veto the decision of their elders.142 THE AINU OF JAPAN so betrothed were not absolutely this case the persons bound for to marry. Pot. but if otherwise.' 'Thunderer. or some circumstance may these suggest.' and Or.' ' The good speaker.' 'Ice. and Miss Stutterer will always remain a Stutterer.' &c. and. the parents of the lad were the prime movers in the young lady remained at his home.' ' Bird mouthed. so on.' The stutterer. the parents.' ' The ' dirty one. This will not be wondered at in the least when it is remembered that the Ainu have no surnames. But the curious thing about this betrothal was that the boy and girl exchanged clothes. though she becomes the wife of Mr. until the season if for their union came round. Bright. the bridegroom went to live with the bride's betrothal.' find when names are scarce. ' : Thus we sometimes hear such names as selfish ' The * one. Either of them could. Then.
and. But since the introduction of guns both deer and bears have become remarkably scarce. the animals must speedily become extinct. These instruments consist of in a form a single piece of wood made which very much . The animals have been immoderately and indiscrimibear's flesh or venison nately killed by Japanese hunters. unless something more is soon done to preserve what few deer now remain in Yezo. The Dogs were employed in hunting the deer. The hunters generally carry an instrument with them on their expeditions with which to decoy deer. Many deer were also slain by the spring-bows.143 CHAPTEE XI DEER-HUNTING AND FISHING STALKING deer was an occupation much beloved by the Ainu it . and these were so well trained that they would never attack and kill a deer. Many of the people now hardly taste a piece of from one year's end to the other. even the women used frequently to take part in when deer were plentiful. but stand by and keep it it at bay till the hunters came up and shot with their poisoned arrows. They are called ipakke-ni. Ainu used to take the dogs with them in packs.
being tied round (2). The is illustration shows what is like. three inches broad at the bottom and measures two inches and a half from the top or thick end to the lower edge. face of and blows in at the whilst drawing his two thumbs over the skin. OK DEER either with an awl. the outside edges with fine strings entrails. The person decoying the animals of course keeps well out of sight and to the leeward. there a hole which was made IPAKKE-NI. The noise thus produced resembles the cry of a doe. The at and comes out Over the surface of the instrument a very thin piece of fish skin has been stretched. When the deer is within range shot with a poisoned arrow. This instrument or thin end. The Ainu never made wolf-hunting an occupation. From the thick round end to the is mark in the centre. and then followed up till it drops. or by . The accompanying illustration of an Ainu decoying deer was taken from a Japanese drawing in the Hakodate Museum. and is said to draw the bucks to the place whence the sound issues. because wolves are so very shy and swift of foot. Nor . made of twisted fish When a person desires to decoy a deer he is wets the surface of the skin which the instrument upon the top (1). DECOY thrusting a red-hot nail into hole starts at (1) it.144 THE AINU OF JAPAN the ' ' resembles horsing-irons which are used it in caulking ships. so as to be neither seen nor it is smelt.
never hunt in packs consisting of more than three or set who them.DEER-HUNTING AND FISHING could they often succeed in catching or shooting 147 them . the Ainu affirm. four animals. They are very fierce indeed when attacked K 2 . them with their spring. in their traps.bows for these animals appear to understand these things nearly as well as the A SPRING-BOW SET THE SPEING-BOW people Yezo wolves.
two halves being kept apart by the bar at the bottom (4) is a sliding piece of wood having a notch cut into it . racoons. and which placed in the centre (<) is of the bow . Ainu hunters have very few traps. and so catch themselves (1) is by the Section the bow of the trap (2) is the main frame. for killing bears and deer. stands : This instrument consists of three parts (2) is (1) the bow . or wounded. and when This trap that let is usually set in the step trails of these animals. wolves. From this piece of string (4) another long piece of stout string or rope goes to a tree or pole situated upon the opposite side of the trail or run. or suffering from hunger but will never attack a human being unless under great provocation. it and allows the bowstring to send the arrow into the side of the intruder. foxes. used first. so when they upon a small piece of string they loose. The next trap they are about to be described is one that is used for catching river otters.fashioned but interesting type. the end of which so placed as to hold the bowstring whilst (d). As soon the string as an animal. be it man or beast. touches pulls (4) off the trigger (3) (5). (3) is the trigger. . walking along the trail. consisting of a piece of wood split at the end. the (3) . the spring of the trap leg. but those which they use are of an odd. The spring-bow. which represents the top of the trigger.M8 THE AINU OF JAPAN . a piece of wood which has a is slight groove (a) (b) in the end. hares. is held down by a piece of string (4).
AN OTTER-TRAP (IN SECTIONS) AN OTTEK-TRAP READY SET .
and are pretty certain break the leg of any animal that is so unfortunate as to get caught in one. end of wood (b) placed on a (3). Bows are put up in their runs or trails in the same way as they are set for scale. situated above the bar to it . They are generally secured running off to a tree near by. whilst rats always gnaw is it asunder. The Ainu have various methods of killing rats. as to close the lid so soon as the animal shall pull the bait which is inside. a very way of killing a Another rat-trap consists merely of an oblong box. the head being inside the trap and the . it come down against securely holds the captive by the leg. and extending (5) is the cock of the trap. Another way of rat-catching to suspend a heavy board over some to meat which has been connected for some light mechanism This is allowing sure the board to fall when rat. pulled. to prevent the animals with them.1 5o THE AINU OF JAPAN in (a) which to place and this piece of tie the bowstring. with a bow so placed This trap catches the rat by the tail out. nine inches long. (3) A piece of string runs from the lower bar and passes along under the bow to the trigger. is The lower slit. only on a smaller large The bears and other kinds of animals touch the string connected with the trigger with their legs. bears and deer. and causes the bar (3). so that when an animal where treads upon the (4) string to it loosens it from the cock. middle. to These traps are very powerful.
EAT-TRAP (SET) EAT-TEAP (IN SECTION) .
The hook of Japanese struck. or banks of the perhaps up to their knees in the .152 THE AINU OF JAPAN (1) Figure figure (2) shows the top of the trap already set up. and the march (1) is is is about eighteen inches in length. for they commence to learn to use the fish-spear very early.and the more securely is held. The string (3) at the back is made of sea-lion's skin. so as to keep . The pole to which this instrument A MAREK. more the fish struggles the tighter the it hook holds . and many of the people take great delight in Some of them are very clever at spearing salmon. the fish between the and the end of the pole (2) hence. is Salmon-fishing Ainu. and return by eight o'clock with six or eight fine fish. I knew a lad only twelve years of age. and shows the string inside the trap to which the a very favourite pursuit of the it. When using the march. and is fixed so that. when a fish point enters its flesh it and it is drawn over. who would sometimes start off to the river at daybreak. it. OR SALMON-SPEAR fixed is about eight feet long. the people stand along the rivers. bait is tied. The spear is used by the Ainu for taking salmon is called a march. the make.
and there are always plenty to of people on the watch for the breakers of the law. and always pointed down-stream. One person whilst another strikes the unsuspecting creature holds the lighted torch over the river's bank to attract the fish. They were made in the shape of an arrow-head. too. About the middle of November and the beginning of December the Ainu fish by torchlight. and. and a kind of square net. with a marek. The people used make a kind of fish-trap they to do so. cast have had several attempts at this see a work. I cannot but the Ainu are not allowed to net fish as they like. or tell . are often used by moonlight with great success. which was made to slip up and down at will. the spaces between the stakes being filled in with a kind of wicker-work. Whether they thus of preference. but could never succeed in striking a fish. called urai. but they are no longer allowed These urai were generally placed across the rivers near to the various tributaries. being unable to make out the exact allowance for the refractive power of water. their spears at I salmon coming along. This served as a fence to keep the fish from passing. fish by moonlight out from fear of the Japanese. 153 when they it. whilst over the top was a platform upon which the . At the end or point of the arrow-head a doorway was made. They were made of stakes driven into the river bed. Nets.DEER-HUNTING AND FISHING water. was fitted into it.
As soon as a was seen to enter the net. to which the handle was attached. is fully ten feet in length. and thus the fish was caught. . . fisherman rest in a The top bar left of the net was allowed to notch in the door-posts for its reception. the person upon the platform drew the lower portion of the net up till it met the upper other . and pike are caught with a spear called The handle of this spear is chinininiap. Trout about eight or nine for use it feet long.154 THE AINU OF JAPAN sat. As will from the figure are (1) this spear has two heads to which These fastened to the pole by means of string. fish rested upon the bed of the river. and when fitted up ready be seen it. whilst the bottom part. Various little A SPEAE USED TO CATCH PIKE wicker-work traps are still baited and placed along the streams for the smaller fry. or apniniap.
DEER-HUNTING AND FISHING
are barbed, and consist of two parts
as a fish
point (3) and a bone foundation
struck with this spear, the barbed heads
points of the pole (4),
of the strings (5)
but the fish
which are attached
to the spear-heads
and back part
of the shaft or pole.
a bait or decoy which
drawn along the bottom of the
nothing but a piece of iron wrapped
in blue material
bound on with white bark.
end of this
a piece of white bone
furnished with a
(a), two inches long, made of pieces of bark
and a red piece
following this bait or decoy.
in catching sharks, sea-lions,
swordfishes are like those
a fishing tradition concerning the great
hero Yoshitsune which contains some matters of interest.
Yoshitsune' s henchman)
harpoon the swordfish.
waited for them at the fishing-place.
[The Ainu interpret this by saying that the ancients took their boats and went to the point where the fishing
Their motive was to see beforehand
where the best
might be caught, and
successful than their Japanese friends.]
they came they effectually harpooned a large
THE AINU OF JAPAN
[Yoshitsune caught a fish;
but the Ainu, though
wishing to parade their
this point the fish
caught nothing.] went from one end of the
sea to the other, taking the boat with
[Upon harpooning the
the boat, being fastened
end of the harpoon line, was dragged out to sea, and Benkei was either drawn overboard with the line, or
some other way.] Upon this Okikurumi put forth
wrought with the grunt of a young man.
upon the palms
with temper depicted upon
countenance he said
Oh, this bad swordfish
As you are doing
this, I will
cut the harpoon line
And because upon
the harpoon head there
you shall greatly suffer from the noise of striking iron and grinding bones in your stomach Because the line is made of hemp, a plain of hemp
Because the rope is made of nipesh, a nipesh forest shall grow from thy back
And when you
shall be cast into the
of the Shi-shiri-muka river, of dogs shall
and crows and many kinds congregate upon thee and defile thee.'
[Thus Yoshitsune curses the poor
DEER-HUNTING AND FISHING
Now, though the swordfish said it understood, and thought it was Ainu that was spoken, yet it secretly laughed and went its way. But before it had gone far
mighty pains seized it, and in its stomach was heard the And sound of striking iron and of grinding bones.
forests of nipesh
ing forth from
was cast ashore in a dying and
Then the dogs and crows congregated upon
Okikurumi came down from the mountains
by your own
Oh, you bad swordfish
your own doings
that you are thus punished.
shall be used in the out-house,
Your lower jaw
your upper one shall be sunk with a stone, and you must
die a very
hard and painful death.'
not treat this Ainu tale of the swordfish slight-
[Thus did Yoshitsune's curse take
THE AINU OF JAPAN
consider bear-hunting the most manly,
spend his time.
and useful way in which a person can possibly It was certainly a very brave act to go
and attack a bear with the very poor weapons the Ainu formerly used, and it must have been very exciting.
Think, for instance, of attacking a she-bear, which had
her cubs with her, with nothing but a long knife and
a bow and a few arrow's
quite true the arrows
were poisoned, but the poison takes time before
wound a bear
no small matter at the
best of times.
a good shot, with a trustworthy
a steady aim, and a cool head and heart, runs a
great deal of risk in following a bear.
that a bear-hunt
a great and serious
undertaking, and before they set out they always have a
meeting of the elders of their
village, for the
asking the favour of the gods.
They ask the gods of
the mountains to bring them upon the track of the
they ask the goddess of the rivers to carry them
safely over the ferries
they ask the goddesses of the
springs to nourish
them when they drink
the goddess of
sickness, cook their
and they beg to comfort them, keep them from food, dry their clothes, and warm
they rest upon their
and ask the favour journey, they never forget to worship
of the local deities.
The Ainu say that the Yezo bears spend their winters in holes and caves, and that when they first
in the spring their feet are very tender, so that
time in a torpid
because they come out of their holes quite fat in the
Some say they store up fish and vegetables in others that dens, and devour them in the winter
they eat earth
that, before they go into their
dens in the autumn, they scratch open ants' nests and
trample on the insects, thus causing thick layers of ants
together, to adhere to
during the winter
months, and so keep themselves alive and fat. In very early spring, when the snow is quite hard,
so that a person can easily walk
the Ainu take
to see if they
can find a bear's den.
The dens are recognised by a
of the snow,
to be seen.
slight discoloration of the
in the centre of
which a small
caused by the
If successful, prayers are said,
poked into the
THE AINU OF JAPAN
den to try and drive the bear out
the dogs, too, are set
worry the beast.
Sometimes the bear comes out and
is shot, but at others
nor worrying dogs can
beast, a fire is lighted over the
of the cave,
said to be generally successful,
but not always.
Some bear-hunters say that bruin absolutely anything in its own den. Therefore, if
not come out
requested, in the
mentioned, a brave Ainu
ways above head and face up,
leaving only his eyes exposed,
hands his bow and arrows
to his friends, and, with his hunting-knife firmly fixed
in his girdle,
upon the bear and surprised at angry
unceremoniously seizes the intruder with
The Ainu now
draws his knife and pricks the beast behind, and this
Of course, as soon
as the animal gets outside, a few poisoned arrows are
the critical and dangerous
wrath, furiously attacks
to very close quarters with a
and stands upon
haunches ready to
considered to be a golden opportunity
throws aside his bow and arrows, and, drawing his knife, rushes into the animal's embrace and thrusts the knife
and some. A spear-man waits to be attacked by bruin. told. and allows itself. He keeps the point of his spear covered with a piece of cloth under his arm. during part of the winter and yet requires a good nerve to L . makes a rush it he merely steps back a pace. speared into it and left it there to die. it Yezo bears are more torpid any rate. Some of the hunters carry spears with them . told the writer that some bears their dens will not even touch a if it man when into he enters especially is in the middle of winter. not always that a man can be found brave or rash enough to run into a bear's embrace. But the man who does is this hardly ever gets off free he pretty sure to get scratched. . sometimes very severely. and the animal. because they say they are so quick as to be able nearly always to parry a thrust or blow with their fore-paws. having found it.BEAR-HUNTING home into its heart. fall when its hind legs. we are killed in this It is have been nearly scalped and way. At this time men have gone dens where. in a caves with to torches that at and killed This seems or less . they have had to with their hands to see where the bear lies. to on of An Ainu. whose brother was the great bear-hunter of the district in which he lives. and. prove state. standing upon at him. 161 This kills the beast in a moment. Others the have gone beasts. but they do not attack the animals with such things. on feel account of the great darkness.
The body all. and the viscera as his special property. down and Then they skin sit and cut up. Then they commence ful hunters. not to allow the dogs to is get the heart. the head is decorated with inao. of the animal amongst them When the fortunate hunters return home to their village. and thanks are offered to the gods for rendering them successful. and the old religious symbols. too. to extol the bravery of the success-. a bear has been killed the Ainu and make it their salaams to it. The following a story of a bear-hunt. The man who kills the animal takes the whole head.162 THE AINU OF JAPAN when the master or mistress is at enter a bear's den home. When the skinning is finished. hunt. But if a hunter should have the affair is is turned into a feast of mourning. been killed. for that more affected by the poison than any other part. for the hunters act the whole hunt over again in words before the assembled and admiring guests. originally . the breast. a great feast is made. When is the skin and gall are sold he also gets a little more money than the other divided equally hunters. When admire it it. The bear is divided as follows. and ask for a full description of the This is the great time of the feast. taking great care to do away with all the pieces that have been touched by the poison of the arrows. They are careful. men come in and make a great many and thank and praise the various deities for going with their brave young men and bringing them home safely.
having pleasant talk and long.. i san. Vol. Osarapet. as the fire burnt low. and by the lighted fire. and the talk was becoming lively. Vol. XV. 10. * Methinks it must have been some five years ago. Yayokguru six Noyaush. Gomeki Shimooi. And so we spent the rest of that day in Megayuki' s house. I stretched out my hand and pushed the child under its father's arm. V. and Pinakoro of Sakpet. But it woke at once. Bk. Chamberlain. saw that Megayuki' s old child. and may be found in a Japanese work called ii. that with my neighbours. the nights are So we stayed quietly.BEAR-HUNTING 163 written in Kana. L 2 . Sambas came in from next door. Usaragi of Mopet. with a Japanese translation in parallel columns. so that I knew not what to do. and published L. Satonshige of of Hashnaush. * I fell asleep at last along with the I rest. and was sleeping there. The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. at men. and. and began to cry. on looking round. and fearful that it might hurt itself if it fell in. in the middle of the eleventh month. came in to talk. Now. And when we had gone in there. p. little three-year- had crept to the edge of the hearth. The trans- lation here given is by Prof. Rio. But afterwards woke from the cold. and likewise his younger down brother. on a day when the snow was of falling fast. .. Ezo fuzoku in Pt.. Itarasara of Ush. Esharon. altogether a company of we came sat to the to talk house of Megayuki. though the days are short.
so that we climbed the mountain 1 with joy. which he had received before. Then we ate a meal. saying. snow leaves to-morrow. and all was desolate without. and after it started off to the mountains behind Mopet and Osarapet. all we have to do is to wait for the bear to come. Then we consulted off together. the snow left off falling and the wind blowing. became unbearable as we stood froze." And we waited for the day to dawn. The breath from each man's mouth like icicles and hung from his moustache. So the was relit. and baited the places with dried salmon-trout. saying to ourselves." said our host . all and broiled some dried salmon-trout. quiet. set our spring-bows in trimmed our poisoned arrows. " Come along. we will go bearall hunting. While we were on the way. because the snowflakes were falling as big as hares.164 ' THE AINU OF JAPAN The fire child's crying wakened fell all the other men. He brought forth also some dried salmon. which we had not felt while climbing the mountain-side and working. Our . we'll boil the rice. which he had in store. But the cold. as the snow was " If the piled up ever higher and higher. and we to talking again. and cleared away the snow in seven places beneath the rocks. in barter for enough from the Japanese the year nine men's rations for a day. and were glad at the prospect of fine weather to-morrow. and with these words he took out of the rice-bag. where we order." Then we huddled ' together. " Now.
or to kindle a fire at the them out. but merely shook themselves. and then happen. there came two bears out of with the branch in their mouths to throw it And. all took counsel together. and searched every hole and thicket. and Itarasara disturb the bears. opinions as to whether men were of various were best to go in and drive entrance and smoke them out. as we pelted them with branches of trees and with stones. The snow on our So we heads had frozen into balls among our hair. drawing nigh . were told off to wait in a shelter under the rocks. So they separated from the others. At last . ' to hide and wait quietly. Megayuki took the lead. making our Yayokguru. and kindled a fire. and. in order to bodies feel more comfortable and five of us Gomeki. and hurt our heads so that we could not stand it. and made as if to come against us. But the bears were hiding deep down. out. as the den. As for the other him . we watched. where collected we dead wood. But I thought of a plan. it which was to cut the branch of a tree and push into the bears' den. and hid four. on So the it account of the cold. and warmed ourselves awhile. and climbed up a peak. they became furious. in a shelter under the rocks. the sun rose. We all burst out laughing. Esharon. telling the rest to follow and they divided up. Pinakoro. to see what would So. growling fiercely twice or thrice.BEAR-HUNTING hands and feet 165 were numb with cold. and retired into their den again.
all sorts it would not have gone in. as we rushed hither and of the thither amidst the snow. furious than ever. and at last. But one of them. it. But we. There was nothing So in off more to be done with that bear. But what with feet. and some faced the bear with hatchets and with axes. the deep snow and our care to run far. We were now at our wits' end. our driving . was in vain. numb hands and we did not So some of us climbed trees. pelted them with stones and other more So again we things. ' and under the shadow it disappeared from our sight. and two of the bears ran back again into the cave. distributing our likely to drive out another bear. rocks. all our search. we fled in confusion. and all our consul- tation. Again it " cried we. for all But would not go there. pushed the branch in the den. " 'tis a went back into its den. body from being prepared for behind. If only we had driven it back at once. and made for us with a tremendous growl * One and all. and again retreated and watched. we went to another den.166 THE AINU OF JAPAN again. and tried came round on drive it it in a to to it the spot where the poisoned arrows were fixed. men the way most This lasted for some . espied the place where we all were. of means come anger the bears first whereupon the one that had out of all appeared again to attack us. " Oh oh ! ! pity." to So again we tried . This time three bears came out with the branch in their mouths.
one of the five who had hidden behind the rocks. The from bear was perhaps hungry. Ah now ! 'twas indeed too cruel a sight. rushed round and round in the snow. The bowstring twanged. biting stones and trees to pieces in her pain. and was seen Gently did we draw nigh to her be a she-bear. men stayed with Pinakoro. crunched him with a single crunch. us as we gathered together but the sad part of it . with difficulty. pursued him with frenzy. The wounded beast espied him. showed himself too soon. ' Meantime it was for us. afar. and legs again down. a bear was next suddenly driven out. could reach the place. and it took long to get her to the spot where lay the bait of salmon-trout. and not to nearly tired out. all of Great was the joy of . to her rage as long as possible. and pleasant was the driving of her towards the spot where our spring-bows lay stretched. but she was sly too. it. let who had climbed trees and hidden behind rocks. At last she put her paw upon affright. the other six surrounded and attacked the bear. was soon struck and killed. great strong she-bear that she was.BEAR-HUNTING time. The bear. which. gradually lost falling her strength. and the arrow struck her in the loins. Instantly she started with became furious. large to 167 The place being one famous for its bears. that had been so mighty. while three of the and trying to escape. and Pinakoro fell to the ground before the rest of us. draw nigh and kill her until she should be But Pinakoro. too. now getting on her So.
hood. and carried part of it to the Japanese office. in the midst of our snow.1 68 THE AINU OF JAPAN was poor Pinakoro's death. How aside. 'Twas piteous to see his wounds. and on into the night. suddenly there rose up before us the recollection of of of dead Pinakoro how he had been how. we skinned the bear. where to bury the corpse was the thing we did. took out cut the flesh up. leaving that its liver. all was feasting and merriment. sorry. Then. one in the knee. he would have been drinking with us at that very moment. and treated them to the prize we had found in the through that day. . been bitten in the arm. The absence one man from the feast made it taste nasty to all the . for all that we lifted him up and pressed him in our arms. if in health till noon of this very day things had not happened so. too. the rice beer and the bear's of that flesh lost their delicious savour. getting food and rice beer in reThen we invited all the Ainu of the neighbourturn. His breath was gone. He had broken. and the bone had been There were two wounds in his back. three of them carrying Pinakoro's corpse first and we all returned to Megayuki's house. But. one in the neck. All revels. could ! we not but be for Karinki. as there came over us the thought of his widow Karinki's woe. the sadness which filled Oh ! how cold it was ! And our eyes with tears at witness- ing his lamentable end left us no appetite for our midday all meal. his weeping widow ' However. So our company brought the bear home. and would not come back.
Some of them used bury the poison so. and at last one left. They then soaked some tobacco and capsicums in water. was said to quickly produce a peculiar sense of tingling and numb- ness. and there was not one of us but wept.' The roots were dug up in the spring and ' peeled. It was then again . adding thereto a put to dry. world. but others did not do When an Ainu not. but care had to be exercised in tasting poison.' The poison the Ainu formerly used arrows (it upon their is now forbidden by the Japanese Govern- ment) was made from the roots of aconite plants or monkshood. this is Such is way of the So the joyous feast succeeds sorrow. and put in the sun to dry. and again wetted with the liquor to but this time some of the hunters added a poisonous kind of spider. If good. little foxes' gall. When they were thoroughly dried. and even now an old story. the Ainu ground them to powder between two stones. There is no joy in a feast without turned to the subject of death of how Our talk the father of such-and-such an one had been eaten at such-and-such a time at such another time. first of how At So-and-so's child had died last till the day dawned. then another. . for a few days. none remained the but we companions of to-day. noise.BEAR-HUNTING rest . it wished to know whether his poison was good or he applied a minute particle to his tongue. well soaked they moistened the powdered aconite with the liquor. 169 and we fell a-talking together. When this was.
(2) piece of bone into which the arrow head (3) is fixed. It is capable of holding a good (b) is lump of the aconite. No grease or fat of any kind was used to keep the poison moist. The arrows used to carry poison were made in three parts or sections. ness and sleep. a person should succumb from Too much was said to produce drunkenthe effects. It is The arrow head Figure (a) (1) is made of bamboo. represents the inside A POISONED ARROW of the head scooped out so as to hold the poison. by taking too much. Figure represents the back of the arrow head but no poison represents the is put on this part of the arrow. from which it was very difficult to arouse a person. while (4) shows the arrow up ready for use. for it did not need it. then he . but without the poison.I 7o THE AINU OF JAPAN lest. he dips the head into some pine-tree gum . When first a person applies the poison to his arrows. and the reed shaft of the arrow fitted . two inches long. .
The use of remain firmly in the of animals. when an animal enough. get very home with great glee. but the poisoned arrow heads being barbed remain under the skin. . and hang a piece of fish or venison over bait. for bears. cover the top over with rotten wood and it it leaves. as a Of course. animal which has been shot in this way is certain to be found within a very short distance of the spring-bow. and when they do Some- catch a cub. they bring course.BEAR-HUNTING carefully sticks the poison on. Men have it been known to risk their lives in order to secure one. not only for deer but also and other kinds Ainu used in hunting were very I powerful. for the purpose having a great feast. weak instruments. was killed easily Ainu bear-hunters are very proud of if they can secure a bear cub or two.I and flattens it down with thumb. and. have in my collection of Ainu instruments a bow that The bows the is just forty-seven inches long. Another way of killing bears was to dig a deep pit in their trail. of yew. often used to set spring-bows in the trail Bears are said to always snatch an arrow out of themselves when they are hit. fell into the pit. These poisoned arrows were used. so that there is The Ainu aver that any no escape or remedy. having a bark entwined round The Ainu of bears. to bring up at home. though they look poor. of drunk in honour of the occasion. strip of cherry and is made it. arrow head. his T. and again dips it into the the gum is to cause the poison to gum.
where they play with the children. the feast. But as soon as the cubs grow big and little strong enough to cause a person. or pain when they hug a when their claws are too powerful. they are placed in a cage. thereby appearing to give assent thereto. There are perA BEAR CAGE sons that who these assert bear cubs are brought up by the children . either passed the subject over without a word of denial or explanation. and In fact. at which time they are killed for ^U. bear cubs are treated even better than the children themselves.<Wli-Ji^ two or three years. some of the are cared for with great affection. or else they have stated it to be a fact. for some reason or other. Here until they they remain arrive at the age of ' Uri^g-'Jiy----. The opinion has received much credence because many persons \vho have written about the Ainu race have. strongly made of thick pieces of timber. But no one that I am aware of has .l^l=J*t=^3ZEZZlE:.172 THE AINU OF JAPAN may be seen living in the huts times very young cubs with the people. women so in the same way as but this is not true.
BEAR-HUNTING ever 173 seen five an Ainu woman nursing a bear's cub. their This nuisance it soon cured. for the owner of it the cub takes to his bosom. which the will In fact. When lap its a cub it is taken so young that fed. is from the hand and mouth. and thrust into the animal's mouth. and fish boiled into a soft when a is dish of millet and it pap placed before the cub. not from the fish. Bears' cubs are very seldom taken so young that they cannot lap water. a mouthful of which taken by a it man or woman. soon learns to feed itself. them living with them in their own huts sort. it is at first fed in much same . its fears and loneliness. and it the cub allowed to suck readily do. or very thin paste. At other times made into a kind of batter.. and allows thus dispelling to sleep with him for a few nights. or a millet (often both mixed) are little Sometimes small portions of chewed by by little a person. human little breast. and almost daily During intercourse with. from the lips. it cannot even food. years' sojourn amongst. and millet is it is thus made is to swallow. that by far the greater proportion) no diffi- experienced. therefore. The only inconvenience for is arises from the great noise they make in crying mother. With those. They never care to starve for more than a day can lap (which culty is is or two. I have never once witnessed anything of the nor can I find a single Ainu it man or woman who has seen done.
which it also soon accomplished then learns to take its food from a wooden tray. it is possible that a woman may occasionally have been found strong-minded enough to take a very young cub that is. will come with crowns upon their heads. one whose eyes are not yet opento her breast. young birds. have their Ainu are very low in the scale of some barbarous manners and barbarity has been exaggerated. as also stated. and . villages. However. When place.i 74 THE AINU OF JAPAN as boys in is way step is Europe feed to teach the animal to . the a young bear of the is about to be sacrificed in a feast. and at the it same time feed from the hand and mouth in the manner above indeed. The next lap from the hand. and have an ornament representing a bear's head in . seen the cubs of bears brought up by hand but have never seen one nursed by a woman. is Such women must be very scarce I have often the occasion for them. once a day. The men. for a day or two. will He also invites guests and they are pretty certain come. These are made of the sacred willow shavings. as there be a chance of getting intoxicated. par- ticularly the old ones. No doubt customs but the humanity. . the day before this cruel and barbarous feast takes owner cub sends round to all the people of his village and invites them to come and take part from distant to in the sacrifice. just as their stupidity has been taken too much for granted.
have their hair cut. But this is not the real feast it is merely the beginning. When this is done. which. both necks shaved for the occasion. 175 young and old. wash themselves. women put on their earrings. put on their very best embroidered clothes. I is THE CROWN WORN AT A BEAR FEAST noticed.BEAR-HUNTING front. the the the men in front and women is behind. bracelets. . When these preparations are completed. another . Millet cakes boiled are handed round. their The women get what wine to husbands choose have little . whiskers trimmed. and foreheads and All of them. When are fire is the guests have all arrived. and let Ainu are about to sacrifice a bear. and wine drunk. and two long poles are laid down at their base. looking quite clean and well decorated. and don a new head-dress or bonnet. and sit round fire. they the hut. and there stuck up. give them. the inao are carried to the nusa place outside the hut. enter As the guests arrive. The women and children The they too come. and beads touch up their tattoo marks. numbers of inao made and them know stuck in the hearth then the goddess of requested to take that the them to the different gods. sometimes very indeed.
made not to pass round the neck and und*f it the foreleg. so as to choke the animal when BLUNT ARROWS struggles. when the bear comes out of the cage. one on each form a ring and sit clown. and this passed over the head in the same way. whilst the younger people stand. and. The two men lead the poor animal round and round the ring whilst the people shoot of the people at it Then the ancients with blunt arrows. and comforts it with the consolation that large numbers it. and try to work the bear up into a passion. side of it. it is led along by two men. and catches the victim's head in a rope having a noose in it. Another noose is is then made in another rope. excepting that the end of the rope comes out on the opposite side of the bear . hopes it won't be angry.i 76 THE AINU OF JAPAN to the bear. sitting is Ainu goes it down its before it. of inao and plenty of wine will be sent along with Then another Ainu goes The noose is to the bear's cage. The shouting of the people is . He ' craves pardon for what they are about to do. thus. tells \ that it about to be sent to forefathers.
their might. One is by the under its placed of its and the other upon the nape neck. it another suddenly rushes out and seizes Then another man rushes forward with a round wood about two mouth. Then two others hind-legs. This causes the animal to open its mouth. ground in the centre of the ring. is When driven tied the animal shows signs of exhaustion.BEAR-HUNTING quite deafening. Now beast all the people rush forward. in a like manner. Then comes the test of valour once some brave young Ainu will and bravery. whilst by the hindThese men both pull at the animal with all quarters. come forward. As soon as the animal is dead. brought forward. It is And so the^ poor chofred to death. bites hard at this. Next. it is skinned and cut M . catch hold of the two has been done quite laid satis- When all this the . a stake into the to it. and the poor animal tears and rages tho- roughly tired out.two long poles which were nusa are throat. and seize and holds its fore-legs and pull them out as far as they can. in its rage. 177 and the rage of the bear furious. this he thrusts into the bear's The poor it beast. two men tight between its teeth. factorily. feet piece of long . All at rush forward and seize the poor brute by the ears and fur of the face. indeed a brutal scene. and it is Now blunt arrows are shot at it with double till vigour. will. one on each side of the bear. each eager to help till squeeze the poor animal is it dies.
During all these days some of the men are But enough of this revolting cruelty and . eaten.'78 THE AINU OF JAPAN but it has to be carried into the hut and laid before the east window for two or three days before it is up . dead drunk. debauchery.
and weighs a over one pound.' whom they fought with their war-clubs and spears. guru. in which to put a stone or some other heavy substance to render the instrument more weighty. made Piratori their capital. and three-quarters deep.179 CHAPTEK XIII AINU FATHERLAND AND GOVERNMENT ACCORDING to some of the Ainu traditions. and eventually exterminated. All the Ainu do not claim Piratori as M 2 . Wherever they went they met the Koropok upon their arrival in Yezo. some going one way and some another. The handle measures three inches and the club end seven inches and a in circumference. It is It is of Ainu feet made of yew. The front part of the club has notches cut six inches whilst on the back of it down its face. long. wherever they originally came from. one wide. their capital. An ancient Ainu war-club is in my collection implements. Thence they gradually separated. the ancients. a hole has been cut seven inches long. half. and is about two little very strong. It would prove no mean weapon in the hands of an expert. or ' dwarfs.
. Aputa their and Yurap. but the Southern Ainu. the Kusuru Ainu to Assuru. Usu. SHOWING PLACE FOE THE STONE ANCIENT WAR-CLUB Saru. particularly those of Moruran. others that they were driven from the south by the Japanese inhabited Japan. Some say that their forefathers came down from the north. say that ancestors came from Piratori and other places in ANCIENT WAR-CLUB. Ainu to Ishkari.i8o THE AINU OF JAPAN The Northern Ainu point to Apashiri as their chief and the Ishkari city. but all say that the ancients formerly The Ainu do not stand alone in this diversity of .
The names of the of Kurile Islands. tell Again. unless we came from a Certain is that many of the Ainu customs resemble those of the inhabitants of parts of Siberia. and he final was upon any 'subject. origin. Piratori certainly always consulted before any great undertaking was entered upon. and has much It ice and snow in it. chikap sak ' country which they designate Nitai i. Manchurians.e. and Kamschatka are Ainu pretty clear also that the Ainu formerly had dealings with the Eussians. which very cold indeed. for some persons who are not of this race imagine that the Ainu are of southern origin. Others have brought the extreme into court to hairiness of the Ainu be of Aryan descent. He was held the post of commander-in-chief during war. was once the chief place in Southern Yezo. For why ' so much it hair. whom they called Eushikai.AINU FATHERLAND AND GOVERNMENT 181 opinion as to their original fatherland.' say they. and the whom they knew by the name Manchu. show that they must Those Ainu who speak of the point to the profusion of ' north as their former home ' their hair as a proof of their northern origin . and the head of that place or town was held His word in special dread and was particularly revered. When . is Saghalien. in the south. originally and that over our whole cold country ? bodies. for instance. Nowhere worshippers . us that their ancestors came from sak. do we find bear- but we do in the north. ' moshiri a land without forests or birds is a land say they. some of the oldest Ainu a.
hardly credible that the ancient Ainu could far for have travelled their sons the purposes of war. have been the chief centres by barter. still later. canoes. to be seen in the It is may still Specimens Hakodate museum. because could not stand even a moderately rough sea. Japanese in Japan arid. The river canoes or dug-outs could never have been used for warlike purposes. must then have been waged with very near . and with the Japanese only since they were subjugated by them. and we have never seen or heard of any stronger sea-going craft. Ancient Ainu wars countries. for his people. and barter has been carried on with .182 THE AINU OF JAPAN men and sail trading. of life. as well as In later times. and return with many necessaries ornaments. the chief of Saru used to take his thence to Saghalien and Manchuria with skins and fish. The Ainu traded with the Manchurians when they were at war with the Japanese. of trade in this island. since the Japanese pushed their way into Yezo. Kurile Islands and Saghalien. cash is Manchurian the only relic of Manchuria to be found amongst the Ainu of the present day. trade with northern countries has been broken the off. Siberian dog-sleighs and skins. Hakodate and Matsumaye. made of seal and sea-lion and which were be seen in the of these are used in trading with Manchuria. though would have us believe that they visited their many canoes distant lands with this intent.
When the men are paddling these A DOG-SLEIGH canoes along. foot ten inches It is twenty-one is feet long. for they could not possibly carry any cargo. dog. tightly waist. We cannot believe that such light vessels could have been used for fighting. and one wide at the top. and there is museum the model of a canoe with two fishermen it.AINU FATHERLAND AND GOVERNMENT The illustration 185 represents a canoe brought from is Shekotan in the Kurile Islands. especially But in trading. round their This is to keep the water from getting inside and swamping them. The first is four feet four inches long and thirteen . in the Such canoes were used principally for fishing.sleighs were used. which is securely fixed to the hole they sit in. with the people of the north. made of the skin of a sea-lion. in preparing to harpoon a walrus or sea-lion. and It is paddled along by three persons. Nor were such boats used for trade purposes. they always tie a piece of skin. and which now in the Hakodate museum. formerly Two in kinds the of dog-sleighs which were used Kurile Islands may possibly represent those used in ancient times by the Ainu of Yezo.
falling over when travelling but the passenger used to travel with his feet over the A SLEDGE sides of the sleigh. and eight inches broad. feet The runners for are five feet six inches is but the seat the passenger only two seven inches in length. These snow-shoes are somewhat clumsy-looking things. long.1 86 THE AINU OF JAPAN It inches broad. He was shod with immense sandals or snow-shoes. The other appears to have been intended for passenger transit. Each shoe seven inches consists of a single piece of seal-skin. so that he could not only prevent himself from being capsized. seems to have been designed for carry- ing food or articles of merchandise. wood neatly covered over with five feet Their dimensions are . One wonders how a person could possibly keep from in such a small conveyance. drawn by reindeer further north. as the following picture will show. but could also assist the dogs in Of course these sleighs were pulling when necessary.
we are informed. All trials took . together with the made the laws and sat in judgment upon the It was the duty of the principal chief to lead the people to hunt and to fight. in conjunction law-breakers. 187 and seven inches and a half in breadth. or at marriages to ratify the marriage covenant by his assent. was always supposed to be present at a funeral to bury the dead. and chose a chief and two state. and. The chiefs. sub-chiefs to look after the affairs of the people. the Ainu never had a monarchy. thus making each village a kind of The elders of each village independent republican assembled. fishing place to visit the sick . According to ancient traditions which are still more or and certain customs. to point out to each person a garden plot . in case of his absence. and to cheer the young couple with his good wishes. to settle disputes to pronounce sentence upon the guilty. with the sub-chiefs.AINU FATHERLAND AND GOVERNMENT in length. one of the sub- A SNOW-SHOE chiefs. people. and to see that such sentence was duly carried out. and . The principal chief or. to see to the proper division of the land . by means less They are fastened to the feet of a skin thong. but always divided the government amongst the inhabitants of the separate villages. adhered to and practised by the people.
and the dispositions of the judges and people. Beating with a stick or war. sometimes the nose was in cut sometimes the ears. the greater the punishment. since they thought that no punishment at They thought that only the infliction of pain or disgrace was worthy of the name of punishment. his judgment was void. This mode of government is still sometimes practised in secret fact that the by the people. they never favoured the death penalty. The Ainu had various methods and degrees of punishing offenders. their though this mode was Misdemeanours and : accompanying punishments were such as these For breaking into the storehouse or dwelling offence off.club was the most common method of punishing offenders. which were regulated by the different misdemeanours committed.i88 THE AINU OF JAPAN place in public. Persons who had com- mitted such a crime twice were driven bag and baggage out of the home and village to which they belonged. unless the assembled elders of the people assented to the decision of the chief. more severe the pain. Thus the was marked and disgraced for life. notwithstanding the all Japanese have taken away semblance of power from the Ainu as a race. and. and some cases both the culprit nose and ears were forfeited. often superadded to other kinds. of another. deposed their hereditary chiefs. I have seen a man and a woman they were husband and . a very sound beating was administered for the first . However. and set up creatures of their own in their places. and the all. for the second.
as he hung. for ever HANGING BY THE HAIR For breaking the seventh commandment. last that They are most probably the very will have been or . just touching the ground.AINU FATHERLAND AND GOVERNMENT w jfe 189 who had been treated in this way for breaking into a storehouse. be hereafter thus treated in Ainu-land that of dead. give illustration. leaving the toes. him a severe beating. however. The female . for Japanese law now reigns supreme. it used to be the custom to tie the hands of the male offender behind his back. something after the manner indicated by the and. the Ainu to all intents and purposes. and is. then hang him up to a beam by the hair of his head.
e. when they can do so secretly . to He was unable to walk. and was obliged his hands. he was always supposed to plead guilty or not guilty. This is probably intended for Siberia. as we have seen. for a person so treated could not possibly do any work or hunting .IQO THE AINU OF JAPAN was generally allowed sound thrashing. For murder it was customary to cut the tendons for the re- of the feet in two. thus maiming a person mainder of his the heels. in disgrace. The Ainu. in for a Sometimes. chikap sap moshiri birds exist. he was ever dependent on his relatives for the necesI have seen one old man who had been saries of life. however. however. of course. Sometimes. to offender go free. where there is almost perpetual and snow. life. certain ordeals were applied. ordeal. in move himself along upon which he held two small blocks of wood. they were generally made to marry immediately upon being found out. When a person was charged with a crime. and in that case the guilty one was banished for ever to a place called Nitai sak. and would not confess his crime. 'the land where neither trees nor is and which described as being a very and dreary place. though. the tendons of a murderer were spared . The tendons were severed close to This was a terrible punishment. If he was proved guilty. so punished.' cold ice i. she also came If the culprits were single. still resort to trial by and without being found out by the Japanese.
man who has raised her ire. their cursing consists in uttering imprecations against a person. mangy deer one about to die of old age.' next 'leather-like. This cursing is not an invocation to the gods for harm pray or injury against a person. a hairy thing. a vocabulary which means to blaspheme ' . I believe. and unseemly for the expression of her wrath. and for vengeance upon the objects of her hate and angry fury.CHAPTEE XIV FEAR OF ANGRY WOMEN AND TREATMENT OF THE SICK THE way is in is which an Ainu woman can curse when she simply wonderful. or using profane language. and unable A very young ' man little she will call tontoneppo.' and then 'wild ' boar. unclean.' and lastly bald-pated. for for Ainu women never anything . and in calling him bad names. which means. for the Ainu are ' not addicted to this evil habit. an angry woman will an old is. quite toothless to run. it is true. and no trick is too mean. shunuma-ush that a very aged. nor is it what is commonly called swearing. word in but their They have. call Thus.' A middle-aged man she will call hokuyuk .
THE AINU OF JAPAN
a man-eating bear
but the worst term of contempt a
apply to anybody
Besides calling the
men hard names, Ainu women
have other means
of venting their spite against
instance, peep at
their backs, put out
their tongues to the
utmost extent, and
about, and otherwise act in a
too indecent for
Now, Ainu men are dreadfully afraid of
not, indeed, so
that they fear their
hard words and ugly looks, but they dread their actions. Two things they particularly dread that the women
their religious symbols, or offerings
to the gods
and that the women
Angry Ainu women have been known
hide away or burn their husbands' inao.
The men are
particularly afraid of this kind of sacrilege, for they fear
that the gods, not being able to find their accustomed
offerings, will think they
be led to
have been neglected, and thus cease blessing and extending their favours
and perhaps requite them by sending
especially in the
some calamity or trouble, madness or paralysis.
gods cease blessing any Ainu
neglects his inao, but his
then loses his
and people fraternity, and
FEAR OF ANGRY WOMEN
An Ainu who
looked upon by
and friends as an
in a Christian land.
Perhaps the worst
can be applied to an Ainu man, and that which most a person deeply wounds his feelings, is inao sak guru without inao.' Such an one receives no share of fish, and
flesh or venison after a successful hunt.
take part in the great national bear
and thus misses a good chance of getting drunk. He becomes an object of hatred and an outcast.
Hence, an Ainu greatly fears an angry and revengeful
especially if she be his wife
with his inao, and so bring disgrace
and ruin upon
know a man whose
her husband's inao.
course she was
but this appears to be what she desired.
was looked upon with the utmost detestation, and was much feared and susconsequence of her action, she
also fears to
too angry, lest she
should go to a grave, exhume a corpse, cut
the flesh, and, after having put
a piece of
in the pot
with the stew, cause him unwittingly to eat
filthy practice has,
are told by the Ainu, been rehappily, not often.
sorted to by angry
curious that no punishment appears to have
thought that the
of so religious arid superstitious
THE AINU OF JAPAN
a race as the Ainu would not have nerve enough for
religion is all
on the male side
women have no
and hence, when they
are angry, fear neither gods nor men.
the Ainu, until within quite recent times,
to do without the aid of medicines,
and special household
pended almost entirely upon prayer to the gods, and upon Nature for recovery. Now they are attended by
by the Government. However, there are a few herbs and other remedies known as medicines by the people, which they prepare
in cases of sickness,
and these remedies
persisted in by
to the present day.
for instance, a
person takes a very heavy cold, they dig
and drink a large dose.
Failing this the
particular plant, they take a decoction
roots of the wild parsnip, which are also said to be good
In cases of diarrhoea, soup
the seeds of docks
considered very effectual. The dock seeds are gathered and dried, then beaten in a
they are well threshed, pounded, and
cleansed so that nothing but the flour remains, the flour
taken and boiled
A good dose soup. For some complaints
becomes something like pea this is said to work wonders.
usual to administer a decoc-
steeping black alder bark in cold water.
TREATMENT OF THE SICK
For toothache a
nail is heated to white heat
for a few seconds.
held on the affected tooth
said to kill the insects
origin of the malady.
which are supposed to be the For a slight cut the people chew
burdock leaves and
them on the wound
but for a
scrape deer's horn into powder and
into the cut, or, failing horn, the whiskers
or bristles of whales are scraped fine
and put upon the
In cases where a person has been scratched or
scalped by a bear, the
washed with fresh
water, then the scalp or skin
place and sewn together with hair or a fine thread
of bark, after
which powder made by scraping deer's
horn or whale's
put along the seams..
accidentally poisoned by
an arrow, the spot
touched by the
immediately cut out, the
place sucked, then washed, and horn powder put
broken, the bones
are merely set as well as possible and bound up in rough
Of course there are diseases which cannot be touched by any of these remedies. When, therefore, a case becomes desperate, the elders meet together and pray to the goddess of fire and the Creator to remove the disease
and heal the
this is not all
supposed to be the work of the devil or of some
reason, to expel the evil spirit
THE AINU OF JAPAN
a person can be expected to recover. But how shall this be done ? Evil spirits and ghosts are thought to be very
afraid of the smell
kind of wild
roots of this plant,
The Ainu, therefore, dig up a few chew them in the presence of the
and then expectorate all over his or her body, and all round inside and outside of the hut. While some are expectorating, others are blowing over
and upon the
considered that this
ceremony has been satisfacan orthodox manner, and the evil
out of the body, the
thither with knives and swords, expectorating the meanwhile, thereby driving the evil one out of the house
It is often
supposed that the people are possessed But this kind of possession is only thought
to take place
when the person
has sold himself
by some wicked act. I saw a crazy woman once who was tied up in a temporary lodge and there kept, being fed daily by the people of her
or herself to the evil one
Every now and then the Ainu went
expectorated the juice of convolvulus roots at her and
around the lodge, and prayed for her. This woman got well in time, and so she has become a standing witness
of the efficacy of this
people desire to keep
some contagious disease away from they will pray, chew the convolvulus root,
TREATMENT OF THE SICK
and march round the whole
sword in hand,
expectorating and howling wildly.
a person desired to
the reason of his
malady, he sent
for a tusu-guru,
a medicine man,' or
This wizard goes to the house of the anxious one,
and, falling into a sort of trance and working himself up
into a kind of frenzy, tells
the disease has
what demon has sent
makes some charms
These charms were
worn by the
back the god of health.
the sick one to take.
to find out the causes of illness, to
the ultimate result
whether a person will die or get well again. When a person prophesies, he is supposed to sleep or otherwise
prophecy or divination
then thought to enter into the heart of the prophet, so
that the subject merely becomes a tool or mouth-piece of
not even supposed to
what he himself
and often the
listeners do not
understand what his words portend. When in the act he generally of prophesying he is in a fearful tremble
breathes very hard, and beads of perspiration stand on
his eyes should be open, they have,
The burden of prophecy sometimes comes out in jerks. fetched from a village about five miles I went into the hut to see the poor woman after dark in the evening. when he has finished. Everything he sees. The poor woman who was afflicted was quite unconscious. Nor is a good . attentively listening to what is being said. is whether relating the past. off. and it was expected every moment she would and a Word was quickly sent round to her friends. He sees mind. wizard. It that in which I believe. spoken of in the present tense. who happened to be her near relative. present. The prophet beats himself with his hands. or future. But no person can prophesy just when he pleases he must wait till the spirit seizes him. and the prophet is This spirit of often resorted to. drink of wine always required . but more often in a kind of sing-song monotone. he opens his eyes with a stare and presents a very exhausted appearance. we were was a case of sunstroke. silent and solemn. is fully believed in prophecy by the people. Old men grey beards may be seen with tears in their eyes. One of the most solemn scenes of sickness I have witnessed among the Ainu took place in the hut next to living. is When a prophet prophesies. . and.i 98 THE AINU OF JAPAN time being. No with heard but that of the prophet. but lost all for the nothing with to the power of sight. absolute silence voice is observed by the people present. but contemplation and prayer are absolute necessities. was die.
This was to drive out the demon of sick- There were also many men is present.TREATMENT OF THE SICK 199 She was lying upon a long stool near the fire. earnest look. ness. having done children. believing themselves to be able by this means to from leaving the body. and giving vent to their feelings by loud lamentations and much weeping.' This disease is supposed to be sent especially by the Creator as a punishment for wickedness. Many women. pans. The Ainu think that sickness from the Creator pression of result of ill-will a direct punishment arid the malignant of the evil one revengeful exit that is the visible sent by their ancestors for an envious woman's ghost. Thus. paralysis goes by the name of kamui irushka tashum. they were holding the patient with their hands. and tubs. At her head stood the wizard. swaying to and fro in the fervour of his excitement and earnestness. 'the sickness of the angry god.' some- . all of whom were engaged in prayer. keep the spirit Some of the women held lights. nitata were standing round her performing what they call that is. Madness is a complaint demons delight to inflict upon people who. have become their very Madness. I shall never forget his flashing eye and friends of the sick one. while others turned out the pots. at the same time blowing upon her with their mouths. and swept the hut clean from end to end.side. or a punishment some wicked act done by the person afflicted. ' many wicked acts. prophesying and praying.' or 'possession by demons.
as though as to it it had a very large had been gorging itself. and that a person kills one the evil spirit will depart from the snake and enter into the heart of him therefore it who kills it . As soon master of the storehouse its was killed I invited the come and look he assured at it. particularly the women. demon ' or ' devil. as the snake was killed on his premises. These reptiles are said to have a special spite against women. requires a brave Ainu to kill a snake. hence the fear in which said that if and will. The Ainu if believe that snakes are demons. are remarkably afraid of snakes. drive them mad It is women hold them. also snakes catch any man take sleeping out of doors. On one occasion I was asked and saw that it to go and kill a snake which had got into an old man's I storehouse. On examination we ! had swallowed a large rat The Ainu was dumfounded and angry at being thus rewarded or found that it punished for his greed. bewitch them and . snake ' thus being a convertible term with. stomach. and when he saw if great size me that of it I would but make a post- mortem examination I should find great treasure inside.200 THE AINU OF JAPAN name of ' times goes by the possession by snakes' ' . Many a time have I been sent for to act as snake executioner. they will enter his mouth and up their abode within him. . which treasure. if they only get the chance.' The Ainu. found it. would belong to him. and a synonym ' for.
But the evil one ever the enemy of gods and men succeeded in frustrating their designs. though short. wasps and stinging ants. for if you will . according to others. mosquitoes and gadflies. that.TREATMENT OF THE SICK The deities 201 once determined to drive all snakes away from Ainu-land because they were so harmful to mankind. in the forests. are said to have originated from a huge serpent which the ancients killed. as he expected. -The followit ing legend. having once tasted frogs. This serpent was of an extraordinary length. so they made up their minds to migrate to ' another country. will no doubt explain a most satisfactory manner." Hence. only just swallow one of therefore there is my legs you will be satisfied no necessity for you to go away. and asked him to do some very hunting wicked deed but the Ainu feared his gods and would not It . told Thereupon the serpent. And so it happened Ainu became one hundred years old.' According to some. instead of swallowing him that. hearing of their : determination. But the evil one. consent. snakes have ever since had the desire of swallowing them whenever they met with them. entered a frog and made it say to them " Why should you leave this country? Stay here. and. he when the . him. all in Once upon a time there was a famine among the snakes. and very beautiful. he should not die for a thousand years. as a punishment. was in the habit of swallowing whole One day this monster met an Ainu who was villages.
However. as it He was not able to die. poor man! . . but.202 THE AIXU OF JAPAN shed his hair. this wicked serpent was at last cut to pieces decayed. teeth and skin. and became This happened every time he reached a voting again. hundred years. whiskers. stinging ants issued forth from its remains.
which there appear to be two reasons. are exceedingly vague and uncertain. or child. be tell it a messenger burial is sent to all relatives man. and the body is laid . possibly bring back the warmth and life The second reason the for lighting a blazing fire is that the viands of Directly after clothes. and friends. and a good is thought. and have no hope Directly a person a brighter light upon the scenes beyond the grave. The because coldness and death are looked upon as fire.203 CHAPTER XV DEATH AND BURIAL DEATH among their ideas the Ainu is an event life full of dread. its death the corpse dressed in best which are neatly laced up. They cannot bear to think of look much afraid of it that they much less talk about it. woman. of the may body. at fire farthest. or as soon after as possible. the next day is A blazing made immediately before death. as of the future are so it. generally takes place the day of death in the evening. for first is. for or. is dead. They and most hateful enemy of to buoy them up and to cast upon it as the chief mankind. death-feast is may be cooked. it one and the same thing.
its such as beads. to be very pleased if they can get hold of a white garment in which to bury their dead. his well-filled tobacco-box and pipe. a deceased religious feast partaken of. On one occasion I saw the corpse of a woman all laid out. Why this is I have failed to . particular playthings are set beside In all cases many inao are made. an iron saucepan (of Japanese Ainu do not work utensils. his quiver and flint bow. besides being well dressed and having the particular utensils it and ornamental paraphernalia about which (the beads and rings were. and they are often so numerous as to fill the whole hut. lifter a knife. and her eating nicknacks and special and necklaces. her little make. and placed about the hut and body of the dead. The assembled sit and friends of the round the remaining parts of the hearth. and several have asked us for one. and wine to be drunk. The crowd is great because prayers are to be said. which. In the case of a child it. bosom).2C4 THE AINU OF JAPAN mat by the right-hand side of the relatives lengthwise upon a fireplace. by his side. was shod with pieces of white wife my The had. a and steel for striking fire. rings. are brought forth. for the in iron) and drinking treasures. If a man has died. in this case. laid upon her calico. and a few eating and drinking utensils are laid If a woman. a moustache or two. and sometimes an old sword. given to the dead to woman's husband people appear bind up a wounded foot. a few days previously.
She also specially charged with various messages. as who use white as mourning.DEATH AND BURIAL learn . and the remainder hidden of the millet in the ashes . and not the former to is living. extolling the virtues of the dead and setting forth his praises. women. it The corpse. millet cakes and wine are handed round to offers men. then drinks a little. as an offering to the fire goddess. spirit is millet. and pours what is left before the fire. the goddess worshipped. Then part cake is eaten. as an emblem of purity. My own world or impression is that the correct. and each person then two or three drops of the wine to the spirit of the dead. and that the Ainu desire their dead enter the future the world beyond the grave in white. just we do black the only difficulty with the last sup- position being that the dead are clothed in mourning. has a cake made of of boiled rice. and is these being properly arranged. surrounded with the necessary eating utensils or hunting materials. and children alike. or a cup and some sake placed by its side. as soon as is properly clad and laid out. or may be it may that white is regarded as a symbol be that the Ainu have taken the idea from the Japanese. The supposed to eat and drink the essences of these of fire things. She is asked to take charge of the the spirit and lead it safely to Creator is of the world and possessor of heaven. Next. though the material parts remain the same. all the time muttering some short prayer. 205 but it of purity.
say from two and a half three and a half feet deep. so that the interior of the grave is hollow. an eating and drinking . nicknacks. and placed before the east window. In every case cup. tobacco. and . which are not always the best the departed possessed during the grave.2 o6 THE AINU OF JAPAN upon the hearth. a few beads. the things. As soon as these ceremonies are is finished. fastened to a pole. and over these and upon the bottom mats are neatly placed. a ring or two. to The grave having been dug. in the Then the corpse is laid grave. each person burying a little piece. corpse in single file. A tub of water is usually carried to the grave. the corpse call a toma. however. pieces of wood are placed so as to form a roof over the whole . a pipe. are broken before being placed in all When the body and the other things have been well covered up with the mats. cups. a saucepan. and then upon this roof the earth is piled. After the burial of the corpse these remnants are collected together and carried out of the hut. and knife are put in with the men and playthings with the children which are now more often brought away again than buried. carefully rolled in a mat. life. carrying some little article to be buried with the corpse. The mourners follow the the men leading each. which the Ainu neatly tied up. and the women . and carried to the grave between two men. a how and some clothing are buried with quiver. stakes are usually driven all in round the inside.
TOMBSTONE OF AN AINU MAN il .
wen iku. feast. and bears. It is a fearful sight to witness these to and heart-rending see and hear the distress of the people. drink. is then knocked out of the tub and the remnants laid at the foot of the grave close to a post that is set up" to The grave is usually covered with spot. yet they never bury without placing a pole. and the water is left is thrown upon the grave. The tombstone marking a man's grave is made to represent a spear. as to point out to a chance hunter that a burial has taken place there. and to prevent mistakes. at the foot of each grave the spot. wen ibe. When this has mark the been done the mourners return to the hut of the inao. The Ainu have a great a person as soon as he is desire to forget all about buried. though the Ainu tell me they intend . wolves. a large quantity of wood and bushes.' Not ' bad. for is mark not so much to remember the deceased no writing whatever is inscribed thereon. but because the occasion of the feast bad. by. because it is bad to have such a feast is . eat. where the men make This feast is called and get helplessly intoxicated. which for the sake of convenience may to be called a tombstone. deceased. pray.DEATH AND BURIAL when that 209 the body has been interred. those who have taken The bottom part in the ceremony wash their hands. however. which are said to keep off the foxes. the bad drinking and eating. This. indeed. being a death and burial ceremonies.
and a hole burned through it. he little may see the tub in which the water was brought for the their hands. and they generally bury far away in the mountains. and say is just an old custom handed down from very ancient times. Whether there not I cannot any special tell. Their ancestors made tombstones like these. and the tub slipped over the has not been cut The top it of the pole like a spear or oar has been merely rounded off that are set up at the graves of of this shape. men to wash The bottom has been knocked out pole. men and boys are all of The posts set up at the graves the same pattern. as the engraving shows clearly. . and nothing more. was the chiefs duty to seek out a burying-place and to attend to . but it it for is certainly much more like a spear than an is oar. If the reader the engraving. meaning attached to this or The Ainu I have asked about it it know of none. women and The poles all girls are The Ainu have no cemeteries. The piece of of cloth which hangs from the centre of the pole is the head-dress of the deceased. and their successors do the same.210 THE AINU OF JAPAN a boat oar. In the illustration here given a woman's tombstone is shown. wife of The person over whom it is placed was the the man and mother of the girl who appear in was the woman's head-dress. and the cloth which hangs from the top of the pole looks closely at the bottom of the pole. Each person chooses Formerly it a spot for the body of his relative.
much afraid of the ghosts of the dead. 211 The people keep their graves as secret as being. them.DEATH AND BURIAL the funeral. possible. o 2 . like the members of many other bar- barous races. They visit the graves only upon exceedingly rare occa- TOMBSTONE OF AN AINU WOMAN sions. Thus Ainu places and the graves quickly become quite indistinguishable from the forest around of burial are very soon forgotten. or under very great pressure.
When to a man lost his wife was the custom for him have his hair cut short. as of course sometimes must they talk with a hushed voice. or a child that of is parent. ' Thus death ' is called ' 'sleeping. and use a figurative and round- about phraseology. . Perhaps this is the reason a woman is never takes the its name of her husband. and hands. and is given to a Japanese hero. but as soon as her husband dies she is always known by her maiden name. Widows and five widowers were formerly supposed to remain single years. While her husband living. If he and felt her loss very much. that is have heard only of one.' overcome with ' deep going. he would sometimes show his intense sorrow by plucking out a great part of his hair and beard.' Even death person's name to when overtakes him.' be forgotten not. I There are no posthumous names. hair and necks and foreheads shaved. and therefore not properly Ainu. and to remain indoors as alone as possible till it much had been fond of his wife. but now some of them remarry much more it quickly.212 THE AINU OF JAPAN Whenever the Ainu find it it necessary to speak of death be. and wearing a forlorn and dejected appearance.' a gone away.' ' leaving is the world behind.' ' resting. On the occasion of a funeral the men generally wash their faces cut. a woman called So-and-so's wife.' is sleep. grew decent again. and burial. have their beards trimmed.
bearing upon subject. This shaving of the head must have been a painful process before the Ainu got Japanese razors. remain indoors as much as entirely Not only was she supposed to possible. prove of interest here. A WIDOW'S BONNET which the author wrote in 1887 to the Church Missionary Society.DEATH AND BURIAL A woman. and when they used sharp shells for the purpose. which her head shaved she puts on a widow's she is obliged to wear during the whole period of her widowhood. A. As soon as a woman has bonnet. had to have her head clean shaven. but as soon as shaved off any length she was obliged to have it This was to show her great loss again.M. got and sorrow. upon the loss of her 213 husband.. and keep herself by herself it till her hair grew long again. on March 7 I was called into an Ainu hut to see a sick child who was supposed to be . A this short letter. * may The death of a little heathen child in this village a few days ago suggested to me the idea of forwarding to At 9 o'clock. These are generally made of thick Japanese cloth. and have a hole left in the hinder part of the crown for ventilation. you the following facts.
a cold March wind blowing at the time. I was asked to do what I could to check the disease. As child's age dying. suffering there was no doctor within thirteen miles of the village. The result was marvellous. and I found it from acute bronchitis. so that the child EXTERIOR OK THE HUT IN WHICH THE CHILI) DIED slept immediately afterwards for nearly an hour. and then was able to take some hot bread and milk. I it immediately had the child placed in a hot hath. But. being it in a perspira- tion. upon its awakening. . the fond but foolish parents allowed its the child to have own way. and gave an emetic. and in convulsions. actually took almost naked too near an open window.214 THE AINU OF JAPAN The was four years. and.
and I took the see the parents and mourners. As I could do nothing more * for the child I returned to our child home to rest. and gift of life eternal to the faithful redeemed. of the Christian's hope. This but the second time I have been allowed to enter an Ainu hut when the hand of death has been upon any of 1 its inmates. helplessly drunk. God grant that some of the seed sown may spring up and bear ! fruit to the glory of * our blessed Saviour I These few facts then would leave to speak for themselves. One old man was calling upon the goddess of fire to help. of a future I spoke to them on the subject of the day of resurrection and judgment. and the is child died. and floor about all over the of the hut. were most of them.' At the time of the death of this child all the women were weeping and howling most pitiably. but. Nevertheless. alas men and women lying scattered too. When the child died there were some fifteen weeppresent. The next day the opportunity of going to that I might speak to was buried. if and threatening never to worship her again she did not . I was at its death. ing women and twenty praying and howling men The uproar was very great. as there were some six or seven sober men and women among them. but I earnestly desire to ask for the prayers and kind sympathy of all praying Christians. ! them I found the hut full of people. and the despair of the parents heart-rending to look upon.DEATH AND BURIAL The with result it 217 was a relapse.
2 i8 THE AINU OF JAPAN Another person was keep warmth in the child's body. looking out of the east window and accusing the goddess of fire to the Creator of not attending to her duty. scolding and threatening. facing the south-east corner of the hut. and. and deserved never to be was indeed a painful scene. was telling the guardian gods that they were an entirely bad lot. It occasions. I have since repeatedly seen similar praying and weeping. A third was in a towering rage. . going on in other huts on like worshipped again.
the do so upon the very is occasion that oppor- tunity given. at length confessed to me that the fear because a person had been buried there I some time before. and he was also exceedingly anxious that I should not go either. The chief who accompanied me . believed the spirit or soul of the dead to live on. Nothing I could say would induce him to go near the place. especially if the spirit will to be the ghost of a first woman. spirit is supposed to haunt the grave in which has been laid. in common with all others of his still race. found that he strongly objected to go near a particular spot not far from one side of our path. found out that the Upon making further inquiry idea prompting him to avoid the grave was that he. when taking I a walk in the forest with an Ainu chief. and also its immediate surroundthe body ings. he reason was fear . but also. After a great deal of questioning and coaxing. and not only to have the power of bewitching the The mind and doing bodily harm to any person whom it should discover near the resting-place of the body.219 CHAPTER XVI GHOSTS AND THE FUTURE LIFE ON one occasion.
the man who accompanied me would by no means come within twenty-five set . whose portrait appears was in the At another time.220 THE AINU OF JAPAN of Piratori. when old I visiting the grave of an woman whom I had previously known. was Penri engraving. to see if I CHIEF PEXRI could find any inscriptions on the pole that had been up to mark the place of burial.
after the death and burial of the body. and even enhanced. Their actions speak even louder than their words. inquiring into ideas which moved the people to act in this manner. but stood that distance away. The water and inao were the antidote against. and acting intact. and that the beating and brushing with inao was to drive away ences and diseases she may have aimed rective of. the evil intentions the spirit is all evil influ- at me. That man own mother's Upon several returning to the hut. and their words explain their action s_ . ghost. the of women. and the cor- supposed to have directed towards me out of her wicked spite for trespassing on her domain. and directed me with was afraid of his his voice and hands. my ablutions the women commenced Upon me and the brush me down with inao. The Ainu admit this without any doubts or questionings. seeing. looking at these facts and peculiar actions and ideas. What is their purport ? What is the underlying principle ? We find one fundamental article of religious belief at its very foundation viz. belief in its the existence of the human spirit. Now. together with water to the door. we ask. with capacities for knowing. I discovered that the washing was to purify me from all uncleanness contracted at the grave through contact with the ghost of the deceased. willing.GHOSTS AND THE FUTURE LIFE 221 or thirty yards of the spot. brought a bowl man. and Whilst at to beat requested me to wash my face and hands.
and children are particularly afraid of them. caused us to be close friends of her death. but. I soon found very fond of out her weak point. Not only so. Some if of these ancient dames are and if veritable old witches one offends them . or ghost. they are against a person the too. quite contrary to set all my previous experience.222 THE AINU OF JAPAN An Ainu fears nothing so much as the spirit. call tor. now and things straight. of a dead female anceswonderful what an amount of power for evil the ghost of a deceased old woman is supposed to possess. till the day She must have been more than eighty her son was a grey-headed old man. However. for The Ainu assert that in years long gone by the ancients used to burn clown the hut in which the oldest . tobacco. and could not tolerate the presence of either Japanese or foreigners in an Ainu village. She was a very conservative old dame. but afterwards found out that it arose through the influence of one old woman. again repeated. strange though it may seem among such a people. had a remarkably sweet tooth so a handand a small packet of tobacco quickly put sugar That small consideration. men will be found to be so When that all I first went to a certain Ainu village I found the people. were puzzled at this . the oldest in the village. years old. it It is really which you please. and ful of She happened to be . I was very much against me. even before death old women have a good deal of power over the opposite sex. soul.
its and its time in a towering rage searching for but. together with their whole families. and hatred. the gardens. She would curse the labour of hands both in the all house. and eventually slay all the people and their children. Eventually the spirit . is malignant supposed to wander about for a prey. but she would cause them to be unsuccessful in the hunt. So vicious and illdisposed are the departed spirits of old to be. and the and fiendish intentions. make life a weary burden. kill all fish. For this reason. therefore. out of envy. bewitch her offspring and sons- and daughters-in-law. and. malice. and bring upon them various noxious diseases and many sad calamities. of former domicile . its The soul having been thus cheated of designs frustrated. in which an old woman had its and it the principal idea being that the soul. stop the fountains she would blight and springs of drinking water. when returned from the grave to exercise diabolical spells.GHOSTS AND THE FUTURE LIFE woman followed of a family 223 had died.and salt-water prosperous. This curious custom was spirit because it was feared that the of the woman would return to the hut after death. course. women supposed they said to and so much power for evil are possess. and the forest their crops. to no purpose. send the people great distress. them childless. Not only would she render them unthe fresh. would be unable to find objects of its hatred its former residence. the ancients used to burn lived down the hut died . and render their .
indeed. if the spirits of old women are so viciously disposed towards their progeny. be- lieve in metempsychosis. belief of pantheists. and are vested with so much power for harm. The Ainu do not. This is the and the Ainu are in no sense panI theists. I find I . the lifetime of had happened a few times during some old men I knew. and woe betide the person bold or unlucky enough to venture near that spot ! One would have expected that. This custom of burning down houses has long since been discontinued. like the Japanese Buddhists. It is true. that the spirits of the dead are theoretically feared as of to-day do not see much as ever. to forget that they ever They bury the bodies and try had a grandmother or mother- and never go near their graves. but was by common the Ainu consent. to the grave returns. the Ainu would endeavour to appease them by constantly offering but the people do libations of wine and inao to them . but the custom It has died a natural death. No command was it given by left off the chiefs to cease house-burning. or the transmigration of souls. this very rarely indeed. however. but great polytheists.224 THE AINU OF JAPAN and dejected. defeated whence it came. nor even mention the name of the dead person. make the statement that the Ainu do not believe in the trans- migration of their souls into some other beings. When. in-law. but why house and home should for that reason be destroyed. either into higher or lower orders of being.
and hence we find that none have been converted to Buddhism by the Japanese. The living fully no more pain. or of venison or bear's flesh. The Ainu do not believe kill when they a mosquito or a flea or an earwig. parent and child. will be seen. does he consider that very possibly he is thereby devouring his deceased father. They believe that and wife. but there will be or sorrow. will be rejoined to one another after death. and will never inhabit any than a human body. that the 225 The people do will believe human spirit will have another home in a living be exactly like the This. That body present. for the soul supposed never to have had any existence before entered the other that human body. expect to have . though perhaps not really the same. to conceive of They seem men and women as living in large com- munities in the other world in the same the way and under husband same conditions as they do in this. is a very different thing from what geneis it rally understood by metempsychosis. excepting that they can know no death.GHOSTS AND THE FUTURE LIFE must make a qualifying remark. and that there will also be marrying and giving in marriage. nor when an Ainu eats a fish or a fowl. or ! mother. but those of animals also. or death. Not only do the Ainu believe that the souls of human beings will have a conscious and personal exist- ence after death. is it body after death. a piece they thereby slay or injure their grandmother. or child This creed does not suit the Ainu. uncle or aunt .
and consider themselves tial to be the natural and substan- people. just as we do of them. Once upon a time there were two young men who were devoted friends. the dogs are able to is when a ghost about.226 THE AINU OF JAPAN bodies in form exactly like the present. them they canus when they pay us a to and can hear what we . They think of us. live for ever. address us though they cannot and our ghosts can likewise see and hear say. to the lower world. if and some of us in the we make up our minds. in fact. their dogs and other animals. The following story illustrating these notions of the Ainu with regard to the future world was told me by an Ainu. But the curious thing about these people who life live a beyond the grave is. but cannot them when they go themselves heard* discover make Nevertheless. can make a call on them same capacity. and when they scent one they set up a tremendous howling. "When they come to us they are and when we go Their ghosts can see invisible to our eyes. not see us. to live in houses. visit. and altogether they expect to have a very material existence. they are happier than we. eat and drink as now. their hunting and fishing stations. that they look upon persons who have not yet crossed the river of death as ghosts. However. They will laugh fully and talk. and will They can visit this earth in the shape of . to have their daily work to do. They had heard it said that the * . ghosts whenever they desire to do so also.
whom he thought to be his friend. Beautiful forests of trees. On entering the cave. that to say. while he came to a village and saw many persons he had "during all known in the upper world is life. he might go and see what that land was like. As he was journeying back he met a man. was a splendid country.GHOSTS AND THE FUTURE LIFE 227 entrance of a certain cavern in a rock led straight on to anyone had courage to take the journey. way and that with evident The dogs. so that he could not be quite sure. On addressing . set perplexity. up a grievous howling. his Even fled his own father did not know him. too. After this reception himself. he gave up attempting to reveal and set out on his return to the upper world. and rivers lands. the stronger grew the light ahead. he could at first see nothing but thick darkness. ill. The man had a weary. wonder. of reeds and grass. and the people said he was a ghost. But as he proceeded on his journey he discovered a speck of light straight in front of him. it was somewhat dark in the passage. and was carrying a bag upon his shoulders." He and endeavoured to speak to them. with the brightest light. and all mother away in fear. and the darker became the cave behind. haggard look about him. filled At length he came to a most magnificent country. However. opened out before of sparkling water divided it up the lowAfter a Altogether. The farther he went. but they began to look this fear. and mighty plains him. One of the young men determined to go and if the place of departed spirits. and visit the place.
got rid It was only after he emerged into the upper world of living men that the refuse offered him could be of. So. of the ghost. He was very angry at having such dregs offered to him. It they feel disgusted is Besides. alas ! he found him dead. that the world of the departed a ghost from the upper world. and it endeavoured to knock all away .228 THE AINU OF JAPAN in great fear. We it ought to treat ghosts with respect. . him he rushed by the lower world. just as that man felt when the foul stuff. Without doubt it was his departing spirit he had met in the passage to the lower world. inhabitants of that country offered him such to this do the ghosts feel when they come lest earth of ours and are treated with the dregs of our food. but the filthy stuff it. and he could not get rid of try how he might. entered. he immediately set out for his friend's house but. and sped swiftly towards On reaching the cavern by which he . when the dogs on one occasion discovered in us. and set the refuse of their food outside the east end of the hut for the ghost to eat. Upon including the father and mother they set this the inhabitants. how do we know whose ghost it ? may be the spirit of our parent or child. made offerings of inao. say the Ainu. only flew into his bosom. with us.' Another legend upon the same subject throws further light It tells upon the Ainu idea of the next world. for Therefore all we The know. up a great howling. behoves us to be careful.
The following is another Ainu legend about visiting Hades Once upon a time there was a man who had ' : two sons. and heard the sad news. found the entrance. and general property to be divided equally between the younger brother and himself. The elder brother stayed at home and enjoyed himself. and pursue his journey to Hades. but the younger took his quiver and bow and set out to find the passage by ^yhich his father had gone to the lower world. he commenced the He walked so quickly that he soon arrived at . his death he called his eldest son to him. he would leave his treasures. the wicked elder son took the heirlooms and other property to himself. few days after his father's death the younger son returned home. but espe- cially the wicked. Now it happened one day. which waxed so hot that the brothers separated. sorry but. 'Having descent. and would not divide them equally. head and representative of the family. Upon this a great quarrel ensued. ' A . and told him that as he was about to take his departure from this world. the father died. heirlooms. as his father had commanded. when the younger Just before son was away from home. worse He was very all than all. He as said that all the things were left to himself only.GHOSTS AND THE FUTURE LIFE 229 Ainu fancy that the ghosts which come from the nether world have the power of bewitching and otherwise harming those to whom they take a dislike.
ghosts are when it so desires. there a distinct reference to the act of presenting libations of wine to the ghosts of deceased ancestors. people and fine houses.' is In this legend. and so he set to to find a work way by which he might At last what he As a desired to know. ! there a ghost to present libations of wine to him." . the dogs of his father. they lived happily side by will side in the same village. Then the younger brother returned to the upper world and reported what he had done and seen and heard. but not make himself learn seen or heard. he thought of a plan. The dogs is barked at him as he went along. It also states that a ghost is is able to possess a person to say. and tried to speak could his parent.ying to one another. This greatly distressed him. asked it he had left his property in the upper world. why should he not enter into some for village. till he came house He entered the hut. about there must be a ghost about. That supposed to be able to enter . Thereupon his brother begged his pardon and and ever since that time divided the goods with him .23 o THE AINU OF JAPAN full of a large village. and he heard the " Oh people sa. They then began On and on marched to the the man. his father mouth and tongue. how So he entered the heart of a borrowing his man near at hand. all The father made ' answer that he had divided equally between his two sons. and make him speak him ? member of the He would try. and. to still barking. ghost. it be seen.
and place them at the sacred spot outside the east end of the hut. is tions of wine to ghosts. both spiritually and intellectually. they are supposed to possess no souls. are full of great and irreconcilable contradictions. It is extremely difficult to believe as regards the future. and would give them a place and office in the great hereafter. Women are generally considered quite inferior to men. what they really do as some appear to hold one thing and some another. and either positively assert that they can affect total ignorance of life. though only on a limited scale. and this is sometimes stated as a reason why women are never allowed to pray. though very seldom indeed. with whom life. it is and regular custom. Ainu ideas concerning the future of their and especially women. and once or twice the women little also. and indifference to the matter. go out of their huts with a wine and food. By some. but is on nothing like so large a scale as the ancestral worship a fixed of the Chinese and Japanese. have sometimes seen the men. like those of many tell other half-barbarous races.GHOSTS AND THE FUTURE LIFE into the hearts of people 231 and act through them at when they please. as offerings to the ghosts of their male ancestors. that a custom still prevailing I at the present day. to A few of the men seem honour their women in the present life. This might be it called a modified form of ancestral worship. have no future or but others again profess to despise them. . and speak As regards offering libawill.
Though most men life state their belief in a future for the women as well as for themselves. yet there appears to be but one definite article of faith on the part of those who would grant to woman a future life. for. This article of faith is thus set forth by the Ainu: 'Men and women increase are placed in this world simply that they .232 THE AINU OF JAPAN also They are thought not to have sufficient mind to grasp the traditions of the ancients. They do is all they can to appease and are particularly them before they die. Ainu. and afraid of any person who supposed to he possessed by an old woman's ghost. they very greatly fear the ghosts of their departed grand- mothers. but that they might a future world is increase and multiply here. and stand in constant dread of their anger even whilst conciliate living. hereafter. and so are never taught them." The gods did not and in live in create human beings to destroy them. as all we have seen. wife and a woman world to the same husband hereafter as for in the . may and multiply and replenish the earth hence the world where men and women dwell is called imre moshiri. And yet the actions of the men emphati- cally contradict their words. the women and children as well as "men." A man will have the same now . "the multiplying world. That future life another world for the for i.e. and all of them distinctly indicate by their actions that they really believe the spirit to survive even when the body has completely decayed.
and from which they can little it draw some comfort. yet in the future world he wife. and had a long chat with her upon various common subjects. The fact that the Ainu women are never taught any is prayers or even allowed to pray is very remarkable. at least of the Ainu of a believe in a What will become is man's second or third wife is not stated. We stayed in the path. or have a twice or thrice during his sojourn great number of concubines.' Thus do some future life for all. and though often asked to marry again she would not. or any sacred subjects upon which heart and mind can feed. As a proof of this he said she had her husband. stating as her reason that she could not bestow her affections upon another. and that she was only waiting for the time to come when she should rejoin her lost loved one. It sad to think they have not the consolations of a religion of their any kind. can have but one and she will be his first. however may be. nor the place of concu- bines known. After she was gone the Ainu confided to me the fact that that particular woman was an excellently lost good one.GHOSTS AND THE FUTURE LIFE come all will 233 be paired off. As I was once walking in the forest with an old Ainu. Though a man may marry upon earth. That some of the women believe in a future of joy in life is company with their husbands and children evident from the following incident. Even . we happened to meet a woman from a neighbouring village.
We therefore think with our ancestors that it is wiser to keep them from praying. and take part in all religious exercises to but our wise and so. that The women as I ' whom well as the men used to be allowed to worship the gods . that the very likely the true explanation. quite seriously and in confidence.234 THE AINU OF JAPAN upon those exceedingly rare occasions when their husbands send them to the east end of the hut to offer libations to the spirits of their ancestors.' . and what they repeat cannot be The words they properly said to constitute a prayer. that they pray ? use are merely these ' : ye honourable ancestors. as this spirit that formula shows. or no in the future world. belief that they The reason they never pray to is not a life have no souls pray for. women An old man was once speaking on this subject said to me. and more particularly against their husbands.' Thus the Ainu women simply. make a they have brought it statement telling the little a present. The very curious reason commonly is given for this fact viz. Nor do the women worship the gods and they can take no active part in the religious feasts. excepting to provide the food. men are afraid of the prayers of the in general. I am sent to present this wine and food to you. to and their wives in particular. honoured ancestors forbade them do because it was thought they might use their prayers against the men. . can it be said They are specially told what words to use at those times.
I a have often talked to the people about somewhat complicated it. it More- is a logical and intelligible reason. prayers for vengeance or when a man prays get none. and it the definite beliefs I have come across respecting as follow 1. or the intermediate obscure. believes in various gods who hear and answer prayer is he is aware that his wife . in contradistinction state. over. the place of god. they live for ever in a . morally better than the In this connection we may glance at Ainu ideas of Heaven and Hell. The Ainu . and he recognises the is fact that his inveterate his fear drunkenness the ruin of his family. They are afraid of for wine. of This subject is naturally very nature. state of those to who Hades.' or the world of god. : are The place to which good people go ' after death is called Kamui ' kotan. her prayers are very likely to prevail against his.GHOSTS AND THE FUTURE LIFE This idea irrational. 235 may appear at it first sight stupid and full but in reality is consistent and in accord with the principles of the Ainu religion. Hence of the prayers of women and . meaning by Hell the future place and die in wickedness. the and his wife that he may woman being man.' ' and Kamui moshiri. wives. and lead to his coming short of that which he loves so much. the kingdom of god.' When persons go to this place. not treated so well and lazi- kindly as she ought to be he knows that his own ness must be compensated by the extra labours of his wife.
but upon going there the tory. which go world of misery will be wet. is called Teinei-pokna-shiri. . is People in heaven do not of The Ainu notion heaven therefore not the Japanese Buddhistic idea. This power they frequently exercise. or the intermediate * state. however. All are agreed that a place where the gods have their special home. Hades. consist of the spirits What these to Ainu do not pretend to this say. Heaven is hy many Ainu considered it is to be above us. and they ever take a lively interest on in this world. Hades. and peace to those who are good and kind. is called PoknaAll moshiri. though some think it is spirits. lose their personal identity. spirits the first underworld. would absorb every person into the deity 2. supreme happiness. is it is of a not stated). are told where and what to do.236 THE AINU OF JAPAN of state earth. which are always spoken of as possessing a body exactly like the present one (though whether spiritual or material nature to go 3. Though far away from they can see us. which itself. Gehenna. in all that is going They also have power to send punishments upon those of their families who misbehave themselves.' to this place is or 'the world below. not generally believed to be a purga. and all where men who do that which is good and right will go when they leave the world. it though others think is below. hell. or ' and that means the wet underground world.' The wicked punishments But the are punished in this place.' go when they leave the body.
and to see that none go into the better world clandestinely or in a surreptitious manner. Should the spirit deny having done any wrong. to direct the spirits on their journey. the fire is goddess of summoned. has now to proceed to Gehenna for punishment. at the doors of which gods and men meet it and lead it inside. sent through the goddess of to go. its evil a message having been received concerning it deeds. yet never able to die another that they will burn for ever in the fires which exist in the centre of the earth . a watch- god informs that he has received a message from the fire. passes it down to the centre of Hades. All along these third roads start roads there are watch-gods placed at different points. In the centre of Hades there are said to be three roads. The first leads from the earth call upon which we ' and which the Ainu Kanna-moshiri. is that is they will be frozen up. for ever hot. 237 One idea . the upper world. it spirit is belonged to a person who did evil during informed that. and others 4. life Creator. one leading to heaven and the other to Gehenna. this road All spirits go when they leave the body. and very cold for ever. If the life.' to the centre of Hades. If it as to where it it is has done good during passes along the road to heaven. and she causes a great . by The second and from the centre of Hades.GHOSTS AND THE FUTURE LIFE uncomfortable. thus some will be for ever cold. live. spirit As soon as a our earth from the ' upper world ' that is.
for the fire goddess has a perfect every word and act the spirit ever said or did is while in a body upon earth. and there picture of no escape. I have never heard any others being put forth by the Ainu and these. .238 THE AINU OF JAPAN life picture representing the whole of the spirit to be placed before it. Thus the spirit stands self-condemned. The above are the only articles of faith concerning a future world that I have been able to collect. . I know. they teach some of their children.
perhaps. is. deeply is philosophical contemplation which sometimes seen among the devotees of Buddha in India. have never entirely emerged from the lower or polytheistic This is. a curious fact. as a nation. and Theism the first is the most natural. and believe in the existence of gods innumerable. and is most probably. Even the Japanese. is a very different thing from that steady. the three natural religions Polytheism. Of viz. This is only what might be exfrom such unphilosophical. the reason almost always found or semi-civilised why polytheism among the barbarous. it behoves us here to remark. The Japanese. that this nation has a great love for speculation but the speculation of the Japanese. or actually lived that unpractical and well-nigh impossible . uncivilised. the religion who have had an religious belief. the home of pantheism and esoteric Buddhism. thoroughgoing chilpected dren of Nature as the Ainu show themselves to be. seeing . enlightened civilisation for ages.239 CHAPTER XVII AINU POLYTHEISM THE Ainus are polytheistic. have never universally accepted pure Buddhism. Pantheism. races of the world.
the eight myriads of deities . the religion indigenous to Japan.24 o THE AINU OF JAPAN of the devout believer in life pantheism as taught in the Buddhistic religion. For the most part teaches subjects to be loyal to their emperor. indeed. are spirit of not Bhintoists. spirit of it Kurohanguwan Minamoto no will be remembered. indeed. however. Shintoism. The Ainu. one another. unless. this religion is still and inasmuch as of the people. respectful.e. and inasmuch as until quite recently the people practised the worship of the Uviny emperor as well as the spirits of those departed. loving. believed in by some and so is not yet defunct. inasmuch as Shintoism ' speaks of Ifacliiman Senna ' i. And. it is true. who. parents to be kind to their sons and daughters. it dogmatise about a future state. children to be obedient. polite to all people to be mutually considerate and always Yet. was driven to Yezo by his elder brother in the twelfth century of our era. written or among who have made any special inquiries respecting the subject. appears to be a generally received opinion those persons. whether Japanese or foreign. be that of Aioina kamui the Ainu say was the ancestor of their race. when we call to mind that there is a . we must say that the Japanese have not entirely passed out of the polytheistic stage of ideas respecting the Godhead. They do not worship the it any f human who It being. and dutiful to their parents. that the Ainu people are in the habit of worship- ping the image or Yoshitsune. does not.
they mean not that people as a nation. though not often. Piraand Piratori the lower. These two villages Q . a good degree of foundation in fact. there are two Piratoris. tori the upper. worship either the spirit or image Kurohanguwan Minamoto clearly understood that. writer of these lines formerly shared.AINU POL YTHEISM little 24 1 shrine upon a cliff at the village of Piratori. In the first place. con- taining an idol representing that great personage that some Ainu residing at and immediately round Piratori itself actually tell inquirers that some of their number do at times. no Yoshitsune. viz. after having spent many months in the village of Piratori at the very doors of the shrine in question he has been obliged to change his opinion. The not. in following facts tend to prove that the Ainu do commonly received meaning of of the term. in The with common many ject. worship at the said shrine and when we note the recognise the fact that most of the Ainu men name Yoshitsune then we see that this generally received and constantly asserted opinion has. others. or at least very considerably to modify it in regard to this as well as many the other subjects connected with the Ainu. apparently. Now. but only those of Piratori. it is not even asserted that all the Saru Ainu worship him. the generally received views on this sub- but after long residence with the people themselves. but merely a few individuals resident in the Saru district. Again. it must be when persons say the Ainu worship Yoshitsune.
was built about ten years ago by a Japanese carpenter resident at a place called Sarabuto (Ainu. Besides this. Previous to this there was also a Japanese-made shrine on the same spot. again. It is just such an idol as one might expect in this case. shrine all is it should be noted that the present decidedly of it Japanese make and pattern : in respects see is like the general wayside shrines one It may anywhere in Japan. and we find that It is clear. do not at the present day deify that hero. San-o-butu). not even ten persons out of these families really worship Yoshitsune. nothing more. is furnished with a pair of fierce-looking. seeing that Yoshitsune was a warrior. but a much smaller one. that the Ainu. Then. The a idol in the shrine is both small and ugly it is representation it not so much of a god as of a warrior. The shrine is of Yoshitsune (and there is but one shrine in Yezo) at the upper Piratori. con- sidered as a race or nation. is There too small for a person . but now are situated from a quarter to half a mile apart. the person in question. tell and the inhabitants inquirer of the lower village will an that it is the people of the upper Piratori who worship village Now. for is dressed in armour staring and eyes. and has a horribly broad grin.242 THE ATNU OF JAPAN were once united. then. the upper contains only thirty-two huts. and the shrine to enter. . the Ainus is have treated the image to an inao or two.
is would appear that but it not the Ainu worshipping Yoshitsune. or ' at least suffered to lapse. or stand with The image . Tokugawa regime so runs the In the days of the tale the Ainu were ordered by the Government. to cut their hair in the Japanese fashion. the position of the shrine of Yoshitsune does not ccme up to the acknowledged requirements of the Ainu ideas of deity worship. Hence the custom of huts with the principal end facing the east.' say the Ainu. The result was a great meeting of the Yezo chiefs. which ended in sending a deputation to beg that the order might be countermanded.AINU POLYTHEISM Now. a very con- servative people. Such a may appear far-fetched. ' we could not go contrary . Again. to the Q 2 For. the fire alone excepted. either Yoshitsune worshipping the Ainu. their reputed are. according goddess of building all 243 to Ainu ideas and usages. in any case. speaking from analogy. of Yoshitsune is But the shrine placed in such a position sit that the worshippers would have to their backs to the east. in many things. command The Ainu Aioina Kamui. but. or the conclusion Ainu insulting the Yoshitsune. of Yoshitsune is looked upon from the east it hence. it is necessary to turn to the east in worshipping God. and in the matter of religion particularly Note the following incident. the Ainu say that they would not worship an idol because it would be directly against the of ex- pressed ancestor. so. or rather by the authorities of Matsumai.
did cut their hair as ordered. we have for a long time been subject to the it has been to as Japanese Tono Sama and Yakunin.244 THE AINU OF JAPAN customs of our ancestors without bringing down upon us the wrath of the gods. so as not to them much bring down trouble did upon come among our ourselves. As we know that Yoshitsune ancestors. You know. itself. what would have been done to prevent the institution of idol-worship? Notwithstanding all this. and our interest that we should try to please as possible. a few Ainu. particularly those at Mori. a mere change in the fashion of cutting the hair was resisted. officials it nothing would please the to think that was thought that more than for them we really worship Yoshitsune.' This statement was taneously and matters. but.' says he. If. What is the explanation ? first An Ainu * himself shall answer the ' question. And so it came to pass that the shrine was asked for and obtained. viewed with other things of the speaks volumes. much .' And though off. and that there is justice obfor the . for one law Ainu begin to see there is now but both peoples. there is still the fact to be accounted for that some Ainu state that Yoshitsune is worshipped by a few of their number. made to the writer quite spon- confidentially. the people as a whole were let then. who was himself a Japanese. it along with many it other Taken by might not be worth sort. though very seldom. fast The spirit here unwittingly shown is happily dying out.
with a most benign grin. 245 Nevertheless. as regards nomi. the spirit above life exemplified has been a real factor in the of the and actions Ainu people. both he and many others were else always ready to do so. He accounts phenomena by referring each of them to one centre. The and as pantheist. An Ainu me one day. that he did ongami (salute) Yoshitsune's shrine ' or idol . providing find the sake I some one would Nor are the Ainu in any sense pantheists.' neither he nor any one that he knew did and. believing as he does that God is All.' The Ainu and this is are delightfully sharp in some told things. by looking upon them as mere pulsations grand common of the life of the great All. such pervades everything and that all is everything believing things both spiritual and material came from Him in the beginning.AINU POLYTHEISM tainable even by them. being a thorough- going polytheist. reaching almost from ear to ear.' The word used by the Ainu is ongami. secret of the second question turns ' The upon the ' meaning of the word worship. But the Ainu. one of them. person. the ceremony of offering inao or libations of wine to him. sees a separate deity in every single . and the meaning is to bow to/ to ' salute. but as for otta inonno~itakt praying to that so . and will again return to all Him in the end endeavours to account for life the different phases of and motion which he sees in things around him and for these feels to be in him.
of be it that of a plant or an animal. own life is thought of as separate from the life of God. Hence. or an angel. By so doing he thinks to attain unto an evernothing- unconscious serenity and quiescent The Ainu religion has nothing of this. On the other life hand. the pantheist believes that. of fish. and peace. he shall at length. he hopes by-andabsorbed into deity as entirely as a drop of water ocean. the earthly continuance of that tirely life is dependent on the will of God.246 THE AINU OF JAPAN in Nature. an Ainu looks upon each separate kind of in itself perfect as each living unit dental power though on a transcenconfessedly dependent a power outside of and above itself. as we find the pantheist looks life. upon every kind and degree of a reptile. to live a a life personal conscious apart from God of joy. mighty Nay. lasting ness. and to maintain for ever his own . man. may become mixed up if cast into it. or bird. happiness. concerned. in by to be conformity with these principles. His is as a complete individual unit. He hopes. as part the great universal All a mere spark. en- Nevertheless. a the Divine strict fire of the incomprehensible All-life so. a god. life when the body dies. in a world beyond the grave. with and lost in the so far as after he himself is having passed into and out of innumerable bodies and lived through many long cycles of ages. therefore. phenomenon He finds a special god in every diverse operation in the universe.. so to speak. merge into God.
and proper personal identity. He believes, in a with David of old, that in God's presence (not in
fulness of joy,
are pleasures for evermore.'
be seen that these people have never
sunk so low in the
but they, like
to such exaggerated lawlessness as to divide
Him up indefinitely and Him both a good and an
one absolute Lord of
but to assign to
detract from His perfect greatness.
Hence, instead of
of a great variety of
rulers, with various dispositions.
good and bad gods
gods both of the masculine and also
of the feminine gender
gods to be loved, honoured, and
others to be hated, feared, and avoided.
war and gods of peace preside over storms, and another to bring
They have gods
one power to peaceful, calm
deities of the sun,
separate gods to take care of
moon, and stars the land and the sea,
dales, lakes, ponds, springs, water-
There are gods of the clouds and rain, thunder, lightning, and fire. There are special gods,
again, to preside over vegetable, animal,
gods of each village, town, country,
gods of the heights and depths
heaven above, in earth below, and in Hades
under the earth
gods, again, of health
THE AINU OF JAPAN
gods, in fact, for almost every con-
at first sight
Ainu consider that there
of all the others,
One God towering above and to whom all
responsible, for they are His servants
Ainu consider the government of this world be carried on by the gods, who reside in the forces of
Nature, in the same
kings and their
as countries are governed by
be readily understood that the Ainu do
the objects they call
applied to beings
are conceived of as having
the most diverse natures, some being good and others
some benevolent and ever ready to bless, and others malignant and seeking for an opportunity to
curse with pain and misfortune.
This naturally leads
us on to a consideration of the Ainu word
the special objects to which
kamui, which appears to come from the same root as the Japanese word for God, which
The Ainu term
In the most ancient times of which we have
any knowledge, the form of the Japanese word was ramu, which is still nearer the Ainu word ramui. In
of opinion that the
Japanese borrowed their
word kamu from the Ainu kamui.
place in which to discuss such a matter
weighing such evidence
as could be obtained,
we have formed the opinion
Japanese owe their word
an Ainu source.
meaning, just as it he who,' or that which,'
and taking stands, we
however, we trace
'greatest,' or 'best,' or 'worst.'
to be preferred, because
the simplest, and
does not require to be referred back to another term
be the best.
two meanings are taken for both or be taken both alike are found to be akin to
the word for
heaven,' and that in
we catch a glimpse of the Ainu mind when he first coined the
have looked upon him as
the great overshadowing Lord of
At the present day
this word kamui is used very has various shades of meaning, which
used before or after another word, and according
mountains of God,' and so on, when they intended to
give the idea of
So the Ainu speak at the
THE AINU OF JAPAN
mountains of god
winds of god
or for a
flower of god.'
So, too, for a
Ainu sometimes say face man they would naturally
hears by the
god/ and a good and holy
accordance with this we also find the people calling
animals of god.'
must by no means be overlooked that the
well as such
evil diseases as small-pox,
devil also, as
have the same
term kamui applied to them. In such cases as these it is evident that we cannot use the English term god'
cannot be translated in those cases.
to be very like
the Greek word daimon, for that also
a careful analogy
when the term
applied to good objects,
expresses the quality
of usefulness, beneficence, or of being exalted or divine.
"When applied to supposed evil gods, it indicates that which is most to be feared and dreaded. When applied
to devils, reptiles,
as a prefix to animals, fish or fowl,
applied to persons,
pressive of goodness, but
respect and reverence. As, therefore, the Ainu apply
such a variety of objects, both to the greatest and highest
good, and also to the lowest and most malignant evil
gods and devils,
not surprising that very
mixed up with
mingled with their theology, and that
and remarks concerning God and religion are contradictions, at one time high and sublime, at
another gross and repulsive
sented as a material substance, and at others as a spiritual Being,
and now as
shall not be surprised.
formulate his creed of
would be something
rate, almost every Ainu would assent
to the following
items as a concise
believe in one
supreme God, the Creator
worlds and places,
the Possessor of heaven.
Kotan kara kamui,
kara kamui, kando
and worlds, and
Possessor of heaven."
believe in the existence of a multitude of lesser
one Creator, who are His
and power from Him, and who govern the world under Him.
believe there are
as well as good gods,
THE AINU OF JAPAN
are ever ready to inflict
I believe in
Aioina kamui as our ancestor, a
and who has now
the superintendence of
the Ainu race
in a goddess of the
in a goddess
in goddesses of the source, course,
in gods of
in the gods
in the gods of the sea,
in gods of skies
things contained therein.
the devil, called
also that there are
preside over accidents
I also believe that
of evil influences.
believe that the souls both of
animals are immortal;
separated husbands and
people will be
wives will be rejoined hereafter; that
judged, and the good rewarded, and the evil punished.
believe that the souls of departed animals act
as guardians to
I believe in
that the departed spirits of
they appear as very
mighty power for harm, and that demons in nature.
heavens, called re-
I believe that there are three
the high vaulty skies," the " star-bearing spectively " the I also believe that skies," and foggy heavens." there are six worlds below us.'
a brief outline of the articles of Ainu faith
. yet they have no special times for There are no family prayers. than a passing thought almost all. and a death and burial. His temple. and call for no special remark. and have no ta. although the Ainu give so man His much thought to religious matters. every indeed.AINU POLYTHEISM as they have so far of 253 them are curious come under ray observation. though we find that the Ainu have no the fact that they are professional priests and no to temples. Further. have their foundation in the heart of a distinctly religious people. Nature His book. they. Thus. Some and interesting.ke special high-days. it others are beliefs common to all peoples. removing into a new house. then. of course. But will be seen. and worth more . an exceedingly religious They see the is hand of God in everything. and religious exercises. yet we are again constrained emphasise race. Their great religious exercises place on the occasion of a bear feast. priest. know nothing of Sunday. and each chief His high-priest. The world.
and aweinspiring. On near ing this off place the Ainu ceased paddling the boat. into conversation respecting this home of The Ainu stated that two kinds of deities were bupposed to reside in this . special gods were said to have their home and it behoved all men to keep silent when in the presence of any deity. quiet. I was immebecause in that diately requested to remain silent for a short time. them the water was dark. became and only moved just enough to steer their On asking why they did this. we chanced to pass some very bold which ran sharply down into the water. at the base of The tops of the rocks were well wooded. After passing the cliffs we entered the gods. little craft. and had a Altogether the locality was exceedingly beautiful. deep. and series of gentle eddies in it.254 THE AINU OF JAPAN CHAPTEE XVIII INCIDENTS AND WORDS ILLUSTRATIVE OF AINU RELIGIOUS BELIEFS ONE day. took quite silent. slow. some place. when coming down a river in a canoe with cliffs two Ainu. their head-dresses. There were several openings in these rocks which led into deep and thickly- wooded and dells.
live in the trees.AINU RELIGIOUS BELIEFS place. It is. . These gods also must be treated with honour and respect. selves good and benevolent. too long to be quoted here. The Ainu have a song or tradition which teaches all these things. to sowing and planting various Upon telling the old . irreverent. The chief live in the centre of the it eddy of water the . 255 The first were dryads. is The following incident one just described : of the same class as the It Ainu was once working for me in my garden. To the They reverent. in order to punish. was the early spring. These and and keep watch over the cliffs were both good and evil. however. or gods of the dells. and god-fearing person they show themgood. to make a noise in their presence The other gods who dwell in this locality were the They were of three sorts or degrees. and the proper season for old An digging up the the ground preparatory seeds. next preside over the water as goes down the stream and the third keep watch over the places where the water comes up again. and Woe betide the person ! who presumes water-nymphs. and ungodly they appear only then are looked upon as evil. but to the wicked. forests. and which they use to warn the women and children against presuming to go too far on a river in a boat. or they will revenge themselves by upsetting the boat and dragging the boatmen and passengers to the bottom of the eddy. and there drowning them.
In the conversation which followed it came out that the Ainu believe strongly in the particular and special providence of the gods.25 6 THE AINU OF JAPAN to fellow improve the ground manure. idleness but the people strenuously assert that this is not the case. of the gods to look after the place to help men. and not of men the gods. that we might reap clergyman and by digging in some a good and plentiful ' : harvest. Instead of this they change their garden plots if every second or third year. that occurs to the stranger is The readiest explanation . it was easy manure or attempt " understand why the Ainu never to improve their scraps of cultivated land. so dishonour and insult the gods ? Will not the gods give due increase without your attempting to force their hand or en- deavouring to drive Nature I looked at ' ? Considerably surprised. After a long conversation with this old man. and desire to get It is more than the gods intend to freely bestow. but the gods alone can give the increase. Man must to sow. Human beings must not attempt to interfere with their dispensations. they are now very sensibly modifying their beliefs and actions in this respect. he replied to this effect What ! will you. a preacher of religion. or even earlier. and consider that they must be left alone to attend to their own special duties after their own fashion. him to see if he were joking. the land shows signs of exhaustion. But he was quite serious. . However.
and thankfully take what they is have to bestow. Thus. and applied them to spiritual objects. It silently abide their man's duty to honour them. and used designate a piece of wood used in building huts. It is an article of the they who cause the seeds to ger- minate. the flower to blossom. the leaf to grow. for we they have taken many words especially applicable to material phenomena. time. perhaps. for example. the words feelings. expect to hear B .' Angel itself is is 'messenger. even in the Old and New Testaments by ' ' the same word in one place translated spirit and in another by 'wind. and the fruit to ripen. and the general activities of the soul. or the key-stone to a vault or arch. or a pillar to a balcony.' This ' said is and by have originally principle find that true of the Ainu mode of speaking. We might not. The tuntu is to a hut what the corner-stone is to a house.AINU RELIGIOUS BELIEFS From Ainu these incidents it is 257 evident that the belief in is the special providence of the gods creed. which forms the main support of the roof of the hut. used to describe consciousness. tuntu. It is an underlying principle in all languages that thoughts. were originally applied to material objects and physical phenomena. spirit in ' its original signification 'was breath or ' ' wind is ' .' to some the word god meant good.' a noun. The Ainu word 'brace' and to which we is will translate is by then 'support. as well as many religious expressions and ideas.
where he says.' and ' she brings us up. we are conclude that when ' the Ainu pray to God and as the Tuntil ' of the world they conceive of ' Him as being ' its living brace. and hence they delight to account for each step in every phenomenon of Nature which comes under their notice. which means have sometimes heard the Ainu address' ing God who as the cradle ' of ' men when who who at prayer.' I word shinda. after due consideration different objects and the led to to which it is applied.' It * support. the Ainu conceive this Tuntu as an in- telligent power.' then she feeds us. its originator and mighty ' support. though often through numerous and particular agencies.' upholder.' sus- tainer. to that living power. Nevertheless. By Him things consist.' pillar. centre. but also outside of it.' Further. and foundation.' On . and holding it together. Paul's words. and making it.' ' reminds one of all St. by referring it back.' also use the The Ainu 'cradle. At other times he ' is called the god rears us. and therefore transcending it. it is very often used by the Ainu when addressing God in prayer. the ' This being of all. He is its the Ainu summit. For. of the word. and a thoughtful person will quickly see its appropriateness as a divine name.258 THE AINU OF JAPAN this word applied to deity. ' the intelligent is Tuntu or ' ' support of the universe. Creator sometimes spoken of as and hence we are taught that look upon Him as not only in the world.
in safe and secure place. after all. are left away to work the the gardens. have gone bring the in far as we have their cradles quite alone for hanging in hours. they are not forsaken. say they.t the thoughts and apin pellations everyday and words daily K 2 use. we find that the god whose province it is to 'rear. .' 'nurse. while their mothers in seen. them in general. and the Ainu ideas concerning them.' and 'bring is up' people. tha.' After duly considering these facts. as well as comfort to dwell in the fire. too. Hence it is that grace said to her before meat. and also to a newly-married couple. but are So. Of course little ones cry lustily for their mothers sometimes. and make them happy. knowing that whatever happens they are not forsaken by God. Ainu babies. the fire is particularly requested to have mercy upon and bless to heal the sick. This goddess is not only supposed to nourish mankind.' 'nourish.AINU RELIGIOUS BELIEFS other occasions this god god.' grandmother and then as 'fire god. believed and to be of the feminine gender. and to know a that. or to firewood from mountains. human beings should exercise the like patience. all but also to have great power over kinds of sickness is and disease.' is 259 addressed as ' or 'old woman god. and are secure in His keeping. but they soon learn the virtue of quiet patience. How natural of it seems life. Hence. and a few drops of liquor given to her before drinking.
and the protector and nourisher turcn is mankind. the great all-father. the best is ' way of saying good-bye to a i/un person that is. so all men are brought up and nursed. It signifies to be inspired prophesies . like the evil name God. as it were.' How natural. again. The word for very curious. sustainer of the of all universe.' as when a prophet then to be possessed with a devil then to . and able.260 THE AINU OF JAPAN ' should be taken and applied to the great all. and the . from God . be afflicted with disease as a punishment for next to receive special blessings evil deeds . support. and. Just as a child is nursed in the bosom of a cradle. cradle ' ' of all- the ' nourisher ' of every person. to use the expression. Doubly natural does this appear when we upon as consider that in the Ainu idea life. ' In fact. the great ' mother.' The idea underlying the name plied to ' cradle when apis God appears to be this. and lastly to have God's protection. lieat is looked and ' coldness as death. for He is the Creator. as when engaged in some great or dangerous undertaking. by the gods.' or. What passage is particular to meaning is intended in any given be explained by the context. made comfort- and kept free from danger in it. as we should say. Popke no okai May you ' be kept warm. that these words should be taken and applied to the material lire which warms the body and cooks the food. in the bosom of God . can be applied to both good and ' objects.
and give warning of and who accompanies the head of approaching danger. used especially when God thought of as the inspiring. as the Creator of the world and its Preserver . a family when he goes forth to his wars and on his when hunting expeditions. then. who the master thought to rest upon the is at home. The particle i is somethis is times prefixed to turen. Every Ainu hut is is supposed to have its special guardian god. guiding. we learn that the Ainu look upon God first. making ituren. They believe also that there is a special protecting angel for each individual. and commune with Him in prayer. or intensifies the meaning. protecting Angel of each individual They also believe that every man has a faculty implanted in his nature by means of which he can know God.AINU RELIGIOUS BELIEFS common done it 261 sense of the listener. protecting Angel of human roof beings. Thus. When is makes the word It is stronger. . as the Providential Father arid sustainer of mankind special in general . secondly. guarding. as the guardian and person. and thirdly.
and who have angels to assist them in the execution of their duties. of the demons. but by means of many living. not immediately by His own power. power. who sphere and work. others to . are thought the by them in things is is Although Creator of all naturally looked upon as the God of all gods. in fact. and authority they are.262 THE AINU OF JAPAN CHAPTER XIX RELIGIOUS LEGENDS must not be supposed that the various articles of Ainu religious and superstitious faith are arranged in the IT mind of the people in the order in which they have heen Neither arranged at the close of the preceding chapter. yet He thought to have brought to all things into existence in the beginning. and have continually governed the whole universe ever since. those items which have reference of the gods. personal intermediaries. These intermediaries are of various degrees of order. Some were appointed to create. what we might call laws of Nature invested with life. and . intelligence. power. nor those to the order to and nature which have do with the work of and nature such order. who have are all all constituted chiefs in their special their own domain.
the Creator. a is is sick. after the Creator. as custom such times. who is believed to be able to purify the body and heal time she is disease. Nevertheless. are directly responsible to in the Him. the Ainu invest the gods with their of thought own manners and customs and modes action. however. Thus of the existence of all other gods.RELIGIOUS LEGENDS beautify. vitalising. to pray that the sick one fire may be healed. exist not in their own right or by their own power. and By chief. their grade All other divine beings. The for a goddess. or subjects to their rulers. These rulers or living laws. meet together for consultation before they In short. and so on. traditions inform us that the gods gather themselves together and consult with one another as to ways and means before they chiefs used to act. for instance. and the remembrance whether above or below . whatever may its be. this we can easily understand how it is is that. the ever-living. just in the same way as the Ainu acted. 263 and some again to fructify the earth. He is the Almighty all Power. intelligent force of Nature and being. as They stand somewhat a child does to same relation to Him parents. will be worshipped. another to attend to to govern rivers. and the at people have met together. now this and now that god person their spoken of as Supposing. but by the will of a greater and more powerful personified Law behind them. fire. of course. One was a third ordered to rule the sun. acting as president. uppermost in the mind.
a man is going out to sea to catch what if is more natural than that he should. particularly he observes a storm coming on. is not reliable at all times. they even some- times go so far as to accuse the lesser deity to the greater of not doing his duty ! Upon asking first these people why they do not go in the instance directly to the Creator Himself. will be as were in abeyance. the idea of If. Ainu under many peculiar circumstances. Nay. again. they say. we as is it find little might at first sight appear. But we must be to careful not to allow such instances is mislead us.264 THE AINU OF JAPAN it her. Nothing more easy than for an on- looker to get hold of an altogether heterodox opinion with regard to these things. or . that fish. and after watching for years the actions of the that. they leave him and go to see to the Creator will the Fountain-head Himself what He do for them. and to imagine himself to l>e holding the orthodox faith. and at another time another god. and not fire depend upon such intermediaries as the who. they find that the particular god they are worshipping does not answer their prayer. Suppose. call upon the god of fine weather to come to his aid ? This is exactly what he does. mediation very deeply rooted in the Ainu nature. Here then we see at one time one power. On carefully considering these matters. standing at the head of affairs. As God has appointed these intermediaries as channels through which we are to approach Him. it goddess. ' seems. for instance. we must.
' we ought those means. to is Yet. dispenser of all authority to His servants. also seen that We have when this august Being intends to reach earth and men.' or the Divine Angel . they are the servants of God's worshippers. and not make others of approach to Himself. We are informed that the goddess of ' fire.' and others. but always acts . They also say that neither the goddess of fire nor any other deity has power of will and choice to do just as they please. and the We have seen that the Ainu look upon this God as all life the source of so-called and being. so far as our experience goes. They were made first to do God's will in the universe. especially with respect to human beings .' the Cradle god. such as is the Nourishing ' god. and not He has appointed means to avail ourselves of for ourselves. that say. Thus we arrive at the true Ainu ideas of the particular offices of what we might very justifiably call their secondary gods. If He directs us. to and act as a medium through whom prayers go answers return to them. Him. although He not supposed to work directly Himself. the maker upholder of all of men and and the gods. and is so never does anything immediately Himself. the things. secondly. besides her ' many other names. of gods as He always acts through the lower orders His medium or means of communication.RELIGIOUS LEGENDS rather certainly ought. to do as as 265 we choose in this matter. and that she acts as a mediator between God and men. ' also called ' the Divine Messenger.
and is always superintending the many officers of His government. One as I is very rocky. They believe there are fiends amongst the anillustrate gelic beings. which clay. bered. thereby reflected upon the good works of God. and talking about the west coast of Yezo. as there of and faithless servants men in earth be- neath. In . but because His agents have not properly carried out His instructions. However. and for I said that I ought not to murmur at these things. in all that is going on in the world. more had the shore been more he rebuked me. or merely sitting in the heavens like a machine. and selfishly happy in His own contemplation. and cruelly Nay. this part of our was walking towards the sea-shore with an Ainu. and also because the evil one is always endeavouring to frustrate His For. we find that He is not conceived of as idle.266 THE AINU OF JAPAN through others. Hence. it is not because the Creator has been or is careless. rememand the Ainu think that there careless unfaithful servants of are evil God in heaven above. if there are some things in this world which we think are not quite as they ought to be. as there are among the terrestrial bodies will of men. The following legends these and many other points connected with subject. He takes an interest disregarding His creatures. and do not execute His orders properly. and saying that useful it would have been much flat. be are it designs and supplant His counsels. these servants of His are sometimes remiss.
anyone disposed rough and dangerous condition of the west coast of Yezo. and. a her as her portion of work. as is the general custom of women. Whilst they were talking. Hence it is that the west coast of Yezo If. instead of attending to her duties. he should remember that it is is grumble at the very not the Creator Himself who is at fault in this matter. stopped in her work to have a chat with her. the male god worked away and nearly finished his portion of labour. gods. and. and the moral drawn from is this ' : Set a watch over your lips and attend to for see your duties. she happened to meet with in their tasks. the sister of Aioina Kamui. in order not to be behind time. The chattering propensity to of the goddess was the original cause. and the male god had the They vied As the goddess was with each other proceeding with her work. and that all owing to a chattering goddess. but His deputy. Upon seeing this. who were the deputies of the The female god had the west coast allotted to Creator. how rough the west coast of Yezo is. the female god became very much frightened.RELIGIOUS LEGENDS 267 the course of conversation he volunteered the following legend as bearing upon the point at issue ' : It is said that the island of Yezo was made by two male and a female. is so rugged and dangerous.' This legend is sometimes quoted women who are it given to talking overmuch.' . to therefore. south and eastern parts assigned to him. did her work hurriedly and in a slovenly manner.
which one of the gods remains where he threw it tool. any more than human beings can. axes. "Where the materials came from is they came. take umbrage at the existence and others But let why these creatures were made. with which to make The by morning after the rat had aroused him from sleep pulling his hair. when the world was formed. complain at anypurpose. the principal tools used were mighty hammers and not stated . Nor must it be supposed that they could work without tools. me know that all things were made for a good and we should not. such people conOne night a rat attempted to procure. and bade < : finished making the world. as this legend shows. for making Yezo. Some of rats. very anthropomorphic and materialistic. The minor gods who made Yezo are spoken of as though they were human beings. He went on to say After the Creator had' thing. There is a large rock ' upon the seaThis Moruren called Mnkara-so. sider persons. one of the masculine and the other of the feminine gender. of these vermin. again. He came down from heaven . Hence. therefore. from the head of little my its landlord. that was coast near all. especially when its they are thinking and speaking of Creation and agents.268 THE AINU OF JAPAN Ainu ideas are apt to become. for the old man again rebuked me.' rock is said to be the axe with in worked down. a nest. human hair. Axe Bock. It no man can move that mighty of cats. we had a conversation on the I subject suppose I must have spoken too strongly against rats.
As He was viewing His : works. in order to to men. who ever willing to help human beings. do not speak against anything God has doing created. and derided Him. For this reason the Ainu met together one evil .' is Among all the feathered tribe of Yezo there It bird so saucy and bold as the crow. bear with rats a little. He angry he caused rats to increase so mightily upon the earth that they soon became a nuisance and plague retaliate.RELIGIOUS LEGENDS to see 269 how all things looked. But look at this bramble bush and things as these ? so what can be the use of such " God was angry at these remarks. was so at being thus treated that. heard the prayer. and have made all things for the best. day. into the evil As soon as the rat was made. for never grew again. and Let us. thistle. He put His hands behind His back and secretly created a rat. it rushed one's mouth. therefore. has been known to fly into the huts and take the food from the very vessels out of which the people have been eating. thus tongueless. and called upon God is to remedy the for unless He did so.' said the old man. the evil one appeared. and bit out his tongue. Moreover. for they did a good thing in biting out the tongue of the evil one. ' in order to keep the rats under. saying " Doubtless you think you have done a very good action. created cats. leaving him Hence. for see how no He punished the evil one for so. the it evil one has no tongue to the present day. men would no longer be able to live in the world. and . God.
up early one morning. and. When the sun was rising. He. the one perceived that men could not possibly live without the light and warmth-giving sun. came along and opened but the crow. benefits they once in wait. after all things were made. find that they upon the Thus we have good cause for for being bold and saucy. and thereby injure men. On talking this matter over with an Ainu. therefore. His designs. long before the sun had risen. the evil one his mouth to swallow it . remembering the conferred upon the human like race. Hence the crows. as they once did a good thing for human tale beings. the evil one did all he could to to frustrate human beings. he informed me that crows had reason to be saucy. evil made up work his mind to destroy that beautiful and useful So he got of creation. have an idea that they live may do just as they with men. it. But God knew of and made a crow circumvent them.' One would think that at anything at all it if human beings might grumble would be at those dreadful pests .270 to settle THE AINU OF JAPAN upon bundles of fish while the men and women have been in the act of carrying them upon their backs. who was lying and so saved the sun. 1 His ran thus When God created the world. and it is not men to say that crows are useless creatures. and food they provide for themselves and families. : we must not grumble about them. especially with regard Now. flew down his throat. with the intention of swallowing his designs.
that a brave hunter. whilst mosquitoes suck only a of the blood. patiently. to them from straying away 'Once upon a time. told to children. However. This creature was a very great nuisance to the Ainu. there who had his home far away in In bodily the midst of the mountains of Ainuland. As far as Yezo try is con- cerned. skin was like that of a bear.RELIGIOUS LEGENDS gnats. these creatures are enough even to anyone's temper. The sometimes prevent and generally with good effect. for though the one-eyed monster had been shot at several times. these torments flies Mosquitoes and that family of are much little better than hobgoblins for hobgoblins take the blood. His carcase was exceedingly In fact. into the forests. and was as large as a common pot-lid. for he had such a tremendous appetite that he actually of catching. was in the habit thing and anybody corning in his and eating everyway. who was an expert with the bow. The following legend will give some idea story is of what the Ainu think on this subject. it happened one day. was a great hobgoblin. mosquitoes. many many years ago. killing. not an arrow had yet taken effect upon him. flesh. so hairy was he. and bones. like a man. shape he was large. For this reason the people were afraid to go far into the mountains to hunt. and that was situated in the middle of his forehead. Now. his and was closely covered with hair. But the Ainu bear all . 271 and gadflies. he had only one eye. unconsciously went .
man-eating monster amongst us. When he saw what it was. for the lesser evil of flies not so bad as the greater evil of having the one-eyed.' The foregoing legends have been brought forward here with the special purpose of showing Ainu ideas as . hairy. creature and so deadly an enemy was quite and would not again return brave hunter to life to trouble the people. to see something pursuit of game. However. fit it in his bow. we must not grumble is at these things. and stand on the As the creature drew nigh. he was astonished at him through' the undergrowth of the brightly glaring forest. lo the ashes became gnats. hands and scattered them in this When as to make perfectly sure that the monster ! was thoroughly destroyed.27 2 THE AINU OF JAPAN While he was in near the haunt of this cannibal. the Ainu took a defensive. But. and. The hobgoblin immediately tumbled down dead. but he soon mustered courage to draw an arrow from his quiver. and burnt it quite up. so was done. and gadflies. bones and he took the ashes in his the air. steady and deadly aim at his solitary eye. the hunter to 7 became so frightened that he sufficient knew not what do . he discovered to be the big-bodied. fierce-looking hobgoblin. the made a great bonfire over his body all. for the eye was the only vital part of his body. hit it fair in the centre. being a good shot. Upon drawing near it to see what it was. mosquitoes. To make sure that so foul a killed. as they were tossed upwards.
It . neither the sun nor the moon is The sun is really supposed to be rather the vehicle is its of a goddess. existence of one in a multitude supreme God. though some persons. Hence. though it were of the However. and the sun the male. He made as means to punish the evil one for his wickedness. The Ainu are of a god of the moon. the Ainus believe in the all. again. nor as owing origin to chance. refer By them we see that the Ainu them all to the special creative act of God.RELIGIOUS LEGENDS to 273 how the world and all things therein contained was brought into existence. for she conceived of as being the special ruler of the good things God has made believers in and fixed in the universe. few in number. Some He made merely because He willed to make them. and as occasion required. The deity tant office supposed to hold the most impornext the great Creator of all may be said to is who be the goddess of the sun. nor as having been They were brought into existence by the Creator when He pleased. Some them consider the moon to be the female principle. the Creator of subject to and of lesser deities. others vice versa . evolved. we find it to be the fact that. than a goddess itself. extensively worshipped by the Ainu. Others. may be met with who pay their respects to these useful works of creation. who ruler. amongst other things. all is Him. and but the majority speak of the sun as feminine gender. We find that they are neither thought of as being eternal.
the sun is rai. and I olackened some glass. cliup Immediately the exclamation rang out The luminary is dying. like so many of uncivilised peoples. suddenly dying. and whose brightit is ness shines through Yet exceedingly interesting and curious to learn that this goddess lives in the who lives in the sun and the god who moon are the very life or soul of these useful objects. Take the goddess becomes darkness and there will not it be a speck of light in the night. . not the sun that the is. fear a total or partial eclipse the sun or moon. is The sun fainting away. Hence is that the Ainu. But lest it was plainly evident that the people were in fear the eclipse should be total. so as to enable an Ainu to see the In eclipse when it took place. 1887 an eclipse of the sun occurred.274 THE AINU OF JAPAN therefore. It . in which case the sun might quite die away and not come to life again. and so all living beings would perish. the goddess who resides in it. might be expected that the Ainu would worship the sun at this particular time but such is not the case. : ' dying. but the sun.' Another person called out is : Clmp chikai ami. Clmp ' rai. and only now and then an exclamation of surprise or fear was to be heard.' This all that was said silence ensued. Ainu worship. At the proper time we bade him look at the sun.' or is ' The luminary . from the sun. and immediately all and blackness by day and abolish the god of the moon. .
it sup- posed to have special life. and sprinkle him with his hand. or will bring water in of some kind. Sober Ainu traditions of eclipses are all of one stamp. we revive thee we revive thee ' ! If the is water is sprinkled with branches of willow. 275 and treat the sun as they do a dying or fainting person. thereby attempting to revive him. the cunning old sake drinkers fine pretext for have a getting intoxicated. towards that luminary. and run thus ' : When my father was a child he heard his old s 2 . particularly a total eclipse.RELIGIOUS LEGENDS They are consistent. soon cause the talkers to reliable. recovery from and return and the subject must be duly talked over. When a person is dying on one occasion when I was present one of the company will either fill his mouth with fresh water. and ancient instances of a like occurrence recited. god. in Of course libations of wine must be held faintness honour of the sun's to life. calling out. when there is an eclipse. efficacy and power in bringing the sun back to of The sun having been restored to his normal condition brightness and glory. In like manner. ! Kamni-atemka. the people bring water and sprinkle upward it. Kamui-atemka. But a few cups of sake speak what is not true or to and they are not long before they begin show signs of being in a somewhat maudlin state. thinking thereby to revive the ' at same time god. of it the sun. and squirt it into the sufferer's face a vessel and bosom.
276 THE AINU OF JAPAN grandfather say that his grandfather saw a total eclipse The earth became quite dark. and lightning from its sides. for in- with fear and consternation sure forerunner of for it is some dreadful calamity. ' The term 'god is merely used of them on account of their usefulness in the system of Nature. nor have I ever heard a single theory advanced with reference to their causes.' or Milky ' crooked river Way is also sometimes called deities are sup' ' the river of the gods to . except that they are not worshipped though the term used for god is sometimes. The black. about the stars.' life. famine. and the Then the sun began to return to and the faces of the people wore an aspect of death fire . and shadows of the sun. but not generally. war. then men began Eclipses are quite inexplicable to the Ainu. and the various posed spend much fish. particularly out of regard to their usefulness in giving light. and as the sun gradually came to to live again. or death. upon this river in a comet is regarded thought to be the as. the birds went to roost. stance. could not be seen . applied to them. and the Milky This Way ' ' is called the picture of the crooked river. of their time of catching The appearance . disease. ' Comets are known by the ' name ' of ' broom star . life. and the dogs began to howl. dead sun shot out tongues of stars shone brightly. There is not much to be said . The deity who is generally looked upon as standing .
ill. or own special orders of gods. therefore. and there can will be no avoiding her. is Fire not worshipped. be re- warded or punished hereafter according sentations of the goddess of easily to the repre- We can.RELIGIOUS LEGENDS next in order to the goddess of the sun 277 is one already described at some length. understand the great importance the Ainu attach to fire-worship. the Ainu have no word for the whole . but it fire is thought to be. In fact. the world a vast round ocean. She is conceived of as being both useful and awful : useful. or worlds. Accord- ing to them. heals it when its food awful. and cooks inasmuch as she warms the body. us at the It is she who will appear either for or against Judgment Day. each governed many by its islands. namely. inasmuch as she is a . It is curious that the ideas of the Ainu as to the differ . in the midst of which are very countries. the goddess of fire. special witness to note the acts and words of men and women. but a goddess who supposed to dwell in the fire. for while these considered it to the Ainu look upon is as being round. is nevertheless true. all She will present the great Judge of with a perfect picture of every word and action of each individual human being. shape of the world from those of the ancient it Japanese and Chinese be flat. and whose vehicle the This is a subtle distinction. Thus every person fire. careful not to But here again we must be think that it is the fire itself which is is worshipped.
In this lake there was a monster trout. they replied that it was because the sun rises in the east. shainon or Samoro moshiri. islands in the sea.' Upon asking the why they supposed the world. which was it so big that used to flap its [pectoral] fins at one end and wave ' its tail at the other. The mention of this earthquake fish. and mighty continents are all called by the same ' name moshiri. i. the island next to us. That to say. ' which the Ainu fish of the call moshiri ikkewe chep. whenever this fish it moves it naturally causes the islands founded upon to shake. taken as whole.e. the world. to kill Then the honourable ancestors met and went . brings my mind a legend I will which an Ainu once recited close this chapter ' : to me. sets in the west. to which is sup- posed to be a large trout. an island .8 THE AINU OF JAPAN Islets in rivers world or universe. are supposed to be resting fish. ' Japan.e. people i.2 . to ' be round. or the various islands composing the world.e. ' the backbone world . i. or country intended is made known by the sea. but whether an or island. and comes up the next morning in the east again. and with which At the source of the Saru Paver there is a large lake. islet.' for in the Earthquakes are accounted same way is as the Japanese used to account for them. 'land in adjectives. upon the back so that of a great i.' Thus Rcp-un-moshiri is. ' floating or swimming earth is .e. and lakes.
such as deer and bears. drawing it the great trout to the surface of the water. brought ashore. And. and children . but even whole boats ! full of people ! Yes.RELIGIOUS LEGENDS this fish.' The Ainu appear to have a special dread of large lakes. much desired to kill the fish. that might come to the shores of the lake to drink. the gods descending. women. they seized the great trout with their hands [claws]. It is said that this mighty trout was in the habit. commences its work of swallowing animals and human Only a few hundred years ago. not only so. and went to the force. boats and all Hence it was that the ancients were so anxious to slay this monster. though they attempted to do so for many days. sent help from heaven. and destructive beings. but would sometimes swallow up men. ' Upon this all the honourable ancestors drew their fish till swords and chopped the ' they quite killed it. not only of swallowing animals. * Because. who had a special regard for Ainu-land. they very the gods. because they say that every now and again one of these monster fish suddenly appears. nay. and. say they. one of these awful fish was found dead upon the shores of the . bottom of the lake with great ' Then the gods put forth all their power. but 279 found themselves unable to accomplish their end. ' ' Upon this it plunged mightily. then.
large deer.280 THE AINU OF JAPAN to Skikot (Chitose lake). the horns were so long that they its protruded from stomach and caused its death. which the fish could attack of indigestion to come not get over . This monster had swallowed a . nay. . horns and all but the horns caused a severe on.
dwelling were their ancestors. The people are as hairy as the Ainu. ' they are really descended from these dwarfs. . by which they are known.28l CHAPTEE XX CAUSES OF AINU DECREASE THERE the is a tradition that If among the Saghalien Ainu to dwarfs effect the pit. Such an idea the does away with any necessity for believing that Saghalien Ainu are the children of ' dwarfs. Aioina is the proper name. of their most ancient forefathers was Aioina Kamui. worship bears. say they.' They are most certainly akin to the Yezo Ainu. Aioina's ' merely a title of honour descendants were first called is of. strong-looking people.' Aioina rak yarn. for the Saghalien Ainu are fine. persons smelling or ' having the . they . Their manners and customs correspond they call themselves by the name Ainu and. The name. Of course it may possibly be the fact that the Ainu as well as the Koropok-guru lived in holes. The Ainu account for their origin in the name Ainu.' the race has certainly very much improved. Their language is Ainu. but Kamui and respect. like the Yezo Ainu.
particularly their old men.' ' to relate ancient traditions. is not thought to be satisfactory.' It more probable that Aioina was some religious teacher. derivation be true. are well pleased even now to be called Aioina rak guru.282 THE AINU OF JAPAN and this. If this proper meaning. and does away with the destroying the meaning of the proper name first Ainu. Many of them.' the passive form of the verb. that of ' man ' or ' men. although the . Aioina Kamui was a 'great This derivation it teacher of traditions/ able for ' is both reasonnecessity and natural.' This name it being too long. the word Ainu loses viz.' * Oina is a word meaning first ancient. and means the rah' ' to be related or Aioina signifies ' to hold traditions which have been handed down. and in later times they dropped the rak guru.' If this derivation. for his spirit the only human its is worshipped by the Ainu. That Aioina had a real is ex- istence seems highly probable. men.' then passing to the Aioina is meaning told.' * Aioina guru (rak ' means ' to smell of ') ' or ' to ' have/ and guru means person or or persons signifies persons obeying the instructions 'traditions. we may say. here set forth for the time.' and hence. is equal to saying ' descendants of Aioina. and that Aioina rak guru really means 'persons obeying the instructions ' or ' holding the traditions. and called themselves Ainu. the people. virtues of Aioina.' according to Ainu idiom. changed into Ainu rak guru. at an early date.
it whom they called Wariunekuru. to teach the Ainu religion and law. in everyday language ' mean man or men. to a said to have descended from heaven mountain in Piratori at a very early date.' There is a place in Volcano Bay upon Yezo. This lady bore a son. It received this which means the place of traditions. which is called Oinaushi. viz. They met there from all parts. more mature knowledge of the Ainu. told me several years ago by an old man.' just as shiu-entep also once means woman ' or ' women. I have . He had a wife the and is always known by who name Okikurumi Turesh Machi.CAUSES OF AINU DECREASE word Ainu ' 283 * ' does.' and nothing but ' ' man ' or it ' men. place of traditions.' Hence the name Oina-ushi. tradition hearers or obeyers. called Turesh.' or holders of traditions. and that the Ainu are descended. and were in the habit of telling one another the traditions of their districts ' and the the news of the day.' name because those with the ancient Ainu who used to trade Japanese generally met at this place and put to sea together. There is another tradition accounting for the origin of the Ainu. but was sent by the chief god.' ' may have had another meaning. is from Wariunekuru But other persons say that Okikurumi was not the Ainu ancestor at all. close ' to Tokkari. the Creator. and that his son Wariunekuru taught the After common arts of daily life. A person named Okikurumi was He was is the true Ainu ancestor.
' ' The terminations mi and mat mean male and female respectively.284 THE AINU OF JAPAN to the conclusion that come Okikurumi here stands for Yoshitsune.' * used daily. Jimmu Ten no sama. in means bow-men. already referred to in p. for ' Kurmni . calls this ' people Aino or Ainos. and Saka no ue no Tamura Naru. even if it were their proper name. In the first place. in Yezo. Pfizmaier. who obtained his in- formation of the Ainu from a Japanese work entitled Moshiogusa. and.' Aino is This is not correct . passing away. a Japanese hero. it is difficult to account for the names of many places all over Japan. In much later times the governors of Matsumai. which are purely Ainu words. But the people have greatly decreased. in the second place. not the name of this people . of Vienna. is an ancient Ainu word a male Japanese ' but it is not in use now. And the reason for this is not far to seek. a female Japanese. it should be remembered that wars of extermination were carried on by the ancient One need only mention Japanese against the Ainu. and then says that Aino for. viz. Dr.' In ancient times the Ainu must have been very much more numerous than they are now. A. did their share . 119. but surely. the first place. for unless they were very so. ' Chapter VIII. and are now slowly. in this connection two names which every Japanese schoolboy knows well. although is ' the word Kurumat. it could not possibly mean ' bow-men.
is was fostered and encouraged by their conages. querors for tions. and require no comment. see a single dance ! The Ainu I will drink if they can obtain the liquor. but persons will give them a tub of rice wine merely to liquor. once had an Ainu in Hakodate teaching I language. and is still eating the out of the people. his it head in a cloth and said. and held him with window far too firm a grip. This taste and longing. drinking.CAUSES OF AINU DECREASE of this work. did all I could to keep that me his man from But the fiend was too strong upon him. and taken nearly souls. Further. and has undermined the Ainu constituall sapped their strength. 285 These are historical facts. fact must be borne in mind that the Ainu had . The second cause for Ainu decrease is due to exposure. as we have seen. at night after I He used to get out of the had retired to rest and . We Then the became laid have seen what Ainu huts and clothing are like. no medicines or medical men ill so that when a person has devastated he simply wrapped to die. down Small-pox. that manly from their Europeans also whilst travelling amongst the Ainu have encouraged this longing passion for strong drink by giving them Not only is this desire for strong drink fostered by those whose business it is to sell wine. the intense longing for intoxicating drinks has done awful life evil in the past. is whole villages.
must go in the catalogue of causes for the for we all know the effect of decrease of the Ainu . Sometimes a whole district would make war upon its neighbour. seem to be entirely Ainu. manufacture . Sometimes the people used to fight with their bows and arrows. have also done their share in this work. ! and I snugly hidden under the Drunkenness. The wooden war-clubs which I have spoken of in Chapter IX. for I have never seen any amongst the Japanese. arrows are likewise Ainu instruments. them suspended from the shoulder. of Japanese we may therefore dispense with swords and spears as being not of native origin. drink after dark. strong drink upon the human mind and frame. and smuggle into the house. also. and went for floor down found to his it room and searched his bottle. and there evidence to show that either the Ainu or the race that . I smelt his through the window breath one day. What ancient swords now have amongst their treasures are all of Japanese make though. strange to say. Petty wars and quarrels. are as the Japanese did. they used to wear the Ainu . The bows and Most likely the is ancients used flint heads for their arrows. in the girdle. therefore. and not The spears. p.286 THE AINU OF JAPAN Sometimes a friend would bring him it obtain drink. and upon the drunkard's children. and at other times a village would quarrel with another. 132. which the Ainu used to get up amongst themselves. and at others with stones and sticks. and have a fight.
The Ainu also wore armour in their wars . and the Ainu were very jealous of their rights.CAUSES OF AINU DECREASE lived in 287 Yezo and Japan before them used flint and stone heads to their spears. each family having its own special plot of garden land to it. however. This is also one way which they came by their swords and spears. the for. wore Japanese armour. warfare. The quarrels and fights were generally caused by the men of one village or district hunting over the grounds . and hunting ground allotted like- The river and seaside fishing stations were wise so divided. consisting entirely of leather. These were simply pointed knives about six inches long. notwithstanding that the Japanese the Ainu. Even to-day. Government does not recognise any land as belonging to when the Ainu of one district go hunting upon the Ainu chief of that in another they always call . themselves. Ainu divided the land amongst One large district was set apart for a given this district and for again divided into minor portions the people. but it was of a very light kind. recognised as belonging to the people of another in ancient times. so they appear to have been a little humane even when fighting. The Ainu used to manufacture these from the broken Japanese swords and spears that they They never used poison in picked up after a battle. which they took from the dead in warfare. They also seem to have been in the habit of fighting with daggers. village. Some in of them.
' too. with his on these occasions. and are even now held in abhorrence by the people of some villages. place. to fight their sub-chiefs. The women and are said to have generally accompanied their husbands when they went on The Ainu of these night raids. They were. it man and woman turn- ing out to fight. There were no regular soldiers. such occasions nearly the whole of the male population were murdered during children sleep. ' Thus the Ainu women were Ainu made night a sort of amazons. therefore. cannibals.288 THE AINU OF JAPAN and pay their respects to him. naturally took the lead The women were left own sex. and do their duty. to have rendered very effective service. When was a case the Ainu were at war with one of every able-bodied another. but in fighting each person part.' heard them spoken of as eaters of their own . off whilst slaves the to women and work in were carried as the gardens. raids. were kept as concubines. Tokapchi district in Yezo are spoken of as having been particularly addicted to this the kind of warfare.will. whilst the men fought with the men. ' and I have kind. They are said not only to have murdered people. the Not infrequently. one upon another. and were called iissliui ne yuru. On which they called topat-tumi. but also to have eaten some of them. Some of the women. however. and ask for his good. was supposed to take his or her The chief of a village.
The children of these mixed at marriages become bald early age.CAUSES OF AINU DECREASE 289 These internecine wars not only helped to dimmish their numbers. indeed. most of them. ever ready to become the wives or concubines of the more is civilised Japanese. They are weaker and far less hairy. frontier it can now be called. but also rendered their conquest by the ancient Japanese more easy. which is is intermarriage ever going on. The Ainu women are. Another cause of the Ainu decrease with the Japanese. They are far better fed and clothed. It to their interest to do so. if. that whilst is. I an DESCENDANT OF AINU AND JAPANESE know of no Ainu village is containing a family which not in some way connected by blood-relationship with All uiriwak ' every other family in * that village. and have less hard work of to do. blood relations living in the same village T . upon the Japanese frontier. But the children such marriages are not generally very strong. and generally third or die out in the fourth generation.
This kind of intermarriage is not likely to increase the longevity or physical and mental strength of a people. blood relations living at a distance exceedingly few. On the contrary. or the diuturnity of a race or nation. person is It has thirty-two families in all but every related to the others.290 uiritak are. and probably with every village. to if weaken the mind. This village the capital of the it. for instance. . and to shorten Hence. it has a tendency to stunt the physical growth life. THE AINU OF JAPAN that ' is. is ' comparatively speaking. Take Piratori. of the body. It is the same with other Usu and Horobetsu. Saru Ainu. these family intermarriages have been generations. it going on for many is no matter for wonder that the Ainu are decreasing.
291 CHAPTEE XXI PREHISTORIC TIMES IN JAPAN THE past history of the Ainu can now never be tho- roughly known. and the time and trustworthy information for about their early history has Just as old Japan ever passed away. Further. their origin is lost in obscurity. In establishing the first of these propositions we have recourse to Ainu were not the only natives of many interesting names of places which are found all over the Japanese empire. definite. the members of which over Japan. the Japan resident in this country before the Japanese came here. for obtaining exact. Like that of many other tribes and peoples. from Satsuma in the . and were in Japan long before the present race of Japanese. The Ainu of to-day are but the remnant of a once much more numerous formerly extended all nation. south to Shikotan in the north names which find T 2 no i . the old-world either passed or is of the Ainu has fast passing away before the rapid march of enlightened Japan civilisation. commenced began to when Western light away at the time dawn upon and brighten to die life the skies of Japan.
because a dead body. others to mark some particular event in history.' This place was so be killed at the named because many eagles used to mouth of the Iskari Paver. the water containing a corpse a corpse ready dressed and other- wise prepared for burial.' so called because a Japanese woman died upon the banks of that stream . Wakasa. The water it or pond so named had this designation given already prepared these for burial. Very many such names can be owe their origin to the Ainu tongue. as Awa. 'the place where birds' tails are made. the place of ponds . for instance. All names are taken from places in Yezo. and their tails who bought ' taken and sent to the governor of Matsumai. When we Japan I consider the names of places in Southern mean those numerous places which we should not are certainly not of Japanese origin. Noto. them at a high price. and others forget that originally and in most cases such designations without doubt . ' animals existed in particular Thus we have ' Memoro ' kotan. was once found in it. or localities. Ishkara kotan.29 2 THE AINV OF JAPAN and which are Chinese place in the Japanese language. herbs. It will clearly shown to probably assist us in considering the mysteries if of Ainu place-naming we remember that some of the names were given merely to describe the nature of the place itself. such. the stream of the Japanese woman. and others again to indicate that certain trees. Kurumat nai. ' Then . are written with Chinese chaonly inasmuch as they racters. there is Otopc.
in This process is still going on Yezo at the present day. to be given. or mountain. or stream. or taken from one place and transferred to another. Fuji-yama. when we come the name rest its of a place whose meaning in Ainu can have no special appliwell cation to the locality so designated. The Japanese have.' written with Chinese except in so far as that term hieroglyphics. first mispronounced them. in taking the already existing Ainu names.PREHISTORIC TIMES IN JAPAN 293 applied to one village. here give any . One would naturally suppose that if country were of pure Japanese origin. any name in this that of the famous sacred mountain of Japan. like this reasons ought. probably through ignorance of political true import.' a truly poetic and beautiful name. sometimes applied them to much cover. been mis- the Japanese. and lastly. short time give But poetry and sentiment must for a way to dry fact. would certainly be so. or possibly from applied by motives. is In support of a statement perhaps. then covered them up with wholly inappropriate Chinese characters or hieroglyphics. I will not However. written The Chinese characters with which the name is mean mountain ' of wealth. we may assured it has. and that mountain of wealth. larger localities than the Ainu intended them across to Hence. The Japanese will much-esteemed its have to admit earlier or later that their mountain owes name to the Fuji-yama does not really mean ' Ainu tongue. or tract of land.
a marriage. often called. a Chinese name. ' means (1) 'an old fire woman ' . possessed Celestials . always worshipped at a house. a feast. as above explained. (4) or.' which has it nothing to be said in the its favour. warming. as a ' Fuji-yama by the lire-worshippers ? Ainu. huchi. is more likely than that the Japanese borrowed this designation from the Ainu. as we have seen. hitcha kamui. districts round about "What. and she is. as and naturally applied are.294 THE AINU OF JAPAN detailed account of the argument. as is (3) grandmother itself. to our know- Japan whilst Fuji. or a death and she is It should specially invoked on the occasion of sickness. or fuchi. (2) the goddess of ' ' fire huchi. ' ' . but merely state that the word Fuji in Fuji-yama old Ainu word fire. The Ainu word ' huchi. though the ledge. . then. as now written. is an and that there are very strong grounds for believing that the Ainu knew of the existence of this object of Nature and worshipped it long before the Japanese came so far north as the Fuji. next be remembered that the beautiful Fuji-yama extinct volcano. as they have done so many other names of places and objects ? How exceedingly appropriate originally is the name to fact. ' who matter of a ' Goddess of fire is much more mountain reasonable name is it for this mountain than of wealth. or iresu . have never yet. goddess of fire.' the ' is merely a corruption of an real pronunciation of which is huchi. excepting that poetical is ! in Japanese idea more it Nor should is be forgotten that Fuji. As the goddess of fire. kamui huchi.
' and substitute the Ainu word yama san. words ' at once still in Many duced if other like topographical names might be pro- necessary from Hakodate to Maskishoya. But enough have been brought forward to show clearly strong grounds for the belief that the Ainu once inhabited the whole of the Japanese empire. or ' the two Japanese ancient books. showing the Japanese word yama. Saivara-yama. means mountain. If in every one of we were to take away the Japanese word or san.PREHISTORIC TIMES IN JAPAN is 295 a purely native Ainu word. full of the deepest Ainu thought and It may possibly be objected by some who do not under - stand the way in which the Japanese have borrowed place-names from the Ainu that the word yama purely Japanese. mountain. we have recourse to Japanese testimony and Ainu tradition. suffixed to Ainu names. for many other instances might be produced. called Kecords of Ancient Matters. Thus we have Usu-yama. or . these cases ' nuburi. is This is quite true. which is that the Ainu were not the only aborigines who resided in Japan before the Japanese came.' and Nihongi. Iwaki-san. as well as all over Saghalien and the Kurile Islands. or the Chinese san. though it is in no way a difficulty. Consider for a few moments what Kojiki. In passing on to the second point. which also have living daily use.' we should Ainu words pure and simple. religion. Fuji- and many other similar names. and not Ainu.
in the ' genuine traditions ' and old language of former ages. that the Emperor Temrnu took pains to instruct Hujeda-no-Are.2 96 THE AINU OF JAPAN It ' Chronicles of Japan. till and made her repeat them she knew them by heart. of this one woman for the space of twenty.five years and when she was about the age of . a woman of surprising FLINT KNIVES and prodigious memory.' have to say on^ this point. These traditions were retained in the memory . should be remembered that the 'Records of Ancient Matters of ' are said to be traditions handed down by word particular mouth.
e. ' in the year 712 these so-called written down at the dictation of Hujeda-no-Are. which is still in progress. or * earth- . in the fastnesses of the massacring others.' was completed 720 A. or wives to their conquerors.' and recorded or A. cess is An illustration of this pro- seen in the amalgamation of the Ainu with the Japanese in Yezo. Chronicles of Japan.D. the aborigines.D. in The Nihongi.' we read of a * class or race of people called Tsuchi-gumo.. a race of In- inhabited by a people with whom barbarians whom they conquered and dispossessed. it north. and compelling others to seek refuge mountains and the interior of country. i. concubines. there are some very good grounds for believing that the Japanese acted as a wedge by driving some of the real owners of the land.' opinion that ' we are fully justified in holding the when the ancient Japanese first came to ' the land of the rising sun they found the country they fought. In the Eecords of Ancient Matters. The book has therefore a direct reference to prehistoric times. more wise probably than the rest. or only eight years after the appearance of ' the ' * Eecords. and thus became amalgamated with them. If the whilst others were forced towards the of the Japanese people.PREHISTORIC TIMES IN JAPAN fifty-three. slaves. 297 ' ine traditions Kojiki.. to the south. and called Eecords of Ancient Matters.' After a perusal of the ' Eecords ' and Chronicles. deed. acted as servants. we study the types may be added that some few of the barbarians. or ' genuwere committed to writing.
had many of these cave-dwellers cruelly and barbarously slaughtered in cold blood. he said : Into the great cave of Osaka people have Entered in abundance. Stone-mallet swords the children of the Augustly powerful warriors. xlviii. were in the cave awaiting him. saying: "When ye hear me them down simultaneously. . So then the august son of the heavenly Deity commanded that a banquet be bestowed on the eighty bravoes. their . and are there. . supplement. Thus we read Augustness . with their Mallet-headed swords. have possessed stone doors. their stone - Mallet swords. Thereupon he set eighty butlers. one for each of the eighty bravoes. the children of the augustly Powerful warriors will smite and finish them With their mallet-headed swords. ' When his . and girded each of them with a sword. earth-spiders with tails. by Prof. l : appears." In the song by which he made clear to them to set about smiting the sing. and instructed the butlers. Asiatic Soc. spiders a manliness. sec. in Trans. namely. and reached the great cave of Osaka. Though people have entered in abundance And are there. x. and to have lived in caves with it The Emperor Jimmu. cognomen expressive of neither grace nor The people who bore this name are said to tails. eighty bravoes. made his progress. 141. cut earth-spiders. would Smite. p.298 ' THE AINU OF JAPAN . o vol. Chamberlain. 1 now do well to See Kojiki.
as mentioned as having made successive wars of But who were these earth' we prefer to call them. In the limestone districts and some of the old volcanic rocks these appear to be natural. is therefore probable that the ancient Japanese in very early times used stone clubs or swords. or was merely an ensign of authority. I explored several of these caves in Shikoku. from the pottery they contained and other evidences 1 See Trans. Odawara. . 76. which have been examined by Mr. says 'In many parts of Japan a l : large number of caves have been discovered. pt. ' cave-dwellers ? ' "Were they simply robber bands of barbarous Ainu ? Or were they Koreans. results The only Artificial which I have obtained were geological.' In this quotation we have a direct ' reference ' to It mallet-headed swords ' and ' stone-mallet swords. and in other localities.300 ' THE AINU OF JAPAN Having thus sung. viii. cannot be positively affirmed. spiders. Henry von Siebold. mace this or mallet-headed sword to be seen article but whether was intended for a sword. 1. the butlers drew their swords and simultaneously smote the bravoes to death.' as Sujin and Keiko are ' specially extermination upon them. and also in other places.' or. vol. of Japan. or a people very closely allied to the Koreans ? Professor Milne. p. Nor was Jimmu the only emperor who fought against the earth-spiders. Asiatic Soc. in writing of the caves found in Japan. In the Hakodate museum there is a kind of stone . caves near Kumagai.
nor have they any idea where the characters engraved upon the back of the cave in Otarunai came from. inscription which no one has as yet. and the Ainu inform me that they know of none. there appear to be no caves in which the ancient people dwelt. showed that they were of Korean origin. however. created with the rock for all They may have been they know. The single cave which exists at that place gives one the idea of a tomb rather PREHISTORIC POTTERY In this cave there is an than of a dwelling-place.' ' the land and that they lived in caves. or some child drawing. In the island of Yezo. succeeded in deciphering. then. we have grounds for concluding that in ancient times there were Koreans residing in of the rising sun.' Thus. unless. may have been exercising its skill in . indeed. There have been no similar inscriptions discovered anywhere else in the empire. I believe.PREHISTORIC TIMES IN JAPAN 301 which they yielded. a small one in Otarunai be an exception.
a white.302 THE AINU OF JAPAN With reference * to these inscriptions. feet in height. inscrip- tions will be The characters look as if they had been scraped or cut with some I incisive tool. cliffs are about one hundred trees. and they are situated about three or four feet from the ground. Professor Milne I says at : A rough sketch of the inscriptions which is saw Otaru given in the accompanying plate. it not at all was taking when I visited the unlikely that the whole of these very shortly destroyed. the direction is it quarrying continues in spot. is and are capped with small soft. extremely much de- composed It is now being I quarried as a build- ing stone. do not think it would be difficult to make similar markings with a stone axe. and inscription of during the process a portion of the which have here given a rough copy If the has been broken away. The lines forming the characters are usually about one inch broad and half an inch deep. cliff Above them the its considerably overhangs. having been once more or I less cave- So far as could learn. I like them as being the work of may the remark that runic m. It several the characters are has been suggested that they have a . and form is very suggestive of its like. of the Ainos unable to recognise any and they regard (Ainu). They on the are wrought or cut upon the face of the These cliffs north-western side of the bay. They occupy a strip of rock about eight feet long. The rock tufa. the Japanese are quite characters.
possibly before them. A third idea was that they were phallic. that they were drawings to 305 A second suggestion was the insignia of indicate rank carried by priests. Particularly is this true of the northern part sets of the empire. to have drunk blood. tells us that the most re- doubtable of the barbarians were the Ainu. We read that the Ainu savages. I believe. for they are said of those early times were to have lived together promiscuously. the runic in being a a fifth. that they were rough representations of bird. they made raids upon the Japanese. but always revenged injuries. They carried arrows in their long hair and swords hidden in their clothing . men and animals. clothed themselves with fur. to have flown up the mountains like birds. dwelling in caves to have during winter and in huts in the summer . that they were the handicraft of some gentleman desirous of imposing upon the credulity of wandering archaeologists. safe in concluding that. and u . so that there must with whom to have been people other than the Ainu compare them. we are.' After due consideration of the evidences in existence of prehistoric times in Japan. also living here with them. A fourth. They never remembered favours. and rushed through the grass like animals. there was at least one other race. if not two. The Nihongi That book our minds at rest on this point. besides the aboriginal Korean inhabitants of Japan.PREHISTORIC TIMES IN JAPAN resemblance to old Chinese.
3 o6 THE AINU OF JAPAN some into captivity. very difficult to subdue. conquered and drove seems pretty clear from the pit dwell- . we STONE ADZES cannot now say. just as the out the Ainu Japanese fought. But that there was another race to. the aborigines were a savage race. fought and drove out. Whether the people referred to were Ainu. or some other race in the above passage akin to them. carried off Thus. in Japan previous race whom the a or contemporary with the Ainu Ainu found here. if the ' ' Chronicles and speak the truth.
e.' Now. upon the and and banks of some. pit-dwellers. spear- arrow-heads. general shape of these pits or holes the huts were built over From the we may assume that after the pattern them something of the snow houses of the Esquimaux. Ainu traditions u 2 . and from the traditions of the Ainu.e. grinding stones. but i. PROBABLE SHAPE OF KOROPOK-GURU S HUT appears that these pits were once the dwelling-places of human beings. by ten to twelve feet in diameter. ' whom the Ainu designated Koropok- guru. it is a wellthis known fact that there are in of many pits places upon island a great number round about three feet deep. and in others. though a few may It be seen measuring as much as eighteen feet across.PREHISTORIC TIMES IN JAPAN 307 ings and kitchen middens which are to be found here and there. as well as some fragments of bone. i. for near them in rubbish heaps. contradistinction to the Ainu. many pieces of old pottery and numbers of stone axes. in speaking of Yezo particularly. may be found by digging a few inches beneath the surface of the earth. 'dwarfs. portions of deer's horns. This race the Japanese have called kobito.' in whom they named Elisu and Yezo-jin.
Howwhich I ever. had as many as five or amongst which they slept. If all this be true. One Ainu did. where the ends bark string. is it not quite possible that ? It certainly these pit -dwellers is may have I been Ainu possible. together with or creeping plants. to keep out the wet and cold. However. Over the poles were laid bark and grass. out. it after may be asked. Ainu huts of the present day do not resemble either the Japanese house or the . we may conclude that Yezo was once much colder than it is at the present time. or all. They are also said to have clothed themselves with the skins of animals. and upon this earth was placed. it is true. but one place for was discovered. for in all those many fire have dug had dug out for me. once inform me that in ancient times their forefathers built huts over round holes dug in the earth. Inside the hut the inhabitants six clear spaces left for fires. but that they changed this method of house-building upon coming into contact with the Japanese and the Ainu of Saghalien profess to be the descendants of . consisted of poles stuck into the earth upon the banks of the pits. though do not think they were quite the same race as that existing to-day in Yezo. But. I do not think that these Koropok-yunis had so fire-places in their huts. over tied till and that these poles were made to bend were they met in the centre. these pit-dwellers. and that was near the centre.3 o8 THE AINU OF JAPAN that they say that they were built somewhat conically.
though living in the quite ignorant some of them are look existence while others . three or four feet in height. and saying ' that because Aino means therefore the mongrel. and that is. .' or half-breed. There seems to be good reason for believing that the pit-dwellers were shorter in stature than either the Japanese or Ainu for whilst the Japanese tell us they were kobito (dwarfs) the Ainu say they were only about . leaf for An Ainu once attempted to derive their name.' but has a distinct meaning of its own. or confesses absolute ignorance on the subject. that they were of a red colour. therefore the . they would stand beneath a burdock shelter. is not derived from the word for 'burdock. . from koroko-ni (burdock). 309 Every other Ainu to whom I have spoken on the subject either emphatically denies that their ancestors lived in holes. however. and that their arms were very long in proportion to their bodies. calling the This is on a par with ' Ainu by the name Aino or Ainos. small that if They were so caught in a shower of rain or attacked by an enemy. upon them as natural phenomena but none of them trouble their heads about the matter.' Ainu are half animal. Koropokguru. very midst of these of their pits. half human. or flee thither to hide. Koropokguru.PREHISTORIC TIMES IN JAPAN Esquimaux dwelling. or that because Ainu sounds something like the Japanese Ainu are dogs. In fact. Some have gone so far as to say that they were only about an inch in height. 'people word inu (dog).
themselves never knew how to make The Ainu say that they pottery. as . and have dwelt in such houses as the holes indicate. because is so much easier to work and is adapted for carrying poison. The Ainu say their forefathers destroyed this race of dwarfs in warfare. scrapers. of people who existed in Yezo previous it and by the side of the Japan and Ainu though . round implements ? an opinion. used them. in spite of all they say. but that they had since adopted the bamboo. and Koropok-guru Ainu I ? And who am of opinion. were of the dwarfs ' of the Japanese.' residing or ' ' pit-dwellers . the full name is choropok-un-guru.3IO THE A1XU OF JAPAN below. We are also informed by the Ainu that the Koropok-gurus used flint or stone knives. and other implements. is possible that the Ainu. As for arrow-heads of stone. The Ainu may. might have used these implements. Who. and pottery are the reit really used the stone is mains of a race to. and I have in- never yet seen anything of the kind manufactured by them. an Ainu once formed me it that a few generations ago his race made and better this. This we may well believe. but holes. after all. seeing that so many specimens of pottery have been disinterred. of the existence of such The question these ' still remains. Other Ainu deny and say they have never heard things as stone arrow-heads. that these only stone implements. and that they were acquainted with the art of making pottery.
as far as Yezo 311 have exterminated in warfare this is concerned . and are said look to be a very The Ainu of the to be upon the Kurile islanders as the remnants but this is mere opinion. but I am of opinion that these pit-dwellers were closely allied to the Ainu in descent. race. PLAN OF KURILE HUT *- EXTERIOR OF KURILE HUT The inhabitants than the Ainu of Shikotan are much shorter in stature of Yezo.PREHISTORIC TIMES IN JAPAN their traditions say. That they are 'pit- . and that the remains of them may now be seen in Shikotan and other islands of the Kurile group. they are not so good-looking. adopted or rejected at pleasure. and Koropok-gurus . improvident race.
about forty some places nearly perpendicular. merely a small piece of dry land. At Kotoni. is About Kushiro also there a very large number of Koropok- yunis* holes. for they live in pits at the present day. is also there a kind of fort. These * ' pit-dwellers of Yezo were once very nume- rous on that island. and defended with a ditch full of water. and is in summit there is a round hole like those over which the ancients are said to have built their huts. Upon its feet in height. near Sapporo. castle.3 i2 THE AINU OF JAPAN ' dwellers is quite certain. The fort is not a very imposing or formidable -looking affair. I made one journey one has to it but was not worth the time and trouble. with a wall of earth around it. in a swamp. and not far from them. . mud to it. for wade through two or three feet of about a hundred yards. and has a ditch around its higher section. is a kind of fort. In order to reach It is this fort. showing that there must once have been a Here It is very large settlement about that place. or watch-tower. there are many round holes.
i. ' which probably means the brave Ainu. also unidentified and have been conquered by the Poi-yauvribe. towards the source of the Kushiro river. had their stronghold in the mountains. preserved to us names of certain tribes. people Then we have another .CHAPTEK XXII AINU HEEOES AND LEGEND IT is very curious that the Ainu have handed down to their posterity no names of heroes. as being a very warlike and brave people. it appears. they point to districts in which certain of their brave warriors are said to have of the inhabitants of a place is lived. who lived at these are said to Samatuye. an unknown place .e. another tribe is said to have lived at Assuru. how- ever. This tribe. 'mountaineers.' These people are said to have been a particularly hardy and big-bodied race of men. and have therefore been named Kim-un-guru. named which situated in the Ishkari mountains.' We may quote in this connection a legend of a fight . or rather. Another party of fighting men are said to have lived at Tunni-pok. the They have. Thus they speak Ureiish-pet.
winding made of grass. At the head of a herd of female deer its there was a speckled doe skipping about in front of fellows.3 i4 THE AINU OF JAPAN ' between the It is a brave Ainu ' and the men of ' Samatuye. which was made of yew and ornamented with cherry bark. a great herd of bucks feeding by themselves. ' Now. and sallied forth. At the head of . by the middle. to sleep. POI-YAUMBE. legs. One night but whether what I now it was quite unable relate was seen. a place. in truth. As we went along. once round chin . and tied my hat-strings under my to my I then fastened leggings. my bow. Now. my younger my I elder brother and I. and really seemed ' . were always together. my body. we saw that the mountains . it So I sat up in my bed. stuck my favourite sword in seized my girdle. my elder brother and younger sister were coming along behind me. to go along upon the clouds. OR ' ' THE BRAVE AINU sister. took my quiver sling in my hand. The dust upon the road by the riverside was flying about I was taken up by the wind. I saw upon the tops of the mountains which lie towards the source of our river. slipped on my best boots. ' We three. I dream. my buckled my belt. or whether really took do not know.' It is called curious specimen of Ainu folk-lore. this great herd horns there was a very large speckled buck even its were speckled.
AINU HEROES AND LEGEND were covered with great herds of bucks and does . . killed so many that the mountain was completely covered with . And my brother shooting into the thickest of the herd of does.e. which had been elder with poisoned arrows). ' On coming near them I took an arrow out of my quiver and shot into the very thickest of the herd. there was also a speckled female deer skipping about at the head of the does. so AINU BOW AND QUIVER that the mountains became covered with the multitude of those hit which had tasted poison (i. even its horns were speckled. their bodies within a very short time the whole herd both of bucks and does were slain. 315 the bucks had a speckled male at their head.
the leader of the enemy) " Because said to me. and were found to be time. but they now assume their proper form. should be noted here that the Ainu now. Here we see that the speckled buck. then. he himself had invaded the land. you see that you have slain to my friends. for the beings." [These words contain the challenge to fight. and your fame has spread over many lands. you are a brave Ainu (Poi-yaumbe) . Thus. you have come hither with the purpose of picking a quarrel with me. this lordly person flash and struck at me with in return I also flashed out my sword. he had spoken so much.e. when. and change again into their normal condition at ' will. discovers the deer to be human enemies come to pick a quarrel and fight.316 ' THE AINU OF JAPAN How was it that that which but a short time since was a deer became a [It first man ? That I cannot tell. and attempts to shift the real cause of the war from his own shoulders to those of the Ainu. but may be. .] With angry word he (i.] * When drew his sword with a powerful strokes . however and you doubtless think brave you defeat me. in truth. The Ainu say that in ancient times their ancestors could assume the bodily shape of any animals they chose. They had hitherto appeared in the shape of animals. I think you will probably find that you are mistaken. now turned into a man. seeks accuses the Ainu of slaying his comrades. He some grounds of quarrel.
as of another person being slain it was my younger sister who was . saw that my elder brother was cut in he put out his hands and raised himI then drew my sword and cut from the earth. [The Ainu say that in ancient times. him twice or thrice. my elder brother and younger sister met with the speckled doe (who had now become a woman). ' Whilst things were going on in this way.AINU HEROES AND LEGEND but when I hit at 317 him with mighty blows It it there was no diffi- corresponding crashing sound. cult to was extremely come upon him .] ' I now heard a sound somewhere . was as though the wind Though this was the him. and though I though it was difficult to strike did not realise that I was struck. when fighting. so that he became a living man again. as he fell. I .] ' in Then riding upon a sound like thunder he quickly fight. and when twain self I looked. ascended to the skies and again engaged in the [Thus the ancients could carry on their battles in the air. it With great fear they fought . yet forth from much blood spurted my body. That abominable. bad man was also bleeding profusely. nevertheless the Ainu believe it. Truly this a very curious idea. their ancestors could raise the dead to life and heal their wounds by is striking them with their swords. and both attacked with drawn swords. my sword. caught the point of case.
she died with a groan). but struck the bad me with woman (i. . being * alone. upon the setting sun (i.e.') ' Upon slain this the bad foreign sister woman boasted that she to the earth." I Now. the woman and man. and they are exceedingly brave.8 THE AL\T OF JAPAN With a great sound she rode killed. and swooned.] * "The two. You must be ' careful. life called a riding upon or ' into or * a shining like the sun. she she went to the sun a living soul. will if my house. left Then the bad. made a cut at that bad. I know not. " know ye that the place where I lie is culled Siimatniii'. my younger brother death and you will live avenge my no longer. my younger brother and sister. spake thus Because you are a brave Ainu and the fame of your bravery has spread over many lands.3 . but he returned the blow. AVhether the swoon lasted for a long space or a short. is [This a figurative ' mode ' of expressing * death. : malignant man. malignant I man. and because you have done this. 1 am slain by you.e. [Samatuye is really means ' to be cut in twain/ but it said to be the name of a place or country. setting ' Death sun ' is called is a riding upon ' or ' into the . I upon their might and main. Its site is unknown. had my younger and thrown her fell Then the all two. twice or thrice so that she rode upon the sun died) . are the defenders of Thus then.
in all six came down upon the villages. and stealthily ' walking along with noiseless steps.] ' Here was a very . till path for three days and three nights. and I wondered where tiamatuye could was seizing the grass Bo I CM me to myself. peeped in between the cracks of the door (this door was simply a mat made of . tall its mountain whose top extended beautiful house. into the skies upon summit was a and above this circled a great cloud of [Here our hero again ascends to the path in the air. and Therefore I looked up and discovered the track by which this multitude of persons had come. and why if I it was so called. air. I returned home. and could carry on warfare this hero travels above the earth. I thought that name was given to the did not place to frighten me.AfNU HEROES AND LEG& VD But when I 119 opened my eyes I found my right hand stretched out above me and striking hither and thither with the sword. sea-shore. many I towns and And I travelled along this days. fog.] I descended by the side of the house. and I considered that pay it a visit I feel should be laughed at when humiliated. I ascended to the path and passed very villages. Hence through the up the path till he comes to the sea-shore. be. upon whose side there are many cities or follows He towns. and with my left I and tearing it up by the roots. Here I saw many towns and [The Ainu say that in ancient times their ancestors could travel through the far air.
the head of the fire-place staring into the and I saw something like a little woman sitting on the left- hand ' side of the fire-place. my younger little * love with Now. who was a pro- phetess. you have been a Oh. listen to me. to prophesy ' Then the : little and explain the reason to him. and listened. thus in anticipation ? there is hear news from a distant land news coming from above the mountains of is Tomi-san-pet [Tomisanpet Yezo]." Thus spake the little man. listen to is me. and I am filled with anticipation. You know. the name of a river in The brave Ainu have been attacked by my . I saw something very little man sitting cross-legged at fire. Just prophesy to me. The weather is clouding over. Here again was a woman who sister [he falls in in beauty equalled her]. my little elder brother. I Wherefore my brother . for I have a word to say. fall Ainu wizards or prophets always down and close their eyes ' when they prophesy. my prophetess from a child. to to sleep. so he asks his sister. for I desire to hear of the future. the man " spake thus : younger sister.3 20 THE AINU OF JAPAN hung like a rushes and in the doorway).] woman gave two great yawns and into a trance or to go lie said [To yawn means hero. for I have a word to say.] " My elder brother. [The little man seeks to know the cause of his anti- cipation of evil.
eyes became darkened In speaking [i. our brother departs into the setting sun and her brother is slain] . Blood is spurting forth from two great wounds the sword of is lost [i. little . is Here.screen over my shoulders and stepped inside.e. is now thus much my Ainu hero near the house]. Pay attention to what I say. but a single 321 man has anni- hilated my brother and his men. the handle of the sword of the [i. the Ainu do not know which. the Ainu hero the intended] comes flying across sky from the interior.AINU HEROES AND LEGEND elder brother without cause.e. along upon the surface of the water like a little fish coming straight to our town is the clashing of swords.e." 'As she said this I pretended that I had but now arrived. x . Whilst the battle the proceeds a kesorap [kesorap is name of some or a kind of bird it may be a peacock. and knocking the just outside I dirt off my boots upon the hard [i. and. or an eagle. bird of paradise. air]. Ainu shines upon the sun Although our house was in [she sees the the Ainu it conquers]. she can prophesy no more]. making a noise had but just arrived]. When way it crosses the sea [she now it the Ainu on his to their castle or village] darts . it. however. though I earnestly it desire to prophesy about somehow or other passes sees out of my sight. soil the house the ground as if They both turned and looked at me with one accord . in danger peace. the sword of an Ainu and the sword of his antagonist [she sees the battle carried on in the .e. I lifted upon the door.
with fear they gazed at Then ' I walked along the left-hand side of the fire-place with hasty strides.. you will be annihilated. so I They were as cut them down like men mow * grass. the Samatuye man. Whilst this was going on the brothers. I Listen to what I say. I drew my sword and that flashed about. although I am a wounded man." And when it had so said. a very great multitudecongregated upon the threshold. I have a ' word to say. of I ascended to the ceiling fighting. you little Samatuye man. chased him from one end of the house to the We Whilst this was going on. Besides. little woman it said : " Oh my why did ye commit such a fault as to attack the brave Ainu without cause ? Was that ye . It The same mode is often used in this way.. I will ' overthrow your town. and sitting myself : cross-legged at the head thereof. and here other. you will be you punished by the gods to . spake thus " Look here. Listen what I say.3 22 THE AINU OF JAPAN me from under their eyebrows. attacked us without cause ? Has he not done so [this question carries in of speech is it an affirmation. I struck at him with such blows the wind whistled. attend well to me. men thick as swarms of flies . Why has your elder brother. '? As an affirmation under the guise of a question] have stirred up this war without cause. I swept the little man to the right-hand side of the fire-place with is my foot [to touch a person with the foot a gross insult amongst the Ainu].
" When the little dagger from her bosom and cut down the door like grass . In a very short time those few persons were After this I went after the strides.] Fighting so. as stated above. all Samatuye man with I struck hasty at and drew my sword above him. saying As for me. he was . him with heavy blows. I my dagger against ' am undone I did not desire a man without friends. she drew a men at the side we fought by side. so I an earnest desire to be with I say. The little woman seeks the hand of the brave Ainu." brave Ainu Listen to what [Thus then this war ends in a marriage. killed. there. ' just as the man himself in love with her. and was " After this the : little woman wept to very much and ' spake. falls [Here we see that the woman fell in love with the is man. we drove them out of the house. The Samatuye woman at also stood by dagger. ' my side and hit her brother with her In a very short time he received two or three cuts slain. . draw " As the have ! little hawks flock together where there thee. That they x 2 . is food. And when we beheld them. my words. woman had thus spoken. but behind them stood the little Samatuye man yes.AINU HEROES AND LEGEND desired to slay those 323 who had no wish to die that ye fell upon them * ? Henceforth Listen to I shall cast in my lot with the brave Ainu. there were but a few left.
] . is and had a family of left to and extraordinarily brave heroes of the hearer's imagination. That the woman in this should seek the hand of a man is quite a natural state of things amongst the Ainu. were happy ever beautiful daughters sons.324 THE AINU OF JAPAN afterwards. It is with them one continual leap- year. and constantly occurs land.
325 CHAPTER MISSION XXIII WORK AMONG THE AINU the Ainu was at that time It MISSION work Rev. information was gained. Dening to Sapporo. But although much prepared strictly for further efforts. Dening. winning the confidence of the people. and the former may be regarded as a of the Gospel. and in some weeks endeavouring in a simple way to give them some notion The Ainu and Japanese languages are wholly different. to study the Ainu visits of two months each to Piratori. During ments in that district. language altogether isolated at the present day. 1880 the author accompanied Mr. and made his first visits to the Ainu settleIn and began 1881 he paid two language. who first commenced by ttfe was connected with the Church Missionary Society. learning their language. in 1876 that he lived for visited was during a tour the Ainu in their villages. Other districts were visited during a second tour in 1878. made his first attempt to . and. He an Ainu hut. among W. and the way not much was effected in a missionary sense. whilst continuing his linguistic studies. the old Ainu capital.
His and manner of life are the same as of old. though quiet and to drunkenness. and did a great deal of The work was always very listen. he returned to the Ainu country.000 In the way of preaching the Gospel. for a long time. at Piratori in Chief Penri's I held services visiting and itinerating. honest. so Japanese art and traditions depict him language. faithful. and their chiefs expressing the amongst them hut. I gentle. are drunkards. religion. no writing. a vocabuwords collected. The Ainu. They manifested great pleasure at his return. and gentle. estimate that ninety per cent. He numbers above a thousand. and some translation work attempted. England in 1882. of the men . and remained there during six months in 1883. to visit came to ask me to preach to their people. peaceable. brave. As the Ainu of to-day is and lives. hope that he would remain almost whole villages turning out to welcome him. who him a corner of his His study of the language was resumed. an Ainu grammar compiled. no In character and morals they are stupid. He lent located himself with Chief Penri at Piratori. His Ainu friends had not forgotten him. encouraging.326 THE AINU OF JAPAN After visiting preach the Gospel. hut. in the dawn of history. are much addicted After careful inquiries in many villages. good-natured. dress. lary of about 6. has no alphabet. for whole villages came together to and sometimes very good questions were asked by the Several chiefs whom I was then unable congregations.
He took a all very great interest in the religion of Jesus. It is to the advantage of these wine. and improving their condition by But another great difficulty is with the education. the beginnings of a hard struggle religion. even now. connected in his The Christian injunction against intemperance offends him. He up his drink. Christianity useless. to excess 327 whenever they have How God can be acceptably worshipped mind are wine and without wine is a puzzle to the poor Ainu. by them to be rotten. Japanese traders. and that their taste for wine should be encouraged as begin to see what effects But they Christian teaching would have as possible. and did he could to assist me. The Japanese Government seems to be desirous of protecting the Ainu. They buy the skins of animals from the Ainu. and therefore and .MISSION WORK AMONG THE AINU and that the women drink the opportunity. between strong drink and The Chief Penri sadly illustrates the power which this terrible vice has over the poor Ainu. and I see. is said therefore they bring their forces to bear upon Christianity and the missionary.vendors to keep the poor Ainu in a state of ignorance. but each time he failed. and on the second for nearly three. But drunkenness was tried twice to give his great stumbling-block.vendors. who are all wine. so intimately worship. and they love to pay for them in wine rather than money. On the first occasion he was sober for a whole month. all much upon the Ainu.
he has come here to gain the confidence of the Ainu. consequently could not visit the Ainu districts but I invited the chief Penri to Hakodate. rascal of a hairy Chinaman ' (meaning myself). lest some difficulty should be raised to prevent us from remaining. as it is is a nearly midway between the Sam and the Usu districts. was necessary. and . spent some how- time in the Ainu villages. In 1885 we stayed at Poropet Kotan. learn their language. we were seldom able to collect more than six Ainu together in the hotel at one time but when preaching in an Ainu hut we were generally much crowded. The was meetings were always largely attended when it known magic that my address was to be illustrated by the lantern. which I found of the greatest use. and there continued the study of the language. . accompanied by my wife. and we were compelled to lodge at a Japanese inn. and. Owing to the misrepresentations of these part of 1884 I was unable to men. which particularly good centre for work. As the Ainu are very unwilling to enter Japanese houses. ever. first Before the close of this year the Ainu convert .328 THE AINU OF JAPAN As for that ' not to be believed. the congregation never numbering less than thirty. and in the end seize the country and the people. deceive them with a false religion. during obtain a passport. Later in the year I procured a passport. all told. In this village there are about 150 Ainu. The greatest caution.
Batchelor started a singingclass for girls. Tane anakne apun no ku mokoro ' tane. He was a good Japanese scholar. old. He early showed a great interest He was baptized on Christmas Day. . Several adults also learned to read. and the Word of God translated into it. when he was mother of Ainu country. 188G. Matthew's Gospel has been proceeded with and thus a new language is being reduced to writing. the Lord's Prayer. ratchitara . first things ever printed in Ainu these were done with a press bought money sent by the children of Jesus' Lane Sunday- school. and the The ' Apostles' hymn little Jesus loves the me' were the language with . 1885 . Nothing her more than to hear the old. ' last testimony was. He was named Eanari Taro. and held a school- master's certificate. were baptized with their adopted Japanese daughters by Bishop Bickersteth. new. . Creed. ku 1 shini eashkai ne ') (' Now I can sleep quietly now can rest in peace Mrs. yet ever Her . Since then the translation of St. delighted Her age was seventy-five. the our female Christian servant was brought to visiting the a saving knowledge of her Eedeemer by her daughter and son-in-law. write. in Christianity. In 1886. and was son of the village chief. Cambridge. and two others husband and wife who were then inquirers. on August 29. story of Jesus and the cross.MISSION WORK AMONG THE AINU in connection with the mission 329 was baptized. These children also learned to read and .
were very encouraging features. Year by year its members of the decrease. During work was done. . if extinction seems inevitable. will abide for ever. is But the Ainu race dying out. into He was who was taken as pupil-teacher into the Ainu school. aged nineteen. and. He had Also two more Ainu were baptized thirteen pupils. a precious remnant. The invitations to go to other villages were earnest and frequent. The next year there were no further baptisms. One Ainu only was gathered a lame lad. the first Ainu Christian. and seeing through the press the Mark. was appointed schoolmaster. St. won to Christ. during this same year.330 THE AINU OF JAPAN During the year 1887 a good school for the Ainu was started at Horobetsu. That the Ainu of Japan bright example receive may prove a fresh and of the readiness of primitive races to Him who has pictured Himself as the Shepherd. its Japanese Government to preserve But. and St. the Church. making fifteen in all nine boys and six the year girls. making a total of six native Christians. 1889 a great deal of itinerating The full congregations and rapt atten- tion of the hearers. the race perishes. and the school had only two additional pupils. the telling questions and intelligent remarks made by the people. John in Ainu. Luke. in spite of the laudable efforts it. and Kanari Taro. During my furlough at home I have had the lege of privi- translating Gospels of St.
MISSION WORK AMONG THE AINU 331 leaving the ninety and nine in the wilderness. but to bring forth the fruits of the same Spirit. wherein is excess. and going after that one which is lost until He find it. teaching them not to be drunk with Christ and reveal wine. will surely be the prayer of every reader of these pages. blessed Spirit whose office it is May that to take of the things of them unto men. . to the glory of God the Father. work among the poor benighted Ainu.
extermination of. wars of. 201 about insects. 325 Aioina Kamui. bear-feasts. 142 Bird. modes of saluting. . deities of. 19 size of. . 162 Bear-pits. their use of poison. 171 Beating. 284 . 199 legend about them. 18 appearance of. 155 . . 289 not the only place-naming of. . . 288 intermarriage of. 191 . fishtraps of. . . 162. 130 . . 73 Belts. tales of. . . .INDEX BIB ABLUTIONS. 24 they are malodorous. game of. . 84 Beads. harpoons of. . 200 meut. 219 . drunkenness. 273 274 . 174 . 24 how treated by Japanese. 313 mission work amongst. 60 worship libations of. . 148 . fishing of. . 288 balism of. 170 . 44 curious custom at childbirth. 201 death and burial customs of. 123 . games of. 13 etymology of name. ideas of heaven and hell. 28 horses. 43 children. 54 temple of. 259 Bags. 112 . 153 . 132 Bedsteads. . 68 tiness of. 115. 97 . 16 hairiness of. 50 Betrothal. . 212 of. 169. . 189 Ainu. 70 furniture of. . 61 . . 39 reaping. treatment of the sick.121. 158 . . 185 . 169 At tush. the sun godconduct of during eclipse. . etiquette eduof. . 154 nets of. fear of snakes. of. . . feeding babies. 28 their love of of. 235 wortheir ideas of ship of Yoshitsune. 223 . Armour. Saghalien Ainu. 152. bows of. . 48 huts of. 124. 245 . 16 Japanese tradition of origin of. canoes of. arrows. sleighs of. 188 their fear of angry women. . 38 food of. . 287 . 2u3 tombstones of. polytheism of. 197 . 276 idea as to shape of the world. 153 . 197. dress of. 143 . ordeals of. 179 . 224 story as to the future world. origin of. marriage of. the. 67 position of. snow-shoes of . cationof. . 135 family life of. belief as to stars. 131 . 171 . : . . 139. 111-13. . 138 . origin of. . 248 creed of. mode of sleeping. . 187 . dess. . 30 power of the Gospel on. 281 . Miss. 287 Arrows. medicines of. 279 . 101. . 86 83 use of tobacco. mode of 76 mode of carrying. 44 . 174 Bear-hunting. . mode of hunting deer. mistake of. at meals. 84 temper of. death. conservatism of. 126 . penalty for. traps of. 50 Bear-feasts. 26 wildness women's work. 240 worship. 182 . 171 . bearhunting. . 230. 35 position of women. 262 . their belief that sickness is a punish. 182 . 195. Axe Eoclc. 43 divorce among. 20 dirtiness of. 40 cooking. 268 BABIES. punishments of. . . tame. .109 . 60 61 . . . meaning of. . 256 gods. . 29 . 72 . 101 . 277 . 291 aborigines. 254 religious legends of. government of. 162. 194 . housewarming mode of saying grace. inao of. 295 . 171 Bears. 251 lesser ideas of Providence. 182 Baskets. . . 28 their love of sake. 29 drunkenness of. . their bear cubs. . music of. 186 . 281 decrease of. trade by. "2-2\ Adultery. . 20 physiology mode of dressing the hair. . 226 libations of. of. 31 appearance of women. dancing of. . . 158 story . legends of. . small-pox. 18 character of. 284 effects of exposure. trade of. 95 prayers of. . 34 tattooing. . 247 belief in one great God. wizards of. 48 . . 45 . belief in ghosts. . 219 dread of old women. dread of largo lakes. 45 . 287 cannidaggers of. creed . . use of. spears of. raids of. treatment of 41 suicides among. . 152 . 285 . . 84 Barter. poisoned. names of. prophets. . 210 mode of speaking of . fear of fire. . 142. . . 24 of. 224 beliefs of. treasures of. 64 dirof. . 38 weaving of. 63 . 286 armour of. . 67 food of. . heroes of.
legends as to origin Intermarriage. 3'J Convolvulus plant. 155 Heaven. 297 Gardens. 62 story of a rich man's. Bows. 46 KAMUI. 248 Government. 28 Hot iron or stone ordeal. the. 43 Chronicles of Japan. story as to the. 58 shutters. . 137 Harpoons. 14 203 Decoy for deer. 192 Dwarfs. death of a.334 BON THE AINU OF JAPAN Fishing. causes of Ainu. 187 Child. 58 sacredness of east end of. dread of. 270 Cup ordeal. huts of. 219 Climate of Yezo. 310 pottery of. 135 House-warming feast. 289 of. 307 insect pests in. slaughter by. mode of dressing. 287 Dancing. 58 porch of. 281 Insect pests. tale of the.14 Cloth. 185 Dogs and 226 Dogs. 59 doorways of. value of. 298 Chants. 60. 63 draughtiness of. 109 Embroidery. 206 huts of old women. 44 Dock seed. Hokkaido. 235 Hell. . INAO. belief in. mode of saying. 236 Ghosts. mode of building. 59 Dress of Ainu. 293 Funeral customs. 57 thatching. etymology of word. government by. 30 Dryads. 87 Index finger. . 61 . 275 Ainu.' 298 East end of hut. 307 etymology of words. for. 59 size of newly married. 124 . 143 Deities. reason Burning Building. 219. 76 . 219 God. widow's. 284 Deer-hunting. 62 of. 288 Canoes. 278 Earth-spiders. Emperor. treatment of Earthquake ' fish legend. 67 Foxes. 57 windows. 49 . 40 Chiefs. a. Chestnuts used as food. anecdote concerning. 236 Cradle. 187 Grace. 251 Crops. 213 13 Book. 191 for. 16 . the. 137 Cursing. 258 Creed of Ainu. 40 customs as to. 41 Hanging by the hair. 76 Insects. 93 Horses. system of. 124 GAMES. 111 Family life. 131 . 67 . legend as to. . 136 Drunkenness of Ainu. 277 Lamps. belief in. Fire. 229 . 247 Divorce. description of. Ainu love of. curious custom at. 258 Hair-cutting. 64 Hunting. 152 Fish-trap. treatment of. 201. cheating of. . 271 EAR-BORING. 255 Dualism. 213 Childbirth. . 138 Famine. 41 Children. a great. . 80 . 83 LAKES. 43 word Creator. 171 mode of. 76 Flint and steel. Ainu love of. 310 who were they ? 310 Tlotoni. 301 Koropok-gurus. fear of. the treatment of. 248 Korean aborigines of Japan. 236 Heroes. legends of. 80 Cannibalism. 243 Hairiness of Ainu. Ainu. Burial. 24 Jimmu. 45 Drinking ordeal. 24 Jluliotis tuberculatd used as food. 58 ventilation of. . 223 CANDLESTICKS. belief in the. sacredness of. 309 implements of. 41. 130 Dead. 40 legend of a. 83 Food. 226 1 Bonnet. the. 259. 153 Fleas. dread of. . 182 Cave-dwellers. 1 2 Fuji-yami. use of. 75 of pit-dwellers. 279 Fire goddess. . 307 . of. 136 Hot-water ordeals. . mode of. FABLE of the Man in the Moon. 39 Crow legend. 28 Hiits. 49 JAPANESE tradition of origin of Ainu. 312 . 313 DAGGERS. 50 Earrings. 194 Dog-sleighs. 67 Graves. name for. 58 Eclipse of the sun. 57 mode of. hunting. 203 Furniture. 18 Hair. Doorways. 274. use of. mode of producing. etymology of. 196 HADES. the. use Cooking. . : . extract from oldest Japanese. 70 . pedlars. 143 Decrease. 256 Gehenna. etymology of word. 143 spirits. fort at. legend about. 298 Education. . 72 Future world.
152 Marriage customs. 224 Porch of hut. the god. of the water-wagtail. as to snakes. skin. the. 281 Ainu love of. 179 Pit-dwellers. 240 Shintoko. 226 . 153 Nusa. 127 Rich man. 311 Shinondi. inscriptions Otter-trap. 245 Pap. 314 Polytheism of Ainu. 154 Spoons. 84 Snakes. 121 . 93 Robbery. 199> Sleeping. 40 Leggings. belief in.' people saved by eating. 268 Rat-trap. 115 . position at. 300 Man in the Moon. 310 Storehouses. 268 . 48 Shrine of Yoshitsune. 59 Sun-goddess. as to reverence for the old. 267. fishing for. 48 Libations of wine. 16 Ornaments. offerings to. as to Ainu origin. 60 OINAUSHI. as to earthquake fish. 186 Spears for fishing. 85 Piratori. 46 Nets. 123 TALE OP THE FOXES. 150 Reaping. a case of. 92 Serpent. 49 Shoes. Prof. 63 Rings. 195 Torchlight. at. 123 Salmon. 97 112 Tara. 302 Mo acha. as to the future world. . name for. 288 Rat legend. 111 Marek. 50 61. the god. 50 Needlework. 188 Rushikai-Russians. 271 . 119 Ordeals. MADNESS. 310 Prayers. 129 Murder. 273 Sunstroke. 49 River deities. 60 Thatching. 283 . 83 Tattooing. 278 . 154 Tuna. punishment for. 190 Music. 201 . 49 301 Otarunai. of Poiyaumbe. 200 legend about. 307 Place-naming. 29 Shintoism. 137 Tombe. 115 .. on Ainu creed. 48 Sleighs. 300. 142 Necklaces. 135 Origin of Ainu. NAMES. 152. on caves. 48 Trout-spear. 314 : 335 Prophets. of eclipses. 48 Trousers. legend about a monster. 270 . 278 . on hair-cutting. 111 . 230 Sake. as to crows. 154 Pipes and tobacco. ' a. 74 Meals. 153 Toro no maki mono. 283 Okikurumi-Yoshitsune. 243 . of the creation. 295 Religious legend. 276 Stone implements. treatment for. story of a. punishment for. 49 mallet-headed.' the. 127 .INDEX LEG Legends the Man in the Moon. 13. 101 Sarak kamui. 78 Moustache lifters. 92 Mortar and pestle. 201 Shi ncha. SAGHALIEN Ainu. 148 Stake ordeal. the meaning Traps. 29 of. ancient. the. 76 Spring-bow. the. people of. the. 77 JfuktuH. 137 Stars. huts of. 148 Treasures. 152 modes of.' 307 . as to massacre of earth-spiders. 291 Poison. 59 Possession. 169 Poi-yaumbe. meaning of. 196 Pottery. Japanese. use of. 72 Tunes. 198 Swords. of a famine. as to rats. 80 Records of Ancient Matters. 94 'Sea-ear. fishing by. legend of. as to insects. 242 Shutters. mode of. 68 Medical treatment. of. religious. 138 for. on Otaru inscription. 209 Toothache. 155 . fear of. use Saluting. 199 Mallet-headed swords. 201 Snow-shoes. fishing tradition. 185 Smoking. 92 Shikotan. 197 Punishments. 275 . Looms. 300. 85 Tobacco ordeal. 57 Tobacco-boxes. 41 . 58 Sickness thought to be a punishment. Ainu. 41 Seagods. as to the gods. the capital. 78 Pike-spear. 148 PANTHEISM. the god. 260. Hades. 76 Paralysis. the. 35 Temples. 139 Mats. 124 . 113 . 229 . 199 Pestle and mortar. 49 Tombstones. 188 RAIDS. of Yoshitsune's theft. fondness Ostyak ordeal. 194 Milne. belief in demoniacal.
213 oppodread of old. . sacrilege by. 280 Water-nymphs. 155. 42. a good. 38 garden at home. 49 mode of. 44 of feeding babies. position Windows. 110 dances of. 14 legend as to creation of. J'KIXTEn BY Sl'OTTISWOODK AND CO. 195 f'. . 115 fishing tradition of. legend of. 240. shape 34 . 104 mode of saluting. 191. 255 283 tattooing of. shrine of.33 6 THE AINU OF JAPAN YOS Women's work. position of. scarcity of. Water-wagtail. 39 Widowers. legends of. 233 the Ainu of. . . 231 dition of. Wounds. 42 suicide among. . 58 of. 173 curses of angry. . . 223 consition of. 132 Urai. : . food of. 107 education of. 212 Worship at house-warming. 70 Villages. 14 of. 231 of the. tombstones of. NEW-STREET SQUARE LOKDOX . 210 widows. 283 UKAUA. 144 Woman. treatment of. . 40 WAK-CLUBS. 38 . 41 ignorant of religion. legend War?. 43 treatment of children. destruction of. 192. 207 Yoshitsune. . 76 etiquette of. . 54 Violet. .4 Widows. 28 Women. the. work and wearing by. 141 Wizards. . used as food. CO TEN ISON. 222 their religious status. . 139 supposed to suckle bear cubs. meaning of word. 43 needlework fondness for ornaments. 242 YK/O. 104 mode of entering a hut. 213 Wife. 39 . Warinnekuru. 192. 257 Turen. esteem for. 35 . description : : . 153 "Utensils. etymology <>f tlie word. 197 Wo'vcs. appearance of. spite of. . dog-tooth. worship of. . . .. 121 Weaving. . 179 of. 130 position of wife. 260 Turesli.. 277 World. Tuntu.
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