T

CONTROL NO. C-160063

PROJECT
l SUPPLFMENT

GEMINI

1

!
¢

familiarization manual
SEDR 300 COPY NO.
DOCKING CONFIGURATIONS
THIS PUBLICATION SUPPLEMENTS SEDR300 VOLUME

|-

-

/

RENDEZVOUSand

IMFC I_ O lki lkl E L L
THIS DOCUMENT SUPERSEDES DOCUMENT DATED 31 MAY' 1965

_ _ .,_J_ .._ _

defense of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Laws, Title 18, This Sections 793 and information affecting the national NOTICE: U.S.C., material contains 794, the transmission or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthorized person is p_ohibited by law. DOWNGRADED GROUP-4 INTERVALS; AT 3-YEAR DECLASSIFIEDFTER YEARS A 12 CONFIDENTIAL

I

I JULY 1966

CONFIDENTIAL

f

GUIDA NCE and CONTROL SYSTEM

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

TITLE GENERAL ....................................................... ATTITUDE CONTROL AND MANEUVER ELECTRONICS

PAGE 8-3 8 15 __!_ i:._-:_'_ii_;_ _::::_-_':---_
,...°.°°._...,.o.°..°°o.°°. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ,..o.....,.°...°°.......,.,

INERTIAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM ...................... 8-43 iiiiiiiiii:_i!-";_'-..'--_ H ORIZ O N SEN SO R SYSTEM .......................... 8- 201 iiiiiiiiii_i_i!i!iiiiii-_i RENDEZV OU S RADAR SYSTEM .................... 8- 233 iii!iiiii_iiiiiii_iiiiiii
........._.o...°..o,°....o, •°°,°.°o ...o°o.°.°°°°._.o., .°.,.°°°.,..°°....°..,....,

CO MMA N D LIN K.......................................... REN DEZ V O US EVA LUATIO N PO D................ TIME REFERENCESYSTEM ........................... PROPULSION SYSTEM ...................................

8- 273 8- 289 8-3Ol 8- 341

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i iHi i ! i i i i !i!i i !
......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ........... ......... ......... ......... .........

........ • ,.. ........... ..°. ., ....... ,.o..** ........ •., .... •.,..o....o.. .......... ......... °...... ......... ., ......... • ................. ......... ° ................. ...... ..,. ................. , ................. ° ................. ° ................. . ................. °................. °_ .............. ° ................. ° ................. ° ................. , .................

8-1 / 2 CONFIDENTIAL

iii_iiiii_ii!'_iiiiii!_!!

CONFIDENTIAL

__

SEDR 300

GUIDANCE AND CONTROL - GENERAL

GENERAL The Guidance and Control System provides the Gemini Spacecraft with the capability to maneuver in space, control its attitude in relation to the earth's surface. and effect a safe re-entry. It also provides back-up launch vehicle guidance functions during rendezvous

during ascent and control of certain target vehicle procedures.

Spacecraft attitude can be controlled about three axes:

pitch, roll, and yaw. An

A

mode select switch permits selection of either automatic or manual control. attitude hand controller, located for use by either pilot, is used for manual attitude control.

Translation control is provided along the longitudinal, vertical, and lateral spacecraft axes. translation Either of two maneuver hand controllers may be used for manual No provision is made for automatic control.

control.

Three types of target vehicles are provided for the rendezvous missions:

the

Agena, the Rendezvous Evaluation Pod (REP), and the Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA)o Certain functions within the Agena or the ATDA can be controlled

through the Command Link of the Guidance and Control System.

In rendezvous spacecraft, the Guidance and Control System is made up of eight individual systems or subsystems. a. b. c. They are:

Attitude Control and Maneuver Electronics (ACME) Inertial Guidance System (IGS) Horizon Sensors

8-3
CONFIDENTIAL

J

z--

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

BOOSTER SECONDARY AUTOPILOT

D INERTIAL MEASUREMENT UNIT

I BOOSTER MD_I
• AUX] LIARY COMPUTER POWER UNIT AC POWER AC POWER (SELECTOR) 400 CPS POWER

I INERTIAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM
J POWER I

lob I
POVvER SUPPLY

COMPUTER TURN-ON PO%'ER

SIGNAL

t
MANUAL DATA iNSERTION UNIT l

z
O _ O

| AC-DC

POWER CONTROL PLATFORM (MODE

SELECTOR)
CONTROL
-;_LRCEI TAPE MEMORY PROGRAM PLATFORM COMPUTER (MODE SELECTOR) 1 • J ; --

_u
j O

._J

U

MODE CONTROL

RESOLVER EXCITATION GIMBAL POSITION SIGNAL

I
ON BOARD C_MPUTER

I
I

VELOCITY l INDICATOR IN CREMENTAL _,V COMMAND I_V INFORMATION

I

_l

PLAIEORM

ELECTRONICS

I

(INERTIAL) I

DISPLAy GROUP ATTITUDE

I

ATTITUDE ERROR

- -1-I| TARGET YA% AND

PITCH ANGLES

(ANALOG)

_

_ TARGET VEHICLE

I
'
/_ " -

r_'E ND'_'_V O-US _ -RADAR J SYSTEM

q

SUPPLY POV, ER , _

ANTENNA SYSTEM

I
J

ANTEN NA RECED/ER SYSTEM

POV, ER SUPPLY TRANSMITTER

TIME REFERENCE INTERROGA11ON AND PDAEE INFORMATION

XMIT ANT iNTERROGATION

/TRANSPONDER I

soB-B,T DETE_OR
I PROGRAMMER

l

I C_MMAND_,N_I_TE'ND'CAT°R L NK I i_NO_NGR I _PTE_°°C_'NG) L
& RF COMMAND

I

I_
Figure 8-1

j
Guidance and Control 8-4

ENCGDER LINK

I (BEFORE DOCKING)

_>

SPACECRAFT

8 THRU

12 ONLY.

[_AGENA AND ATDA TARGET VEHICLES ONLY.

Functional

Block

Diagram

(Sheet

1 of 2)

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

._,_.__

PROJECT

GEMINil

' cPsP°wE -i '
I SUPPLY PO_'ER I ELECTRONICS SEN SOR RE-ENTRY ROLL COMMAND :c j r_TTTT'_I:

I-;O.,ZON -SENSO,'--"

i----"- -- " HEAD SENSOR

1'
1 FIRE COMMANDI

J

MANEUVER ELECTRONICS CONTROL AND
ATTITUDE I_ATE _

--

"

I
1

I

_

SYSTEM CONTRoLRE-ENTRY

I

I

I

ATTITUDE ELECTRONICS

ATTITUDE COMMAND

I

I

I

I

_

(ACE)

GYRO'S I 400 CPS POWER t

_

FIRE COMMAND

ATTITUDE

_

'

AND MANEUVER ORBIT ATTITUDE ELECTRONICS

I

I I,
I __

THRUSTERS

'_

I I
I I

CONTROL

,EEC, OE)
(MODE ACME PO'C,'ER INVERTER

ATTITUDE

HAND

(DAME) i I I
MANEUVER --

MANEUVER THRUSTERS

CONTROLLER (RIGHT) HAND

coMMA.D j
I

L

_I

I

-CONTROLLER HAND (LEFT) MANEUVER

-!

k

....
E.T. --

_1
m TO BIO-MEDTAPE RECORDER TO VOICE TAPE RECORDER

I"_M E REFEI_EN_Y ST--'_ ....
TIME DIGITAL CLOCK CORRELATION BUFFER

1

INTERROGATION TIME REFERENCE AND

I

I

DCSEECE,VER> I_ UPOATE
I SEQUENTIAL_LIFT-OFF SIGNAL I r ELECTRONIC TIMER

8P.P.S.
TIMING E.T. & T.T.G. EVENT TIMER

ACCUTRON CLOCK

GMT CLOCK

I

I
T X SIGNAL AND 8.19 KC CLOCK SIGNAL _ _ _ I TR-256 SEC,TR-30 SEC TR SIGNAL

:
DCSRECEIVER SEQUENTIAL YSTEM S RETRO FIRE CIRCUITS

I

Figure

8-1

Guidance

and Control

Functional 8-5

Block

Diagram

(Sheet

2 of 2)

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAl.

PROJECT
__
m

GEMINI

SEDR300

d. e. f. g. h.

Rendezvous Command

Radar

System

Link Evaluation System Pod (REP)

Rendezvous

Time Reference Propulsion

(TRS)

System

SYSTEM FUNCTIONS

The various functional

guidance

and control between

systems each

are all functionally

related.

The 8-1.

relationship

of the systems

is illustrated

in Figure

Attitude

Control

and Maneuver

Electronics

The Attitude thruster provided

Control

and M/_euver

Electronics

system System.

converts Input

input

signals

to

_-

firing

com,_nds

for the Propulsion hand controller,

signals

to ACME are sensors depend-

by the attitude

the IGS, or the horizon

ing on the mode of operation.

Inertial

Guidance

System

The Inertial mation, ation

Guidance

System

provides

inertial

attitude

and acceleration attitude

infor-

guidance

computations_

and displays.

The inertial

and acceler-

information

is used for computations ascent guidance,

and display

purposes.

Computations guidance. for

are used for back-up Displays manual are utilized

rendezvous

guidance

and re-entry

by the crew for reference

information

and as a basis

control.

8-6
CONFIDENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

EQ_
Horlzon Sensors The Horizon Pitch Sensors error and roll

PROJE

=

provide signals platform

a reference are supplied

to the

earth

local

vertical

during

orbit. control

to ACMEfor automatic

attitude

and to the

IGS for

alignment.

Rendezvous

Radar

The Rendezvous Target

Radar

provides is used for

target

range,

range

rate,

and angle and for

information. purposes. Target eleva-

information

rendezvous

computations

display

A radar indicator displays target range and range-rate information.

tion and yaw angles are selectable for display on the attitude indicator.

Comana TInk
The Command Link provides a control capability over the Agena or ATDA target vehicle. Coded cu.-,_ands,ransmitted either through the radar or the umbilical, t systems of the target

allow the pilot to activate or de-actlvate the various vehicle.

_e_dezvous

Evaluation

Pod

The Rendezvous

Evaluation

Pod is the target for a simulated rendezvous mission. Once

The pod is carried into orbit in the equipment adapter section of Gemini. in orbit, the pod is ejected and its systems activated.

A radar transponder and

acquisition lights in the pod allow the Gemini pilots to perform rendezvous exerclses.

8-7
CONFIDINTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
__

GEMINI

SEDR300

Time Reference

System

The Time Reference functions. form. System.

System provides a time base for all guidance and control

Time is displayed for pilot reference in both clock and digital

The TRS also provides timing signals to the computer and the Sequential

Propulsion

System

The Propulsion Thrusters

System provides the thrust required

for spacecraft

maneuvers. Firing

are provided for both translational

and attitude control.

co, hands for the Propulsion

System are provided by AC_ME.

GUIDANCE ANDCONTROL MISSION

....

The functions of the Guidance

and Control System are dependent on mission phase. The phases

The mission is divided into five phases for explanation purposes. are: pre-launch, launch, orbit, retrograde, and re-entry.

Pre -launch Phase

Pre-launch

phase is utilized for check-out and programming Parameters

of guidance and

control systems.

required for insertion in the desired orbit are

inserted in the computer. desired launch azimuth. selectors

The IMU is aligned to the local vertical and the Power is turned on to the various systems, and mode Check-out and parameter insertlo:

are placed in their launch position.

are performed in the last 150 m_nutes prior to launch.

8-8
CONI=IDI[NTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

___.

_;

PROJECT SEDR

300

GEMIN!

__

TRACKING

DATA =.] GROUND CONTROL GEMINI CREW MANUAL SWITCHOVER

TELEMETRY G/E BURROUGHS SELF CHECKS Vl

DISPLAYS I CREW STATION

TITAN

SYSTEM ASCENT ;EMINI PRIMARy BACK-UP 9 _| J GUIDANCE 1

I
J

RATE GYROS MALFUNCTIO N DETECTION SYSTEM

J

I

J J

AUTOMATLC SWiTC HOVER

ANGLE SENSORS I GIMBAL

ASCENT GUIDANCE SWlTCHOVER

i

GEMINI

TRANSMITTER

RECEIVER

:[
: O.B.C.

FI L I I
I

TITAN

I
-COMPUTERS A-I r J-1 BURROUGHS } ..... (PRE-LAUNCH) TARGET DATA _ I ; 1 _ AUTOPILOT BACK-UP

TI
I'<_
_>

MOD III TRACKER TRACKING DATA

HYDRAULICS

'

: MISTRAM 2

2rid STAGE ENGINES

NOTE
STAGE SPACECRAFT 6 AND 8 THRU 12 ONLY ! "mid BACKzUP HYDRAULICS

"

_

--

GODDARD

I I
TRACKING SYSTEM

ENGINES

BACK-UP ASCENT GUIDANCE 8-2 Gemini Ascent 8-9 CONFIDENTIAL Guidance (Back-Up)

Figure

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
__

GEMINI

SEDR 300

Launch Phase

Guidance and control from lift-off through SSECO is provided by the booster guidance system. control. However, in case of booster guidance malfunction the IGS can assume Provision is made for either automatic or manual switchover to back-up Figure 8-2 indicates both methods of s_itchover and the backthe booster during ascent. The IGS monitors attitude Ground tracking At SSECO, the

(Gemini) guidance.

up method of controlling and acceleration information remaining

parameters throughout

the launch phase.

Is used to continuously

update computer parameters. is displayed.

velocity required for insertion use the Propulsion

The command pilot will, spacecraft velocity as

after separation,

System to increase

required for insertion in the desired orbit. approxlm_tely

Insertion will take place

580 miles down range at an inertial velocity of approximately

25,YTO feet per second.

Orbit Phase

Orbit phase is utilized for checkout and alignment maneuvers and preparation

of systems, rendezvous Immediately after

for retrograde and re-entry.

insertion a series of system checks will be performed to assure the capability of guidance and control systems. Guidance computations and measurements are checked

for accuracy against ground tracking information. aligned by ground command or by the pilot.

Systems are updated and

After completion of system can be performed. During the final

=hecks, the catch-up and rendezvous maneuvers

orbit, guidance and control systems are re-allgned in preparation for retrograde and re-entry.

8-IO CONIFIDRN'rlAL

CONFIOIENTIAL S|DIt 00 3

Retrograde

Phase

Retrograde is placed

phase begins in re-entry

approximately and begins

five minutes collecting

before

retrofire. re-entry seconds,

The computer computations.

mode

data for at TR-256

The Time Reference and TR. needle. re-entry Retrograde changes are At TR-256

System provides seconds, a minus

indications

TR-30

seconds, attitude to

16 degree bias is placed from orbit attitude manually !

on the pitch and maneuver during

The Propulsion control.

System

is switched attitude

Spacecraft

is controlled are monitored

retrograde.

acceleration displayed

and attitude for reference.

by the IGS, and

velocity

Re-Entry

Phase

Re-entry through re-entry heads are

phase

begins

immediately

after

retrofire. counting

The

event

timer

counts during

zero at retrograde phase_ After

and will be the

down from adapter

sixty minutes and horizon orients Re-entry

retrofire, Shortly

retrograde retrograde,

scanner spaceis

Jettisoned.

after

the pilot

the

craft to re-entry held until the

attitude

(0 ° pitch,

180 ° roll, 0° yaw). starts.

attitude _00,000

computer computer

re-entry re-entry

program program

At approximately has

feet of EATE mode, the

altltl,de, the manual CMD.

starts_ and the pilot control, the pilot

a choice RE-ENT

or automatic For automatic

control. control,

For manual

selects

the RE-ENT mode

Is utilized. For either and indicates program

In the automatic mode of control,

the computer flight c_nds.

controls

spacecraft

roll attitude. computer

director

is referenced

to the

computed

attitude the point

The purposes

of the computer re-entry

re-entry

are to control

of touchdown

and to control

heating.

By controlling

the spacecraft

8-11 CONIFIDINTIAL,

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
S_

_@_

G s,oR EMINI 300

roll attitude and rate, it is possible to change the down-range touchdow,,point by approximately right. 500 miles and the cross-range touchdown by 40 miles left or

The relationship between roll attitude or rate and direction of lift is in Figure 8-3. The roll control starts at approximately 400,000 feet

illustrated

and ends at 90,000 feet. cow,ands an attitude

Re-entry phase ends at 80,000 feet when the computer chute deployment.

suitable for drogue

8-13/l_. CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

ATTITUDE CONTROL AND MANEUVERING ELECTRONICS

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ......... SYSTEM OPERATION...... ...... GENERAL, , .... FUNCTIONAL OPERATION _ACME)_ , . MODE OPERATION ...... , . . SYSTEM UNITS..... , . . . ATTITUDE CONTROL ELECTRONICS(ACE). ORBIT ATTITUDE AND MANEUVER ELECTRONICS (OAME) . . . . . . , RATE GYRO PACKAGE (RGP) . . , • • POWER INVERTER PACKAGE , ...... PAGE , , 8-17 8-17 8-17 . . 8-18 . . 8"21 • 8-30 Z 8-30 . . 8-38 • • 8-39 8-_2

_

8-15 CONFIDENTIAL

_-_-.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

ACME BIAS POWER ROLL JETS ACME LOGIC (3) ATT. DRIVERS ACME CONTROL (2) MANEUVER THRUSTERS(8)' ATTITUDE THRUSTERS(8) RCSA THRUSTERS(3) OVERHEAD CONTROLS _ RCS B THRUSTERS(3)

NEUVER

.', i_ \\

L_
CONTROLLER

\"--...L_ POWER \SW,TCHES
_ CONTROLLER ATTITUDE HAND ATTITUDE CONTROL MODE SELECTOR ATTITUDE CONTROL

_--

\\

,

/

INVERTER

ATTITUDE CONTROL I ELECTRONICS PACKAGE _.

_

/'-_

TTITUDE AND

RATE GYRO PACKAGES

%
""

/

PACKAGEMANEUVER ELECTRONICS

'7

,

Figure

8-4

Attitude

Control

and

Maneuver

Electronics

8-16 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIALSEDR 300

PRO
ACME SYSTEM

SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION Control circuitry and Maneuver to attain Electronics maintain (ACME) System a desired (Figure 8-4) provides attitude or

The Attitude the control velocity. horizon firing

and/or

spacecraft hand

The ACME accepts sensors, platform,

signal

inputs

from the attitude

controller, and applies ACME (ACE), is s

or computer;

processes

the signal(s); solenoid

command

to the appropriate separate

Propulsion

System

valves.

composed

of four

suosystems: Electronics

Attitude (OAME), inverter

Control a power

Electronics inverter

Orbit Attitude cal rate stalled

and Maneuver

and two identiare in-

Kyro packages. in the center

The ACE, power

and rate gyro packages The O_ME package

bay of the re-entry of the adapter.

module.

is located is

in the equipment approximately

section

Total weightof

the ACME System

40 pounds.

The ACME provides seven separate,

the

capability modes provide

of automatic of operation. the reference

or manual

attitude

control,

with

selectable

The horizon for automatic signals supplies

sensor, modes

the inertial of operation. modes of

platform

or the computer hand

The attitude attitude solenoid

controller

provides hand

the input controller

for manual signals

control. valves

The maneuver

to the maneuver

for translational

maneuvers.

SYSTEM GENERAL

OPERATION

The ACME provides of the spacecraft attitude commands rates.

attitude mission. Signal

control,

automatic inputs

or manual,

during

all flight

phases

Rate gyro

to ACE are used by ACME logic

to dampen

spacecraft to firing

inputs

are modified

and converted

for the Prc_Isic_

System.

8-17
CONFIDENTIAl.

CONFIDENTIAL

PRiNI
__ SEDR300

The ACME functional pulse, re-entry

modes of the control re-entry,

are horizon and platform.

scan,

rate co_nand,

direct, a

rate co_and,

Each mode provides

different routing modes modes

signal input

(or combination System

of inputs)

to be processed valve

by ACE for drivers. The control modes

to Re-entry

Control

(RCS) or OAME solenoid types;

of control (horizon

are separated

into two basic and platform)

automatic attitude

attitude control

scan, re-entry direct,

and manual

(rate commaud, from control utilized.

pulse and re-entry

rate

command).

Display

information modes are

panel

indicators

is used as reference is supplied attitude,

when manual

control

Reference

information

by guidance

and control

subsystems and roll

and consists comms_ds mental

of the following:

attitude

rates, bank angle increments

(from the attitude indicator),

display

group),

velocity rate

(from the increindicator). of

velocity

and range

and range

(from the radar necessary

The control panels ACME power switches

also contain

the control

switches control

for selection selection

and logic circuits ACME

and attitude redundant

mode,

along with

for the various

options.

FOWC_ONALO_ON
Attitude Control

(AC_)
(Figure signals 8-5) from the computer, platform, horizon sensors, rate

COW,hands or error gyros firing and attitude commauds.

hand controllers The firing

are converted

by the ACE into thruster driver select system valve

commands

are routed by a valve System

to the RCS or the Orbit Attitude drivers. Signal inputs

Maneuver

(OAMS) attitude

solenoid

to the ACE are of three rate signals.

types : These

ac attitude signals are

signals, selected

dc attitude and distributed through inputs ....

signals,

and ac attitude

by ACE mode logic switching the proportional circuitry

circuits. which

Selected

signals are channeled

amplifies,

sums and demodulates

the signal

8-18
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
INVERTER CONTROL MODE

GEMINI
SPACECRAFT

BIAS

JAC I SW,TCH I
T ACME INVERIER

C POWER

_

PC

POWER

LI OCPOW,R
I RING "A" J VALVE DRIVERS ANE_ SPIK_ SUPPRESSION

SPACECRA
ATTITUDE POWER SOLENOID VALVES (REF)

THEUSIER RCSIRECT D TO RCSING R AAND "7 BSOLENOID VALVES j J COMMANDS FIRING BIAS

J

J

I

I
DIRECTION STEERING ATTITUDE HAND CONTROLLER SWITCH PULSE INITIATE SWITCH j _ J

I
J ! PULSE/DIRECT SIGNALS --|PULSE L,THRUSTER FIRING COMMANDS THRUSTER FIRING COMMANDS BIAS

I
OAME ATTITUDE VALVE DRIVERS AND SPIKE

I
|

I
I
| i
J

SUPPRESSION MANEUVER SPIKE SUPPRESSION

7Z .,:ZEM;:TNORr
L SIGNALS DC POWER

PICK OFF

RING "B" VALVE DRIVERS

OAME

J
J

_-_

l

ANO

SPIKE SUPPRESSION

HORIZON SENSOR

PITCH & ROLL ATTITUDE SIGNALS 8BMj _BM

l HORIZON SENSOR SIGNALS AC POWER RATE SIGNALS SIGNALS = SPACECRAFT DC POWER r_

J

T

oAC

POWER

I

RE-ENTRY ATTITUDE RING"B"

HAND CONTROLLER L/H MANEUVER

P

R, rE r RO

",_Y,"_',,c_-_'_ ]
P RATE SIGNALS I 0 F C F RATE SIGNALS TO DISPLAY _ J JJ

_=

RATE COMMAND DC POWER

ATT,TOOES,GNALS _ C,RCDITR_ _:
_ POWER : PROPORTIONAL SOLENOID

SPACECRAFT

STSER,NGD'R
SWITCHES I

_IAS

I

o_s VALVES

i_

(REF)

--GSE

TORQUER INPUT

I

INERTIAL plATFORM (KEF)

ATTITUDE ERROR SIGNALS (PITCH, ROLL, YAW)

,
I

"

I

i 1
STEER/NO R/H MANEUVER SWITCHES HAND

I

I I
DIGITAL COMPUTER (REF)

ROLL ATTITUDE ERROR SIGNAL I

i •

I L_
Figure

i
8-5

I

ACE ACME Functional 8-19 CONFIDENTIAL Block Diagram

CONImlDINTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

into adc ac prior converted discrete, c_ds.

analog

output.

Horizon

sensor

(dc attitude)

signals

are converted are then

to

to entering by control

the proportional torque logic

_rcuitry.

The analog

signals

switch circuitry

to a positive or negative driver

or negative firing

the output

consisting

of either positive from the valve

thruster

These commands

are routed

select

system to the valve drivers

RCS (ring A and/or for a firing suppression during

ring B) valve

drivers,

or to the OAMS attitude valves. across Zener

command circuits

to the appropriate limit the voltages

thruster generated

diode

spike valves

the solenoid

current

interruptions.

Attitude

Hand

Controller

Spacecraft troller comm_nd

attitude

may be manually reference.

controlled

by use of the attitude are rate, pulse

hand

con-

and a visual signals,

Controller controller Output

outputs

or direct depending or are Direct a

(plus a hand mode

position signals

output

to telemetry)

upon the control negative handle

selection.

are produced Rate

by positive

movements

from the centered of control when

position.

signals

produced

proportional and/or pulse preset

to the amount signals

displacement the hand

from a center

deadband. past

are produced

controller

is displaced generator

threshold

or deadband.

Pulse

signals

trigger handle

a pulse

in ACE to a of each

to produce neutral

a calibrated before

on time. another

The control single pulse

must be returned

position

can be commanded. paragraph.

Details

control mode may be found in the MODE

OPERATION

RCS Direct _le RCS direct mode RCS thrusters, is selectable as an alternate means of manually firing the

and by-passes

the ACE.

The DIRECT position

of each of the RCS hand con-

RING A or RING B switches

provides

a circuit

ground to 12 attitude

8-20
OONFIDESNTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

PRNI
[_ troller RCS direct switches. SEDR 300 The ground is then applied directly to the

required thruster solenoid valves through appropriate hand controller displacements. only • This RCS mode of operation is intended for backup or emergency control

Ns_euver

Hand Controllers

Tra_-lational maneuvers of the spacecraft in the horizontal, longitudinal and vertical planes may be c_nded by either of the maneuver hand controllers.

Displacement of a hand controller, fr_n the centered or neutral position in any of the six translational directions produces a direct-on c.-,-_ndto the respective solenoid valves.

Rate Gyros The function of the rate _ro yaw and roll axes of the package is to sense angular rate about the pitch, and provide an o_tput signal proportional to

spacecraft

that sensed rate.

Selection of certain control modes provides gyro inputs to ACE Additional information concerning the rate gyros may be U_TS RATE GYR0 PAC_%GE.

for angular rate damping.

found in the paragraph under SYST_

Power Inverter The power inverter provides the ACME and horizon sensors with ac power. craft primary dc power is source _it in converted to 26V, 400 cps Space-

of ac excitation). (IMU) is the off.

(The IGS !inverter provides the i The ACE inverter is utilized when the Inertial information regarding the power inverter

Measuresent may be found

Additional under SYST_

paragraph

UNITS POWERINVERTER PACI_GE.

MC_E OPERATIO_ _trol of spacecraft attitude is acconplished through the selection of seven

8-21 CONFIDENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

PMINI
_. SEDR300

functional

control

modes.

Each

control

mode

is utilized

for a specific phases.

purpose Each

or type of AC_ mode provides

operation either

in conjunction or manual

with various spacecraft the mode

mission

automatic to ACE. within

control logic

through

the switchde-energlze to conand by in

ing of input all unused

signals

In addition,

circuits

circuits

the ACE during

use of the horizon

scan mode level

serve power.

Switching

is performed

by transistors

at the signal mode

relays at the power the following.

level.

The operation

of each control

is explained

Direct

Mode

(MII thruster valve firing drivers commands are applied directly to the RCS or OAME hand controller a bias

In this mode, attitude direct voltage

solenoid switches

by actuation Selection ground

of the attitude

(Figure 8-6).

of the direct switch A.

mode applies

to a transistor a circuit

designated

Conduction

of the transistor controller is selected. yaw

completes direct

to ground which

is common

to one side of the hand

switches.

The transistor switch contacts

remains provide

on as long as the direct mode the command controller Deflection signals is moved

Six normally-open

in the pitch, beyond

and roll axes and will close when the hand threshold applies (2.5 degrees) of handle travel.

a preset direction to that firing

in the desired driver relative Thrusters degree

a ground which,

from switch A directly in turn, fires

to the valve

direction

the proper is displaced

thruster(s). beyond

continue threshold.

as long as the hand This mode

controller

the _.5

of operation

is optional

at all times.

P se
In this mode, the attitude commands initiated by hand controller displacement

8-22 @ONPIOIIN'rlAI.

CONFIDENTIAL

__j-

__

SEDR300 PROJECT GEMINI
r _ "1

I

__

I=_

I
OPo>

i= °-

°-

O>

-

i

LL-_2TL_, ...... I I
_
-' 0
I

II
=

...... -T-t
=' = '-" >=u
_> == ID

_
0

,._ ,.=. _
u_>

o_z
:_Zo

I

I

° <_]

t

_OS_z or_ z_ _

I o__ o

I _7"{
I _ _ I _o I _ I

.... I
I_, I I I _ 2 _ I

I
I
I I ;.
_

I I

,-, ,_

L .11 / _=s i_, 4 ,& 4 & & /_
I=

I;-;..........
& Pulse Command Modes)

I
]

Figure

8-6

ACME

Simplified

Block

Diagram

(Direct

8-23 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

$EDI 30O

fire a single pulse generator in the ACE (Figure 8-6). activates the generator, command is received.

The pulse mode logic

allowing it to fire for a fixed duration when a pulse

Commands originate every time one of the six normallyThis triggers duration attitude as a command

open pulse switch contacts of the hand controller is closed. the generator

and applies a bias voltage pulse for a 20 millisecond This ground is then applied to the RCS or 0A_ direct switches,

to ground switch A.

valve drivers, through the actuated hand controller for thruster firing.

Commands may be initiated in the pitch, yaw or roll axis

by moving the control handle in the desired direction beyond a preset threshold (3.5 degrees). Thrusters fire for 20milliseconds each time the handle is dis-

placed beyond S.5 degrees.

This mode is optional at all times and will normally

be used duringlatform p alignment.

Rate Com-_nd Mode (MB) In this mode, spacecraft attitude rate about each axis is proportional attitude hand controller displacement from the neutral deadband to the

(Figure 8-7)

(The output remains at zero for displacements providing a non-operational area or deadband).

less than I degree of handle travel, Command signals, generated by

handle displacements,

are compared with rate gyro outputs, and when the difference thruster firing occurs. Signals originate from to

exceeds the damping deadband, potentiometers

in the hand controller

and outputs are directly proportional

handle displacement.

A maximum command signal to ACE produces an angular rate

of i0 degrees/second about the pitch and yaw axis and 15 degrees/second about the roll axis.

Automatic, closed-loop stabilization of spacecraft rates is provided by the sensing of angular rates by the rate gyro package. With the absence of hand

8-24
CONFIOENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDIt 300

controller within

command

signals,

spacecraft with OAME

rates

about

each axis are

dampened _ 0.5

to

+ 0.2 degrees/second

attitude

control

and to wlthin

degrees/second

with RCS attitude fire commands is optional

control. until

Output

signals

from the rate gyros the damping during

are used to produce deadband. This mode

the rate signal and will

is within normally

at all times changes.

be used

translational

thrusting

or attitude

Horizon

Scan Mode (M4) command mode, horizon and hold 8-8). sensor outputs (pitch and roll) within a desired are attitude

In this automatic processed deadband to within maintained null. hand

by the ACE to orient during orbit (Figure

the spacecraft attitude

Pitch sensor

is maintained

automatically is

_5 degrees

of the horizon to withln

-5 degree!output, of thehorlzon by commands mode.

and roll attitude sensor zero degree

automatically

+5 degrees

Control controller

about the yaw axis is accomplished in the same manner is also as in the pulse

from the attitude control about

Pulse

the pitch

and roll axes bias voltage pitch

available

to supplement input

the automatic

control.

A -5 degree the 5 degree exceeds pulse

is summed with

the pitch

to the ACE to maintain (pitch or roll) logic is a

down orientation. control deadband,

When

the attlt!ude error

the 5 degree command.

the output

of the ACE on-off

firing

The pulse is dependent

time is 18 milliseconds upon how much

and the pulse error exceeds the 5 for

repetition degree

frequency

the attitude

deadband.

A lag network having

in this mode provides

a pseudo

rate feedback

rate damping

without

to use the power-consumlng

rate gyros.

Re-entry i

i

Mode (M_)
co_m_nd mode, spacecraft angular rates about the pitch and yaw

In this automatic

8"25
OONFIDBNT|AL,

.I -_.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

i
i

IL.

Ze_
uJ

1
a I

O_

2=

='_"

°_o>

o>

I

r

-3

rI I I
li
u

i o@ I _@ I
_@_
z

,
,
I

II0-0 I
Ii iL_ I l---1
_-_ " =_
Oo_oO
m_

_

_

I

_

_

_

Z

O_

_g:

o_

zo__

_

L

_I

I

/\_

_
gg_

a

m_

O

.,x.
Figure 8-7 ACME Simplified Block Diagram 8-26 CONFIDENTIAL (Rate Cmd. and Re-entry Rate Cmd. Modes)

Figure

8-8

ACME

Simplified

Block 8-27

Diagram

(Horizon

Scan

Mode)

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

Z
axes are _ampened to within (Figure +4 degrees/second 8-9). and to within +2 degrees/second to within to ACE. +2 The or about the roll axis de&Tees computer Roll attitude is controlled input of the attitude colmnanded by the digital consists depending of either computer a_le

roll input to A_E

a bank

attitude between

command

a fixed roll rate comm_nd touchdown provided

upon the relationship point. Roll

the predicted is

point and the desired to minimize

touchdown

to yaw crosseoupling

the spacecraft

lift vector.

Re-entry/Rate In this manual

Command command hand

Mode

(M_) spacecraft With rates are controlled by rate commands deadbands, of roll-yaw the rate

mode,

from the attitude method

controller.

the exception mode

of wider

is identical

to the rate command rate damping bank

with the addition

crosscoupling. re-entry cally mode.

Angular

about

the three

axes is identical

to the

The computer the spacecraft

angle

and roll rate commands on the control commands.

do not automatidisplays as

control

but are provided re-entry

panel

a reference

for initiating

manual

roll

Platfo(M61
This attitude axes, with matically tude, orbit control mode is used to maintain platform. spacecraft Spacecraft attitude, attitude in all three autoattirespect to the inertial is held

to within * I.i degrees to the earth,

of the platform can be held

attitude.

A horizontal platform rates

with respect

if the inertial Spacecraft purpose

is in the are dampened

rate or alignment

mode of operation. The primary

attitude

to within matically maintaining

+ 0.5 degrees/second. hold an inertial

of this mode

is to autofor

spacecraft during

attitude. fine

This mode

is also useful

spacecraft

attitude

alignment

of the platform

(Figure

8-10).
8 -28 CONF_DEN'T'JAL

CONFIDENTIAL

a>

i

I

.J

i
z
[

oQo
_

N o _ u _ ,N o

J

/\

/

/\

/\

L__
Figure 8-9 ACME Simplified Block Diagram

;
(Re-entry

]
Mode)

8-29 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROMINI
SEDR 300

Aborts

- ACME/RCS command mode of ACME will be utilized for attitude control during all

The rate

abort modes. abort

Control

over the RCS ring A and ring B switches switched to ACME by the abort sequential

for a mode 2 relays.

is automatically

SYSTEM

UNITS CONTROL ELECTRONICS (Figure (ACE) approximately boards. 17 pounds, These a mode relay boards has a removable make up the ACE an ac signal supply module convert contain the

ATTITUDE

The ACE package

8-4) weighs

cover and contains logic circuitry processing board boards signal

ten removable

module

and consist three axis

of the following: logic boards,

logic board, boards,

board,

three

a powe_

(+20, +I0, perform inputs valve

-I0 vde) and a lag network processing

board.

These

replaceable and

the signal

for the three-axis firing commands.

control,

into appropriate driver circuits

thruster

They also

solenoid

for the RCS

solenoid

valves.

Functional Input

Operation to ACE are dependent upon altitude or attitude rate requirements rate correction. to are

signals

of the spacecraft A functional

and are used to obtain

an attitude in Figure axes.

or attitude

schematic

of the ACE is shown

8-11 and is sectioned ACE mode logic The selection circuits

show signal processing represented tude control

for each of the three

by the blocks mode initiates

at the left of the figure. transistor switching signal

of an attipertain-

in the logic

circuits

ing to thai mode. ACE channel

The appropriate

input

is then switches on mode logic

into the proper switching

for processing.

Additional

information

may be found in the Mode Logic bwltching psragraph.

8-30
CONFIDENTIAL

..,<:_..

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT
I

GEMINI
--' _..z.>. ]

I=_1 = =_I =_'-='=> I°_1"-

I I

I, o I r ---1 I _ < I I i _ I

I_ o>o 1 I ' --

.....
I_
z U _

I

I
I I I
_l

f .......
I II_
_ ul.-

"
l oo___._ )_..__

_ I °
L___

I

I
J

1 /\

z_

Figure 8-10 ACME Simplified Block Diagram (Platform Mode)
8-31 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJGEMINI
__.@ SEDR300

Proportional switch

circuits

consist

of the signal

amplifier stages.

stages

(attitude

and rate),

amplifiers

and the demodulator/filter yaw and roll channels

Attitude

and rate signals of horizon sensor

to each of the pitch, signals)

(with the exception levels

are ac and are amplified The outputs

to operational

by the attitude amplifiers. stage _here

and rate The out-

al_lifiers.

are summed

and fed to the s_tch to the demodulator signal.

put of the switch verted either torque

amplifier

is coupled

it is con-

to a positive the positive

or negative or negative,

dc analog

The dc signal switch

then energizes in the control on for sensor in dc

low-hysteresis

transistor

logic section.

The switches

for the pitch pulse

and ya_ axes are held generators. Horizon

a minimL_ signals

of 18 milliseconds

by the minimum

are chopped

and amplified

by the switch

amplifiers_

then modulated

the same manner

as ac signals.

The valve

driver

select

circuits

control

power

and signal

distribution system_

to 0AME power is the

and RCS attitude s_plied

valve drivers. relays.

To turn off the OAME control The normally-closed Power relay

to de-energized

contacts

forward

power and signal inputs to the OAME. A and/or RCS valve ring B valve drivers drivers consist

may then be a_plied control.

to the RCS ring

for ECS sltitude energized

The ring A and ring B relay drivers.

of relays

by transistor

Mode

Logic

Switching switching provides the control for attitude mode signal These selections, switches is are

Transistor along

with ACE power by blocks

distribution in Figure

in the horizon 8-I1. The logic

scan mode. function

represented explained ground.

for each block

in the truth table at the right Figure 8-12 shows how mode

of Figure

8-i1 as being selections

ground or not is accomplished.

control

of signal

8-32
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT
The transistor signals# switches provide a grounded or not grounded state. condition Attitude control to attitude reference mode switch

by being in a conducting signals are obtained

or non-conducting by selecting

and command position. biasing applied

the appropriate

This applies it to cut off.

a +20 vde bias voltage This ungrounded The mode switches

to thei base of a PNP transistor, the desired signal to be and one with the com-

state allows 1 (direct),

to the ACE amplifiers. (horizon scan) logic

land mode 2 (pulse), and conduct

of the M4 application mands.

are I_N transistors, a ground circuit

of +20 vdc,

This provides

for hand

controller

The pulse generator

signal provides

the bias !voltage to turn on switch A

when in the pulse

or orbit modes.

Signal Processing _ne type signal

(Figure selected

8-11) for each mode of control ca n be determined table. by referring

to the logic block in each channel through mode selections, establish

and the mode

logid

The P and I blocks, stages.

the gain for rate[amplifier

Attitude Inputs

Signals in-phase sensor signal or out-of-phase A positive in turn, will ae signals attitude command (with the

to the ACE are either of the de horizon an in-phase attitude error

exception generates A negative positive selection

input). which,

displacement negative will thrusting. command

displacement, By referri1_

generating

an out-of-phase table,

signal,

thrusting. of mode

to the logic

it may be seen that the the function of

5 provides

a computer

roll input signal

through

logic block DR and is the only attitude A roll attitude amplifier. error or command output signal

selected

for an input

to ACE. attitude solenoid _e out-

is fed into the three-stage

The ampl_fier _e

will be used to tur m on the appropriate signal amplitude.

valve driver.

li_Jiter is used to limit attitude

8-33
CONFIOENTIAL

._-_-_.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

2.O_,_._EG PITCH j
BIAS I

_

102K

21.5K

_

4

°'+VRMS'_AxI I"_ND

'GYRO

I ,13VRMS,/DEG/SEC

20OK

i' _
2101(. 124K

.(L%o/

ToRo/B_cT _IIF_ i-'>
FRATE 1:1

_

I_IIL

T

/

,CONTROLLERI.G,S,¢ .v qvv.
m
J_ _ 17.4K

_I_

*

_ " 1241< / '222
1

,9.9K .L
49 9K pL_ _

57 6K ._5,_K

IPPI

_ _

I [PI ME° GAIN

HiGH GAIN LOW GAIN

(IpPp) (I'pPP) (l'pP*p)

(B-GN_ORD'F SWA ( -GND S A) I

L_

'EI,D EE :C 0 I OROONO
102K ,_, .275V/ DEG pLATFORM ]SV RMS MAX (REF) _ ,262V 54.9K AMp 1:1 k/ 294K _,. 41 .2K _ I I .8K

YAw IRA'EG_O 1.13VRMS/OEG/SEC

p0K 210K

-._.o/-

I"_C_lll.,
"HIE_,
1:1 _RATE

T 2_K []
/

T DEG/SEC1 I/" "

I " ROLLER
,4V DC/DEG

49.9K --

_ --

MEO GAIN (Pyl'y) LOW 57.6K GAIN (l'yP'y)

102K 49.9K

ICOMPUTER26vI.SVRMS/ 6_b_.K

130K 1.Suq/OEGJ

_

I

'V'_--49.9K

AXIS ROLL

IpLATFGRMISV RMS MAX (REF)I _,.,,... .262V _. _

54.9K

[]

4_2'7ua/'DEG

AMP

:v

RATE GYRO

I ,13V RMS/DEG/SEC

100K

CONTROLLER

°EG/SEC I/ T

_IIE__
RATE _:_ _ 105K

/
T

_

r "m
| l ?21"SK'SK I VENT MAN CONTROLLER(2_I_ "j / i I

I HANG

IO, R.,,0EO,,EC '"K
,,uo,

i_.._jl_.

86.6K

15.4K 86]:6:_K_ I_

7.87K (IRPR) ,_7!!H GAIN _ ME° GAIN (PRi'R) _ LOW GAIN (I'RP_R)

_721 I |

t

SWITCHES LONG MAN LAT MAN SWITCHES

U
Figure 8-11 ACME Functional 8-34
CONFIDENTIAL

Schematic

(Sheet 1 of 2)

I MOOECM° I

_...._=_

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT GEMINI
LOGIC TABLE LOGIC FUNCTIONS WHERE (') DENOTES NOT GROUND IN PHASE CHOPPER 2.2 75K 42.2K A = M1 ÷ M2 PULSE + M4 PULSE B = Mt + M2 ÷ M4 C'p = M 3 +M 5 +MsD +M 6 C'R =M3 +Ms +MsD +M6 tim • •

I
I

2.2J_v_

• 150K

OUT OF PHASE __ I CHOPPER

__ 7SK 42.2K

I_R =RING A +RING B +M S +MsD + M 6 "P = RING A + RING B + M5 I'y=RINGA+RINGB+Ms+MsD+M6 + MsD + M6 K'p =M 6 K'R = M6 K'y = M6 M' R =M 5 +MsD P'p = M5 = MsD P'R = M5 + MsD ply=MS +MsD C'y=M3+Ms+M5D+M6D'R =Ms

* SWITCH & INVERTER SWITCH & INVERTER AMP

DAMS J . / T°SOLENO,D SVD VALVES

PITCH HAND CONTR

I

I
150K 10:1 J i

r sw,TcH JI tELAY DRIVERS __ _CS F

IMIATT'TUO PEATORE
M6 .TO SOLENOID VALVES

M3 M2 = RATE CMD PULSE M4 = HOR SCAN M 5 =RE-ENTRY MSD = RE-ENTRY RATE CMD

AMp

I
2' I '4V_10K J CHOPPER IN PHASE -75K 42.2K YAW HAND CONTR SWITCH I J OUT OF PHASE CHOPPER 1S0K 7SK

DAMS SVD

I
I

_

I

+ SWITCH & INVERTER TO SOLENOID AMP - SWITCH & INVERTER DAMS SVD -VALVES

CONTROL i I VALVES kSOLENOID VERTMAN 7 IB

FUNCTIONS

I . i PITCH UP, YAW RT, ROLL RT, GIVE HAND CONTROLLER COMMANDS ERROR SIGNAL.

IN-PHASE

RATE & ATTITUDE ROLL LEFT,

I

GAME

"

"

JJJJl

I_

PITCH DOWN,

I

SOLENOID VA_.VES LONGMAN

F

SUPPRESSOR DIODES SPIKE

I

I

ROLL HAND CONTROLLER

PITCH UP & ROLL RT GIVE POE HORIZON YAW LEFT IN-PHASE.

SENSOR OUTPUT.

J

SOLENOID VALVES EAT MAN

F'i
I _ _ TO ALL AXES

I
m

SWITCH

'

J

PHASE REVERSAL IN RATE PRE-AMP & ATTITUDE mE-AMP. BY 3 .guo PEAK TO PEAK SQUARE WAVE. + SWITCH ACTIVATED BY 3ua Pdv_S IN-PHASE SINE WAVE OR + SWITCHES DRIVE POSITIVE TORQUING SOLENOID VALVES.

I MODE

LOGIC I

ALL CAPACITANCE

VALUES ARE IN MICROFARADS.

PRI/SEC ELECTRONICS

SELECT BY AXIS.

Figure 8-11 ACME Functional
8-35

Schema

(Sheet 2 of 2)

CONFIDENTIAL

....

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

DIRECT

=

PULS
Ill
m• PLAT

i B

RATE CMD (RE.ENT)

PULSE

SINGLE PULSE

PULSE COMMAND

I
(6 pLACES) J

_10V DC

\HOE

SCAN

GENERATOR _t

SOLENOID

\

ATTITUDE
J +2OV DC J

CONTROL
-10V DC

._

mRECT AND
PULSE COMMAND (6 PLACES)

IVER

I
(M4 PULSE) MI (_O_ DIRECT -10V DC ( "A" ATTITUDE HAND CONTROLLER 22V DC

M2 kr_C)_

PULSE

RATE GYROS (RATE

-1OV OC_

"B"

_,

; I M3 _ RATE CMD

v _> ,1"

C'R= M3 + M5 +MSD÷M6

I M4 (..T_C)_

HOR SCAN

C_Y=+MSD+M6M3 +M5

TYPICAL PNP M5 0_ RE-ENT _,,,_ SWITCH (1) PLACES)

M' R : M5 ; M5D

O'R= M5 RATE CMD bM5Dcy _ RE-ENT _I _ SWITCH TO GND M6 O'_ PLAT I_1

(ROLL)

COMPUTER (REF) Z

I,p=RINGA+RINGB+M5 I'R= RING A + RING B + M5 ÷ MSD +M6 + MSD _b'_6 I=y: RING A +RING +M5D+M6 _ B +MS O

P'R : M5 +MSD

GAIN CON-

P'y = M5 ÷MSD P'F;: M5 +MSD ACE-MODE LOGIC

I. 2.

IN

LOGIC FUNCTIONS

(') DENOTES-NOT

GROUND. FOR

REFERTO FIGURE 8-11 (FUNCTIONAL ACE CIRCUITRY

SCHEMATIC)

Figure 8-12 ACE Mode Logic Switching-Attitude
8-36 CONFIDENTIAL

Control

CONIFIDHNTIAL

P
put of the three-stage in-phase switch amplifier section

,
is transformer coupled stage. which to either the of

or the out-of-phase

of the demodula$or rectified

The output is filtered

the demodulator and energizes

stage is a full-wave either the positive the ground

dc signal,

or negative

low-hysteresis drivers_

switch.

Energizing gener-

the switch provides ator will

for the valve valves

The minimum

pulse

not allow the solenoid a prescribed

to turn off in less than 18 milliseconds, i force. Minimum pulse generators are

thus assuring

minimum

thruster only.

used in the pitch

and roll channels

Rate Signals Angular blocks F

(Figure

8-11) command signals are provided of modes by the logic M3, M5, MSD, functions and M6. of Signal

rate and rsie

Cp, Cy and Cr through

the selection

gains through

the rate amplifiers

are varied by the functions of th_ re-entry
I

of logic blocks modes or plstform to command

Ip, Iy, Ir, Pp, Py, and Pr, with the selection mode. control signal Rate signal inputs are used Roll

in the ssme manner

as attitude

signals

solenoid

valves.

rate signals

are summed with
i

the computer

and the proportional block MR, with

output

is fed to the swilch

amplifiers.

The function

of the logic crosscoupling signals signal bility,

selection

of roll rates

of the re-entDy modes of control, provides i into the yaw axis for r_-entry control. Roll rate coupled into yaw. This provides an opposite-phase for proper sta-

are proportionally for cancellation

of part

of the yaw rate command i

signal

HorizonSensorSignals Sensor pitch and roll signals are positive

! or negative pitch!bias dc and are fed directly voltage is summed with of the

to out-of-phase the pitch horizon

choppers sensor

in ACE. output

A -5 degree for pitch

down orientation.

T_e output

8-37
CONIFIOENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
__

GEMINI

$EDR3O0

chopper attitude attitude

will be of a phase opposite displacement displacement will will result result

the attitude

displacement output,

(a positive and a negative is

in an out-of-phase in an In-phase logic

output).

This signal

then amplified attitude signal.

and processed

by the on-off

in the same manner

as an

The horizon modes,

scan mode, the

in addition

to energizing

circuits

utilized networks

by other and choppers rate,

energizes the

resistance

- capacitance

lag feedback

for either along with

in-phase

or out-of-phase pulse generator

signal. operation,

The lag network provides

discharge

the minimum

anti-hunting sensors

control

(hunting would result hunt control

from the slow response

of the horizon

if no anti-

were used).

RCS Valve

Drivers valve between ground drivers (Figure 8-1B) are relays with nor_rJally-open conThey proare

The RCS solenoid tacts connected

the solenoid

valve

and the RCS ring switch.

vide e circuit energized firing

when the switch relay drivers

is in the ACt_ position. which conduct upon

The relays thruster hsnd to

by transistor

receiving

co_ands

from the control switches. genersted

torque diode

logic spike

switches

or the attitude is provided

controller limit

direct

Zener when

suppression

the voltage

thruster

power

is interrupted.

ORBIT ATTI_JDE This unit contains board)

AND _._hrEUVERELECtrONICS 8-4) weighs

(OA_) 8 pounds, boards has a re_ovsble end 1-component boards, drivers cover and

(Figure three

spproxin_ately boards

removable

module

(2-reley

module

as well as fixed co_aponents. the fixed compone_t_,

_ue replaceable s;_ attitude valves.

module v_Ive

in conjuncand provide

tion with spike

function

suppression

for the m_neuver

solenoid

CONFIDENTIAL

8-38

CONFIDENTIAL

PROOECT

GEMINI

,4

Functional Attitude Attitude

Oper_tion Control CO,hands to the OAi_t are either _alve positi_e or negative thruster torque firing

logic cor_msmc]sto the solenoid section driver of ACiZ (_ee Figure transistors valves will

drivez's from the cont_o! receiving eomm_nd

logic

8-i_).

Upon

sigr,_ls, the vc_Ivc grounds to energize

conduct.

_nis provides system.

the Zener

circuit

the solenoid provided

of the propulsion generated

dioSc: spike power

supp_.ession is

to limit

the voltegc

when thruster

js interrupted.

Maneuver Maneuver (Figure ground thruster package

Control cock, ands 8-14-). through originate from either of the two maneuver are hand controllers a circuit

Translatio_.] the proper hand

con_nand signals controller diode spike

obt_.ined by applying to the solenoid is provided power

switch

valve for' by the OA_._ is interrupte6.

firing.

Conventional

suppression when

to limit the voltage

spike generated

thruster

RATE GYR0 PACKAGE The RGP (Figure

(RGP) three rate gyros, each Indi_idually mounte8 for rate mounted sensing and in all to

8-4) contains

hermetically three axes. attitude

sealed.

The gyros

are orthogona!ly provides

The rate gyro package Application

ac analog torquer

outputs, current

proportional and monitoring and pickoff

rate inputs°

of a gimbal a check

of spin motor put durin_

synchronization checkout.

provide Each gyro

of gyro operation excited

out-

ground

is separately

so that any individual of the other weight two.

gyro may be turned Two _/ro packages mately 8

on or off without are provided

affecting

the operation and have

for redundancy

a total

of approxi-

pounds.

8-39
CONFIDENTIAL

f_'-

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

F-_--=o
I<_

] _:._ I
Ii --.vU o,.-¢ _=,-

L.2

-

I

I

,_,>O

>_

>_'.2

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t I
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j I

Figure

8-13

RCS

& OAMS

Attitude

Valve

Drivers

8-40 CONFIDENTIAL

____-_. "_ _

SEOR 30° PROJECT GEMINI

CONFIDENTIAL

I

"-_Rcu,-rl

CONTROLLER

FWD-AFT

I

I I
I

I

Fwo_
AFT

I

h

, P,CAL I
TWO

I
soV_;_os _._O_E_ J

__

_%._
I _J

_
SUPPRESSOR TO OAME SPIKE L

J

Figure

8-14

ACME

Maneuver

Control-Simplified 8-41

Block

Diagram

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PRO,JECMINI
SEDR 300

POWER

INVERTER

PACKAGE (Figure 8-4) converts and horizon following: filter, spacecraft dc power to ac power for

The power

inverter

use by the AC_ 7 pounds

subsystems

sensors. current

The unit weighs and voltage

approximately oscilla-

and consists

of the output

regulators,

tor, power amplifier, and oscillator the following: a.

regulator-controller, inverter

switching output

regulator to

starter.

The 26 vac, 400 cps power

is supplied

ACE pc_er

supply:

reference

power

for the choppers,

demodulators b. Rate power c. gyros:

and dc biasing 20 watts

voltages. power and 16 watts runming

starting

for motor sensors: voltages

and piekoff ll watts

excitation. operational power, as reference

Horizon for bias

and pickoff

excitation. for potentiometer

d.

Attitude excitation.

hand controller:

0.5 _tts

e. f. g.

Telemetry: FDI:

1.0 watts

for demodulation

reference.

8.2 watts Radsr: for angular reference.

Rendezvous

8-42
CONFIOENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

INERTIAL

GUIDANCE

!

SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION.. .... INERTIAL MEASUREMENT UNIT: : . AUXILIARY COMPUTER POWER UNIT: : . ON-BOARD COMPUTER.. ......... SYSTEM OPERATION. . . ....... PRE-LAUNCH PHASE .... . . .... LAUNCH PHASE . . . ......... ORBIT PHASE. .......... RETROGRADE PHASE .......... RE-ENTRY PHASE . . . .... CONTROLS AND INDICATORS_ . ..... SYSTEM UNITS. , . . ...... • • INERTIAL MEASUREMENT UNIT ...... AUXILIARY COMPUTER POWER UNIT .... DIGITAL COMPUTER.. .......... SYSTEM DESCRIPTION .... ..... SYSTEM OPERATION . . . ...... MANUAL DATA INSERTION UNIT: ...... SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ....... . SYSTEM OPERATION ..... . • . . AUXILIARY TAPE MEMORY .......... SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ......... SYSTEM OPERATION ....... INCREMENTAL VELOCITY'INDiCATOR. , . , SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ......... SYSTEM OPERATION .......... PAGE 8-45 . 8-45 . 8-45 8-46 . 8-46 8-47 8-47 8-48 8-50 8-51 8-51 • 8-56 8-56 8-73 8-75 8-75 8-79 8-176 . 8-176 . 8-179 8-185 8-185 8-188 . 8-193 8-19_ 8-195

_-

8-43 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
JDE DISPLAY INDICATOR

GEMINI
_

DISPLAY

INDICATOR

ONTROLLER

MANUALOATA _
I
PLATFORM CONTROLS INCREMENTAL VELOCITY AND INDICATORS / / J INDICATOR

INSERTION UNIT

"_

_.

FUGHT DIRECTOR CONTROLLER

AUXILIAR

_

INSTRUMENTPANELS

//

--

_\

\\

__\

\
\

/

/

,,

il _'
II

NOTE
[_ S,/C 8THRU 12 ONLY /

f-.(\
DIGITAL COMPUTER \ i NERTIAL PLATFORM INERTIAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM POWER SUPPLY

\

,

J

SYSTEM ELECTRONICS

AUXILIARY

COMPUTER POWER UNIT

Figure

8-15 Inertial 8-44

Guidance

System

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

__

SEDR 300

,N_L.__

ims

io

The Inertial Guidance System (IGS) consists of an Inertial Measurement Unit, an Auxiliary Computer Power Unit, an On-Board Computer, With Auxiliary Tape Memory and associated controls and indicators. illustrated in Figure 8-15. pressurized c_bin area. The location !of all IGS components is

Controls and indicators are located inside the

The Inertial Measurement Unit, Auxiliary Computer Power

Unit, and the On-Board Computer are located in the un_ressurized left equipment bay. The computer Auxiliary Tape Memory is mounted on the electronic module

coldplate located in the adapter section (spacecraft 8 through 12).

_"

_RTIAL

MEASUREMENT UNIT the

The Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) consists of three separate packages: inertial platform, system electronics, and IGS power Supply.

All three packages

function together to provide inertial attitude and acceleration information. Attitude measurements are utilized for automatic control, computations, and visual display. Acceleration measurements are utilized for insertion, rendezvous, and

retrograde computations and displays. selector.

I_/ operation _s controlled by a mode Plat-

Cage, alignment, orbit rate, and inertial modes are available.

form attitude measurements are available to each pilot on his attitude display group. The I_ is also capable of providing _00 cps power to ACME inverter loads.

An AC POWER switch allows the pilot to select the source of 400 cps ACME power.

AUXILIARY ,

COMPUTER POWER UNIT

The Auxiliary Computer Power Unit (ACPU) provides protection for the computer,

8-45 CONFIOENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJE-C-T
_.

GEMINI

$EDR 300

from the spacecraft bus voltage variations. ACPU supplies temporary computer power. computer is automatically turned off. power switch. ON-BOARD COMPU_

If bus voltage drops momentarily, the

If bus voltage remains depressed, the The ACPU is activated by the computer

The On-Board Cc_uter

(OBC) provides the necessary parameter storage and computaComputations are utilized for insertion

tion facilities for guidance and control. rendezvous, and re-entry guidance. of computations to be performed.

A computer mode selector determines the type

A START switch allows the pilot to initiate The COMP light indicates the start s_d

certain computations at his discretion. completion of a computation.

A MAT._light indicates the operational status of

the computer and a BESET switch provides the capability to reset the computer in ease of temporary malfunctions. A Manual Data Insertion Unit (MDIU) allows the Specific parameters can be An Incremental Velocity

pilot to communicate directly with the computer.

inserted, read out, or cleared from the cc_pater memory. Indicator (M) displays velocity changes.

Changes can be measured or computed,

depending on computer mode.

An Auxiliary Tape Memory (A_4) that works in conIt

Junction with the spacecraft computer is utilized in spacecraft 8 through 12. provides greater memory capacity and allows in-flight loading of program modes in the computer. SYS_t v_TION

Operation of the IGS is dependent on mission phase. ized from pre-launch through re-entry phases. and therefore no IGS functions are required.

Components of IGS are util-

Landing phase is not controllable The computer and platform each have However, when computations

mode selectors and can perform independent functions. 8-46
CONFIDIENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
S

GEMI

are to be made concerning inertial attitude or acceleration, the two units must be used together.

PHE-LAUNCH PHASE

Pre-launch phase consists of the last 150 minutes before launch. utilized to warm-up, check-out, prog_am, and align IGS equipment.

This phase is After warm-up Infor-

the computer performs a series of self checks to insure proper operation.

mation not previously progr-mmed but essential to the mission is now fed into the computer. AGE equipment utilizes accelerometer outputs to align IMU pitch and The roll gimbal is aligned to the desired

yaw gimbals with the local vertical. launch azimuth by AGE equipment.

LAUNCH PHASE

Launch phase starts at lift-off and lasts throush insertion.

During the first and

second stage boost portion of launch, the guidance fUnctions are performed by the booster autopilot. If the booster radio guidance system should fail, a Malfunction

Detection System (MDS) provides automatic switchover to back-up (IGS) guidance. Back-up ascent guidance can also be selected manually at the discretion of the c_and pilot. The computer has been progxw,_ed with launch parameters and the To mini-

l_J provides continuous inertial reference for back-Up ascent guidance.

mize launch errors, the computer is updated by ground stations throu@hout the launch phase. In the back-up ascent guidance operation, the computer provides The The

steering and booster cut-off commands to the secondary booster autopilot. i

computer also supplies attitude error signals to the!flight director needles. IMU provides inertial attitude reference to the attitude ball. At Second Sta@e

Engine Cut-0ff (SSECO) guidance control is switched from booster to Gemini IC_. 8-47 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PRO,JECT

GEMINI

The con_uter starts insertion computations at SSECO and, at spacecraft separation, displays the incremental velocity change required for desired orbit insertion. When the required velocity change appears the command pilot will accelerate the spacecraft with the O_ ation the I_ thrusters to insertion velocity. During accelerThe

supplies attitude and velocity changes to the computer.

computer continuously subtracts measured acceleration from required acceleration on the display. When insertion has been achieved the incremental velocity

indication will be zero along all three axes.

ORBIT PHASE

Orbit phase consists of that time between insertion and the start of retrograde sequence. If the IGS is not to be used for long periods of time it can be turned If the platform has been turned off, it should be warmed The ._

off to conser_T power.

up in the 0AGE mode approximately one hour before critical alignment.

computer should be turned on in the PRE LN mode and allowed 20 seconds for self checks before changing modes. separate operations. ment. IGS operation during orbit is divided into three

The initial part of orbit is used for check out and align-

The major part of orbit is used for rendezvous exercises and the final

portion is used in preparation for retrograde and re-entry.

,Check-Out& Alignment

l_ediately

after orbit confirmation the spacecraft is maneuvered to small end Horizon sensor outThe yaw gimbal is

forward and the platform aligned with the horizon sensors.

puts are used to align pitch and roll gimbals in the platform.

8-48 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

i

aligned through gyrocompassir_ techniques using the roll gyro output. i will align the yaw gyro to the orbit plane.

This

Platform !aligmnent will be maintained ORB RA_ mode is

by the horizon sensors as long as SEF or _EF modes are used. used when maneuvers are to be performed. ORB RA_

is ian inertially free mode

except for the pitch gyro which is torqued at approximatel_ four degrees per minute (orbit rate). The purpose of torquing the pitch gyro is to maintain a If 01_ RA_ mode is used for

horizontal attitude with respect to the earth. long periods of time drift errors can occur. drift, the mode is switched back to SEF or _F

To eliminate errors due to _yro for aligr_ent.

Rendezvous

Exercises

_

IGS operation during rendezvous exercises consists oflperforming inertial measurements and maneuver computations. Radar target!information is provided i to the computer for use in rendezvous computations, platform alignment is performed in SEF or BEF mode prior to initiating a maneuver. The co_uter START

button is pressed to initiate computation of velocity changes and computed velocity requirements are automatically displayed on the IVI. Flight director needles

are referenced to the computer during rendezvous exercises and indicate the attitude in which translational thrust should be applied. When the spacecraft

is in the correct attitude for a maneuver, all of the!incremental velocity indicationwill be along the foTward-aft translational axls_ As thrust is applied, the

supplies the computer with attitude and acceleration information to continuously update the M indications. When the maneuver has been completed the plat-

form can be realigned to the horizon sensors.

8-49
CONFIDENTIAl-

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ--E-CT'-GEMINI

Preparation Preparation retrograde (requires turned

for for

Retrograde retrograde

& Re-Entr_ and re-entry re-entry If is performed in the loaded turned last into off, hour the it before

sequence. less than

The AS _0 minutes). before

module IV is the I_

computer must be require for

has been _ros

on one hour

retrograde. to

(The

and accelerometers half hour is

approximately

one half

hour

warm up and another

required

stabilization and aligmnent. )

The attitude hall will indicate when platform At this time the spacecraft is maneuvered

gimbals are aligned to spacecraft axes. to Blunt End Forward (_F)

and the platform aligned with the horizon sensors.

The platform remains in B_F mode to maintain alignment until retrograde sequence. The computer retrograde initial conditions are checked and if necessary updated by either ground traok_n8 stations or the pilot. Preparation for retrograde

and re-entry is completed by placing the computer in RE-EFt mode.

RETROGRAD_ PHASE

Retrograde phase starts 256 seconds prior to retrofire and ends approximate_v twenty-five seconds after retrofire initiation. phase a minus sixteen degree bias is placed At the start of retrosA_ade needle (_-30 of the seconds) attitude the plat-

on the pitch 30 seconds

indicator. form

At time-to-go-to

retrosrade mode.

minus

is placed in ORB RA_

While the retrorockets are firing (approximately

22 seconds) the acceleration and attitude are monitored by the l_J and supplied to the computer for use in re-entry computations. for re-entry at retrofire. inertial position and attitude, C_putations The computer starts computations

are based on the time of retrofire, acceleration. -

and retrograde

8-50 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT GiSMINI

1_-_

t_._E

Re-entry phase starts immediate_v after the retrorockets stop firing and lasts i until drogue chute deployment. After retrograde a 180° roli maneuver is perZ

formed and pitch attitude is adjusted so that the horizon can be used as a visual attitude reference. The spacecraft attitude is controlled by visual a re-entry attitude

observation of the horizon until the computer c_anEs at approximately 400,000 feet. the flight director needles. computer during re-entry. signals to the computer.

The spacecraft is then controlled to null Flight director needles are referenced to the

The l_J supplies inertial iattitudeand acceleration Bank angle commands are computed and displayed on

the roll needle for down range and cross range error ieorrection. The bank angle commands L_at between 0 to 500 seconds depending on the amount of down
i

range and cross range error.

Pitch and yaw needles display down range and Upon completion of =the bank angle commands

cross range errors respectively.

(spacecraft on target) a roll rate of 15 degrees per second is commanded by the computer. At approximately 80,000 feet the computer co_nds an attitude

suitable for drogue chute deployment. the IGS equipment is turned off.

Immediately after drogue deployment

CONTROLS AND INDICATORS

Attitude

Display

Group

The Attitude Display Group (ADG), (Figure 8-16), consists of a Flight Director

8- 51
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

FLIGHT DIRECTOR INDICATOR

FLIGHT DIRECTORCONTROLLER

COMPUTER

S,/C POSITION 8 DESIGNATIONS 5,6 AND S/C 9 THRU 12 2. 3. 1. 5. 6. 7. ASC CTCH UP PRELN TD PRE RE-ENT (NOT USED) 2. 3. I. 5. 6. 7. ASC NAV PRELN PREDNAV RE-ENT ORB DET _

i

_

I

4. RNDZ

4. RNDZ

I
J J

I !._

I

ROLLRROR E _

I

ROLL

® I ,,_,TUD_ CO,,_NO ®l

REP_,EN_E 2 CMPT ) ' PLAT "l_
3. RDR I

_ODE ; M,X,,_ R RAT_
3. ATT I

j

I

ROLL

_)

J PITCH

@

I

I

,L

('_

I

{ DISPLAY

®

I
YAW I

_'--2c_"P'Tc"'
I

'
I

CROSS RANGE ERROR DOWN RANGE ERROR

Q (_)

(_)

_j

,,
J _ E u > _

:_ "_'I = I

_

I

_ E

Fi

ure

I R 8-16 Attitude 8-52

RATE GYRO

Display

Group

0
_ >-

I

SLAVED TO GIMBAL _ATTITUDE _'_ POSITIONS SPHERE 1 OF THE

_

PLATFORM

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

__

SEDR 300

Indicator fiers.

(FDI) a Flight

Director

Controller

(FIE) and their attitude rate,

associated

amplioff) in to

Three

types of displays by the FDI.

(attitude,

and ADG power

are provided

A three

axis sphere with

360 _egrees

of freedom

each axis continuously the inertial needle platform

displays gimbals display

attitude

information. indicates and/or

The sphere

is slaved Three as

and always attitude

platform

attitude.

type indicators by the pilot. platform,

attitude! rate information on the needles selector is provided is included

selected computer,

Information

displayed

by the in the The 8-16

radar,

and rate gyros.

A scale

FDI to allow the selection FDC

of HI or LO scale indications

on the needles.

is used to select the source and type of display a simplified schematic of the FIE switching Since mode the computer selector

on the needles. and indicates

Figure

includes and type types

the source different The

of signal available. the computer

is c_pable

of producing

of signals,

is included of display displayed.

in the schematic. information.

FDC reference mode selector

selector determines

determines the type

the source of signal

The FDC

Manual

Data

Insertion

Unit

The _mnual

Data Insertion

Unit

(MDIU) consists

of a ten digit

keyboard

and a with

seven digit register. the on-board tion. computer.

The MDIU allows Provision

the pilot to communicate to enter,

directly

is made

The keyboard

is used to address for insertion. word

a specific

cancel or read out informal location in the computer two keys that are pressed set up a coded order. Negative

and set up coded messages address message. the computer

The first

memory

location

and the next flve bit first

Keys are pressed

in a most

significant

8- 53
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

values represents monitor button

are

inserted a minus

by making sign and

the not

first a number.

number The

of

the

message digit

a 9. register

The 9 then is used to

seven

addresses switches

a_d messages

entered

into or read out of the computer. panel to READ CUT, CI_AR, and

Push

are included The _

on the register

the messages. register.

switch

does not clear

the computer,

it clears only the by the ground

Information

can also be inserted Co-m_d

in the computer System

trackin 6 stations

which have Digital

capabilities.

Incremental

Velocity

Indicator

The Incremental increments trolled orbit

Velocity

Indicator

(M) fr_

provides

a display

of computed

velocity

required

for, or resulting computer. maneuvers

a specific

maneuver.

The 1%'I is confor orbit insertion, are

through

the on-board rendezvous

Displays

are utilized

correction,

and retrograde. translational increments and module

Velocity

.ncrements

provided

along each of the spacecraft insert

axis.

Controls

are included The IVI also

to manually provides

plus or minus velocity of tape position words

into the IVI. words

a display

from the auxiliary

tape memory.

Computer

Controls

Computer

controls

are located panel consist

on the computer console

controls

and indicators See Fisure a START

panel 8-15.

on

the -_in instrument C_uter controls

- center of:

(lower assy). mode selector,

a COMPUTR_ switch, rotary

swltch,

a COMP mode

light, a MALF selector to be

light, a RESET

and an 0N-OFF switch which correspond

switch.

The CO_eU_ER

is a seven position

selects

the type

of c_,_utations in which through

performed.

Modes of operation The CO_ light

to the mission the computer

phase

they are utilized.

indicates

when

is running

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ

its program switch

and provides

a means

of checking

computer

_equencing.
f

The START

is utilized

for manual

initiation

of certain

computations.

NOTE
The START Junction and switch with must be operated mode in coal

the COMPUTER

sel@ctor

the COMP light.

The HALF resets

light indicates

when

a malfunction indicator.

has occurred i
i

and the RESET is o_Y switch

switch of

the computer

malfunction

The RESET Switch J An ION-OFF ii power! unit.

capable controls

resetting power to

the computer the computer

for mcaentary

malfunctions. computer

and the auxiliary

IMU Controls w,

& Indicators J

The IMU controls light,

and indicators a RESET

consist

of; a PLATFORM! mode J

selector,

an ACC

an ATT light,

switch,

and an AC POWER switch

mode selector

is a seven position

rotary

s_lector. The PLATIZ0RM i which,[ in conjunction with the the mode

AC POI_ER selector_

turns the platform

on and off as we_l as control

of operation.

Two cage modes,

two align

modes,

one _e

mode,

and an orbit The portion

rate mode of operation ACC light indicates

are selectable. a malfunction indicates The RESET to nor_-I type.

The align models are SEF and _F. has occurred i_ the accelerometer

when

!

of the I_J. tude portion

The ATT light of the l_J.

when switch

a malfunction

_ha__.a occurred

in the atti-

will turn Qff the lights 3 indicating The ___8T
I ;

that the IWJ has returned

operation. Inability selector or to

switch works

for momena

tary _-_Ifunctions of either pe _r_anent malfunction. inverter on without

reset ithe lights i
!

indicates

The AC POWER the

allows electro_cs

_he pilot circuits.

to turn the IGS

operating

platform

8-55
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

SEDR 300

SYSTEM UNITS

INERTIAL

MEASUREMENT UNIT

The Inertial Measurement reference for the Gemini platform,

Unlt

(I_J) is the inertial

attitude

and acceleration separate packages

Spacecraft.

The IMU consists

of three

the inertial packages

platform

electronics, contours

and IGS power supply. convenience

All three

conform

to spacecraft

for mounting block

and have a indicates to

total weight functions attitude other and

of 130 pounds. signal routing

A functional throughout

diagram

(Figure 8-17)

all

three

packages.

In addition

and acceleration

reference, and control.

the IMU provides The platform

ac and dc power for use in packages are

units of guidance

and electronics

_ounted

on cold plates to prevent

overheating.

NOTE
References to x, y, and z attitude axes pertain and

translational guidance with

to inertial

only and should coordinate

not be confused axes.

structural

Inertial

Platform

The inertial miniature

platform

(Figure

8-18)

is a four gimbal pendulous to remain

assembly

containing Gimbals while are:

three allow the

integrating

gyros and three (pitch block)

accelerometers. in a fixed

the gyro mounting housing

frame

attitude

moves freely

about them.

Major

components

of the platform

a housing,

8-%
CONFIDENTIAL

c@
gimbal structure, torque accelerometers. yaw and outer roll. dora. The inner roll gimbals occur pitch, are used on a three gimbal and 90 degrees

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT

GEMINI

,
resolvers, gyros inner 360 degrees 15 degrees. lock. Gimbal yaw,

_...y.;._ .___

motors,

gimbal

angle

synchros,

and

The gimbals

from inside except

to outside inner

are: pitch,

roll, of freeTwo roll lock can 0 degrees are

All gimbals, gimbal

roll, have and minus of gimbal

is limited

to plus

to eliminate

the possibility when

structure exists.

an attitude

of 0 degrees

roll

At this time the roll

and yaw gimbals

in the same plane and the yaw gimbal In the Gemini the inner four gimbal platform

cannot move about its axis (gimbal i an angle of 90 degrees is maintained gimbal
i

lock). between compo-

roll and yaw gimbals

thus preventing gimbal

lock.

The inertial

nents are mounted F_ and shielding the pitch

in the innermost effects.

casting

(Pitch block)

for rigidity loops maintain The

from thermal

The gyros

and associated

servo

block in a fixed relationship input axes block. are aligned

with the reference

coordinate

system. axes

accelerometer of the pitch housing

with the three quality

mutually

perpendicular in the

Two sealed

optical

windows provide

are provided optical

for alignment cube located

and testing. on the stable

Both windows element.

access

to an

alignment

System Electronics
The system of the I_. motor power, detection. electronics Circuits package contains the circuitry torque necessary for operation lOgic, spin

are provided logic, remote

for gyro

control,

tJmlug

accelerometer Relays provide

accelerometer mode control

rebalance,
i

and malfunction circuits.

of the above

8-57
CONFIDENTIAL

ELECTRONICS

ACC/_u_.LFLAMP _ ATIM_'LFLAMP

I

RICAL I

I

El

0.2604CPS

TO COMPUTER_

GYRO MALFUNCTION LOGbC

TO COMPUTER _

ACCELEROMETER ALFUNCTION LOGIC M

6*25 KC

TO COMPUTER

TO COMPUTER

TO COMPUTER TO COMPUTER _ s

Figure 8-17 IMU Functional
->

Block Diagram
8-58

(Sheet 1 of 2)

_

CONFIDENTIAL

.f-==--.

CONFIDENTIAL SI::D 300 R

I
INERTIAL "z" OMET

ProJECT
PLATFORM-"1

I
I POSITION SIGNAL REFERENCE IGNAL S TO COMPUTER

ii TocoMPu
!

i
= u

i
_g "
_

=

I

=
O b

I
• • J•

pOSITION SIGNAL TO COMPU|ER REFERENCE IGNAL S TO COMPUTER

POSITION SIGNAL I'O COMPUTER REFERENCE IGNAL S TO COMPUTER 15V 400_ FROM COMPUTER PLATFORM SIGNAL TO ADO (AT1'ITUDE POSITION DISPLAYGROUP)

I

,, i

m , • }

HORIZON SENSOR(PITCH)'

SELECTOR (_EF) HORIZON SENSOR (ROLL)

b ;

PLATFORM POSITION "SIGNALS TO ACME

suPPLY CPS CPSJ

--

+28v DC

' ID I

r

I
>D1

I

Figure

8-17

IMU

Functional

Block 8-59

Diagram

(Sheet

2 of 2)

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL f:_'_\ SEDR 300

L__V

PROJECT

GEMINI

NOTE
PLATFORM CO'ORDINATES BODY CO-ORDINATES-Xb, -Xp, Yp, Zp. Yb, Zb.

_
I

_

INERTIAL PLATFORM
- VERTICAL ACCELEROMETER (Z AXIS)

....

FIRST GIMBAL

(PITCH)-

ALONG COURSE ACCELEROMETER_ (X AXIS)

ACROSS CO (Y AXLS)

GIMBAL

(INNER ROLL)

Figure

8-18 Inertial

Platform 8-60

Gimbal

Structure

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

I GS Power

Supply

The IGS power supply (Figure 8-19) contains glmbal control electronics and the static power supply unit. platform. Oimbal control electronics idrive torque motors in the The static

Separate control circuits are provided for leach gimbal.

power supply provides the electrical power for the IMU, OBCI ACPU, MDiU_ M, ACME_ and horizon sensors. Figure 8-19 indicates the types of power available

and the units to which they are supplied.

Attitude

Measurement

Attitude measurements are made from inertial platform igimbals and reflect the difference between spacecraft and gimbal attitudes, ' platform gimbals are main-

rained in essential_v a fixed inertial attitude by gimbal control electronics. As the spacecraft moves about the attitude axes, friction transfers some of the movement to platform gimbals. gimbal attitude changes. Three miniature gyros are used to sense minute

When gyros sense a change in attitude, they produce ; a signal proportional to the attitude error. Gyro outputs are then used by gimbal control circuits to drive g_mbals to their original inertial attitude. Gimbal positions relative to the spacecraft are measured by synchros and resolvers. Synchro outputs are provided for attitude _isplay, automatic attitude
i

control, and gyro alignment. transformation, are used. to the computer.

Two types of resolvers, p_-se shift and coordinate

Phase shift resolvers provide gimbal angle information

Coordinate transformation resolvers provide attitude signal

resolution for gimbal control purposes.

8.61
CONFIOENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

":.

PROJECT

GEMINI

INERTIAL PLATFORM
]0.SV 7.2KC r_ I

+40V DC -40V DC -3V DC +35V DC +I2V DC +35V DC PRECISION -40V DC PRECISION -35V OC -22V DC ! MAIN BUS +28v _ ÷28V DC • +22V DC 26V AC 400 CPS L = i, SYSTEM ELECTRONICS

AC POWER (SELECTOR)
--

IGS POWER 26vAc
_ 400 CPS

SUPPLY

• _VDC .i iv, i i MO,U I
2> > (3 + 28.6V DC ÷ 10.2V DC - 28.6V + 20.7V +28V DC DC DC _ • I

26V AC 400 CPS

I
J
_

COMPUTER

+28vDC +28vDc
26VAC 400CPS

=

POWER UNIT AUXILIARY COMPUTER
I"OACME, HORIZON SENSORS AND ATTITUDE DISPLAY

I

Figure

8-19

IGS 8-62

Power

Supply

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

Modes

of Operation

Seven modes

of operation are:

are selectable CAGE,

by the astronaut.
;

The modes, and FREE.

in order The CAGE

of

switch position position is used

OFF,

SEF, ORB RATE, and to align

_F,

C_GE,

for IMU warm-up Platform In the

the platform

gimbals

with

spacethe until

craft body axes. horizon sensors.

gimbals CAGE mode,

are caged prior gimbals When with

to fine alignment by synchro reach

with outputs

are torqued outputs axes_

a null is obtained

on the synchro. are aligned

synchro

null,

torquing

stops and the gimbals mode

spacecraft

SEF (Small End Forward) when the spacecraft are compared synehro and vertical. is

is used to align the platform small end forward. outputs sensor compass Horizon

with the horizon sensor pitch

sensors

flyiDg synchro horizon A gyro

and roll outputs gimbals. When

with

and the difference outputs are balanced

used to torque the gimbals with

are aligned the orbit

to earth

local

loop aligns

the yaw gimbal

plane.

-NOTE
If horizon SEF or _F sensors lose track during either is

alignment

modes,

the platform

automatically

switched

to ORB RATE mode.
i

ORB RATE

(orbit

rate) mode ORB RATE

is used to maintain mode is inertially

attitude

reference

during

spacegyro.

craft maneuvers. The pitch

free except

for the pitch

gyro is torqued attitude

at approximately

four degrees

per minute

to maintain is used

a horizontal

with respect drift

to the earth.

If ORB RATE mode errors

for long periods BEF

of time,

can cause

excessive

in the platform. reverse the

(Blunt End Forward)

mode

is the same as SEF except

that relays

8-63 CON FIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROd

ECT'T--GMI

NI

phase of horizon sensor inputs.

The second CAGE mode allows the platform to

be caged in blunt end forward without switching back through other modes. mode is used during launch and re-entry phases. FREE mode is completely

inertial and the on_v torquing employed is for drift compensation.

NOTE
FREE mode is selected automatical_y by the Sequential System at retrofire.

Oimbal Control Circuits

Four separate servo loops provide gimbal attitude control. trates the signal flow through all four loops.

Figure 8-17 illus-

Gyro signal generator outputs

are used either directly or through resolvers as the reference for gimbal control. Both pbsse and amplitude of signal generator outputs are functions of gimbal attitude. output. Gimbal number one (pitch) is controlled directly by the pitch gyro

Error signals produced by the pitch gyro are amplified, demodulated, The first After ampli-

and compensated, then used to drive the pitch gimbal torque motor. amplifier raises the signal to the level suitable for demodulation. fication, the signal is demodulated to remove the 7.2 KC carrier.

A compensation

section keeps the signal within the rate characteristics necessary for loop stability. When the signal is proper_v conditioned by the compensation section, The power amplifier supplies the current required The torque motor then drives the gimbal ma_n-

it goes to a power amplifier.

to drive the gimbal torque motor.

raining gyro Outputs at or very near null.

8-6_
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

Roll and yaw servo loops utilize resolvers to correlate gimbal angles with gyro outputs. Inner roll and yaw gimbals are controlled by a coordinate When the spacecraft

transformation resolver mounted on the pitch gimbal.

is at any pitch attitude other than 0 or 180 degrees, some roll motion is sensed by the yaw gyro and some yaw motion is sensed by the roll gyro. The

amount of roll motion sensed by the yaw gyro is proportional to the pitch gimbal angle. The resolver mounted on the pitch gimbal angle. Resolver

output is then conditioned in the same manner as in the pitch servo loop to d_ive inner roll and yaw gimbals.

The outer roll gimbal is

servo driven from the inner roll gimbal resolver.

A

coordinate transformation resolver mounted on the inner roll gimbal, monitors the A_le between inner roll and yaw gimbals. If the angle is anything other The error signal is

than 90 degrees an error signal is produced by the _esolver.

conditioned in the same manner as in the pitch servo loop to drive the outer roll gimbal. One additional circuit (phase sensitive electronics) is incluced in the The outer roll gimbal torque motor is mounted on the As

outer roll servo loop.

platform housing and moves about the stable element with the spacecraft. i

the spacecraft moves through 90 degrees in yaw, the direction that the outer roll i gimbal torque motor must rotate to c_ensate for spacecraft roll, reverses.

Phase sensitive electronics and a resolver provide the phase reversal necessary for control. the yaw axis. The resolver is used to measure rotation of the yaw gimbal about ! As the gimbal rotates through 90 degrees in yaw, the resolver

8-65
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
__

GEMINI

SEDR 300

output phase motor

changes sensitive

phase.

Resolver

output

is compared

to a reference changes

phase by the

electronics.

When the resolver

output

phase, the torque

drive signal

is reversed.

Pre-Launch

Alignment

The IMU is the inertial be aligned for that

reference

for hack-up

ascent

guidance to local

and must therefore vertical and the

purpose.

The platform

is aligned

launch azimuth. vertical

Platform

X and Y aecelerometers is aligned

are the reference

for local X and Y If

alignment.

When the platform

to the local vertical,

accelerometers any acceleration torqued

are level and cannot is sensed,

sense any acceleration is not properly

due to gravity. aligned output and must be

the platform

until no error to generate an error output

signal exists. torque signals

The accelerometer for the gyros.

is used by AGE

equipment

When the gyro is torqued the gimbal. The outer roll

it produces gimbal

signal which is compe/ed

is used to align

synchro

with a signal representing is conditioned

the launch azimuth and applied a

by AGE equipment.

The error signal generator.

by AGE equipment

to the yaw gyro torque signal proportional resolver pitch gimbal error mounted

The yaw gyro signal generator Gyro output

then produces by a

to the input torque.

is coordinated

on the pitch gimbal. essentially

Since

the spacecraft

is in a 90 degree to roll no

up attitude control

all of the yaw gyro output The electronics output drive

is transferred

electronics. synchro

the roll gimbals signal.

until

exists between

and the AGE reference to the launch

When no error

signal exists,

the platform

is aligned

azimuth.

8-66
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

PROJECT

GEMINI

Orbit Alignment

Alignment of the platform in orbit is accomplished by referencing it to horizon sensors.

the

Placing the platform mode selector _n SEF or BEF position Pitch and roll horizon sensor outputs Differential

will reference it to the horizon sensors.

are co_pared with platform pitch -nd outer roll synchro outputs.

amplifiers produce torque control signals proportional to the difference between sensor and synchro outputs. roll gyro torque generators. Torque control signals are used to drive pitch and Gyro signal generator outputs are then used by

gimbal control electronics to drive platform gimbals, i When synchro and horizon sensor outputs balance, the pitch and roll gimbals are aligned to the local verti. cal. The yaw gimbal is aligned to the orbit plane through a gyro compass loop. The

If yaw errors exist, the roll gyro will sense a component of orbit rate.

roll gyro output is used through a gyro compass loop %o torque the yaw gyro. Yaw gyro output is then used by gimbal control electronics to drive the yaw gimbal. When the roll gyro no longer senses a component of orbit rate, the yaw to the orbit plane. All three gimbals are now aligned and will

gimbal is aligned

remain aligned as long as SEF or BEF modes are used.

The pitch Erro will be

continuously torqued (at the orbit rate) to maintain a horizontal attitude.

If

horizon is is

sensors

lose

track

while the

the

platform platform

in SEF or _F automaticall_

modes,: switched

to

ORB RATE mode.

CONFIDENTIAL

8-67

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

Orbit

Rate

Circuit

The orbit rate circuit during during attitude four Torque amplifier. rate. Orbit orbit maneuvers. m_neuvers with degrees is because no external per obtained The rate bias bias minute.

is used to maintain Local they vertical will lose the

aligmnent

to the local vertical by horizon a horizontal at approximately rate. differential the of orbit various sensors

cannot be provided track. pitch To maintain gyro the output at set to is

reference, The torque

torqued

represents on the gyro and

spacecraft of the

orbit pitch

by placing drives is the

a DC bias pitch

torquer can be

approximatel_v match orbits

adjustable

altitudes.

Phase

Angle Shift Technique

_

Phase

A_le

Shift Technique One of the factors The effect

(PAST) is a method which affects

of improving

gyro drift

repeat-

ability. unbalance.

gyro drift

is spin motor

rotor of lock

of unbalance motor's

will vary with field. Drift

changes

in the point

on with the synchronous different point

rotatiDg

The spin motor errors

can lock on to a unbalance

each time

it is started. per hour.

due to rotor a meana PAST

are in the order of 0.5 degrees drift errors by a factor of ten.

PAST provides drift errors,

of reducing

To cancel

shifts the phase the phase

of spin motor excitation

30 degrees

at reg,,IA_ intervals. point

Shlftin@

causes the rotor to lock on a different Drifts now tend to cancel and become compensated circuits. generator. for. )

each time the phase (When drift control

is shifted.

predictable. gyro torque

is predictable contain drift -_

it can be

All three

loops

compensation gyro torque

The drift compensation Drift compensation

circuits

apply

a dc bias to each

torques

the _ro

in the opposite

848
CONFIDENTiAl-

CONFIDENTIAL

_

SEDR300

direction

as predictable

drift,

maintaining

a stable

attitude.

Attitude

Malfunction

Detection

An attitude generator voltages. amplitude. are present. cal voltages

malfunction excitation, Gyro signal

detection gimbal

circuit

performs logic

self checks timing

of gyro

signal

control

signals,

signals,

and critical and proper

generator

excitation

is checked i

for presence

Gimbal

control

signals

are checked (28.8kc)

for th, length is che,_ed for

of time

signals Criti-

The logic timing (+22vdc,

signal

for presence.

-3vdc, +12vdc) light on the

are checked control

i,resence.

If a malfuncilluminated. to normal

tion is detected, If momentary operation

an ATT

panel

is automatically cam be restored

malfunctions

occur,

the ATT button.

indicator

by pressing

the RESET

i N-OTE
If the attitude malfunction, tions are axes will indications not measurement

I

circuits indica-

the acceleration reliable.

Acceler_eter
!

not be properly are along

aligne_

and

-n_nown

axes.
J

Acceleration

Measurement

Acceleration platform.

is measured Sensing

along

three

mutuall_ miniature

perpendicular i pendulous

axes of the inertial The

devices

are three

accelerometers.

8-69 CON FIDEN'I"IAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

accelerometers are mounted in the platform pitch block and measure acceleration along gyro x, y, and z axes. Accelerometer signal generators produce signals Signal generator pulses

whose phase is a function of the direction of acceleration. output is used to control torque rebalance pulses.

The torque rebalance

drive acceleromgter pendulums toward their null position. dc current whose polarity is controlled of rebalance

Rebalance pulses are The polarity

by signal generator output. of acceleration

pulses indicates the direction

and the algebraic pulses are

sum of the pulses indicates the amount of acceleration.

Rebalance

supplied to the spacecraft digital computer where they are used for computations and incremental velocity displays.

Torque Rebalance Loop

Three electrically

identical

torque rebalance

loops are used to control acceler-

ometer pendulum positions.

Normally an analog loop mould be used for this pur-

pose; however, if an analog loop were used, the output would have to be converted to digital form for use in the computer. To eliminate the need for an analog to Short duration 184 milliampere

digital converter, a pulse rebalance loop is used. dc current pulses drive the accelerometer passes through null.

pendulum in one direction until it When the pendulum

Pulses are applied at the rate of 3.6kc.

passes through null, signal generator output changes phase.

The signal generator

output is demodulated to determine the direction of the pendulum from null. Demodulator output is used by logic circuits to control the polarity of rebalance pulses. If acceleration is being sensed, there will be more pulses of one polarIf no acceleration is being sensed, the number of pulses of

ity than the other.

CONFIDRNTIAL

8-70

CONI=IOENTIAL

PROJECT
__

GEMIIII

SEDR300

each polarity pulses,

will

be equal.

In addition

to controlling !

the polarity

of rebalance frequency Precise of

logic circuits

set up precision circuits

timing

of the pulses. I for rebalance torque i

Precision

inputs from the t_mlng timing is essential pulse.

are the basis

pulse timing.

because

the amount

of pendulum

depends

on the length

the current therefore pulses.

All pulses are precisely is dependent pulse

the same _uration

and amplitude,

total Each

torque

only on the algebraic f is applied

sum of the applied torquer, a

time a rebalance provided

to the accelerometer su,_tion

pulse is also pulses

to the computer.

Algebraic

of the rebalance

is performed

by the computer.

Pulse Rebalance

Current

Supply

A pulse rebalance ance.

current

supply

provides

the required

Since acceleration that all

measurements

are based

current i on the number

for torque of torque

rebalpulses a

it is essential stable passed current, through

pulses be as near feedback resistor circuit

identical

as possible. The

To maintain is

a negative a precision

is employed.

supply output the resistor

and the voltage Errors

drop across

compared used

to a precision

voltage

reference.

in the feedback stability

circuit

to correct

detected by the comparison are i any deviations in current. To further voltage reference

enhance

both

the current

supply and the pre_ision oven.

are housed

in a temperature

controlled

Accelerometer

Dither

A pendulous

accelerometer, is necessary

unlike a gyrp, has an inherent
;

m_ss unbalance.

The

mass unbalance perfect

to obtain

the pendulum

aCtion.

Due to the unbalance, and consequently

flotation

of the pendulous

gimbal

cannot be achieved

8-71
CON I=IDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

SEDR 300

pressure

is present

on the gimbal bearing. a low amplitude the gimbal gimbal

To minimize oscillation

the stlction is imposed

effect,

caused by bearing The oscillation

friction, (dither)

on the g_mbal. long

prevents

from resting oscillation,

on its bearing two signals current

enough to cause stlctlon. a i00 cps dither imposed signal

To obtain

are required: is superaround The up end

and adc

field

current.

The dc field

on the signal

generator

excitation

and creates

a magnetic

field

the gimbal. dither down.

The I00 cps dither is applied the dc field,

to a separate causing

(modulator)

coil.

signal beats against The dither motion

the glmbal

to oscillate

is not around

the output

axis and consequently

no motion

is sensed by the signal generator.

Accelerometer An acceleration velocity

Malfunction malfunction

Detection detection voltage. circuit performs self checks of incremental pulses from each of than 0°35 The

pulses

and critical

Incremental If pulses

velocity

the three axes are checked seconds, critical it indicates voltage

for presence.

are absent

longer

that a flip

flop did not reset between for presence.

set pulses.

(+12 vdc)

is checked panel

If a malfunction illuminated.

is detected,

an ACC light on the control malfunctions normal occur,

is automatically malfunction button.

If momentary to

the accelerometer the RESET

circuit

can be restored

operation

by pressing

NOTE
Malfunction does not of the accelerometer attitude circuits

affect

measurements.

8-T2
CONFIOENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ

i

AUXILIARY COMPU_R

POWER UNIT

The Auxiliary Computer Power Unit (ACPU) is used in conjunction with the IGS power supply to m-_ntain the correct dc voltades at the computer. The computer

cannot function properly On low voltage either as a transient or a depression. Abnormal voltages can cause permanent cha_es in the computer memory. Three

types of circuits are provided in the ACPU to prevent a low voltage condition at the computer. control circuit. The first circuit is a transient sense and auxiliary power The second circuit is a low voltage Sense and power control The .ACPUis turned on and off with

circuit and the third is auxiliary power. the COMPUTER ON-OFF switch.

Tr-naient Sense Circuit

The transient sense circuit is designed to sense and correct tr__n.ientlow voltage conditions. A series type tz__-aistorvoltage regulator holds e_x_liary as IGS power suppl_ computer voltage regulator voltage drops below a min__mu_ of 17.5 volts,

power off the llne as low is normal.

If regulator voltage _entarily

the transient sense circuit detects the drop and turns on the series regulator. The redulator the desired then level. places auxiliary power on the line,and maintains voltage at

Low Voltage

Sens. Circuit e

A low voltage sense circuit prevents the computer from operatin_ on low voltage. When the computer is turned on, the low volta6e senseicircuit insures that spacecraft bus voltage is above 21 volts before allowing power to be applied to the

8-TS
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

computer.

If the computer is already on when a low voltage condition occurs,

the transient sense circuit will maintain normal voltage for i00 milliseconds. If spacecraft bus voltage is not back to normal after ZOO milliseconds the low voltage sense circuit initiates a controlled shutdown of the computer. Computer

power is controlled through contacts of a relay in the low voltage sense circuit. When the low voltage sense circuit detects a voltage depression it deenergizes the relay. Contacts of the relay initiate a computer shutdown in a manner When the low voltage sense circuit

identical with the computer power switch.

turns off the computer it also breaks power to all ACPU circuits except low voltage sense. If power were not broken to the transient sense circuit it would In attempting to maintain

attempt to maintain normal voltage at the c_puter.

normal voltage the auxiliary power capability would be exceeded.

Auxiliar_

Power

Auxiliary power consists of a battery and a trickle charger.

A O.5 ampere-hour

nickel cadmium battery is used to supply computer power during spacecraft bus low voltage transients. The battery will supply up to 9.8 amperes for periods A trickle charger is provided to maintain a full

of i00 milliseconds or less. charge on the battery. former, and rectifier. to ac.

The charger consists of a transistor oscillator, transThe oscillator changes static power supply dc voltage

The ae voltage is then stepped up with a transformer and changed back to Rectifier output is then applied, through The resistor limits charging current

dc by a full wave diode rectifier.

a current limiting resistor, to the battery. to 25 milliamperes. source if desired.

Provision is included to charge the battery from an external --

8-74
CONFIDENTIAL,

CONFIDENTIAL

PROWl
_._ SEDR 300
I

,DIGITALC_ER
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

General The Digital Computer, hereinafter referred to as the computer, is a binary, fixedpoint, stored-program, general-purpose computer, used to perform on-board computations. deep. The computer is 18.90 inches high, 14.50 inches wide, and 12.75 inches It weighs 58.98 pounds. External views of the computer are shown in in the accompany-

Figure 8-20. ing legend.

The major external characteristics are s_arized ;

Using inputs from other spacecraft systems, along with a stored program, the _. computer performs the computations required during the pre-launch_ insertion, catch-up, rendezvous, and re-entry phases of the mission.
i

In addition, the com-

purer provides back-up guidance for the launch vehicle during ascent.

lu_uts and Outputs The computer is interfaced with the Inertial Platform_ System Electronics, Inertial Guidance System Power Supply, Auxiliary CompUter Power Unit, Manual Data Insertion Unit, Time Reference System, Digital Co_and System,

Attitude Display, Attitude Control and Maneuver Eleet_onics, Titan Autopilot, !
I

Auxiliary Tape Memory (spacecraft 8 through 12), Pilots' Control and Display Panel, Incremental Velocity Indicator, Instrumentation System, and Aerospace i Ground Equipment. In connection with these interfaceS, the computer inputs and

outputs include the following:

Inputs
_0 discrete 3 incremental velocity

8-75
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

.. _-__

SEDR300

__._ LEGEND
I1_M ! NOMENCLATURE

---"

Q

MOUNTING

ACCESS COVER

CONNECTOR

J4

CONNECTOR

J5

(_

CONNECTOR

J7

Q (_

CONNECTOR CONNECTOR

J3 J2

Q

CONNECTOR

JI

I (_)

CONNECTOR

J6

MOUNTING i _ MOUNTING

ACCESSCOVER ACCESS COVER

i (_

MOUNTING

ACCESS COVER

_

ELAPSED TIME INDICATOR CONNECTOR ACCESS COVER

(_ (_

RELIEFVALVE MOUNTING ACCESS COVER

' (_

HANDLE

_)

MOUNTING

ACCESS COVER

IOEN TIFICA TION (_ _ MAIN

PLATE

ACCESS COVER

(_

BUS BAR ACCESS COVER

(_) (_)

_us8at ACCESS cover RELieF ALVE V

Figure

8-20

Digital 8-76

Computer

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDR 300

:

Inputs

(cont) angle data (500 kc) (3.57 kc) (182 cps) (99 words) i unregulated)

3 gimbal

2 high-speed

i low-speed data i low-speed data

i input and read-back 6 dc power i ac power

(5 regulated, (regulated)

Outputs 30 discrete 3 steering command velocity (7 digits) data words)

3 incremental I decimal

display

I telemetry i low-speed i low-speed

(21 digital data data

(3-57 kc) (182 cps)

3 dc power (regulated) i ac power (regulated, filtered)

O_erational The major

Characteristics operational characteristics of the computer_ are as follows:

Binary,

fixed-point,

stored-program,

general-purpose

8-77
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PEMINI
SEDR 300

Memo r_ Random-access, nondestructive-readout Flexible division between instruction and data storage 4096 addresses, 39 bits per address 13 bits per instruction word 26 bits per data word

Arithmetic Times Instruction cycle - 140 usec Divide requires 6 cycles Multiply requires 3 cycles All other instruction require i cycle each Other instructions can be progra=med concurrently with multiply and divide

Clock Rates Arithmetic bit rate - 500 kc Memory cycle rate - 250 kc

Controls and Indicators The computer itself contains no controls and indicators_ with the exception of the elapsed time indicator. However, the computer can be controlled by means of four a two-position

switches located on the Pilots' Control and Display Panel:

ON-OFF switch, a seven-position mode switch, a push-button START Computation switch, and a push-button RESET switch.

8-78
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SYSTE_ OPerATION Power The computer IuertiR1 to the receives the ac and dc power (IGS) required for its operation dc power from the supplied eliminates prime po_er

Guidance c_ater is

System buffered

Power Suppl_.

The regulated in

in the

IGS Power Supply that occur

a manner that spacecraft

any loss source. Su_y

in regulation Actual and the power Auxiliary are

due to

transients

in the

interruptions Ccmlmter

and depressions Power Unit.

arel buffered inputs

by the received

IGS Power from the

The power

IGS Po_er

Supply

as follows:

(a) 26 vacand return
!-_. (b) +28 vdc filtered A_ return

(c) +27.2 vdc andreturn (d) (e) (f)
The application Pilots' e_sed the to Control

-27.2 _e and return +20 vde andreturn +9.S "v_e_
of all power

return
is controlled by the switch 0N-OFF switch on the on,, the sJj_ml is computer supplied to

l

and IYispl_ starts by the

Panel.

_nen the

is iturned control !
[

t_me indicator IGS Power Supply

operating c_uter. s_r_teh is

and a power This turned signal signal off, is

the

computer. operating

When the and the

ca_es power to be transferred l the eCmlzlter elapsed time indicator

l

stops the

power

control

terming=ted /

to

remove

pover

from

computer.

8-79
CONFIDENTIAL !

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT GEMINI
Within the computer, the 26 vac power is used by magnetic modulators to convert de analog si_lals to ac analog signals. This power is also used by a harmonic filter

to develop a 16 vac, _00 cps filtered gimbal angle resolver excitation signal. The +28 vdc power is used by computer power sequencing circuits. The +27.2 vdc,

-27.2 vdc, +20 vdc, and +9-3 vdc power is used by power regulators to develop +25 vdc, - 25 vdc, and +8 vdc regulated power. This regulated power is used by logic

circuits throughout the computer, and is supplied to some of the other spacecraft systems •

Basic Timin_ The basic computer timing is derived from an 8 mc oscillator. The 8 mc signal is

counted down to generate four chock pulses (called W, X, Y, and Z) (Figure 8-21). These clock pulses are the basic t_m!ng pulses from which all other timing is generated. The width of each chock pulse is O.375 usec and the pulse repetition The bit time is 2 usec, and a new bit time is considered as Eight gate signals (GI, G3, GS, The first

frequency is 500 kc.

starting each time the W clock pulse starts.

GT, @9, Gll, GI3, and Gl4) are generated, each lasting two bit times.

and second bit times of a particular gate are discriminated by use of a control signal (called LA) which is on for odd bit times and off for even bit times. Fourteen bit times make up one phase time, resulting in a phase time length of 28 usec (Figure 8-22). Five phases (PA through PE) are required to complete a

computer instruction cycle, resulting in an instruction cycle length of i_0 usec. Special phase timing, consisting of four phases (PHI through PHi) (Figure 8-23), is generated for use by the input processor and the output processor. This timing

is independent of computer phase timing but is synchronized with computer bit timing.

8-80
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMI
I

I

"_

J-_-0.375USEC

-'_

J"_--

2USEC

wl-I

rl__.R _

I"1 I-1 I"1 n

I-1 n

r-i I-1 FL__R r'b

__n n n fln n n n run n n n n n rL n n n rb_n,n,n n__n n =n n__n n n m n nin
i--1
28USEC

n n n rL_n__nno
LAJ
G, G3 G5 G7 G_ G. G,3

n run

n,
=J

I
J--

r-'-I

r'--q

r'--!

I----i
r I, I

I I I I I I I I I I i : I I I
BIT TIMING BIT TIME (BT) I 2 3 4 LA "1" "0" "1" "0" GATE G1 G3 G3 G5 BIT TIME (BT) 6 7 8 9 TABLE LA "0" "1" "O" "1" GATE G7 G7 G9 G9 BIT TIME (BT) 11 12 13 14 LA "1" "0" "1" "0" GATE Gll GI3 G13 G1

i

I I

G14

5

'q"

G5

_6

"0"

G11

Figure

8-21

Computer

Clock 8-81

and

Bit

Timing

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

SEO
GEMINI

I_

28 USEC

i J

_,, n
_I

n
I

n

n

n

n_
I

_

f

L
I I I I

_o

Figure

8-22 Computer

Phase Timing

_

28 USEC

L [

,,,,n
_.,J

n
I

n

n

n
I

n_
b

P.2
_._ P.4-]

I

I
I I I' I

I

Figure

8-23 Processor 8-82

Phase

Timing

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDR 300

i

The computer nondestructive

memory

is a random-access, The basic

coincident-current, element

ferrite

array

with core. or in

readout.

storage

is! a two-hole

ferrite

The nondestructive series-parallel, a separate bits. each. buffer

read property thereby allowing

makes

it possible with

to read or write arit_tic

serially

operation

a serial

unit without or 159,7_4 of 13 bits two syllables. to

register. words

The memory

array

can store 4096 words, into three stored syllables

A1! memory Data words

of 39 bits

are divided

(25 bits

and a sign) words

are normally

in the first in all three

syllables,

and instruction

(13 bits)

are intermixed area,

Once the spacecraft modify the third

has been

removed

from the hangar word.

it is not possible of data stored in

syllable

of any memory

Modification

syllables the Manual

0 and i can be accomplished Data Insertion Unit

at the launch Co_an_

site through System.

interface

with

or the Digital

It can also be Tape

accomplished

in flight,

on spacecraft

8 through

12, _sing

the Auxiliary

Memory(A_).
As shown on Figure elements. with 8-2_, the memory Physically, each plane into is a 64 x 64 x 39 bit array of a stack of nondestructive (stacked in the

readout

it consists consisting smaller

of 39 planes

Z 8_mension), is logically efficiency. with each

of a 64 x 64 array to increase

of cores.

The memory

subdivided

parts

the program

storage SYL 2),

The Z d_mension syllable consisting

is divided

into three

sMllables

(SYL O through into 16

of 13 bits.

The X-Y plane

is divided

sectors defined

(SEC O0 through as the residual

SEC 07, and SEC lO through sector.

SEC 17), with

sector

17 being

A memory

word

is defined

as the 39 bits

along

the Z dimension word

and is located

at one

of the 4096 13 bits,

possible

X-Y grid positions. in either syllable

An instruction

or co_-._nd requires word. A data word

and is coded

O, l, or 2 Of a memory

8-83
CONFIDENTIAL

SYL 0

SYL2

J

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJE
_@ SEDR 300

requires 26 bits, and is always coded in syllables O and I of a memory word.

In-

formation stored in syllable 2 can be read as a short data word by using a special mode of operation primarily used to check the contents Of the memory.

NOTE The operation codes mentioned in the subsequent paragraphs are describe_ in the Instruction and Data Words paragraph.

Instruction List The instructions which can be executed by the computer are as follows:

f

O_eration Code 0000 HOPe

Instruction The contents of the memory location specified

by the operand address are used to change the next _nstruction address. Four bits identify the next

sector, nine bits are transferred to the instruction address counter, two bits are used to condition the syllable register, and one bit is used to select one of the two data word modes. ! The contents of the memory location

0001

DIV (divide).

specified by the operand address are divided by the contents of the accumulator. The 24-bit quotient is

available in the quotient delay line during the fifth word time following the DIV.

8-85
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEMINI
SEDR 300

o ration c, e (cout)
0010 PRO (process specified input by the operand

z t ction
or output). address is

(cont,),
or output into, or clears read

The input

loaded from, the accumulator.

An output co_and

the accmnulator to zero if address bit A9 is a I. The accumulator contents are retained if A9 is a O.

(Refer to Table 8-1 for a ]ist of the PRO instructions.)

O011

RSU (reverse subtract).

The contents of the accumula-

tor are subtracted from the contents of the specified memory location. cmnulat or. The result is retained in the ac-

0100

ADD.

The contents

of the

memory location specified

by the operand address are added to the contents of the accumulator. cumulator. The result is retained in the ac-

0101

SUB (subtract).

The contents of the memory location

specified by the operand address are subtracted fr_n the contents of the accumulator. tained in the accumulator. The result is re-

0110

CLA (clear and add).

The contents of the memory

location specified by the operand address are transferred to the accumulator.

8-86
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
__ $EDR 300

GEMINI
!

Operand Address X (Bits AI-AB) Y (Bits A_-A6) 0 0 0 0 i 2

Signal

Digital C_._eJ_lSystem shift pulse gate Data Tr_ssion System control gate data and timing

Time Reference System pulses

0 0 0 O i I i

3 _ 5 6 0 i 2

Digit magnitude weight I Reset data ready, enter, and readout

Digit selec_ weight I M_ory strobe

Cumputer ready Drive counters to zero Enter Digit Display magnitude we_ht 2

1
i i 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

3
_ 5 6 0 i 2 3 5 6

device drive

Digit select weight 2 Autopilot scale factor Pitch resolution Select X counter Aerospace Digit Ground Equipment data link weight

magnitude

Digit select

weight

Reset start _omputation

Table 8-1.

PRO Instruction Progrmlng

(1 of 3)

8-87
CONI=IDINTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PRO,JEC--E'C-T-GEMINI
_. 0perand X (Bits A1-A3) 3 3 3 3 3 3 Address Y (Bits A_-A6) 0 I 2 3 _ 6 0 4 i Yaw resolution Select Y counter Aerospace Ground Equipment data clock SEDR300 Signal

Digitmagnitude weight8 Read Manual Data Insertion Unit insert data

Reset radar ready Roll resolution Elapsed time control control and Time Reference reset/A_ wind-rewlnd

System Reset 3 _ 4 5 5 6 0 i Computer

malfunction command

ATM verify/repro

Secondstageenginecutoff Computer _nning re-entry command rewind command calculations control

Time to start

/ATM wind 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 2 3 4 5 6 3 4 Time to reset Write Read output

control/ATM processor

delta velocity

Input processor ime t Time to retrofire control Read pitch Read roll gimbal gimbal

Table 8-1.

PRO Instruction

Programming

(2 of 3)

8-88
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDBNTIAL

__

SEDR300

Operand Address

Signal

x (_tsAI-A3) Y (Bits4-A6) A
6 7 7 7 5 0 I 2 Table 8-1. Ready yaw gimbal Pitch error comm_d
I

Yaw error c_,_ud Roll error command i
I

PRO Instruction Prograr_4_g (3 of 3)

8-89
CONFIDENTIAL i

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT GEMINI

ope.,ration. Code (cont)_ 0111 AND.

Instruction (cont.). The contents of the memory location specified

by the operand address are logically ANDedj bitby-bit, with the contents of the accumulator. The

result is retained in the accumulator.

I000

MPY (multiply).

The contents of the memory loca-

tion specified by the operand address are multiplied by the contents of the accumulator. The 24

high-order bits of the multiplier and miltiplicand are multiplied together to form a 26-bit product which is available in the product delay line during the second word time following the MPY.

iO01

TRA (transfer).

The operand address bits (AI

through AP) are transferred to the instruction address counter to form a new instruction address. The syllable and sector remain unchanged.

I010

SHF (shift).

The contents of _he accumulator are

shifted left or right, one or two places, as specified by the operand address, according to the following table:

8-90 CONI_II_I_NTIAI

CONFIDENTIAL

'

PRO
_. SEDR 300 Oweration Code (cont) Co_and

!

Instruction (cont) Operand Address iX (Bits AI-A_) Y (Bits A4-A6) * * I 0 3 4 2 2

Shift left one place Shift left two places Shift right one place Shift right twoplaces • Insignificant

If an improp@r address co_e is given, the accumulator is cleared to zero. While shifting left,

O's are shifted into the low-order positions; f while shifting right, the Isign bit condition is
i

shifted into the high-order positions.

1011

TMI (transfer on minus accumulator sign). i

If the

sign is positive (0), theinext instruction in i sequence is chosen (no branch). If the sign is

negative (i), the nine bits of operand address become the next instructibn address (perform branch). The syllable and sector remain unchanged.

Ii00

STO (store).

The contents of the accummlator are

stored in the memory location specified by the !
I

operand address.

The con_ents of the accumulator I
I

are also retained for later use.

8-91 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

code+(cont)
ii01 SPQ (store product o_ The the

stru,=t, ,o. (cont,)
or quotient). word available time The product followin6 on the fifth an word is is

available MI_. time

second is

quotient

following

a DIV.

The product location

or quotient by the

stored operand

in the memory address.

specified

iii0

CLD

(clear and add discrete). input selected by the

The state operand

of the is

discrete

address

read into all accumulator to Table

bit positions.

(Refer

8-2 for a list of the CLD instructions. )

iiii

TNZ

(transfer

on non-zero).

If the contents instruction in

of the

accumulator sequence

are zero,

the next

is chosen

(no branch);

if the contents address

are non-zero, become

the nine bits of operand address

the next instruction The syllable

(perform unchanged.

branch).

and sector remnln

NOTE
The instructions paragraphs mentioned in the subsequent and TNZ)

(e.g., HOP, TRA, TMI, more completely

are described Instruction

in the

Information

Flow paragraph.

Instruction

Sequencing address is derived from an instruction counter and its associated

The instruction

8-92
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEII
__.@ SEDR300

Operand Address X (Bits A1-A3) Y (Bits A4-A6) 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 I 2 3 4 0 i 2 3 11. 0 Radar ready Computer mode2 Spare Processor Spare Data ready Computer mode1 Start timing

Signal

phase

i

computation

X zero indication ATM clock Enter Instrumentationystemsync S Velocityerrorcountnot zero Aerospace Spare Readout Computer Spare ATM on ATM data Clear channel 2 mode 3 Ground Equipment request

Table

8-2.

CLD Instruction

Progr_-.._ug (I of 2)

8-93 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

PMINI
Operan& Address X (Bits AI-A3) Y (Bits A_-A6 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 0 i 2 A_ Signal

mode control I

Simulation mode command ATM end of tape ATM data channel 3 Time to start re-entry calculations ATM mode control 2 Y zero indication

5
5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7

3
_ 0 i 2 3 _ 0 i 2 3 _

ATM data 1
Spare Digital Co;,_nd System ready Fade-in discrete Z zero indication Umbilical disconnect Spare Instrumentation System request Abort transfer Aerospace Ground Equipment input data Spare Spare 4

Table 8-2.

CLD Instruction Progrnmm_ng (2 of 2)

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

__

SEDR 300

address register.

To address an instruction, the syllable_ sectorj end word The syllable

position within the sector (one of 256 positions) mus_ be defined.

and sector are defined by the contents of the syllable register (two-bit code, three com_Luations) and sector register (four-bit code, 16 combinations). registers can be cha_ged only by a HGP instruction. sector is defined by the instruction _dress These

The word position within the l The instruction address

counter.

count is stored serially in a delay line; and normally each time it is used to address a new instruction, a one is added to it so th@t the instruction locations within a sector can be sequentially scanned. The humor stored in the counter can

be changed by either a TRA, TMI, or TNZ instruction, With the operand address specifying the new n,_ber. A HOP instruction can alsO change the count_ with the

new instruction location coming from a data word.

Instruction and Data Word.s The instruction word consists of 13 bits and can be cOded in ar_ syllable of any memory word. The word is coded as follows :

Bit Positlon Bit Code

i A1

Z A2

3 A3

4 A4

5 A5

6 A6

7 A7

8 A8

9

i0

II OPe

12

13

A90PI

OP30P4

The four operand presently

operation address used, bits

bits

(OP1 through

OP4) define

one

_f 16 instructions, _ord within _hether the

the sector to read

eight being the

(A1 through residual

AS) define bit (Ag)

a memory determines

and the

or not

rata residual.

If the A9 bit is a i, the data word aSdressed is always located i If the A9 bit is a O_ the data word addressed

in the !eat sector (sector 17). is ture read from the data sector locations defined to

i
by the be available contents to allows i instructions of the sector register. stored anywhere This feain the

8-95
CONFIOENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

The data word consists of 25 magnitude bits and a sign bit.

Nmnbers are represent-

ed in t_o's-complement form, with the lc_-order bits occurring at the beginning _f the word and the sign bit occurring after the highest-order bit. point is placed between bit positions 25 and 26. denotes the binary weight of the position. The binary

The bit magnitude n-tuberalso

For example, MI6 represents 2-16.

For the HOP instruction, the next instruction address is coded in a data word that is read from the memory location specified _ the operand address of the HOP word.

The codings of a nmnerical data word and a HOP word are as follows :

Bit Position Data Word HQP Word

i M25 AI

2 M25 A2

S M23 AS

4 M22 A4

5 _i A5

6 M20 A6

7 MI9 A7

8 MI8 A8

9 MI7 A9

i0 MI6 SI

II MI5 $2

12 MI4 $3

13 MI3 $4 -

mt PgSlt±on S 15 16 17 I
Data Word MI2 MII MIO M9

18 19 2o 21 z2 23 e_ 25 26
M8 M7 )46 M5 MS MS M2 MI S

H_ Word

-

_.A S'ZB

s5

....

For the HOP word, eight address bits (AI through A8) select the next instruction (one of 256) within the new sector, the residual bit (Ag) determines whether or not the next instruction is located in the residual sector, the sector bits (SI through $4) select the new sector, and the syllable bits (SYA and SYB) select the new syllable according to the following table :

S_able
0 1 2

,_B
0 0 I

S_A
0 1 0

CONFIDENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

_.

PROJENI

Roll

and yaw servo loops utilize Inner

resolvers

to correl_te are controlled
i

gimbal

angles with

gyro outputs. transformation is at any pitch

roll and yaw gimbals mounted other

by a coordinate the spacecraft is The

resolver attitude

on the pitch than

gimbal.

When

0 or 180 degrees_
=

some roll motion

sensed by the yaw gyro and some yaw motion amount gimbal output drive of roll motion angle. is then

is sensed by the roll gyro.

sensed by the yaw gyro is proportional mounted on the pitch gimbal

to the pitch Resolver servo loop to

The resolver conditioned

angle.

in the same manner

as in the pitch

inner roll and yaw gimbals.

The outer roll gimbal coordinate

is servo

driven

from the inner

roll gimbal

resolver.

A

transformation inner

resolver

mounted

i on the irLUer roll gimbal, If the angle is a_hing

monitors other signal is

the Anzle between than 90 degrees conditioned gimbal. _

roll a_d yaw gimbals. is produced

error signal

by the resolver.

The error

in the same manner additional circuit

as in the pitch (phase

servo Iloop to drive electronics)

the outer

roll

One

sensitive

is incluced

in the

outer roll servo loop. platform housing

The outer

roll gimbal

torque iImotor

is mounted

on the As roll

and moves

about the stable 90 degrees

element

with the spacecraft.
i

the spacecraft gimbal Phase torque

moves through motor must

in yaw, the direction

that the outer reverses.

rotate

to compensate

for sp;acecraft roll, the phase

sensitive

electronics

and a resolver

provide

reversal

necessary about

for control. the yaw axis.

The resolver

is used to measure rotates through

rotatilon of the yaw gimbal i 90 degrees in yaw,

As the gimbal

the resolver

8-65
CON|=IDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PRO
SEDR 300

M IN I

output changes phase.

Resolver output is compared to a reference phase by the When the resolver output changes phase, the torque

phase sensitive electronics.

motor drive signal is reversed.

Pre-Launch Alignment

The IMU is the inertial reference for back-up ascent guidance and must therefore be aligned for that purpose. launch azimuth. The platform is aligned to local vertical and the

Platform X and Y accelerometers are the reference for local When the platform is aligned to the local vertical, X and Y If

vertical alignment.

accelerometers are level and cannot sense any acceleration due to gravity. any acceleration is sensed, the platform is not properly aligned and must be torqued until no error signal exists.

The accelerom_ter output is used by AGE When the gyro is torqued The outer roll

equipment to generate torque signals for the gyros.

it produces an error signal which is used to align the gimbal.

g_mhal synchro output is compared with a signal representing the launch azimuth by AGE equipment. The error signal is conditioned by AGE equipment and applied The yaw gyro signal generator then produces a Gyro output is coordinated by a

to the yaw gyro torque generator.

signal proportional to the input torque. resolver mounted on the pitch gimbal.

Since the spacecraft is in a 90 degree

pitch up attitude essentially all of the yaw gyro output is transferred to roll gimbal control electronics. The electronics drive the roll gimbals until no When no error

error exists between synchro output and the AGE reference signal. signal exists, the platform is aligned to the launch azimuth.

8-66
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEI

O_ItAlig_e_

_1_gnment of the platform in orbit is accomplished by referencing it to the horizon sensors. Placing the platform mode selector £n SEF or ]_F position Pitch and roll horizon sensor outputs Differential

will reference it to the horizon sensors.

are compared with platform pitch and outer roll synchro outputs.

amplifiers produce torque control signals proportional to the difference between sensor and synchro outputs. roll gyro torque 6enerators. Torque control signals are used to drive pitch and Gyro signal generator o_tputs are then used by When synchro and horizon

gimbal control electronics to dri_,_platform gimbals.

sensor outputs balance, the pitch and roll gimbals are aligned to the local verti.
i

cal.

The yaw gimbal is aligned to

the orbit plane through a @yro compass loop. The

If yaw errors exist, the roll @yro will sense a component of orbit rate.

roll @yro output is used through a _Fro compass loop _o torque the yaw _ro. Yaw gyro output is then used by gAmbal control electronics to drive the yaw i gimbal. When the roll gyro no longer senses a component of orbit rate, the yaw All three gimbals are now aligned and will !The pitch gyro will be

gimbal is aligned to the orbit plane.

remain aligned as long as SEF or BEF modes are used.

continuously torqued (at the orbit rate) to maintain a horizontal attitude.

NOTE
If horizon is sensors lose track w_'.le the the

platform

in SEF or _RF modes,

platform is automaticallp switched to ORB RA_ mode.

8-67
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

Orbit

Rate Circuit

The orbit rate durin@

circuit

is used to ,_intain Local vertical

alig_nent

to the local

vertical sensors

orbit maneuvers. because

cannot be provided TO maintain gyro

by horizon

during maneuvers attitude with

they will

lose track. the pitch represents

a horizontal at approximately orbit rate.

no external per minute.

reference, The torque

is torqued

four degrees TOrque

the spacecraft

is obtained

by placing

a DC bias on the output 8Yro torquer

of the pitch

differential the orbit of various

amplifier. rate.

The bias drives

the pitch

at approximately orbits

Orbit rate bias is adjustable

and can be set to match

altitudes.

Phase

Angle Shift Technique

Phase

Ar_le Shift Technique One of the factors

(PAST) is a method which affects

of improving

gyro drift

repeat-

ability. unbalance.

8Yro drift

is spin motor

rotor of lock on to a

The effect of unbalance motor's

will vary with field. Drift

changes

in the point can lock

on with the synchronous different point

rotating

The spin motor

each time It is started. per hour.

errors due to rotor a means

unbBIAnce

are in the order of O. 5 degrees drift errors by a factor excitation of ten.

PAST provides drift

of reducing

TO cancel

e_,_rs t PAST

shifts the phase the phase

of spin motor causes Drifts

30 degrees

at re_p_lar intervals. point

Shifting

the rotor to lock on a different

each time the phase (_nen drift controX

is shifted.

now tend to cancel and become predictable. compensated circuits. generator. for. ) All three 8yro torque

is predictable contain drift ....

it can be

loops

compensation gyro torque

The drift Drift

compensation

circuits

apply

a dc bias to each

compensation

torques

the 8Yro in the opposite

848
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI

SEDR 300

direction as predictable drift, maintaining a stable attitude.

Attitude

Malfunction

Detection

i
An attitude malfunction generator voltages. amplitude. are present. excitation, detection circuit performs signals, glmbal control se_f checks of gyro signal i logic timing signals, and critical

Gyro signal generator

excitation

is checked for presence and proper

Gimbal control signals are checked for th( length of time signals The logic timing signal (28.8kc) is che(_ed for presence. ,resence. Criti-

cal voltages (+22vdc, -3vdc, +12vdc) are checked for tion is detected,

If a malfuncilluminated.

an ATT light on the control panel is automatically

If momentary malfunctions occur, the ATT indicator cam be restored to normal operation by pressing the RESET button.

NOTE
If the attitude measurement malfunction, the acceleration circuits indica-

tions are not reliable.

Accelerometer

axes will not be properly alignedland indications are along _n_uown axes.

Acceleration

Measurement

Acceleration is measured along three mutually perpendicular axes of the inertial platform. Sensing devices are three miniature pendulOus accelerometers. The

8-69 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEC'T

GEMINI

accelerometers are mounted in the platform pitch block and measure acceleration along gyro x, y, and z axes. Accelerometer signal generators produce signals Signal generator

whose phase is a function of the direction of acceleration. output is used to control torque rebalance pulses.

The torque rebalance pulses Rebalance pulses are The polarity

drive accelerometer pendulums toward their null position.

dc current whose polarity is controlled by signal generator output.

of rebalance pulses indicates the direction of acceleration and the algebraic sum of the pulses indicates the amount of acceleration. Rebalance pulses are

supplied to the spacecraft digital computer where they are used for computations and incremental velocity displays.

Torque

Rebalance

Loop

Three electrically identical torque rebalance loops are used to control accelerometer pendulum positions. Normally an analog loop would be used for this pur-

pose; however, if an analog loop were used, the output would have to be converted to digital form for use in the computer. To eliminate the need for an analog to Short duration 184 milliampere

digital converter, a pulse rebalance loop is used.

dc current pulses drive the accelerometer pendulum in one direction until it passes through null. Pulses are applied at the rate of 3.6kc. When the pendulum

passes through null, signal generator output changes phase.

The signal generator

output is demodulated to determine the direction of the pendulum from null. Demodulator output is used by logic circuits to control the polarity of rebalance pulses. If acceleration is being sensed, there will be more pulses of one polarIf no acceleration is being sensed, the number of pulses of

ity than the other.

CONFIDENTIAL

8-70

CONFIDENTIAL

_.

SEDR 300

each polarity will be equal.

In addition to controlling the polarity of rebalance Precision frequency Precise

pulses, logic circuits set up precision timing of the pulses. !

inputs from the timing circuits are the basis for rebalance pulse t_m_ng.

timing is essential because the amount of pendulum torgue depends on the length of the current pulse. All pulses are precisely the sar_ duration and amplitude,

therefore total torque is dependent only on the algebraic sum of the applied pulses. Each time a reba]ence pulse is applied to the accelerometer torquer, a Algebraic su_=_tion of the rebalance

pulse is also provided to the computer. pulses is performed by the computer.

Pulse

Rebalance

Current

Supply

A pulse rebalanee current supply provides the required current for torque rebalance. Since acceleration measurements are based on the number of torque pulses
i

it is essential that all pulses be as near identical as possible. stable current, a ne_tive feedback circuit is employed.

To maintain a

The supply output is

passed through a precision resistor and the voltage drop across the resistor compared to a precision voltage reference. Errors detected by the comparison are i used in the feedback circuit to correct any deviations enhance in current. To further voltage reference

stability both the current supply and the precision controlled oven.

are housed in a temperature

Accelerometer Dither

A pendulous aecelerometer, unlike a gyrp, has an inherent mass unbalance. mass unbalance is necessary to obtain the pendul,]maction.

The

Due to the unbalance,

perfect flotation of the pendulous glmbal cannot be achieved and consequently

8-71
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL
m_mmmmq

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI

SEDR3O0

pressure

is present

on the gimbal

bearing.

To minimize oscillation

the stlction is imposed

effect,

caused by bearing The oscillation enough to cause

friction, (dither) stiction.

a low amplitude the gimbal gimbal

on the g_mbal. long

prevents

from resting oscillation,

on its bearing two signals current

To obtain

are required: is superaround The up and

a i00 cps dither imposed

signal and adc

field

current.

The dc field

on the signal generator The I00 cps dither

excitation is applied

and creates

a magnetic

field

the gimbal. dither down.

to a separate causing

(modulator)

coil.

signal beats against The dither motion signal

the dc field,

the glmbal to oscillate axis and consequently

is not around generator.

the output

no motion

is sensed by the

Accelerometer An acceleration

Malfunction malfunction

Detection detection voltage. circuit performs self checks pulses of incremental from each of than 0.35 The --

velocity

pulses

and critical

Incremental

velocity

the three axes are checked seconds, critical it indicates voltage that

for presence.

If pulses are absent between

longer

a flip flop did not reset is checked for presence.

set pulses.

(+12 vdc)

If a malfunction illuminated.

is detected,

an ACC light on the control malfunctions normal occur,

panel is automatically malfunction button.

If momentary to

the accelerometer the RESET

circuit

can be restored

operation

by pressing

NOTE
Malfunction of the accelerometer attitude circuits

does not affect

measurements.

8-72
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT

GEMIN

AUXILIARY

COM_

POWER UNIT

The Auxiliary power supply

Computer

Power Unit

(ACPU)

is used in eo_Junction

with

the IGS

to real ntain the correct properly

dc voltages either

at the computer.

The computer

cannot function Abnormal

on low voltage

as a transient in the computer

or a depression. memory. Three

voltages

can cause permanent are provided

che_es

types of circuits at the computer. control circuit the C_ circuit.

in the ACPU

to prevent

_ low voltage

condition power control

The first circuit The second circuit

is a trsnaient

senSe

and auxiliary and power

is a low voltage The ACTU

_ense

and the third is auxiliary ON-OFF switch.

power.

is turned

on and off with

"-

Tr-nsient

Sense Circuit

The transient volta@e power

sense circuit

is designed

to sense

and correct

transient holds

low auxiliary voltage

conditions.

A series type

transistor supply

voltage c_uter

regulator volta@e

off the line as long as IGS power If regulator voltage

regulator

is normal.

momentarily

drops

i below

a minimum

of 17.5 volts, regulator. voltage at

the transient The regulator the desired

sense circuit then places

detects

the drop and turns power

on the series

auxiliary

on the line land mlntains

level.

Low Volta_e

Sense

Circuit

A low volta6e When

sense

circuit

prevents

the computer

from operating

on low voltage. that space-

the computer

is turned

on, the low volta@e before

sense icircuit insures

craft bus volta6e

is above 21 volts

a!l_lir_pOwer

to be applied

to the

8-73
CONFIDENTIAL

GONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

computer.

If the computer sense circuit bus voltage

is already

on when

a low voltage voltage after

condition

occurs,

the transient If spacecraft voltage power

will maintain

normal

for lO0 milliseconds. the low Computer circuit.

is not back

to normal

i00 milliseconds of the computer.

sense circuit

initiates

a controlled

shutdown

is controlled

through

contacts

of a relay

in the low voltage depression shutdown

sense

When the low voltage the relay. identical turns Contacts

sense circuit

detects

a voltage a computer

it deenergizes in a manner sense circuit low it would

of the relay initiate power switch. power

with the computer

When the low voltage to all ACPU circuits sense

off the computer sense.

it also breaks

except circuit

voltage attempt

If power were

not broken

to the transient

to maintain

normal voltage

at the computer. would

In attempting be exceeded.

to maintain

normal voltage

the auxiliary

power capability

Auxiliar_

Power

Auxiliary nickel

power consists battery

of a battery

and a trickle

charger. during

A O. 5 ampere-hour spacecraft bus

cadmium

is used to supply computer The battery will

power

low voltage

transients.

supply up to 9.8 amperes is provided

for periods a full trans-

of i00 milliseconds charge former, to ac.

or less.

A trickle

charger

to maintain oscillator, supply

on the battery. and rectifier. The ac voltage

The charger

consists

of a transistor static power a transformer output

The oscillator is then stepped

changes up with

dc voltage back to

and changed

dc by a full wave a current limiting

diode rectifier. resistor,

Rectifier

is then applied, limits

through current

to the battery. is included

The resistor

charging

to 25 milliamperes. source if desired.

Provision

to charge

the battery

from an external

8-74
CONFIDENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAl.

_@

SEDR 300

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

General The Digital point# tions. deep. Figure Computer, hereinafter referred to as the computer, is a Binary, on-hoard fixed-

stored-program, The computer It weighs 8-20.

general-purpose is 18.90 inches

computer, high, i_.50

used to perform inches wide,

computa-

and 12.75 are shown

inches in

58.98 pounds. external

External

views

of the computer

The major

characteristics

are s_t-_arized in the accompany-

in6 legend.

Using _.

inputs

from other

spacecraft

systems, required phases

along during

with

a stored

program,

the

computer catch-up, puter

performs

the computations and re-entry guidance

thei: pre-launch,

insertion, the com-

rendezvous, back-up

of the mission. vehicl(

In addition, ascent.

provides

for the Bunch

during

Y_ts

and Outputs is interfaced System with the Inertial Supply, Platform_ System Electronics, Unit, System,

The computer Inertial Manual

Guidance

Power

Auxiliary

Computer Digital

Power C_and

Data

Insertion

Unit,

Time Reference Control

System,

Attitude Auxiliary Panel, Ground outputs

Display,

Attitude

and Maneuver 8 through

Electronics,

Titan Autopilot, and Display

Tape Memory

(spacecraft

12), PiloSs'
!

Control

Incremental Equipment. include

Velocity

Indicator, with

Instrumentatio_ these l interfaceS,

System,

and Aerospace inputs and

In connection the following:

the computer

Inputs i _0 discrete 3 incremental velocity

8-V5
CONFIDRNTIAL
i

CONFIDENTIAL

LEGEND
ITEM NOMENCLATURE

- -"

Q (_

MOUNTING CONNECTOR

ACCESS COVER J4

Q

CONNECTOR

J5

(_

CONNECTOR

J7

CONNECTOR

J3

CONNECTORJR

Q

CONNECTOR

JI

(_ (_

CONNECTOR J6 MOUNTING ACCESS COVER

(_

MOUNTING

ACCESS COVER

MOUNTING

ACCESS COVER

)

ELAPSED EIME INDICATOR CONNECTOR ACCESS COVER

(_)

RELIEF VALVE

(_

I'_OUNTING

ACCESS COVER

(_

HANDLE

"_

(_

MOUNTING

ACCESS COVER

IDENTIFICATION

PLATE

_

MAIN

ACCESS COVER

BUS BAR ACCESS COVER (_ BUS BAR ACCESS COVER

(_

RELIEFVALVE II

Figure 8-20 Digital Computer 8-76
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PRO
SEDR 300 i

Inputs

(cont) angle data data data (500 kc) (3.57 kc) (182 cps) (99 words) i unregulated)

3 gimbal

2 high-speed i low-speed i low-speed i input

and read-back

6 dc power i ac power

(5 regulated, (regulated)

Outputs
30 discrete i-3 steering command velocity (7 digits) data words)

3 incremental I decimal

display

i telemetry i low-speed i low-speed 3 dc power i ac power

(21 digital data

(3.57 kc)

data (182 cps) (regulated) (regulated, filtered)

Operational The major

Characteristics operational characteristics of the computer _re as follows:

Binary,
f

fixed-point,

stored-program,

general-purpose

8-77
CON FIDENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

PROJECT GEMINI
Memo r_ Random-access, nondestructive-readout Flexible division between instruction and data storage 4096 addresses, 39 bits per address 13 bits per instruction word 26 bits per data word

Arithmetic Times Instruction cycle - 140 usec Divide requires 6 cycles Multiply requires 3 cycles All other instruction require I cycle each Other instructions can be progrn..nedconcurrently with multiply and divide

Clock tes
Arithmetic bit rate - 500 kc Memory cycle rate - 250 kc

Controls

and Indicators

The computer itself contains no controls and indicators, with the exception of the elapsed time indicator. However, the computer can be controlled by means of four a two-position START Computation switch,

switches located on the Pilots' Control and Display Panel: ON-OFF switch, a seven-position and a push-button RESET switch. mode switch, a push-button

8-78
CONFIDI.rNTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

;_

PROJECT

GEMINI

SYSTEM 0PE%_TION

The computer

receives

the

ac and dc I_wer

required

for

its

operation

from the

Inertial Guidance System (IGS) Power Supply.

The regulated dc power supplied

to the computer is buffered in the IGS Power Supply in a manner that eliminates any loss in regulation due to transients that occur in %he spacecraft prime power source. Actual power interruptions and depressions areibuffered by the IGS Power The power inputs received from the

Supply and the Auxiliary Ccm_uter Power Unit. IGS Power Suppl7 are as follows:

(a) (b)

26 vac and return +28 vdc filtered and return

(e) (d)
Ce)

+27.2 wle A-d return -27.2 _c and return

+20 vdc and return

(f)

+9.3 _e an_return

The applieatlon of all power is controlled by the ON-0FF switch on the Pilots' elapsed the to Control time and Displ_ starts by the Panel. When the switch is iturned cox trol ca_les the on_ the stKnal power to is computer supplied to

indicator

operating computer. s_rltch is

and a power This turned signal signal off, is

IGS Power Supply the eom_uter. operating eompute_.

be tr.n-ferred time power indicator from

When the and the

e, mputer

elapsed

stops the

power

control

termi_Lted

to remove

8-79
CONFIDENTIAL
..... i

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT GEMINI

Within the computer, the 26 vac power is used by magnetic modulators to convert dc analog signals to ac analog signals. This power is also used by a harmonic filter

to develop a 16 vac, _00 cps filtered gimbal angle resolver excitation signal. The +28 vdc power is used by computer power sequencing circuits. The +27.2 vdc,

-27.2 vdc, +20 vdc, and +9.3 vdc power is used by power regulators to develop +25 vdc, - 25 vdc, and +8 vdc regulated power. This regulated power is used by logic

circuits throughout the computer, and is supplied to some of the other spacecraft systems •

Basic Timln_ The basic computer timing is derived from an 8 mc oscillator. The 8 mc signal is

counted down to generate four clock pulses (called W, X, Y, and Z) (Figure 8-21). These clock pulses are the basic timing pulses from which all other timing is generated. The width of each clock pulse is 0.375 usec and the pulse repetition The bit time is 2 usec_ and a new bit time is considered as Eight gate signals (Gl, G3, GS, The first

frequency is 500 kc.

starting each time the W clock pulse starts.

GT, Gg, GII, GI3, and Gl_) are generated, each lasting two bit times.

and second bit times of a particular gate are discriminated by use of a control signal (called LA) which is on for odd bit times and off for even bit times. Fourteen bit tlmes make up one phase time, resulting in a phase time length of 28 usec (Figure 8-22). Five phases (PA through PE) are required to camplete a

computer instruction cycle, resulting in an instruction cycle length of 140 usec. Special phase tlmlng, consisting of four phases (PHI through PHi) (Figure 8-23), is generated for use by the input processor and the output processor. Thls timing

is independent of computer phase timing but is synchronized with computer bit timing.

8-80 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

s o 3oo
GEMINI
!

--_ _- o.37BSEC U

--"1

[-----2USEC

wn n n n n n_n

n n n n n n FUJI n_

x_n n n n n rL_n n n__n n n n,n
I"I n I"I ,,I-I I-L_FI n n i-I rl.__R rl II n

n rE
n I-

,,_
!=

n,, n n n n n!run n n n n
28 USEC : -I

G_ G_ G5 G7 G, G,, G,3 GI,

I I I I I I I I I I

! : ! :

I

I I

I i I I I I
GATE Gll GI3 G13
G_

BIT TIMING BIT TIME (BT) 1 2 3
¢

TABLE LA II0'1 "1" "0"
Ill "

LA Iili' "0" "1"
_IOII

GATE G1 G3 G3
G5

BIT TIME (BT) 6 7 8
_

GATE G7 G7 G9
G_

_JT TIME (BT) l lj 1'2 13
]4

LA I'1" "0" "1"
1'0"

5

"I"

G5

10

"0"

Gll

Figure

8-21 Computer

Clock and Bit :Timing 8-81

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

_

s,=oR 300

BT'4 El
P_ I _ _

i"

28 USEC

I

R
1 I

n

n

n

rb
I

I I I

I

I

Figure

8-22 Computer

Phase Timing

_,,,n
_.,J _._
_H_ _ -I

I •

28 USEC

I_l

n
I I

n

n

n
I

n_
S r-

I
I' I I' I

Figure

8-23 Processor 8-82

Phase Timing

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

_.

SEDR 300

Me:o_
The computer nondestructive memory is a random-access, The basic property allowing coincident-current, i element ferrite array with core. or in

readout. read

storage

isi a two-hole

ferrite

The nondestructive

makes

it possible with

toi read or write i

serially unit

series-para_ _el, thereby a separate bits. each. buffer

operation

a serial arithmetic _096 words, syllables

without

register. words

The memory

array

can store

or 159,7_4 of 13 hits two syllables. to

_1! memory Data words

of 39 bits

are divided

into three Stored

(25 bits

and a sign) words

are normally

in the first in all three

syllables,

and instruction

(13 hits)

are intermixed

Once the spacecraft modify the thir_

has been removed

from the hangar iarea, it is not possible word. Mod/flcation
i

syllable

of any memory

of data stored interface

in with

syllables the Manual

O and i can he accomplished Data Insertion Unit

at the launch C_nd

site through System.

or the Digital

It can also be Tape

accomplished

in flight,

on spacecraft

8 through

12, using

the Auxiliary

emory
As shown on Figure elements. with 8-24, the memory Physically_ each plane into is a 64 x 64 x 39 bit array of nondestructive (stacked in the

readout

it consists consisting smaller

of a stack of 39 planes
I

Z dimension), is logically efficiency. with each sectors defined

of a 64 x 6_ array to increase

of cores.

The memory

subdivided

parts

the program

storage SYL 2),

The Z dimension syllable consisting

is divided

into three

syllables

(SYL 0 through into 16

of 13 bits.

The X-Y plane
i

is divided

(HEC O0 through as the residual

SEC 07, and SEC i0 through sector.

SEC 17), with

sector

17 being

A memory

word

is defined

as the 39 bits

along

the Z ilmenslon
!

and is located or command word.

at one

of the _096 13 hits,

possible

X-Y grid positions. syllable

An instrucSion

word

requires

and is coded in either

O, I, or 2 Of a memory J

A data word

8-83
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

0

y

32

40

skt o

15

11f
Sp_ !

11
,---

Figure

8-24

Computer

Memory 8-8i4

Functional

Organization

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT

GEMIN

requires 26 bits, and is always coded in syllables 0 and I of a memory word. Ini formation stored in syllable 2 can be read as a short data word by using a special mode of operation primarily used to check the contents of the memory.

_0TE The operation codes mentioned in the subsequent paragraphs are described in the Instruction and Data Words paragraph.

I truction

Ist

The instructions which can be executed by the computer are as follows:
!

._

O_eration ,Code 0000 HOP. by the

ilnstruction The contents of t_e memory location specified
iI

operand

address

are

used

to

change

the

next

instruction address.

FQur bits identify the next i

sector, nine bits are transferred to the instruction address counter, two bi_s are used to condition the syllable register, and one bit is used to select one of the two data word modes.

o001

DIV (divide).

The contents

of the

memory location

specified by the operand address are divided by the i
i

contents of the accumulator.
i

The 24-bit quotient is

available in the quotient del_y line during the fifth i word time following the DXV.

8-85
CONFIDENTIAL

i

I

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEMINI
_. SEDR 300

O_eration 0010

Code(cont) PRO (process specified input by the

Instruction or output). operand address

(cont) or output into, or

The input is read

loaded fr_n, the accumulator.

An output command clears

the accumulator to zero if address bit A9 is a i. The accumulator contents are retained if A9 is a O. (Refer to Table 8-1 for a llst of the PRO instructions.)

0011

RSU (reverse subtract).

The contents of the accumula-

tor are subtracted from the contents of the specified memory location. cu_ulator. The result is retained in the ac-

0100

ADD.

The contents of the memory location specified

by the operand address are added to the contents of the accumulator. cumulator. The result is retained in the ac-

0101

SUB (subtract).

The contents of the memory location

specified by the operand address are subtracted from the contents of the accumulator. tained in the accmnulator. The result is re-

0110

CLA (clear and add).

The contents of the memory

location specified by the operand address are transferred to the accumulator.

8-86 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
___

GEMI

SEDR 300

_erand X (Bits A1-AS) 0 0 0

Address Y (Bits A_-A6) 0 i 2 Digital Cum_nd i
i

Signal

System shift pulse gate

Data Transmission System control gate i _me Reference System data and timing pulsesi

0 0 0 0 1 pI I i i i i 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 1_ 5 6 O i 2 3 _ 5 6 0 i 2 3 5 6 Table 8-1.

Digit magnitude weight I Reset data ready, enter, and readout

Digit select weight I Memory strobe C_put er ready

Drive counters to zero Enter Digit magnitude Display device we_t drive 2

Digit select weight 2 Au_opilot scale factor Pitch resol_ion Select X counter Aerospace Digit Oround Equipment data link weight

magnitude

Digit selec_ weight Reset start !computation PRO Instruction Progrvm_ng (i of 3)

8-87
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEMINI
SEDR 300 Operand A_ress X (Bits AI-A3) Y (Bits A_-A6) 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 O i 2 3 _ 6 0 i Yaw resolution Select Y counter Aerospace Ground Equipment data clock Digit magnitude weight 8 Read Manual Data Insertion Unit insert data Reset radar ready Roll resolution Elapsed time control and Time Reference System control reset/A_ Reset 4 3 _ 6 5 5 0 1 Computer malfunction ATM verify/repro command Second stage engine cutoff Computer x.m_ing Time to startre-entry calculations ontrol c /ATM wind co_and 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 2 3 4 5 6 3 4 Time to reset control/ATM rewind command Write output processor Readdelta velocity Input processor time Timeto retrofireontrol c Read pitch gimbal Read roll gimbal wind-rewind Signal

Table 8-1.

PRO Instruction Programming (2 of 3)

8-88
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

_.

SEDR 300

Operand Address X (Bits AI-A3) X Bits A4-A6) 6 7 7 7 5 0 i 2 Table 8-1.

_

Signal

Ready yaw glm_al Pitch error Co.m_nd Yaw error command Roll error c_nd

PRO Instruction Programm4!ug(3 of 3)

8-89
CON FIDUNTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

,%_-_

SEDR 300

___

Operation COde (cont) 0111 AND.

Instruction (cont) The contents of the memory location specified

by the operand address are logically ANDed, bitby-bit, with the contents of the accumulator. result is retained in the accumulator. The

I000

MPY (multiply).

The contents of the memory loca-

tion specified by the operand address are multiplied by the contents of the accumulator. The 24

high-order bits of the multiplier and miltiplicand are multiplied together to form a 26-bit product which is available in the product delay line during the second word time following the MPY.

i001

TRA (transfer).

The operand address bits (AI

through Ag) are transferred to the instruction address counter to form a new instruction address. The syllable and sector remain unchanged.

i010

SHF (shift).

The contents of _he accumulator are

shifted left or right, one or two places, as specified by the operand address, according to the following table :

8-90 CONPIDIEN'rlAL

CONFIDENTIAL

s.)t
i

i
Instruction (cont)

O_eration Code _ont) Command

O_erand Address iX (Bits AI-A_) Y (_BitsAM-A6) * * i 0 3 4 2 2

Shift left one place Shift left two places Shift right one place Shift right twoplaces • Insignificant

If an improp@r address co_e is given, the accumui lator is cleared to zero. While shifting left, O's are shifted into the Low-order positions; while shifting right, theisign bit condition is shifted into the high-order positions.

i011

_I

(transfer on minus a_cumulator sign).

If the

sign is positive (9)_ the next instruction in i sequence is chosen (no b_anch). If the sign is negative (i), the nine b_ts of operand address become the next Instruction address (perform branch). i The syllable an_ sector remaln unchanged.

Ii00

STO (store).

The contents of the accumulator are f

stored in the memory location specified, by the ! 1 operand address. The co_tents of the accumulator are also retained for la1_eruse.

8-91 CONFIDIENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

Si:DR 300

o tlm,
Ii01

code+(cont)
SI_ (store available _Y. The product on the quotient or second is

str, uctl,m ,(era, +,,)
quotient). word available time The product following on the fifth an word is is

time following

a DIV.

The product location

or quotient by the

stored in the memory operand address.

specified

IIi0

CLD

(clear and add discrete). input selected

The state of the address is

discrete

by the operand bit positions.

read into all accumulator to Table

(Refer

8-2 for a list of the CLD instructions. )

iiii

TNZ

(transfer

on non-zero).

If the contents instruction in

of the

accumulator sequence

are zero,

the next

is chosen

(no branch);

if the contents address

are non-zero, become

the nine bits of operand address

the next instruction The syllable

(perform unchanged.

branch).

and sector

remain

NOTE
The instructions paragraphs mentioned in the subsequent

(e.g., HOP, TRA, TMI, and TNZ) more completely in the

are described Instruction

Information

Flow paragraph.

I nstructio n Sequencing The instruction address is derived from an instruction counter and its associated

8-92
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL.

PROJEI
__. SEDR 300

0perandddress A X (Bits AI-A3) Y (Bits A4-A6) 0 0 0 0 0 i I i I 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 1 2 3 _ 0 i 2 3 4 0 i 2 3 4 0 i 2 3 h 0

_

Signal

Radar ready Computer mode 2 Spare Processor timing phase i Spare Data ready Computer mode i Start computation X zero indication ATM clock Enter Instrumentation System sync Velocity error count not zero Aerospace Ground Equil_nentrequest Spare Readout Computer mode 3 Spare ATM on A_4 data channel 2 Clear

Table 8-2.

CLD Instruction Progrs..._ng (i of 2)

8-93
CON FIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

Operand Address X (Bits AI-A3) Y (Bits A4-A6) 1 2 4 3 4 5 5 5 0 i 2 A_ mode control mode

Signal

1 co._aand

Simulation

ATM end of "tape ATM data channel Time to start 3 calculations

re-entry 2

ATM mode

control

Y zero indication

5
5 6 6 6 6

3
_ 0 i 2 3

A_ deta 1
Spare Digital Fade-in Command discrete System ready _--

Z zero indication Umbilieal disconnect

6
7 7 7 7 7

_
0 i 2 3 _

Spare
Instrumentation Abort transfer Ground Equil_nent input data System request

Aerospace Spare Spare

Table

8-2.

CLD Instruction

progrsmm_ng

(2 of 2)

CON I=IDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PNI

,o,,oo

i

address register.

To address an instruction, the syllable, sector, and word The syllable

position within the sector (one of 256 positions) must be defined. and sector are defined by the contents of the syllabl

e register (t_o-bit code, i three combinations) and sector register (four-bit code, 16 combinations). These registers can be cha_ged only by a HGP instruction. sector is defined by the instruction _dress The word position within the The instruction address

counter.

count is stored serially in a delay line; and normally each time it is used to address a new instruction, a one is added to it so that the instruction locations within a sector can be sequentially scanned. The number stored in the counter can

be changed by either a TRA, TMI_ or TNZ instruction, With the operand address specifying the new n,_her. A HOP instruction can alsO change the count, with the

new instruction location coming from a data word.

Instruction and Data Words The instruction word consists of 13 bits and can be coded in any syllable of any m_nory word. The word is coded as follows :

Bit Position Bit Code

l AI

2 A2

3 AS

4 A4

5 A5

6 A6

7 A7

8

9

i0 GPI

Ii

12

13 OP4

AS!A9

OP20PS

The four operation bits (0PI thro,_h 0P4) define one iof16 instructions, the eight e_erand address bits (AI through AS) define a memory _ord within the sector being presentl_ used, and the residual bit (Ag) determines whether or not to read the data _esidual. If the A9 bit is a i, the data word addressed is always located If the A9 bit is a 0, the data word addressed This feain the

in the last sector (sector 17). F

is read from _he sector defined by the contents of the sector register. ture alloss data locations to be available to instru(tions stored anywhere

8-95
CONIWIOIKNl"lAI. i

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDR 300

The data

word consists

of 25 man,rude form, sign bit bit with the

bits

and a sign bits

bit. occu_,;ing

Numbers at bit. the

are

represent-

ed in t_o's-complement _f the point denotes ward is and the

low-order after the

beginning The binary

occurring positions

highest-order The bit

placed the

between weight

2_ and 26.

magnitude

number also 2 -16.

binary

of the

position.

For example,

M16 represents

For the HC_ instruction, the next instruction address is coded in a data word that is read from the memory location specified by the operand address of the HOP word. The codings of a nmmerical data word and a HOP word are as follows :

BitP,sitloni o
Data Word HOP Word M25 AI

2
M24 A2

3
M23 A3

_
M22 A4

5
M21 A5

6
M20 A6

7
MI9 A7

8
MI8 A8

9
MI7 A9

1o
MI6 Sl

11
MI5 S2

12
MI4 S3

13
MI3 S4 _-

Bit Positic_ Data Word HOP Word

14 MI2

15 MII SYA

16 MIO SYB

17 M9 -

18 M8 S5

19 M7

20 M6

21 M5

22 M4

23 M3

2_ _

25 MI

26 S

.......

For the HOP word, eight address bits (AI through A8) select the next instruction (one of 256) within the new sector, the residual bit (A9) determines whether or not the next instruction is located in the residual sector, the sector bits (SI through $4) select the new sector, and the syllable bits (SYA and SYB) select the new syllable according to the following table :

S_Uab,le
0 i 2

_B
0 0 I

sYA
0 i 0

8-96
CONFIDENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

PRO
__ SEDR 300

The special syllable bit ($5) determines the mode in which data words are to be read. If the $5 bit is a 0, normal operation of reading data words from sylI

lables 0 and 1 is followed; however, if the $5 bit is a l, data words are read from syllable 2 only. These data words contain infoE_tion from syllable 2 in

bit positions 1 through 13, but contain all O's in bi_ positions 14 through 26. This special mode is foISowed until a new HOP c_and the normal mode of reading data words. places the computer back in

(While in the ispecial mode, amy HOP word

addressed always has O's coded in the SYA_ SYB, and $5 positions due to the short data word that is read; therefore, any HOP word!coded while in this mode The computer itself

terminates the mode and operation is resumed In syllable 0.).
i

does not have the capability to store information in Syllable 2; therefore, ST0 i and SPQ commands are not executed while in the special mode. The mode Is used
;

only to allow the computer arithmetic circuits to check the entire memory contents i to verify the fact that the proper information is in storage.

In a HOP word, the residual bit (A9) overrides the sector bits (S1 through S_). If the A9 hit Is a l, the next instruction is read frOm the residual sector. however, the A9 bit is a 0, the S1 through $4 blts determine the sector from which the next instruction is read. If,

For convenience, the data and instruction words can be coded in an octal form that is easily converted to the machine hlnary representat$on. The order in which the

bits are written is reversed to conform to the normal i method of placing lowersignificance blts to the left so that, while perform_pg arithmetic, the low-order bits are accessed first.) The coding structure Is as follows:

8-97 CONFIDENTIAL

CONIFIDISNTIAL

PROJECT
_SEDR

GEMINI
300 ____

Instruction Word 0Ph OP3 0F2 0P1 A9 AB A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1

*Y Address *Addresses for CLD and PRO instructions

*X Address

Data Word

s

_I

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6.......... M20

N21

M22

.23

M24 N25

where each group of three bits is expressed as an octal character (from 0 to 7). An instruction word is thus expressed as a five-character octal number. The opera-

tion code can take on values from 00 to 17, and the operand address can take on values from 000 to

777. Any operand address larger than 377 addresses the residual

sector (sector 17) because the highest-order address bit (Ag) is also the residual identification bit. A data word is expressed as a nine-character octal number, The low-order character can take on

taking on values from 000000000 to 777777776. only the values of O, 2, 4, and 6.

Arithmetic Elements The computer has two arithmetic elements: and a multiply-divide element. an add-subtract element (accumulator),

Each element operates independently of the other; Computer oper-

however, both are serviced by the same program control circuits.

ation times can be conveniently defined as a number of cycles, where a cycle time represents the time required to perform an addition (140 usec). All operations

except MPY and DIV require one cycle; MPY requires three cycles, and DIV requires six cycles. Each cycle, the program control is capable of servicing one of the An MPY or a DIV instruction essentially

arithmetic elements with an instruction.

starts an operation in the multiply-divide element, and the program control must

8-98
CONFIDINTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

obtain the answer at the proper time since the multlply-divide element has no means of completing an operation by itself. When an MPY is co_m_nded, the

product is obtainable from the multlply-dlvide element two cycle times later by an SPQ instruction. When a DIV is commanded, the quotient is obtainable five

cycle times later by an SPQ instruction.

It is possible to have one other instruction run concurrently between the MPY and the SPQ during multiply, and four other instructions run concurrently between the DIV and the SPQ during divide. However, an MPY or a DIV is always followed with an

SPQ before a new MPY or DIV is given.

Basic Information

Flow

Refer to Figure 8-25 for the following description of _nformation flow during the i five computer phase times. The description is l_m4tedl to those operations I requir-

ing only one cycle time, and thus does not pertain to MPY and DIV. i During phnse A, the 13-bit instruction word is read from memory and stored in the instruction address register. The address of the instruction is defined by the

contents of the memory address register, the sector r_gister, and the sy11-ble register. The four operation code bits (OP1 through 0P4) are stored in the During phase B, the operand address bits (AI through AS) are

operation register.

seri-1:lytransferred from the instruction address register to the memory address l register. S_,,_Itaneously,the instruction address stored in the memory address

register is incremented by plus one and stored in the i instruction address register. The operation specified by the operation code bits is !performed during phases C and D. During phase E, the next instruction address Stored in the instruction address register.

address register is transferred to the m_ory

8-99
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
,, '=.,

GEMINI

_J

X DRIVERS

J

D

REGISTER

Y D PHASE (INSTRUCTION B ADDRESS) R I E MEMORY

• INSTRUCTION ADDRESS MEMORY ADDRESS

PHASES C & D

!'

REGISTER

J_ J REGISTER j _PHASE B (OPER AND ADDRESS) PHASE E (INSTRUCTION ADDRESS)

i _ ! OPERATION REGISTER

i

REGISTER PHASE J SYLLABLE J

SENSE AND INHIBIT DRIVERS

1

PHASE C&D

[
Figure 8-25 Basic

l
Information 8-100 CONFIDENTIAL Flow

T

OUTPUTS

CONFIDENTIAL $EDR 300

Four of the one-cycle operations do not strictly adhere to the above information flow. These operations are HOP, TRA, T_I, and _FZ. For the HOP instruction, data

read from memory during phases C and D is transferred directly to the instruction address register, the sector register, and the syll,ble register. For the TRA,

S_I, and TNZ operations, the transfer of the next instruction address from the instruction address register during phase E is inb_bited to allow the operand address to become the next instruction address.

Instruction Information Flow Flow Diagram: The instruction information flow diagram (Figure 8-26) should be

used along with the following descriptions.

CLA Operation During phases C and D, the data that was contained in the accumulator A and B is destroyed. S_multaneously, during phases

new data from the selected memory location During

is transferred through the sense amplifiers and into the ace_tor. i

phases E and A, the new data is recirculated so as to be available in the accumulator during phases A and B.

ADD Operation During phases C and D, new data from the selected m_ry through the sense amplifiers and into the accumulator_ location is transferred Here, the new data is

added to the data that was contained in the acctamulator during phases A and B. During phases E and A, the sum data is recirculated sO as to be available in the accumulator during phases A and B.

SUB Operation During phases C and D, new data from the selected memory location is transferred

8-iOl
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

"TRA" ACCUMULATOR SIGN CONTROL

DRIVERS

_

.oP

,N.IS,T

Y

R I V _

MEMORY

_ HOI

S "TRA"

HOP _ a TNZ TMI ACCUMULATOR

PRO

(16 INSTRUCTIONS) -INSTRUCTION TIME)

r t OR A_ m _I =

(OPERATE __

ADD

--I

(ADD-SUBTRACT

-

|

i

INPUT PRO _ OUTPUT ADDRESS _ m OUTPUT DATA

IN%:T£_T_ =
PRO _ _ l

(OP_RATETI_E)
NOTE
A---- AND; I --- INVERTER

Figure

8-26

Instruction 8-102 CONFIDENTIAL

Information

Flow

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT

GEMINI

through the sense amplifiers and into the accumulator.! Here, the new data is subtracted from the data that was contained in the accumulator durlngphases and B. A

During phases E and A, the difference data is recirculated so as to be A and B.

available in the accumulator duringphases

RSU Operation Duringphases C and D, new data from the selected memory location is transferred

through the sense amplifiers and into the accumulator.! Here, the data that was contained in the accumulator during phases A and B is isubtracted from the new data. Duringphases E and A, the difference data is recirculated so as to be

available in the accumulator during phases A and B.

AND Operation During phases C and D, new data from the selected memory location is transferred through the sense amplifiers and into the accumulator_ Here, the new data is

ANDed with the data that was contained in the accumulator during phases A and B.

i
During phases E and A, the ANDed data is reelrculatedlso as to be available in the accumulator during phases A and B.

SHF Operation During phases C and D, the data that was contained inithe ac_tor during

phases A and B is shifted left or right, one or two places, as specified by the operand address. During phases E and A, the shifted _ta is recirculated so as

to be available in the accumulator during phases A an_ B.

f

STO Operation During phases C and D, the data that was contained inithe phases A and B is transferred thr_sh accumulator during

the inhibit drivers and stored in the memory

8-lO3
¢ONPIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

__

location reeirculated

selected

by the

operand

address. in the

During

phases

E and A, the phases

same data

is

so as to be available

accumulator

during

A and B.

H0P Operation During phases C and D, new data from the selected memory location is transferred

through the sense --_lifiers and into the address, sector, and syllable registers. Here, the new data is used to select the address, sector, and syllable of the memory location from which the next instruction will be read.

TRA Operation During phases A and B, the instruction from the selected memory location is transferred through the sense an_lifiers and into the address register. Here, the

instruction is ttsedto select the address of the m_zory location from which the next instruction will be read. The sector and syl1.ble remain unchanged.

.....

TMI Operation During phases A and B, the instruction from the selected memory location is transferred thro_,_hthe sense amplifiers and into the address register. Here, if the

accumulator sign is negative, the instruction is used to select the address of the memory location from which the next instruction will be read. However, if the

acc_._lator sign is positive, the next instruction address in sequence is selected in the normal m_nner. The sector and syllable remain unchanged.

TNZ Operation During phases A and B, the instruction from the selected memory location is transferred through the sense A_lifiers and into the address register. Here, if the

contents of the accumulator are not zero, the instruction is used to select the address of the memory location from which the next instruction will be read.

8-1o4
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PR FNI
_. SEDR 300

However,

if the contents is selected

of the accumulator in the normal

are zero The

the next instruction

address un-

in sequence changed.

manner.

s@ctor and syllable

remain

CLD Operation
During phases C and D, the data that was contained Simultaneously, is transferred the state in the accumulator input during phases by

A and B is destroyed. the operand address

of the discrete

selected During

into all accumulator

bit positions.

phases E and A, the new data lator during phases A and B.

is reeirculated

so as to be available

in the accumu-

PRO Operation During phases phases

(Inputs;

when A_I) in the accumulator during channel phases selected E and A,

C and D, the data that was contained Simultaneously,

A and B is destroyed. address

the data on the input During

by the operand

is transferred

into the accumulator.

the new data is recirculated phases A and B.

so as to be available

in the accumulator
i

during

PRO Operation During phases

(Inputs; when

Ag=O) channel selected by the operand is

C and D, the data on the input Here, during

transferred

into the accumulator. in the accumulator

the new data
i

is ORed with During

the data that E and A, the phases A

was contained ORed data and B.

phases

A and B.

phases

is recirculatad

so as to be available

in the accumulator

during

.

PRO Operation During phases

(Outl_tS) C and D, the data that was contained to the output channel in the accumulator by the operand during address. phases If

A end B is tr_sferred

selected

8-I05
CONFIDENTIAL

:

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

the A9 bit of the operand address is a i, the data that _¢as contained in the accumulator during phases A and B is then destroyed. However, if the A9 bit is

a 0, the data is reclrculated so as to be available in the accumulator during phases A and B.

MPY Operation During phases A and B of the first instruction cycle, the data that is contained in the accumulator is transferred into the multiply-divide element as the multiplier. During phases C and D of the same cycle, new data from the selected

memory location is transferred through the sense amplifiers and into the multiplydivide element as the multiplicand. During the remainder of the first instruction ....

cycle and the next tw_ instruction cycles, the multiplicand is multiplied by the multiplier. The product is available in the multiply-divide element during phases

C and D of the third instruction cycle.

DIV Operation During phases A and B of the first instruction cycle, the data that is contained in the accumulator is transferred into the multiply-divide element as the divisor. During phases C and D of the same cycle, new data from the selected memory address is transferred through the sense amplifiers and into the multiply-divide element as the dividend. During the remainder of the first instruction cycle and the next The quotient is

five instruction cycles, the dividend is divided by the divisor.

available in the multiply-divide element during phases C and D of the sixth instruction cycle.

8-106 CONFIDINTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL.

__

SEDR 300

SPQ Operation During phases C and D, the product or quotient that is contained in the multiplydivide element is transferred through the inhibit dr_vers and stored in the memory location selected by the operand address.

In the subsequent program and interface descriptions, the signals that are pro-

grammed by CLD and PRO instructions are sometimes referred to as DI (Discrete
i

Input) or DO (Discrete Output)isignals.
I

The two digits

following

the

DI or DO

are the Y and X addresses, respectively, of the instructions.

OPERATIONAL PROGRAM

General Two different programs are used with the rendezvous configuration of the spacecraft. For spacecraft 6, the sixth operational program is utilized. For space-

craft 8 and up, the seventh operational program is used.

The primary difference

between the two is that the latter is a modular program and is used in conjunction with the Auxiliary Tape Memory (ATM).

Sixth Operational

Program

The sixth operational program consists of six basic routines, called executor, pre-launch, ascent, catch-up, rendezvous, and re-entry. of several subroutines. Eech routine is made up

Some of the subroutines are common to all routines while

8-io7 CONFIDENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

SEDR300

SODIe are l__n4_queto a particular of pros_m to operate. PUTER mode initiated, instructions which,

routine. when

Each

subroutine cause

consists

of a series circuits

executed,

specific

computer

The initiation switch

of a particular Control

routine

is controlled Panel.

by the CCMis

on the Pilots' within

and Display

Once a routine automatically.

the subroutines

the routine

are executed

Executor

Routine routine selects, and handles the functions co-_on to, all other 8-27. The in-

The executor routines. dividual

The program blocks

flow for this routine

is shown on Figure as follows:

shown on the figure are explained

(a)

Block

1.

When the computer

is turned

on, the first memory

loca-

tion addressed is address 000, sector 00, syllable O. location routine • is the first memory address utilized

This memory

by the executor

(b)

Block 2. memory

The operational which

program

utilizes

special

predetermined (LC) ad-

locations

are designed

as Logical

Choice

dresses.

At certain

times,

the sign bits at these LC addresses The sign bits the execution of specific of the LC

are set minus addresses

(I) or plus

(0).

are then checked on whether

during

routines series

and, depending of program

they are plus or minus, executed.

special

instructions

are

(c)

Block

3.

The following computer

discrete

outputs

are set plus: engine

start autogate.

computation, pilot

running,

second

stage

cutoff,

scale factor,

AGE data

clock,

and Time Reference

System

8-i08
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

1
LC ADDRESSES I TIME

'

YES

NO

YES

i

TIME

I

I

REiD C)

I

,r
EXECUTE ASCENT ROUTINE

r
EXECUTE CAICCH -Ul ROITINE

I
O

Figure

8-27

Executor

Routine 8-109

Program

Flow

CONFIDENTIAL

!

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

(d)

Block 4.

The processor routines.

real time count

is read for utilization

by

the individual

(e)

Block

5-

The accelerometer

subroutine

is executed

to verify equal

that zero.

the X, Y and Z velocity

signals

from the accelerometers

(f)

Block

6.

A special

go, no-go diagnostic computer arithmetic

program

is executed

to

determine properly.

if the basic If these

circuits

are functioning if

circuits

fail,

the NO GO path is followed;

there is no failure,

the GO path

is followed.

(g)

Block 7. this

Program

instruction causes

PR03_

is executed. malfunction

The execution circuit

of

instruction

the computer

to be con-

ditioned.

(h)

Block 8. utilization

The processor

real time count routines.

is read and updated

for

by the individual

(i)

Block 9condition

Program

instruction

C_ID32 is executed discrete input.

to determine

the

of the AGE request

If the input

is a

l, the YES path is followed; is followed.

if the input is a O, the NO path

(J)

Block

i0.

Special

check-out

tests are executed

by the AGE.

Both

the Gemini T.aunch Vehicle

and the computer

can be checked

out.

(k)

Blocks

II through

i_.

Program

instructions

CLDIO,

CLDII,

and CLDI3

determine mode

the condition This

of the discrete

inputs

frcm the CCMPb_/_ by the pilot and,

switch.

switch is manually

controlled

8-110 CONFIDm'NTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDR 300

depending routine until to the

upon which be execute_ cce_uter discrete as follows. is

mode is until turned inputs

selected, the off. required switcl

icauses setting

a particular is changed or

The combinations t( select

of COMPUTER

mode switch routtne Routine are

a particular

Discrete Inputs
i

Pre-launch Ascent Catch-up Rendezvous Re -entry

0 1 i 0 0

0 0 0 1 1

0 0 i 0 1

(i)

Blocks 15 through 19.

Depending on the setting of the COMPUTER The

mode switch, one of these operationaliroutines is selected. l ;i individual routines are discussed in Subsequent paragraphs.

Pre-launchRoutine The pre-launch routine provides the instructions required to check out the com!
i

purer prior to launch and to read in special data forifuture use. This routine i performs sum-checks on all sectors within the computer memory. These checks are
|i

performed by adding the contents of all memory addresses within a sector and i comparing the sum with a pre-stored constant. If theiconstant and the sum are
;

not equal, the computer malfunction latch is set by program instruction PR03_. If the sum check is successful, special data is store@ in predetermined memory addresses hythe paragraphs. 8-iii CONFIDENTIAL co--nonsubroutines. These subroutines are discussed in later

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ E'-E'C"T-G-EM I N I
SEDR 300

Ascent

Routine

The ascent routine provides the computations required for back-up ascent guidance. After the computer has been placed in the ascent mode, special data is transferred to the computer via the Digital Command System. This data is then continually up-

dated and used to keep track of the orbit plane and the platform attitude with respect to Earth. Thirty second_ after the special data is first transferred to The

the c_nputer, the Inertial Guidance System is placed in the inertial mode. computer continually this time. monitors

and stores the platform gimbal angle values during

After lift-off, the co_puter performs a back-up guidance function.

If necessary, however, the computer can he used to perform prlmary guidance during ascent.

Catch-up Routine The catch-up routine provides the computations required to properly position the spacecraft for rendezvousing. During the catch-up mode, gimbal angle values and Calculated data is then supplied to

incremental velocity values are computed.

the Attitude Display so that the spacecraft can be properly positioned for rendezvousing.

Rendezvous Routine The rendezvous routine provides the computations required for achieving a rendezvcus. The routine performs essentially the same function as the catch-up routine, The radar data is transferred to These compu-

with the addition of radar data computations.

the conjurer from the rendezvous radar and utilizc_lin computations.

tations are used to achieve a rendezvous between the spacecraft and the target.

Re-entry Routine The re-entry routine provides the computations required for re-entry guidance. 8-112 CONFID'rNTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDR 300

During

the re-entry errors

mode, the retrograde

velocity

is monitored

and retro_rade with to

velocity respect

are calculated. landing

The distance

and heading

of the spacecraft

to the desired is predicted. maneuvers

site are calculated, also provides and provides

a_d the down
i

range travel

touchdown craft roll

The routine re-entry

signA]_ a d_aplay

to com_ana of attitude

the spaceerrors.

during

NOTE
The following previously subroutines are co_nn to the angle, Instru-

described

routines: Command

gimbal System,

accelerometer, mentation

Digital

System,

and manual

data.

Therefore, follows.

a description

of each of these

subroutines

Gimbal

Angle

Subroutine subroutine reads and processes Platform. the glmbal angles for the pitch, time, the

The glmbal

angle

yaw, and roll axes glmbal

of the Inertial

During angle

a computer word and transfers enables

angle processor

reads in one gimbal

value

a previously pro-

read glmbal cessing

angle value to the acc_-mllator. than if the angle between for each

This method axis were

a faster

operation

processed,

individually. value and

Approximately the processing binary

5 ms elapses

the processing angle value. angle. )

of lone gimbal angle

of the next gimbal of the actual

(The igimbal angle value

is the

equivalent

glmbal

Accelerometer

Subroutine subroutine These processes which velocity represent signal inputs from the Inertial

The acceleremeter Measuring of the Unit.

signals,

velocity Due

for the X, Y_ and Z axes to the construction bias and

spacecraft,

are generated

by accelerometers. the signals contain

adjustment

of the accelerometers,

inherent

and alignment

8-i13
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
SEDR 300

errors. values reads line. depend

The

subroutine

corrects

these

errors

and stores the corrected The computer

velocity

in predeterm_ued

computer memory signals,

locations.

input processor delay which

the X, Y, and Z velocity The delay line ,is then on the selected mede

and transfers

them to the processor at periodic intervals

read by the subroutine

or routine.

Digital

Co,_and

System

Subroutine reads and processes data furnished by the 24-bit

The Digital Digital wor_s where

Co._and

System subroutine (DCS).

Co,_nd

System

The DCS furnishes bits

the computer with The address memory.

special bits

consisting

of 6 address

and 18 data bits. in the computer

indicate first

the data bits

are to be stored

The subroutine

determines then

if data is available

from the DCS.

If data is available, the address

the subroutine

reads the data into the ac_1,.,lator. The data bits bits. are then this stored

Next,

and data bits are address specified by other

separated.

in the computer

memory

by the address subroutines.

After

data is stored,

it is used as constants

The DCS subroutine (Address 100-117). program

also

contains

instructions

which

provide

extended

DCS addresses. the proper

The recognition

of addresses

20 and 21 exercises

operational tendsd

loops to store the data it is necessary order

in the computer.

For each DCS exand this must be On the

address

insert,

to make

two transmissions 20 first,

accomplished first

in the proper

(i.e., DCS address address

21 next).

cycle through

the DCS subroutine, order

20 is recognized

and the asso21 is

ciated data recognized address words

is stored as high and the associated With

data.

On the second low order

cycle, address

data yields

data plus

the DCS extended to insert 26-bit

word.

the DCS extended

address,

it is possible

into the computer.

8-ll
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PRO
SEDR 3OO

Instrumentation

System

Subroutine subroutine Every assembles special data and transfers it to

The Instrumentation the Instrumentation

System System.

2._ seconds,

21 data words

are transferred data words transferred for the are

to the Instrumentation the stored include pitch, results

System

by the subroutine.

The transferred of data words gimbal angle

of other

subroutines.

The types

velocity roll,

changes

for the X, Y, and Z axes, range. occurs. Once When

values

and yaw axes, and radar sync discrete input

every 2.4 the input

seconds, occurs,

the Instruthe data memory

mentation words

System

to be transferred The buffer address

are assembled

in a special

l_strumentation addresses.

System

buffer. memory

consists

of 21 predetermined selection buffer

memory

A special data words

is used

as a word System

counter

tO determine

which

in the Instrumentation mentation System.

memory

are to be transferred

to the Instru-

MAnual

Data

Subroutine data subroutine determines when data is transferred from the Manual Data which in

The manual

Data Keyboard Readout (MDR).

(MDK) to the computer The subroutine

and from the computer i of approximately that control

to the Manual

consists

I000 instructions circuit operation

are used to govern the MDK and MDR.

the generation

of signals

Seventh

Operational

Program program consists of six modules. I, IV and V. certain At this time, Spacecraft space-

The seventh

operational

craft 8 and 9 are scheduled to use all six modules. discussed Module Module I I represents

to use modules

i0 is scheduled as

Each module

contains

routines

and subroutines

below and under Sixth

,Operational

' Prog_.

that portion

of the program 8-115 CONFIDENTIAL

which

is always

maintained

in

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT--GEMINI
SEDR 300

the computer memory.

It contains the programming required for the pre-launch diagnostic sub-

mode as well as that associated with the executer functions,

routines, computational subroutines and the ATM read programs.

Module II Module II consists of the ascent computer mode, a simplified catch-up mode (no radar interface) and that portion of the re-entry mode required for ascent/abort re-entry guidance. in ASC. For ascent/abort re-entry, the computer mode selector remains

Module III Module III consists of the catch-up and rendezvous modes as described under Sixth Operational Program.

Module IV Module IV contains the touchdown predict and re-entry modes. The touchdown

predict mode provides an on-board capability for predicting the half-llft touchdown point on the basis of ground-computed orbital initial condition data and a selected trial retrograde time. The calculated time-to-go to retrograde and

the associated retrograde initial conditions may be automatically transferred to the Time Reference System (TRS) and re-entry program, respectively, for subsequent initialization of the re-entry mode. The re-entry mode is generally

the same as that described for the Sixth Operational Program.

Module V Module V contains the ascent mode of module II, without the ascent/abort capability, and the catch-up and rendezvous modes of module III without the rendevous self test. The purpose of modnle V is to insure that ATM load failure

8-116
OONFIDIENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDIt 3OO

will

not

Jeopardize

completion

of rendezvous

mission

objectives.

Module Module tootles.

VI VI contains the orbit predict, orbit navigation, and orbit determination

The orbit predict position position) This mode

mode

provides

the capability vehicle

to calculate (or thei_

the velocity velocity

and and

of the spacecraft as much

or target

relative

as three orbits

into the future to

or 0ne orbit i

into the past. changes change

also provides orbit.

the capability This

in the spacecraft inputs

s_,,_late _isive i is accomplished by accepting the orbit computation

velocity velocity

in the guidance

axes while

is not in progress.

The orbit navigation velocity computer and position equations

mode

provides by

the means

to navigate il

the spacecraft outputs

during

changes

including

the accelerometer

in the

of motion.

The orbit determination navigation star to local accuracy vel'q_icle

mode

provides

the capability

to improve
i

the on-board angle or

by processing angle taken

the measurements aboard the

of! star to horizon

spacecraft.

I_I'I_WACE S Figure also 8-28 shows the equipment references which interfaces with the computer. interface
i

The diagram

contains

to the individual

equipment

diagrams.

InertialPlatform (Figure8-29) The computer on the pitch, rotors supplies roll, _00 cps excitation to the rotors of three Platform. resolvers located of the

and yaw gimbal resolvers

axes of the !nertial

Movement

of any of these

away from their

zero! (platform-caged) i

reference

8-117 CONFIDENTIAL.

i

__.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

4,

PROJECT

GEMINI
UNIT

INERTIAL MEASURING

PLATFORM (FIGURE 8-29) J

ELECTRONICS (FIGURE 8-30)

POWER SUPPLY (FIGURE 8-31)

VELOCITY INDICATOR (FIGURE 8-40)

N IMENTAL
: •

-'-

IPLOT I
CONTROL AND DI SPLAY PANEL (FIGURE 8-39)

AEIOSACE
GROUND EQUIPMENT (FIGURE 8-42)

_=

! I

SYSTEM (FIGURE 8-41)

NI

I

TITAN AUTOPILOT (FIGURE 8-37)

I
_

DIGITAL COMPUTER

_

_

DIGITAL COM/CU_,ND SYSTEM (FIGURE 8-34)

I ...

i NDEzv°us .
(FIGURE 8-38) AND MANEUVER ELECTRON] CS (FIGURE 8-36) I _=

IT E ISY EM ME
(FIGURE 8-33) C_ AUXI LIARY TAPE MEMORY (FIGURE 8-38)

IA TUDECONT OL I I
NOTE
[]_ SPACECRAFT 8 THRU 12 ONLY.

I

i
Figure 8-28

READOUT (FIGURE 8-32)

KEYBOARD (FIGURE 8-32)

MANUAL

DATA INSERTION

UNIT

I

Computer 8-118

Interfaces

CONFIDENTIAL

j_

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

_L___._'_

PROJECT

GEMINI

!
INERTIAL PLATFORM _ DIGITAL COMPUTER

I

RETURN (XCEGAEG)

FILTER

ROLL GIMBAL

ANGLE

(XPR4PPSRRC)

REFERENCE (XPR4PCRPRC)

l

YAW GIMBAL

ANGLE

(XPR3PPSRVC) GIMBAL ANGLE • PROCESSOR

REFERENCE (XPR3PCRPYC)

PITCH GIMBAL ANGLE

(XPR1PPSRPC)

REFERENCE (XPR1PCRPPC)

J
ACCELEROMETER -X VELOCITY

Y ACCE LEROMETER -Y VELOCITY •

PLATFORM ELECTRONICS

ACCUMULATOR

ACCELEROMETER

-Z VELOCITY

Figure

8-29

Computer-Platform 8-119 CONFIDENTIAL

Interface

CONFIDENTIALSEDR 300

PROJEC--'-G

EM I N I
relative to

causes the output voltage of the stator winding to be phase-shifted the reference 400 cps voltage inputs to the computer: the compensalor winding

a reference voltage from and a phase-shifted

(pitch, ya_, and roll references),

voltage from the stator winding

(pitch, yaw, and roll gimbal angles).

_e

following PRO instruction

programming

is associated with the Inertial Platform

interface : Signal X Read pitch gimbal Readroll gimbal Read yawgimbal 6 6 6 Address Y 3 4 5

The gimbal angles are read no sooner than 5 ms from each other, and the total reading time for all three angles is no greater than 30 ms. once per computation in the catch-up, rendezvous, The angles are read

and re-entry modes, and once

every 50 ms in the ascent mode.

These angles are gated, as true magnitude, into

the accumulator S, and I through 14 bit positions with the 15 through 25 bit positions being zero. discarded. The accumulator value from the first PRO instruction is results in an accumulator

Each of the next three PRO instructions

value of the glmbal angle read by the previous PRO instruction, as follows:

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

PROS6 (read pitch; process previously read angle) Discard previously read angle Wait 5 ms PR046 (read roll; provess pitch) STO pitch

8-12o
CONIFIOENTIAL

CONIFIIDiENTIAL

SEDIt 300

ii

(f)
(g) (h)

waAt
PRO56 (read yaw; STO roll process roll)

(i) wait5 ms
(J) PRO36 (read pitch; process yaw)

yaw
The computer inputs frcm the Inertial Platform are s_...-_._ized follows: as

(a) (b) (c)

Roll gimbal angle Yaw _mbal

(XPR4PPSRRC) and

._ference (XPR_PCRPRC)

angle (XPR3PPSRYC) and reference ((XPR3PCRPYC)

Pitch gimbal angle (XPRLPPSRPC) andlreference (XPRIPCRPPC)

The computer output to the Inertial Platform is _._rized

as follows:

Gimbal angle excitation (XCEGAE) and return (XCEGAEG)

System Electronics (Figure

8-30) are supplied to the

Outputs derived from each of the three platform accele_eters computer as incidental

velocity pulses (+X and -X delta velocity, +Y and -Y delta An up level on one Line denotes a posi-

velocity, and +Z and -Z delta velocity).

tive increment of velocity while an up level on the _ther line denotes a negative increment of velocity.

The following PRO instruction programming is associated with the System Electronics interface:

8-121 CONFIDENTIAL. iI

CONFIDENTIAL • _._ _ SEDR 300

PLATFORM ELECTRONICS

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

+ X VELOCITY

FROM PLATFORM

+ X DELTA VELOCITY CONVERSION CIRCUIT I -X DELTA VELOCITY -X VELOCITY + Y VELOCITY

(XEDVPL) (XEDVML)

INERTIAL

PLATFORM FROM

+ Y DELTA VELOCITY CONVERSION CIRCUIT ____ J -Y DELTA VELOCITY -Y VELOCITY + Z VELOCITY

(XEDVPY) INPUT (XEDVMY) PROCESSOR

INERTIAL

FROM

+ Z DELTA VELOCITY CONVERSION CIRCUIT -Z DELTA VELOCITY

(XEDVPZ) (XEDVMZ)

,
ACCUMULATOR

Figure

8-30

Computer-Platform 8-122 CONFIDENTIAL

Electronics

Interface

CONFIDENTIAL.

SEDR 300

Signal X Read X delta velocity Read delta Y velocity ReadZ delta velocity 5 5 5

Address Y 4 4 _

Processor PHASE TIME 2 3

The input processor accumulates the incremental velocity pulses on the processor delay line in two 's-complement form. The velocity p_aes have a mnximum frequency

of 3.6 kc per channel with a minimum separation of 135 usec between any plus and minus pulse for a given axis. Three input circuits are used to buffer the plus The buffered velocity p_11 inputs ae i

and minus pulses, one circuit for each axis. /-

are sampled during successive processor phases and read into a control circuit. This control circuit synchronizes the inputs with the processor timing and establishes an add, subtract, or zero control for thelprocessor carry-borrow circuit. The Bccumulated velocity quantities are read into the accumulator S, and

1 through 12 bit positions in two's-complement form via a single PRO45 instruction, as follows:

(a) (b) (c)

Processor phase 2 - read accumulated X velocity Processor phase 3 - read accumulated Y velocity Processor phase 4 - read accumulated Z velocity

As the accelerometer values are read into the accumulator, the delay llne is automaticslly zeroed so that each reading represents the cb,_e previous reading. in velocity from the

The cow,purer inputs from the System Electronics

are s_-_rized

as follows:

8-123 CONIFIOI!NTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ':-'t--'6EM,NI
SEDR 300 (a) +X delta velocity (]IED_L)

(_) -xde1_ velocity (X_) (c) +_del_ velocity (_) (d) -_del_ veloclty (_)
(e) +Z delta velocity (3_DVFZ)

(r) -zael_ veloclty (x_z)

The computer the dc power computer

supplies supplied

a filtered

28 vdc si_l

to the IGS Power Supply

Supply

to control power to the When

to the cumpu_er.

The IGS Power

supplies control

within

0.3 second after receivlng control signal drops within

the 28 vdc power

signal.

the cumpu%er

power

to 2 vdc, the IGS Power

Supply

removes furnished power

dc power frum the computer

0.3 secomd. Supply present

The 26 vac, _OO cps power by the computer whenever

to the eumputer by the IGS Power control Supply signal, and is therefore

is not controlled at the computer

the IGS Power

is operating.

The computer

inputs

from the IGS Power

Supply are m,_lzed

as follows:

(a) -_7.z dc(m_7_) v

a_ ret=n(_mT_m_)

(b) -_.2_c (xs_7_c)_d retu= (Xm_TVDC_) (c) -_ _c (Xm_O_) _ (d) +9.3 _e (XSmV_)_
(e)

ret=.(_0_) ret=n(X_VDm_)

26 vac (XS26VAC)and return (X_9.6VACI_)

The e_mpuT_r

ou%19ut to the IGS Power

Supply is m_-vlzed

as follows:

Power e_rol

(XCEP)

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

IGS POWER SUPPEY

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

+ 27.2 VDC (XSP27VDC) RETURN (XSP27VDCRT)

i = !

J

i

-27.2VDC CXSM2_'DC_
RETURN (XSM27VDCRT) + 20 VDC (XSP20VDC) RETURN (XSP2OVDCRT) + 9.3 VDC (XSP9VDC) RETURN (XS P9VDCRT) i i !

iI i
I l J | J J REGULATORS POWER

I
"
26 VAC (XS26VAC) RETURN (XS26VACRT) i

i
_ I I 400 CPS FILTER J

i
i i ROWER CONTROL (XCEP) i ! I _

I

I

RETURN (XS P28VDCRT) + 28 VDC FILTERED (XSP28VDC)

POWER SEQUENCING CIRCUITS

I

AUXILIARY COMPUTER POWER UNIT

1

POWER LOSSSENSING(XQBND) +28 VDC FILTERED (XSP28VDC)

Figure

8-31 Computer-Power 8-125 CONFIDENTIAL

Supply

:Interface

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

Auxiliar_

com_uter

Power in

Unit

(ACPU) with

(Figure the

8-B1) IGS Power Supply a power to the to buffer power or decir-

The ACPU functions interruptions pression, cuits until in the it the and

conjunction

depressions. the power

When the loss

ACPU senses signal the (up

interruption power power of sequencing constant

supplies computer.

sensing maintains

The ACPU then or

computer to

power

interruption

depression

ends

a -_wlmum

lO0 msee).

The

computer

output

to

the

ACPU is

s--_arized

as

follows:

Power

Control

(_CEP)

The computer

input

from

the

ACPU is

su_tzed

as

follows:

Power

loss

sensing

(XQBHD)

+28
Manual

filtered
(_IU) and/or (Figure 8-32) read out of, the computer dat_ up to stored Zt 99 det_ in also memory the words. computer a

Data Insertion Unit can insert the crew into, with into

The HDIU It provides

a means of the

updating

cerl_sin

by inserting capability

new data to verify

appropriate

memory location. of additional

provides

the data stored

in a number

locations. to the

Two of the quantities Time Reference

which may be inserted

(TR and _X) are transferred insertion.

System by the computer,

following

The NDIU consistsof two units: The Manual Data Keyboard (MDK) and the Manual
Data Readout used during presses (KDR). The MDK has a keyboard and readout. push-button containing I0 push-button the pilot switches de-

data insertion

To insert

data,

always

seven data-insert memory

switches;

the first

two set up the address and the last five

of the computer

location

in which

data is to be stored,

8-126
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

s o,oo
GEM NI
COMPUTER ! ECDPOSAX) I J_ CCUMUL&.TOR SIGN NEG, _CDNEGAX) _CCUMULATOR SIGN POS. ADDRESS XI (XCSAXI) !

MANUAL

DATA READOUT

DIGITAL

READOUT (XNZRC)

CLEAR (XNZCC)

_ DISCRETE iNPUT LOGIC ADDRESS SELECTION I

ADDRESS X2(XCSAX2) ADDRESS X3 (XCSAX3)

ENTER (XNZJC)

• ACCUMULATOR LOGIC

ADDRESS Y4(XCSAY4) ADDRESS Y5 (XCSAY5) ADDRESS Y3 (XCSAY3) l I r

DATA READY (XMZDA)

-25 VDC (XCP25VDC)

DEVICE

,NSERT DATA 1_×N_B,,
L _OWER INSERT DATA 2 (XMXB2) _--_ INSERT DATA 4 (XMZB4) INSERT DATA 8 (XMZB8) • INSERT SERIALIZER _

, IEGULATORS:, ! I i

-_ I×CMB_VDC, VOC C,RCD,T ! A" SELECT
B" -ZTURN (XCPM25VDCRT) =8 VDC (XCPBVDC) C" :ETURN (XC PBVDCRT) E" DiSPLaY DEVICES

MANUAL

DATA KEYBOARD

NUMBER SELECT CIRCUIT

INSERT DATA BUFFERS DISPLAY DEVICE DRIVE CONTROL

RESET CIRCUIT

DATA READY CIRCUIT

INSERT ENCODER

Figure

8-32 Computer-MDIU 8-127 CONFIDENTIAL

Interface

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI
SEDR300

set

up the

8_tua_ the

(1eta.

Each

dAgit

inserts&

is

also

displa_ed digit,

for the

verification. _ lo_tto=. l_shIf prusse_ for to re-

FollorJJIK _n

JJumr_io_ is presse_

8na verification to store the

of the dAt_ in the the _

seventh seleot_1

mrltoh

meuo_

verification and the ve_lfi_ti_

of 8_y digit 8_ dat_

onnnot _t

be _--_,

push-button The M_ This unit

mrltoh

is displ_s

8_&ress the

be set

up e4_in.

sequentially oaa also

d_tts

4-ger_e_

by the pt1_.

be use_

check quantities s_ore_ in the computer memorT. _y inserting the and verifying ceLly the switch. first two

This operation is aee_lishe_ _tgtts then and then display_ for _epressing verifi-

(adAress) _ata is

READ 0_T push-button

The select_l

catien.

Tf the pilot at-temptsto insert d_a a_ress, prior displayed to

in an invalid _ress,

attempts _o

read data out of an inv_ insert switch, a two-digit the seven sxlAress digits

inserts _re depress___-_ are all zero the

than seven dAglts, or fails to ERT_ or READ 0_T push-button a pilot error. .....

indicating

The following

CLD instruction

programming

is

associated

with

the

_)IU

interfaces

Si_
X

_dress
Y

Data _
Enter Readout Clee_

1
2 3 _

0
0 0 0

The following

PRO instruction

programming

is

associate_

with

the

MD1U interface.

Signal X Digit magnitude weight i 0

Address Y 3

8-128
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

P ........

I

x
Dl_t magnitude vetgbt 2 Digit
Digit

!
3 3
3

i 2
3 0 1

me_.t"_(le vetgbt _
_.tude weight 8

Reset DIOI, Display Digit Digit Digit

DI02, ana DI03 drive i 2 h

device

select weight select weight select _J.ght

0 1 2

5 5 5

Read MDIU insert data

3

The pilot must Inserted off.

_epress

the CIRAR push-button Upon

switch for the first

quantity

to be

or displayed. results then

the reeo_wn_tlon of DI0_ ion, the progran Ii DI01_ DI02, ana DI03,i and elearlng I the display drivers.

sets DO_O

Thls

in resetting

the MDIU buffer.

The pro_Im

sets DO_I off to reset

When is

& &igit

push-button 4-to the bv_Cer

switch Is _epressed, ema DIOI is t_trned

the ht_7 on.

oode_

aec_ml re_ls

(B_D)

e(xle

entereA

The program ofT.

the hurter this, the

into a_omallator

blt positions

1 through

_ an_ sets _0

Fo]_oeln_

program

sends out a code by means The progr_ then

of D050,

D051,

and iD052 to select

the 4/glt _rIvers,

to a_1

be _Isp]_ye_.

sets _0_l

on to turn ion the 41spla_ i

senAs a BCD dl_It to the buffer by means of D030, D0_, D032, and D033. The pro_m walts 0.5 seoo_d and sets D0_O and D0_l off. The pilot must nit until

the atgit

is atspl_ea

before enterin_

the next dtgt%.
/

After

all

seven atgtts

have been entereA and at_,

the pilot The _

This remLlts in _IO_ beta_ set on.

aepresses ithe _ l_sh-button mrlteh. i then Isets D0_0 ofT, sad eon_s

8o129
CONFIDENTIAl.

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

SEDR 300

the

flve

_ to the

d£81ts

to binary.

This

data

is

sealed

an_ stored

in memory ae-

eordlu8

two-d£E_Lt exldress.

'1'o read (h_ta out of the ecmputer_ queatit¥ results quested to be dtspla3_ in DI03 being quantlty set a_l on. then

the 1M.lot enters depresses the then

the _vo-_:I.l_Lt a(1.___-ess f the o svttch. the This reat

READ OUT lmsh-but_on sets to the D0_O off_ dtsp]_y

The ccml_t_r the

converts buffer

to BeD, and sends

BeD data

one digit

a fine in 0.5-sec_l The eo_u_
(a)

intervals. fr_ the _1_ are sumanlzed as follovs_
of this to signal denotes that the of a rye

_prts

Readout prevt_s]_

(I(ZRC) - The up level inserted dL_tts are

be used

as the

ad_ess

_i_
(h) Clear Wlously

to be _tepl_e_.
(]NZCC) - The _p level 4-serte_ dt_ts are of this incorreot si_ denotes insert that the premust

and the

sequence

be repeated.

(c)

Enter l_masl_ the

(XWZZC) - The up level tnser_e_ digits have

of this been

si_

denotes and should

that

the

prein

verified

be stor_l

e_ter

memoz.y.

(_)

D_te d_git

rea_ b_

(_W_.r_) been per

- The up level

of this

signal

denotes this line of data.

that at

a least

inserted. to

The computer al_o_ continuous

samples insertion

20 times

secon_

(e)

Znsert four

data si_3.s,

1, 2_ }_ an¢_ 8 (_'A_B1, X/wz.w, ]1,_ d.enott__ one _CD chaz.a_er,

and. ]3_8)

- These

are mrj_lte_

to the cam-

8-_3o
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

__

SEDIt 00 3

i

puter for each decimal digit inserted.

The computer outputs to the _IU

are sur_narized as foli_s:

(a)

_ccumulator sign positive (XCDPOSAX) - The up level of this signal on a set ir_ut causes the addressed la_ch to be set.

(b)

Accumulator sign negative (XCDNEG_X) -!The up level of this signal on a reset input causes the addressed ilatch to be reset.

(c)

Addressing - Seven lines provide the Q_pability of addressi_ lslches in the _IU. vided:

all

The following X iand Y address lines are pro-

(i) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

MDIU address XO (XCSAXO) _IU address Xl (XCSAX1)

MDIU address X2 (XCSAX2) MDIU address XB (XCSAX3) MDIU address Y3 (XCSAY3) _IU _IU address Y4 (XCSAY4) address Y5 (XCSAYS)

By selecting one X and one Y address line at a time, a total of 12 addressescan be formed.

(d)

Power - Regulated dc power is supplied to the MDIU as follows: (i) (2) (3) +25 vdc (XCP 25VDC) and return (XCPM25VDCRT) i -25 vdc (XC_5VDC) and return (XCPR225qfDCRT) +8 vdc (xcPSVDC) and r@turn (XCP8VDCRT)

8-131
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIALSEDR 300

The TRS counts Elapsed Time (ET) from ].ift-offthrough impact, counts down time to retrograde (TR) on c¢_mand, and counts down time to equipment reset (Tx) on

cnmmand, all in I/8-second increments.

The computer receives TR

and TX data When the com-

words from the MDIU end automatically transfers them to the TRS.

puter receives a display request from the MDIU for TR, or when the computer program requires ET_ the TRS transfers them to the computer.

The following CLD instruction progr_mming is associated with the TRS interface.

Signal X

Address Y

TR discrete

5

0

The following PRO instruction programming is associated with the TRS interface:

Signal X ET control TX control TR control Enter TRS data 8nd timing pulses TRS control reset 4 4 5 5 1 0

Address Y 1 2 6 2 2

1 The

In the readout mode, the computer transfers TR or TX data words to the TRS. mode is initiated by setting DO21 on.

The 24 bits of data to be sent to the TRS

8-132 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMI
I

I

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

TIME REFERENCE SYSTEM

TR EXCITATION +8V C

(XCDGTRE)

INPUT DISCRETE I

"_ TR DISCRETE (XGT£)

C

AI I O

TR=0

LOGIC DATA INPUT

i

LOGIC

I
_

TRS DATA INPUT (XGDAT)

.... I A I .

I _ I

I

:

,-_"

TRS DATA OUTPUT (XCDXRCD) ENTER (XCD[NT) TRS TIMING PULSES (XCDTRT)

1

!

=

I Ai
_-

: A

DISCRETE OUTPUT

TRONTROL G C XCDT
Tx CONTROL (XCDTXG)

.I TT,MSEITE 0G, I i
l Tx TIME REGISTER C =

Figure

8-33

Computer-TRS 8-133 CONFIDENTIAL

Interface,

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT-'GEMINI
$EDR 300

are (shift is

then

placed right

¢- the

e_cumu_tor instructions. 70 usee so that progr_

by 2_ consecutive With each after its the

sets

of PRO20 and S'HR1 a tt-_ug data Ai_r gates pulse. bit (_ pulse The 2_ has or TX).

one place) _-_tiate_ is the terminated

PRO instruction,

aut_atlca_y pulse sent to

beginn_n 5 of the is 139 usec.

timing been

up level

TRS_ the

generates

one of two control

Between 9 and 15 ms later, the computer terminates the TRS control gate.

The enter mode is initiated by setting D021 off.

One of two control gates (E_ or After

TR) is generated by the pro£_ramen_ terminated between 9 an_ 15 ms later.

termination of the control gate, the program enters a subroutine consisting of consecutive sets of PROIO an_ _ instructions. Every time a PRO operation is

called for, a timing pulse is generated by the same logic as in the readout mode. The t_4"5 pulse is sent to the TRS to cause the addressed data to be supplied to

the coaster.

The flrst bit reeeived is aiscarded wlth the final _

instruction.

The seeon_ bit received is the least significant bit and is shifted into ace_lator bit position _ instructions. line to the at the e_letion of the tvont¥-fifth set of PRO20 an_ excitation ecmz_ater to

When TR equals zero, a relay in the TRS connects the _ 14,e. The TR discrete signal then causes the

TR discrete

start re-entry calculatlons.

The computer

inputs

from the

TRS are

smmm_ized

as follovs:

(a)

TR di_rete
e

(_JSt)

- The up level of this signal signifies that the

eo_puter shou_

begin re-entry calculations.

o
ee_puter occur on this line. mined by _hieh eontrol _te

the

tothe

The _ata word on the llne is deterthe eaaputer actuates prior to the

CON

FID_NTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

_@

SEDR 300

actual

data transfer.

The up level

is a binary

I.

The computer

outputs

to the TRS are sum-rized

as foll_)ws:

(a)

TR excitation resistor

(SCDG_I_E) - The computer

supplies

+8 vde through When TR equals

a

to the _RS as the _R excitati6ni input.
i

zero, the _R relay to the computer

causes

the TR excitation signal.

input

to be transferred

as the _R discrete

(b)

Enter

(XCI_)

- The up level

of this _ignal
i

signifies

that

data

is to be transferred clocks occur. feted from the

from the TRS to the computer when the transfer i The down level signifie_ that data is to be transcomputer to the _IS.

(c)

TRS data

output

(XCDXRCD)

- All data transfers The da_a word or _)

from the computer on the line is deter-

to the TRS occur mimed by which

on this lime. gate i. (TR

control

the computer

has actuated.

The up level is a binary

(d)

TRS timing computer

pulses

(XCSYI_)

- These

3.57 kc timing

pulses

cause the register

data to be shifted

into or ou_ of the _RS buffer

for transfer

to or from the computer.

(e)

TR control

(XC_)

- The up level of _his the TRS buffer of transfer re_ister i

signal

causes

the transTR regisof the

fer of data between ter. The direction

and the _

is determined
|!

by the level

enter signal.

(f)

TX control

(XCI_)

- The up level

of ithis signal

causes

the trans-

8o135 CON FIDINTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

fer of data between the _RS buffer register and the TRS TX register. The direction of transfer Is determined by the level of the

enter signal.

(g)

ET control (_)

- The up level of this signal causes the trans-

fer of data between the TRS buffer register and the TRS ET register. The direction of transfer is determined by the level of the

enter signal.

Diglt, ond s st, c @cs)(Figure
The DCS accepts BCD messages from the ground stations at a I ke rate, decodes the messages, and routes the data to either the TRS or the computer. the DCS can generate up to 6_ discrete commands. In addition,

Sign% l X DCS ready 6

Address Y 0

The following PRO instruction programming is associated with the DCS interface:

Signal X Computer ready DCS shift pulse gate I 0

Address Y 0 0

When data is to be sent to the computer, the DCS supplies the computer with a DCS ready discrete input (DI06). This input is sampled every 50 ms or less in all com-

puter modes except during the I/8-second interval in the ascent mode when reading ET at lift-off. To receive DCS data, the computer supplies a series of 2_ DCS

8-136 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

__

PROJECT

GEMINI

i=

D'G'TALCO ICONT O C, CSRETU iD'G
i

1

J

ACCUMULATOR

J

t
RETURN (XDDATG) INPUT LOGIC DATA BUFFER

RETURN (XCDCSPG)

:

DISCRETE OUTPUT LOGIC

Figure

8-34

Computer-DCS 8-137

Interface

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEMINI
__ SEDR 300

shift pulses at a 500 kc repitition rate by setting D001 off and programming a PRO0 instruction. register positions dress Bit to These shift pulses cause the data contained in the DCS buffer out 2_, with on the DCS data line and read into accumulator the assigned the are bit adquantity. most

be shifted

1 through associated

position

19 through

2_ containing

of the position

quantity portion)

and position and bit

1 through

18 containing portion)

19 (address

position

1 (data

the

significant bits.

The computer inputs fro_ the DCS are s,_rized

as follows:

(a)

DCS ready (XDRD) and return (XDRDG) - The down level of this signal signifies that the DCS is ready tO transfer data to the computer.

(b)

DCS data (XDDAT) and return (XDDATG) - This serial data from the DCS consists of 2_ bits, with 6 being address bits and 18 being data bits.

_

The computer output to the DCS is su_,_rized as follows:

DCS shift pulses (XCDCSP) and return (XCDCSI_) - The computer supplies these 2_ shift pulses to the DCS to transfer data contained in the DCS buffer register out on the DCS data llne.

Rendezvous Radar (Figure 8-35) The Rendezvous Radar supplies the computer with three data inputs: range to target, sine of azimuth, and sine of elevation. line-of_sight

In the rendezvous mode, (in

the computer uses radar data to compute and display velocity to be _ined body coordinates).

8 -138
CONI=UDENTIAL

_- __ _

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

l

ENDEZVOUSRAOARII LD'G'TALCOM I
CONTROL CIRCUITS RETURN (XREDG) DISCRETE INPUT LOGIC RADAR READY (XRED) REGISTER AZIMUTH REGISTER SINE ACCUMULATOR ELEVATION REGISTER _ SINE

t
OUTPUT REGISTER

RAOAR DATA SERIAL C×RDAT_
RADAR SHIFT PULSES (XCDRSP) RETURN (XRDATG) RETURN (×CDRSPG)

ij

LOGIC

DATA
INPUT

DISCRETE OUTPUT

I coNTroL PUTERREAO I: CO LOO,C
CIRCUITS RETURN (XCDCRDG)

Figure

8-35

Computer-Radar 8-139

Interface

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ

E'-E-C-T--GEM
SEDR 300

IN I

The following interface:

CLD instruction

progr_mlng

is associated

with the Rendezvous

Radar

Addre,s,s

x_
Radar ready 0

x_
0

The following interface:

PRO instruction

prosr-_mir_

is associated

with the Rendezvous

Radar

sisal

_,_,e,ss

x_
C_puter ready I 3 0

X
0 6 0

Reset radar ready DCS shift pulse gate

When the e_puter is supplied radar signal

requires

radar data, the computer Radar. Prior to this,

ready

discrete

output

(IDOl)

to the Rendezvous

the progr_n

has reset the ready

ready discrete

input buffer

with the PR063

instruction.

The computer

causes the radar to stop updating completion

its internal cycle.

data and to enter The program

a hold 20 ms three

mode following

of a data acquisition input (DI00).

waits

and tests the radar ready discrete consecutive causes sets of PR000

If the test is negative,

and STO instructions 500 kc pulses

are given.

Each PRO instruction out

a burst of fifth-two

to be sent to the radar to shift The data appears

the contents register

of the radar data output register. sequence:

in the output

in the following

8-1ho
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJE
___ SEDR 30_
i

(a) (b) (c)

Range - 15 bits Sine azimuth - iO bits Sine elevation - i0 bits i

A del_y of 280 usec occurs before the leading pulse of each 500 kc burst to enable the computer to store the data it has received and to allow the next data word to be inserted into the radar data output register in preparation for transmission to the computer.

Radar range data is read in true through 24.

magnitude form into accumulator bit positions 8
i

If bit positions 8 through Ii (four mostIsignificant bits) are l's,
I

the radar r-_e

data is considered unreliable and is _nored.

Sine azimuth and

sine elevation data are read into accumulator bit positions 15 through 24.
iI

The computer inputs from the Rendezvous Radar are s,m_arized as follows:
I

(a)

Radar ready (X_)

and return (XREDG) -iThe up level of this signal
I

signifies that the radar has recognizedlthe computer ready signal and is ready to transfer data. The radar ready pulse occurs between i rea_ pulse, if radar lock-on

0 and 4000 usec after the c_uter
has occurred.

(b)

Radar serial data (XRDAT) and return (_) - This data consists i of three words which occur in a fixed format as determined by the

iI

radar shift pulses.

The first word is _ange to target (15 bits), I
I

the second word is sine of azimuth angle (i0 bits), and the third _ord is sine of elevation angle (I0 bit_).

8-l_l
CONFIDINTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
______j

SEDR300

The computer

outputs

to the Rendezvous

Radar

are _.._rized

as follows!

(a) Radarshiftpulses(X_)
pulses are issued between puter receives groups the radar

and return(XC_S_) - These500 kc
280 usec and _ millisec read_ signal. after the com-

They are sent out as three _efore the leading

of 52 pulses

each I with

a 280 usec delay

edge of each group.

(b) Computer ready(XCDCRD) and return(XCDCRDG) The up levelof this signal signifies that the computer requires radar data inputs.

$$ti_ude During signals Attitude

_Isplay/Attit_xde

_ontrol

add Maneuver generates

Electronics pitch, roll,

(A_)

(Figure

8-36) error

the ascent mode_ and supplies Display

the computer

and yaw attitude the

th_n to the Attitude the performance

Display.

The pilot utilizes guidance

to monitor

of the ascent

equil_nent.

During

the catch-up

and rendezvous

modes,

the computer

generates

pitch

and yaw Display

attita_de error signals and. the AC_.

and is capable

of supplying

th_n to the Attitude

During

the re-entry

mode,

the computer

generates Display range

a roll attitude

error

or bank

rate

signal and supplies with hank

it to the Attitude

and the ACME. to the desired

If range to touchdown touchdown point, a on the

zero lift is equal to the computed rate comnsnd equivalent

to a IS _egree

per second

roll rate is provided with

roll attitude equal

error output

line.

If the range to touchdown point, line.

zero lift is not

to that for the deslre_ signal is supplie_ generates

touch_own

the appropriate Also, error duri_

roll rate or ro_1 the re-entry mode,

attitude

on the output

the oomputer

cross range end down range

signals

and supplies

8-Z_,2
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

f_"

i

them to the Attitude re-entry flight path

Display

for the pilots'

use in _nu,S1y

controlling

the

of the spacecraft.

The following

PRO instruction

progrs_ng

is associated

with the Attitude

Display

and ACME interfaces:

Signal

Address

x
Pitch error cc_nand 7 7 7 2 B 4 Yaw error command Roll error ccmnand

X
0 i 2 0 0 0

Pitchresolution
f_

Yaw resolution Roll resolution

The pitch, accumulator address

yaw,

and roll

error

commands

are written 13_ with

i_to

a seven-bit

register having

from an X

bit positions The outputs adc

S, and 8 through of the register voltage equivalent

_ PRO instruction to ladder

of 7.

are connected

decoding error.

netThis

works which

generate

to the buffered ssmple

digital

analog voltage circuit

is then

sampled

by one of three output,

is sampling sampled

the ladder value.

the other

and hold circuits; while one i two circuits are holding their is 2 ms, and the maximum hold

previously time

The minimum

ssmple time

is 48 ms.

The Y address and hold and hold

of the previously that

mentioned

PRO instruction output.

selects

the one sample of each sample

circuit circuit

is to ssmple the ladder

The output where

is fed into an individual

ladder

amplifier

8-14B
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECGEMINI
.___ SEDR 300

the DC analog voltage for each channel is made available for interfacing with the Titan Autopilot.

The dc analog outputs are also fed through individual range switches and magnetic modulators where the dc voltages are converted to 400-cycle analog voltages. The

range switches, which are controlled by means of discrete outputs, can attenuate the dc voltages being fed into the magnetic modulators by a factor of 6-to-l. addressing lows: of the discrete The

outputs for controlling the range switches is as fol-

(a) (b) (c)

Pitch or down range error (DO02) - _ Yaw or cross range error (DO03) Roll error (DO0_) -

plus for low range; minus for high range. _

The error commands are written every 50 ms or less. is dependent upon the computer mode of operation.

The updating period, however, For the catch-up, rendezvous,

and re-entry modes (and the orbital insertion phase of ascent guidance), the error co_ands are updated once per computation cycle or every 0.5 second or less. are updated every

For first and second stage ascent guidance, the error co_nds 50 ms or less.

The computer outputs to the Attitude Display and ACHE are s_:mmarizedas follows:

(a)

Pitch attitude error (SCLPDRM) and return (XCIPDRMG) Two identical sets of outputs (A and B) are time-shared between pitch attitude error (during ascent, catch-up and rendezvous)

8-i_4 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

__

SEDR 30O

!

and down range

error

(during Re-entry).

(i) (2)

Pitch Pitch

attitude attitude

error error

(ascent) ! (cat'h-up

to Attitude

Display to

!

and rendezvous)

Attitude (3)

Display error

i (re-entry) to Attitude Display

Down range

(b)

Roll

attitude

error/bank

rate

command I(XC_OLM) i

and return

(XCIROLMG)

- Two identical

sets of ou/;puts (A and B) are timeerror an_ bank rate
i i I
I

shared between ing ascent, entry, _--

roll attitude

command. During

Durre-

it represents it

only roll attitude roll attitude

error. error

hc:_ever, range

represents

when the

computed

is less than the desired
i
I

range,

and a 20 degree

per second bank rate exceeds the desired

command when range.

the computed !
i
l

range

equals

or

(i) (2)

Roll

attitude

error error

(ascent)

to Attitude

Display Display

Roll attitude and ACME

(re-e:itry) to Attitude

(3)

Bank

rate comand and ACI_

(re-ent ._j)to Attitude

Display

(c)

Yaw attitude

error

(XCLYCRM)

and retum
!

(XCLYCRMG) between

- Two identical yaw attitude range

sets of outputs error

(A and B) are time-shlred
i

(during ascent,

catch-up,

I and rendezvous)

and cross

error (during re-entry).
f

8-i_5
CONFIDENTIAL I

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ E--E'CT-'M
SEDR 300 (I) (2)

IN I

Yaw attitude error (ascent) to Attitude Display Yaw attitude error (catch-up and rendezvous) to Attitude Display

(3)

Cross range error (re-entry) to Attitude Display

During ascent, the computer performs guidance computations in parallel with the Titan guidance and control system. If a malfunction occurs in the Titan system, For a description

the pilot can switch control to the Inertial Guidance System.

of the program requirements and operation associated with the Tital Autopllot interface, refer to the Attitude Display and ACME interface description.

The computer outputs to the Tital Autopilot are summarized as follows:

-,-

(a)

Pitch error (X_)

-

(c) (d) (b) (e)

Yaw error (XCLYDC) Comzon return (XC_) Roll error (XCIA_DC)__

backup ascent guidance. These signals are provided during - This signal cha_es the auto-

Autopilot scale factor (XCI_SF) pilot dyn_cs reached.

after the point of maximum dynamic pressure is

(f)

Second ste_e engine cutoff (XCDSSCF) - This signal is generated when velocity to be gained equals zero.

8
OONFIDINTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

_---_

PROJECT

GEMINI

i

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

ATTITUDE CONTROL AND MANEUVER ELECTRONICS

ACCUMULATOR

J

1
RETURN (XCLROLMG -A) CIRCUITS

LADDER LOGIC PITCH ATTITUDE ERROR (XCLPDRM-B) RETURN (XCLPDEMG -B) i

I
ROLL ATTITUDE ERROR (XCLROLM-B) RETURN (XC LROLMG -B) YAW ATTITUDE ERROR (XCLYCRM-B) I i i

J . j ATT,TU_ D,SPLA¥ i I
I _ : DISPLAY =

'Jl
i i

p_.

RETORN_XCL_CRMG_ Jl = I
i Figure 8-36 Computer-Attitude Display/ACME Interface

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

TITAN AUTOPILOT

ROLL ERROR (XCLRDC) LADDER YAW ERROR (XCLYDC) RETURN (XC LDCG) I ! L CONTROL CIRCUITS

I

LOGIC I OUTPUT DISCRETE J SEC. STAGE SCALE FACTOR (XCDAPSF) AUTOPILOT ENGINE CUTOFF (XCDSSCE) i

Figure

8-37

Computer-Autopilot 8-147 CONFIDENTIAL

Inte rface

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ--3-EC-f--G

E M IN I

Auxiliary Tape Memory ,(A_) (Figure 8-38) The A_4 is interfaced with the Digital Computer and the following controls and indicators on the Pilots' Control and Display Panel (PCDP):

A_ A_

mode switch 0N/R_SET switch

ATM ERROR indicator A_I_RUN indicator

The crew, via the PCDP and the computer, controls the modes of A_ The Incremental Velocity Indicator (M) are used to provide information on A_

operation.

ani the ATM ERROR and RUN indicators status. The crew also uses the Manual ....

Data Insertion Unit (MDIU) for co..._uicationwith the computer and subsequent computer co-_.-__uication with the A_.

The following CID instruction progra_-_n_ is associated with the A_

interface:

Signal

Address

x_
ATM clock A_4 on A_M d_ta channel 2 A_ mode control number i or end of tape i 3 3 4 4 It 5 5

Y_

3 4 i 3 I_ i 3

A_4 beginning A_ A_ A_

data channel 3 mode control number 2 data channel i

8-148
CONFIDIENTIAL

/

_

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

AIM

COMPUTER

REPRODUCE ELECTRONICS

--ATM --ATM --ATM --ATM

DATA 3 (XLDAT 3) DATA 2 (XLDAT 2)

f

DATA 1 (XLDAT 1) CLOCK (XLOCK) DISCRETE INPUT CIRCUITRY

END OF TAPE (XLEOT) i ATM ON (XLON) ATM MODE : ATM MODE I (XHMSAI) 2 (XHMSA2)

POWER SUPPLY AND CONTROL CIRCUITRY

_ = -

AUTO VERIFY/REPRO AUTO WIND (XCDWD)

(XCDVR)

•AUTO VERIFY/REPRO (XCDVR)(XCDWD) -(XCDRW)-(XCDWT)--

AUTOREWIND (XCDRW) AUfO WRITE (XCDWT)

AGE WRITE ENABLE (XHDWEN) MANUAL --MANUAL • VERIFY/REPRO ( REWIND (XHDRD) DISCRETE OUTPUT CIRCUITRY

MANUAL WIND i ATM MODE SWITCHEXCITATION (XLSVDC)

i WRITE ELECTRONICS COMP. COMP. SHIFT (XCDSH) CLOCK (XCDCLK)

COMP.

DATA (XCDAT)

J

PCDP

ATMMODE I
ATM ERRO_ LIGHT TO CONTROL CIRCUITRY ON/RESET SWITCH ATM (XLERR) l _ATM i 28V MAIN BUS f LIGHT ! : INDICATION ERROR INDICATION AIMRUNNING (XLRN) CIRCUITRY FROM CONTROL

SWITCH

_

_ ATMATM ON/RESEToFF 11

Figure

8-38

Computer-ATM-PCDP 8-149

Interface

(S/C

8 thru

12 Only)

CONFIDENTIAL i

CONI=mDENTIAL

PROJECT
..

GEMINI
SEDR 30O _"-_

The following PRO instruction programming is associated with the ATM interface:

A_4 wind/rewind reset ATM verify/reprogram cc_and ATM wind c_J,.,and ATM rewind command

_ _ 5 5

i 4 1 2

The computer inputs from the ATM are m_mrized

as follows:

(a)

ATM clock (XLOCK) - A two millisecond pulse for each three-bit parallel data output frame, delayed 1520 microseconds from the nominal beginning of each frame. down level less than one volt. microseconds each. Up level six to twelve volts;

Rise and fall times less than 20

(b)

A_4 data 1 (XI_tT 1), data 2 (x_.n&T2), data 3 (_.n&T 3) Parallel NRZ data output on three lines at a rate of 200 bits per second on each line. + 2_ of normal. Individual bit periods are written

Other specifications same as for data outputs.

(c)

End-of-tape (XLEOT) - A logic level from the A_d to the computer. An up level indicates that either end of the tape has been reached.

(d)

A_4 on (XLON) - A logic signal from the ATM to the computer.

An

up level indicates that the A_4 has reached proper operating speed in the read and write modes. This signal appears approximately

(;ON lelO_NTIAL

8-15o

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDR 300

five seconds write.

after

a command when

is given !

to the AS

to read or is reached.

It is inhibited

either lend of the tape
!

The computer

outputs

to the AS

are summarized

as follows:

(a)

Auto

verify/reprogram

(XCDVR)

- A c_and
i

line from the computer, switch, to the in

through ATM.

the AUTO position

of the AT

TAPE mode

An 8 vdc signal or write

on this

llne _auses
i

the AS

to operate

the record tape

mode in the forward I

direction

at a nominal

speed of i. 5 ips.
i

(b)

Auto wind AUTO

(X_)

- An 8 vdc signal 1from the computer of the AUX TAPE mode the tape to move witch, to the AS. direction

through This at a in

the

position causes tape

signal nominal

in the forward
i

speed of 12 ips. during

The AS

functions

internally

the read mode

this operation_

(c)

Auto

rewind

(XCDRW)

- An 8 vdc signal

from the computer, switch, to the AS. direction

through This

the AUTO position signal nominal

of the AUX TAPE m_e !

causes the tape to move tape speed of 12 ips.

in the reverse

at a

(d)

Auto

write

(XCDWT)

- A signal

from the computer, switch, to the A_.

through

the AUTO is

position used

of the AUXTAPEmode

The signal computer

by the A_M to set up internal on the tape.

_ontrols such that

data can be recorded

(e)

Computer

data

(XCDAT)

- Groups

of fQur serial

NRZ data bits,

each

i group or frame totaling 1120 microsecondsduration at a rate of
i

8-151
CONFIDENTIAL

OONFUDENTIAL

PRMINI
SEDR 300

200

frames

per

second.

Up level Rise

greater

than

seven

volts;

down

level

less than one volt.

time less than 15 microseconds;

fall time

less than ten microseconds.

(f)

Com_uter having

shift (XCDSH)

- Groups

of four serial pulses,

each pulse

a period

of 139 microseconds Shift

and spaced 141 microseconds begin 70 microseconds than seven 15

from the next pulse. after the s_rt volts;

input pulses pulses.

of the da_

Up level greater Rise

down level less than one volt.

time less than

microseconds;

fall time less than 0.4 microseconds.

(g)

Computer

clock

(XCDCLK)

- Serial pulses

having

a duration

of 18

microseconds frame.

each at a rate of 200 pulses are delayed

per second

or one per after the to

These pulses

280 or 560 microseconds Up level

beginning 14 volts;

of bit number down

four in each frame.

is seven

level less than one volt.

Rise time less than ten

microseconds;

fall time less than O. 5 microseconds.

Additional

A_ (a)

- PCDP and PCDP ATM mode voltage

- Computer

interfaces (XL8VDC)

are summarized - A nominal

as follows :

switch excitation

8 vdc excitation

from the ATM to the AUX TAPE mode (]C_]_N)

switch on the PCDP. from the ATM, through to the AGE to

(b)

AGE write enable the STANDBY enable

- An 8 vdc discrete

position

of the AUX TAPE mode command

switch,

it to send a write verify/reprogram switch

to the ATM. from the AUX in the

(c)

Manual

(XHDVR)

- An 8 vdc discrete causes the A_ of 1.5 ips.

TAPE mode write mode

to the A_

which

to operate

at a nominal

tape speed

8-152 CONFmDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

(d)

Manuel switch

wind to the

(X_WD)

- An 8 vac causes tape

discrete
l

from to

the move

AUX TAPE mode in a forward

ATM which

the

_e

direction

at a nominal

speed of 112 ips.

(e)

Manual switch

rewind

(XHDRD)

- An 8 vdc diserete
l

from

the AUX TAPE mode in the reverse

to the ATM which at a nominal

causes

the tape to move
;

direction

tape speed

of if2 ips.

(f)

A_

on/reset

- A momentary to the A_. power)

28 vdc si_hal from the AUX TAPE OFFThis sil hal will either initiate while extin-

ON/RESET A_

switch

operation

(a_ly

or re-i_tiate

operation

guishing

the ADX TAPE ERROR

indicato r on the PCDP.

(g)

ATM OFF - A momentary switch to the A_.

28 vdc signal

from the AUX TAPE OFF-ON/RESET i

It causes

the AT_ to cease operation.

(h)

A_ When

error indication ever the error

(XLERR) detection

- A signal logic

from the ATM to the PCDP in the A_I_ indicate

circuits parity
i

a disagreement

between

the recorded

bits and the parity at either on the

bits that are generated tape PCI_ speed. The signal

from the data causes the AS

during playback ERROR indicator

to illuminate.

(j)

A_

running indication to the PCDP in any mode. on the P_DP

(XI_)

- A signal from the ATM which is after
i

transmitted to operate indicator signal

five seconds This

the A_

is comm_nded

whenever when

signal iilluminates the A_ RUN i the tape is in motion. The end of the tape is reached.

is terminated

either

8-153
CONFIDISNTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT"
__

GEMINI

SEDR300

(k)

Two mode controls (XHMSAI and XHMSA2) - Mode control signals supplied to the computer from the AUX TAPE mode switch on the PCDP. The signals define the A_ XHMSAI i 0 0 mode selection. XH_A2 i i 0

MODE POSITION AUTO REPRO All Others

pilots' Control and Display Panel (PCS)P),(Figure8-39 ) The following CLD instruction programming is associated with the PCDP interface:

Signal X Computer mode i Computer 2 mode Computer mode 3 Start computation Abort transfer Fade-iniscrete d i 0 3 i 7 6

Address Y I i I 2 1 1

8-19_
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

I

!_-_

PROJECT

GEMINI

PI LOTS' CONTROL DISPLAY PANEL

AND

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

POWER

COMPUTER ON-OFF SWITCH

COMPUTER ON (XHONP) COMPUTER OFF (XHOFF)

I

CIRCUITS I SEQUENCING

COMPUTER MODE SWITCH

COMPUTER MODE COMPUTER MODE

2 (XHMS2) 3 (XHMS3) !

i
START COMPUTATION SWITCH

I
J

START COMPUTATION

(XHSTC)

j DISCRETE iNPUT LOGIC

/_--"

COMPUTER MALF. RESET SWITCH

MALFUNCTION

RESET (XHRST)

I
FADE_IN DISCRETE (XHSFI)

RELAYS

RUNNING LAMP J COMPUTER I COMPUEER RUNNING (XCDCOMP) DISCRETE OUTPUT LOGIC

TO COMPUTER CONTROL SWITCHER _

SWITCH EXCITATION (XCDHSME) _ +8VDC

Figure

8-39

Computer-PCDP

Interface

8-]55
CONFIDENTIAL i

i

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

SEDR 300

The following PRO instruction programming is associated with the PCDP interface:

Si_/e-I X Computer malfunction Computer running Reset start computation 4 5 2

Address Y 3 0 6

The computer inputs from the PCDP are m_._,_rizedas follows:

(a)

Computer on (XHONP) and computer off (XHOFF) - These signals from the COMPUTER ON-OFF switch control computer power.

(b)

Computer mode - The computer receives three binary coded discrete signals from the COMPUTER mode switch, to define the following operational modes: Computer Mode i (m_Sl) 0 0 0 i i Computer Mode 2 ,(XHMS2) 0 i i 0 0 Computer Mode 3 _Xm_3) I 0 i 0 i

Mode

Pre -launch Ascent Catch-up Rendezvous Re -entry

(c)

Start computation (NNSTC) - This signal from the START pushbutton switch starts the closed-loop rendezvous operation and initiates re-entry calculations.

8-1%
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDR 300

Id)

Malfunction function pilot uses

reset

(_ST) resets

- This the for

signal c_uter

fr_

the

c_puter

malThe

SESET switch the

malfunction failure.

latch.

swit@h to

test

a _ransient

(e)

Abort transfer (XH_T)

- The signal aut_natlcally switches the

cc_puter from the ascent mode to the re-entry mode.

(f)

Fade-in descrete (_HS_) to the ac_ulator

- This signal fron a relay is supplied

via the discrete i_Lputlogic.

(g)

28 vdc unfiltered (_P28rmF)

The computer

outputs

to

the

PCDP are

s,_m_-_ rized

as follows:

(a)

CcRputer r-n_Ing (_)

- This pr(,_-controlled

signal lights

the computer r,_nningl_mp which is tu:edas follows:

(1)

Pre-launch:

The COMP (c_]_uter x-m-_ng) lamp re_ains

off during this mode, except during m_ssion simulation I when its operation is governed by the mode being simu_ted, i

(2)

Ascent:

The CaMP lamp turns on following Inertial
i

Pl_tform release.

The lamp remains on for the duration

of the mode, and then turns off.

(3)

Catch-up: button duration

The caMP lamp l_ghts [ is depressed

after

the

START pushon for the

switch

of the

i The lamp remains ! mode_ ana then turns off.

8-157
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

(4)

Rendezvous: button

The COMP

lamp lights after

the START pushof the

switch is depressed.

For the remainder

mode, operation readings when

of the 1Amp is dictated in this mode.

by the radar off

that occur

The lamp turns

the mode

is terminated.

(5)

Re-entry: button

The COMP lamp lights when the START pushis depressed or when time to start to zero. The lamp remains off.

switch

re-entry

calculations

is equal

on for the duration

of the mode,

and then turns

(b)

Computer

malfunction lamp.

(XCDMAL-A)

- This

signal turns diagnostic actuates

on the coma

puter MALF built-in

Either

the computer

program,

timing

check, or an AGE command

the signal.

(c)

Switch

excitation mode RESET

(SXDHSME) switch, switch.

- This

dc excitation computation

is suppled

to

the COMPUTER malfunction

the START

switch and the

Incremental

Velocity

Indicator

(M),,, (,Figure 8-_0), velocity counters that display velocity incre-

The IVI contains ments

three

incremental

along the s_acecraft

(body) axes.

Power
\

is

applied period

to (or its

the less)

IVI

whenever following to zero.

the the

computer application After this

is

turned of

on. the M

During IVI is

the aut_ticapable

first

30-second cally

power, the

references

counters signals.

period,

of

recognizing

computer

8-158
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL .V-_ SEDR300

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

INCREMENTAL INDICATOR

VELOCITY

xwxw I
-X DELTA VELOCITY (XCWXVM) X SET ZERO (XCDVIXZ) I I J

CHANNEL

I

PROCESSOR Y SET ZERO (XCDVIYZ) +Y DELTA VELOCITY (XCWYVP) | I

CHANNEL

-Z DELTA VELOCITY

(XCWZVM)

Z AXIS CHANNEL

Z SET ZERO (XCDVIZZ)

'

-I

DISCRETE OUTPUT LOGIC

.--_

' DISCRETE INPUT LOGIC I Y ZERO INDICATION Z ZERO INDICATION (XVVYZ) (XVVZZ) (XWXZ)

I = _'

1I !

X ZERO iNDICATION DC RETURN (XCDCRT) +27.2

1
I 1 i m

VDC (XSP27VDC-B)

RETURN (XSSVDCRT) I

J
PROM IGS POWER SUPPLY

I

+5 VDC (XS5VDC)

Figure

8-40

Computer-IVI 8-159

Interface
i !

CONFIDENTIAL

i

I

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT-'G'EMINI
____ SECIR 300

The M _it,

counters

can be set manually

by means

of control

kuobs After

on the front the counters from the c_er.

of the are

or they can be set aut_atic-1_y set, _ey

by the cc_puter. velocity

i_it_1_y These

are driven by incremental

pulses

p-!_es

are used to _date

the indications counters

displ_ed

by the counter.

The on

cca_uter

can set the individual set zero lines.

to zero by providing signal, counter denoting

a 20 usec pulse zero counter prior

each of three l_rmits

A feed-back

position,

t_le computer

to test for the proper velocity

reference

to the inser-

tion and dlspl_

of a computed

increment.

The followi_

CI_ instruction

progr_-.,i.ng is associated

with the IVI interface:

Signal

Address

x_
X zero indication ¥ zero indication Z zero indication Velocity error count not zero i 5 6 2 3 2 2 2

The following

PRO instruction

progr_m_

is associated

with the M

interface:

Sisal

A_dress

x_
Select X counter 2 3 1 5

X
i I i 3

Select Y counter Drive Write counters output to zero

processor

8-16o
CONFIOENTIAL

CONFIDIENTIAL

SEDR 300 _|
i i

The computer used to position

supplies the

_hree counters

s_nAl_ to

to zero.

the

I1/I,

one

_or
i i

each

counter, the

that

are

To generate as follows:

these

signals,

program

sets DOll minus

and sets DO12 and D013

X set zero Y set zero Z set zero

Minus Plus Minus

Plus Minus Minus

The IVI provides to indicate counters

three

feed-back

signals

to the cc_uter
!

(DI31, tests

D.125,

and D126)

that the counters

are zeroed.

The program
i

the individual

i
for zero position before attempting to drive them to zero.

;
The output processor increments line provides a timed axes. output to the IVI that One output c_annel i represents velocity

along the spacecraft

(phase 2) on the dels_

is time-shared

among the X, Y_ and Z counters. are written on the del_y 12.

two's-co_-_lement ulator

form)

! Incremental velocities (in i I line during phase 2 from acct_-

J
bit positions S_ and i through i ms before Discrete joutputs DOI2 operation, select and DOI3, which are set no more than the PROB5 the proper velocity

signal as follows:

S

nal
MinUs Plus M_nv_ Plus Minus Minus

X velocity Y velocity Z velocity
s

Once data is written for data during

on the del_

line,

the output

Of the del_y

line

is sensed time in-

bit times BTI through

BTI2.

Any bit sensed

during

this

8-161
CONFIDENTIAL

i

CONFII)imNTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

SEDR 300

dicates bit

the

presence during is

of data 2. if

which This the

is

t"_en gated is is s_led se_

into

a buffer

alcag

with 21.5

the

sign

(BTI_)

phase

buffer buffer

s_proximate_y plus

every

ms this or

and a pulse

generated cycle delay to

either

or minus. either

During

ssme time 2 an update subtracted Zf the is _ is the set

is line

initiated data during its to the

and a count decrease _0_ate the cycle,

of one is magnitude the data

added to of

by a count on the

one. line is

buffer

zero

dels_

recirculated

without

affecting

magnitude. _ is

The zero offt velocity

output data

of the has

buffer

addressed ed down to

as DI_. zero

When this next

discrete velocity

been

count-

and the

can be processed.

The c_uter

inputs fr_n the IVX are su_aarlzed as follows:

(a)

X zero indication (XVVXZ) - The down level signifies that the X channel of the M is at the zero position.

(b)

Y zero indication (XVVYZ) - The down level signifies that the Y channel _f the M is at the zero position.

(c)

Z zero indication (XVVZZ) - The down level signifies that the Z channel of the M is at the zero position.

The cc_puter outputs to the M

are s_narized

sa follows:

(a)

+X delta velocity (XCWXVP) - The up level denotes that the X channel should change by one foot per second in the fore direction.

(b)

-X delta velocity (XCWXVM) - The up level denotes that the X channel should change by one foot per second in the aft direction.

8-162 CONFIDIKNTIAL.

CONIFIDI_NTIAL

SEDR 300

(c)

X set zero

(XCDVIXZ)

- The up level

drives

the X channel

to the

zero position.

(d)

+Y delta velocity nel should

(XCg_/VP) - The up level

denotes

that the Y chandirection.

change by one foot per second

in the right

(e)

-Y delta velocity nel should change

(XC_T/VM) - The up level by one foot per

denotes

that

the Y chan-

second in the left direction.

(f)

Y set zero (XCDVIYZ) - The up level drives the Y channel to the zero position.

(g) _-_

-Z delta velocity

(XC]¢ZVP) - The up level
i

denotes

that the Z chan-

nel should change by one foot per second in the down direction.

(h)

-Z delta velocity channel should

(XC%IZVM) - The up level

denotes

that

the Z

change by one foot pe r second

in the up direction.

(i)

Z set zero (XCDVIZZ) - The up level drives the Z channel to the zero position.

Instrumentatlon The computer

S_stem

(Figure

8-41) encoder unit and the signal analog con-

is interfaced

with the multiplexer

ditioning provided

equipment

of the Instrumentation conditioning

System. and unit.

COntinuous stored

data is are

to the signal

equipment, encoder

digital

quantities

sent upon request

to the multiplexer

Certain
i

computer

data,

as described _e

below, signal

is continually conditioning conversion

made

available

to the this

signal

conditioning

equipment.

equipment

conditions

data for multiplexing unit.

and analo6-to-digital

by the multiplexer

encoder

8-163 CONI=IDI=NTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL i_.-_ SFDR 300

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM

PITCH ERROR (XCLPMBD) RETURN (XCLPMBDG) ROLL ERROR (XCLRMBD) LADDER LOGIC RETURN (XCLRMBDG) YAW ERROR (XCLYMBD) RETURN (XCLYMBDG)

=

m m l

SEQUENCING CIRCUITS J POWER I COMPUTER OFF tXCEOPFD)

=

SIGNAL CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

COMPUTER MALFUNCTION SEC. STAGE ENGINE

(XCDMALD)

CUTOFF (XCDSSCRT)

COMPUTER MODE I (XCDMSID) COMPUTER MODE 2 (XCDMS2D)

COMPUTER MODE 3 (XCDMS3D) + 27.2 VDC (XCDP27D) DISCRETE OUTPUT LOGIC + 9.3 VDC (XCDP9D)

RETURN (XC DASSPG) IS DATA (XCDASD)

RETURN IXC DAS DG)

SSHFT ULS S XCOAS:1P
J ENCODRR 15DATA SYNC EXCIT. (XCDTDSE) IS DATA SYNC (XTDS) i J MULTIPLEXER IS REQUEST EXCIT. (XCDTRQE)

-F 8 VDC +8VDC

• •

INPUT LOGIC

Figure

8-41

Computer-IS 8-164

Interface

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEI
(a) Computer monitored modes The mode signals transmitted to the computer are

to determine

that the computer i mission

was in the correct

mode

for a partlcularoperational

phase.

(b)

Computer

input power

- The 27.2

vdc and 9.3 vdc inputs are monitored

supplied

to

the computer

by the IGS Power

Supply

via the computer.

(c)

Computer

running

- The computer

running

discrete

output

is monitored

and recorded.

(d)

Computer monitored

malfunction

- The computer

malfUnction

discrete

output

is

and recorded.

(e)

Attitude

errors:

The pitch,

yaw,

and roll ac analog !

attitude

errors

are monitored

and recorded.

Twenty-one

data word

locations data.

in the computer Data stored

memoryiare

allocated

for the storage upon

of Instrumentation the computer mode

System

in these

locations

is dependent

of operation.

The following System

CLD instruction

programming

is associated

with the Instrumentation

interface: Signal X m Instrumentation Instrumentation System System request sync 7 2 Address Y 0 1

The following
f

PRO instruction

progr_ng

is associated

with

the Instrumentation

System

interface:

CONFIDENTIAL

8-165

CONFIDENTIAL

PRINI
SEDR 300

Si_al

Address

x_
Instrumentation control gate System 0

Y

i

Every

50 ms or less, the computer input (DI07).

program

tests the Instrumentation is tested minus,

System

request

discrete System

If the discrete

input

the Instrumentation

sync discrete

input

(DII2) is tested as follows:

(a)

DII2 m_nus

- The program mode,

stores

current

specified

values,

according buffer of

to the computer 21 locations.

in an Instrumentation of the first

System memory location

The contents

buffer

are placed correin o con-

in the accumulator

so that the sign position

of the data word Then a PROIO

sponds to the sign position struction tained is given.

of the accumulator.

This instruction bit positions

causes the information S, and i through Twenty-four System. 23 to be

in accumulator

supplied are also

to the Instrumentation supplied

System.

shift pulses

to the Instrumentation

(b)

DII2 plus

- An Instrumentation

System

program

counter buffer

is incremented location are

by one and the contents placed

of the next

sequential

in the accu_nulator and sent to the Instrumentation instructions. the program Subsequent counter Instrumentation all

System System

via the PROI0 requests System

advance quantities

until

21 Instrumentation

are tranmuitted.

The computer

inputs from the Instrumentation

System

are svmmarized

as follows:

(a)

Instrumentation

System

request

(XTRQ)

- An up level

on this line

8 -166 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

..,oo

GEM!

N|
;

signifies that the Instrumentation System requires a computer data i word. The word is transferred from the computer within 75 ms of i the request. Requests can occur at rases up to I0 times per second. Instrumentation System data sync (XTDS - An up level on this line

(b)

signifies the beginning of the Instrumentation System data transfer operation.

The computer outputs to the Instrumentation System are summarized as follows:

(a)

Instrumentation System shift pulses (XCDASSP) and return (SCDASSPG) ! This series of 2_ pulses causes Instrusentation System data to be I
!

transferre_

to the Instrumentation

System buffer.

(b)

Instrumentation System data (SCDASD) and return (XCDASDG) - These ! l 2_ hits of data are transferred1in synchronism with the Instrumentation System shift pulses.

(c)

Instrumentation

System request excitatlon (SCDTRQE) - This +8 vdc for the Instr _entation System request

signal is the excitation signal.

(d)

Instr_aentation System data sync excitation (SCIEDSE) - This +8 i vdc signal is the excitation for the Tnstrumentation System data sync signal.

(e)

Monitored signals - The following signals are supplie& to the iI Instrumentation System for monitoring purposes: i (i) Pitch error (X_) an_ return (XCI_MBDG)
i

8-167 CONFIDENTIAL

i !

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT GEMINI

DIGITAL COMPUTER

AEROSPACE GROUND EQUIPMENT AGE REQUEST (XURQT)

DIGITAL

COMPUTER

AGE INPUT DATA (XUGED)

DISCRETE INPUT LOGIC

MARGINAL m

TEST (XUMRG)

UMBILICAL DISCONNECT

(XUMRDC)

SIMULATION

MODE COMMAND

(XUSIM)

CONTROL LOGIC J I

COMPUTER HALT (XUHLI) _ RETURN (XS26VAC RT) 26 VAC (XS26VAC) +28 VDC FILTERED (XSP28VDC) ,

AGE DATA CLOCK(XCDGSEC)

RETURN (XSP28VDCRT) FROM IGS

AGE DATA LINK (XCDGSED) DISCRETE OUTPUT LOGIC COMPUTER MALFUNCTION (XCDMALT)

+27.2

VDC (XSP27VDC)

POWER SUPPLY

• =l

RETURN (XSM27_/DCRT)

AUTOPILOT

SCALE FACTOR

(XCDAPSF)

+20 VDC (XSP20VDC)

SEC. STAGE ENGINE CUTOFF (XCDSSCF) m i

+9.3

VDC (XSPgVDC) (XQBNEI) FROM AUX. COMP. POWER UNIT

POWER LOSS SENSING

PITCH ERROR (XCLPDC)

+28 VDC UNFILTERED (XSP28UNF)

11
( CONTROL AND FROM PILOT'S

ROLL ERROR (XCLRDC)

m

,_

ABORT TRANSFER (XHABT)

LOGIC LADDER

YAW ERROR (XCLYDC) RETURN (XCLDCG)

_

FADE-IN

DISCRETE (XHSFI)

I

DISPLAY PANEL

+25 VDC (XCP25VDC)

-25 VDC (XCM25VDC) POWER REGULATORS +8 VDC (XCPSVDC)

RETURN (XCSRT)

=--

A

m

Figure

8-42

Computer-AGE 8-168

Interface

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

_.

SEDR300

(2)

Roll

error

(SCIP_BD)

and retur_
i

(X_)

(3) Y_ e_or(xcT.-_mD) andre_i (X_)
(_) Computer off (XCEOFFD) i

(_) C_ter ma_u_otlon (XC_T_)i
(6) (T) (8) (9) Second stage engine cutoff (XCDSSCPr) Computer mode i (XCDMSID) Computer mode 2 (XCDMS2D) Computer mode 3 (XCSMSSD)

(zo)+zr.2dc(XCDPZrD) v
(ll) +9.3 vdc (XCDPgD)
Aerospace ,Grcund Equipment (AGE) Figure 8-_2)

The AGE determines spacecraft-installed computer stat_s by being able to read and i display the contents of any memory location, initiate i _nd terminate marginal tests of the memory timing, and co._and the computer to con_tion
i

the computer malfunc-

tion circuit. llnk.

These tests are accomplished by a hard-wlred computer/AGE data !
i

In conjunction with a voice link to the spacecraft, the AGE can control the I various computer modes of operation to determine the _tatus of the computer and its interfaces. computer signals: (a) (b) (c) (d) All input and output voltages _ Second stage engine cutoff Autopilot scale factor Roll error command (to _tan Autopilot) To aid in localizing failures, the AGE monitors the following

(e)
(f) (g)

Yaw errorcommand
Pitch error command Computer malfunction _.
i!

In addition, the AGE provides two hard-wlred inputs to the computer to reset the malfunction memory circuit and halt the computer and to forcei a marginal check of the

t_m!ng.

Early and late strobing of the memory iis effected using the corn8 -169
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEMINI
_. $EDR 300

puter/AGE data link.

The following CLD instruction progra_n_ng is associated with the AGE interfaces: Signal X AGE request AGEinput data Simulation mode CO.And Umbilical disconnect 2 7 _ 6 Address Y 3 2 2 3

The following

PRO instruction

progr_-._ng

is associated with the AGE interface:

Signal X AGEdata link AGEdata clock Computer m_ifUnction Memory trobe s Autopilot scalefactor Second stage engine cutoff 2 3 4 0 1 4

Address Y 2 2 3 6 6 6

The AGE program commences when the AGE request (C132) is tested minus.

To receive

the 18 bit AGE data word, the program repeats the following sequence of operations 18 times:

(a) Turn on AGE data clock (D023)

(b) Wa t

8-17o
CON FIDINTIAL

CONFIDmNTIAL

SEDR300

(c)

Reset AGE data clock

(D023)

(d) w_t Z._mB (e) _ead AG_input data(Dx2?) (f) w._tz._ ms
The above sequence causes the 18-blt AGE word to be shifted i of the _E word out of the AGE regisare mode bits, s/id

ter and Into the computer. the r_ining i_ bits

The first _ bits The coding

are data.

of the _ mode

bits

is as follows:

Mode

Bits

Mode

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 1

None Read ar_ word

0
0 0 0 0 0 i

0
0 I i i i 0

i
i 0 0 i i 0

0
i 0 i 0 i 0

Set marginal
Set cumputer Set marginal Set pitch

earl)malfunction late output on

ladder

Set yaw ladder Set roll ladder Set all ladder

output output outputs

In the read any word mode,

the I_ data bits

of the AGE word

are as follows:

Z8 lT
s5 s_

16
s3

15
s2

Z_ 13
Sl A9

12
A8

LI
A7

l0
A6

9

8

7

6

5
A1

A5 A_ A3 A2

where A1 through internal

A8 define the address timing, Sl throush

of the requested S_ define

data, A9 sets up AGE of the requested

clock pulse

the sector

8-ZTZ
CONI_IO=NTIAL
i

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDR 300

____

data, mines located bit of

and the in

S5 defines requested syllables 1 and is 13 to is

the data

syllable(s) and sends it is with syllable from it

of to sent the 2_ syllable the

the the to

requested AGE. the If

data. the

The requested with syllable sent bit of 18

computer data the 0. to

deteris

0 and 1, finishing in data

AGE starting bit of

high-order If the O's,

syllable data last sent There

iOn-order the first

requested and data times. the is

located are

13 bits

AGE are

bits the

2 (high-order following resetting sequence clock

first). operations and setting

Requested 26 clock

AGE by of

executing _-5

a dels_

ms between

19.
(a) (b) Set Turn AGE data link (D022) clock from (D023) accumulator sign position ....

on AGE data

(c) wait2.5 ms
(d) Reset AGEdataclock(D023)

(e) waitz ms
(f) Reset AGE data link (I)022)

(g) waiti ms
In the set marginal _unction earl_ mode, the computer test sets DO60 on. This signal, early in constrobing

with the marginal memory.

signal provided

by the AGE, causes

of the co_uter

In the set computer malfunction

m-leunction

on mode_

the computer

sets D03_

on to check the

indication.

In the set marginal Junction memory.

late mode, the computer test signal,

sets D060 off.

This

signal,

in con-

with the marginal

causes late strobing

of the computer

8-m72
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDR 300

In the set ladder outputs modes, the i_ data bits of the AGE word are as follows:

18
S

17
D6

16
D5

15
D4

i_
D3

13
D2

12
D1

]I
0

io
0

9
0

8
0

7
0

6
0

5
0

where D1 throuEh D6 are data bits and S is the sign bit.

The data and sign bits

are used to control the ladder outlmr_indicated by the i4 associated mode bits. The nmnber is in t_o's-cumplement form where DI is the iow-°rder data bit.

The computer inputs from the AGE are su_.arized as follows:

(a)

AGE request (_)

- An up level signifies that the AGE is read_ to

transfer a message to the computer.

(b)

AGE input data (XUGED) - An up level denotes a binary i being tr,n-ferred from the AGE to the cumputeri

(c)

Marginal test (XI_dRG)- An up level, in conjunction with the proper AGE message_ causes the ccm_uter m_mory Liming to be m-_gin-lqy tested.

(d)

Umbilical dlscomnect (_DC)

- An open circuit on this line signi-

fies that the Inertial Platform has beenireleased (or that the torquing signals have been removed). enters the inertial mode of oper_ion The Inertial Platform then and the ccmrputerbegins to

perform the navigation guidance portion of its ascent routine.

_-

(e)

Simulation

mode ec_ud

(XUSIM) - This

c_end

causes

the

c_uter

to operate in a slmulated ,-ode as determined by the COMP_I_R mode switch. 8-173 CON_'IDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDR 300

(f)

Computer halt (XU}_T) - An up level resets the computer malfunction circuit and sets the computer halt circuit.

The computer outputs to the AGE are summarized as follows:

(a)

AGE data clock (XCDGSEC) - This line reads out the AGE register and synchronizes the AGE with the AGE data link.

(b)

AGE data link (XCDGSED) - An up level denotes a binary l being transferred from the computer to the AGE.

(c)

Computer malfunction (XCDMALT) - An up level indicates that the computer malfunction latch is set. The latch can be set by the computer

diagnostic program, a timing error, program looping, or an AGE command.

(d)

Monitored signals - The following signals and voltages are supplied to the AGE for monitoring or recording purposes:

(i) (2) (3)

Autopilot scale factor (XCDAPSF) Second stage engine cutoff (SCDSSCF) Pitch error (XCLPI_)_ l

(5) (4)

Roll error (XCLRDC) Yaw error (XCLYDC)

_

and common return (XCLDCG)

(6) +25v c P2mc (x (8) +8 c (xcPSV ) (7) -25vde (XCM25VDC)_

and co_on return (XCSRT)

8-1"_
CONFIOIEN'rlAL.

8-175
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAl-

PROJECT

GEMINI
__

_SEDR 300

SYSTEM _SCRXPA_ _ Purpose...
The Manual Data consists Insertion Unit, hereinafter (Figure referred 8-43) to as the _fl_U, physically Data Readout

of the Manual

Data Keyboard referred

and the Manual

(Figure 8.dl_), The MI_U

hereinafter the pilot

to as the MDK and the MIIR, respectively. and read data from, the com-

enables

to insert data into,

puter memory.

rfo ee
Data Insertion Before cleared data is set up for insertion from the _ by pressing into the computer, push-button all existing switch data is

the CLEAR switches

on the MDR.

Then the data digit decl,ml

insert push-button nmaber. memory

on the _

are used to set up a 7the address and the last

The first two location

digits

from the left specify is to be stored,

of the computer five digits

in which

the data

specify

the data itself.

As the data is set up, it is automatiA digit-by-digit verification display of devices

cally supplied the address on the MDR. pressed to

to the computer

accumulator.

and data is made by means After verification, store the data in the

of the ADDRESS

and MESSAGE switch

the ENTER push-button selected memory location.

on the MDR is

Data Before

Readout data is read the from the computer, all existing Then data the is data cleared insert from pushthe

MD_U by pressing

CT._AR push-button

switch.

CONIPlOIN'rlAI..

CONFIDENTIAL __. SEDR 300 ____

PROJECT

GEMINI

• _ ,=,"
t1_Mi

=

LEGEND
NOMENCLATURE

_

DATA INSERT PUSH-BUTTON

SWITCHES

CONNECTOR J1

Q

IDENTIFICATION

PLAI'E

Figure

8-43 Manual 8-177 CONFIDENTIAL

Data

Keyboard

i

CONFIDENTIAL

__

PROJECT

GEMINI

_--]

SERIAL W0

PART N0 iTEM NOMENCLATURE

L_I_'ERNAT_NAL BUSINESS ACHINES M CORP U¢0ONNKU. SCO MOe_L CONTACT MANUAL .... DATA READOUT uS

0

ADDRESS AND

LEGEND MESSAGE DISPLAy DEVICES

Q

ENTER PUSH-BUTTON

SWITCH

(:_ 0

READ OUT RUSH-BUTTON SWITCH CLEAR PUSH-BUTTON SWITCH PWR (POWER) TOGGLE SWITCH

(_ O

CONNECTOR

JI PLATE

IDENTIFICATION I

Figure

8-44 Manual 8-178

Data Readout

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL-

SEDR 300

button specify read. ADDR_S on the and

switches the

are

used of the

to

set

up a 2-digit memory of verification, data is read devices. the

deelual location address the from the

n_mber. from is which

The data

two is

digits to the switch be

address

computer

A digit-by-digit display MDR is devices. pressed by the

verification After and the

made

by moans push-button memory

of

READ _'_ Selected

location

displayed

_n_SAGE

dlspl_

__

Physical

Description wide, and 5.51 inches on Figure deep. 8-43. legend. It weighs The major 1.36 pounds. external charac-

The MIE is 3.38 inches External teristics

views of the MEK are shown

are s,,,,_rized in the accompanying

Physical The _

Description inches high, views 5.01 inches wide, and 6+41 inches on Figure deep. It weighs

is 3.26

3.15 pounds. external

External

of the MDR are shown

8-44. legend.

The major

characteristics

are s,-m-rized

in the accompanying

Controls

and

Indicators and indicators located on the MDK and MDR are illustrated identifies the controls on

The controls Figure 8-45.

The accompanying their purposes.

legend

and indicators,

and describes

SYSTEM

OPERATION

Power The MDIU This receives all of the power required for its operation dc voltages : from the computer.

power consists

of th e following

regulated

8-179
CONFIDENTIAL.

.,----.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

oc •o

LEGEND
ITEM NOMENCLATURE PURPOSE D_SPLAY ADDRESS AND MESSAGE SENT TO COMPUTER DURING O ADDRESS AND MESSAGE DISPLAy DEVICES ENTER OPERATION;COMPUTER ADDRESS READOUT OPERATION. DISPLAY DURING SENT TO, AND MESSAGE RECEIVED FROM,

Q

ENTER PUSH-BUTTON

SWITCH

DURING ENTER OPERATION TO MESSAGE SENT TO COMPUTER PROVIDES MEANS FOR CAUSING BE STORED IN MEMORY. UP BY MDKMEANS CLEARED OR CANCELED. AND MESSAGE SET PROVIDES TO BE FOR CAUSING ADDRESS OF COMPUTER AND DISPLAYED BY MESSAGE DISPLAY DEVICES. PROVIDES MEANS FOR CAUSING MESSAGE TO BE READ OUT POWER TO MEANSAND MDR, PROVIDES MDK FOR CONTROLLING APPLICATION OF

Q

CLEAR PUSH-BUTTON

SWITCH

READ OUT PUSH-BUTTON PWR (POWER) TOGGLE

SWITCH

Q

SWITCH

(_

DATA INSERT PUSH-BUTTON

SWITCHES

PROVIDE MEANS FOR CAUSING ADDRESS AND MESSAGE TO BE SENT TO COMPUTER AND MESSAGE DISPLAY AND TO BE DISPLAYED BY ADDRESS DEVICES.

Figure 8-45

Manual

Data Insertion Unit Front Panels 8-180 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

.,

PROJECT

SEDR 300

GEMI

(a)

+25 vdc

_

and common

return

(b) -25
(c)

J
at the MDIU whenever to the MDIU the computer is turned on. However, circuits until, the PWR switch on the MDR dc voltages are

+8 vac and return

This power is available it is not actually is turned filtered on. When

applied

power is turned network

on at the MDR,

the regulated

by a capacitor

and supplied

to the MDK and MIR circuits.

Flow (n re 8-6)
The MDK has ten data select the address insert push-button memory switches. location These in Which switches are used to

of a computer

data is to be stored switches their These

or from which are numbered outputs values,

data is to be read. decimally,

For storing

data, !the push-button is used to convert

the insert button values

encoder

to binary

coOed decimal

that

can be used by the computer.

called the insert

data signals, button

are supplied Ito the insert also develops

serializer

in the computer. signal which

The insert

encooer

the data available

is supplied

to the discrete

input

logic of

the computer.

M_R.Data

Flow

(Figure

8-47) display devices and three Cnmm"nd push-button switches. insert

The I_R has seven digital The display push-button data insert devices switches

are used to display on the MDK, switches switches,

the address

Set up by the data

and to display

either

the data set up by the memory location.

push-button push-button whether has supply been

or the data read called H_TER, into be

from a computer

The command to determine the data that all

READ !OUT, and CT._4R, are used out of the computer, canceled). logic of the These computer. or whether

data is entered set up is to the to

or read (or

cleared input

push-button Since

switches

inputs

discrete

8-181
CONFIDIENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

_-_

_,_.._.

PROJECTSEDR 3OO GEMINI

__1

DATA INSERT SWITCHES ZERO

J_

,

_I

/
_

AVAILABLE CIRCUIT DATA

• I

INPUT LOGIC TO DISCRETE

O

C

|

;

_

2

C

_

_

CIRCUITINSERT l DATA

3

:

• •

4 C 5 _ INSERT BUTTON ENCODER _

INSERT DATA 2 CIRCUIT

;

O

L

I
1

_, "--" TO INSERT ' SERIALIZER

8

O

C

_

_

INSERT DATA 8 CIRCUIT

Figure

8-46

Manual

Data 8-182

Keyboard

Data

Flow

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

DRIVE CONTROL CIRCUIT

i i

i
DEVICE SELECT CONTROL U O_ CIRCUIT _ I _

J i

I i i INSERT DATA 2 CirCUIT

_" U w O _ _ _- _ _

DEVICE b SELECT CONTROL 2 CIRCUIT _

DEVICE SELECT CIRCUIT _ DISPLAY DEVICES

_, N MBER SE ECT CI CUlT _

INSERT DATA 4 CIRCUIT

DEVICE SELECT CONTROL CIRCUIT 4 : i I i I

iNSE'RT DATA 8 CIRCUIT

i
i

Ji
READOUT

i rZZl
C _ J CIRCUIT J C -_ CIRCUIT L INPUT LR_c_IC

O

CLEAR

O

I
ENTER 0 C _

_
l,

TO TE D,SCR

Figure

8-47 Manual

Data Readout 8-183

Dat a Flow

CONFIDENTIAL

i I

CONFIDENTIAL

the

display

devices from the the

provide computer

a decimal must are be

display, decoded to before three signal

the

binary they can select the

coded be

dect._l displayed.

values These circuits

received values and to

from three

computer data device control drive

supplied

device from

control is

insert

circuits. drive circuits control control is

Another circuit. used to of the in

computer of the

supplied from of device. of the This the

the

display select device is

A combination conjunction with

outputs outputs

device display selection outputs

circuit by means

select device

a particular selector.

display

accomplished

A combination with

from the insert device

data circuits control

is used in conjunction to select

the outputs number on the

of the display selected selector. number decoded

drive

circuit

a particular by means

display

device.

This

selection

is accomplished

of the number and the are

Thus, through

the combined

operations values

of the device received

selector

selector,

the binary

coded decimal display

from the computer

and an equivalent

decimal

is presented

on the display

devices.

Manuel

Data

Subroutine data subroutine, which determines under part when data is transferred Program between heading

The manual the MDIU

and the computer, CC_ER

is described OPERATION

the Operational of this section.

in the DIGITAL

SYSTEM

Interfaces The MDIU under interfaces, all of which heading are made with the computer, CC_fl_u_ERSYSTEM are described part of

the Interfaces

in the DIGITAL

OPERATION

this section.

8-184 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

___

PROJMINISEDR300
TAPE M_MORY

AUXILIARY SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION

General The Auxiliary system. program Tape Memory (ATM) is a self-contained eight through magnetic tape recording additional capacity of

It is used storage

in spacecraft

twelve

to provide storage

for the digital words.

computer.

It has a total seven

over 85,000 puter

thirteen-bit

This is about

;linesthat

of the comsection

core memory.

The ATM (Figure

is mounted

on a cold plat(

in the adapter

of the spacecraft

8-15).

Physical The ATM

Characteristics is i0 inches x i0 inches connectors x 7 inches and weigh_ for its interfaces 25.7 pounds (Figure 8-48). i with the digital computer and

It has three external

!
the Pilots' initial Display and Control Panel (PCDP). gage, The AT M is hermetically at ambient room sealed with and pressurization of one atmosphere, temperature

pressure.

Internally, electronics

the AM

contains

a tape transport, an_ control

a driv, motor,

and the necessary

for the read, write

functions

Functional

Characteristics characteristics length of the ATM are _,-_nriZed 525 feet I as follows:

The functional Tape

i
Tape type 3M type m-1353 i
Heavy-du_ high resolution tape

i
_Tape speed. Instrumentation
i

Read/write Wind/re'rid !

- 1.5 ips +.0.5_ - 8 times r/w speed

8-18_
CONFIDENTIAL i

!

-_

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

__'__

PROJECT

GEMINI

ACCESS HOLES FOR MOUNTING

SCREWS

CONNECTOR

GROUNDING

HOLE

)MPUTER AND CONTROL MOUNTING SURFACE' NNECTC_

CONNECTOR

Figure

8-48

Auxiliary

Tape

Memory

8-186 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SEOR 300

Channels

16 (9 data, 3 parity, 3 clock, i spare)

Storage capacity

Total 12i.5x 106 bits (15 channels) Effective 90,000 iS-bit computer words

Storage density Data transfer rate Ready tide-per max program

133 bits_inch/channel
i

600 bits_second i0 m_nutes (verify 3 syllables) 7 minutes (reprogram 2 syllables)

Total rea_ time Total wind/rewind time Voltage Voltage interrupts

67 minu_es i0 minu_es max. i 21 - 30 v&c 115 milliseconds

Controls and Indicators The controls and indicators associated with the ATM are _...arized as follows: (a) AUX TAPE OFF - ON/RESET - A toggle apply power to the A_ ,vitch on the PCDP, used to i
!

or to reset St.

(b)

AUX _

mode selector - A five - position rotary switch used

i
to select an operational control mode for the ATM. The five

mo_sare- (l) _BY, (2) A_O, (B) W_m, (_) RE_D _d
(5)PROG (reprogram).

(c)

Manual Data Insertion Unit (MDIU) -iUsed to select one of three ATM operational sequences stored in!the computer memory. are: (i) reprogram, (2) verify, an_ (3) reprogram/verify. These

8-187
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJE--C'-GEM
__ SEDR 300

IN I

(d)

Incremental Velocity Indicator (M)

- Display tape position

words (on the IVl LEFT/RIGHT channel) and module words (on the M FORE/AFT channel) during the A_ search operation.

(e)

AUX TAPE RUN indicator - A lamp on the PCDP which ill_im_nates whenever A_ motor power is applied.

(f)

AUX TAPE ERROR indicator - A lamp on the PCDP which illuminates when incorrect frame parity is detected by the ATM.

SYSTEM OPERATION

9eneral The A_4 is used to store operational program modules for in-flight loading of the spacecraft digital co_puter. It is capable of replacing the majority of the data

in syllables zero and one of the computer memory (approx 8,000 thirteen-bit wor_s) in approximately seven m_nutes.

The program data is stored in the A_

by recording it on magnetic recording tape.

Normally, this data is supplied by the Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) and recorded (written) on the tape prior to launch time. It is also possible, however,

to write data onto the tape using the MDIU and digital computer.

There are two methods of load_ng the computer memory from the ATM. the auto m_le and is considered to be the primary one.

The first is

The second is the manual The

mode and is provided as a hack-up metho_ for loading the computer memory.

•asic difference between the two is that the auto mode requires fewer manual operations.

8-188
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT s,o.3OGEMINI

The A_

employs

a reel-to-reel

peripheral

drive

transport

assembly

and a singleThe

combination drive motor the phase (n_._nal) wind/rewind

read/write accomplishes

head having speed with

16 tracks

with

two windings a s_lid-state !A tape

per track.

reversal respect

by using

switch to switch of i. 5 ips High speed

of one winding is provided operation

to the other. modes

speed

for both

read and write by

of operation. the drive motor

is accomplished are eight

supplying those

with a frespeed. frequency

quency and voltage

which

times

used for the read/write and a fixed

The drive system power oscillator. operation.

is provided

by a tic-to-de inverter the frequency speed

The oscillator The frequency

output provides

for high-speed from this same

for the read/write by 8:1 through

o_iginates

source hut it is reduced

a binary

chain.

Write Figure

Electronics 8-_9 shows the A_ write electronics. form The A_ input accepts four-bit frame is

(Hon-Return-to-Zero) a parity bit) The recording four-bit together circuits

data in serial with shift pulses

(one his in each four-bit synchronizing i clock

and frame input

pulses. the

convert

the serial

into iparallel form and record tape.
i

frames

in parallet

NRZ format clock pulse

on the m_netlc is recorded Each

Each four-bit

frame

plus a frame

synchronizing redundant errors

redundantly

on the magnetic the tape

tape by triple width

head drivers. introduced

data bit is spread across or foreign matter

to minimize

by tape flaws

on the tape

surface.

_ead

Electronics (read) electronics Each data (Figure 8-50) uses the same tape head as the amplifier/level

The play-back

write electronics.

channel

is read by a play-hack

8-189
CONF|DENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

F_ou'_JT 7 REGISTER
J

_REOGLISTE R _ __

POUR .'13"_U_FEr
:

TRIPLE REDUNDANT DRIVER HEAD

TRACK 1 TR6 TRI1

_ m _"

Dl D1 DI

INTERFACE SHIFT

| j

DRIVER

TR12

D2

HEAD i REDUNDANT TR8 _ D3

I

DRIVER HEAD

TRI5

_

P

__,._

FF

j_

TRWLE

_

TR5

_

P

I NRZ DATA

1

0I" I COMPUTER

L

J REDUNDANT --HEAD

IR4 TR9

= _

C C

ERA [D3D2 l M/ ' PARITY BIT

DI l_l

DATA INTERFACE

DRIVER

TR14 READ/WRITE TAPE HEAD

_

C

--

CLOCK

_n

t COMPUTER J
J INTERFACE

Figure

8-49

ATM

Write

Electronics 8-190

Block

Diagram

CONFIDENTIAL

._ _

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

l_

Po,JcT
VOTER L

DI

_

DATA I

_

DAITA I

D2

_ _J

PARITY GENERATOR _

DATA 2

D2

_

TAPE HEAD READ/WRITE

D3

_

VOEER DATA 3

: DA=TA 3

P_
p PARITY VOTER -PAilTY COA_PARATOR SET TAPE ERROR

i

P

_

t

ERROR INHIBIT

_

_

VOTER C _ I C CLOCK' C •

-

=

= CLOCK

Figure

8-50

ATM

Read

Electronics 8-191

Block

Diagram

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

detector, voted

and each redundantly

recorded vote)

data bit (DI, D2, D 3, P, C) is majority voting logic. Three voted

on (2 out of 3 majority

by the A_

outputs

(DI, D 2, and ])3) and clock voters and, subsequently,

are supplied computer output

to output (the parity

interface bit is not to a parity the votedfrom the

amplifiers supplied

to the digital Each data voter

to the computer). The output

is also

supplied wlth

generator. on parity generated

of the parity

generator

is then compared

bit read from the tape. parity bit, the A_

If the recorded an A_ error

parity bit differs discrete which

issues

will ill-m4nate

the AUX TAPE ERROR during

lamp on the PCI_.

A check for tape errors by comparing

is also performed parity

the wind and rewind modes those developed

of operation

the recorded

bits with

from the voted

data bits

during playback.

Im_RFAC_S
The A_I_ interfaces DIGITAL CO_F_
|H,

with the digital

co_uter

and the PCDP

are described

in the

IN_FACES

part of this

section.

8-192
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

___

PROWl
VELOCIT_ INDICATOR IESCRIPTION

SEDR 300

YS_ SYS_

i i

Purpose The primary purpose of the Incremental Velocity Indicator i (Figure 8-51), herein-

after referred velocity (up-down)

to as the IVI,

is to provide

visual

indications

!

of incremental

for the longitudinal(forward-aft), laterall(left-rlght),nd vertical a
l

axes

of the spacecraft.

These

indicated

incremental

velocities necessary

repreto

sent the amount and direction achieve by means correct orbit,

of additional

velocity !or thrust to the existing

and thus are added thrusters.

spacecraft

velocities

of the maneuver

_

An additional words mation

use of the IVI is to display Tape Memory during

the tape position its oper@tion.

words

and module inforSYS_

from the Auxiliary concerning part

Additional

this usage can be found section.

in the AI/_ [LIARY TAPE MEMORY

OPERATION

of this

Performance A three-diglt decimal display device and two direction indication 1.mps are axes.

ii I

used to display

incremental

velocity

for each of the ithree i

spacecraft

Both the lamps and the display switches maneuver

devices

on the IVI or automatically thrusters which correct

can be set up ieither manually by rotary J by inputs from the computer. Then, as the velocities i pulses
i

the spacecraft

are received

from is

the computer driven beyond

drive the display

devices

toward

Zero.

If a display

device for

!
zero, indicating an overcorrection direction of the spacecraft velocity

i
the respective device axis, the opposite increases indication
i

lamp lights error

and the display in the opposite

indication

in magnitude

to show a velocity

direction.

8-193
CONFIDENTIAL

i

..___

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

_,--lrT'_t __

LEGEND

,_M (_ Q
Q Q

NO_NCLA_" FWD _FORWARD_ DI_CTIO. ,NO,CATION--P L _O.ARO-APT O.F_AY.V'CE
LEFT-RIGHT DISPLAY DEVtCE INDICATION LAMP

R (RIGHT) DIRECTION

(_

UP-DOWN

DISPLAY DEVICE

Q

UP DIRECTION

INDICATION

LAMP

L-R ROTARY SWITCH

O

O

_0,

CONTRACT

(_)

AFT-FWD ROTARY SWITCH

(_

AFT DIRECTION

iNDICATION

LAMP

'_/

(_) _

CONNECTOR IDENTIFICATIONJI

PLATE

j_

_

,)

Figure

8-51

Incremental 8-194 CONFIDENTIAL

Velocity

Indicator

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECII

Physics1

Description high,
C

The IVI is 3.25 inches B.25 pounds. summarized The major

;.0_ inches wide, characteristics

and 5.99 inches are

deep.

It weighs $-51 and

external

;hown in Figure

in the accompanying

legend.

Controls

and Indicators and indicators legend located on the IVI are illustrated i the controls i and indicators, on Figure 8-52.

The controls

The accompanying their purposes.

identifies

and describes

SYSTEM Power

OPERATION

The _Dower required Supply whenever (a) (b)

for operation

of the IVI is supplied on.

by the IGS Power are as follows :

the computer

is turned

The powerl inputs

+27.2 vde and return +5 vdc and return

During

the first BO seconds velocity counters

(or less) on the

following

the application
i

of power, to zero.

the

incremental Thereafter,

IVI are automatihally operation.

driven

the IVI is capable

of normal

Basic

Operation includes three identical channels, axes each of which them accepts velocity error

The IVI pulses display

for one of the spacecraft device

and processes direction

for use by a decimal lamps. The velocity the M, channel.

and its two associated received

indication

error pulses as determined With

are either

from the computer

o4 i generated
i l

within each

by the position

of the rotary in their

switch aslsociated with 1 center positions,

the spring-loaded

switches

neutral

the M

8-195
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

"FWD"" J 1

[0oo1 [olc)lol [oool

I

LEGEND
ITEM NOMENCLATURE PURPOSE

(_

FWD (FORWARD) DIRECTION FORWARD-AFT

INDICATION

LAMP

INDICATES

THAT PLUS X AXIS VELOCITY OF INSUFFICIENT

IS INSUFFICIENT. VELOCITy FOR PLUS

DISPLAY DEVICE

INDICATES X AXIS. OR MINUS AMOUNT

L (LEFT) DIRECTION

INDkCATION

LAMP

INDICATES

THAT MINUS Y AXIS VELOCLFY IS INSUFFICIENT.

LEFT-RIGHT

DISPLAY DEVICE

OR MLNUS AMOUNT INDICATES Y AXIS.

OF INSUFFICIENT

VELOCITY

FOR PLUS

R (RIGHT) DIRECTION Q UP-DOWN

iNDICATION

LAMP

INDICATES

THAT PLUS Y AXIS VELOCITY

iS INSUFFICIENT. VELOCITY FOR

DISPLAY DEVICE

PLUS OR MINUS Z INDICATES AMOUNTAXIS. INSUFFICIENT OF

UP DIRECTION iNDICATiON DN (DOWN) DN-UP DIRECTION

LAMP LAMP

INDICATES THAT MINUS Z AXIS VELOCITY IS INSUFFICIENT, INDICATES THAT PLUS Z AXiS VELOCITY IS INSUFFICIENT.

INDICATION

Q

ROTARY SWITCH

VELOCITY MEANS ON UP-DOWN PROVIDES ERROR FOR MANUALLY DISPLAY DEVICE AXIS SETTING UP Z VELOaEY MEANS ON LEFT-RIGHT DISPLAY DEVICE. PROVIDES ERROR FC_ MANUALLY SETTING UP Y AXIS VELOCITY MEANS ON EC_WARD-AFT SETTING UP X AXIS DISPLAY DEVICE. PROVIDES ERROR FOR MANUALLY

(_

L-R ROTARY SWITCH AFT-FWD ROTARY SWITCH

@

AFT DIRECTION INDICATION

LAMP

INDICATES THAT MINUS X AXIS VELOCITY IS INSUFFICIENT.

Figure

8-52

Incremental

Velocity 8-196

Indicator

Front

Panel

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

__

SEDR300

processes switches replaces pulses

only the pulses in either

received

from the computer. the pulses

However,

rotation

of the and

direction

removes

received

from the computer oscillator

them with pulses

generated

by an internal

variable

These

are generated until

at a rate of one pulse I0 pulses

per second for every per second. the pulses generated

13.5 degrees of the switches by the

of rotation beyond

the rate reaches

Rotation

the i0 pulse per second oscillator

position

removes

generated

variable

and replaces These pulses beyond

them with

pulses

by an internal per second. by

fixed oscillator. Rotation mechanical

are generated the 50 pulses

at a rate

of 50 pulses

of the switches stops.

per second position

is limited

The first

pulse received causes this

on any channel,

from either device

the computer

or one of the of one. india

oscillators,

the appropriate same pulse

display

to display

a count

Simultaneously, cation

causes

one of the two associated received on a positive

direction input line,

lamps to light right,

If the pulse _as

forward,

or down direction the pulse;

is indicated,

depending

on which

channel

(X, Y, or Z) received

and if the pulse was ireceived on a negative i is indicated, either depending on which channel

input line, an aft, left, received the pulse.

or up direction pulse

Each additional

increases i

or decreases

the on the it the decreases

count depending counters

on the relationship

between pulse

the sign Of the existing

value

and the sign of the added A pulse having

as determine(

by the line on which error increases error

is received. count;

the same

sign as the existing

conversely,

a pulse having of pulses

the opposite

sign ofi the existing
i

the count. thrusting causing direction

A series

having

the opposite

sign indicates
i

a corrective

and eventually still more

reduces causes

the indicated the count

error

to zero. again

An overcorrection, but with the opposite

pulses,

to increase

indication

lamp lit.

8-197
CONt_IDIENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SIDR 300

X CHANNEL

ROTARY -X DELTA VELOCITY fXDELTAVELOCJTY _ Z _: SWITCH AFT FWD ' J - l _i ' ]

COUNTER

DRIVERS

_ PULSE MOTOR [

I
÷27.2v
I I I l I [ il li I 1 I I -_

_g_NR
X SET ZERO

I

J I I
SET ZERO CONTROL I I =

X ZERO INDICATION

D,S_Y Iololol
DEVICE DRIVER t

OSCILLATOR FIXED

J

I

EORWARD-AE, "
l _+27.2V

X ZERO IND.

FWD

VARIABLE OSCILLATOR

LAMP DRIVER

|

-"
SELECTOR

"l-SV

_

J

AFT

i "_ IO'4:_OM Y AND Z CHANNELS _' LAMp +SV

_

kAMP DRIVER _

NOTE
Y AND Z CHANNELS ARE SAME AS X CHANNEL, EXCEPT Y CHANNEL CONTROLS AND INDICATORS ARE LEFT-RIGHT AND Z CHANNEL CONTROLS AND INDICATORS ARE UP-DOWN.

Figure

8-53

Incremental

Velocity 8-198

Indicator

Data

Flow

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

....
Zero Indication

PRMINI

SEDR 300

As shown on Figure forward-aft however, display

8-53, three device.

series-connected (The same thing

switches

are operated

by

the

is true

for the Y an_

Z channels; is shown. ) A develops

since the three channels device indicates

are identical, 000, all three

only the X channel switches

When the display +27.2 vdc signal

are closed. driver which

is then applied signal

to the X zero indication

the X zero indication indicates

that is supplied counter

to the computer.

This signal

that the respective

is at zero.

• coun,t
Velocity error pulses rotary are applied to the lamp selector and the pulse counter these

via the AFT-FWD pulses

switch.

If the switch is in the center on the +X delta velocity

position,

are received

from the computer If the switch the fixed

line and the the pulses As

-X delta velocity are received previously

line.

is not in the!center

position,

from either

oscillator

or the variable depends

oscillator.

explained 3 the oscillator Regardless operate

that is used

on the exact

position and

of the switch. the pulse

of the source of the pulses, the same. which The lamp selector be lit.

the lamp selector determines,

counter

by means to

of the sign the selected

of the error,

lamp should

Power

is then supplied

lamp via the associated by the pulse and the motor 90 degrees

lamp driver.

Meanwhile,

the same pulses drivers. the

are being processed The pulse counter motor to be driven

counter drivers

and supplied operate

to the motor

in a manner

that causes

for each pulse is determined count

that

is counted.

The direction between velocity the sign error of one

in which the motor is driven of the existing pulse. velocity

by the relationship

error

and the sign of the added device so that it changes

The motor drives

the display

by a count

8-199
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

for each 90 degrees of motor rotatlon.

_hus the display device maintains an error for the assocleted axis

up-to-date count of the size of the veloci_

(in this case_ the X axis), and the direction indication lamps maintain an up-to-date Zero C_=and indication of _ direction of the error.

The IVI counters can be individual_V driven to zero by means of set zero signals (X set zero, on Fi6ure 8-53) supplied by the discrete output logic of the computer. The set zero signal is supplied to the set zero control circuit which

gates the 50 pps output from the fixed oscillator into the pulse counter, provided the display device counter is not already at zero. The pulses from

the fixed oscillator then drive the motor in the normal manner until the counter is zeroed. The pulses are applied in such a manner that the count always

decreases, regardless of the initial value.

Interfaces The IVI interfaces, which are made with the computer and the IGS Power Supply, are described under the Interfaces heading in the DIGITAL COMPUTER SYSTEM OPERATION part of this section.

8-200 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

HORIZON

SENSOR SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ........... SENSOR HEAD ......... ELECTRONICS PACI_AGE_ ........ SYSTEM OPERATION . . • • • • • F PAGE

8-203 8-203 8-205 • • • 8-205 8-207 INFRARED DETECT N • • • • • .... INFRARED OPTICS'o'I .......... 8-211 • • • 8-212 • • • 8-228

SERVO LOOPS. I_ I 0 W EI_ ..... • . HORIZON SENSO _ • • •

SYSTEM UNITS...... . . . . , . . . 8-229 SENSOR HEAD .... , o o ° o o . o o 8-229 ELECTRONICS PACKAGE° ..... • • • 8-232

8-201 CONFIDENTIAL

CGNFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINi

DETAIL A

_(_i_)_ SEC

OFF DETAIL C

DETAIL B

SEE

\

RIGHT SWITCH/CIRCUiT

BREAKER PANEL_

SEE DETAIL R

TRONIC PACKAGES

FT EQUIPMENT ' HORIZON -PRIMARY IN SENSOR PAIRING HORIZON

BAY

SENSOR HEA0

SENSOR HEAD

Figure8-54 Horizon Sensor System 8-202 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJE

I

HORIZON

SENSOR

SYSTEM

SYST_4

DESCRIPTION Sensor System (Figure 8-5_) consists of a isensor head,
i

The Horizon package

an electronics is used to and generates

I
and their associated a spacecraft controls and indicators. to earth The system establish error attitude reference local vertical

signals

proportional

to the difference error signals to earth

between

horizontal spacecraft

attitude.

Attitude

spacecraft attitude and a I can be u_ed to align either the

i
or the inertial of O.1 degree When platform local vertical.
i

The system

has a

null accuracy nautical altitude

and is capable

of operating

at altitudes

of 50 to 900 mile When output

miles.

the system

is operating attitude

in the 50 to 550 nautical error _s + 14 degrees. the sensor

range, measurable attitude errors

spacecraft are between

spacecraft becomes

i_ and 20 degrees,

i
non-linear but the direction error. When of its slope always corresponds with the i attitud_ errors exceed 20 degrees,

slope of the attitude

spacecraft

i
the system may lose track. The second system TWo complete as a backup systems are _ustalled i on the spacecraft. is provided in case of! primary system malfunction.

SENSOR HEAD
The sensor head track the infrared (Figure gradient 8-55) contains earth equipment and requlred _t
i

to scan, horizon.

detect The

and sensor foraxis

between

space,

the

heads are mounted ward

on the left side of the spacecraft pitch axis. Scanning

_d
!

canted about

I_ degrees the azl_,th

of the spacecraft

is provided

f

by a yoke assembly assembly).

and about the elevation detection is provided

axis by a _sitor by a bolometer

(mlrror

positioning by a

Infrared

and tracking

servo loop which

positions

the Positor

mirror.

8-203
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

_

PROJECT

GEMINi

PYROTECHNIC

ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR

/

)

J5
POSITOR

_ I

PRE-AMPLIFIER AND POSITION

DETECTOR

VIEW A-A

Figure 8-55 Horizon Sensor Scanner Head 8-204 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEC'T

GEMI

I

EI_CTRONICS

PACKAGE package (Figure drive 8-56) contains the circuitry required to proerror from the are

The electronics vide azimuth signals sensor used

and elevation

signals

to the sensor head systems. levels

and attitude signals

to spacecraft head,

and platform infrared drive

control radiation

Electrical a_d optical

representing elevation

direction, are also

to generate

signals

for the Positor. yoke from limit changing

Signals to l_m_t.

generated

to constantly

drive

the azimuth

Attitude signal

error signals when the

are derived

from the constantly

Positor

position

system

is tracking.

SYSTEM _

OPERATION Horizon Sensor System and S_ the JETT FAIR acquisition is energized during pre-launch by pilot after to

The primary initiation staging infrared

of the SCAN HTR

PRI-OFF-SEC switch, time

switches.

Immediately

the pilot presses radiation.

exposing

the sensor heads

Initial

(the t_me required 120 seconds;

for the sensor reacqulsitlon

to acquire

and lock-on

the horizon) lO seconds. section

is approximately The system

time is approximately staging plus the an_ retrograde

can be used any time between

separation.

80 m_11 _secomds system

the sensor heads

At retrograde section separation i i are automatically Jettisoned, rendering

imoperative.

Operation tracking horizon. • detection

of the Horizon the infrared

Sensor

System gradient

depends between

on receiving, i earth and

detecting space, at

and

radiation

the infrared

To accomplish

the above, related is

the system servo

employ_

infrared

optics, block

i
and three closely loops. in Figure A functional 8"-57. diagram

of the Horizon Sensor System

provided

CONFIDENTIAL i i

CONFIDENTIAL

I

PROJECT

GEMINI

/

_AUTOMATIC

RELIEF VALVE

_

TEST RECEPTACLE

SENSOR HEAD RECEPTACLE

Figure

8-56 Horizon

Sensor 8-206

Electronic

Package

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDR300

I_FRAP_ Infrared

OPTICS optics (Figure 8-58) consists of a Positor, components which a telescope-filter a#e located I
I

assembly

and an azimuth head.

&rive yoke.

All of these mirror

in the sensor the system mirror

The Positor

has a movable the horizon.

is used Ito position t
i I

field of view about

Radiation A fixed

is reflected mirror,

by the Positor

into the telescope-filter assembly, assembly directs conta$us infrared

assembly. radiation

_n the telescope-filter i into the telescope. The telescope-filter i
i

a germanium thermistor

meniscus

objective The

lens!, an infrared objective lens

filter to

and

a gerry+_ium-immersed direct

bolometer. reflected

is used

all the _n_rared

radiation,

by the mirrors, filter

on the germanium

_,,,ersion lens of the bolometer. radiation microns the of undesired (80,000 frequencies.

The infrared

is used to eliminate of 8 to 22 lens focuses

The filter has a! band pass The germaniu_ thermistor.
i

to 220,000

angstroms).

immersion

infrared

radiation

on an immersed

The horizon azimuth mirror.

sensor

field

of view

is deflected

throug_
i i

160 degrees

(+_80) in the Positor is about

and 70 degrees The Positor

(12 up and 58 down) in azimuth

in elevat_ on by rotating
I

is rotated

by a driv

; 1

yoke.

Rotation

an axis which of the Positor circuitry degrees the

runs through mirror.

the center

of the infrarec
! i

ray bundle

on the surface

The yoke is driven at a one dycle per second rate by +I package. pitch The center axis. of ithe azimuth
i

in the electronics of the

scan is i_ of

forward

spacecraft

This

Is due to the mounting
I

scanner

heads.

Elevation mirror

deflection

is provided

tilts

the Positor

as required

to search

iby the Positor which i for o_ track the horizon.

The

8-207 CONFIDENTIAL !

CONFIDENTIAL

I __,_-

j :__

PROJECT

SEDR00 3

GEMINI

__r_l

I

r- ........

AZIMUTH

DRIVE AMPLITUDE

SWITCH

1
I
J
J

.....O_EERS_OOT
t AZIMUTH AZIMUTH II

OVERSHOOI

1

I

_5KC

EXCITATION

CLOCKWISE DRIVE

ROLL 8YNC SWITCH

.....

J
I ROLL SYNC J .....

, '
I

I AZ'MUT" I
SWITCH _

I
5KC EXCITATION

SWiTCN t ,,,
l I I • ( _ _"

,=.,.....l._ _ /

EXC'TAT'°N_*C P,ED CO,L
POSITOR DRIVE SIGNAL POSITOR DRIVE) =i POSITOR I POSiTiON PHASE POSITION ; AMPLIFIER

I

--_ ,

I

, ,

_._"

POS,T,ON DETECTOR MIRROR I_S,TOR SIGNAL I
ASSEMBLY THERMISTO

PHASE SH,ETED
POSITOR FIELD COlt (5KC SIGNAL FROM

J

PASS FILTER

J J

I
J

D_ FIXED M IRROR

_j_

TELESCOPE-FILTER ACTIVIRoN _ 8-22 MICRON _IL_-__, BOLOMETER _" G ERMAN' U_v_ R-_" E MENISCUS LENS z._ THERMISTOR PASSIVE

RADIATION

PRE-AMPLIFIER

I

I

-

- "-_°' _°

-

- I

+28V DC SPACECRAFT POWER

t

Figure

8-57

Horizon

Sensor

System

Functional 8-208

Block

Diagram

(Sheet

1 of 2)

CONFIDENTIAL

J

:-.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

____"

PROJECT

GEMINI

I
AZIMUTH CONTROL CIRCUIT AZIMUTH DRIVE CIRCUIT AZIMUTH MULTIVIBRATOR

I

I
I
PII

J

J

PHASE PITCH DETECTOR

SI(

FILTER AND PITCH OUTPUT AMPLIFIER

--

J

AZIMUTH

SYNC SIGNAL

Z O

I
f--. J J

I t_;'a_URRENT I
POSITOR POSITRON SIGNAL TRACK CHECK TRACK CHECK CIRCUIT _IGNAL i

PITCH AMPLIFIER ERROR

o

J

ROLL

o_I
J SEARCH GENERATOR AND I INTERLOCK

AMPLIFIER

ERROR
_( Z O

SIGNAL AMPLIFIER

_

PHASE DETECTOR

DRIVE AMPLIFIER

PHASE DETECTOR

O_]

FILTER AND AMPLIFIER

_

EARTH-SPACE
LOCK-OUT m R_ g _ ROLL MULTI-

_

FREQUENCY DOUBLER I

DITHER OSCILLATOR (30CPS) ROLL SYNC SIGNAL

_.

E u

ELECTRONICS PACKAGE

/

TO SCANNER LIGHT, ACME AND IMU

TO ACME AND

IMU

Figure

8-57

Horizon

Sensor

System

Fur_ctional 8-209

Block

Diagram

(Sheet

2 of 2)

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

t_!_

PROJECT

GEMINI

/ / / /

\ \ \\ \

i F-/
b /, .j -x.,

F ,_t

z

_

_

HOEIZON

L
AXIS OF ROTATION " "'_ "(REF) <

J"_ I

AZIMUT.
t.._

""%..%._%

i

ii

_

i

FO_.OE

\\, \...

t ......... "!
I I ! POSITOR MIRROR { i i AXIS OF ROTAT,ON "\. :

'

I
FILTER

i_i::Ni::i_ >" INFRARED RADIATION (REF) I / t i ! i

)LOMETER

I FIXED

MIRROR

_

THERMISTOR

!
GERMANIUM MENISCUS LENS LENS

i

,

THERMISTOR

Figure

8-58

Infrared 8-210

Optics

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT GEMI, I

rate at which tion

the Positor

tilts

the mirror

is a function

of the mode moves

of opera-

(track or search).

In search mode,

the Positor

mirror

at a two

cps search rate moves

plus a 30 cps dither

rate.

at a 30 cps dither rate, plus,

In track imode, the Positormlrror i if there is any!attltude error, a one or rate depends on the direction of

two cps track rate. spacecraft attitude

The one or two cps track error.

INFRARED Infrared

DETECTION radiation is detected by the germanium-lmmezsed (temperature thermistor bolometer. which

The bolometer

contains

two thermistors

ensltive

resistors)

are part of a bridge infrared very radiation

circuit.

One of the thermistors The

from the horizon.

(active) is exposed to i second thermistor (passive) is located f_om infrared radiation. changes produces radiation. changes

near the first thermistor from the horizon and unbalances which

but it is separated

Radiation resistance

is sensed by the active the bridge circuit.

t_ermlstor

which bridge

The unbalanced

an output voltage

is proportional were used,

to the intensity would a_so

of the infrared sense temperature

If only one thermistor caused by conduction thermistor

the bridge

or convection; is used.

to prevent

this,

a passive

(temperature

reference)

The passive l_.stor, for

thermistor a given

changes

resistance

the same amount i change, keeping i
l

as the active bridge

ther-

ambient

temperature

the

balanced. the

The passive bridge to

thermistor

is not exposed when the

to infrared active

ra_ation is

and allows struck by

become

unl_.lm_ced

ther_J.stdr

radiation

from the horizon.

8-211 CONFIDENTIAL i !

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

_VO

LOOPS servo loops used by the Horizon Sensor System loop. are: the track loop,

The three

the azimuth is used

drive loop and the signal processing than one servo loop and provides

Some of the circuitry

by more

synchronization.

Track

Loo_ (Figure 8-59) is used to locate axis. Two modes and track the earth horizon (search and track) when After the _.-_

The track loop with respect

to the elevation

of operation

are used the

in the track loop.

The search mode and used until

is selected the horizon

automatically is located. level,

system is first energized is located

the horizon track mode

and the signal built selected.

up to the required

is automatically

Search Mode The search mode is automatically selected by the system any time the horizon

is not in the field of view. system line of sight through located. positor signal

The purpose its elevation

of the search mode scan range until

is to move the the horizon is

(The system llne of sight is moved by changing the angle of the mirror. ) When the system is initially energized, the Positor produces position a two

is used

to turn on a search generator. which is applied

The generator Junction

cps ac search voltage drive amplifier. summing junction.

to a summing

in the Positor to the is energized. )

A second signal (30 cps dither) (The dither voltages signal is present

is also applied

any time the system

The search and dither drive signal.

are summed and amplified is applied to the drive

to create a Positor coils of the Fosltor

This drive

signal

causing

it to tilt the Positor to oscillate

mirror. about

The dither

portion

of the signal

causes the mirror

its elevation 8-212

axis at a 30 cps rate and

CONFIDENTIAL

_-_._

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

PGSITOR DRIVE SIGNAL

i

5KC RIEPERENCE POSITOR SIGNAL .___ POSITION PHASE DETECTOR PHASEI SHIFTED

i

POSITION AMPLIF]ER

EXCITATION

]
POSITOR MIRROR

TRACK CHECK

GENERATOR AND INTERLOCK

t

SEARCH

TRACK CHECK

EARTH SPACE LOCK'.OUT

POSITOR POSITION )AMPING LOOP)

TEUESCOPE/ I
FILTER I FIXED MIRROR I J

' F
BOLOMETER

I

l

LEVEL

_r

PRE-AMP

AMPLIFIER

-_

PHASE DETECTOR

DRIVE AMPLIFIER

60CPS

30CPS

T

SIGNAL REFEiENCE DITHER

DOUBLER

OSCILLATOR

Figure

8-59 Track

Loop Block Diagram 8-213

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

through an angle which represents approximately four degrees change in the line of sight. The search portion of the signal will drive the Positor mirror

up to an angle which represents a llne of sight 12 degrees above the spacecraft azimuth plane. During the up scan (earth to space) a lock-out signal is

applied to the servo loop to prevent the system from locking on to false horizon indications. When the positive limit of the search voltage (12 degrees up) is

reached, the voltage changes phase and the system begins to scan from 12 degrees up to 58 degrees down. During the down scan (space to earth), the lock-out

signal is not used and the system is free to select track mode if the horizon comes within the field of view.

The bolometer output (indication of infrared radiation) is used to determine when the horizon comes within view and to initiate the track mode of operation. As the system line of sight crosses the horizon (from space to earth), a sharp increase in infrared radiation is detected by the bolometer. bridge output now produces a 30 cps ac signal. The bolometer

(The 30 cps is caused by the

dither signal driving the line of sight back and forth across the horizon.) The bolometer bridge output is amplified and applied to the track check circuit. When the 30 cps signal reaches the track check circuit, it causes a

tracking relay to be energized indicating that the horizon is in the field of view. Contacts of the relay apply a bias to the search generator, turning it Thls places

off and removing the search voltage from the Posltor drive signal. the system in the track mode of operation.

8-21.
CONFIDENTIAL

CO_:ID_NTJAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

Track Mode The bolometer output signal is used to determine the direction of the horizon from the center of the system line of sight. A Positor drive voltage of the

proper phase is then generated to move the system line of sight until the horizon is centered in the field of view. The bolometer output signal is The 60 cps signal Since

phase detected with respect to a 60 cps reference signal.

is obtained by doubling the frequency output of the dither oscillator.

both signals (30 cps dither and 60 cps reference) come from the same source, the phase relationship should be a constant. However, when the horizon is not

in the center of the field of view, the bolometer output is not symmetrical. The time required for one complete cycle is the same as for dither but the zero crossover is not equally spaced, in time, from the beginning and end of each cycle. The direction the zero crossover is shifted from center depends The

on whether the horizon is above or below the center of the field of view. phase detector determines

the direction of shift (if any) and produces dc pulses The output of the signal phase detector is applied The

of the appropriate polarity.

to the Positor drive amplifier where it is S_,mmed with the dither signal.

composite signal is then amplified and used to drive the Positor mirror in the direction required to place the horizon in the center of the field of view.

A pickup coil, wound on the permanent magnet portion of the Positor drive mechanism, produces an output signal which is proportional (in phase and ampli-

tude) to the position of the Positor mirror.

This Posltor position signal is The detector to activate

phase detected to determine the actual position of the mirror.

output is then amplified and used for two purposes in the track loop:

8-215 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ
_____

EC---'T--G'E I N I M
SEDR300

the

search generator feedback

when

the tracking drive

relay

is de-energized

and as a rate relay is

d_mp_ng

to the Positor the search

amplifier.

(When the tracking

energized,

it biases

generator

to cutoff. )

Azimuth

Drive

Loop loop (Figure 8-60) provides to move the drive voltage, the system overshoot

The azimuth control and

drive

synchronization

required

llne of sight through drive loop azimuth consists multivibrator,

a 160 degree of an azimuth azimuth drive

scan angle at a one cps rate. overshoot detector, azimuth

The azimuth control

circuit,

coils and an azimuth

drive yoke.

Azimuth

Overshoot

Detector detector does not, as the name detects when implies, detect the drive yoke reaches near

The azimuth azimuth either

overshoot

scan overshoot.

It instead

the azimuth

end of its scan limit. drive yoke

The detector

is a magnetic signal

pickup,

located

the azimuth generator. the magnetic tioned

and excited by a 5 kc

from the field current drive yoke, pass very near are posiWhen

Two iron slugs, mounted pickup when the yoke

on the azimuth

reaches

the scan limit.

The slugs

160 degrees

apart on the yoke to represent passes near the magnetic signal

each end of the scan. it changes with

one of the iron slugs and causes azimuth the 5 kc

pickup,

the inductance Since the

excitation

to be modulated occurs Output

a pulse.

scan rate is one cps and the modulation pulse occurs at a two pps rate. control circuit.

at each end of the scan, of the overshoot detector

the overshoot is applied

to the azimuth

8-216 CONFIDENTIAL

_. r _ _'_,-

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300 i ,,_._.___,_ _

I

t_!_

PROJECT

GEMINI

__j_,..i

CCW AZIMUTH DRIVE AMPL[FIER ,_ _dl CW AMPLITUDE CONTROL

i

AZIMUTH CONTROL

AZIMUTH MULTIVIBRATOR (I CPS)

,f-_. SYNC SIGNAL

/
CLOCKWISE COUNTERCLOCKWISE DRIVE DRIVE / AZIMUTH SYNC SWITCH

/ / / /
/ F /

/
//

:

_. __ RL°_
AMPLITUDE SWITCH

//

/

OVERSHOOT _IG._L i /
, i : /

_

,KC
< EXCITATION

AZIMUTH OVERSHOOT DETECTOR

Z_ Figure 8-60 Azimuth Drive

_/ Loop Block

Diagram

8-217 CONFIDENTIAL

i !

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJE

GEMINI

Azimuth Control Circuit The azimuth control circuit generates two types of azimuth control voltages (coarse and fine) based on the azimuth overshoot signal. shoot detector develop adc output is rectified, The azimuth over-

filtered, peak detected and integrated to to the amplitude and width of the to provide con-

control voltage proportional

overshoot pulse.

This control voltage serves two purposes:

tlnuous, fine control of the azimuth drive pulse and, when the control voltage reaches a hlgh enough level (indicating a large overshoot), provide a coarse (step) control of the reference voltage on the azimuth drive coils. The fine

control is obtained by applying the control voltage, as a bias, to the azimuth drive amplifier. The coarse control is obtained by energizing a relay, which

switches the reference voltage on the azimuth drive coils when the control voltage reaches a high enough level. The level at which the relay energizes is

determined by a zener diode which breaks down and biases a relay driver into conduction. The relay driver then energizes a relay which switches the _c

voltage on the reference winding of the azimuth drive coils.

Azimuth

Multlvibrator provides the direction control signal for the az_,th is synchronized by pulses from the azimuth sync switch.

The azimuth multlvibrator drive. The multivlbrator

The sync switch is located next to the azimuth drive yoke and is closed each t_me the yoke passes through the center of its 160 degree scan. The switch

produces a two pps output which is used to switch the state of the multlvlbrator. The multivihrator then produces a one cps square wave signal which is

8-218
CONIFIDIENTIAL

CO_Fi_DENTIAL

PROJEC Ni
SEDR 300

symchronized with the motion of the azimuth drive yoke.

The positive half of

the square wave controls the azimuth drive in one direction and the negative half controls the drive in the other direction. applied to the azimuth drive amplifier. Output of the multlvibrator is

Azimuth

Drive Amplifier adjusts the width of multivibrator output pulses

The azimuth drive amplifier

to control the azimuth drive yoke.

The output pulse width, from the drive (bias) provided by the is large, As the

amplifier# depends on the amount of control voltage azimuth control circuit.

When the amount of azimuth yoke overshoot

the control voltage is high and the output pulse width is narrow. _-_

amount of overshoot decreases, the control bias decreases and the output pulse width increases. and consequently This provides a continuous, fine control over the drive pulse the amount of azimuth drive yoke travel.

Azimuth

Drive Coils force. The

The azimuth drive coils convert drive signals into a magnetic

coils are mounted next to, and their magnetic force exerted on, the azimuth drive yoke. is energized. The direction of magnetic force is determined by which drive coil

Azimuth Drive Yoke The azimuth drive yoke is a means of mechanically moving the system llne of sight through a scan angle. (The Positor is mounted inside the azimuth drive yoke and

the rotation is around the center line of the infrared ray bundle on the Positor mirror.) The azimuth drive yoke is spring loaded to its center position and Mounted on the yoke

the mass adjusted to give it a natural frequency of one cps.

8-219
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

are two iron slugs and a permanent with the azimuth overshoot detector

magnet. mentioned

The iron slugs are used previously. yoke.

in conjunction is used to synchronize of the azimuth of

The magnet The switches The function

activate mechanical

sync switches motion

located

next to the drive electrical

of the yoke with

signals.

sync switch was described the two roll the signal sync switches

in the azimuth will

multivlbrator

paragraph, detectors

The function paragraph of

be described

in the phase

processing

loop.

Signal

Processin_

Loo_ loop (Figure 8-61) converts (The error tracking signals and azimuth scan in-

The signal processing formation

into attitude

error signals.

can be used to align local vertical. ) systems Attitude

the spacecraft A complete (Attitude error

and/or the Inertial loop is obtained and Maneuver

Guidance

System to the earth two other

servo Control

by utilizing

spacecraft

Electronics

and the Propulsion System

System).

signals,

generated

by the Horizon

Sensor

are used by the Attitude scan mode) to select The fire direction. the

Control

and Maneuver

Electronics

(ACME) (in the horizon and generate

the appropriate command

thruster

(or thrusters) System

a fire command. in the desired

causes the Propulsion changes signals

to produce

thrust

As the thrust attitude error

spacecraft decrease limits

attitude,

in the appropriate _hen the

direction,

in amplitude.

spacecraft

attitude in

comes within roll), c_ds. llm_ts, thrust

preselected

(0 to -i0 degrees

in pitch

and + 5 degrees

as indicated

by error

signal amplitude, attitude

the ACME

stops generating

fire

As long as the spacecraft it is allowed is automatically to drift applied

remains within

the preselected the l_m_ts,

freely.

If the attitude the error.

exceeds

to correct

8-220 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL ...-'-_ _ SEDR 300

/
INFRARED RAY BUNDLE _F.ARTH SYNC

HORIZON

J

/
\_.___-

-

(_?B
, AZ,MDT,I

SPACECRAFT CHANGE ATTITUDE I

TRACK CHECK

_'

POSITION MODU LATE{} SIGNAL POSITOR

ERROR AMP LIFIER ROLL I

ROLL SYNC SIGNAL

AZIMUTH SIGNAL

SYNC

ERROR AMPLIFIER PITCH

LOSS OF TRACK SIGNAL

PROPULSION SYSTEM

l,o.,o,H-..,q,..i H
PHASE DETECTOR MULTIVIBRATOR (2 CPS) MULTIVIBRATOR (] CPS) PHASE DETECTOR SIGNAL ROLL ERROR SIGNAL _ r ,._ I

I

XE_?_OR_ENT

FIRE

COMMAND

,_.......... .
I

AND MANEUVER ELECTRONICS :

._,--iTl-,
I !_ C ERROR
I

L
Figure 8-61 Signal Processing

l
Loop Block 8-221 CONFIDENTIAL

..
;

I
SIGNAL

i

LO SS-OF-I"RACK

Diagram

i

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJEEMINI

An indirect 8 through (Inertial inertial

method 12) with

of the

controlling horizon

spaceera_ sensor involves

attitude a third

(on

spacecraft

5, system to

6 and

spacecraft

Guidance). measurement torque

This method unit. gyros in

can be used when sensor attitude platform,

it is desire_ error ali_-_ signals them

fine align

the

Horizon

are now used to to the local (in the this of

continuously vertical. platform method

the inertial error c_ds

The platform

attitude fire

signals

are then used

by the ACME System.

mode) to generate control,

for the Propulsion is held to within

Using

of attitude

the spacecraft axes.

+ i.i degrees

the platform

attitude

in all three

The inertial a servo manually sensor loop.

platform

can also be aligned

by the horizon a closed

sensor without

using must ....

To align the platform spacecraft attitude

without

servo loop,

the pilot

maintain attitude

as near null as possible. when

(The horizon is in a error signals

error signals

are most accurate to the earth gyros

the spacecraft Attitude effect

horizontal

attitude with to torque

respect platform

surface.)

are then used attitude.

and have no direct

on spacecraft

The Horizon AC_E

Sensor

System Guidance

also provides System.

a loss of track

indication

to both the the ACME signal is also that

and Inertial

The signal

is used to prevent The loss of track

or platform

from aligning

to a false horizon. light

used to illuminate the system degrees

the SCANNER

on the pedestal s informing attitude

the pilot + 20

is not tracking.

(Spacecraft

must be held within

of the horizontal

for the system to track. )

8-222 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

"_L i

AZIMUTH SCAN

4_AZIMUTH LIMIT 0° 1

SCAN

i i ..... --

SPACECRAFT ROLL AXIS EXTENSION

204*

AZIMUTH LIMIT 284= I I 270 °

SCAN

AHxis EXTENSION

AX,SEXTENS,O,.,O_ON S.SO_ _T_. J VIEW A-A

f
A

-t
A

/
/ \ SCANNER

/
INSTANTANEOUS LINE OF SIOHI_/ /

x \

X i_J \ ;

S,'_ECRAET ','A',,'
AXIS EXTENSION

/

\ 1

/

)... I /_z.__
I/

/I // I I I

J

DITheR _ HORIZON OF EARTH

AZIMUTH fLOCA I- VER'TICAL

Figure

8-62 Horizon

Sensor 8-223

Tracking

Ge[ ,merry

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

Tracking Geometry Horizon sensor tracking geometry (Figure 8-62) is composed of the elevation

angles (e) generated by the track loop and the azimuth angles (_) generated by the azimuth drive loop. Angles are compared in time and phase to generate

an error signal proportional to the elevation angle change with respect to the azimuth scan angle.

As explained in the track loop paragraph, the system will lock on in elevation and track the earth horizon. A dither signal causes the Posltor to move The track loop

the system llne of sight about the horizon at a 30 cps rate.

will move the Posltor mirror such that the horizon is always in the center of the dither pattern. It was also explained, in the azimuth drive loop para-

graph, that the system line of sight is continuously moved through a 160 degree azimuth scan angle at a one cps rate.

When the spacecraft is in a horizontal attitude, the azimuth scan has no effect on the elevation angle of the Positor as it tracks the horizon. If the space-

craft is in a pitch up attitude, the elevation angle (0) will decrease as the azimuth angle (_) approaches 80 degrees forward and increase as angle _ approaches 80 degrees aft. If the spacecraft is in a pitch down attitude, the elevation

angle will increase as the azimuth angle approaches 80 degrees forward and decrease as the azimuth angle approaches 80 degrees aft. This produces a one

cps pitch error signal which is superimposed on the SO eps Positor dither.

If the spacecraft has a roll right attitude, the elevation angle will increase as the azimuth angle approaches either limit and decrease as the azlm_th angle approaches zero from either llm_t. If the spacecraft is In a roll left attitude

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

.._____

SEDR 300

the elevation angle will decrease as the azimuth angle approaches either l_m_t and increase as the azimuth angle approaches zero from either limit. This pro-

duces a two cps error signal which is superimposed on _he 30 cps Positor dither. Position Phase Detector The Positor position phase detector compares the PositOr pickoff signal with a 5 kc reference to determine the angle of the Positor mirror. will be chang_ (The mirror angle

at a 30 cps dither rate, plus, if there is any spacecraft attihe phase detector output is

tude error3 a one and/or two cps error signal rate.) then amplified and applied to the track check circuit.

Track Check _ The track check circuit determines when the horizon is in the field of view. the horizon is in the field of view, the track check circuit energizes a relay. If

Contacts of this relay connect the Positor position signal to the pitch and roll error amplifiers° A second relay in the track check circuit,
i

energized

when the

system is not tracking, provides a loss of track indication to the inertial measurement unit and the ACME. The loss of track signal is 28 volts dc obtained

through the ATT IND CNTL-LDG circuit breaker and switched by the track check circuit.

Error Amplifiers In order to obtain individual pitch and roll attitude error outputs, error signal i separation must be accomplished. fiers. This function is performed by two error ampli-

The Positor position signal input to the error amplifiers is a composite The pitch error

30 cps dither, one cps pitch error and two cps roll error signal.

amplifier is tuned to one cps and selects the pitch error signal only for 8-225 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

amplification.

The roll error amplifier is tuned to two cps and selects the roll Each amplifier then amplifies and inverts

error signal only for amplification. their respective

signals, producing two outputs each.

The outputs are 180 degrees Output

out of phase and of the same frequency as their input circuits were tuned. of each error amplifier is coupled to its respective phase detector.

Phase Detectors Phase detectors compare the phase of pitch and roll error signals with one and two cps multivibrator The multivibrators sync switches. reference signals to determine the direction of attitude error.

are synchronized

with motion of the azimuth drive yoke by three

Two sync switches, located at 57 degrees on either side of the cen--

ter position of the yoke_ synchronize the roll multivibrator with the motion of the yoke and set its frequency at two cps. passes, in either direction, The sync switches close each time the yoke

producing four pulses for each cycle of the yoke. resulting

Each time a pulse is produced it changes the state of the multivibrator in a two cps output. The azimuth multivibrator

operates in the same manner except

that it only has one sync switch, located at the center of the drive yoke scan, resulting in a one cps output frequency. The azimuth multivibrator also provides

a phase lock signal to the roll multivibrator ronization but correct phasing as well.

to assure not only frequency synchare act-

The phase detectors themselves

ually reed relays, two for each detector, which are energized alternately by their respective multivibrator output signals. Contacts of these relays combine the two

input signals in such a manner that two full wave rectified output signals are produced. The polarity of these pulsating dc outputs indicates the direction and

the amplitude indicates the amount of attitude error about the horizon sensor pitch and roll axes. Since the sensor head was mounted at a l_ degree angle with 8-226 CON FI DENTIAL

s_

-_

SEDR 300

400 CPS ACME POWER (FROM SCANNER

Jl

SWITCH)

1

RECTIFIER

POWER TRANSFORMER

31V DC

20V AC

30V AC

_. "

FILTER

BRIDGE RECTIFIER_ FILTER

WAVE RECTIFIER_ FILTER

BRIDGE RECTIFIERFILTER

J -20V DC +20V DC

FULL +30V DC

: -27VDC

REGULATOR

REGULATOR

_1_

-27V DC REGULATED ÷25V OC REGULATED II_ +15V OC REGULATED Ib -15V DC REGULATED IP' _20V DC

I_

-20V DC

m +31V DC

Figure

8-63

Horizon

Sensor

Power 8-227

Supply

Block

Diagram

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEC---'T--'G-EMINI
___ $EDR 300

respect to the spacecraft, the mounting error must be compensated for. rotation of the horizon sensor axes, to correspond with spacecraft

Electrical

axes, is accom-

plished by cross coupl_ng a portion of the pitch and roll error signals.

Output Amplifier

and Filter removes most of the two and four cps ripple from the the signals to the required level. used as output stages for the The

The output amplifier-filter rectified

attitude error signals and amplifies

The identical pitch and roll operational amplifiers,

Horizon Sensor System, are highly stable and have a low frequency response.

output signal amplitude is four tenths of a volt for each degree of spacecraft attitude error The signals are supplied to the A(_E for spacecraft alignment and unit for platform ali6_ent.

to the inertial measurement

HORIZON

SENSOR POWER

Horizon sensor power (Figure

8-6B)is obtained from the 28 volt dc spacecraft bus
The 28 volt dc power, supplied through the

and the 26 volt ac, 400 cps ACME power.

SCAN HTR switch_ is used to maintain temperature in the sensor head and as power for She SCANNER lamp. Sensor head heaters are thermostatically controlled and

operate any time the SCAN RTR switch is on.

The 26 volt ac, 400 cps ACME po_er is

provided by either the IGS or ACME inverter, depending on the position of the ac POWER selector. The 26 volt ac is used to produce seven different levels of dc One of the voltages (31 volts dc) is obtained The remaining six levels are fil-

voltage used in the horizon sensor.

by rectifying and filtering the 26 volt ac input. obtained by transforming

the 26 volts to the desired level, then rectifying,

tering and regulating it as required.

The minus 27 volts dc output is used to The other side of the bridge is excited

excite one side of the bolometer bridge.

8-228 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

i

by plus 25 volts dc. error amplifiers. azimuth drive yoke. for transistor power

Plus 25 volts dc is also used for transistor power in the ! The 31 volt dc unregulated output is Used as excitation for the The remaining four voltages (+15, -15, +20, -20) are all used in the various electronic modules.

SYST_UNITS The Horizon Sensor System (Figure 8-54) consists of two major units and five minor units. fairing. The minor units are: three switches, an indicator light and a fiberglass

i
The three switches are mounted on the control ipanels for pilot actuation. indicates a

The indicator light is mounted on the pedestal and, whe_ Illuminated, loss of track. _

The fiberglass fairing is dust proof an_ designed to protect the i or thermal _mage dur-

sensor heads, which it covers, from accidental ground _age ing launch. The two major units are: the sensor head

_nd the electronics package.

SENSOR _D The sensor head (Figure 8-55) is constructed a Positor, a telescope-filter assembly, from a mag_eslum casting and contains i a signal preampZ.ifier, a position detector, The Positor (Figure 8-64) is a mlrror The

an active filter and an azimuth drive yoke. positioning mirror assembly designed to position

a mlrrorabou_

its elevation axis.

is polished beryllium and is pivoted on ball bearings by a magnetic i

drive.

The Posltor also includes a position pickoff coll for determining the angle of the Positormirror.

The telescope-filter assembly (see Figure 8-58) contains a f_xedmirror, nium meniscus lens, an infrared filter and a germanium _mersed eter.

a germa-

thermistor l_l_m-

The fixed mlrror is set at a _5 degree angle to _eflect radiatiom from the

8-z29
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

J

AC POSITION

_

COIL

_,cKoPP_ co,L
POSITION PtCKOFF COIL 11hl/

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION TO R

PERMANENT MAGNET

SINGLE-AXIS

POSITOR

Figure

8-64

Horizon

Sensor 8-230

Single-Axis

Positor

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

__

SEDR 300

Positor mirror into the telescope.

The germanium meniscus objective lens of the The

telescope is designed to focus incoming infrared radiation on the bolometer. ;

infrared filter, located immediately behind the objective lens, Is designed to pass infrared radiation in the 8 to 22 micron range. bolometer contains a culminating The germanium _ersed thermistor lens

lens and two thermistors.

The culminating

directs all incoming radiation

on one of the thermistors.

The two thermistors are Both

bonded to the rear of, and effectively i_,ersed in, the culminating lens. thermistors are identical; however, one of the thermistors

(active) is located at (passive) is located

the focal point of the culminating lens. to one side of the focal point.

The other thermistor

The passive thermistor is used as an ambient

temperature reference and does not react to direct infrared radiation.

Signal Preamplifier The signal preamplifier is a low noise, high gain, four stage, direct coupled transistor amplifier. The preamplifier is made in modular form and potted in

epox_ for thermal conductivity and protection from shock and vibration.

Position

Detector the

The position detector is a five kc phase detector designed to determine position of the Posltor mirror. The circuit produces a voltage which

is

proportional to the angle of the Positor mirror. adc

Output of the detector is The

voltage which varies at the same rate as th_ Positor mirror moves.

detector is made in modular form and potted in epoxy for thermal conductivity and protection from shock and vibration.

8-231 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

Azimuth Drive Yoke The azimuth drive yoke provides a means of moving the Positor mirror about its azimuth axis. The yoke is magnetically driven and pivots on ball bearings.

The Positor is mounted inside the azimuth drive yoke and is rotated through an azimuth scan angle of 160 (+80) degrees by the yoke. The azimuth axis of

rotation is through the center line of the infrared ray bundle on the surface of the Positor mirror. Drive coils, located directly in front of the yoke, Mounted on the edge of the yoke The iron slugs

supply magnetic impulses to drive the yoke.

(see Figure 8-60) are two iron slugs and a permanent magnet.

are used to induce an overshoot signal in the azimuth overshoot detector. The permanent magnet is used to synchronously mounted around the periphery of the yoke. close contacts on three sync switches,

_T._,CTRC_ICSACKAGE P The electronics package (Figure 8-56) contains the circuitry necessary to control the azimuth yoke and Positor in the sensor head, as well as process attitude error signals. The package also contains adc power supply and a

five kc field current generator.

The solid-state circuitry is made in modular

form an_ potted in epoxy for thermal conductivity and protection from shock and vibration.

8-2_. CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

RENDEZVOUS RADAR SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . SYSTEM OPERATION OIIIOeOIIO. RADAR . , . . . ........... TRANSPONDER ......... INTEGRATED OPERATION_ . o . o . COMMANDLINK OPERATION_ . . . =. . SYSTEM UNITS • i RADAR MODULATOR AND TRANSM{TTER : TRANSPONDER ANTENNA . SUFFICIENT AMPLITUDE DETECTOR i" _ • TRANSPONDER CIRCULATOR... o .... RECEIVER. , . TRANSPONDER HODUZATOR AND " =" " TRANSMITTER oeoooooo.oo RADAR RECEIVING ANTENNA SYSTEM. . GATE GENERATOR, . . . , , , • • • ELEVATION TWO-MICROSECOND MULTIVIBRATOR FUNCTIONS. . i. . DITHER BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR FUNCTION .eeooooe.:,,o SPIRAL ANTENNA IN ANGULAR MEASUREMENT ...... . .... DITHER SWITCHES ......... RANGE AND RANGE RATE (R/R HETEiR).. RANGE SWEEP CIRCUIT ..... . . DIGITAL RANGE COUNTER ........ RADAR POWER SUPPLY...... i, • TRANSPONDER POWER SUPPLY... !... . PAGE 8-235 8-238 8-238 8-239 _ 8-239 . 8-241 : : " . • . 8-254 8"255 8-257 8-261 8-261 8-261 8-263 8-263 8-265 8-266 8-267 8-270 8"243 8-243 8-245 8-247 8-247 8-247

_"

. . •

8-233 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

RO_,C,_P I _, ,
RANGE/RANGE METER RATE FLIGHT DIRECTOR CONTROLLER'(REF) FLIGHT DIRECTOR INDICATOR I(REF)

DETAIL

A

ON _LOCK O ON (COMMAND IPILOT PANEL) TBY _S RADA_ OFF DETAIL B (PEDESTAL ANEL) P

DIpOLE

(REF)

DETAILD (RIGHTWITCH/CIRCUIT BREAKERPANEL)

IREF)

DETAILC (iPILOTPANEL) REFERENCE ANTENNA

ELEVATION ANTENNA i

RDR CMP t

FLIGHT DIRECTOR INDICATOR DETAIL C (REF)

..... i

j

ANTE_ SPfJRPAL

DETAIL D

Figure

8-65 Rendezvous 8-234 CONFIDENTIAL

Radar

System

GONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

RENDEZVOUS

RADAR

SYSTEM

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The Rendezvous Radar System (Figure 8-65) is incorporated in the Gemini Project to facilitate a rendezvous maneuver of the Gemini Spacecraft with the target vehicle. The system is comprised primarily of two units, a radar located in the
i

rendezvous and recovery section of the Gemini and a transponder located in the target docking adapter of the target vehicle. The co-operative operation of the

two units enables the detection of the target vehicle by the Gemini and the determination of the range, relative velocity, and angular relationship of the two craft. The radar transmission is also used as a carrier for the command link link portion of Section VIII for a description

intelligence; refer to the co_and of this system.

The Rendezvous Radar System, as described herein is applicable to the rendezvous mission of spacecraft six and those planned for spacecrafts eight through twelve. Spacecraft five utilized a rendezvous evaluation pod tO simulate the rendezvous mission. The difference between the rendezvous mission and the rendezvous evalu-

tion mission will be discussed in the rendezvous evaluation pod portion of Section VIII.

The Rendezvous Radar System is capable of acquiring lOck-on when the target vehicle is within 180 nautical miles of the Gemini and is within 8.5 degrees of the radar boresight axis. The angular acquisition capability increases to 25

degrees relative to the radar boresight when the range decreases to within 130 nautical miles. The radar provides bi-level, analog, and digital outputs for

use during the catch-up and rendezvous portion of the Gemini flight (Figure 8-66). The Gemini crew is provided with visual indications of radar lock-on and Co_and

8-235
OONP'IOIENlrlAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

,=..oJcT
DIPOLE ARRAY

LOCK (
ON R R AZ EL

ANALOGo "_

OUT

, Pi2L:21 S
RADAR DATA READY READOUT _ R E NDEZVOUS RADAR INTERROGRATO8 1528 MC 1428 MC RADAR TRANSPONDER PRIMARY 91'_ POWER

COMMANDEL_ R, AZ,

..__j

_

PRIMARY POWER

t

HOLD-OFF SIGNAL

_L
SPIRAL

RADAR

TRANSPONDER

I.

TRANSMITSA

]-USEC

1528MC

PULSE ATAPRF

OF 250PPS. EXTRACTS RANGE r FROM EACH PULSE. REPRESENTING

I.

2. RECEIVES THE 6-USEC AZIMUTH,AND 3.

TRANSPONDER

REPLY AND

RECEIVES THE INTERROGATING 1528-MC I-USEC PULSES FROM THE RADAR; DELAYS 2-USEC AND TRANSMITS A 6-USEC PULSE AT A FREQUENCY OF 1428MC FOR EACH PULSE RECEIVED.

ELEVATION ANGLE

iNFORMATION

PROVIDES ANALOG OU'IrPUTS TO THE INDICATORS RANGEr RANGE RATE, AZiMUTH, AND ELEVATION.

4.

PROVIDES BINARY DIGITAL OUTPUTS REPRESENTING RANGE,AZIMUTH, AND ELEVATION ANGLES TO THE COMPUTER.ON COMMANO.

Figure

8-66

Basic

Functions

of Rendezvous

Radar

System

8-236 CONFIDENTIAL

(;ONImlDEENTIAL

PROJECT%EM,
Link message acceptance.

,

Analog indications of the target vehicle range and

differential velocity are presented on the Range and Range Rate Indicator. Analog indications of the elevation and azimuth position of the target vehicle,with respect to the Gemini,are presented on the flight director indicators. indications of range, elevation, and az_,th calculating the corrective thrusts required Digital

are available to the com_uter for for the rendezvous maneuver.

The radar is contained within a pressurized module.

The module dimensions are

approximately 17 by 29 by 9 inches, the module area is l.8 cubic feet, and the weight is 72 pounds. Spacecraft The radar is installed in the small end of the Gemini and Recovery Section.

on the forward face of the Rendezvous

_

The radar antenna system consists of four spiral antennas, one uncovered transmit antenna and three covered receive antennas, mounted on the radar face plate. installed in the spacecraft, the radar is covered with the nose fairing for during the launch phase of the mission. When

thermal protection

The transponder

is contained within an unpressurized

module.

The module dimensions

are approximately

9 by 10 by 2_ inches, the module area is 1.25 cubic feet, and The transponder is installed in the Target Docking

the _eight is 3_ pounds. Adapter

of the target vehicle.

The transponder electronically

antenna system consists of one dipole and t_o spiral antennas connected by coaxial cables. The dipole antenna is mounted on

an extendable boom which is recessed until the extend command is given via the Digital Command System.
i

The spiral antennas are mounted flush with the skin of

the Target Docking Adapter and are mounted 180 degrees apart from each other.

8-237 CONFIDENTIAL

CONImlIDINTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

SEDR 300*

SYSTEM OPERATION RADAR
The rendezvous radar will, at the time of launch, for thermal be deenergized protection. and the radar plus

will be covered with

the nose fairing depress the

At staging

45 seconds the pilot will the nose fairing and

the JETT FAIRING radar.

switch, thereby

Jettisoning

exposing

During

the initial

portion

of the orbital

phase

the spacecraft w111 place

will _neuver

to

catch up with target range vehicle

the target

vehicle.

This mnneuver orbits.

the Gemini

and the at a

in co-planar,

circular

The Gemini

will be lagging

of appro_Imatel_ miles

125 nautical

miles

and closing

at a rate of approximately maneuver the Gemini

1.5 nautical crew will

per m_nute. radar

After

completing

the catch-up

initiate

tran_mlssion.

The radar breaker, switch,

is placed located

in the standby mode by switching breaker center

the RADAR _ panel, console,

circuit

on the rig_ht switch/circuit on the main instrument panel

to ON and the RADAR to STBY. Those A time switch

located

systems with which the radar delay to ON. of 60 seconds When turned

is interfaced

are _nergized

at this time.

is allowed

for warm up prior

to positioning

the RADAR

ON, the radar commences interrogation

transmission

at a frequency width

of 1528

megacycles.

The transmitted

signal has a pulse

of i microin spaceten 2 eleven,

second, a pulse repetition craft five, and twelve output six, seven, operate

rate of 250 pulses per and nine, while per second.

second for radars in spacecraft

eight,

those

at 240 pulses

The transmitter

has a peak power

of 1150 watts.

8-238
CONIWlOIENTIAI.

OONIFIDIENTIAL

TRANSPONDER The transponder will, at the time of launch, be deenergized dipole antenna will be retracted. and the extendable

After the target veBicle enters the orbital i

phase the transponder

is placed

in a standby condition i and the dipole antenna System. At this time the transponder is in A sufficient amplitude
I

is extended via the Digital Co,_nd

standby and is connected to the dipole antenna. is incorporated in the transponder,

detector

this circuit detects the initial pulses from The period 12 interrogate

the interrogate radar and enables the high voltage power supply. required for the transponder pulses or 50 milliseconds. to become operational is approximately

i
When the high voltage is energized the transponder is fully operational and will respond to the interroga;e pulses of the radar.

INTEGRATED

OPERATION high voltage power

The initial pulses of the radar will energize the transponder supply. Now energized, the transponder

responds to th_ radar at the interrogate From the transponder cause

pulse repetition the illumination

frequency.

The initial reply pulses

of the LOCK ON lamp.

The rendezvous

radar determines

the range to the trans x>nder by observing the and receipt of the reply pulse

events which occur between radar transmission from the transponder.

This period of time is co_mence_ by the time zero pulse, with the leading edge of the radar trans-

a pulse which occurs simultaneously mission, reply.

and is terminated by the receiver video pulse!, the detected transponder The radar determines analog range by the initi stion of a ramp voltage The ramp voltage continues until stopped by the

with the time zero pulse.

8-Z39
CONIBIOINTIAL.

CONFIDtNTIAL

PROJECT
[__

GEMINI

SEDR300

leading

edge of the transponder dc voltage to obtain

reply

pulse.

The ramp voltage to the range. The radar

is peak detected pulses and range

and the resultant are differentiated rate voltages of a voltage digital which

is proportional the range rate.

Succeeding

analog range

are provided divider,

to the range and range for telemetry

rate meter

and are, by means

utilized

purposes.

The radar measures clock pulses

range by counting

the number gate.

of 50 megacycle The digital

computer

occur during

the range

data is stored

in the shift

register

for transmission

to the computer.

The rendezvous

radar

determines

the angular

position

of the target

vehicle

to

the Gemini by observing reference antenna

the phase difference

of the rf received

at the Each

to the rf received rotate

at each of the _wo angle the incoming phase

antennas.

of the two angle antennas The amount result of antenna

to nullify

difference. to achieve this

rotation,

from a zero position, error. An

required

corresponds

directly

to the position used to provide shafts. indicator

induction

potentlometer is

and a Gray Binary Encoder, connected provided group.

analog and digital The analog angle needles

intelligence, is

_o each of the antenna to the flight director

information

of the attitude to serial binary

display and stored

The Gray binary

information

is converted

in the shift register

for transmission

to the computer.

The radar digital register

range and angle data is stored in the shift register. of three readings which are continuously updated

The so

stores a series the latest

as to indicate to indicate

information.

The computer The radar

sends a radar data pulse after receiving

a request

for radar information. obtains three complete

shift register, readouts

the radar data pulse,

and discontinues

8-21_0
CONfflDINTIAI..

CONFIDENTIAL

updating the information.

The radar now transmits a data ready pulse.

The com-

puter, upon detecting that the radar data is ready, transmits a series of three bursts of 500 kc pulses to shift the radar data into the computer. this time returns to the state of continuous data updating. The radar at

CO_4AND _

OPERATION

The radar is utilized during the rendezvous maneuver with the target vehicle as a carrier for the co.m_nd link information. system refer to the c_aand For information concerning this The operation of the

llnk portion of Section VIII.

radar, as a carrier, is explained herein.

The C_d

Link System, when energized, d/sables the radar pulse repetition

frequency generator and interconnects the radar and the Time Reference System. The radar now operates at a pulse repetition rate of 256 pulses per second. radar transmits data by pulse position aodulation. The

The modulation is controlled The normal pulse repetition

by a portion of the Command Dink System, the encoder.

time of 3900 _Icroseconds is indicative of a zero; a one is transmitted by lengthening this time to 3915.2 microseconds.

The transponder received information is provided to the sub-bit detector, a portion of the C_nd Link System. The sub-bit detector converts the pulse

position modulation to binary form and sends the message to the _arget vehicle progra-w,er. The proEr-ww, verifies that an acceptable message is received and er provides a message acceptance pulse to the transponder. The message acceptance

pulse, when received by the transponder, causes the transponder transmitted pulse to lengthen from 6 to i0 microseconds and remain in this condition for three

8-241 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
i I j 256 PPS TiME |

GEMINI
TRANSMITTING SPIRAL

I i SY_EM
250 PPS ON S/C 5 THRU P REFERENCE rum] I 1-USEC PULSES 1150 WT , FK.

1240 pS P ONS/C to,11,_,12

I

MULTI. I

-

; MODUaTOR
<

_,

TO RANGE START INPUTS ANALOG AND DIGITAL

J DELAy MULTI 2"_sEcJ
SPIRAL SPIRAL

AZ SPIRAL

ELEVATION _ jv I :> SWITCHING ANTENNA ( - ! I

REFERENCE SWITCH DITHER

'l t
I

J'

I T

,L EL ZERO DRIVE ¥

'
! I _

i

L.O.

STOP

RP
RCVR

I

AZ SERVO MOTOR

:

r

AZ SERVO AMPLIFIER

I
i
VIDEO J

EL SERVO AMPLIFIER

1
ENCODER DEMOD,

T
DEMOD.

I
EL GATE l

I ELSERVO I
MOTOR

I
i I
l

ENCODER

I

GEN

'
I
] AZ INDUCTION POTENTIOMETER -TO FLIGHT DIRECTOR

AZGATE
AZ BOXCAR

:TI
EL BOXCAR

EL. INDUCTION POTENTIOMETER

TARGET VERIFICATION

_

DETECTOR J AZ OFF-ZERO J AZ ZERO DRIVE 400 CPS REF.

SWITC H AZ PREACQ. _ PREACQ. LOOP DISABLE

SWHC H EL PREACQ

DETECTOR EL OFF-ZERO

TO R/_
METER R_ AZ_ EL TO COMPUTER SHIFT REGISTER DIGITAL RANGE E STOP ANALOG RANGE

RANGE START FROM RADAR 2-USEC MULTI

TRANSPONDER

2 USEC DELAy

RECEIVER

)

ANTENNA SELECT SWITCH

. SPIRALS

I
AMPLITUDE DETECTOR )

I

l

C'RCO_TOR iTr
ENABLE MODULATOR ) TRANSMITTER 1428 ME

k Ill
Diagram

>

SWITC HING

?

Figure

8-67

Rendezvous

Radar 8-242

System

Block

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMI
I

I

tranmnissions.

The radar detects the additional pulse width and effects

the illumination of the Message Acceptance (P_qGACPT) lamp.

The previously described system operation affects onl_ the radar pulse repetition frequency. This operation results in no alteration or inter-

ruption to the radar system.

SYSTEM UNITS RADAR MO_UIATOR AND TRANSMUTER When the RADAR switch is in the STBY position a hold Off signal is applied to i the high voltage portion of the radar power supply to iprevent it from producing ii the high voltage required by the transmitter tube. When the pilot places the

RADAR switch to the ON position, (Figure 8-67) the hold off signal is removed, i the 1650 volts dc is produced and applied to the transmitter tube, and the radar co._ences transmitting in the search mode. In the search mode the pulse I repetition frequency trigger multivibrator oscillates fat 250 cycles per second for radars on spacecraft five, six, seven, eight and nine, while on spacecraft ten, eleven, and twelve the trigger _Lltivibrator oscillates at 240 cycles per second, generat_-E a square wave which is used to triter the modulator.

The mod_,latoroutput is a series of one m_crosecond positive pulses which tri_ers the transmitter tu_e. The tranm_tter tube Output is a 1528 megacycle,

i microsecond_ 1150 watt pulse at a repetition rate e(_al to the output of the pulse repetition frequency trigger umltivlbrator. pulse is coupled to the tranm_ _tting _ spiral Th, tranm_tter ante _a and radiated outlout in order

to interrogate the transponder.

8-2_5
CONFIDENTIAL

.-_

.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

,, ,__

PROJECT

GEMINI

/ / / I \ \ \

/

/

/

\

X \

\ \ \

'_o /

I / / /

k \

\

/

/

/

.\
I

ll,,//

/

\\

..//_/ ! / I I I \ \ \ / /

x ", \\

\ \ \ \ i / / / /
I

/

-;

\

%

N

/

/

/

Figure

8-68

Transponder

Antenna

System

Coverage

8-244 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJNI
SEDR 300

TRANSPONDER

ANTENNA utilizes two antenna antennas. systems, The (Figure 8-68) a dipole antenna

The transponder

array and two dual spiral to the transponder located enters

selected switch.

antenna

system

is connected array is

by an antenna

select

The dipole until after

antenna

on an extendable the orbit phase

boom which

is retracted

the target are located

vehicle on either of

of the mission. Adapter

The spiral antennas

side of the Target the adapter (Figure

Docking 8-65).

and are mounted

flush with

the surface

The dual transponder about the target

antenna

systems

are designed

to provide

spherical

coverage in

vehicle.

The dipole will provide pattern

omnidirectional shaped
i

coverage the dipole

the horizontal located is plus gain

plane.

The dipole

is doughnut

with

in the center.

The beam width

considered

in any horizontal The array

direction

or minus 25 degrees

at the half power

points.

has a minimum the spirals

of S.5 db.

In order to provide

effectively

spherical !

coverage

will operate width is plus

in the space above or minus

and below

the dipole _attern. gain of each

The spiral beam spiral is 7.5 db.

35 degrees

and the minimum

The

initial

condition

of the transponder

will be with ithe internal ldisconnected.

circuitry The dipole

connected

to the dipole

array and the spiral antennas coverage

array is selected area. The initial

since this provides radar pulses

received turns

for the anticipated acquisition i by the transponder enables the sufficient voltage i required for transadequate

amplitude mitter

detector.

The detector

on the high

operation, Should

thereafter the signal

it monitors level

the received isignal to ensure below

strength. causes greater

decrease

a s!0ecific level the detector antenna system in search of

the transponder strength.

to switch to the opposite

8-245 CONFIDENTIAL

_._-_ _

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

P. J c o o •
f-AND LOAD

J

SW._ I ERGMAZ-0LANT.
I

I
))J

RADARONLY

I

CIRCULATOF_

I

H¥::,:_W, TCH ._FRO_H_0R,OS I_
--J
) 1528MC TO BANDPASS FILTER CIRCULATOR J

I

TRANSPONDER ONLY

J

FROM XMTR, SELECT . _ FROM ANT. SWITCH DRIVER

DIPOLE

FILTER

CONTROLLED ATTENUATOR

MIXER-PREAMP

OSCILLATOR

l
SIG NAL DETECTOR AMP AND DETECTOR AMPLIFLER VARACTOR AND SWEEP VERIF, OR STOP SWEEP

I

1

TGT.

GATE SELECTOR

AND DETECTOR

AMPLWtER

I I-USEC GATE

AND GATE

l 11 1 _i
CIRCUITS AMP AND DETECTOR SELECTOR (REFERTO FIGURE 8-32) VIDEO T SIGNAL

DELAY

LIMtTER

Figure

8-69 Radar/Transponder

Receiver

Block

Diagram

l

8-246 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT
SUFFICT_T AMPLXItr_
The signal from Detector is in the transponder (SAD). stan_by_ During the Video the circuit initial the is applied to the system the Sufficient when the initial it places While the the

Ampli%m_le transponder

portion!of antenna pulses

mission, for

SAD monitors

interrogate

pulse

from the radar.

When the first

are received

the transponder transponder decreases

in the transmit

mode by activating

th_ high voltage. signal

is operating below

the SAD monitors level

the received

strength; system

if it in order the SAD

a specific signal

it selects Should

the opposite

antenna

to seek greater causes

strength.

the interrogate one

signal be lost, system

the transponder

to continually

cycle from

mtenna

to the other

until lock-on

re-occurs.

TRANSPC_R

CIRCULATOR
circulator (Figure 8-67) is a transmit/receive to operate device which The tube

The transponder permits

the receiver provides

and transmitter a low attenuation

by the same antenna.

circulator

path for the rf from the transmitter path

to the antenna The dlrectivity blocking

and a low attenuation of the circulator

from the antenna to the receiver. i provides a high attenuation and enables the

of the main

bang fr_n the receiver.

R_C_XV_R
The transponder most The respects. receiver and radar receivers (Figure 8-69) arei practically identical in

There are some differences,

principally way.

in the input

circuit. in the from

will he explained

in the fo11_wing first, circuits conclude

;The difference

input circuitry the bandpass and aut_atic

will be discussed to the video control will

then the portion output.

of the receiver frequency

filter gain

Automatic

control

the discussion

of the receiver.

8-24.7 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJEEMINI
Radar Figure Receiver Input spiral As will the radar antennas and the manner later in which

8-67 shows the three receiving to the receiver. system paragraph, at a time

the rf is connected receiving antenna

be discussed compares

in the radar on

phese

relationships Because

two receiving compares phase

antenn-s

during

each return

pulse.

the radar circuits in the

relationships

while

the transponder compared

does not, the input in phase are combined

are different. hybrid (Figure

The two rf signals being 8-69). The signal path the voltage

of the combined controlled

rf is through

the circula-

tor, the bandpass The load associated controlled attenuator

filter, with

attenuator

and into the mixer. because of the voltage

the radar circulator

is required

attenuator. below, where

(Refer to the discussion its operation

of the voltage

controlled The _

in both receivers switch

is explained. )

load associated discussion.

with the radar hybrid

is explained

in the gate generator

Transponder As Figure

Receiver 8-69

Input spirals are connected toward to a hybrid. Since only one on The

shows, both

spiral at a time will be directed either signal one will pass through is passed through

the radar,

the signal received select filter, switch.

the hybrid

to the antenna the bandpass

the circulator,

and the voltage-

controlled hybrid

attenuator

to the mixer. for equal power

The loads associated division

with the transponder If neither spiral

are required toward

in the hybrid. be received

was directed passed

the radar,

the signal would switch

on the dipole, in the same way

through

the antenna

select

and on to the mixer

as was described

for the spiral.

8-248
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMI

I

B_udpass Filters
The bandpass filters in the transponder they are tuned and the radar iare identical; are different i The radar Each filter however, is tuned

the frequencies at the transmit magacycles provide main

to which frequency

of the other unit. is tuned

is tuned

to 1428 filters

and the transponder

to 1528 megaclvcles. and help keep
i

These

the required

interference

rejection

the transmitter

bang

out of the receiver.

Voltage-_ontrolled Attenuators

The voltagecontrolledttenuators n the radarand the transponder re identla i a ;
cal. The purpose the mixer of the attenuator input to a minus ranges. is to prevent 12 _ msY4_,m. saturation _e of the m!_er by holding attenuator is inoperative and the

at far and middle power a _a_n automatic

Operation

commences

as thei range

decreases

at the receiver attenuation gain control

increases. of 2It dh. voltage

The attenuator The attenuation which varies

is a! solid-state is controlled

device with

by a delayed

from 0 to! minus

6 volts.

The voltage-controlled In the input, radar, the

attenuator mismatch

produces tends

attenuation _o reflecti

by impedance the wave hack

mismatching. to the of the the

i_pedance

which is the eirovlator. described the sam earlier, _y

Due to the directional the reflected The pa_h

c_racteristic up

circulator circulator through wave the is radar

wave will! not back that thel reflected
!

through

it m_ters. _ermiuatas becoming waves

wave takes

the circulator prevented because froa

in a load resistance; a standing could upset wave. This

thus

the reflected is the taken angular in

precaution an,_ render

standing

stability

measurements

inaccurate.

8-249
OONWIDEIMT_I_

OONFIOUNTIAL

SEOn soo

The voX_e-controXled manner; effective, measurements however,

attenuator standing mixer waves is

in the transponder are not avoided. _

functions Newer the Since _ves less,

in a s_/_r attentmtion is

and the

pre_ented transponder

saturating. the standing

no critical produce no

are made in the

_m_avorable effects.

Automatic _reQuency Control (AFC) The automatic frequency control circuit in the transponder and radar is comprised of the local oscillator, the m_xer preamplifier, the narrow band amplifiers and detector, the amplifier limiter, the discr4m_nator _ varactor and sweep circuit (Figure 8-69). gate, and the AFC

The varactor, a solid-state voltageA 0.2 cycle

controlled variable capacitor, is the heart of the AFC circuit.

per second sweep voltage is applied to the varactor when the receiver is turned on. This voltage causes the local oscillator frequency to vary over a 1-mega-

cycle band about its operating frequency.

In the transponder, when the 1528 megacycle interrogation pulse is received, it is applied to the mixer. Here the 1557.5 to 1558.5 megacycle output of the

local oscillator beats with it, and the 30 megacycle Intermediate Frequency (IF) is prodnced. The IF is applied to the wide band and narrow band amplifiers. The

signal selector gate initially selects the narrow band output since it is larger. Five pulses in 16 milliseconds produce the stop sweep pulse which ends the local osc_11-tor sweeping. crlw_-ator. This prepares the varactor to be controlled by the disIf

The narrow band signal is amplified, limited, and discriminated.

the video exceeds the predetermined threshold, a I microsecond pulse is supplied which opens the discriminator gate and allows the discr_,_nator output to control

8-250
CONFIDENTIAL

.s- _-_.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

___'

PROJECT

GEMINI
AFC AZIMUTH

8ANGEL"_

//_

F

ELEVATION

1 USEC

2 USEC

2 USEC

I USEC

i

SWITCH

SWITCH

SWITCH AND STUBS

i

RECEIVED 6 USEC PULSETIME SHARING

AND

LOAD

HYBRID

AND

LOAD

FILTER

CONTROLLED ATTENUATOR

t
DITHER MULTI _ RANGE THRESHOLD _ RECEIVER

GATE GENERATOR

F

AND MULTI

t

i /'x.

i

FROM DELAy

TOAFC VARACTOR (I USEC GATE)

I USEC MULTI

2 USBC MULTI

2 USEC MULTI

SWITCH DRIVER

H
"OR" GATE

ir
I I AZ RF EL RF J

DRIVER

DRIVER

I

j

-

I

SWITCH

SWIICH

i Figure 8-70 Radar RF Switching and Return Pu kseTime Sharing
8-251 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

the varactor.

The dlscr_nator There

increases

the frequency

if it is low, decreases when the IF is

it if it is high. exactly

is no output

from the discriminator

30 megacycles.

In the radar, when to i_58.5 megacycle 48 milliseconds the varactor discriminator

the 1428 megacycle

return

pulse

is received, with it.

the 1457.5 Twelve pulses in stops the

output from the oscillator to produce

beats

are required

the target multivibrator

verification (Figure to control

pulse which produces

sweep.

The I microsecond enables

8-70)

gate which

the discriminator

the varactor.

The IF is maintained

to 30 megacycles.

_utcmatic Receiver cally

Gain gain

Control

(AGC) must be adjusted Figure by noise automati-

_,

in both the radar and the transponder a wide range of input channels

to acco_uodate

signal levels. are controlled

8-71 shows levels, input

how the narrow signals_ wide band the higher have

and the wide band

and range. channel. output

The narrow band Since the signal

channel selector

has 14 db higher gate (Figure

gain than the select will by the control

8-69) will ban_

to operate

the video ranges.

circuits,

the narrow

circuit

control

at the distant

Narrow When

band gain will be controlled band signal assumes

narrow

band noise feedback

voltage.

the narrow

of the narrow nal detector the narrow

band gain_ the outputs are both applied

of the narrow band selector.

noise

detector

and sig-

to the AGC

The AGC

selector

controls with the the

band gain.

The wide band

signal has also been increasing As the side-_and selector selector

input signals predeterm_-ed control.

and the decreasing level,

range.

signal reaches

it is selecte_

5y the signal to the AGC

gate and assumes along with the

The wide band

signal applied

8-252 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

%_-

PROJECT

GEMINI

f

/

/

/

//

/
÷o/
"_'_ 1o-

/ / / / / / /
/ / .... J

o / //,_/7 _ 2540--_

/
I /

/

/

I I %
//I

'

=E

_
I00 -

-_ ? _z
16o-

II // / ( I
I

z

='

250 --

\
"%,_,..'_,, ;71 I I

L
, I
o

RELATIVE OUTPUT SIGNAL IN DB

Figure 8-71 Receiver Operation
8-253 CONFIDENTIAL

Versus Range

CONFIDENTIAL

PRO,JECT

GEMINI

narrow

band noise

detector

output

further

reduces

narrow

band gain

and narrow

band noise.

As range continues to diminish and input signal to increase, a

greater AGO voltage is developed to hold the signal at the predetermined level. The AGC delay is overc_ne and AGC is applied to the voltage-controlled attenuator and the mixer preamplifier at near range. AGC in these receivers is capable

of malntalnlng a constant output level with input signals weaker than -83.3 at 160 nautical miles to signals of +12 d1_nat a range of 20 feet.

MOU/LATOR AND TRAN_ The transponder 1_nk. ponder A hold power transmit_er off supply signal to is is placed to in the the standby mode by the portion high voltage uhf of the command transby

applied it

high

voltage the

prevent

from producing

required

the transmitter tube.

The initial interrogate pulses from the radar surpass

the threshold of the sufficient s_plltude detector and cause the renoval of the hold off signal. The 15_0 volts _c is produced when the signal is removed transmitting. In the transit mode the inter-

and the transmitter c_ences

rogate pulse from the radar is received at the transponder, delayed for 2 microseconds, and used to trigger the modulator. The modulator output is a The trans-

6 microsecond positive pulse which triggers the transmitter tube.

mitter output is a IM28 megacycle, 6 microsecond_ i150 watt pulse at the interrogate pulse repetition frequency. The transmitter output pulse is

coupled through an rf switch to either the pair of spiral antennas or the dipole ante-_--array and radiated.

8-25_,
CON FIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMI

I_CEIV_G A_tenna S_stem

AI_J_NA SYST_ Description

The radar receiving antenna system consists of three dual spiral antennas 6.5

i
inches in d/ameter. The receiving antennas, along with the transmitting antenna, The three receiving antennas form a square array spaced 0.82 wave length apart. are:

the azimuth antenna, the elevation antenna, andlthe reference antenna.

The azimuth and elevation antennas are rotatable and @re pressurized to aid i lubrication in the space environment. They are returned to zero rotation by a preacqulsltlon loop. The reference antenna and the itransmitting antenn- do The spirals are ralsed about a quarter

not rotate and are not pressurized.

wave length (2-1/8 inches) above the radar face plate i and have a circumference of 2._ wave lengths (20.5 inches). 75 ohms. Their characteristic impedance is
i

The receiving antennas are operated in pair_, using the reference The radar

ant_--a as the common element, to measure the target bearing angle. uses time sharing of the 6_nlcrosecond return pulse,

nterferometer measurement

techniques, an_ phase dither to obtain complete tracking information.

Azimuth

and Elevation

Antenna

Zeroin_

The amount that the azimuth and/or elevation antenna is rotated is the measure

of target position. When the radar is tracking a ta_eti and these antennas are following the target's changing position, lock on maylbe Inte_=_pted. When this
II

happens_ it is desirable to return the antennas to zero rotation. l

A circuit

called the preacquisltion loop is provided to do this iwhen the target pulse
I

is not being received.

The loop consists of the preaCquisition switch, a _00 l

cps reference voltage, output from the induction potentiemeters , a detector, the servo amplifiers, and the servo motors. I

8-255
CONFIDENTIAL
;

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI
$EDR 300

The loop

compares

the

output

of the

Induction

potentiometer

with

a _00 cps

reference voltase.

If the antenna is off zero, an error voltage is produced The error voltage drives the servo amplifier which As the rotation -n_le _ecreases, so does output of

in the detector output. turns the servo motor.

the indlctlon potentiometer; and when the potentlometer output is zero the error voltage and the rotatio_ angle are zero. As soo_ as lock on is estab-

lished, this loop is disabled by the target verification signal.

There is a reason why the transponder transmits a 6 microsecond pulse in reply to 1-mlcrosecond interrogation pulse. If only range data and automatic frequency

control voltages were obtained from the pulse a eimillar I microsecond pulse would _e wide enough; _,t the azimuth and elevation angle of the target must be obtained from the s_ne pulse. The interfer_neter technique of angular measure-

ment (which will be described later) required that two antennas in the horizontel plane receive the return signal. The signal on the two horizontal antennas

must _e present for an interval long enough to compare their phase relationship. Next 2 two antennas in the vertical plane must receive components of the return signal lo=8 enou6h to compare their phase relationship. In this system, the For this reason

optlmum interval for the phase comparison is 2 microseconds. the transponder sends hack a 6-microsecond pulse.

_Ise

D1vlslon
(Figure

The return pulse must be divided into 3 parts each time it is received. 8-70).

The first part_ one microsecond, will be used for range measurement frequency control of the local osc_11ator and receiver inter-

and aut_atlc

8-256 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

mediate frequency.

The second part will be used for azimuth angular measurement, measurement. The first

and the third part will be used for elevation an_arl

interval will be made i microsecond; the second and third, 2 microseconds each. These intervals add up to 5 microseconds; the remaini_ used. i microsecond is not

GATE GENERATOR The key circuit which controls pulse divisionj switching and time sharing is the gate generator. Figure 8-70 illustrates how the gates which perform the To understand the iswitchingthat is done,

required switching are generated.

the gates that are generated and used, and how the return pulse time is shared, it is necessary to know the static conditions before _he pulse is returned, i the return signal path, and the sequence in which the gates and switches operate.

Static Conditions _efore Arrival of Return While

pulse from _he transponder, the
i

the radar is waiting for the return pulse

following conditions prevail" and the hybrid switch are open.

The azimuth RF switch,!the elevation RF switch,

i

The open az_--Ithand elevation switches pre!

vent rf, which arrives on these antennas, from being iconnectedto the hybrid and receiver. Tlr_sthis rf cannot "be mt'sred with the !referenceantenna rf
I

until the proper gate voltage is applied. hybrid load dlsconnec_.edfrom the hybrid. of its two positions. multtvibrator) are Alt

The open hybrid=switch keeps the I The dlthe_ switch is closed in one
Ii

one-kick

of the multlvibrators (exCept the dither bistable i multtvibrators, and in the quiescent state. They the_ in uccession.

are waiting for the return pulse to tri_er

8- 57
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL.

PROJEC'-G-EMINI

Return

Signal

Path antenna is the only receiving ante_ne initially connected to

The reference

receive the return pulse.

Following the ar_;owsfrom the reference antenna to

the input to the gate generator on Figure 8-70, the signal flow is as follows. The 6-microsecond pulse enters the reference antenna and flows through the dither switch and selected stub, the hybrid, the circulator, the bandpass filter, the voltage-controlled atenuator, and the receiver, and enters the gate generator.

Gate and Switching Sequence When the transponder pulse arrives at the antenna system, it enters the reference antenna and follows the described path to the gate generator. Here, it is

applied as a 6-microsecond video pulse to the range threshold and multivibrator. If the pulse amplitude is large enough, the leading edge of the video pulse triggers the multivibrator. Then the whole process of gating and switching begins.

Range

Threshold

Multivibrator

Functions This

The on-period of the range threshold multivibrator is 12 microseconds.

threshold multivibrator has four functions : First, the leading edge of this 12 microsecond pulse terminates the range measurement in both the digital and analog range circuits. Second, five of these pulses are integrated by the target veriThe target verification

fication circuit to produce the target verification signal.

signal stops the AFC sweep (Figure 8-69), and disables the preacquisition loop. Third, the leading edge of the threshold multivibrator output has no effect on the dither bistable multivibrator. The dither multivibrator and switch remain locked

in position throughout the return pulse.

Fourth, the one-microsecond multivibrator

is triggered by the leading edge of the threshold multivibrator output.

8-258
CONFIDENTIAL.

_ONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
_@_

GEMINI

SEDR 300

One-Microsecond

Multivibrator

Functions First, it gates the disThis gate permits the

The l-microsecond multivibrator has three functions: criminator output into the AFC varactor (Figure 8-69).

output of the discriminator to continually correct the local oscillator frequency to 1458 megacycles. Second, the 1-microsecond gate is applied to the azimuth and The gate dumps the charges built up Third, the trailing

elevation boxcar detectors simultaneously.

in these detectors during the preceding sampling interval.

edge of the l-microsecond gate triggers the R-microsecond multivibrator. (Figure 8-70)

Azimuth

Two-Microsecond

Multivibrator

Functions is the azimuth

The R-microsecond gate. driver.

pulse generated by the azimuth multivibrator

This gate performs five functions :

First it excites the azimuth rf switch The switch connects the azimuth

The driver closes the azimuth rf switch.

antenna to the hybrid (Figure 8-70).

Second, the gate enters the hybrid or The driver closes the hybrid switch.

gate and excites the hybrid switch driver.

The switch connects the load during the azimuth angle measurement. flattens the line and prevents ments. standing waves from producing

This load

erratic measure-

Third, the gate permits the video received during this interval to The

develop a charge voltage in the azimuth boxcar detector (Figure 8-72). charge voltage is later demodulated azimuth servo motor. is opened. the trailing multivibrator. to provide

the control voltage for the

Fourth, when the azimuth gate ends, the azimuth rf switch Fifth,

The switch disconnects the azimuth antenna (Figure 8-70). edge of the azimuth gate triggers

the elevation R-microsecond

8-259
CONFIDENTIAL

._ _=__

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

RETURN PULSE FROM TRANSPONDER ANTENNA

A

I

X

_'\\

ANTENNA O AZIMUTH _'_

ANTENNA

REFERENCE

"[ I

I I I

AND ROTARY JOINT AZ RF SWITCH

AND [

STUBS H

DITHER SWITCH

DIGITAL ENCODER

I l

DRIVE MOTOR

i

(A & B)

± 15VDC

1

RECEIVER

]

--_

L
INDUCTION POTENTIOMETER SERVO CONTROL AMPLIFIER VIDEO GATE AND BOX CAR DETECTOR DRIVE AND ± REF. GEN. REGISTER ULAIOB

_\ \ 0 I_ L_ ,.._"GET iiii

//

F

ELEVATION I

" IA + B I +B I -R ! I

RANGE

,

OFF BORESIGHT

Ist

PULSE

ALTERNATE PULSE

TARGET ON BORESIGHT

I.)

DETECTOR OUTPUT

2.)

RECEIVER6 USEC PULSE TIME SHARING

3.)

OUTPUT OF HYBRID WITH DITHER (TARGET ON BORESIGHT)

Figure

8-72

Interferometer

Measurement 8-260

of Target

Angle

CONFIDENTIAL

CONIFIOtNTIAL

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI

SEDR 300

ELEVATION TWO-MICROSECOND _LTIVIBRATOR

FUNCTIONS It performs five

The

output of the multivibrator is the elevation gate i

functions: hybrid.

First, it keeps the hybrid switch closed and the load applied to the

Second, it closes the elevation rf switch and connects the elevation Third, it permits the video received during this interval This voltage charge is later demodulated Fourth, the end of

antenna to the hybrid.

to charge the elevation boxcar detector.

to become the control voltage for the elevation servo motor.

the azimuth gate opens the elevation rf switch and disconnects the elevation antenna. Fifth, the end of the gate also ends the drive to the hybrid switch the hybrid load.

and disconnects

DIT_I_ BISTABLE MULT_TOR

FUNCTION to change the position of

The dither bistable multivibrator has one function: the double-pole double-throw dither switch.

The dither multivibrator is insensi-

tive to the leading edge of the 12-microsecond threshold multivibrator pulse. However, the trailing edge of this pulse will trigger lthe dither multivibrator. Hence, the dither switch and stub are changed 6 m_croSeconds after every return pulse ends.

SPIRAL _

IN AN_

MEASUREMENT of Am_ar Displacement

Interferometer'Meas_ement

The method of measuring angular displacement employed fin the Rendezvous Radar System uses rf waves from a point source, the operating transponder antenna (Figure 8-72). These waves are received simultaneously by two of the three The length of the rf path

spiral receiving antennas of the Rendezvous Radar.

to the reference antenna is compared first with the length to the azimuth antenna, then with the length to the elevation antenna. 8-261 The transmission lines

CONFiDENT'A"

CONFIDINTIAI-

from the three receiv4_n_antennas are wired so that rf voltage induced in the azimuth and elevation antennas will be 180 degrees out of phase with rf voltage induced in the reference antenua, if the transponder is on the radar boresight axis. The sum of two co_ared voltages will be zero. If, however, the trans-

ponder is off the boresight axis, in azimuth for instance, the path lengths to the reference antenna and to the azimuth antenna will be different. There-

fore, the phase difference between the RF voltage induced in the two antennas will not be 180 degrees. (or a n11_I as before. ) As a result, there will not be complete cancellation

A voltage proportional to the displacement from the This voltage is called the error voltage.

boresight axis will result.

_Iral

Rotation

_ulls _rror Volts_e

The method used to _111 out the error volta@e constitutes the interferometer method of angular measur_nent. spiral antenna. This method depends upon a pe_,3_arlty of the

The spiral antenna shifts the phase of the rf voltage induced Therefore, the 180-degree phase

in it as it is rotated about its center.

difference hetweeu the azimuth and reference antennas can be obtained by rotating the az_--,thantenna. the n,,11is pr_lo_Ll The amount of azimuth anten-a rotation required to get to the target displacelent in a_th. If the error

voltage is used to drive a motor which rotates the azimuth antenna, then when the null is reached, the error voltage is zero, and the motor stops rotating. The antenna also stops rotating. If a sens_n5 device is put on the azimuth

antenna which counts the -_-ular rollsof rotation or generates a voltage proportional to the rotation, a digital or analog measure of the target's angular displacement in azimuth from boreslght is provided. is what Is done. Figure 8-72 shows that this

Displacement in elevation is measured in a s_m_lar manner.

8-Z6_

CONFIDENTIAL.

PROJECT

QEMII
i

SEDR 300

DTq'm_ _r_
Interferometer ferometer measurement of target angle does not yield
I

direction

data.

Inter-

measurement

tells how much To establish

the target target

is o: :f the boresight dither

axis but

not _n which

direction.

dlrecti_m,

is added.

DitherSensesAn_r
The phase dither and are two different in

Direction
contains of two sln@le-pole, line, between is with double throw diode switches switches

circuit lengths the

transmission line diode

callq:d the

stubs.

The diode antenna

installed

transmission of the

r,:ference with stub.

and the short stub transeach

hybrid.

One position

switches

assoc:_ted the long

the

of transmission fponder pulses

line, the other are received

position

Successive

in alternate received,

positions

of three

switches.

After

transponder changed.

pulse has been Signals

the positions

of the dither

switches

are

from the target

on the pilot's

left

or from below the short

the boreSignals

sight axis are reinforced from the target

by the long right

stub, weskenedlby or above stub. these

stub.

on the pilot's

the boresight Signals signals signal along

axis are reinforced the axis are equal out to zero. position Since of

by the short stub, weakened on both target stubs but oppositely position

by the long polarized; with

average

is associated dither
O

a relnforced target

in a given

the dither

switches,

can detect

directions.

• During

the catch-up

phase,

the closing

range

rate ini feet per second may be value of the range closing but in

equal to or less than feet. range This means,

the square

root of the numerical that at

for instance,

300,000 feet, the maximum
feet, 173.2

rate is 547 feet per second;

at 30,000

feet per second;

8-263
CONFIDENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

_-._'_

_

PROJECT

GEMINI

30V -

2or -

10V -

3,000 FT 6.1 USEC

30,000 FT 6,[ USEC RANGE IN FEET RANGE SWEEP TiME IN MICROSECONDS

1/

300,000 FT 61OUSEC

Figure

8-73

Range/Range

Rate 8-264

Meter

and

Operating

Curve

CONFIDENTIAL

CONPlDENTIAL

__

PROJECT 300GEMINI SEDR
at 3,000 feet, 51;.7feet per second is maximum. The range and range rate

scales are arranged concentrically on the R/_ meter so that the range is on a radius directly adjacent to the maximum closing rate. !Figure 8-73) Hence, as I
!

jtoward zero, the closing long as the range rate needle precedes the range needle i I rate is not excessive. When the indicatln5 edges of the= needles coincide as the i needles move toward zero, the maximum tolerable clos_n5 irate is ind/cated. If the range needle precc_lesthe range rate needle toward Is excessively high. ero_ the clos_n_ rate

Vernier range rate is indicated in one foot-per-second increments from plus 5 to minus 5 feet per second on the scale located above center on the R_ meter.

The indicating needle for the vernier meter is usually _ff scale and out of sight until the spacecraft is within very near range of the target.

RANGE SW_m Compression

CIRCUIT and _xpansion of Meter Scales Maximum values

The range and range rate meter scales are clearly nonlinear. are compressed, minimum values are expanded.
J J

This is done because precision

indications of range and range rate become far more critical as the range to target closes.

Ra_e

Sweep Expansion and Compression

In order to ma_.e a current-operated meter indicate the irange and range rate with high accuracy, a special range sweep circuit is used (Figure 8-73)• The i rate of voltage change with time d_ring the first 6.1 microseconds of sweep is the most rapid. Thus the range indication from 0 to 3;000 feet is the most

8-_5
OONF|DEN'riAL

....

j

_

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECMINI
__ SEDR 300

expanded.

During the next .54.9microseconds of the sweep, the volta6e increased The range During

with time at about i/gth the rate of the first 6.0 microseconds.

indication from 3,000 to 30,000 feet is expanded to a reduced extent. the last _9

microseconds of the sweep, the voltage increases at 1/90th the The range between 30,000 and 300,000 feet Thus the near range is 9 times

rate of the first 6.1 microseconds.

is compressed into a small portion of the scale.

more sensitive than the middle range and 90 times more sensitive than the far range.

Range Measurement Range is measured by sampling the sweep voltage at a time coincident with the leading edge of the transponder return pulse. into adc The sampled voltage is stretched

voltage, and applied to the range meter winding.

Range Rate Measurement R_ge rate is a function of the difference in range voltages on successive This voltage difference is monitored, shaped and amplified

transponder pulses.

in a circuit controlled by the same logic that changes the range sweep slope. It is applied as a dc voltage to the range rate meter coil on the far and intermediate ranges, and to the vernier range rate meter coil on the near range.

DIGITAL RANGE COUNT__ _R

Range Gated Clock Pulse Count A high-speed digital counter counts lO-megacycle clock pulses during the range gate to generate the digital range count. (Figure 8-67 and 8-69). The clock

pulses are produced by a I0 megacycle crystal-controlled oscillator in the

8-265 CONFIDENTIAL

CONIFIDI[NTIAL SEDR300

PROJECT GEMINI
spacecraft edge of the radar. The range gate is This started 2 microseconds delay after the leading for by the

interrogating delay through

pulse.

2-microsecond The range

compensates

a s_m_lar leading

the transponder, pulse.

gate is closed

edge of the transponder

Relation

of Range to Clock Time equals Oo I microsecond or 50 feet of four 50 feet of radar range. digital of

One cycle at lO megacycles Digital counts range supplied

to the computer

is the average within

successive

of the range to the target. (whichever is larger)

Accuracies

or O.l percent

the range

are obtained

for ranges

up to 250 nautical

miles

RADAR POWER _ primar_ Primary source.

SUPPLY

Power Requirement power to operate the rendezvous radar is obtained 22 and from the spacecraft 30 volts de, Noise

Voltage

from this

source may vary between spacecraft power

and transients in this power.

produced

by various

equipment

will also be present

Filtering

of the primary

is essential.

Electrically available primary

operated

equipment

in the spacecraft requires

wil_ reduce

the voltage its

from the source. power v_Its_e

The radar

a means

of maintaining

at a high

and constant

level_

eVen though

source voltage

is reduced

considerably.

Input Filter
Unregulated filter

and Boost Regulator
primary power is applied to the radar A boost p_r supply input. An input of

removes

the noise and transients.

regulator

uses a portion

8-267
CONFIOINTIAI.

-_

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

136.5 VAC >

RECTIFIER

>

REGULATOR

> +I20VDC

AT 8 MA

RADAR

F_ER

PRIMARY POWER 22 to 30VDC

45. BVAC

-40VDC RECTIFIER

J

]

REGULATOR

_

-40VDC AT 75 MA

(UNiEO)

FILTER RECTIFIER FILTER REGULATOR ) _40VDC AT 80 MA

FILTER

REACTOR

BOOST REGULATOR

D_ - AC INVERT• 30.4VAC

RECTIFIER FILTER

REGULATOR

), +20VDC AT 184 MA

PROM CONTROL PANEL

--

LIMITER AND SWITCH TRANSISTORS

TRANSFORMER

RECTIFIER _6.3VDC FILTER

REGULATOR

) ¢6.3VDC

AF 1093 MA

l
H.V. INVERTER

3_.vAc
-6,3VDC RECTIFIER FILTER

_,
REGULATOR ' > -6.3VDC AT 1137 MA

H.V. ;('FORMER

24.9VAC "

RECTIFIER FILTER

REGULATOR

_ -20VDC

AT 237 MA

RECTIFIER DOUBLER FILTER

b' +ISVDC

360 MA FOR EACH VOLTAGE SEPARATELY BUT NOT

16VAC t

RECTIFIER FILTER -15VDC

_ I

-15V SIMULTANEOUSLY _' +1650VDC AT 0.5 MA

136,5VAC

)

RECTIFIER

REGULATOR

_ +12OVDC AT 8 MA

TRANSPONDER
SATURABLE REACTOR 45. 7VAC"

FILTER RECTIFIER FILTER REGULATOR _ -40VDC AT 40

_NVERT. DC-AC Aj j POWER 24.7VAC

)

RECTIFIER FILTER

REGULATOR

)

+20VDC AT 106 MA

• :kl% l BOOST

, I
J J

24.9VAC

_.

I

RECTIFIER FILTER

REGULATOR

I I
Block Diagrams

)-20VDC

AT227MA

9.2,vAc 2" VOC UNREG
HOLD-OFF SIGNAL FROM S.A, D, AND ENABLE CIRCUIT

h
12.6VAC_

_.3 RECPIE,ER J F'LPER
AND SWITCH TRANSISTORS _

REGU_TOR

>_.3VOC _ A,_206

DOUBLER

) _1200VDC AT3MA

)

/_

I NVERTER

X'FORMER

Pigure

8-74 Radar

and

Transponder 8-268

Power

Supply

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
:

SEDR300

the filtered pri_a_y

primary

power

to generate generated

a voltage depends

to add in series with on the difference

the

voltage.

The voltage

between The boost voltage output

31.7 volts dc (the boost regulator regulator generates 1.7 volts

output)

and the primary
i

voltage.

dc and adds voltage

it in series when
i

the pr/m_ry regulator

is 30 volts dc. increases

As the primary

decreases,

the boost
i

by an equal amount

(Figure

8-7_).

DC-to-AC

Inverter changes the regulated 31.7 volts dc into 31 volts ac. the

The dc to ac inverter The saturable output. windings _--_ output reactor

which is connected energizes the power which

across

the inverter

stabilizes

The inverter provide

transformer.

Multiple Nine

secondary of the ac and minus and into

all the voltages are rectified

the radar

requires. these,

voltages

and filtered. regulation.

Two of

the plus

15 volts dc, are used without filtered outputs are

The remaining

seven

rectified is built

regulated.

A short-circuit-proof of the plus 20 volts 120 volts

circuit

each regulator.

The regulators

dc, the plus

and minus by the a

40 volts dc, and the plus and minus voltages high they regulate. voltage

dc are each operated 6.3 volts

The plus and minus their

dc do not provide additional these

enough

to operate

regulators.

Therefore,

higher

voltages

from the power

transformer

are provided

to operate

regulators.

High Voltage

Power

Supply plus 1650 volts pulse. dc plate voltage to produce the ! A high-voltage power supply capable Although another winding

The transmitter llSO-watt

requires

pee2power

interrogator

of generating

this voltage

is therefore

provided.

8-269 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ

EC-T GEMINI

could

have been added to the power transformer transients would be applied to the

to supply

the high

ac voltage the

needed,

common transformer

each time

transmitter was fired.

Consequently, a separate de to ac inverter and highOnly a 6.B volt ac switch voltage for the In the standby

voltage transformer were used. high-voltage

inverter was taken from the common transformer.

state, the regulated 31.7 volts dc is applied to the high-voltage inverter. The s_-Itchingvoltage is applied through the current limiters to the highvoltage inverter, but is grounded out by the switching transistors which are conducting. The holdoff signal applied by the RADAR switch in the STBY

position to the switching transistors causes them to conduct, preventing the high-voltage inverters from operating. When the pilot puts the radar in the This action removes the hold ....

search mode, he places the RADAR switch to ON.

off voltage, and permits the 6.3 volts ac to switch the inverter on and off. As the inverter is switched, the ac voltage is generated and applied to the hlgh-voltage transformer. it to a voltage doubler. The transformer steps up this voltage and applies The voltage doubler rectifies and doubles the ac

output of the transformer, and delivers plus 1650 volts dc to the transmitter tube plate. No high-voltage regulation is required.

TRANSPONDER

POWER SUPPLY

Power Supply Similarities By comparing the block diagrams (Figure 8-74) of the radar and transponder power supplies, the similarities will be apparent. boost regulator, adc Both power supplies use a

to ac inverter, a power transformer, rectifier, filters,

and regulators to provide plus 120, minus _0, plus and minus 20, and plus 6.3

8-270 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFiOENTIAL

volt dc outputs.

The same high-voltage circuitry is also used.

T n-pcnder P er SuppiV Di Terences
Certain differences, of course, between the two power supplies do exist. i
i

The

following are the differences:
minus

The transponder doe_ not require the plus _0,
I_ volt dc power

6.3, and plus

and

minus

suppiles.
ineeds
i

The

cu/Tent

drains

on

individual

supplies

differ

owing

to

the

peculiar

of

the

two

units.

The transponder high-voltage power supply is turned ionwhen the sufficient amplitude detector triggers the enable delay circui_ and removes the hold off
voltage. solid-state Less transmitter select power switch is used in the transponder to protect the

antenna

(Figure

8-69).

f_

8-z71/ 2
CONFIDRNTIAL

COMMAND

LINK SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION .... SYSTEM OPERATION eeeeoeooeooe SYSTEM UNITS ..... SUB BIT DETECTOR COMMAND LINK ENCODER . . . . PAGE . . . 8-275 8 " 281 • • • • • • 8-283 • • •. • • • 8-283 : . . . : .... 8-287

8-273 CONPIDRNTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

ENCODER CIRCUIT

_ENCODER

CONTROLLER

_'_RIGHT

SWITCH AND.CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL (REF)

Figure

8-75

Command 8-274

Link

System

CONFIDENTIAL

CONF|DENTIAL

PROJECT
_@

GEMINI
SEDR300

CO_AND

LII_K SYSTEM

SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION System (Figure 8-75) is incorporated into the Gemini vehicle. vehicle Space-

The Cow,hand Link craft link to allow control

the spacecraft

pilot

to control

the target the target

Command in the delights on

is used as a means of positioning and orbital path, of turning

sired attitude or off,

acquisition

and approach Systems

and for controlling monitoring. after

Communications the radar the

and Instrumentation prior

required and a

for ground hardline a possible

Using

rf transmission

to docking

t_bilical

docking,

command 8-76).

link is capable Commands

of transmitting allocated in

128 command

messages

(Figure number

presently

and a corresponding _ Table 8-3.

three digit

for each of the comnmnds

are listed

Prior radar

to docking aboard

the command

lir_ may be used any time that is locked vehicle. onto the radar The desired located message

the rendezvous located in

the spacecraft

transponder command

docking

adapter

of the target

message

is inserted, aft of the by pulse to the

by the pilot,

into the encoder breaker of the

controller, _e

below

and

slightly

right switch/circuit position • target modulation vehicle

panel.

is then transmitted the transponder

radar

transmission

through

progrsn_f_er.

After

docking, _e The

the command method

link messages the pilot

are routed inserts

through

the hardline message remains to

w.ubilical. unchanged. _11atch

by which

the desired with the

cof._and li'_k olso provides _ehicle

the pilot

cap8bility

from the target

at the completion

of the mission.

8-275
CONFIDENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

._T-.._ _

SEDR 300

__

<CO _D_Z

_8

'

ON i_'8

J

-_

T

_ E
o2_
NZ_ Z_U

ds_
NZ

,

_
OO_ _

a

N_ _ Z

z
_--" 0

_
Zo Z 91

i

Figure

8-76

Command

Link

System

Block

Diagram

8-276 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDIINTIAL

PINI
._ SEDR 300

m

,

TABLE 8-3 COMMAND FUNCTION LIST AGENA TARGET VEHICLE SPACECRAFT COMMAND _R 001 010 011 020 021 030 031 041 050 060 061 070 071 140 141 151 160 161 200 201 211 REAL TI}_ CO_D 0_i _010 0000011 0000100 0000101 0000110 O000111 0001001 O001010 0001100 0001101 O001110 O001111 _ii_0 0011001 OOllOll 0OlllO0 OOlllOl 01_ 01_i 01_iI C-Band Beacon S-Band Beacon On Modulation Bus SelelctNormal i
i i

CO_ND

T_

Modulation Bus SelelctReverse Telemetry On Telemetry Off Stored Data Readout Record Data C and S-Band Beacons Off Reset Timer Reset Time Word Reset L-BandBeaconOff L-Band Beacon On Approach Lights Of_i
i

Approach Lights On_ Extend Boom Antenna i Antenna Transfer, _scent Antenna Transfer, Orbit Agena Status Display Off i Agena Status _sp_ i On Bright Agena Status _sp_ On Dim

8-_
CONFIDENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI

SEDR300

TAm 8-3 (Continued)
CO_a4AND FUNCTION LIST AGENA TARGET VEHICLE SPACECRAFT CO_4A_D NUMBER 220 221 240 241 250 251 260 270 271 300 ._01 310 REAL TD_ CO_ 0100100 OIOO101 0101000 0101001 0101010 OlOlOll 0101100 0101110 0101111 OllOOOO 0110001 0110010 Adapter Adapter Stored Stored Unrigidize Ridlgize Program Program Commands Co_nds Off On Disable Enable

CO_AND

TITLE

Acquisition Acquisition Dipole Spiral

Lights Lights

Select Select

Power Relay Reset Horizon Horizon Sensor Sensor Off On

Roll Horizon Sensor to Yaw, Inertial Reference Package On Pitch Horizon Sensor to Yaw 3 Inertial Reference Package On Horizon Horizon Velocity Sensor Sensor Meter to Yaw Out of Phase to Yaw in Phase Interrogate

311

0110011

320 321 340 341 350 351

0110100 0110101 0111000 0111001 0111010 0111011

Gyrocompass ing On Geocentric Geocentric Rate Off Pate On

8-t 8
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

SEDIt 300

TABLE 8-3 (Continued) C0_4AND FUNCTION LIST AGENA TARGET VEHICLE SPACECRAFT COMMAND NU_.R 360 361 370 371 400 4Ol 410 411 420 421 4_0 431 440 b2_l 450 451 460 470 471 REAL COMMAND 0111100 0111101 0111110 0111111 i000000 lOO0001 i000010 i000011 i000100 I000101 iO00110 i000111 I001000 i001001 I001010 i001011 iO01100 i001110 i001111 COMMAND TITLE Geocentric Rate Reverse Geocentric Rate Normal Attitude Control S "stem Pressure Low Attitude Control S "stem Pressure High Attitude Control S 'stem Off Attitude Control S 'stem On Pitch/Yaw Minus Pitch/Yaw Plus Pitch/Yaw Low Rate Pitch/Yaw High Rate Pitch Rate Off Pitch Rate On Yaw Off Yaw On Attitude Control System I_adband Narrow Attitude Control S "stem Deadband Wide Attitude Control S 'stemGain Low Attitude Control S "stemGain High - Undocked Attitude Control S "stem Gain High - Docked

8-279
CONI:IOINTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

D
TA_E 8-3 (Continued)
C0_M_D AGE_A SPACECRAFT C0_D NUMHER _00 501 520 521 530 531 540 541 550 551 REAL TIME C0_AND i010000 i010001 1010100 i010101 10lOll0 1010111 1011000 I011001 1011010 i011011 Primary Primary Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Secondary Secondary Initiate Secondary Initiate Secondary Hydraulics Hydraulics Propulsion Propulsion Meter Meter Meter Meter Meter Meter FUNCTICB LIST TARGET VEHICLE

COMMAND System System

TITLE Cutoff Start

Disable Enable Load 0

Load l to Mode to Mode IV Off IV On Thrust Cutoff

Propulsion Propulsion

System System

16 Thrust

560

lOlllO0

Propulsion

System

200 Thrust

561 570 571

i011101 1011110 i011111

Propulsion Gain Gain

System

Ready

- Undocked - Docked

8-280
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
._-_

,EOOO .
GEMI
i

I

SYSTEM

OPERATION Link System is energized by placing the ENCDR circuit breaker in The ENCDR circuit breaker is locatedlon the right switch/ The cu_,and link may now be used for the transmission

The C_and

the ON position.

circuit breaker panel. of messages.

To initiate a c_nd

the Gemini pilot selects a co_and

from a list provided. controller.

Inserts the corresponding

three digit number into the encoder
i

For example; Target Docking Adapter Acquisition LightsiOn command number is 251° To transmit this message the Gemini pilot adjusts the encoder controller the outer octal dial is turned to 2, the inner

to the following positions:

octal dial is turned to 5, and the binary switch (XMIT_ is positioned to I and held until the message effect of the co_and cycle described in this sectionlis completed. link message transmission The only

on the! rendezvous radar is the During the message trans-

changing of the radar pulse repetition

frequency.

mission the radar is switched from the internal generated pulse to the more stable Time Reference System generated 256 pulses per Second.

The encoder controller output is a seven binary digit (bit) binary word, three blnarybits XMIT switch. indicating each octal number and one blnarybit corresponding to the

The co_and

message is added to the vehicle address, consisting of The

two binaryblts,

and the system address, consisting ofithree binary blts.

vehicle address used is the two binary numbers I l, the system address is i O i. It is therefore seen that the complete c_nd function word is as follows:

8-281
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

VEHICLE ADDRESS ii

SYSTEM ADDRESS 101

2 010

CO_@L_ND 5 010

i 1

The positioning of the _MIT switch to either the I or the 0 position also initiates a one time transmission of the command.

The command llnk data transmission is accomplished in the following manner. Time Reference System provides two trigger pulses to the encoder, both having a repetition rate of 256 pulses per second.

The

One pulse will be referred to as

occurring at Time Zero (To) and the other at time zero plus 15.2 microseconds (TO + 15.2). At the time the ENCDR ON circuit breaker is turned ON the radar The

commences being pulsed by the TO pulse from the Time Reference System. transmit co_ud,

initiated by the XMIT switch, causes the information bit to be

taken, one at a time commencing with the vehicle address, and further encoded into five binary sub-bits. The encoder affects pulse position modulation of the

radar interrogate transmission by allowing the TO or TO + 15.2 pulse to trigger the radar, indicating a 0 or a 1 respectively.

The interrogate transmission, at the repetition rate of 256 pulses per second, is received at the radar transponder. applied to the sub-blt detector. The transponder receiver video signal is contains an oscillator The oscillator

The sub-bit detector

which is synchronized with the received interrogate 0 pulse.

provides two gates, one which occurs in synchronism wlth the TO pulse and another with the TO + 15.2 pulse. The coincidence of the received pulse with one of the A decoded 0

above gates results in the identification of the pulse modulation.

generates a 25 microsecond pulse across the message complement output and a

8 -282 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

___ decoded pulses I generates are provided

PROJI
a 25 microsecond

SEDR 300 pulse across the message output. These

to the progra_m_er.

The programmer The programmer system address

converts verifies

the 60 sub-bits that the sub-bit

back

into the 12 information

bits. and

code is correct,
;

that the vehicle

is correct, requirements

and that an acceptable

aforementioned tance pulse

message was received. If the i are met the progr_a,erwill provide a message accepThe message acceptance pulse causes three

to the transponder. transmissions pulse width

consecutive microsecond

from the transponder to ten microseconds.

to shif_ from the normal six i The radar detects the additional light, located on the

pulse width and causes encoder controller

the Message

Accept

(MSG ACPT)

to illuminate

for a period

of 2.5 seconds.

The illumination message the XMIT has been switch.

of the MSG ACPT light received

indicates

to the pilot

that an acceptable

by the progrs_er.

At this time

the pilot may release

SYSTDi SUB-BIT

UNITS DETECTOR of the sub-bit pulse modulation The sub-bit detector (Figure 8-77) is the conversion of the radar

The purpose transmitted bit code. message

to a pulse

form indicative

of the 0 and i subthe sending of the

detector

is also used to control Spacecraft.

acceptance

pulse

to the Gemini

Prior to lock-up standby frequency
F

of the Command

Link

System

the sub-bit

detector loop.

is held

in a

state by the incorporation oscillator, driven

of a pre-acquisition

The variable is insensitive

at a rate of 253 cycles p_r second,

8-28B
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300 _"_7T7-_ _

"__

PROJECT

GEMINI

___

-_

_0

W_. Figure 8-77 Decoide,r Block Diagram 8-284
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI
i

The modulated radar transmission is applied to the detector l in two forms, the transponder receiver video pulse and a pulse in synchronism with the leading edge of the video. The sync pulse iS applied to the oscillator

to lesser frequencies.

thereby causing the frequency to increase to 256 cycles per second and synchronizing the early and late gates to the incoming video pulse.

The early gate and late gate, initiated by the variable for tracking the interrogate mission pulse repetition frequency

frequency oscillator, and detecting

are

the trans-

of the pulse corresponding to the binary sub-bit 0.

The two gates are

each 0-75 microseconds

in width and are so related that the trailing edge of the The combined width of the

early gate abuts on the leading edge of the late gate. gates is slightly more than the video pulse.

The video pulse is to be centered

equally between the two gates; any deviation frsm this condition will result in an appropriate control voltage applied to the variable frequency oscillator.

The radar modulation

is determined by observing the presence

of the radar trans-

mission in either the combined early and late gate or ithe one gate, a 1.5 microsecond gate occurring The continuous variable 15.2 microseconds from the leading edge of the early gate. of the

transmission

of the sub-blt 0 enables the synchronization

frequency oscillator.

A slow frequency control loop provides memory so

that a command message may be sent and the oscillator iwill maintain the correct 0 and i time relationship.

The sub-bit detector provides a 25 microsecond pulse over the message line to i indicate a i and a 25 microsecond pulse over the message complement line to indicate a O.
f

These pulses, along, with a sync pulse iwhich occurs for either

0 or l, are then coupled to the computer.

8-285 CONFIDENTIAL

Figure 8-78EncoderBlock 8-286
CONFIDENTIAL

Diagram

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
J

GEMI

C(X4WAND LINK ENCODER The command link encoder (Figure 8-78) is provided to link the c_nds pilot, entered vehicle used is

into the encoder

controller, separate

by the Gemini communication

Sgacecraft channels.

to the target initially

via two completely the rf link using after the docking

The channel as a carrier,

the rendezvous maneuver

radar transmission umbilical

the link used

is the hardline

The co-_and address,

link message

is comprised

of 12 binary function

information word.

bits,

a vehicle portion and the The of

a system

address,

and a c<mmnd

The initial bits

the message, system

the vehicle consisting word

address

consisting

of two information bits, are fixed bits,

address

of three

information

in content. allowing

c<.-_._ndfunction 128 possible

is made

up of seven

information

thereby

c...... _nds.

The task states, entered

of entering is undesirable by two octal pilots.

a c_nd

by manipulating factors

seven

switches,

each having

binary

from a human switches

standpoint. switch,

An octal

form of coding,

and a binary is provided digit

is selected

for use by the the individual com-

spacecraft mands

The pilot

with a list showing The message

and the corresponding controller panel. a twelve located

three below

number.

is entered

into the

encoder breaker through for each

and slightly establish

aft of the right a unique current register

switch/circult routing path

The encoder

switches

bit multiaperture c_nds. c_nd

magnetic

core sh_ft

in the encoder switches, and encoded cores by to

of the 128 possible a particular

The setting iof the encoding function interrogated of magnetic encoder

which represent into the infobit means

shift register current

word, are J as magnetization states pulse generated by the

of the interrogate of the ET

subsequent

actuation

switch.

8-287 CONFIDENTIAL
l;

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT GEMINI

The twelve information bits are shifted sequentially in information bit message (1) and message complement (0) form from the information bit shift register and further encoded, pseudo-random one at a time, into another shift register in accordance with Each is encoded into five sub-bits which are

sub-bit code.

shifted sequentially in sub-bit message (i) and message complement (0) form at a 256 pulses per second rate to the hardline waveform coder. The complete

message format, as a consequence of the encoding process, is a serial group of 60 sub-bits. For the hardline link the binary coded message is presented to the located in the transponder, as bipolor return-to-zero signals.

sub-bit detector,

For the rf link, the sub-bit message and message complement signals are pulse position modulated by the rf waveform coder in the encoder and are connected to the grid modulator of the radar. The method of pulse position modulation used --_

will cause a normal radar pulse, indicative of the sub-bit message O, to be transmitted in the first defined time slot while a sub-bit message I will cause transmission position. of the rf pulse delayed 15.2 microseconds from the normal, or 0

8-288
CONFIDENTIAL

_ONFIDEN_flAL

RENDEZVOUS

EVALUATION

POD

TABLE OF CONTENTS T I TLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION. . . SYSTEM OPERATION ............ SYSTEM UNITS. . . _ . ...... PAGE 8-291 8-291 8-294 8-294 8-295 8-296 8-298

ANTENNA SYSTEM FLASHING LIGHT BEACONS . . . =.... SQUIB BATTERIES ....... .... RENDEZVOUS POD COVER .... i. • • •

8-289 CONFIDENTIAL
i

.-

: .

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

IL_,,,j_,,_

PROJECT

GEMINI

BEACON

ASSEMBLY

HINO

LIGHT

-

-._/

)
BOOST REGULAIC SQUIB _b BATTERY _ I i /

BATTERY

_

PIRAL ANT ENNA

J
ANTENNA

SPIRAL ANTENNA

TRANSPONDER

F LASHLNG LIGHT BEACON

Figure

8-79 Rendezvous 8-290
CONFIDENTIAL

Evaluation

Pod

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEC
__ SEDR RENDEZVOUS

I

3ON
POD i

EVALUATION

i
SYSTEMESCRIPTION D The Rendezvous Evaluation Pod (REP) (Figure 8-79) is _n assembly used during i Gemini Spacecraft mission number five to simulate the!Agena Target Vehicle. The
t

REP consists of a transponder, two antenna systems, t@o flashing light beacons, i I and two squib batteries. The transponder is nearly i_entieal to the transponder The flashing light beacons, which emit 80 + 1 twenty miles. These beacons

to be installed in the Agena.

flashes per minute, are visible for approximately

are to enable the crew of the Gemini to gain tracking t experience by visually observing the REP in space. Observations are at meas i zred distances from the
i

spacecraft against both earth and sky background.

This experience is used in i

determining the placement and intensity required for the Agena acquisition lights. The REP also provides a means of studying the man/equipment interface problems
i

l

which might be encountered

during an actual rendezvou_ mission with the Agena. _dapter section of the

The REP was installed in the center of the equipment spacecraft (Figure 8-79). Thermal protection

for the REP prior to ejection is

provided by the rendezvous pod cover.

The REP is eje _ted into orbit by a

pyrotecbnlc charge, after the spacecraft has been ins _rted into a satisfactory orbit.

SYSteM OPERATION During the first 65 minutes after lift-offt the EEP remains stationary in the

iI

equipment adapter of the spacecraft (Figure 8-80). spacecraft near the end of the first orbit. EEP occur primarily during the second orbit.

The REP is ejected from the

Other ac _.ivltiesrelated to the

8-291
CONFIDENTIAL

:S.,_ _

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

D COVER

iii::::ili!ii!'_ii::_iii!_ _!:: ':

_.,":::_L_ _:_:!::.:.. "_:_
RIGHT SWITCH 'CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL

i !i!i _!

_11|

THB RENDEZVOUS POD COVER IS SHOWN IN THE MOUNTED POSITION SkIIELDING THE REP. THE COVER PROTECTS THE REP FROM THE EXTREME HEAT OF THE SUN IN SPACE.

!iii
::::i:: :::;: ! : : ;:;::; :: : ;:: (OPF HEN OMPRESSED) W C
:i::i:: :! :iii [] THE RENDEZVOUS POD COVER IS SHOWN LEAVING THE ADAPTER SECTION. EJECTION THE GUILLOTINE HASASSEMBLY CABLES CUT THE SPRING HOLDING DIE COVER AGAINST THE TUBULAR POSTS. THE VELOCITY WI',ICH THE SPRINGS IMPART TO THE COVER IS 100 FEET PER SECOND.

...
POD OVER C

REP TURN-ON REP SWITCH ASSEMBLY

SWITCH

(REP PYROTECHNIC CHAR GE INSIDE)

EJECTION

RBP

[]
lATELY AS THE REP IS EJECTED, THE MO PLUNGER TYPE SWITCHES ON THE REAR OF THE REP ARE RELEASED CAUSINg THE BEACON LIGHTS AND THE TRANSPONDER RE-

Figure

8-80

Mounting

and

Ejection

of Cover 8-292

and

Rendezvous

Evaluation

Pod

CONFIDENTIAL

CONF|DENT_AL

....

PROJECT GEM! so. 300 Nl! i
plunger-type lights are held the REP switches (Figure 8-80) which Prior control

The REP has two spring-loaded, the battery power to the beacon closed switches will

and the transponder. depressed (ope_)

to ejection is prior

these normally conserved.

so that power minutes

The pilot

eject

approximately!fifteen
i

to the first perigee. switch located be depressed. (Figure 8-80).

The spacecraft

will yaw left 900 and the POD EJECT breaker pan@l (Figure 8-80) will

on the right Pushing

switch/circuit switch

the POD EJECT drives

activates type

_wo pyrotecbn_ c charges cable cutter which allow severs the two from is time

One charge

a guillotine

the two cables compressed

shown in Figure to expand,

8-80. thereby

The cables, propelling

when released,
i

springs

the rendezvous velocity after

pod cover

the rear of the spacecraft. I00 feet per second. delay, propells feet per second. since the ejection the ejection

The relative charge,

ejection

of the cover

The other

initiated with

an 80 millisecond velocity

the REP from the spacecraft The cover will velocity

the relative
i

of S._

not interfere

with

the ejection
I

of the REP to

of the cover

is much

great@r

than and is prior

of the REP.

Since the REP will be orbiting extreme hot and cold temperature

outside

the earth's

atmosphere,

it will

experience

conditions. to allow

Therefore, uniform applied

a slow rate of rotation and cooling exact error center throughout of gravity

or tumble

of the REP is desirable If the retrograde no tumbling the exact would

hea_ing to the

the mission. of the REP, in locating is expected. between

thrust were result. Since

a very minute

is anticipated limits be

center

of gravity, operation,

a slow tumble within the rate of tumbling

the required

For successful

of the REP will

one revolution

per minute

and one revolution

per hour.

8-293
CONFIDENTIAL

CONPIOENTIAL

PROJECT GEMINI

Immediately upon ejection the compressed, sprlng-loaded, plunger-type switches are released causing the transponder receiver and the two flashing light beacons to become operational. It is estlmated that the flashing lights on the REP at

20 nautical miles are equivalent to the intensity of a third magnitude star. Thus, a z_.nge of 30-35 nautical miles between the I_ desired to assure exceeding the visible _mlt and the spacecraft is The _ and

Of the _EP lights.

the spacecraft trajectories will be designed so that the crew can make visual observations of the REP up to the -_m and darkness. observational distance in both daylight

The ejection of the REP and the maneuvering of the spacecraft is monitoring capability.

performed over ground tracking stations to provide gro_

SYSm_M UNITS TRAWSPO_R The transponder of the _ (Figure 8-79) is nearl_videntical to the transponder The transponder, i0 by lO by 20 inches, is the For this reason, the transponder serves as the basic For a detailed discussion

of the Agena Target Vehicle. l=_gest c_onent of the REP.

cowponent to which all other components are attached.

of the operation of the transponder, refer to the Rendezvous Radar System portion of this section.

AFtrA

SYS_

The REP radar antenna systems (Figure 8-79) consist of two clrcularly polarized double-spiral antennas and one dipole antenruaarray. same t_e and size as the ante-ms The _ anten_ are the

used on the Agena, however, there are several are mounted. The spiral

slight differences in the manner in which the anten_ ante-hAs of the I_

extend outward approximately two inches from the case of the

CONFIDENTIAL

_-

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

'_"

i

transponder. with c_ the Agena the outer end is of

In

comparison, of the long

the

spiral

antennas The dipole whereas

of

the i

A_ena of
i

are the

mounted

flush

surface a Wo-foot

Asena. fixed

antenna the

REP is of

mounted the

boom, old,ted,

(_ipole

antenna

mounted

on an elect_call_r

retractable

boom. All antennas

The electrical have the Radar _stem

operations capability

of the two antenna of transmitting

systems

are the same. Refer

and receiving. discussion

to the Rendezvous system

in this manusl

for a detailed

of the antenna

operation.

FLAS_

LIGHT _C_S xenon-filled, 25-watt Agena beacon lights. These lights

The REP has two toroid-shaped, are the same t_pe

lights as the I00 candlepower target vehicle. one light

acquisition

lights which sides

are used on the Agena

The lights is visible

are located

on opposite

of the REP so that at beast The beacon lights assist

tot he crew from any direction. the spacecraft ! relative to the

the crew in _-euvering

The flashing each mounting simultaneously of flash. per minute have more

of the lights case.

is regulated

by a resistor-capacitor is designed

circuit

located

in

The chargin8

circuit

So that both

Lights

operate rate

i
and ass_ne the flashing rate of the li_t
i i

having

the higher

This rate however

can be manuall_

adjusted

within

_ range

of 75 to 90 flashes

the optim_

rate is _0 .+ I flashes flashes,

a life expectanc7 th_n sufficient

of 2_,000

_r minute. The lights ! or approxima_e_7 5 hours. This is be used ifor approx_mtel_

time,

since the R_

will

one A__nd_ one half

hOUrS.

8-295
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEC---T--G

EMINi

-_

Each

beacon

light has a thermal

bonding

strap attached. copper which

The thermal

bonding dissipate

strap is a ¼ inch thick the heat generated plunger-type

strap of laminated

is used to help through

by the light. to a 24 volt

The lights

are connected battery. voltage

two redundant circuit

switches

silver-zinc

The flashing

uses a dc to dc converter required

to increase

the battery

to the 2500 volts schematic diagram of

to flash the zenon filled system is shown

lamps.

The electrical

the lighting

in Figure

8-81.

SQUIB

BA_r_RIES two low impedance, 24-volt, silver-zinc used squib batteries. The

The REP utilizes batteries

are the same type of squib battery

in the spacecraft.

Figure

8-79 shows one of the squib batteries The other battery the illustration. ponder served

attached

to the case of the transponder. in

is on the other side of the REP and cannot be identified The squib batteries lights. serve as the power source

for the translights are each

and the two beacon from a separate

The transponder and operate

and the beacon independently

squib battery

of one another.

During

spacecraft

mission

number

5 the REP will one orbit

be required

to function Therefore,

for only

a very small time, approximately necessary the lights weight that the batteries is the limiting

or 90 minutes.

it is not

possess factor.

an exceptionally

long life.

The life of the size and discussion of

Due to the short usage period, For a detailed battery, refer

of the batteries structure

can be held to a minimum. and operation . of the squib

the internal entitled

to the section

Electrical

Power System

The battery

supplying

power

to the transponder

is augmented

by a boost

regulator.

The operating

level of the transponder

is 28.3 volts

and the rated

voltage

8-296
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

,f_.: ___,__

_,_

PROJECT SEDR300GEMINI,,

_-'_'_'-'_J

o

o_

TRANSPONDER J

SPIRAL ANTENNA

J7_

R'[ 02

XBT:

I

:_

_ _ B A1
BT70! 24V TRANSPONDER BATTERY

_ _ s a _ _

_0_
J701

P7a3

A70I BOOST REGULATOR

XDS7_

_XDS702

I II I
Figure 8-81 Rendezvous Evaluation 8-297 CONFIDENTIAL Pod Schematic Diagram

CONFIDENTIAL. _. SEDR300

PROJECTGEMINI

of

the

squib be increase

battery

is

only into

2_ volts, the input

therefore

it

is

necessary of the it

that boost at the

a beost regulator required

resulator is to

incorporated the

system. voltage

The purpose to a_d

transponder

maintain

28.3 volt
As the Boost series _e_riss times.

operating
is

level.
and the for voltage the of the by squib adding voltage input 8-81 to battery a variable of the for the Boost decreases, voltage regulator at all the in

power regulator with so

cons,,wd compensates

decrease

the that

squib there to the

battery. is a constant

The additional 28.3 volts of Figure

transponder further

Refer

sehematic of the I_P

diagram are

_nformation

on how the

batteries

employed.

_zVOUS

PODCOVER
pod cover behind is the like sun's (Figure the an rays fiberglass silvered that I_P 8-80) in the is an oval, plane structure section protect made The of the a of which the is spacethe metal of the the cover

The rendezvous located craft. intense frame has sun's the a directly

equipment-adapter which serves T_e is cover to is

The cover heat over .00035 rays, required of which inch thereby limits.

umbrella in space.

REP from tubular face reflects within

a thin thick

cloth surface. the

stretched. This silvered Of the

outer

surface

ensuring

temperature

REP remains

Four cover. guide

tuhu]A_

posts,

which posts to

extend diagonally

past

the located

I_P,

are

provided in The

to guide two

support pins. posts

the These terminate

Two Of the pins are used

terminate cover.

properly

align

the

other

8-298
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL.

....
in sockets which house the spring Pass through by two cables which pass through The and other a nut. to end a pyrotechnic of each screw cable, cable and causing guillotine is nut attached serves the

SEDR 300

ejection

assembly. sockets,

The cover

Is held

in place

the springs,

and tubes.

Both cables assembly. screw

and are anchored to as a to the rendezvous

to the l_P support pod is cover used to by a

This the

turnbuckle be

and

apply

tension

spring

compressed.

Ejection

of the cover is initiated the pilot

in the same m_--er as the ejection switch, a pyrotechnic charge Cutting

of the activates the

REID. When

pushes the POD EJECT cable cutter which

the guillotine-type cables allows velocity

severs

the two cables. thus

the two compressed

springs

to expan&,

imparting

a relative the cover

to the cover of iOO feet

per second.

The cables

remain with

after ejection.

8-299/300 CONFII)ENTIAL.

TIME REFERENCE SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ooooooooooo 8-303 SYSTEM OPERATION oeooeoeoooeo 8-304 ELECTRONIC TIMER oeooooomoo 8-306 TIME CORRELATION BUFFER..... 8-324 MISSION ELAPSED TIME DIGITAL : CLOCK .......... . , ..... 8-326 EVENT TIMER ooooooooo4ooe 8-333 ACCUTRON CLOCK ....... • • • 8-339 MECHANICAL CLOCK .......... 8-340

8-301 CONFIDENTIAL

• _

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

--MISSION DIGITAL

ELAPSED TIME CLOCK

(s/c6, 8a uP)
TIMER

MECHANICAL

CLOCK

Figure

8-82

Time

Reference

System 8-302

Equipment

Locations

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEC

i , i

SYBT_M DESCRIPTION ,i , ,,,, The Time Reference System (TP_) (Figure 8-82) provides _he facilities for perform-

i

ing all timing functions aboard the spacecraft.

The s_tem

is comprised of an

electronic timer, a time correlation buffer, a mission elapsed time digital clock, an event timer, an Accutron clock and a mechanical clock. The event timert mission

elapsed time digital clock, Accutron clock and mechanic_l clock are all mounted on
|J

the spacecraft instrument panels.

The electronic timeX is located in the area
i

behind the center instrument panel and the time correl_tion buffer is located in back of the pilot's seat.

_..

The electronic timer provides (I) an accurate countdow_i of Time-To-Go to retrofire (TTG to TR) and Time-To-Go to equipment reset (_G tion for the P_ to TX)_ (2) time correla-

d_ta system (Instrumentation) and the bio-med tape recorders,

and (3) a record of Elapsed Time (ET) from lift-off.

The Time Correlation Buffer (TCB), conditions certain Output signals from the electronic timer, making them cempatible with bio-med_ I voice tape recorders. of Defense (DOD)

Provision is included to supply buffered signals for Del_nt experiments if required.

The mission elapsed time digital clock (on spacecraft 6 thro__gh12) provides a digital indication of elapsed time from lift-off. fr_ The i_igital clock counts pulses l the electronic timer and is therefore started and istoppe_ by operation of the timer.

electromlc

8-3o3
CONFIOWNTIAI.

CONFIDENTIAL

PROOECT

GEMINI

The event timer provides aboard the spacecraft. display

the facilities

for t_m_ng

various

short-term

functions

It is also started of ET during

at lift-off phase

to provide

the pilots In case the method of

with a visual electronic

the ascent timer

of the mission.

timer

should fail, the event

may serve as a back-up

timing out TR.
The Accutron c_nd clock provides an indication of Greenwich Mean Time (G_T) for the

pilot.

The clock is powered or signals.

by an internal

battery

and is independent

of external

power

The mec_n_cal date.

clock provides

the pilot

with an indication capability.

of GMT and the calendar provides an

In addition, method

it has a stopwatch

The stopwatch

emergency

of performing

the functions

of the event timer.

SYS_
Four

OP_TION
components of the Time Reference System (electronic timer, event timer, The

Accutron

clock and mechanical components

clock) function elapsed

independently

of each

other.

two _ining buffer) diagram

(mission

time digital

clock and time timer. 8-83.

conciliation

are dependent

on ou.tput signals System

from

the electronic in Figure

A functional

of the Time Referemce

is provided

The electronic time-of-day spacecraft

timer, mission

elapsed

time digital clock operate

clock, Accutron continuously, clock

clock during

and the the during of

portion mission.

of the mechanical The mechanical

clo_k

and Accutron starts

are started

the pre-launch a reaote s_rt

period.

The electronic

timer

operating

upon receipt

signal from the Sequential

System

at the time of lift-off.

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

"_

I-

,MEREEE'ENCES_';;7_C_ "--I
TR (EMERGENCY), ACCUTRO N CLOCK [ J ._MMISSION ELAPSED TiME CREW GROSS TIME, ELAPSED TIME (SHORT TERM)

J

I J '
J

TR (BACK-UP),

ELAPSED TiME (SHORT TERM)

T R-2B,_ EC, S TR-30SEC

• O.M.T. DISPLAY CLOCK • STOP WATCH SECONDS) • (MINUTES AND CALENDAR I DAY MECHANICAL

L

J 1 --Z _O I I

E,ME O,G,TAL -* GROSS TIME FROM LIFT OFF

_
NOTE
D EFFECTIVE SPACECRAFT 6, 8 AND UP.

I_
I I
J i INSERTION UNIT

CLOC_.._.______ b,.,.,ss,oN ELAPSED
• DECIMAL DISPLAY _AINUTES AND SECONDS) • COUNT UPOR DOWN

--

--

--

,

L IFT-OFF SIG NAL

SEQUENTIAL SYSTFJv_

O

gz__

J | J

T R (AUTOMATIC FIRE SIGNAL) TR -256 SEC, TR -30 SEC

1

I

TIME-TO-GO

TO TRAND

TX UPDATE ON-BOARD

ELECTRONIC TIMER • COUNT DOWN TO • COUNT DOWN COUNT UP ELAPSED TIME FROM LAUNCH

J l

_DATA REQUEST TIME-TO-GO TO TR ELAPSED TIME

COMPUTER

|

I

INSTRb_ENTATION ELAPSED TIME AND TIME-TO-GO TO T R D, SYSTEM

RECORDER TIME CORRELATION BUFFER

ELAPSED TiME l 1

I " .

VOICE TAPE RECORDER

L

_..I

Figure

8-83 Time

Referenee

System 8-305

Punetional

Diagram

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ

EC---'T'-GEM

IN I

If the lift-off timer can be

signal is not received

from the Sequential

System,

the electronic timer. The

started by actuation time digital

of the START-UP

switch on the event buffer

mission

elapsed

clock and time correlation from the electronic

start operating

upon receipt

of output

signals

timer.

During the mission, the mechanical crew.

the event timer, started

Accutron

clock

and the stopwatch

portion

of of the

clock can be however,

and stopped, manually, timer

at the descretion

At lift-off,

the event

is started by a remote

signal from

the Sequential

System.

ELECTRONIC

General At the time elasped of lift-off, the electronic timer begins its processes of counting up from reset up

time and counting

down TTG to TR and TTG to T X. 2_ days.

ET is counted

zero to a maximum functions

of approximately

The retrofire values

and equipment

are counted

down to zero from

certain

of time which of counting

are written T_G to T R from

into the timer prior to lift-off. a maximum

The timer

is capable

of 2_ days and to equipment

reset from a maximum

of two hours.

The TTG to T R data contained mission station, by insertion throu6h

by the timer may be updated Updating

at any time

during

the

of new data.

may be accomplished (DCS),

either by a ground via the Manual pre-

the Digital

Co_=_and System

or by the crew, To prevent

Data Insertion mature update,

Unit

(MDIU) and the digital

computer.

inadvertent, error

countdown

of TR as a result not accept

of equilment

failure

or personnel

during

the timer will Upon receipt

any new time-to-go

of less than 128 seconds time mentioned of two weeks. above,

duration.

of new data of less than the inhibit to be loaded with

the tiuer will

cause itself

a time in excess

CONFIDENTIAL

8-306

CONFIDENTIAL

__.

SEDR300

The

TTG to

T X function the

of

the

timer is

serves

to over

reset

certain I station ground spacecraft zero, to

equipment equipped station moves and insert the the

which with inserts, out of

operates telemetry. via the is the range

while

spacecraft spacecraft TX in the

passing within

a ground the the

As the DCS, of

comes timer. the

range, Then, as

a TTG to the ground reset. done

station, If the crew,

_G

to station the

TX reaches is unable

equipment time

automatically it may be

ground using

data,

by

the

MDIU and

d_ltal

computer.

Information confirmation through

from

the

electronic

timer operation computer

is

not

continuously

displayed;

however, of _ data

of satisfactory

may be made by the readout readout

use of the digital

MDIU display

capability.

NOTE
The mission pulses elapsed time digital timer clock counts

from the electronic will

and, ass_ning the elapsed timer. The

no loss of pulses, time recorded digital elapsed clock

indicate

in the electronic does not, however,

read out the timer.

time word

from the electronic

Construction The electronic timer (Figure 8-8_) is approxlmately 6 inches x 8 3/4 inches x 5 1/2 with

inches an_ weighs its associated

about ten pounds.

It has two external
i i

connectors

for interface out moisture

systems.

The enclosure The timer

for the unit

is! sealed
I

to keep

but is not pressurized. eight modules (I) crystal which

utilizes

a modular

Construction,
I i

containing are:

are wired (2)

directly t4m_.g

into the enclosure. (3) register

The modules control

oscillator,

assembly,

assembly.

8-3o7
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

EVENT TIMER

[DMISSION ELAPSED TIME DIGITAL CLOCK

A

//
MECHANICAL CLOCK
[_EFFECTIVE

ljill
10 oI ACCUTRONCLOCK NOTE
SPACECRAFT 6s 8 AND UP.

TIME CORRELATION BUFFER

ELECTRONIC TIMER

Figure

8-84

Time

Reference 8-308

System

Components

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

:@
(4) memory control and relay assembly, components (8)

PROJECT

_oo
GEMINI
assembly, (6) driver boards assembly, (7) Printer circuit and solid-state the crystal oscillator. binary counter. It performs the

assembly, power

(5)

memory

supply.

are used in all modules

except

Operatlon
The electronic counting timer is basically an electronic

operation

for each

of its functions is repeated

(ETj TTG to TX, and TTG to TX) by i/8 seconds. a binary (Refer to Figure word, representing core storage cycles. is

an add/subtract 8-85).

program

which

every

In each repetition

of the counting to represent

operation,

ET or a TTG, is modified registers A storage provided digital

a new amount the binary

of time. words

Magnetic

are used to store register

or remember for each

between

counting

is provided

of the three

timer

funtions

and another

for use as a buffer computer.

register

for data transfer

between

the timer

and the

A crystal the t_mlng oscillator operations coupled pulses

controlled pulses

oscillator

is used as a frequency

standard

for developing of whose is timing

necessary

for the operation

of the timer. required

The type

provides take

the high degrees

of accuracy

for the timer

place in very of toggle

small fractions flip flops whose

of a second. outputs

The oscillator the actual

to a series for the timer

provide

operation.

The electronic

timer

utilizes

a 32-word 32-word

time program. times. into

That is, each

I/8 second into are

of time is further 32 bit times, .... the shortest One bit time

divided

into

Each word time is divided

and each bit time is divided pulses used in the timer

32

S pulses

times.

S pulses

operation

and are 3.8 microseconds

long.

is equal

to 122 m4eroseeoz_s

and one word time

3.9 milliseconds.

8-_9
CONFIOI=NTIAI.

:-

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

___._,_
TIMED EVENTS (RELAY CLOSURES)

PROJECT

GEMINI

_j

-

8
0 Z 0 Z

_o

_

o

k

A

8

'_

'

u

N

_
1'

2

_ _ 8_
0

e 5 _ 8

Figure

8-85

Electronic

Timer 8-310

Functional

Block

Diagram

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL.

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI

SEDR 300

It is pulses toggle

of these

durations,

and their multiples,

which

are produced

by the

flip flops

in the timing module.

Timer Timer

Start Circuit operation is initiated System when a 28 vdc start or the event timer. signal is received from either the

spacecraft System from

Sequential

The signal from

the Sequential the one of

is transmitted

to the electronic when

timer,

automatically, toggle switch

at liftoff; on the face

the event timer is generated

the UP/DN Receipt relay

the unit is placed causes

in the UP position.

of a signal

from either Until

source the

the set side of the clock-start

to be ac ;uated.

lift-off,

relay is held in the reset position spacecraft pz_maturely umbilical. This

by a clock-hold

s: gnal from the AGE via the will not be started of the clockin the timing to be

is done to assure

that th t timer

and will be at zero at the time a positive control signal

of lift-off. to be applied

Actuation to a gate

start relay causes module. coupled

This gate allows to the countdown

the output flip flops.

of the crystal

controlled

oscillator

Countdown

and

Time Decodin 6 and time decoding operations take place iprimarily megacycle output of in the timing module.

The countdown When timer controlled

operation oscillator

is initiated, is coupled Twelve

the 1.048576 to the first

of the crystal-

of a series

17 toggle flip flops
in the timing form a frequency output pulse for is

(Refer to Figure module

8-86).

of the flip flops control module.

are contained The flip flops

and five in the register network, each

dividing every

stage of which The output

produces

one square wave of the final

two input pulses. per second.

frequency

stage

in the series

eight pulses

8-311
CON FI DENTIAL.

_.--_ _ "_E. • _

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

_=_-_

_,_'_

"

PROJECT

GEMINI

__

8 P.P.S.

__

NO.

17

C_

16 P.P.S. _l

_l r_

F_ ___

NO.

16 _ GATE (TYPICAL)

V--1
NO. 32,768 P.P.S, 65s 536 P.P.S. 5

t

V-q

/_

TIME DECODING

_

J I_FO

_l

t_F1

131 _072 P.P.S.

262t |44 P.P.S.

NO.3

S

_

GATE INPUT

Z O

-

z 3

Figure8-86 Schematic Diagram,

Frequency Division & Time 8-312

Decoding

CONFIDeNTIAl

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
__.

GEMINI

SEDR300

Outputs of all but the first two stages of the countdown circuitry are utilized to develop the timing pulses necessary for timer operations. Output pulses from

either the i or the 0 side of an individual flip flop may be used; however, the polarity of the pulses from one side will be 180° out of phase with those from the other side. Pulses from the flip flop outputs are supplied, in certain Each gate circuit

combinations, to gate circuits in the time decoding section. receives several input pulse trains and produces

outPut pulses which are usable i for the timer circuitry (Refer to Figure 8-87e). Basi_ally, a gate will produce output pulses which will have the pulse width of the _rrowest input pulses and If the polarity

the frequency of the input pulse train with the wides_ pulses.

of one input is reversed, the time at which the outpu_ pulse occurs, will chs_e F_ (Refer to Figure 8-87b).

Operational

Control

Two complete modules are required to encompass all of ithe circuitry necessary to perform the control functions in the electronic timeri The register control The

module primarily controls the transfer of data into and out of the timer. memory control module directly controls the operatiom of the magnetic

storage

registers in the memory module.

The register control module supplies the control signals which are required to perform the operations directly associated with the transfer of time data. utilizes the various c_d It

and clock signals from the other spacecraft systems The control signals are then supplied to the receive a new binary data word (as in the updating

to produce its control signals. appropriate circuitry to: (i) process), (2)

initiate the shifting operations of the proper storage registers
l

to write in or read out the desired time data (ET, TX, or TX), and (3)

supply

8-313 "
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

data, read out of the storage registers, to the proper timer output termlnal(s) to be transferred to the system requesting it.

The memory control module directly controls the operation of the magnetic storage registers and performs the arithmetic computations of the counting process. Inputs

from the timing and register control modules are utilized to develop the shift 8nd transfer output pulses ters. for shifting data words into and out of the storage regis-

These pulses are developed separately for each register.

Both control modules are made up of rather complex and overlapping logic circuitry. and transfer ties.

networks of

The memory control module also employs shift current generators

switches, as output stages, to develop the required power capabili-

Storage Register Operation The magnetic storage register to ET, TX, and TX are used to store or remember binary words of time data. registers, as required, spacecraft systems. accomplished, These data words may be shifted out of their respective and for transfer to other

for the counting operations

The transfer of data into and out of a storage register is Bit (LSB) first.

serially, with the Least Significant

A storage register is comprised of a series of magnetic memory cores, each of which is capable of storing one binary bit of time data. This capability is based upon

the characteristic of a magnetic core to saturate in one of two directions when a cu_ent pulse is applied to one of its windings (Figure 8-88). Saturation in

one direction represents a binary I and indicates the presence of a data bit. Saturation in the other direction represents a binary 0 and indicates the absence of data bit. The storage registers for ET and _ to TR each contain 24 magnetic

8-B14
CONFIDENTIAL

j- _ •

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

____
_-'"

PROJ

ECT
(a)

G EM,

,
INPUT FROM F.F. NO. 3 ("O" SIDE)

J_

_I

GATE OUIPUT

SIGNAL

(b)
INPUT FROM F.F. NO. 3 ("0" SIDE)

l

l

'

]

J

_

J

[_

'NPUTFROMF.F.

NO.4("I"SIDE)

I

_

_

--

INPUI[ FROMF.F.

NO.

5("O"SIDE)

[-I
Figure 8-87 Time Decoding

VI
Gate Inputs

I- oA ou u so.A
and Outputs (Typical)

::! :!:_:!: _:! :!:__:_:_:i_ _!_ :_:!:_:_:!: :i:_:_ _:!:i_:!:!:i:!:!:!:!:i:i:i: :_:_:_: :::::::::::::::::::::_:i:i_i_!_i_!_!_:_`,._:_:_:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::_:_!_ :::_:_:_ :!:!:!:!:!:!:!: :!:!: ::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::_:_ _::_:_:: :::_:_: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: _:_:::! _:!:[_:_:!:_:_:: ::::::::::::::::::::::::: : _i:_:_:_:_:i: :!::

CURRENT PULSE _

__

Figure 8-88 Magnetic 8-315

Core Operation

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ E-E"CT"GEMINI

cores and the register ET or TR consists

for TTG to TX contains a word

16.

Therefore,

a binary

word for

of 211- its, while b

for TX consists

of 16 bits.

The use of the binary which days. time. storage can represent Each data bit In looking register time

system for time representation

permits

the storage

of data

an amount

of time as small aB i/8 second and as large as 24 data word represents one individual increment of the represents It is of

in a binary

at the flow diagram represent increment

in Figure

8-89a, the 24 sections

its 2_ individual (i/8 second)

cores.

The data bit which in core number 2_.

the smallest referred next bit with

is stored

to as the LSB in the data word. (representing i/_ of a second)

Core number

23, then would

store the continues,

of the data word. through that

The sequence core number

core number

22 representing

I/2 second, back

i with each one. the that the

successive By adding total

core representing together

a time increment

twice

of the preceding

the increments

of time represented can be determined. of approximately of a data word of time

by all of the cores, Thus, it is found

time capacity

of the register have capacities Conversion

ET and TR registers approximately acc_plished

2_ days and the TX register, to its representative may be

two hours. by totaling

the increments

represented

by the bit positions shown in Figure 8-89b

of the word where binary the representative time

ones are present. is 583 3/8 seconds.

For the data word

The process by

of shifting

a data word

into or out of a storage

register

is controlled of a and

the occurrence

of the shift and transfer each register

pulses and by the condition amplifier. to a storage These pulses

control transfer whenever

gate preceding pulses fr_

and its write-in are supplied

The shift register occur

the control

section

a data word

is to be written

in or read out. time.

once

each bit time for a duration

of one word

The actual

flow of data into a

8-_.6
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

_

PROJECT

GEMII 'il

storage register is controlled by a logic gate precee_ing the write-in amplifier for each register (Figure 8-90). The count enable input of the gate will have The write-

a continuously positive voltage applie& after lift-off has occurred.

in pulse input will have a positive pulse applie_ for i7.6m!crosecon_s _uring each
i

bit time (122 microseconds).

These two inputs control the gate.
;

The result is

that a positive data pulse m_y pass through the gate qnly _uring a 7.6 microsecon_ perio_ _uring each bit tl_e.

When a binary data wor_ is to Be written into a storage register, its ind/vidual bits appear at the input of core number i as a series of current pulses. When the

first current pulse (representing I/8 second) of the _tord flows through the input winding of core number I, the core is saturate_ in the binary i direction. It

remains in this condition until a current pulse flows ithrough the shift winding of the core. The shift pulse causes the flux of the core to collapse an_ reform, When thi_ occurs, a voltage is

switching the core back to the 0 condition.

1
_evelope_ across the output win_ing of the core an_ the temporary storage capacitor is cll_rged through the wind.i_ from the _ic_le et_l., _en! the shift pulse d.ecays anc1

a groun_ potential is place& on the transfer line, the capacitor discharges through the input winding of the next core, setting it to the ibinary i condition.
!

Whenever

a bit position of the incoming data wor_ _oes not contain a pulse, core number I
i

As a result, its shift pulse causes no change of flux; no i i voltage is _eveloped across the output and the capacitor is not charged or disi charged.. Hence, the next core is not set to the 1 condition. ! Because the shift

is not switche_ to I.

pulses are applied,to all the cores in a register, simultaneously, it is assured. that e_ch one is set to the 0 condition before the transfer pulse (also applied. to all cores, simultaneously) allows the storage capacitors to _ischarge. When

8-317
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

__'

PROJECT

GEMINI

(a) (DATA WORD FLOW-COUNTING PROCESS)
STORAGE REGISTER
I

SERIAL INPUT

I "O"

2 "O"

3 "O"

4 "O"

5 "O"

6 "O"

7 "O"

8 "O"

9 "O"

10 "O"

1] "I"

12 "O"

13 "O"

}4 "I"

15 "O"

16 "O"

17 "O"

18 "I"

19 "I"

20 "I"

21 "I"

22 "O"

23 "I"

24 I I "l"

SERIAL OUTPUT

j

NETWORK ADD (OR SUBTRACT)

]

(b) (DATA WORD TIMEREPRESENTATION)
LEAS'/ SIGNIFICANT BIT

k_i:/SS

I/4S "I"

1S "I"

2S "I"

4S "l"

64S

512S

_rL_J1
"I*'

rl r!_J1

rJ
"l"

n
*'I"

DATA STORED IN WORD REGISTER

Figure
:::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::: ::::::::i:

8-89Time

Data

Word

Flow & Representation
::::: : :: : :: : : ::: :: : : : : : : :: :: : :

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::!::

: ::: ::: :: ::::::::i::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::

' I
DATA WORD -_,_r_..._, I " -_ IWR,,E A_'E'ER ,N
COUNT ENABLE I _] _,.,.J._L _

I
L _TORAGE
_. REGISTER SHIFT CURRENT

_"D
R23 E24 -

l

_

_]___

IDATA

! NSEE., --i T

"

Figure

8-90

Schematic

Diagram-Storage 8-318

Register

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

a complete binary

word has been

written

into the register, data bits.

the _cores which

are in the

i condition

contain

the binary

Reading

a data word

out of a storage

register

involves

basically

the same processes

aswriting onein.

The data bits the register repetition

shift from first.

left to right, with

the bit in core number

21_ leaving with each

An additional process.

bit is shifted

out of the register

of the

shifting

Counting

Operatlons operation for each of the timer cycling functions consists of reading a binary

The counting data word

out of a storage

register,

it throug h an arithmetic 8-89a.

network, is the

and writing completed

it back into the register. time

(Refer to Figure every

The operation

in one word

and is repeated

i/8 s_cond.

In the process,

time representation

of the word is changed

by an increment

of I/8 second.

The read and write

portions

of the counting

operation

take place

concurrently.

As

the first data bit is shifted to the right, place, leaving

out of a register, I vacant.

the remaining
I

bits shift

shift one core operation takes

core number has been

Before

the next

the bit which

shifted

out of the register back

is cycled,

instantaneously, i. The process word

throught

the arithmetic

circuitry

and inserted

into core number

is the same for each bit is shifted 24.

of the word.

Thus, when

the bast bit

of the original into

out of the register, cycles

the first bit of the new one shifts through the arithmetic circuitry

core number core

The last bit then

and enters

number i, completing

the counting operation.

8-S19
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL.

PROUEC--T-'G'-EM
In the arithmetic register separate portion of the counting process,

IN I
the output of the elapsed time to

is supplied subtract

to an add circuit Both types Their

and those

frcm the TR and TX registers are made up of combinations the main

circuits.

of circuits operation

of logic and switching difference being

circuits.

is quite

similar,

in their logic programs.

The add process (the LSB)

for the ET consists coming

of adding

a binary

I to the first bit position_ is already a i in that

of the word

into the add circuit.

If there

bit position, continues

the i is carried

to the next bit position. an open bit position.

The carry

operation

until the i reaches

When the first bit the add circuit inverted register. core number has been sentative register

of a data word

read out of the ET register output signal.

is a binary

0

produces

a positive amplifier

The positive

signal is then

by the write-in

and supplied

to the input a binary

of the storage into

With a negative

input to the register, of the new word. 0 to a binary

i is written

I as the first bit from a binary

Thus, the first bit of the word 1/8 seconds back to the repreinto the

changed

i adding

time of the word. just as they were

The remaining read out.

bits

are written

When a binary output

i is read out the ET register will be negative.

as the first

bit of a data word, by the write-in at the register

the

of the add circuit

Upon inversion signal

amplifier,

the signal will be positive. 0 to be written

A positive core.

input

causes a binary consecutive, negative,

into the first

If the subsequent of the add circuit remains of

data bits are also binary binary

l's, the output

causing

l's to be %-ritten into the register.

Upon receipt of the add

the first binary

0 in the data word from the register,

the output

8-320
CON FIDENTIAL.

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PROJ

s o.oo
_.
A binary i in the sixth bit

circuit becomes positive, causing a binary i to be written back into the register for that bit position. For example, if the first five bits of the word being read

out of the register are binary l's (representing a total of B 7/8 seconds of ET) and the next one is a binary O, then the first five bits of the new word will be binary O's; and the sixth will be a binary I. position represents and ET of four seconds.

The remaining bits of the data

word, again, are inserted back into the register Just as they were read out.

Although the circuitry of a subtract network is much the same as that of an add network, the operation is different because of the subtract logic. If the

LSB of a word coming into a subtract network is a binary I, the output for that bit position will be negative, causing a binary O to be written back into register. In this case, the 1/8 second has now been subtracted, and the balance If the LSB of the incoming word is a binary 0

of the word will remain the same.

the output of the subtract network will become positive, allowing a binary i to be written into the register. The output of the subtract circuitry will remain When this occurs, the

positive until the first binary I enters the circuitry.

output becomes negative and causes a binary 0 to be written into the register. The rest of the word is then written back into the register Just as it came out. Data Transfer Binary words of time data are transferred into and out of the electronic timer by several different methods. Data words received from the ground station, via

the DCS, are inserted directly into their respective storage registers in the timer. Data from the guidance system computer, however, is transferred into the

buffer register of the timer and then shifted into the proper storage register.

8-321
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PROJE-E-CTG

EMINI

The

same process a word

is involved is shifted

in the transfer

of data from the timer register

to the register

computer:

out of its storage Data

into the buffer

and then transferred Instrumentation register storage

to the computer. is accomplished

transfer

from the timer

to the

System

by shifting

the desired

data out of its is coupled to a

to a pulse transformer. register

The output

of the transformer

in the instrumentation

System.

Timer

Interfaces is a list of the inputs and outputs a brief description of each: of the electronic timer

The following together with

INPUTS

(a)

A continuous at lift-off

28 vdc

signal from the spacecraft

Sequential

System

to start the recording start

of ET and countdown timer

of TR _ud TX. to initiate signal be of

(b)

A 28 volt emergency the electronic is not received crew-ground timer

signal from the event in the event System.

operation

that the lift-off The signal would by actuation

from the Sequential and would

co-ordinated

be initiated

the event timer UP/DN (c) A Read, rite co_uand

switch to UP. signal from the digital computer to direct

the timer as to which (d) A _ to TR address TTG to TR.

function

is to be accomplished. computer to update or

si_ual

from the digital

readout (e) A _

to T x address signal from the digital computer to enter

a TTG to x. T

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFII)ENTIAL

PROJE

(f)

An elapsed time address signal from the digital computer to readout ET.

(g)

Twenty-four clock pulses from the digital computer to accomplish data transfer. timer.) (25 pulses for data transfer out of the electronic

(h)

Write data for update of TTG to TX, or TTG to Tx from the digital computer. LSB first. Twenty-four data bits will be forwarded serially,

(1)

A TTG to TR ready signal from the DCS to command update of TTG to

(J)

A TTG to Tx ready signal from the DCS to co,and to TX.

entry of a TTG

(k)

Serial data from the DCS to update TTG to TR, or TTG to Tx. Twenty-four data bits will be forwarded serially, LSB first. timer.

Clocking is provided by the electronic (1) (m) (n)

TTG to TR readout signals from the Instrumentation System. An elapsed time readout signal from the Instrumentation System.

An AGE/count inhibit signal from ground based equipment, via the spacecraft umbilical, time prior to launch. to keep the elapsed time register at zero

(o)

A clock hold signal from ground based equipment, via the spacecraft umbilical, launch. to prevent the timer from operating prior to

.

(p)

An event relay reset signal from ground based equipment, via the spacecraft umbilical.

8- SeB
CONFIDE_NTIAL

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PROJECT

GEMINI

(q)

An event relay check signal from ground based equipment, via the spacecraft umbilical.

OUTPUTS (a) (b) (c) (d) A contact closure at TR for the digital computer. A contact closure at TR (Continuous) for the Sequential System. A contact closure at TX for the DCS. Read data to the digital computer for ET or TTG to TR . Data bits are forwarded (e) (f) (g) serially, LSB first.

Signal power (12 +0 volts) to the DCS and Instrumentation System. -1 Twenty-four clock pulses to the DCS to accomplish data transfer. Twenty-four clock pulses to the Instrumentation System to accomp-

lish data transfer. (h) Serial data to the Instrumentation System for readout of ET or TTG to TR. (1) Data bits are forwarded serially, LSB first.

A contact closure from TR-256 seconds to TR for the Sequential System.

(J)

A contact closure from TR-30 seconds to TR for the Sequential System.

(k)

An input power monitor signal to ground based equipment via the spacecraft umbilical.

TIME COPd_ELATION_UFFER

General The Time Correlation Buffer (TCB) supplies the time correlation signals for the Serial data and data clock output from

blo-medical and voice tape recorder.

8-324
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PROJECT

GEMINI

=

the electronic timer is applied to the TCB input.

Serial data contains 24 elapsed The

time words, and extra elapsed time word and a time-to-go to retrograde word.

TCB selects the extra elapsed time word end modifies the word format to make it compatible wlth the tape recorder frequency responses. Information to the

recorder is updated once every 2.4 seconds and has the same resolution (1/8 second) as the electronic timer.

Construction The dimensions of the TCB (Figure 8-84) are 2.77 x 3.75 x B.80 inches and the weight is approximately B.O pounds. eatable multivibrator, provides The TCB contains magnetic shift registers, a i00 kc One 19 pin connector

a power supply and logic circuitry. connections.

both input end output

Operation The operation of the TCB is dependent on signals from the Instrumentation and the electronic timer. System, the electronic System

In response to request pulses from the Instrumentation elapsed time and tlme-to-go to retrograde

timer provides

words to both the Instrumentation supplied every I00 milliseconds.

System and the TCB.

The elapsed time word is

In addition, once every 2.4 seconds it provides

an extra elapsed time word and i00 milliseconds later it provides a tlme-to-go to retrograde word.

The TCB requires elapsed time information only, therefore, the tlme-to-go to retrograde word is rejected. The tape recorders, due to their response times,

are not capable of recording time data every I00 milliseconds end for this reason only the extra elapsed time word is accepted by the TCB. The remaining

24 elapsed time words and the time-to-go to retrograde word are rejected by logic

8-_
CONF|OENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

_oo
GEMINI
The TCB then shifts out bits The shift rate is based on data clock

circuitry in the TCB. ship to other words.

Rejection of unused words is based on their time relation-

The TCB contains three 8-bit magnetic shift registers in which the 24-bit extra elapsed time word is loaded once every 2.4 seconds. at the rate of one every i00 milliseconds. pulses from the electronic timer.

The first data clock pulse in a word causes the

TCB to shift out one blt of the data and the other 23 data clock pulses are disregarded.

Each bit that is shifted out of the shift register is stretched in time and coded to make it compatible wlth tape recorder response times. The output to the bio-

medical recorder is one positive pulse for a binary O and two positive pulses for a binary i. The most significant bit has two additional pulses to distinguish Data is shifted out of the TCB in a least

it from the other 23 bits in the word.

significant bit first and most significant or marker bit last.

The output to the voice tape recorder is the same basic format as for the biomedical recorders. However, to make it compatible wlth the higher frequency

response characteristics into two pulses, doubling

of the voice tape recorder, each output pulse is chopped the frequency.

All input and output signals are coupled through complete DC isolation.

isolation

transformers

providing

MISSION ELAPSED TIME DIGITAL CLOCK The mission elapsed time digital clock (used on spacecraft 6 through 12) is capable of counting time up to a maximum of 999 hours, 59 minutes and 59 seconds. The time

8-3
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFiDENTiAL

PROJECT

GEMI

I

is displayed on a decimal display indicator on the face of the unit. tumbler of the display is further graduated in 0.2 second increments. may be started or stopped manually.

The seconds Counting

Prior to initiating a counting operation,

the indicator should be electrically present to the desired starting time which i normally starts from zero at llft-off and counts mission elapsed time in real time.

Construction The dimensions of the digital clock are approximately 2 inches by 4 inches by 6 inches and its weight is approximately 2 pounds. there are two controls and a decimal displaywlndow. electronic modules, a relay and a step servo motor. servo motor with the decimal display tumblers. Onithe face of the clock The unit contains four Aigear train connects the

An electrical connector is

provided at the rear of the unit for power and signal inputs.

Operation Operation of the digital clock is dependent on timing pulses from the electronic timer. The time base used for normal counting operations in the digital clock The

is derive_ from the 8 pps t_m_ng pulse output of the electronic timer.

8 pps signal is buffered and used to establish the repetition rate of a step servo motor. tumblers. The step servo motor is coupled through a gear train to display

Additional counting rates are selectable fo_ the purpose of setting !

the clock to a desired starting point.

Start/Stop Operation _ Remote starting of the digital clock is accomplished h_ providing the 8 pps timing pulses from the electronic timer. Before remote starting can be accom-

plished, the START/STOP switch must be in the START positlon and the DEC_/INCR

8- 7
CONFIDENTIAL

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PROJEMINI

__oo
starting of the digital clock can be switch magnetic counting by by placing the START/STOP the start side of the start/stop voltages to the and operating to begin.

....

switch must be in the 0 position. accomplished (if timing pulses

Manual

are available)

in the START position. latching circuitry, removing relay.

This energizes applies

The relay the

control

allowing

counting

operation

Counting

may be stopped

the time base

(8 pps) from the clock removing voltage

or by placing the

the START/STOP

switch

in the STOP position,

and disabling

circuitry.

Counting

Operations relays are actuated and operating dc enable voltage signal The of plus 28 volts dc

When the start/stop

applied to the servo motor, count gate. This initiates

a plus 12 volt the counting is buffered

is applied

to the normal provides logic

sequence.

electronic

timer

and 8 pps t4mlng section.

signal which

and supplied

to the sequential

Sequential necessary direction

logic

section

consists

of four set-reset

flip flops which

provide

the

sequences

of output

signals

to cause the servomotor As the counting (reset output process

to step in one begins, three of

of the other

(Figure 8-91 ).

the flip flops are in the reset in the set condition pulse, remains the next flip (set output

condition positive).

positive)

and one is

With receipt

of the first timing The first one also another timing pulse The

flop switches

to the set condition. reset. Then, when

set, but the other two remain

is received, sequence resetting third

the first flip flop resets, with alternate one. reset, timing

leaving pulses

only

the second

one set. then

continues

setting

one flip flop,

the preceding

After

the fourth

flip flop has been switched

set and the

one subsequently

the first

one is again

to the set

condition

and the sequence

is started

over again.

In order to have the logic

8-328
CONFIDENTIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

sEoR00 3 _ -_'_ PROJECT GEMiNi __

-_T--_--_

., I

BUFFER

-I

CONTROL SECTION FUNCTION ]

CLOCK

I
OSCILLATOR Z U CONTROL PANEL

l
OPERATING VOLTAGES

o
CONTROL "FORWARD" SEQUENTIAL LOGIC SECTION

CONIROL UPDATE "FWD" CONTROL

CONTROL l

l

Z

_

0

0 Z$

I

CONVERSION AND DRIVER SECTION 2J I 8PPS B • J

2
REMOTE STOP (TEST USE ONLY) ÷28V DC E I D " • +28V I

r--o-8PPS RETURN POWERGND CHASSIS GND C F H

---

_

+12V

_

__ --1,,,,

-

__ o ?
C_ I I • O _

+28V

J I

i

Figure

8-91

Mission

Elapsed

Time

Digital

Clock

Functional

Diagram

8-329 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

section function properly, either a forward or reverse control signal must be received from the start/stop relay. These are used as steering signals for the For counting up, the control When

t_mlng pulses which set and reset the flip flops.

signals cause the flip flop operating sequence to be in one direction. counting down, they cause the sequence to reverse; first, then number 3, etc., back through number 1.

flip flop number _ is set The output of the sequential

logic circuit is applied to the power converison and driver section.

The power conversion

and driver section converts the voltage-pulse

outputs of the The

logic section to current pulses which are used to drive the servomotor. driver section provides four separate channels, one for each input. has a logic gate and a power driver.

Each channel

The logic gate permits the logic section The gate senses only the

output to be sensed at ten selected times each second.

occurence of a positive signal which will allow the power driver to conduct and send a pulse of current through one of the four se_vomotor stator windings.

The sequence of pulses from the driver section causes the servomotor to step eight times each second and 45° each step. Figure 8-92 illustrates the step

positions relative to the sequence of operating pulses from the driver section. If pulses were applied to each of the four servomotor windings, without overlap, the unit would step 90° each repetition. It is this overlapping of signal

applications which causes it to step 45° at a time.

The display indicator is a rotating

counter with wheels to display seconds, tens

of seconds, minutes, and tens of minutes, hours, tens of hours and hundreds of hours' It is coupled to the servomotor through a gear train with a reduction Therefore, as the servomotor rotates 360° -

ratio, from the servomotor, of I0:i.

8-33o
CONFIDENTIAL

,j+,--.

CONFiDENTiAL SEDR 300

/

PROJECT

GEMINI

P8 o

P7 •

"

P1

PERMANENT _2BV S; P6" ROTG2R P2

i

( P

PER_

_NT/"

1 3

Ti P'CAL)

NoTE
(I) PI-P8 ARE ROTOR POSITIONS $4 $6

OPERATION GROUNDSI, GROUNDS6 OPEN $I GROUND $3 OPEN $6 GROUND $4 OPEN$3 GROUND SI OPEN $4 GROUNDS6 OPEN $6 GROUND $4 OPEN SI GROUND $3 OPEN $4 GROUND $6 OPEN $3 GROUND $I

RESULT ROTOR INDEXES TO ARBITRARy REF. POSITION ROTOR STEPS 45° C.W. (P2) ROTOR STEPS 45 ° C.W. (P3) ROTOR STEPS 45 ° C.W. (P4) ROTOR STEPS 45 ° C.W. (PS) ROTOR STEPS 45° C.W. (P6) ROTOR STEPS 45 ° C.W. (P7) ROTOR STEPS 45 ° C.W. (PS) ROTORRETURNS TO REF. POSITION (PI) ROTOR STEPS 45 ° C.C.W. (PE) ROTOR STEPS 45 = C.C.W. (P7) ROTOR STEPS 45 ° C.C.W. (P6) ROTOR STEPS 45 ° C.C.W. (FS) ROTOR STEPS 45 ° C.C,W, (P4) ROTOR STEPS 45 ° C.C.W. (P3) ROTOR STEPS 45 ° C.C.W, (P2) ROTOR RETURNS TO REF. POSITION (PI) (PI)

Figure 8-92 Step Servomotor Operation 8-331
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

PROJ EC--C"T-'GEM INI
(in one second), the indicator shaft turns 36° or 1/8 of a rotation. Since the

seconds wheel is directly coupled to the shaft and is calibrated from zero to nine, a new decimal is displayed each second. As the seconds wheel moves from The operations

nine to zero, the tens-of-seconds wheel moves to the one position. of the other wheels are similar.

Updating The display may be returned to zero or updated to some other readout with the use of the DECR-INCR rotary switch on the face of the timer. The rotary switch must

be in the 0 position in order to have the timer operate at a normal rate; with the switch in one of the other position, it counts at a different rate. There are _

three rate selections, each for the INCR and DECR (count-up and count-down) Ulxlating modes. The positions on each side that are farthest from the 0 position are The next closer The positions

utilized to make the timer count at 25 times its normal rate.

positions are utilized to count at three times the normal rate.

nearest the 0 position are used to count at a rate 0.B times the normal one. This position serves to more accurately place the indicator at a desired readout.

Operationally, positioning the rotary switch in some position other than 0 causes the time base frequency from the electronic timer to be replaced in the circuitry by an update oscillator. The frequency of the oscillator is established by the

position of the rotary switch. per second; in the 3Xposition, approximately not critical

In the 25X positions, the frequency is 400 cycles it is 48 cps; and in the 0.3Xpositions, it is

4.8 cycles per second. since the oscillator

The accuracy of the oscillator output is only for updating purposes.

functions

8-332
CONFIDENTIAL

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__.

PROJ E

SEDR 300

:

____

Operation of rotary switch supplies a stop co_-nd

to the electronic circuitry,

and stsrt switch must be operated to resume normal count. EVENT TIMER

General The event timer is capable of counting time, either up or down, to a ,_xlmum of 59 minutes and 59 seconds. The time is capable of counting time down to zero

from any preselected time, up to the maximum listed above.

NOTE
When the event timer is counting down_ it will continue through zero if not manually stopped. After counting timer will be1 gln counting down from 59 minutes and 59 seconds. through zero, the

The time is displayed on a decimal display indicator Qn the face of the unit. The seconds tumbler of the display indicator Is further graduated in 0.2 second increments. Counting, In either direction, may be started or stopped either Prior to starting a counting operation, the indicator must I
;

remotely or manually.

be manually preset to the time from which it is deslr_d to start counting. Construction The dimensions of the event time are approximately 2 X 4 x 6 inches and the weight about two pounds. On the face of the timer, there are two toggle switches, one i rotary switch, and a decimal display window. (Refer to Figure 8-84) In addition

to the panel-mounted controls, the unit contains four ielectronlcmodules, two relays, a tuning fork resonator, and a step servo motor. i A gear train connects

8-3S3
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL $EDR 300

the servo motor connector

with the decimal

display

tumblers.

There

is one electrical

on the back of the unit.

O e tion
The operation to Figure of the event timer It provides display when is independent of the electronic timer. (Refer the opera-

8-93)

its own time base which mechanism. the output

is used to control for normal

tion of the decimal operation

The time base used of a tuning

counting to

is developed

for, resonator

is connected the repi-

a series of toggle-type tion rate of a stop-type train, to the display reset

flip flops. servo motor.

The resulting

signal establishes is coupled,

The servo motor counting

through

a gear in order

tumblers.

Additional

rates may be selected desired indication.

to rapidly

the timer

to zero or to some other

Start/Stop

Operations functions of the timer is only operations switch are accomplished in almost

The remote and _manual start/stop exactly signals. the same manner.

The difference counting toggle 8-8_)

in the source of the control by either method, it is neces-

In order to initiate

sary to first have the STOP-STBY off position. (Refer to Figure

in either

the STHY or the center

NOTE
When starting is accomplished with the STOP - STBY inaccuracy is the

switch

in the center position, To prevent any

a small

incurred. STOP - STBY

starting

inaccuracies,

switch is placed the timer.

in the STBY position

before

starting

Manual

starting

may then be accomplished

by placing

the UP-DN

toggle

switch

in

either the UP or the DN position.

This energizes

one of the two coils of the

8-B
CONFIDENTIAL

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PROJECT
j FREQUENCY STANDARD

GEMINI
COUNTDOWN SECTION

STAGES

STAGES

:

I

L__

J

I

RESONATOR i

TUN,NGFO K ATE S OU I UP ' EVERS I
OSCILLATOR "FORWARD" SECTION OPERATINGVOLTAGE. _ RATECONTROL UPDATE "REV" CONTROL

]

J =

I
CONTROL PANEL

iPDAT_ "_D" CONTROL

I
POWER CONT. AND DRIVER SECTION

I

COUNTDOWN HOLD

j

_oP

LMANUAL FORWARD MANUAL REVERSE

F

I
j J

2j L

REMOTESTOP +28V

--

45"

j_

o O REMOTEFORWARD +28V REMOTEREVERSE +28V I_1

L
.

___

I

+28v
__

I I
I 36=,/SEC '

_

_

MIN.

SEC.

Figure

8-93

Event

Timer 8-335

Functional

Diagram

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJ

EC=r ' GEMINI

forward/reverse relay, also causing the start coil of the start/stop relay to be energized. When these events take place, control and operating voltages are supplied When starting is

to the counting circuitry, thus allowing the operation to begin. to be accomplished

remotely, either a remote forward or a remote reverse signal Is The

transmitted from the ground station to energize the forward/reverse relay.

counting process may be stopped upon receipt of a remote stop signal or by placing the STOP-STBY switch in the STOP position. Either of these functions energizes

the stop side of the start/stop relay, removing critical operating voltages from the counting circuitry.

Countin_

Onerations

Normal counting operations begin with the actuation of the forward/reverse relay in either direction and the start/stop relay in the start direction. When the forward/

reverse and the start/stop relays are actuated, an operating voltage of +28 vdc is applied to the servo motor and a ground level inhibit signal is removed from the toggle flip flops. Also, a +12 vdc control signal, denoting either a forward or

reverse counting process, is transmitted to the logic circuitry preceding the servo motor. The remainder of the timer circuitry has operating voltages applied when

the STOP/STBY switch is placed in STBY.

With the application of operating voltages, the tuning fork resonator emits and ac signal of 1280 cycles per second. The signal is passed through a buffer to condl _

tion it for use by the series of seven toggle flip flops in the frequency standard countdown section. Since the output frequency of each fllp flop is half that of Its The

input, the final one in the series generates a signal of ten pulses per second.

outputs of the countdown section are connected to the sequential logic section and the power conversion and d_iver section.

8-SS6
CONFIDENTIAL

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PROJECT

GEMI

Sequential necessary

logic

section

consists

of four set-reset to cause

flip flops

which

provide

the

sequences

of output

signals

the servo motor

to step in one directhree of the flip

tion or the other

(Figure 8-93).

As the counting

procelss begins,

flops are in the reset condition condition (set output positive).

(reset output positive) With receipt

and one is in the set pulse, the next

of the first timing

flip flop switches other two remain fllp flop resets, timing

to the set condition. Then,

The first on_ also timing pulse The

remains

set, but the the first with one.

reset. leaving pulses

when another

is received, sequence

only the second one

one set.

continues

alternate After

setting

flip flop, then

resetting

the preceding

the fourth flip

flop has been

set and the third

first one Is again _-_ again. reverse used

switched

to the set condition section

one subsequently reset, the i and the sequence is started over properly, either a forward These or are

In order to have control

the logic

function

signal must be received signals for the timing signals

from the forwmrd/reverse pulses which

relay.

as steering

s_t and reset operating

the flip sequence

flops. to be flip

For counting

up, the control When

cause

the flip flop

in one direction. flop number

counting

down,

they cause

the sequence

to reverse: number 1.

_ is set first,

then number

3, etc., back through

The power logic driver

conversion

and driver pulses four

section which

converts

the voltage-pulse

outputs

of the The

section section

to current provides

are used channels,

to drive the servo motor.

one for each input. Each channel i has a logic gate and a power driver. The logic gate permits the logic section ! output to be sensed at ten selected times each second, i The gate senses only the occurrence of a positive of current signal which through will allow the power motor driver to conduct and

separate

send a pulse

one of the four servo

stator windings.

8- 337 CONFIDENTIAL

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PROdGEMINI

The

sequence

of

pulses

from

the

_river

section

causes

the

servomotor

to

step

ten

times each second and 45° each step.

Figure 8-92 illustrates the step positions If pulses

relative to the sequence of operating pulses from the driver section.

were applied to each of the four servomotor windings, without overlap, the unit would step 90° each repetition. It is this overlapping of signal applications

which causes it to step 45° at a time.

The display indicator is a rotating counter with wheels to display seconds, tens of seconds, minutes, and tens of minutes. It is coupled to the servomotor through Therefore,

a gear train with a reduction ratio, from the servomotor, of 12.5:1.

as the servomotor rotates _50° (in one seconds), the indicator shaft turns 36° or i/i0 of a rotation. Since the seconds wheel is directly coupled to the shaft As

and is calibrated from zero to nine, a new decimal is displayed each second. the seconds wheel from nine to zero, the tens-of-seconds wheel moves to the one position. The operations of the other wheels are similar.

U_datin_ The display may he returned to zero or updated to some other readout with the use of the DECR-INCR rotary switch on the face of the timer. The rotary switch must

he in the 0 position in order to have the timer operate at a normal rate; with the switch in one of the other positions, it counts at a different rate. There

are three rate selections, each, for the INCR and DECR (count-up and countdown) updating modes. The positions on each side that are farthest from the 0

position are utilized to make the timer count at 25 times its normal rate. The next closer positions are utilized to count at four times the normal rate. The position near_% "'he0 position are used to count at a rate 0._ t_mes the _i

8-338
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

the normal

one.

This

position

serves to more accurately

place

the indicator

at a desired

readout.

Operationally,

positioning

the rotary

switch

in some position
i

other

than

0

causes the tuning replaced osc_11Rtor positions,

fork resonator

and the first

three

toggle

flip flops

to be

in the circuitry is established the frequency

by an update

oscillator.

The frequency switch.

of the In the 25X it is

by the position is 4,000 cycles

of the rotary per second;

in the 4X position, 64 cycles per

6_0 cps; and in the 0.4X positions, The accuracy tions of the oscillator

it is approximately

second. func-

output

is not critical since

the oscillator

only for updating

purposes.

ACCUTRON

CLOCK clock (Figure 8-84), located on the co_,and pilot's control The panel. clock minute

The Accutron The clock

is approximately dial with

2 3/8 inches divisions

square

and on e inch thick.

has a 24 hour hand

major

on the half hour. for a precise

An hour hand,

and a sweep second The unit

hand are provided

indication

of the time interface for

of day. with

is completely The clock

self contained is capable

and has no electrical continuously

the spacecraft. one year

of operating battery.

approximately

on the internal

mercury

Operation The Accutron clock is provided with one control knob. The knob is used to stop,

set and start the timer From the depressed

as desired.

To stop the timer,

the control

is depressed. The

position,

the clock

can be set to the desired knob is released.

time.

clock will

start automatically

when the control

8-339
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJEC--T-"GEMINI

The Accutron clock is a highly accurate device with an error of less than + 3 seconds per day. This high degree of accuracy is made possible by using a tuning

fork as the time standard, instead of the conventional balance wheel and hair spring. The tuning fork is magnetically driven at a natural frequency of 360 cps.

The tuning fork frequency is adjustable, ma_ing precise calibration of the clock possible. The vibrational motion of the tuning fork is converted to rotational one revolution per day, one revolution per hour

motion to provide outputs of:

and one revolution per _luute, for the clock hands.

_CHANXCAL Construction

CLOCK

The mechanical clock is shown in Figure 8-84. x 2 _4 x 3 _4

The unlt is approximately 2 1/4 The dial face is calibrated in

inches and weighs about one pound.

increments of 0-24 and 0-60.

The clock has two hands for the time of day portion The controls for operating both portions of

and two for the stopwatch portion.

the clock are located on the face of the unit.

O_eration The clock is a mechanical device which is self-powered and required no outside inputs. minutes. The hand and dial-face clock displays Greenwich Mean Time in hours and A control on the face provides for winding and setting the unit. With

the passing of each 24-hour period, the calendar date indicator advances to the next consecutive number. The stopwatch portion of the clock can be started, Two settable markers are provided on

stopped, and returned to zero at any time.

the minute dial to provide a time memory, permitting the clock to serve as a
--\

short-term back-up timer.

CONFIDENTIAL

CONF|DENTIAL.

PROPULSION

SYSTEMS

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE GENERAL INFORMATION ........ ORBIT ATTITUDE AND HANEUVERING SYSTEM,el. ...e.eee. SYSTEH DESCRIPTION: . ...... SYSTEM OPERATION..... ..... SYSTEM UNITS. . ...... RE-ENTRY CONTROL SYSTEM........ SYSTEM DESCRIPTION.... .... SYSTEM OPERATION ..ooeooQeeO SYSTEM UNITS eQeoeeeeeeeee . . . . . . • , . i . PAGE 8-343 8-343 8-343 8-349 8"352 8-369 8-369 8-374

_

8 376

8-341 GONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

_,- "
._T _

PROJECT

GEMINI
__

SEDR3OO

___S

RI_E'_USUL_R_OR

ORBIT ATT,TUDE MANUEVER,NG

SYSTEM km

°E__j

_.¢KA_E

"A"PACKAOE
"D" PACKAGE

!QQ P',_=-' UP
O Q YAWLEFT

e®'T 'DO N II
I Q Q ROLL CLOCKWISE I

"B" PACKAGE

vO_v_ZER S"U OF

/_

_@ _OLL¢OUNTE_¢LO I LEJ _ANS_TEAFT _ PORWARD I ®® ) _NS_TE I

,C°ONL TRANS ITEDOW ®
OXIDIZER OXIDIZER TANK TANK (S/C 6, 8 & UP) (S/C 50NLY)_

(s/c 8&uP)
FUEL TANK (S/C 8 & UP)

CUTTER/' SEALERS OXIDIZER FUEL TANK TANK

(s/c 6,8&9) (s/c6, 8&uP)
{S/C 5 ONLY) (2 REQ'D)

,
I (S/i0

t

8, UP)_

I

EQUIPMENT SECTION _

RETRO SECTION

.CABIN SEETI ".

Figure

8-94

Orbit

Attitude

Maneuvering 8-842 CONFIDENTIAL

System

and

'I'CA

Location

OONPIOMNTIAL

___

SEDR 300

,

PROPULSIONSYSTEM @_RAL INF0_ATION
Sl_cecraft (Figure mission, is provided 8-94). with an attitude capability vehicle and maneuvering is used separation during until control the entire the reengine

The Gemini capability. spacecraft

This control

from the time

of launch

entry phase is completed. systems, Control the Orbit Attitude System (RCS).

Spacecraft

control

is accomplished (OA_)

by two rocket

and Maneuvering

System

and the l_-entry

The OAMS controls fthe time phase during of launch

the spacecraft vehicle

attitude

and provides

maneuver

capability

from

separation

until

the initiation control

of the retrograde for the re-entry module

of the mission. the re-entry

The RCS provides

attitude

phase

of the mission. Control

The 0AMS and RCS respond Electronics

to electriin the

cal c_u_ands automatic

from the Attitude

Maneuvering mode.

(ACME)

mode

or from the crew in the manual

ORBIT ATTIT_ SY_

AND __

DESCRXPTXON
Maneuvering storable is System liquid, of (OAMS) (Figure 8-94) is a fixed thrust,

The Orbit Attitude

cold gas pressurized, propulsion earth's chamber system_ ataosphere. assemblies

hypergolic operating

hi-propellant, in the
i

self cont_Line_ outside thrust assemblies with the the

which

capable

environment by firing chamber

Maneuvering (TCA) singly points

capability

is obtained

or in groups. the adapter acceleration

The thrust
!

are mounted modes

at various

about

in locations required.

consistent

of rotational

or translation

8 -343
OONFIDMN'rlAI.

j

:_.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

COMMAND PILOT INSTRUMENT PANEL

PEDESTAL INSTRUMENT

PANEL

INSTRUMENT

PANEL

'_'z/

CENTER CONSOLE

FUEL TANK

PACKAGE t "D"

FUEL SUPPLY SHUT OFF/ON _ FUEL TANK S/C 8&UP VALVE THRUST CHAMBER (TYP 16 pLACES) "_

RESERVE

HEATER

,_F ,, S/C 8 & UP " S/C 5 & 6 PRESSURE---" _OXIDIZER SUPPLY SHUT

'RESSU_NT S_O_GB

"A" PACKAGE

--

h "E .... I- B" '_" o:,ON PACKAGE CKAGE PAC_GE

OVERHE.a SW & CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL

T-TEMPERATURE SENSOR P-PRESSURETRANSDUCER M'_MOTOR V-PYROTECHNIC VALVE LEGEND INSTRUMENT PANEL

OXIDIZER NK

OVERHEAD SW & CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL

-\ j

CENTER CONSOLE

Figure

8-95

OAMS

Control

& Indicator

Schematic

8-344 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIOIENTIAL

SEDR300

The

OAMS provides axes left, (roll, up,

a means pitch, down,

of

rotating yaw) and the

the and aft).

spacecraft translation The

about control

its in of

three six attitude and

attitude directions and docking with

control (right, translational another

and forward creates

cumbina%ion of

maneuvering space vehicle in

capability

rendezvous

orbit.

The primary used, after vehicle

purpose firing

of OAMS is spacecraft of shaped charges,

control

in orbit.

The OAMS is also from the launch occur late in

to separate

the Spacecraft may

during

a normal

launch

or in case of an abort which of retrograde feed lines sequence,

the launch phase. devices

During

initiation

tubing

cutter/sealer adapter. from the functions All

sever and seal the propellant (except with six TCA's located section

from the equipment

of the OAMS spacecraft

in retro

section)

are separated Spacecraft

the equipment

of the adapter. System (RCS).

control

are then assumed are mounted control several Schematic

by the Re-entry frame

Control (module

OAMS control

_,nlts and tan_ section. consists The of

on a structural

concept)

in _he equipment Each package

units consist functioning (Figure

of forged

and welded and filters.

"packages"

components

The OAMS iControl and Indicator i
i

8-95) is a simplified related Control

schematic

of the indicators System. Electronics

and manual controls The

controls which are provided delivery tubing group,

are directly

to the Propulsion and Maneuvering

Additional

by the Attitude

(ACME) System brazed pressurant

of pressurant, system.

fuel and oxidizer The OAMS system

is accomplished is divided

by a uniquely groups;

manifold

into three

fuel/oxidizer

group and Thrust

Chamber

Assambly i (TCA) group.

Pre. srarant Group f The pressurantgroup (Figure 8-96) consists of a pressuranttank, "A" package,

CON_IDINTIAL

j

_..

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

PROJECT
PURGE

GEMINI

TESTVALVE

CHARGING

VALVE FUEL TANK

_, HIGH PRESSURE PRESSURE HIGH _ _ "F" PACKAGE _,_ i'_ RESERVE FUEL TANK (S/C 8 & UP) _ (S/C 8 & UP)

_(ONE TANK ON TWO TANKS Orl S/C 6, 8 & 9. THREETANKS _ ON S/C 10 aUP.)

_ _h'_:

_

I l I I

_

_

LEGEND
.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'." k '_'_'k'_k'k_k_ PRESSURANT FUEL

I NORMALLY CLOSED • SOURCE _" PRESSURE _
JlBId

.'-'.'-'.'.'- '-.'.'.•• .'-" OXIDIZER .

PYROTECHNIC VALVE

PACKAGE

PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

FUEL TANK VENT VALVE

'

BURST

REGULATED PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

DIAPHRAGM RELIEF CHECK VALVE

NORMALLY OPEN PYROTECHNIC VALVE FILTERS "E PACKAGE " FILTER CHECK VALVE MANUAL BYPASS VALVE TWO WAY SOLENOID VALVE FILTERS BURST DIAPHRAGB

VALVE CHECK VALVE I OVERBOARD RELIER VALVE TEST PORTS OXIDIZER VENT VALVE SWITCH VALVE TEST

NORMALLY CLOSED PYROTECHNIC VALVE

JLATOR

E

OUT TEST

_GASUTR_i_

.......................

;_

PURGE FTORT

NORMALLY CLOSED PYROTECHNIC VALVE [_ ADDITIONAL

NOTE
TANKS ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL.

_..............................................,..

Figure

8-96

Orbit

Attitude

Maneuvering 8-346 CONFIDENTIAL

System

Schematic

(Sheet

1 of 2)

i

: _.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

___¢_)'

PROJECT

GEMINI

__

"D" PACKAGE FUEL CHARGINGF_ _-

PY'ROEECHNIC VALVE

I
FUEL TEST VALVE LX RX

VALVE _]ENO,_L_CLOSE D;
P_F_/D

PROPELLANT FUEL SUPPLY SHUTOFF VALVE LINE CUTTER/ SEALER

__.;.;__.___._._._.___._`_`___._._._._`_.___._.__:._._._._._._.___._._.:`:__.___._._`_'_._._`_ :.:.:.:.:

Figure 8-96 Orbit Attitude

Maneuvering 8-347
CONFIDENTIAL

System

Schematic

(Sheet 2 of 2)

CONFIDENTIAL

"E" tseks_e, package.

"F" package Inlet valves,

on Spacecraft ports and test

8 thru ports

12, are

pressure provided

regulator, at accessible

and "B" points to

permit servicing, venting, purging and testing.

Filters are provided throughout The pressurant is isolated

the system to prevent cQntam4nation of the system.

in the storage ta-_ dur_nS pro-launch periods by a normally closed pyrotechnic actuated valve, located in the "A" package. On Spacecraft 8 thru 12, the pressurant

is isolated from the reserve fuel tank by the "F" package.

l_el/Oxidizer Group The fuel/oxidizer (propellant) group (Figure 8-96) consists of expulsion bladder Charging

storage tanks, "C" and "D" packages and two propellant shut off valves.

valves and ports and test valves and ports are provided at accessible points to permit servicing, venting, purging and testing. The propellants are isolated in

the storage tanks by normally closed, pyrotechnic actuated valves ("C" and "D" packages). Filters are provided in the "C" and "D" packages, down stream of the

isolation valves, to guard against contamination of the thrust chamber assemblies. The propellants used are: OXIDIZER - nitrogen tetroxide (N20_ conforming to specification MIL - P - 26539 A FUEL - monomethyl hydrazine (N2H3CH3) conforming to specification MIL - P - 27_O_ Thrust Chamber Assembl_ (TCA) Group The TCA group consists of thrust chambers and electrical solenoid valves. teen TCA's are used per spacecraft (Figure 8-9_). Six-

Eight twenty-five pound thrust Six onef_

capacity TCA's are used for attitude control, (roll, pitch and yaw).

8-3_8
CONFIDENTIAl.

CONFIDENTIAL

hundred pound and two eight-five pound thrust capacity TCA's are used for translational maneuvering.

SYST_

OPERATION

Pressurant

Group

The pressurant tank contains high pressure helium (He)istored at 3000 PSI. (Figure 8-96). charging port. The tank is serviced through the "A" p_ckage high pressure gas Pressure frcm the pressurant tan_ is isolated from the remainder

of the system by a normally closed pyrotechnic actuated isolation valve located in the "A" package. Upon command, the system isolation valve is opened and

pressurized helium flows through the "E" package, to the pressure regulator, "B" i
i

f_

package and propellant tanks.

Normally, pressurant is!controlled through system The "B"

pressure regulator, and regulated pressure flows to the "B" package.
i

package serves to deliver pressurant at regulated pressure to the fuel and oxidizer tanks, imposing pressure on the propellant tank bladder exteriors. Relief valves

in the "B" package prevent over pressurization of the System downstream of the regulator. Burst diaphragms are provided in series with the relief valves, in system pressure

the "B" package, to provide a positive leak tight seal between i and the relief valve.

The "E" package provides a secondary mode of pressure regulation in the event of regulator failure. In the event of regulator over-preSsure failure, resulting in

excess pressure passage through the regulator, a pressure switch ("E" package) intervenes and automatically closes the normally open qartridge valve. I _ pressure is then controlled manually by the crew by momentary placing Regulated the OAMS-

OONPIOBNllAI.

CONFIDENTIAL

PMINI
SEDR 300

R_G

switch in the _

position.

(Figure re_ulated

8-95). pressure

Control

pressure

information 5

is obtained

from the "B" package pressure failure selection

transducer 8 thru

on spacecraft 12. Should

and 6, the "F" package regulator under-pressure This

transducer occur, opens

on spacecraft

the crew can manually the normally

select the OAMS-REG and closes the Pressure infor-

switch to S_. normally

closed valve

open valve,

thus pressurant

by-passes

the regulator

completely. pressure

is then regulated mation obtained

manually

(OAMS-PULSE)

by the crew with pressure

control transducer

from the "B" package pressure

regulated

on spacecraft The "B" The reg-

5 and 6, the "F" package package ulated provides pressure

transducer

on spacecraft

8 thru 12. tanks.

a division

of pressurant

flow to the propellant transducer pressure and provides downstream

is sensed by the pressure (Figure 8-95) indicating failure,

a signal to the r.

_ahin instrument, •

of the regulator, to manually prevent hack

In the event of regulator maintain the required

the crew utilizes Three system.

the reading check valves

pressure

in the system.

flow of propellant affords a safety

vapors

into the pressurant for prevention

The "B" package

also

feature

of over pressure

on the fuel and oxidizer of the regulator over-

tank bladders.

Should the system be over pressureized would first rupture the burst

downstream

the over pressure hoard through

diaphragms,

then he vented when

the relief valves. to normal.

The relief

valves will

reset

system pres-

sure returns

On spacecraft package. placing

8 thru 12, the pressurant closed pyrotechnic switch (Figure

flows

from the "B" package in the "F" package

to the "F" is opened by

The normally the 0AMS RESV

valve

8-95)

in the SQUIB

position, allowing

pressurant

to flow to the reserve

fuel tank .....

8-350 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMI141

Fuel/Oxidizer Group Fuel and oxidizer are stored in their respective tank: and are isolated from the remainder of the system by normally closed pyrotechni_ valves in the "C" (oxidizer) and "D" (fuel) packages. Upon command, the "A" (presSurant), "C" and "D" package The pressurant imposes )ressure on the propellant

isolation valves are opened.

tank bladders and fuel and oxidizer are distributed through their separate tubing manifold systems to the _,let of the thrust chamber solenoid valves. Upon c_and

on spacecraft 8 thru 12, the normally closed pyrotechnic valve in the "F" package is opened to allow pressurant to impose pressure on the reserve fuel tank bladder to distribute reserve fuel to the thrust chamber solenoid valve. i Two electrically

operated motor control valves (Figure 8-95) are located in the propellant feed !_nes, upstream of the TCS's. In the event of fuel or oxicizer leakage through

the TCA solenoid valves, the motor operated valves can be closed by the crew to prevent loss of propellants. The valves can again be iactuated open by the crew,

when required, to deliver propellants to TCA solenoids.

Th_ rust

Chamber Assembly

(TCA) Group

Upon co_and

from the autQmatic or manual controls, signals are transmitted ! through the Attitude Control Maneuvering Electronics (ACME) to selected TCA's to
i

open simultaneously the normally closed, quick-acting i fuel and oxidizer solenoid

i
valves mounted on each TCA. rected through _11 In response to these commands, propellants are diThe controlled injector Jets into the combustio_ chamber.

l
fuel and oxidizer impinge on one another, where they ignite hypergollcally to burn and create thrust. Heaters are connected to each TCA oxidizer solenoid valve
i

to prevent freeze-up and are activated by an OAMS RTRS switch (Figure 8-95).

CONIIIDENTIAL

8-351

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

SEDR 300

S1rS_ UNZTS

Pressurant The helium is 16.20

Stor86e pressurant inches

Tank is stored diameter in welded, has titanium an internal therein spherical volume of tar_. 1696.0 Tank cubic dJJaen_ion inches.

outside

and

The helium

gas is stored at 3000 psi rand held actuated valve.

by the "A" package

norm_11y the

closed pyrotechnic fuel and oxidizer to the pressurant ment and telemetry.

The pressurized tanks.

helium

is used to expel sensors

from their respective tank and outlet

Temperature readings

are affixed

line to provide

for the cabin instru-

"A" Package The "a" package valve, (Figure 8-97) consists gas charging of a source pressure _nd test transducer, isolation __

two high pressure transducer

valves and filters. an electric

The source signal to The from to

pressure

monitors

tank pressure

and transmits

the propellant normally

indicator

in the cabin isolation

and to the Instrumentation valve is used to isolate

System. pressure

closed pyrotechnic of the system.

the remainder activate valves

The valve

is actuated

to the open position

the system

for operation.

Two dual seal, high pressure

gas charging valve. The tank,

and ports

are provided,

one on each side of the isolation purging and venting

upstream while

valve is used for servicing,

the pressurant

the downstream prevent

valve is used to test contamination

downstream

components.

The valve

filters

system

during testing

and servicing.

"F" Package

(Spacecraft (Figure

8 thru 12 Only) 8-97) consists of a source pressure transducer, isolation

The "F" package

8-352
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

I_

PROJECT GEMI I

MANUAL

CHARGE

MANUAL

TEST

VALVE

_

CARTRIDGE

VALVE

,N_._I

_

l

CH,P_R

OC]-_LET PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

NOTE
"F" PACKAGE ON $/C 8 & UP ONLY

Figure

8-97

OAMS

and

RCS

"A"

Package

and

OAMS

"F"

Package

8-353 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

valve, two high pressure gas charging and test valves and filters.

The source

pressure transducer monitors the regulated pressure and transmits an electrical signal to the cabin indicator and Instrumentation System,indicating the amount of regulated pressure for the OAMS system. The normally closed pyrotechnic valve The valve is

is used to isolate the pressurant from the rese_ve fuel tank.

actuated to the open position to activate the reserve fuel system for operation. Two dual seal, high pressure gas charging valves and ports are provided, one on each side of the isolation valve. during testing and servicing. The valve filters prevent system contamination

"E" Package The "E" package (Figure 8-98) consists of a filter, one normally open pyrotechnic actuated valve, one normally closed pyrotechnic actuated valve, a normally closed two way solenoid valve, a pressure sensing switch, and a manual by-pass valve. The input filter prevents an_ contaminants from the "A" package from entering the "E" package. The two pyrotechnic actuated valves are activated (open to closed

and closed to open) as required to maintain regulated system pressure, in the event of system regulator malfunction. The two way (open-close) solenoid valve to maintain regulated system The pressure switch

is normally closed and functions upon crew co_and

pressure in the event of a system regulator malfunction. senses regulated pressure from the system regulator.

Upon sensing over pressure,

the pressure switch intervenes and causes the normally open valve to actuate to the closed position, closing the inlet to the pressure regulator. The solenoid

valve, when opened, allows pressurant flow through the package after the normally opened open) valve test is valve actuated is used to to the divert closed position. to the The manual solenoid by-pass v_ve, (normal_ during system _

pressure

8-3
CONP'IDlSNTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

__

_ ._..

_

PROJECT 300GEMINI SEDR

__

INLET

CARI_ RIDGE VALVE

NORMALLY-OPEN MANUAL VALVE NORMALLY-CLOSED CARTRIDGE VALVE

1
INLEI_FROM REGULATOR J I_!iI

L_
PRESSURE J J

REGULATOR OUTLET-TO

OUTLET

Figure

8-98

OAMS 8-355

"E"

Package

CONFIDENTIAL

OONFIOEENTIAL

test.

In the

normal mode of operation,

gas flows

through

the

noz_al_

open pyrotech-

nic valve

to the system regulator.

In the event system regulator over pressure

malfunction_ the pressure switch Lntervenes and causes the nol_ally opened pyrotechnic normally (pulsed) system velve ouitry_ vents is valve closed by the regulator to actuate to the closed position, valve system 3 the diverting is manually pressure. normally pressure controlled event of to the

solenoid crew to (under

valve. maintain pressure) to the open

The solenoid regulated malfunction position. activated In this by the

In the closed insured position.

pyroteohn_c by the This cirpre-

can be actuated the by-pass nor_lly of the

Simultaneously to the closed

open valve solenoid is

is valve.

mode, crew.

a regulator

by-pass

circuit

provided

and pressure

regulated

Pressure

Regulator

The pressure re_Alator (Figure 8-99) is a conventional, mechsnlcal-pneumatic type. The regulator functions to reduce the source pressure to regulated system An inlet filter is provided to reduce any contaminants in the gas to An outlet llne is provided from the regulated pressure

pressure.

an acceptable level.

chamber to the pressure switch ("E" package) and activates the switch in the event of an over pressure malfunction.

"B" Pack e
The "B" package (Figure 8-100) consists of filters, regulated pressure transducer, three check valves, two burst diaphra-m,, two relief valves, regulator out test port, fuel tank vent valve, Inter-check valve test port, oxidizer tank vent valve, and two relief valve test ports. The inlet filter reduces any eonta_._nantsin

8-3
CONFIDIENTIAI.

CONFIDENTIAL

a,'_

PROJECT

GEMINI

__

AREA MULT I PLYI NG

OUTLET

(ROTAr ED FOR

-METERING VALVE

VALVE

Figure

8-99

OAMS

and

RCS

Pressure

Regulator

8-357 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL i_. SEDR300

L_y-

--

RELIEFVALVE

INLET GROUND TEST

RELIEF VALVE

OUTLET TO FUEL TANK

OUTLET TO OXIDIZER TANK

Figure

8-100OAMS

and 8-358

RCS

"B"

Package

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

the gas to an acceptable taminants from entering pressure

level.

Test valve

inlet

filters

prevent

any conmonitors indicator on spaceinto the back-

the system. and transmits

The regulated an electric the amount prevents

pressure signa_

tr8nsducer

the regulated

to the cabin

and Instrumentation craft 5 and 6.

System, indicating check valve

of regulated

pressure

A single

backflow

of fuel vapors

gas system.

Two check valves

are provided

on the oxidizer diaphragms reaches

side to prevent

flow of oxidizer devices

into the system. when regulated

The burst pressure

are safety

(over pressure) pressure, The

that rupture excessive valves

the design

failure

preventing two relief pressure. excess

pressure

from being

imposed

on the propellant

bladders.

are conventional,

mecb_nlcal-pneumatic rupture,

type with preset valve opens

opening venting

In the event of burst overboard.

diaphragm

the relief

pressure

The valve thereby,

reseats

to the closed position venting the entire

when a safe

pressure Manual

level is reached, and ports

prevents

gas source. system.

valves

are provided

to vent, purge

and test the regulated

Fuel

Tank tank (Figure 8-101) is welded, port. titanium spherical tank which inches

The fuel storage contain

an internal

bladder

and purge

The tank

_imension

is 21.13

in diameter, bladder surant

and has a fluid volume layered Teflon,

capacity positive

of 5355.0! cubic expulsion itype. to expel Purge

inches.

The tank presthe to pres-

is a triple is imposed

The helium

on the exterior chamber

of the bladder solenoid

the fuel through ports

"D" package purge surant J_

to the thrust

valves. sensors

are provided to the iaput for the

and vent the fuel t-nk. line, fuel tank exterior

Temperature and output System.

arei affixed

line to provide

readings

cabin indicator

and Instrumentation

8-359
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

__

PROJECT

GEMINI

PRESSUREANT

¢

¢
PROPELLANT

Figure

8-101 OAMS 8-360

Propellant

Tank

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

Ii_

PROJECT

GEMINI

_=i'I

|

5.10

Do%. ..... _

,,_

ROPELLANT

PRESSUREANT

Figure

8-102

RCS

Propellant

Tanks

8-361 CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
_. _SEDR

GEMINI
3O0 ___

Reserve

Fuel

_,_ fuel

(Spacecraft tank (Figure bladder in

8 thru 8-102) and purge end

12 is

on_y) a welded port. a i_uid The ti_n_m tank is cylindrica_ 5.10 inches of of _.0 the valves. bladder to tnn_ outside which

The reserve contains diameter, cubic expel an

inter-=1 inches The through

30.7 inches. fuel

length

has is to

volume on the chamber

capacity exterior solenoid

helium the

pressurant

imposed thrust

"D" package

the

Oxidizer

Tank t_nk (Figure 8-101) is a welded is 21.12 titanium inches spherical te_k which contain

The oxidizer a bladder volume

and purge port.

The tank

in diameter,

and has a fluid layered Teflon, of the solenoid

capacity

of 5355.0 cubin inches. type. The helium through

The _nk

bladder is imposed

is double

positive bladder valves.

expulsion

pressurant

on the exterior cb_ber

to expel the oxidizer

the "C" package

to the thrust

Purge ports are provided are affixed

to purge

and vent the oxidizer line, oxidizer

tanks.

Temperaand

t_re sensors output

to the i_put pressurant for the cabin

tank exterior

line to provide

readings

indicator

and Instrumentation

System.

"C" and

"D" Packs_es and "D" (fuel) packages downstream (Figure 8-103) are identical respective cb_ging system. valve in funcEach and

The "C" (oxidizer)

tion and are located package consists

of the tanks

of their

of a filter,

isolation

valve,

propell_nt

test valve. from entering to isolate waiting

The filter

is located

at the outlet port The normally

to prevent

contaminants valve is used

the downstream

system.

closed

isolation

propellants

from the remainder isolation

of the system during valve is actuated

the pre-launch

period.

The pyrotechnic

to the open position

8- 362
CONFIDENTIAL

.,._

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

___

__¢_,_-'

PROJECT

GEMINI

i!

s

_ .

CARTRIDGE VALVE

MANUAL

CHARGE

v_AL CHAROE

_

:_

VALWE

"......".+

-

{i_

__._

"ii:::!J: _'__ i:_:_:!:

t_ _J....

!i::::i_ i

INLET

OUTLET

Figure

8-103

OAMS

and

RCS 8-363

"C" and

"D"

Package

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

for

system operation. _/_e and is

The propellant used for

chA.rglng

valve

is

located system.

upstream

of the

isolation

sez_rlci_

and venting

the

The test

valve is located downstream of the isolation valve and is used to test the downstream system.

Propellant Supply Shutoff Valves Propellant supply shutoff valves (Figure 8-i04) are provided for both the oxidizer and fuel system and are located downstream of the "C" and "D" packages. The motor driven shutoff valves are electrically operated and ._n-Ally controlled. The propellant valves serve as safeguards in the event of TCA leakage. The

valves are normally in the open position, and are closed at the option of the crew to prevent loss of propellants. The valve is thereafter reopened only when

it is necessary to actuate the TCA's for the purpose of the spacecraft control.

Thrust Chamber Assembl_ (TCA) Group Each TCA (Figure 8-i0_, 8-106 and 8-IO7) consists of two prope11_nt solenoid valves,

an electric heater, injection system, calibrated orifices, combustion chamber and an expansion nozzle. The propellant solenoid valves are quick acting,

normally closed valves, which open simultaneously upon application of an electric signal. This action permits fuel and oxidizer flow to the injector system. The

injectors utilize precise Jets to impinge fuel and oxidizer streams on one another for controlled ._img and combustion. The calibrated orifices are fixed devices

used to control propellant flow. c_.ber.

Hypergolic ignition occurs in the combustion

The combustion chamber and expansion nozzle are lined with ablative

materials and insulation to absorb and dissipate heat, and control wall temperature.

8-36
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEM

,I
_-\\_'_'_'I FILI_R iNLET

_tPPLE

_

I_\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\_\\\\\\\\\\\\

!

f-.

Figure

8-104

OAMS

and

RCS 8-365

Propellant

Shutoff

Valve

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

SEO,
GEMINI
NOTE LONG LIFETCA'SAREUSEDON MISSIONS REQUIRING EXTENSIVE MANEUVERINGOR EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITY).

,N_E_OR

i_

//

_

,CON,_L,_

,

,,

(

I_ _

LONG LiFE

6° ORIENTED ._r ABLATIVE

L--'CERAMIC LINER (I PIECE,)

MOUNTING

SHORT LIFE

PARALLEL RAP W (STRUCTURAL)

ABLATIVE

Figure

8-105OAMS 8-366

25 Lb. TCA

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

(STRUCTURAL) INJECTOR ABLATIVE WRAP f_

i

NOTE
" INSERT CAN 6° ORIENTED" ABLATIVE (1 PIECE) LINER LONG LIFE TCA'S ARE USED ON MISSIONS REQUIRING E c_IENSIVE , MANEUVERING A TIVITY) OR EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR

LONG LIFE

CAN 90° OpJENTED -_ ABLATIVE f--

(SEGMENTED)

SHORT LIFE Figure 8-106 OAMS 8-367 CONFIDENTIAL 85 Lb. TCA

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

NOTE
LONG LIFE TCA'S ARE USED ON MISSIONS REQUIRING EXTENSIVE MANEUVERINGOR EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITY).

(STRUCTURAL) MOUNTING CAN F GLASSWRAP ASBESTOS WRAP PROPELLANT VALVES PARALLEL RAP W ABLATIVE

.::=:__

LONG LIFE

-

I1 -

.,

CERAMICLINER-(I PIECE)

ABLATIVE

MOUNTING PROPELLANT

(STRUCTURAL) WRAP

ABLATIVE

!

_._

SHORT LIFE

INJECTOR' 90° ORIENTED ABLATIVE CERAMIC LINER' (SEGMENTED) 'PARALLEL WRAP ABLATIVE

Figure 8-i07 OAMS 8-368

I00 Lb. TCA

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI
SEDR300

_'s with

_-e installed the outer for

within

the adapter

with

the nozzle points

exits about

tez_t-_ti_ the adapter Electric

flush section heaters

mo_line the attitude on the _A

and located _d

at various

suitable

._neuveri_ _Llves

control to prevent

required.

are installed

oxidizer

the oxidizer

from freezing.

Tubing Cutter/Sealer The tubing cutter/sealer is a pyrotechnic actuated device and serves to positively seal and cut the propel!_t feed lines. Two such devices are provided supply o_off Prior to

for each feed llne and are located downstream of the prope_A-t

valve, one each in the retrograde and equipment section of the adapter. retrofire, the equipment section is Jettisoned.

The devices are actuated to

permit separation of the feed lines crossing the parting line, and to contain the propellants upon separation.

RE-EmTRY CORTROL ,Sysn_m_ , ,, ,

SYSTEM _SCRIPTION The Re-entry Control System (RCS) (Figure 8-108) is a fixed thrust, cold gas pressurized, storable liquid, hypergolic hi-propellant, self contained propulsion system used to provide attitude control of the spacecraft during re-entry.

The RCS consists of two and independent systems.

identical but entirely separate The systems i._y be operated One system will be des-

individual/_ or simultaneously.

cribed, all data is applicable to either system.

The RCS is capable of operating outside of the earth's atmosphere.

8-369
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

___,r-:,,_:_ ,

I-

. -.

PROJECT

SEDR 300

GEMINI

_

...

RCS THRUST CHAMBER ATTITUDE CONTROL

@ ,_

@ ©© _ ©Q

_,Tc. 0o',,. Y..'.,,O.T

DETAIL A

FUE_SOL,.O,D GQ RO,L,,G.T T.,0STC._,_,E,_,RA.GE_E.T QG RO,_LE,T
"3" SYSTEM FUEL SrCUTOFF/ON VALVE "B" SYSTEM FUEL OXIDIZER TANK

'A"

SYSTEM

FUEL SrlUTOFF/¸ON %" SYSTEM OX_DIZ ER SHUTOFF/ 'A" S'f TEM S FUEL COMPONENI PACKAGE "C"_ _. PRESSURANT TANK _ -- "A"SYSEEM OXIDIZER SHUTOFF/ON 'dALVE _COMPOix, ENT PACKAGE "D"

"A" SYSTEM OXID

_

(REF/

#. .k VENT _TYP2 _

PRESSURANT

tJ I

4PONENT PACKAGE 'B'

PACKAGE _IC©MPONEht

"A"

sI

Z 173 97_%_ •

/ it

COMPONEN[ PACKAGE "C"

COMPONENT PACKAGE "9 js -Tt_RLST ChAt45ER IEYP I_ PLACLSJ COMPONENT PACKAGE "A'

_ COMPONENT PACKAGE "C LSEE BY DETAIL "A" (TYP 16 PLACERI

Z

_1 97

ASSE_2LY

Figure

8-108

Re- entry

Control 8-370

"A" and "B" Systems

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

/

.

SEDR300

Attitude control (roll, pitch and yaw) is obtained by firing the TCA's in groups. The TCA's are mounted at various points about the RCS section of the The entire

spacecraft consistent with the modes of rotational control required.

RCS, (ta_ks and control packages), with the exception of instrumentation, is located in the RCS section of the spacecraft. functioning components and filters. Each package consists of several

The delivery of pressura_ts and prope_1--ts i is accomplished by a uniquely brazed tubing manifold _ystem. The HCS is divided into three groups; pressurant group, the oxidizer/fuel (propellant) group and the Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA) group.

Pressurant

Group

The pressurant group (Figure 8-109) consists of a pressurant tank, "A" package, pressure regulator _nd "B" package. Valves and test _orts are provided at Filters are

accessible points to permit servicing, venting, purging and testing. provided throughout the system to prevent system cont_nation.

The pressurant

is stored and isolated from the remainder of the system during pre-launch periods by a normally closed pyrotechnic actuated valve, located in the "A" package.

Fuel/Oxidizer Group The fuel/oxidizer (propellazr_)group (Figure 8-109) consists of expulsion bladder storage tanks, "C" (oxidizer) and "D" (fuel) packages i Valves, ports and test and

ports are provided at accessible areas to permlt servicing, venting, purgi_ testing. Filters are are closed on the provided throughout in the storage the system to prevent ! conta_nation. of the

The propellants by normally are provided

isolated pyrotechnic

tanks

from the

reminder

system Heaters

actuated

valves the

in the"C" oxidizer

and "D" packages. at an operating

"C" package

to maintain

temperature

8-371
CONFIDENTIAL

.--_,.

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

__;.,.

PROJECT

GEMINI

--.

(i OX'D'ZE U " I .......
HIGH PRESSURE VALVE MANUAL VALVE TEST VENT VALVE j

I..........=_j E_O_LPRESS

NRFUELTANK ","PACKAOE
--

........... _...__.o? ........... _ ..............
)J I PACKAGE OVERBOARD ZJ_VE NT

Ig

''1_ F,LTER
I HEATER

OOR_
DIAPHRAGM

FILTER

REL,EE
VALVE

"O"RACKAGEL I| _
NORMALLY CLOSED PYROTECHNIC VALVE HIGH NORMALLY CLOSED PRESSURE

Z[_ RELIEFPORT IEST VALVE PRESSURE REGULATOR 'J I TEST _

MANUAL

' __:_'
INTERCHECK VALVE TES , VALVES FILTER

................... i"_"""f"" ....... I . T"-,T_NK
r_ II 8TEST PORT
RELIEF VALVE FILTER RELIEF

_1_ SOURCE SENSOR _ALTES_ T T_."_EB
-J---TEMP

BURST

j _. N2OXIDIZER TANK VENT

DIAPHRAGM

VALVE

MAIN NORMALLY CLOSED PYROTECHNIC VALVE

VALVE

r

_

,_c,, PACKAGE

J

_]
OXIDIZER TANK

,_,............................................. ff.--..-.::.,__ :i:.:.:.,:.ii__i:i)2_.!.;....... i.............
PURGE VALVE

j......._.....l

Figure

8-109

RCS

(Single 8-372

System)

(Sheet

1 of 2)

CONFIDENTIAL

j-_

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR300

.,.

PROJECT

GEMINI

EDRSTAL PANEL

25R

25 #

,_

--FUEL

SUPPLY VALVE

OFF/ON

OXIDIZER OFF/ON

SUPPLY VALVE 2.5R 'ALVE (8 TYP.) )XIDIZER 25t,

J

IL_
RIGHT SWITCH AND

(8 TYP)

VALVE HEATER

CLRCUIT B,EA_,E_ PANEL

FigureS-109

RCS

(Single 8-373

System)

(Sheet

2 of 2)

CONFIDENTIAL

CONIFIDtNTIAL

PRMINI
_. SEDR 300

The propel

1-_ts

used Oxidizer

are: - Nitrogen Specification Tetroxide _ (N20_) conforming to

- P - 26539A conforming

Fuel

- Monomethyl _7drazine (_H3CH3)

to specification MIL - P - 27_04

,,,,T_st hamber Assemhl_r(TCA) Gmm*_ C The TCA group (Figure 8-108) consists of eight twenty-five pound TCA's used for attitude (roll, pitch and yaw) control of the re-entry module. equipped with thrust c_.ber Each TCA is Heaters

and electric controlled solenoid valves.

are provided on the oxidizer solenoid valves to ._ntaln operating temperature.

the oxidizer at an

SYS_

OPERATION

Press urant Group (Figure 8-105) High pressure nitrogen (N2) (pressurant), is stored at 3000 psi in the pressurant tank. gas charging port. The tank is serviced through the "A" package high pressure the pressurant tank is isolated from the re-

Pressure _

,_Inder of the system, until ready for operation, by a normal/_ closed pyrotechnic actuated valve located in the "A" package. Stored nitrogen pressure is monitored

and transmitted to the cabin indicator --4 Instrumentation System by the source pressure transducer located in the "A" package. Upon co,_-nd, the "A" package

p_Totechnic actuated valve is opened (simultaneously with propellant "C" and "D" package pyrotechnic actuated valves) and nitrogen flows to the pressure regulator and "B" package. The "B" package provides a division of flow to the

8-37
CONIFIDRNTIAI..

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT
__

GEMI

SEDR 300

propellaut transducer indicating flow vides

tanks.

The regulated

pressure

is

sensed to the

by the

regulated

pressure System, prevent also backpro-

("B package) pressure

and provides of the the

a signal regulator.

Instrumentation valves

downstream vapors to into

The check system. i

of propellant a safety

pressurant over pressure

The "B" packa6e and oxidizer

feature the

prevent

of thej i fuel

tank

bladders. over pressure the

Should

system first

be over the

pressurized burst

would relief

rupture

downs_reem of the regulator the i diaphra_s_ then be vented overboard

thro-_h

valves.

Fuel/Oxidizer Fuel

Group (propellants) the high are stored charging in their ports respective tanks, and are i in the "c" and "D" packages.

and oxidizer through

se_v£ced

pressure

The propellants are isolated from the remainder of theisystem, until ready for I operation, by the normslly closed pyrotechnic valves i_ the "C" and "D" packages. Upon command the "A" (pressurant), "C" (oxidizer) and i"D" (fUel) package pyrotechnic actuated valves are opened and propellants areidistributed through their

!
separate tubing -_nifold system to the thrust chamber _nlet solenoid valves.

Two motor upstream solenoid loss quired, the

driven of the valves,

shutoff TCA's. the

valves In the

are event

located of fuel valves

in the

propellant

feed

lines, through the TCA

or oxidizer

!

leakage

motor

operated

of propell--ts. to deliver lines

The valves propellants of the "C" and to

can again the

can be closed by the crew to prevent I ! be actuate_ open by the crew, when reHeaters

TCA solenoids. and are

!

are

connected

to

output

"D" packages

activated

by the

RCS HTR

s,ltch

8-io9).
,,(TCA) Grou_

Thrust Chamber Assemb_

8-3T5
CONFIOINllAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

PROJECT GEMINI
Upon crm_nd through the from the Attitude autcmstic Control the or m,,_ Maneuvers controls, Electronics quick _o the signals (ACre) acting signals, chamber. fuel to are transmitted selected and oxidizer are _CA's to

open siemltaneously, valves through oxidizer create vent SYS_ mounted small

normally TCA. Jets

closed,

solenoid dirocted fuel _n_

on each injector

In response into the where

propellants The controlled to

combustion they to ignite

impinge thrust.

on one another_ Heaters and are are

hypergolically solenoid

burn and valve to pre-

connected

each RCS H_

TCA oxidizer switch

freeze-up UNITS

activated

by the

(Fi@ure

8-10_).

Pressurant The nitrogen tank is inches. pyrotecBn4c oxidizer surant

Stora6e

T=-_ is stored in a welded, tit_nttt_ spherical _-k. cubic The

(N2) pressurant outside

7.2_ inches Nitrogen valve. from outlet their line

diameter

and has an inter_l and held is

volume of therein used to are by the expel

185.0

gas is This

stored nitrogen,

at SO00 _si

"A" package the fuel to the and pres-

under pressure, Temperature for the cabin

respective to provide

tanks. readings

sensors

affixed

instrument

and telemetry.

"A" pachage,,
The "A" package valve, filters (Figure 8-9?) consists pressure pressure pressure the of a source gas charging pressure valves. transducer, The source isolation pressure to the

and two high the

transducer cabin isolation

monitors

stored the to

and transmits of the pressure stored from

an electric gas. the

signal

indicator valve

indicating is used

The normally remainder of the

closed

isolate

system.

_

8-$76
CON FIDIWNTIA /

GONFIDENTIAL

__.

SEDR 300

i

The valve is pyrotechnically actuated to the open position to activate the
i

system for operation.

Two dual seal, high pressure _s i

chargim_ valves and ports The upstream valve is

are provided, one on each side of the isolation val_.
I

used for servicing, venting and purging the pressuraut tank, while the downstream valve is used to test downstream components. taminants from entering the system. Filter_ are provided to prevent con-

Pressure,, Re_l_, tor The pressure regulator (Figure 8.99) is a conventional , mechanical-pneumatic type. i The regulator functions to reduce the source pressure to re_ated system pressure. An inlet filter is provided to reduce any contaminants in the gas to an acceptable _ level.

"B" Package
The "B" package (Figure 8-100) consists of filters, regulated pressure transducer, three check valves, two burst diaphragms, two relief ivalves, regulator output i test port, fuel tank vent valve, oxidizer tank vent valve, inter-check valve test port and two relief valve test ports. in the gas to an acceptable level. entering the system. The inlet fil_r
I

reduces any contaminants

Valve inlet filt(_rsprevent contaminants from

The pressure transducer monito .sthe regulated pressure and l
i

transmits an electrical signal to the spacecraft Ins_;rumentationSystem. i check valve prevents hackflow of fuel vapors into th_ gas system.

A single

Two check valves

are provided on the oxidizer side to prevent backflo_ of oxidizer vapor into the gas system. The Burst diap_s are safety devices that rupture when the reg)reventing excessive pres-

ulated pressure reaches the design failure pressure, sure from being impose_ on the propel!e_nt bladders.

8-3Ti"
CONIIIIDIN'FIAL.

CONFIDENTIAL

PROJECT

GEMINI

•he tWO relief valves are convention_! mechanical-pne--_tic type with preset opening pressure. In the event of burst diaphragm rupture, the relief valve The valve reseats to the closed posi-

opens, venting excess pressure overboard.

tion when a safe level is reached, preventing the entire gas source from bei_ vented overboard. M_n,_LIvalves and ports are provided to vent, purge and test

the regulated system.

Fuel Tank The fuel tank (Figure 8-102) is a welded, titanium cylindrical tank which contains an internal bl_dder and purge port. The tank is 5.10 inches outside diameter, cubic inches.

30.7 inches in length and has a fluid volume capacity of _6.0 The nitrogen pressv_c_utis i_osed

on the exterior of the bladder to expel fuel The purge port is provided sensors are affixed to the

through the "D" package to the TCA solenoid valves. to purge and vent the fuel tank bladder. T_erature

nitrogen input line and fUel output line to transmit signals to Instrumentation System.

Oxidizer

Tank

The oxidizer tank (Figure 8-102) is a welded, titanium cylindrical ta-_ which contains a bladder and purge port. The ta_k is 5.10 inches outside diameter,

25.2 inches in length and has a fluid volume capacity of 439.0 cubic inches. The bladder is a double layered Teflon, positive expulsion type. pressurant is i_sed The nitrogen

on the exterior of the bladder to expel the oxidizer The purge port is provided Te_erature sensors are

through the "C" package to the TCA solenoid valve. for purging and venting the oxidizer tank bladder.

affixed to the nitrogen input line and oxidizer output line to transmit signals to Instrumentation System.

8-3
CONFIDENTIAL

GONFIDEINITIAL. SEDR 300

_
,,,

-]

"C" and "C"

"D" Packages and "D" packages of the tanks (Figure of their 8-103) respective are identical system. cb_rgiDg contaminants in Each valve function package and are located of The The

The

downstream filters,

consists

an isolation

valve_

propellant

and test valve.

filter, located valve mall_ and port closed

at outlet filters

portj reduces

tO an acceptable

level.

prevent

contaminants

from entering propellants

the system.

The nor-

isolation during

valve is used to isolate period.

from the remainder valve is pyro_echnlc char_Ing and valve

of the system actuated valve

the pro-launch

The isolation

to the open position upstream

for system

c_e_tion. v_ive

The prope_Rnt

is located

of the isolation valve

and is used

for servicing

venting

the system.

The test

is located system.

downstream

of the isolation

and is used to test the downstream

P_opellant pr_llaut

Sup pl_ Shuto_ supply shutoff

Valves valves (Figure 8-104) are provided for both the oxidizer in the

and fuel system, system.

and are located driven shutoff

downstream valves

of the "C" and "D" packages operated,

The motor

are electrically

and w_nual_y at the onl_

controlled. option when

The valves

are normally

in the open position,

and are closed

of the crew to prevent

loss of propellants. control.

The valves

are reopened

the TCA's are needed

for spacecraft

semb
Each TCA (Figure _-ii0) calibrated oxidizer _ orifices,

Qrou
of two propellant chsmber valves, in_ection system, and expansion
i

consists

combustion

nozzle.

The fuel and which open fUel --d

solenoid

valves

are quick acting,

normall_

closed

valves,

simultaneously

upon application

of an electric

signal.

The action

permits

8-379
CONFIOla'NTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL SEDR 300

4IF
(STRUCTURAL) MOUNTING INJECTOR PARALLEL (SEGMENTED) 90° ORIENTED' ABLATIVE -_'_

Figure

8-110

RCS 8-380

25 Lb.

TCA

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL
m._mmwmmmmm_

PROJECT
______

GEMINI

SEDR 300

oxidizer fuel

_.ov into

the

injector

system.

The lnJeetorm for controlled

use precise Lt_

Jets

to impinge

and oxidizer

streams orifices

on one e_other devices

and o_ustion. flow. c_m_er

The oaltbz_ted 1_ergolio

are fixed in the

used to

control

propellant

ignition

occurs

combnstton

chember,

The c_stion

and expansion nozzle is lined with ablative materials and insulation to absorb and dissipate heat and control external wall temperature. TCA's are installed

within the RCS section mold line, with the nozzles terminating flush with the outer mold line. TCA's are located at fixed points in the RCS section in a Electric heaters , located on the oxidi-

location suitable for attitude control.

zer valve, are used to prevent the oxidizer frcm freezing.

8-381/382
CONFIDENTIAL

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