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PROJECT

familiarization manual
SEDR 300

GEMINI

COPYNO.

RENDEZVOUS and DOCKING CONFIGURA TIONS

__ ,,__ ___ _____.._ O'_I_C'E

THE SAME

PAGES OF PREVIOUS
changed Destroy pages into basic pages. superseded

DATE

Insert publlcation.

LATEST CHANGED

PAGES SUPERSEDE

SECTION 8 IS CONTAINED IN A CONFIDENTIAL SUPPLEMENT TO THIS MANUAL

MCDONNELL
I JULY 1966 CHANGED 22 AUGUST 1966

PREMI
INSERT LATEST CHANGED PAGES.DESTROY SUPERSEDED PAGES.

LISTOFEFFECTIVE PAGES

NOTE:

The portion of the text affected by the changes is indicated by a vertical line in the outer margins of the page. , CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:

TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION

IS1057

Pa_eNumber Title A B through E 1-6 2-20 3-30 4-5_ 5-_0 6-59

Issue Changed Changed Original Original Original Original Original Original Original Original Changed 22 August Original Original Original Original Original Original Original Original Original Original 1966 22 August 22 August 1966 1966

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indicates pages changed,

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or deleted by the current

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SEDR 300

FOEEWORD
/

Initiated by the NASA and implemented by McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, Project Gemini is the second major step in the field of manned space exploration.

Closely allied to Project Mercury in concept and utilizing the knowledge gained from the Mercury flights, Project Gemini utilizes a two man spacecraft more sophisticated than its predecessor. considerably

The Gemini spacecraft is maneuverable

_rithinits orbit and is capable of rendezvous and docking _Ith a second orbiting vehicle•

PREPARED BY MCDONN_T_T_ . TECHNICAL DATA DEPT.

Reviewed f_' by i Sr. Maintenance Engineer

_ I_ I.

Reviewed by '

Sulmrz£so'r' '_e'ehnieal Dal_

Reviewedby _ II _

. /_.

_--_'_._

-NASA Resident Manager

f-.

N
PROJECT
familiarization manual
SEDR 300 COPYNO.

GEMINI

_

RENDEZVOUS and DOCKING CONFIGURATIONS

THIS DOCUMENT SUPERSEDES DOCUMENT DATED 31 MAY 1965

SECTION 8 IS CONTAINED IN A CONFIDENTIAL SUPPLEMENT TO THIS MANUAL

MCDONNELL
I JULY 1966

f

A

PROMINI
SEDR 300 _._

FOEEWORD

Initiated by the NASA and implemented by McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, Project Gemini is the second major step in the field of manned space exploration. Closely allied to Project Mercury in concept and utilizing the knowledge gained from the Mercury flights, Project Gemini utilizes a two mau spacecraft considerably more sophisticated than its predecessor. The Gemini spacecraft is maneuverable

within its orbit and is capable of rendezvous and docking with a second orbiting vehicle.

PREPARED BY MCDONN_.T,TECHNICAL DATA DEPT.

Reviewed by S_. Sr. Maintenance Engineer

Supez_lsor

- "Technical

I_ta

Revlewedby

_ _.

_

-NASA - Resident Manager

B

PROJECT ---------SEDR300

GEMINI

1lfI_ODUC'I_ON

The purpose _Jor

Of this

_.uuel

is

to describe

the

Gemini

spacecraft

systems

and

components.

The manual is intended as a femiliarization-indoctrination

aid and as a ready reference for detailed information on a specific system or component. The manual is sectionalized by spacecraft systess or major assemblies.

Each section is as ccnplete as is practical to minimize the need for cro6s referencing.

The infora_tion co_tained in this _anual (SEDR 300, VOL XI) is applicable to rendezvous missions only and is accurate as of i April 1966.

For information pertaini_

to long range or modified (non-rendezvous) configura-

tions of the spacecraft, refer to HEDR 300, VCL. I.

C

PROJECT
_@_

GEMINI

SEDR 300

SEC'TIOE _T_r SECTIONI
SPAC_RAIeT MISSION .....

PAGE

i-i

SECTION lI

m.m_ s_
SECTIONIZT ZIi'_RXOR_ SECTIONIV SErE SECTION V SI_

_smmr.xm ...................................... 2-I

..............................................

3-i

.--.--.--.--

.... -. ----... ..............................

.

..

.

....

_-i

ELECTRICALPOWER SYS_ SECTIONVI

............................... _................ 5-1

C01T_0___ L SYSTEM ............................................. 6-1 SECTIONVII COOLING STS_ SECTION VIII GUII)AE_ AU _ SECTIONIX C0)a4_I_J_TI0_S STSTml ................................................... 9-1 S_J_20N X
INS_ATION AND RECORDING SYSTB( --'--" ....................- "- - -" I0-i

.......................................................... 7-i

SYST_

............................................

8-1

SEt.ON XI PI_0_IICS A_D _E R0C_T ....................... .... " ..........
ii-i

D

PROJECT

GEMINI
PAGE

SEDR 300

LANDING _ SE@I'ZON_I IX)CKING_ SEC'I_ONXIV

.........................................................

12-1

.........................................................

13-i

TARGET DOCKING ADAF_R ................................................. 14-i _6"1_ON XV A[X_ SECTION XVI E_-_EHICULAR ACTIVITY ............................................... 16-I _ DOgEING ADAPTER ....................................... 15-i

E

SPACECRAFT

MISSION

Section
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE

PAGE 1-3 ]-3 1-4 !-5 1-5 1-6

MISSION DESCRIPTION ................................... MISSION OBJECTIVES ................................. SPACECRAFT DESCRIPTION ....................... LAUNCH VEHICLE DESCRIPTION ............... CREW REQUIREMENTS ............................... SPACECRAFT RECOVERY
......... ..o.o... .... ......o

:_:...:_-_._ :..:.:.-:::::_: = -._-.==
00tltl_OttQ_ _*

_

_

:::::_:::::::::._.-=..-::_., "_H6t_.Q_QOOQQ_° q

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/

.................

1-1

__

---

SEDR300

RENDEZVOUS RECO_/ERY SECTION

RE-ENTRY MODULE <

_

CONTROL SYSTEM SECTION RE-ENTRY

LANDING MODULE EQUIPMENT SECTION SPACECRAFT

SECTION

-

ADAPTER > EQUIPMENT SECTION

LAUNCH VEHICLE

/
I TITAN n LAUNCH VEHICLE

i
Figure 1-1 Spacecraft Pre-Launch 1-2 Configuration

$EDR300

PROJEMINI
SECTION I SPACECRAFT MISSION

MISSI_

DESCRIPTION the mission of Project orbit Gemini is the insertion the study of a two man spaceof man's ability to

Fundas_ntally_

craft into a semi-permanent rendezvous and dock with

about

the earth, vehicle,

another

orbiting

and the subsequent surface. Previous

safe return missions extended Vehicle

of the spacecraft included missions manned

and its occupants flights

to the earths to study

and umaanned

hmnan

capabilities Agena

during Target

in space. Target

Rendezvous Docking

and docking

with

an orbiting

or Au_nented

Adapter

and Extra-Vehicular

Activities

are planned

for most missions.

MISSIONOBJECTIVES
Specifically, 1. the project will seek to: to perform in manual and/or auto-

Demonstrate matic modes

the ability

of the spacecraft

of operation. of major systems in the spacecraft. systems and their integra-

2. 3-

Evaluate Verify

the adequacy

the functional

relationships

of the major

tion into the spacecraft. 4. Determine ment • 5. Determine the most 6. 7.
i

man's

requirements

and performance

capabilities

in a space

environ-

man's

interface

problems,

and develop capabilities. rendezvous

operational

techniques

for

efficient system

use of on-board during

Evaluate

performance

and docking. Extra-Vehicular Activities.

Demonstrate

the ability

of the pilots

to perform

I-3

$|DIt 300

8.

Develop another

operational orbiting controlled area. operational

techniques vehicle. re-entry

required

for

rendezvousing

and

docking

with

9-

Develop touchdown

techniques

required

for

landing

in

a predicted

lO.

Develop

recovery

techniques

of

both

spacecraft

and

pilots.

SPACECRAFT

DESCRIPTI_

C_EPAL
The Gemini Spacecraft (Figure I-i) is a conical it consists structure 19 feet long and weighs and an adapter.

approximately

7000 lbs.

Basically

of a re-entry

module

RE-ENTRY

MODU_E module consists of the heat shield, the crew and equipment and recovery area suitable for housing section. for human equipment. The Re-entry components. equil_nent, section, The occu-

The re-entry Re-entry

Control

System

section

and the rendezvous a pressurized

crew and equilznent section pation, External Control and a number access System

contains

of non-pressurized

compartments

doors are provided section contains

for equipment

compartments. Control

the major

Re-entry

System radar

The rendezvous the drogue assembly. along

and recovery

section

contains

the rendezvous

parachute

and pilot parachute and recovery

assemblies, section

and the main parachute after re-entry

The rendezvous

is Jettisoned

with the drogue

parachute.

ADAPTER The adapter consists of the launch vehicle mating mating ring_ the equipment section and

the retrograde vehicle.

section.

The launch vehicle with

ring is bolted

to the launch

A portion

of the ring remains

the launch vehicle

at spacecraft-

SEDR 300

PROJECT GEMINI
launch vehicle separation. The equipment section contains major c_nponents of the The primary oxygen supply for the The retro-

Electrical, Propulsion, and Cooling Systems.

Environmental Control System is also located in the equipment section.

grade section contains the retrograde rockets and some components of the Cooling System.

LAUNCH VEHICLE DESCRIPTION The vehicle used to launch the Gemini Spacecraft is the Gemini - Titan II, built by the Martin C_npany. The Titan II is modified structurally and functionally to

accept the Gemini adapter and to provide for the interchange of electrical signals.

The Titan II is a two stage launch vehicle 90 feet long and i0 feet in diameter from the thrust chamber to the spacecraft adapter. The first stage is 70 feet The second stage is 20

long and develops approximately 430,000 pounds of thrust. feet long and develops about 100,000 pounds of thrust.

Titan II uses hypergolic (self-lgniting when mixed) propellants. _troxide

Nitrogen The

is the oxidizer and uns_,.-.etricallmethylhydrazine is the fuel. d

propellants can he stored within the launch vehicle indefinitely and ignite automatieally when they are mixed in the propulsion chamber. The hypergolic propel-

lants will burn (although at a very rapid rate) rather than explode, which is a significant safety advsntage.

CREW REQUIRemEnTS The Gemini Spacecraft utilizes a two-man crew seated side by side. member on the left is referred to as the c_mAnd craft c,_._:_nder. The crew member on the right is The crew

pilot and functions as spacereferred to as the pilot. Crew

members are selected from the NASA astronaut group. 1-7

SEDR 300

SPACE_

_ECOVERY A

The Gemini !_nding module will make a water landing in a pre-determined area. task force of ships, planes, and personnel will be standing by for locating and retrieving the spacecraft and crew. In the event an abort or other abnormal

occurence results in the spacecraft landing in a remote location, electronic and visual recovery aids and survival kits are provided in the spacecraft to facilitate spacecraft retrieval and crew survival, respectively.

i-5

MAJOR STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLIES

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

TITLE GENERAL INFORMATION .......................... RE-ENTRY MODULE ....................................
RENDEZVOUS AND RECOVERY SECTION .........

PAGE 2-3
2-3 2-3 2- 8 2-17 2-17 2-17

:".._.*:._ L:_'--::'m iiiiii

:_'Z..-i'._i=:_-_i._._i-_ ::_!_iiii!ii_i_:"-_iiii_ ,..,........o...........°.. _.°.°. °°.°..°_°°°.°._.°°.

RE-ENTRY CONTROL SYSTEM SECTION ............ 2-8
CABIN ........................................................

iiii_N'_"_r'ii_'_
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A D APT ER ....................................................
RETROGRADE SECTION ................................. EQUIPMENT SECTION ....................................

SPACECRAFT

LAUNCH

VEHICLE MATING..2-19

iiiii_}iii_HHiiiii!i!!ii

i i i i i i i i i i ! i i i!

i_iiii!iiiii!i!iiiii!iiiil
::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ..... .o,°°° ........ ..... ..,......o°.........°. °.° ..... .................. o.°o,..., ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: .................... .......................

::!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii_i_::

°°°°.°. °°°,

.......... ° ................ ........... ° ......... °°°°°. ................ .°°°o°°°°°. ............ °,°°°° ......... ................. ° ......... ............ °.°° ........... ............ .°°°o°o, ....... ............ °°.°°°°°,°°°°o. ................. °°°°.°.°., ............ .... .................. °..°.°°°..° ........ °

2-1

...........................

PROJECT

s 30o oR
GEMINI

\
Figure 2-1 Interior Arrangement(Typical) 2-2

SEDR 300

PROJ

GEMINI
ASSemBLIES

SECTION II MAJOR STRUCTURAL GENERAL INFORMATION

The Gemini Spacecraft is basically of a conical configuration (Figure 2-i) consisting of a re-entry module and an adapter as the two major assemblies. construction is semimonocoque, utilizing titanium for the primary Spacecraft It

structure.

is designed to shield the cabin pressure vessel from exessive temperature ations, noise and meteorite penetration (Figure 2-2). for spacecraft orientation.

vari-

See Figures 2-3 and 2-4

RE-ENTRY

MODULE

The re-entry module (Figure 2-5) is separated into three primary sections which include the Rendezvous and Recovery section (R and R), Re-entry Control System section (RCS) and the cabin section. Also incorporated in the re-entry module is

the heat shield which is attached to the cabin, and a nose fairing which is attached to the forward end of the R and R section. during launch. The nose fairing is ejected

RENDEZVOUS AND RECOVERY SECTION The (R and R) section (Figure 2-5), the forward section of the spacecraft, is semiconical in shape and is attached to the Re-entry Control System section with twenty-four bolts. Incorporated in this joint is a pyrotechnlc device which

severs all bolts causing the rendezvous on signal for parachute of this section. deployment.

section to separate from the RCS section

A drogue parachute will assist in the removal of

The R and R section utilizes rings, stringers and bulkheads

titanium for its primary structure.

The external surface is composed of beryllium The nose fairing is composed of fiberglass

shingles, except for the nose fairing. reinforced plastic laminate.

2-3

PROJECT
.__

GEMINI
-___

SEDR 300

_--

SPACECRAFT

___

ADAPI"ER

_

RE-ENTRY MODULE

LANDING

MODULE

ADAPTER MATING SECTION ADAPTER _ SECTION SECTION ADAPIE?. CABIN RENDEZVOUS RECOVERY SECTION - •

NOSE FAIRII

/-- NOSE FAIRING MATING LINE RENDEZVOUS AND RECOVERY SECTION MATING LINE RE- ENTRY CONTROL SYSTEM SECTION/ CABIN MATING LINE RE-ENTRY MODULE/ADAPTER MATING LINE

//SPACECRAFT/LAUNCH VEHICLE MATING LINE

Figure2-2 Spacecraft GeneralNomenclature 2-4

SEDR 300

i
I_ 90.00 I0 ° 70.53

l,

20 °

/
88°30 DIA

/

Y0

219.03 (ORBIT C ONFIGURATION) 226.84 (LAUNCH CONFIGURATION)

RX

LX

By

Figure

2-3

Spacecraft 2-5

Dimensions

SEDR 300

(TOP)
xO.O0

yo.O0

XO.O0

Figure 2-4 Stations Diagram 2-6

f_

SEDR 300

"_
INGRESS-EGRESS

PROJECT

GEMINI

LANDING CABI

MODULE

RE-ENTRy CONTROL SYSTEM SECTION

CABIN/ADAPTER RETAINING STRAP FAIRING (TYPICAL 3 PLACES) OBSERVATION WINDOWS

_/_ __O_VERY

_RENDEZVOUS AND SECTION

I

I

_

NOSE

\ I

/2 f

)

FAIRING

LARGE PRESSURE

EQUIPMENT

BAy

RCS THRUST CHAMBER ASSEh_

SCANNER

-.....
-ECS EQUIPMENT / DOOR

f--\

Figure

2-5 Re-entry 2-7

Module Structure

SEDR300

GEMINI

___

RE-ENTRY

CONTR_

SYST_

SECTION and mated section to, the R and R and cabin sections is cylindrical eight in shape and is two rings and to house assemblies

The RCS section is located between, of the spacecraft constructed (Fi_a_re 2-5).

This alloy

of an inner titanium shingles

cylinder, skin.

stringers,

eight beryllium

for its outer valves,

The RCS section

is designed chamber

the fuel and oxidizer for the RCS.

tanks,

tube assemblies,

and thrust

A parachute

adapter

assembly

is installed

on the forward

face

of the RCS section

for attachment

of the main

parachute.

CABIN The cabin section (Figure 2-5)2 similar in shape to a truncated has an internal station with cone, is mated vessel to the RCS 2-6)

and the adapter.

The cabin crew

pressure

(Figure

shaped to provide

am adequate

a proper

water

flotation

attitude.

The shape of the pressure conical

vessel

also allows

space between

it and the outer

shell for the installation

of equipment.

The basic which

cabin

stracture

consists

of a fusion pressure

welded

titanium

frame

assembly

to

the side panels,

small and large

bulkheads

and hatch

sill are seam skin are the shield

welded.

The side panels,

small and large pressure by s_iffeners

bulkheads

are of double Two hatches

construction hinged outer

amd reinforced

spotwelded

in place.

to the hatch comical

sill for pilot ingress is covered with Rene'

and egress. _I shingles

For heat protection, and an ablative heat

surface

is attached

to the large end of the cabin

section.

A spring loaded hoist ings, is erreeted

loop, located landing

near the heat

shield between

the hatch

open-

._

after

to facilitate

engagement

of a hoisting

hook for

spacecraft

retrieval. 2-8

,_._ -_._

SEDR

300

"_'I =__'

PROJ S C T G S M,N,

______,,!

Figure 2-6 Cabin Pressure 2-9

Vessel

PROJ
_.

EC'"

GEMINI
j-.

SEDR 300

E_ui_nent

Ba_,s bays are located outboard outside the cabin pressure vessel

The equipment bays

(Figure 2-7).
the pressure

Two

are located floor.

o_ the side panels

and one bay beneath for mounting

vessel

The bays are structurally

designed

of the equipment.

Doors To enclose the side equipment (Figure 2-7). bays, two structural provide doors are provided on each side

of the cabin

These doors landing

access

to the components below

installed

in the equipment right equipment

bays. bays,

The main

gear bays, by one door.

located

the left and gear is not

are each enclosed are provided

The landing

installed

but fittings

for the attachment

of the gear for future gear doors, two

spacecraft. additional equipment Control

0m the bottom

of the cabin, between The forward

the landing

doors are installed. compartment

door allows access

access

to the lower

and the aft door provides which is a portion

to the Environmental vessel.

System

compartment

of the pressure

Hatches Two large ingress structural hatches (Figure 2-8) are incorporated are sy_etrieally operated for sealing spaced the cabin

or egress

openings.

The hatches

on the top side and

of the cabin section. mechanical emergency, technic

Each hatch

is manually is hinged

by means

of a handle side. In an

latching mechanism. the hatches

Each

on the outboard operation

are opened

in a three

sequence

employing unlock

pyro-

actuators.

When initiated,

the actuators

simultaneously

and open

the mechanical

latches,

open the hatches An external

and supply hot gases hatch linkage fitting

to ignite the ejecis incorporated from the adapter to

tion seat rocket allow a recovery

catapults. hatch handle

to be inserted is stowed

for opening on the main

the hatches parachute

outside.

The recovery

hatch handle

2-10

SEDR 300

/_ 0_>_90 [_[_103 [_>_86 0_[_91

53

63

64 65 _8<_] 96<@8<!_ 54 69

C_>_95
[!_[Z>100 84 79A 79 40A 40 \ 27B 27,6,27-1 \ 78A 78 27-2

0_>ff[>[i!>99

70

66

83
19 11 18A 10 26 \ 71

2A
1 55 37 IO5

?.8A

NOTE
DOOR B:FECTIVIIY - S/C D

NO. 1

DESCRIPTION DROGUE CHUTE DOOR DOCKING BAR CARTRIDGE ACCESS ACCESS

NO. 28 28A 32 37 40 J4OA SHINGLE

DESCRIPTION

NO.

DESCRIPEION RECOVERY UGHT DOOR RECOVERY LIGHT DOOR HOIST LOOP DOOR SHAPED CHARGE DETONATOR ACCESS CABLES CABLES RELEASEMECHANISM

79
ACCESS BAY DOOR - LEFT

2
2A 3 4 4A 5

z 16o.2o EQUIPMENT FORWARD EQUIPMENT AFT EQUIPMENT SHINGLE

79A
80 82 83 84 85

PYRO ELECTRICAL DISCONNECT SHINGLE

BAY DOOR - LEFT

EMERGENCY DOCKING RELEASECARTRIDGE AND GUILLOTINE CARTRIDGE ACCESS PILOT CHUTE DEPLOY SENSOR SWITCH ACCESS i SHINGLE RADAR ACCESS SHINGLE INTERFACE ACCESS INTERFACE ACCESS INTERFACE ACCESS GUILLOTINE CARTRIDGE ACCESS

COVER ASS'Y - PARACHUTE CONTROL COVER ASS'Y. RADIOMETER CRYO SPECTROMETER/INTERFEROMETER MICROMETEOPJTE EXPERIMENT - PARACHUTE CONTROL

RECOVERY LIGHT AND HOIST LOOP RIGGING AND CARTRIDGE ACCESS SEPARATION DAMS F. LS.C. SENSING SWITCH ACCESS ACCESS

46
53

5A
10 11 12

LINE GUILLOTINE

86
89 ACCESS

54
55 56

TUBING CUTTER ACCESS ENGINE

FORWARD MANEUVERING FUEL CELL SERVICE ACCESS QAMS OXIDIZER DAMS

13
13A

62
63 64
BRIDLE

PURGE ACCESS ACCESS

90 91 95
96

UFIF - VHF POLORIZATION UHF - VHF FOLORIZATION FITCH ION SENSOR ACCESS ACCESS

LINE GUILLOTINE

YAW ION SENSOR ACCESS YAW SENSOR SYSTEM NUCLEAR EMULSION CRYO SPECTROMETER/INFEI_:EROMETER RADIOMETE_ ACCESS ACCESS

18
18A 19 20

INTERFACE ACCESS PYROTECHNIC SWITCH CARTRIDGE AND DISCONNECT CARTRIDGE ACCESS RE-ENTRY CONTROL RE-ENTRY CONTROL RE-ENTRY CONTROL RE-ENTRY CONTROL SHINGLE FRESH AIR DOOR z_6o.2o Z160,20 EQUIPMENT EQUIPMENT ACCESS ACCESS SYSTEM ACCESS SYSTEM ACCESS SYSTEM ACCESS SYSTEM ACCESS

OAMS OXIDIZER OAMS

PURGE ACCESS

98 99
100

65 66 69
70

MODULE SERVICE ACCESS

ECS SERVICE ACCESS ECS PUMP MODULE SERVICE ACCESS ECS PUMP MODULE SERVICE ACCESS SEPARATION SENSING SWITCH ACCESS ACCESS ACCESS

21

102 103
105

SPACE POWER TOOL ACCESS 8ETA SPECTROMETER

26
27-I

71

75

ELECTRICAL DISCONNECT ELECTRICAL DISCONNECT SHINGLE ZI60.20 EQUIPMENT

27-2
27A

76
78

27B

78A
2-7 Access

ACCESS

Figure

Doors

Spacecraft 2-11

5,6,8 and Up (Sheet

] of 2)

SEoR 3oo
16A 17A 16 31A 35 31

gA 8A 7

74 14A 22 23 2g 29,6, '30 30A 32 "33 34 38 37 41

15A

NOTE

48 57 67 3'3' 101_<_ 87_<_ 49

_:)oeRFPET_Vm, - s/cD ._

NO. 6

DESCRIF_rlON EMERGENCY DOCKING RELEASECARTRIDGE AND GUI.LLOT NE CARTRIDGE ACCESS SHINGLE SHINGLE RADAR ACCESS EMERGEt_Cy DOCKING RELEASECARTRIDGE AND GUILLOTINE CARTRIDGE ACCESS DROGUE CHUTE DEPLOY SENSOR $W_TCH ACCESS INTERFACE ACCESS GUILLOTINE ANWL ACCESS

NO. _9_, 30 Z160.20 SHINGLE Z160.20 SHINGLE Z160.20

DESCRIFTIO}_ EQUIPMENT ACCESS

NO. 51 B.I.A.

DESCRIPTION RELAy PANEL ACCESS ENGINE ACCESS ACCESS

7
8 8_ 9 9A

52
EQUIPMENT ACCESS 5'7 58 EQUIPMENT ACCESS BAY DOOR - LEFT - LEFT 59 60 6 | 6'7 68

FORWARD MANEUVERING

3OA
3_

SHAPED CHARGE DETONATOR FUEL CELL SERVICE ACCESS GUILLOTINE GUILLOTINE OAMS

31A
_2

CARTRIDGE ACCESS CARTRIDGE ACCESS

FORWARD EQUIPMENT MAIN LANDING

14
1"4A
_ 15A

33
34 35 ACCESS 36

GEAR DOOR

FUEL PURGE ACCESS TO SCUPPER INTERFACE ACCESS

CENTER EQUIPMENT MAIN LANDING

BAY DOOR - FORWARD

ENGINE

INTERFACE ACCESS GUILLOTINE ANVIL

GEAR DOOR - RIGHT BAY DOOR - RIGHT

ELECTRONIC MODULE TEST ACCESS GUILLO'f'rNE CARTRIDGE AND LAUNCH VEHICLE ELEC CONN ACCESS, .

FORWARD

EQUIPMENT

'72
'73 74 7'7 8'7 88 92

i 166A

GUILLOTINE ACCESS INTERFACE ..... CARTRIDGE ACCESS INTERFACE ACCESS PARAG LIDER ELECT. CONTROL RE-ENTRY CONTROL RE-ENTRY CONTROL RE-ENTRY COI_n'ROL RE-ENTRY CONTROL gOX ACCESS

38 37

E.C.S.EQUIPMENT BAY DOOR - L_ET AFT BAY DGOR AFT EQUIPMENT PURGE FITTING BAY 0OOR - RIGHT ACCESS

SHAPEO CHARGE DEFONATOR SRFARAT_O_ SENSING SWITCH ACCESS ACCESS FUEL CELL PURGE ACCESS S PECTROMET ER/I NT ERFEROMETER ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE SENSOR LLTV ACCESS ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE ACCESS LLTV FAIRING PITCH _NSOR SYSTEM

1'7 17A 22
23

39
4_ SYSTEM, ACCESS SYSTEM ACCESS SYSTEM ACCESS SYSTEM ACCESS

47
48 49 50

RELAY PANEL ACCESS RELAY PANEL ACCESS SEPARATION GUILLOTINE SENSING SWITCH ACCESS

24
25

93

CARTRIDGE ACCESS

94
9'7 101

29

SHINGLE

SPECTROMETER/IN FERF ERQMETER ACCESS BETA SPECTROMETER ACCESS MAGNETOMETER ACCESS

104
|06

Figure

2-7 Access

Doors

Spacecraft 2-12

5, 6, 8 and Up (Sheet

2 of 2)

._-

SEDR300

HATCHLATCHSHOWN IN LATCHED POSITION
.............. ...................................................................................... < ................

HATCH INTERIOR VIEW

.__.

HATCH SHOW. PO_mO_ !i_ii!! HA.CH _.OWN HANDLE ,_STOWE_ HANDLE UNSTOWED IN .OSmON
Figure 2-8 Spacecraft Ingress/Egress 2-13 Hatches

SEDR 300

assembly located on the forward face of the RCS section. 2-9) is stowed along the hinge of each hatch. hatches

A hatch curtain (Figure

After water landing, when the

are open, the curtains are installed to help prevent water from entering

the cabin.

Windows Each of the ingress/egress hatches incorporates a visual observation window (Figure 2-10). Each window consists of an inner and outer glass assembly. The outer

assembly is a single flat paineand the inner panel assembly consists of two flat panes. The panes consist of Vycor (96% silica). The panes in the right window

are optically ground for better resolution.

Each surface of each pane, with the

exception of the outer surface of the outer pane_ is coated to lessen reflection and glare from cabin lights and to aid in impeding ultraviolet radiation into the cabin eompaz-_ent. _

Heat Shield The heat shield is a dish-shaped phenolic impregnated, fiberglass structure honeycomb. composed of silicone elastomer filled, It is an ablative device, 90 inches

in diameter with a spherical radius of 144 inches. protect the re-entry module from extreme thermal the atmosphere.

The shield is designed to

conditions during re-entry into

The device is attached to the large diameter end of the cabin

structure by 1/4 inch bolts.

Shin_les The external surface of the cabin is made up of beaded shingles of Rene' 41. The

R and R and RCS section surfaces are made up of umbeaded shingles of berylliu_. The shingles protect the re-entry module structure from excessive heat and provide additional rigidity for the cabin. The shingles are black on the outer surface

I

_

PROJECT

GEMINI

INBOARD HOOK ATTACHMENT

OUTBOARD ATTACHMENT HOOK

HATCH CURTAIN SHOWN IN EXTENDED POSITION (TYPICAL IN LEFTAND RIGHT SIDE) (ROTATED 180 ° }

_'C_._ '_._. _._

\\ \\ _. \

_.

STRAP PLACES SNAP (TYPICAL 5 EACH SIDE)

'

HATCH CURTAIN SHOWN IN STOWED POSITION

Figure 2-9 Hatch Curtain 2-15

P-R-OJ ECT'-G

sEo, 300
E M IN I
OUTERGLASS PANE GASKET ASKET O-RING SHINGLE ATTACHING ERACKET IVETS

_

/

ML (REF) DETAIL A-A

AM_
% _ OUTERWINDOW ASSY HATCHOUTER

z,3,._o

////x_ _-.//// ,d._ / •

ii"/

////

OB.,,VATIONWINDOWASS,MBLy

NUTMIDDLEGLASSPANI

STAT,.O-SEAL WASHER ERGLASS PANE KET FRAME

STAT-O-SEAL WASHER BOLT

INNER WINDOW

ASSEMBLY

Figure2-10 Observation Window 2-16

SEDR 300

EMINI
to control thermal radiation. The inner surface of the beryllium shingles are

coated with gold to provide a low emissivity surface.

ADAPTER The adapter functions to mate the spacecraft to the launch vehicle, to provide for mounting equipment and retrograde rockets , and to serve as a radiator for the spacecraft coolant system. The adapter (Figure 2-2) is a truncated cone-shape,

simimonocoque structure consisting of circmuferential aluminum rings, extruded magnesium alloy stringers, and magnesium skin. The extruded stringers are designed

in a bulb-tee shape to provide a flow path for the liquid coolant which transfers heat to the adapter skin for radiation to space. The outer surface of the skin

is coated with white ceramic type paint and the inner surface is covered with aluminum foil. plated. The _nner adapter surfaces of spacecraft 9 through 12 are gold

The forward end of the adapter is coupled to the aft end of the re-entry

module by utilizing three titanium tension straps (Figure 2-11).

RETROGRADE

SECTION

The retrograde section, the smaller end of the adapter, provides for installation of four retrograde rockets and six Orbital Attitude Maneuvering System thrust chamber assemblies. To provide for the installation of the retrograde rockets, I beam support assembly. The I beams

the retrograde section employs an al1_nun

are assembled in the form of a cruciform with one retrograde rocket mounted in each quadrant.

EQUIPMENT

SECTION The section

The equipment section is the larger diameter end of the adapter.

provides hard points for the attachment of structural modules for the OAMS tanks, Enviromnental Control System primary oxygen supply, fuel cell (batteries on 2-17

SEDR 300

//

_'_AINJNG STRA_

,_ /;/

BOLT _'N

S'HER,CALWASHER I// WASHOR
N% AD_ _i _1/ N N _FARNG

%

(TI TAN' UM)

......

___._

WASHER

RE-ENTRY MODULE

/-

"'_"

(_F)
(REF)

. _

STRAP ASSEMBLY (VIEW ROTATED FOR CLARITY)

ADAPTER

(P_F)

SHAPED CHARGE ASSEMBLY (REF)

'_;l _"'_, • t-.. (REF)

RE-ENTRy MODULE j STRAP (TYP 2 ASSEMBLY PLACES) (REF)

RETAINING

STRAP ASSY

SHAPED CHARGE J_

(TITANIUM)

ASSEMBLY (REF) _ HEAT SHIELD (RER)_

!

I I

SECTION

A-A

Figure -IIRe-Entry 2 Module-Adapter Retaining Straps 2-18

SEDR 300

PROJECT

GEMINI

spacecraft 6), coolant, electrical and electronic components, Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment on spacecraft 9 through 12, and Rendezvous Evaluation Pod on spacecraft 5 only. A honeycomb blast shield is provided above the modules

to shield the equipment section and booster dome from excessive heat during retrograde rocket firing under abort conditions. Ten OAMS thrust chamber assemblies A gold deposited

are mounted on the large diameter end of the equipment section. fiberglass temperature control cover protects the equipment

fred solar radiation

through the open end of the adapter after separation from the launch vehicle.

SPACECRAFT/LAUNCH VEHICLE MATING The spacecraft is mated to the Titan II Launch Vehicle with a machined aluminm_ alloy ring (Figure 2-12). f_ vehicle mating ring. This ring, 120 inches in diameter, mates with the launch To provide for

Twenty bolts secure the rings together.

alignment, the launch vehicle incorporates one steel 3/26 inch disBeter alignment pin located at TY and four index marks. To separate the spacecraft from the

launch vehicle, a pyrotechnic charge is fired, severing the adapter section approximately 1½ inches above the launch vehicle/spacecraft mating point.

-i9

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR 300 =__

I (REF) I OXIDIZER TANK (REF) /

QUAD 3

QUAD 4

QUAD 2

VEHICLE (REF)

SPACECRAFT TO LAUNCH VEHICLE ATTACHMENT BOLT HOLES

MATING SECTION SEPARATION ASSEMBLY (REF) QUAD 4 QUAD 3

LX

MACHINED RING

MATING QUAD 1 QUAD 2

SPACECRAFT MATING LINE

--_ LAUNCH VEHICLE RING ATTACH -BOLT

Zl3,44

BY

SECTION A-A
(TYPICAL 20 PLACES)

Figure

2-12

Spacecraft/Launch 2-20

Vehicle

Mating

Ring

CABIN INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT

Section
T __._o__o_T ____
TITLE _-_ GENERAL .................................................... CREW SEATING .......................................... SEAT DESCRIPTION .................................... SEAT EJECTION SYSTEM ............................ RESTRAINT SYSTEM .................................... EGRESS KIT ................................................. BACKBOARD ASSEMBLY ........................... PELV I C B L0 CK ........................................... BALLUTE SYSTEM ....................................... PERSONELL PARACHUTE .............................. PAGE 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-5 3-10 3-14 3-15 3 -15 3-16 3-16

III

!.._..=.:..=._ ii!iiii_i_;:.:.iiii_-_,.....
,..oo...oo...o.._.._..o...

PARACHUTE DROGUE ORTAR M ................ 3-16 !!i!!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!
3-17 3-17 3-19 3-20 3-24
3-24

!iiii!ii!i!iiiiiii':_!ii:'_ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii!iiii!ii!iiiiiiil i!i!iiii!i!i!!ii!i!!!iii!!! !iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilH!H!!!! iliiiiiiiiiiiiilHiiiii!iii
_.°°°°°°°...o°o..°_°o.o°,.. .°°°°o°_oo°°°°oo,°°°°..**°, .............. °°°°o.°°°o°°,

PERSONAL HARNESS ASSEMBLY ................ SURVIVAL KIT ............................................. PYROTECHNIC DEVICES ............................. INSTRUMENT PANELS ................................ STATIC SYSTEM .......................................... FOOD, WATER and EQUIPMENT
STOWAGE ................................................

CABIN INTERIOR UGHTING ....................... !iiiiiiiiiiiiiiHii 3-20
_iiiHiiiii!!ii!i!i!i!iiiii iiiilH!i!!iiiiiiiiiliiiill
i!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

WASTE DISPOSAL ...................................... STOWAGE PROVISIONS ............................
_-].

3-29 3-29

iiiiiiiiiiiii!ii!Hiiii!iii i_.:-:-::._i_':._!!":._i i _i i i i _i i i i i i!i !
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
_____

SEDR300

EGRESS ERVATION WINDOW

Ilia
CIRCU

CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL

INSTRUMENT PANEL

CONTROL

VESSEL (REF)

MANAGEMENT

EJECTION

SEAT

WASTE STOWAGE

SECONDARY C CONTROL HANDLE

CONTROL

HANDLE

Figure

3-1 Cabin

Equipment 3-2

(Typical)

PRO J C---"C'T-"GE I N I E M
__ $EDR 300

SECTION III

CABIN INTERIOR ARRANG_ERT

GENERAL The equipment within the cabin is arranged to permit the comand pilot, seated

to the left, and the pilot, seated to the right, to operate the controls and observe displays and instruments unrestrained position. in full pressure suits in the restrained or

The cabin air outflow is regulated during launch to

establish and maintain a 5.5 psi differential pressure between the cabin and outside ambient condition. The cabin is maintained at a nominal 5.1 psia The cabin equipment

throughout the flight by a cabin pressure regulator.

(Figure 3-1) basically consists of crew ejection seats, instrument panels and controls, lighting, food, water, waste collection, and miscellaneous equipment.

SmT G
The crew members are seated in the typical command pilot and pilot fashion, faced toward the small end of the re-entry module. board and 8° forward to assure separation The seats are canted 12° out-

and to provide required elevation

in the event an off the pad ejection is necessitated.

Crew seating provisions devices,

include

scats, restraint

mechanisms,

seat ejection effective

seat man separator,

survival gear, and an egress kit assembly

spacecraft 5 and 6 only.

SEATI)

n:TON,
of a

The crew seats (Figure 3-2) are all metal built-up assemblies consist_n s torque box framed seat bucket, channeled backs and arm rests.

The seat has The

lateral and vertical stiffeners, designed for a single moment of thrust.

3-3

..oJ.cT GEM,., SEO. 30o
RAFT CONTAINER PARACHUTE RISERS AND SHOULDER ISERAND BALLUTE RISER STORAGE RESTRAINT SERAPS_

PERSONNEL PAR.ACHUTE_

BACKBOARD _

R BOARD

DROGUE MORTAR _

_

BLOCK

CONTROL ELBOW RESTRAINT _1 ITIA REEL _,,

SUIT ELECTRIC/d.

; STRAp

SUIT OXYGEN

HOSES

NOTE
_!_ COMMAND PILOT EJECTION SEAT ILLUSTRATED. HARNESS RELEASEACTUATOR IS lOCATED ON OUTBOARD SIDE OF SEAT.

"_-'_

S/C 5 AND 6

_

Ieigu_e

3-2 Gemini

Ejection

Seat

Assembly

SEDR 300

PROJ

MINI
At this

seat is supported at a single point at the top of the seat back. point, the seat bolts to the rocket/catapult.

Each seat is supported against

fore, aft, and side movement by slide blocks mounted on the seats and retained in tee type rail assemblies attached to the large pressure bulkhead. The

seats incorporate a padded contoured headrest to support the pilots helmet. Each seat slso incorporates a restraint system, harness release system and a seat/man separator.

SEAT EJECTION

SYSteM

The seat ejection system (Figure 3-3) provides the crew with a means of escaping from the vicinity of the spacecraft in the event of an abort or in an emergency condition during launch or re-entry. ,_ rocket/catapults. Crew member seats are ejected by means of

Hot gas from each of the hatch actuators is routed to the

appropriate seat catapult where dual firing pins strike dual percussion primers, thereby igniting the seat rocket/catapult main charge and ejecting the seats from the spacecraft. Hot gas from the rocket/catapult main charge ignites the sustainer In the

rocket and the rocket provides additional separation from the spacecraft.

event ejection becomes necessary, after deployment of main landing system parachute and while descending in the two point suspension, it is mandatory that the main landing system parachute be Jettisoned before ejecting from the spacecraft.

The ejection sequence is initiated by manually pulling either ejection control (D-rlug) located on the front of the seat buckets. flight each pilot erects and holds on the D-rlng. During the launch phase of This action aids in stabilizing

the pilots arms and at the same time places them in a position for instant response. The D-rlngs are normally stowed at the front of the seat and are pinned in a

3-5

PROJECT
___ SEDR 300

GEMINI
_3

300 FEET

=PEET

r
I NOTE
THIS PLOT ILLUSTRATES THE TRAJECTORY OF A PILOT WHEN EJECTED OFF THE PAD.

_,,

,,i= =100 FEET 0 FEET 100 FEET 200 FEET

't
500 FEET 600 FEET 700 FEET

300 FEET

400 FEET

EJECTION

SEAT TRAJECTORY

PLOT

NOTE
EITHER PILOT CAN EJECT SEATS.

_i_
_i_

_DF
LINES

1
THE _IBOTH PILOTS HOLD EJECTION CONTROL LOOp FJRMLY.

Jrili "
ill _j MDFFIREsMANUAL FIRING MECHANISM" BURNS AT AFPROXJ/_TELY ... -ii!i!ii IL_MDF 24'000 FT/SEC

iii!ii
!_iili

M DFCROSSOVERNE 'ATOB _ORKI.ITAT NT ESSEC ODS_T N
_PULSE TRAVELS TO HATCH ACTUATORS IN 4 SEPAP-A, L[NES. TE EVENT TIME .01

NOTE

I

iiiiil ___,N mATE EJECTION

HATCH IS UNLATCHED,

iiiiil B _:_:_::_:_:_: HATCH IS O PENED. IGNITES. I_:BREECH ASSEMBLY

Figure g-a Ejection Seat Sequence Of Operation 3-6

(Sheet 1 of 4)

SEDR 300

:x:.:

_:_i_!i!_! []ROCKET
CATAPULT EGRESS aNYARDS ::i::i!:: :: iiiiii:: i::i::iii::i ii_ii:_!!i

EURN ouT.

EVENT TIME

I

i!

BALLUTE ACTUATOR

BALLISTIC

_.. ,ATCH GAS O,RECTED RY_LL,ST,C ACTUATOR _O IMPULSEROCKEE/CATA,ULT iii:_i
mini HOSE ] CATAPULT TIRES MORTAR DROGUE REEL PILOT

EVENT TIME •r_ .32

l []

HAR NES: RELEASE

DISCONNECT (FROM SEAT)

]EJECTION

SEAT MOVING

UP, IGNITES EJECTION

ROCKET APPROX]MATELY mwm_ SEAT/_N i SEPERATOR RECOVERY BEACON

I11_

4 INCHES FROM END OF RAIL TRAVEL. EVENT TIME COM-MuNICATION SEVERED.I HARNESS RELEASE ACTUATORS INITIATED. IS

EGRESS LANYARDS

PULLED,

i

...................................................................................

3R

iiiiii im
.:_i:i: I I i_iii II _"]J _-_::_ _ _ _

EJECTION

SEAT CONTINUE3

[]

ON T

RA RY O
J T PULL BACKBOARD AND SURVIVAL GEAR

:!: ::::1:1 :_: _:_: !::!: ::: :_k:!!: :!:::!::i:i:: :1:1:::::_ ::!:!:!:!: !:!:! ::::: :::::::::: :::::: ::: :::::::: ::: :: :_::::V::::::::::::::: ::::_:::::::::: : :::: :i:::: :_:::: !:_::: _: : ! !:! :: i _:_ :_:_: :: !:!:: ::::: ::::: _: : ::::: :_::: : : : ::::: : :::_ :: :: : : ::::: :::::::::::: _:ii_i:: HARNESS RELEASE ACTUATOR TIRES BY LANYARD

LAP BELT RELEASE ASSEMBLY ACTIVATED. ASSEMBLY RELEASED FROM SEAT.

::.:_.::.x.::. :.:+x :_:::::::: ::.:: :.: :.:::: :.:::.: :

EVENT TIME

I

i__111 RELEASE ,MPULSESRA_/MAN !ii HARNESS GAS OEL,VERED ACTOATOR TO SEiii::iiii PARATOR BY BALLISTIC HOSE. ::::ii:'_i_ -ASSEMBLY. :iiiiiii _I_ PILOT WITH BACKBOARD AND SURVIVAL GEAR SEPARATE FROM SEAT

/'x

;::::::; _i_i__

PILOT DROGUE MORTAR, BALLUTE SYSTEM AND RECOVERY BEACON INITIATED BY LANYARDS CONNECTED TO SEAT STRUCTURE.

_ BAT

_

i_:_ii'iiii i: _ SEAT/MAN

SEPARATOR

SHOE

EXTENDS

AND REMOVES

SLACK

FROM

STRAP

EGRESS CONTINUES UNDER ROCKET POWER. PILOTS LEAVE SPACECRAFT 12° OUTBOARD OF "X" AXIS AND 8 ° 20' FORWARD OF "Z" AXIS.

EVENT1.50TIME I

Figure

3-3

Ejection

Seat

Sequence 3-7

Of Operation

(Sheet

2 of 4)

SEDR 300

NOTE
(4 PLACES) DROGUE MORTAR BAROSTAT IS ACTIVATED DURING SF_.T/MAN SEPARATION TO DEPLOY THE PARACHUTE AT 5700 FEET OR BELOW.

BALLUTE

N

[]

DROGUE MORTAR FIRES.

RIS_

_

i i i i!i

3.80

NOTE

iiiil
[]MORTAR

_ENT ARE T"_ES E,EC.O"5=PEET _OR BELOWO.L Y
SLUG DEPLOYS AND INFLATES PILOT AND MAIN PARACHUTES.

iiili!
ABOVE SEQUENCE ILLUSTRATION IS TYPICAL OF EJECTION , _--_ BETWEEN 7S00 AND 40,000 FEEl ONt_. I SALLUTE DEPLOYS AFTER A S SECOND DELAY.

NOTE
I . BALLUTE BAROSTAT HAS BEEN ACl"EqATED TO JEI'TISON Tiff BALLUTE AT 7500 FEET, 2. TIME CHART APPLICABLE TO EJECTIO_ ABOVE 7500 FEET ONLY.

]

PARACHUTE FULLY INFLATED.

_

BACKBOARD AND

SEAT SEPARATED FROM PILOT.

iii
Figure 3-3 Ejection Seat Sequence 3-8 Of Operation (Sheet 3 of 4)

PROJECT
_@

GEMINI
_'_

SEDR300

NOTE
SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT DEPLOYED AS BACKBOARD FALLS FROM PILOT. THE LiFE RAFT IS INFLATED MANUALLY DURING PARACHUTE DESCENT ALL SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT IS SECURED TO PILOT BY A LANYARD.

NOTE
_ _i_ _ii PILOT DISCONNECTS OXYGEN INLET AND OUTLET HOSES• OXYGEN CONNECTION IN PRESSURESUIT IS SEALED CLOSED WHEN OXYGEN HOSE IS REMOVED.

_"

_i!i

ii
Figure 3-3 Ejection Seat Sequence Of Operation (Sheet 4 of 4) 3-9

__.

SEOR 300

downward position at the front of the seat structure. moved during launch and re-entry and during orbit.

The safety pin is re-

Each pilot is restrained in his ejection seat by a restraint system (Figure 3-4) consisting of personal harness, lap belt assembly, shoulder restraint, inertia reel and leg restraint. Other portions of the restraint system are part of the These seat restraints are the arm restraint loops, The restraint system provides adequate support

ejection seat (Figure 3-2).

elbow restraint and foot stirrups.

and restraint during conditions of maximum acceleration and deceleration. INERTIA _L The inertia reel (Figure 3-_) is a two position locking device, located on the rear of the backboard. Two straps connect the inertia reel and the personal The inertia reel control handle

harness to restrain the pilots forward movement.

is located on the front of the left arm rest and has two positions, manual lock and automatic lock. Orbital flight is accomplished with the inertia reel in the Manual lock position is used during launch and re-entry.

automatic lock position.

The manual lock position prevents the pilots shoulders from moving forward.

To release his shoulders, when the inertia reel is in the manual lock position, the pilot must position the control handle to the automatic position. The auto-

matic lock a11ows the astronaut to move forward slowly a maximum of 18 inches but will lock with a 3 g deceleration. When the automatic lock has engaged, the lock

will ratchet and permit movement back into the seat, but will not permit forward movement. The release of the automatic lock is accomplished by cycling the

control handle to manual and back to automatic lock.

3 -I0

SEDR 300

! s
/!

/

A/
%.\ j/_ _

-

_

i

\..

.i
JJ PERSONAL HARNESS

\

i
t...s
J

\

_. ............ :._f

.....__........
LEG RESTRAINT

..s'D )" t

I

KIT aN'<,_O

II
.I ,

ISHOULDER

RESTRAINT

I_]l LEGRESTRAINT AND SURVIVALKIT LANYARD Figure 3-4 Restraint System (Sheet 1 of 2)

3-11

PROJECT

sEoR300
GEMINI
NOTE
LEFT HAND SEAT IS SHOWN (PILOT) RIGHT HAND SEAT HAS INERTIA REEL CONTROL ON RIGHT HAND ARM REST.

BACKBOARD j ASSEMBLY

_._%

ASSEMBLy

PERSONNEL AREA (REF)

iNERTIA REEl. ASSEMBLY

iNERTiA REEL CONTROL SHAFT

Figure

3-4 Restraint

System 3-12

(Sheet

2 of 2)

PROJECT
ARM RESTRAINT The arm restraint made up in the the not pilots required, (Figure 3-4) is

SEDR300

GEMINI

___

a welded, is

1/2 installed

inch

diameter on each

tube arm rest

assembly to retain is

form of a loop. the

A loop

arms within it

ejection the

envelope. rear

When the

arm restraint

loop

,my be swung to

and down.

An elbow restraint is provided stabilize his forearm during

for the command pilot only. manual re-entry.

It is used

to

LRG RESTRAINT 8_RAP The leg restraint (Figure 3-4) consists of two straps of dacron webbing with a connecting slide buckle. metal eyelets. One end of each strap is secured to the seat by round

The left strap of each leg restraint has a metal end assembly Velcro tape on the right

that permits the right strap to fold back on itself.

strap is used to secure the strap end in position when the strap is drswn tight over the pilots legs. During seat/,_n separation, the restraint strap eyelets

are automatically released from the base of the seat, freeing the restraint strap.

EJECTION SEAT FOOT STIRRUP The ejection to the front small seat foot stirrups (Figure seat. rising shoe the pilots Each along heel 3-2) consist has of two welded a short side. frames attached platform is so

of the vertical that the foot

ejection edges pilots while the

stirrup the

protruding The stirrup

with

outboard lock

constructed movement During

will vertical will

in place edges will

and prevent prevent side

forward movement.

of the seat

small feet

ejection,

stay

in place,

3-13

[_

SEDR300

LAP _LT The lap to belt belt (Figure the fastened pilot to 3-k) in the is the an seat arrsngem_nt structure. and seat. of dacron Load The near with the and nylon straps has of straps, from designed the quick lap. is lap

restrain are

carrying lap the belt center finger.

backboard release can strap be

a manual the pilots belt

disconnect The manual adjusted

and a pyrotechnic quick by sliding disconnect excess

fitting released

one

Lap

tension

through

pyrotechnic

release.

During just prior

ejection, to seat/ Five release

the lap belt ends attached ma, separation. seconds During

to the seat structure

are released

separation, drogue

the lap belt _Ins mortar fires,

with the pilot. lap belt

after the backboard and allows

the pyrotechnic

activates

the lap belt, backboard

and seat to fall free.

A second -_-,,_i release located forward

for the lap belt is also available

to the pilot.

It is

on the right arm rest and is referred the ditch control allows

to as the ditch the pilot

control. from

Releasing

the lap belt with module with

to egress

the _Anding

the backboard

and seat.

EGI_gSS KIT

(Effective

Spacecraft contains

5 and 6) the bail out oxygen seat bucket for an ejected a mounting supply, pilot. The for the and

The egress kit assembly

egress kit rests in the ejection egress kit cushion.

and forms an oxygen which

surface

The egress kit contains a composite of egress disconnect,

for breathing closes pressure

suit pressurization; and prevents escepe

when separated to prevent

the port build flow

oxygen;

a relief to reduce

valve,

up in the pressure of low pressure

suit; a regulator, a pressure Three

high pressure checking

to a controlled egress

oxygen,

gage,

for visually

oxygen preskit and

sure; and connecting

lines.

lanyards

are attached

between

the egress

PMINI
SEDR 300

the spacecraft. connect

These

lanyards

pull

release

plns to allow

the composite

d/sand

to separate,

allow the oxygen

to flow through

the pressure When time

regulator the drogue

allow the relief mortar deploys

valve to control

the pilots

suit pressure. pyrotechnic

the pilot parachute,

a 5-second

delay

is initiated

and at burn

out_ the egress kit with

the backboard

is separated

from the pilot.

EGRESS

KIT CUSHION

(Effective (Figure

Spacecraft

5 and 6) type of contour and is of the

The egress attached pelvic

kit cushion

3-2) has a universal kit. The cushion handle

to the top of the egress and up to the

is positioned access door.

forward

block

ejection

control

The backboard retain mortar, body

assembly

(Figure

3-2) is machined ballute

aluminum,

designed

and

stressed drogue

to

the inertia parachute

reel, ballute, and survival

release

and deploy

mechanism,

kit.

A cushion,

contoured surface

to the ind/vidual

pilots The

requirements, is provided

is positioned to supply

on the forward

of the backboard. back.

cushion reel

support

and comfort

to the pilots

The inertia

straps and lap belt the

secures

the pilot

to the backboard. to parachute

The backboard Five seconds

accompanies

pilot through deployment,

seat ejection

deployment.

after parachute pilot.

the backboard

with

the seat is separated

from the

PELVIC BL0C[
The pelvic positioned the pilots structure block between (Figure 3-2), contoured assembly to the lower torso of each pilot, supports is

the backboard

and the seat.

The block with

lower vertebra upon seat/man

and pelvic separation.

structure.

It remains

the seat

3-15

PROJECT'---GEMINI
_@ SEDR 300

B_r.T._ESYSTD_ The ballute system (Figure 3-2) consists of a barostat controlled pyrotech-lc initiator, combined wi_h a pyrotechnic gas generator, cutters and a packaged ballute. The ballute, located on the back and lower left side of the pilots It is inflated by ram

backboard, is an aluminized nylon fabric enclosed cone.

air passing through four inlets located s_-._trically around the upper periphery. The ballute is connected to the backboard through an 8 inch rlser, a 5 foot dual bridle, and by a one inch wide dacron webbing passing through a pyrotec_,_c actuated cutter. The ballute provldes the pilot with a stabilized, feet into the The system is fully autcmatic

wind, attitude for all ejections over 7,500 feet. and is actuated at seat/man separation.

At altitudes below 7,500 feet, the

barostat prevents deployment of the ballute ....

PERSONN_. PARASITE The personnel parachute (Figure 3-2) is a standard 28 ft dia nylon parachute. The parachute is located on the right rear of the pilots backboard. deployed by the drogue mortar slug and pilot chute. attached to the pilots personal harness. It is

The parachute risers are

PARAC_UfE DROGUE MORTAR The parachute drogue mortar (Figure 3-2) is a pyrotechnic device designed to eject a i0 oz drogue slug with sufficient velocity to deploy the pilot chute of the personnel parachute. The drogue mortar is a barostat operated firing mechanism, It will fire and deploy the parachute at or below An MDF chain

but can be fired manually.

5,700 feet plus a 2.3 seconds time delay from seat/man separation.

is initiated by the drogue mortar and separates the backboard and seat from the pilot •

3-16

PRMINI
SEDR 300

PERS0_L

HARNESS ASSDmLY

The personal harness ass_ubly (Figure 3-_) provides a light, strong, and comfortable arr-ngement to attach the personnel parachute to the pilot. constructed from nylon webbing formed into a double fignre-8. The harness is

The two figureOnly

8's are joined by two cross straps, the waist strap, and the chest strap. the chest strap is adjustable.

A quick disconnect is placed forward and below

each shoulder for connection of the parachute risers and shoulder restraint straps. Below the left quick disconnect, a small ring is incorporated to attach

the survival kit lanyard.

mVITAnm
The survival kit (Figure 3-2) is a packaged group of specially designed equipment for the use of a downed pilot. Articles in this kit are intended to aid in Deployment of the

preserving life under varying environmental conditions.

survival kit is automatic if the pilot ejects and is also available to the pilot if he lands with the spacecraft.

Deployment of the survival kit during the ejection cycle takes place as the backboard and seat falls away from the parachuting pilot. As the backboard

falls, the survival kit lanyard, connected to the pilots harness, pulls a pin on the life raft container. When the pin is removed, the daisy chain loops

are disengaged and the llfe raft and rucksack are extracted from the container. The survival kit lanyard repeats the extraction process in removing the machete and water bottle from the second container. The machete and water bottle are

stowed in a survival equipment container on the left front side of the backboard.

3-17

•PROJECT

GEMINI

During seat/man separation, a lanyard between the seat structure and the rucksack activates the radio beacon. As the pilot descends on his parachute, the survival

equilzmentis suspended below and the radio beacon transmits on an emergency frequency. Direction finding equipment on aircraft and aboard ship can plot the

pilots position taking navigational fixes on the radio/beacon.

Survival equipment is divided into two major stowage containers.

The life raft

container mounted on the left rear of the backboard has the following items: Life raft container (Typical) I Life Raft I Sea anchor 1 4 inch x _ inch Foam rubber pad 1 C02 cylinder 1 Sea dye marker I Sun bonnet

Rucksack (Typical) 1 Survival light 1 Strobe light 1 Flash light 4 Fish hooks Fish line 2 Sewing needles and thread 1 Magnetic compass

1 Fire starter 4 Fire fuel

3 -18

PROJECT
___ SEDR 300

GEMINI

I Whistle i Signal mirror 14 Water purification tablets

I De-salter kit (less can) 8 De-salter 1 Water bag 1 Repair kit 1 Medication kit (Typical) 6 Tablet packets 1 Small injector (1 CC) i Large injector (2 CC) _i 3 inch x 3 inch compress 1 12 inch x 12 inch alu_m_uumfoil
/

tablets

i Tube zinc oxide 1 pr Sun @lasses 1 Radio beacon The forward survival kit, mounted on the forward surface of the backboard to the left of the pilots shoulder, contains the following; 1 Water container with 3 lb of water 1 Machete with sheath

PYROTECHNIC

DEVICES

There are 18 pyrotechnic devices incorporated in the cabin all of which pertain to seat ejection, restraint release and parachute deployment. The pyrotechnic

devices are 2 hatch actuators, 2 seat rocket/catapults, 2 ballute deployment and release mechanisms, 2 backboard and seat Jettison, 2 drogue mortars, 2 harness

3-]9

PROJECT
_@

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

release

actuators,

2 seat/man

separator Fuse)

actuators, b6vnesses.

2 hatch

actuator

initiators devices, except

and 2 hatch MDF

(Mild Detonating are safetied

The pyrotechnic control control

the drogue mortar,

by stowing

the ejection

handle assembly.

(D-ring) On

with a safety pin through spacecraft inserted

the handle ejection

into the ejection control control pyrotechnic assembly

8 only, a second

safety pin is also safety the

in the side of the ejection firing mechanism.

to completely

MDF manual

INS_ Instrument

PANELS panels, switch to place and circuit controls breaker panels and pedestal reach panels (Figure

3-5) are arranged view of each

and indicators

within suit. enables

and convenient stick, stowed
r _

crew member

while

in a full pressure breaker panel,

A swizzle a pilot

by the overhead switches

switch and circuit selectors

to position With this free

and rotate

on the opposite

side of the cabin.

arrangement,

one pilot

can control

the co,,_lete spacecraft

and temporarily

the second pilot

of all duties.

CABIN IN_RIOR Cabin interior

LIG_ lighting is provided by three types of lights located in five aft and to

separate above

locations,

described stowage

as follows: area. A DIM flood

Cabin

flood

lights are located under

the center-line light

control lights flood

is located are located light

the light

control inner lamps, ward.

intensity.

Instrument

at the forward contains two

edge of the hatches. one lamp having A DIM control

Each instrument

installation

a rod filter and the other a white

filter projecting

down-

and a RED-WHITE-OFF

switch are provided

at each of the lights.

Two utility

lights

attached

to the ends of spiral extension interior.

cords are located The lights stow in

on

the left and right

side walls of the spacecraft 3-20

_

.

SEDR 300

RAD

EVAF

EVAP

_l

1

_vpJss

_e

N_

-DETAILL (S/C 10 & UP)

(S/C 10 & 11)

©

f_

DETAIL K (S/C 9 & UP)

c_f

02

¢Rvo

H2

DETAIL M (S/C 10 & UP)

Figure

3-5 Instrument

Panels 3-23

and Displays

(Sheet

3 of 3)

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
_--'-_

SEDR300

clips mounted on the side walls.

An ON-OFF switch is located adjacent to the The CTR LIGHTS, BRIGHT-

AUX RECEP panel on each of the spacecraft side walls.

0FF-DIM switch and the CABIN LIGHTS switch-circuit breaker are located on the overhead switch and circuit breaker panel.

ELECTRICAL OUTLETS The two receptacles, powered by the spacecraft electrical system, are installed on brackets _mmediately aft of the left and right switch/circult breaker panels. These receptacles are controlled by adjacent ON-OFF switches and are used for powering the utility light or other electrical equipment.

STATIC

SYSTEM

The static pressure system is employed to operate the rate of descent indicator, altimeter, and to supply pressure to the static pressure transducer for instrumentation. The static system is also utilized to provide a differential pressure The static ports (Figure 3-6), used for

for the cabin pressure transducer.

atmospheric pressure pick-up, are located in the small end of the spacecraft conical section. The static port (Figure 3-6), used for differential pressure

pick-up, is located on the forward surface of the small pressure bulkhead.

FOOD , WA_ER AND EQUIPMENT ,,, ,

STOWAGE

Containers to left, right and aft of pilots (Figure 3-7) are provided for equipment and food storage. Although minor changes in storage containers are dictated by Center-llne stowage

mission requirements, the main containers are as follows:

box, used for larger size camera containers and EVA (Extra-Vehicular Activity) chest pack; right aft pressurized stowage box, used to stow food initially and later, body waste materials; left aft stowage box, used to stow food packages;

3-24

PROJECT
._,_

GEMINI
_j__ __

SEDR300

rf

(REB_SWITCH

$THATIAMCBEPRLE N(REFU_ A O_ DETAIL A-A \

gMALL PRESS P_ U BULKHEAD

2'

"_

\\ DETAIL B-B

Figure

3-6 Static 3-25

System

_

SEDR 300

RIGHT BIO-MED

RECORDER _TOWAG E AREA

- NUCLEAR EMULSION

EXPERIMENT

SIDEWALL STOWAGE CONTAINER SIDEWALL STOWAGE CONTAINER -URINE SUPPLIES FOUCH

EXTENSION

PILOT EJECTION SEA1 REMOVED FOR CLARITY

..:::::::::
VOICE TAPE RECORDER LEFT SIDE DRY STOWAG E BAG S OPTI ::_:: ::_:;:::::: :ili__::::: ::::::::::: :::':

VIEW LOOKING INTO COMMAND PILOTSSIDE

RIGHT PEDESTAL

TV MONITOR

STOWAGE AREA,

._

Figure

3-7

Spacecraft

Interior

Stowage

Areas

(Typical)

(Sheet

1 of 2)

3-26

I_.

SEDR 300

STOWAGE AREA -LEFT AFT STOWAGE CONTAINER

LEFT BIO_/,ED RECORDER STOWAGE ARE

RIGHT HAND POUCH STOWAGE

PROVISION--

RIGHT SIDEWALL CONTAINER_

IN-FLIGHT

MEDICAL

KIT-

:: _i_ii!_:'_ ....

COMMAND PILOT EJECTION SEAT REMOVED

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: I SIDE DRY STOWAGE BAGS POUCH CENTER CONSOLE STOWAGE PROVISION VIEW LOOKING INTO PILOTS SIDE

Figure

3-7

Spacecraft

Interior

Stowage 3-27

Areas

(Typical)

(Sheet

2 of 2)

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

right and left sidewall stowage boxes, used to stow small pieces of equipment; left and right fabric covered sidewall stowage boxes, used to stow lightweight head sets; hatch food pouches used to stow large quantities of food; and sidewall stowage box extensions used to stow penlight, spotmeter, exposure dial and tape recorder cartridges. Equipment stowed in the above boxes may change with each mission.

Larger pieces of equipment, emergency equipment or equipment used on every flight, have special stowage brackets or fabric pouches positioned throughout the interior of the spacecraft. Examples of specific stowage brackets are as follows :

inflight medical kit, stowed aft of abort control handle; and the optical sight, stowed under co_and pilots instrument panel. Without counting the food packages,

stowage facilities are furnished for more than 125 pieces of equipment.

During flight, various pieces of frequently used equipment are removed from launch stowage areas and are stowed, with Velcro tape, on the spacecraft sidewalls, and on the inside surfaces of the hatch. As debris accumulates during flight, it Prior to

is placed in the left aft debris area, located aft of the pilots seat. descent, the equipment is re-stowed. stowage descriptions.

Only a general rule can be applied to

Exposed film is placed in insulated containers, previously The left aft

occupied by cameras and lens, in the center line stowage box.

stowage box is filled and the remainder of the loose equipment is divided among the sidewall stowage boxes on a planned basis. The pressurized stowage box is

used to store urine samples and waste containers.

A water storage container, with a 16-pound capacity, is located forward of the aft pressure bulkhead, between the seats. As the water is used from the main

storage container, it is replenished by the water stowed in the adapter section.

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR300 -___

Drinking is accomplished by means of a tube and manual valve system.

Food and

water will be sufficient for the mission and a postlanding period of 48 hours.

WASTE DISPOSAL Feces will be collected in a glove-like plastic bag. and the remainder disposed of by overboard dumping. Urine samples are taken, The urine samples and feces

waste containers are stowed in the right aft pressurized container which allows cabin depressurization without possible boiling off of the waste materials moisture content.

STOWAGE

PROVISIONS

Personal stowage facilities are provided by retaining removed portions of the F_ pressure suit and other equipment as required. These provisions consist of

floor pouches, Velcro covered areas on the walls of the pressure vessel, adjacent to the pilots and attached to the structure in usable areas. utilize the hook and pile principle of mating Velcro patches. Items to be stowed

3-29/30

SEQUENCE SYSTEM

Secfion
TABLE OF CONTENTS
_i_iiiil

ll/ IIV
:::::ill i!!!! iiiii:

TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SYSTEM OPERATION
PRE-LAUNCH .....................................

PAGE 4-3
4-5 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-9 4-12

_!!!!i _

_

LIFT -OFF ....................................................... BOOST AND STAGING

................................................ ..................................

::=_;_'--_;_;_; ;_4_ _" "_ _ _E_: ,_ "'-'_'E_"_._ _ji_--_-_iii_ _ _ii_-_:--;.'-=::_ii_._

SEPARATION AND INSERTION ........................ PREPARE-TO-GO TO RETROGRADE ..................

TIME TO RETROGRADE MINUS 30 SECONDS .... 4-18 RETROGRADE SEQUENCE ............................... 4-19
RE-ENTRY ABORT ..................................................... MODES •, •.. ,°, ...,,,., ............................. 4-23 4 24

_..:-...-_..:..--:_.:.:-..E.J :,_oo._.oo°°°.°.*_°oo_°_. ...........................::-:'"' ,°o°,.°°...,.°°o.°o°._.,_
,°°°o.._.°°°°°..°._°oo°°_ iii!iiiiiiiiiii _ii_ _iiiiiii ,°,°,°.**°°,,.°°°°****_***, .°**,*°.°..°*.,,o°**°***°°, ...........................

A BO RT SEQ UEN CE.........................................

4- 30 4-38 4-39 4-44 4 - 47 4 _ 51 4-52 4-53

iiiiiiiiii!iiiii_iiiiiii_ii

SYSTEM UNITS

.............................................

HiiiiiiiiHiiH!iiiiiiiiii
*,,,°..o.°._°°o,..°°,°._,, :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

LEFT SWITCH/CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL ............ BO OST-I NSERT-ABORT CO NTROLS AN D INDICATORS ............................................... SEQUENCE CONTROLS AND INDICATORS. RE ENTRY VEHICLE RELAY PANELS
........... _o°,

_iiiiiiiiiii_i!iiiiiii_i!!! ...... ..,°...°.._,°°,.°oo°, iiiiii_iiiiiii!i_iiiiiiiii! ........ °. ........ .o....°°...,°°°..°. .°.,,......°_..°_
• .°° ....... • ..° ...... .°....o°**°.°.., ..o.°o°.°°o...°°, ,°°...**..°°...°.....o°..,. °o. ........ .°°°°...**°...,.

........

!!ii_iiiiiiiiiiii_ii_iiiiii ........................... ....."" -'"'-"--'-.....'"'"'"'"'" ....... .,°.°.°.°°.°.. ...... • oo. ....... ..o°..o.°...o .o.°o°.°.°,°,...
.......... ..,°...°...o.°°o, . ......... .°°,°., ° ......... °°°°°o ........ °,,.. °., ......... .o°... ........ ..o.o° ....... °.°.., ....... .... .....°. ......... ......,

.°.o°o°°.°.°..

........................... iiiii!ii!iiiiiiiiiii!!iiiii ..°,.°o ......... °° ......... iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiil ,.o°, ........... ° ..........
::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

ADAPTER RELAY PANELS ................................ SEPARATION SENSORS ...................................
_-1

___

PROJECT
EQUIPMENT ADAPTER SEPARATION SENSORS I

SEDR 300

GEMINI

SENSORS (3)

,PACECRAPT SEPARAT,ON_---

___

SECTION

DAMS SQUIB FIRE RELAY PA

__i TYPICAL SEPARATION

SENSOR

ACECRAFT SEPARATION EPARATING RELAY PANEL SEQUENCE

INSTRUMENTATION

MON'T:RA% RP2--RELAY R & RSECTION SEPARATION CONTROL RELA' COMMUNICATIONS RELAYPANEL_

NOSE FAIRING JEITISON RELAY

MAIN iNSTRUMENT PANEL (UPPER ASSEMBLY)

RELAY PANEL RETRO SEQUENCE ADAPTER SEPARATE RELAY PANEL ER POWER SUPPLY RELAY PANEL DROGUE CHUTE RELA_ RELAY PANEL ETTISON RELAY PANEL STRIBUTION RELAY PANEL COMMAND PILOT'S PANEL

_/

_""_,

INSTRUMENTATION DOCKING RELAY CONTROL

POWER

RELAy PANEL ECS RELAY PANEL UMBILICAL PYRO SWITCH

PANEL (S/C 6, 8 & UP)

ACS-RCS

_!

LEFT SWITCH/CIRCUIT

BREAKER PANEL

........,,, _

I

11i An_PT l

@

RELAY PANEL

©

PANEL

_ [NGINE I ENGLNE I

_t

_

:

I II II I
EI,_IN_ZI

..... ,

@[IANrlNOCNILigOOSTINSERT

I REIROSEQ ILANOINGSEQ

SEQILGHTS

ATTIND

'_/!

_

i| i

,E,_e

i

Io1__
.,. P WR ' I---

_'1 _ I _ I _ I_" I',,o_,,.L ,_,o,0,_tc," _
,J_ 'JETT .... ,!. 2 ,_. 3 ,_. ' /

|
j_

i

I
R_T_O

/

_*'_ /

I

L

I
SQUIB5

/ _
I

-_-"x OL -- _ \_ HANDLE

BOOST._NSERTI

/ LANDING t

RETRO ROCkEI

Figure

4-1 Sequential 4-2

System

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
SEDR 300

SECTION IV SEQUENCE SYSTem4 DESCRIPTION The Sequence System of Gemini Spacecraft controls, indicators, relays,

SYSTEM

5, 6, and 8 through 12 comprises those semiauto-

sensors and timing devices which provide

matic control of the spacecraft and/or launch vehicle during the critical control times, but which are not part of other systems. times are: (See Figure t-l). The critical

the time from booster engine ignition through insertion into orbit; through post-landing; and the time to abort.

the time to prepare to go to retrograde

The Gemini crew does not control the spacecraft Engine Cutoff (SSEC0).

during boost through Second Stage

The spacecraft is controlled by Radio Guidance System (RGS)

and the Digital Command System (DCS), or by the Inertial Guidance System (IGS) and _ the on-board computer. The crew does however, monitor certain indicators to keep a crisis if one After SSEC0

informed of the operation of the launch vehicle, to anticipate

should develops, and to know if and when mission abort is mandatory.

the command pilot takes necessary action to separate the spacecraft from the launch vehicle and applies final thrust to place the spacecraft in the desired orbit.

During orbit, the Sequence System is in standby.

The electronic

timer, however,

which is part of the Time Reference System, is counting down the time-to-go to retrograde.

At _ minutes and 16 seconds before retrograde,

(TR-256 seconds), a Sequence System amber. These

relay is actuated, and several Sequence System indicators ill_uate Xndlcators provide the crew with cues for necessary operations.

Again at 30 seconds and arm

before retrograde, the crew is reminded to separate the adapter equipment the automatic retrograde rocket firing circuits.

The Sequence System, if properly

4-3

_i_.

SEDR 300

_

....

ORBIT

JETTADAPTFF

T = TR RgROFIRE

g_:_"_g_Oa-_

TR "," 3 DEC. 4 /.

PREPARE =TO-GO

TO RETROGRADE

RETROGRADE AUTO RETROFIREINITIATED MANUAL FIRERETROSWITCH:DEP_ESSED # I RETROTIRE ARM AUTO RETROIND/SW: GREEN F3 RETROFIRE:S.5-SECOND TIME DELAY JF4RETROFIRE:16*5-3ECOND TIME DELAy 45-3ECOND TIME DELAy RELAY JETTISON RETROIND/SW: AMBER RETRO JETT SQUIB SW: ARM JETT RETRO/SW: F_ESS-AMBER LIGHT OUT SHADEDCHARGESIGNITED RSTROIND= OFF PYRO SWITCHES,GUILLOTINES AND _

! DROGUE DEPLOYED SOK' CHUTE

J' Y

T=356 SEC. _ SB_ARATION

TR -30 MINUTES C-BAND BEACON SWITCH= ON PLATFORMALIGNED INDICATE RETROATTITUDESWITCH MAtN BATtERy SWITCHEDON {BATTERY POWERINDICATOR: GREEN) RCSINDIC./SW: AMBER/GREEN TR -30 SECONDS RELAy ENERGIZED ARM AUTO RETROIND./SW= AMBER SEPADAETIND./SWI AMEER/GREEN RETROROC RETSQUiBSI ARMED ELECIND./SW: AMBER/GREEN

J,

RENDEZVOUS

j

/v

J
I

R& RSECTION

BIA SQUIB 8US & MAIN BATTFFYS: OFF RErRO EOC/_T SQUIBSSWITCH TO SAFE NULL INCREMENTAL VELOCIIY INDICATOR EXTEND HFANT. & SELECTHF T/R SPACECRAFT SEPARATION: SENSE& INDICATE AFT THRUSIFFS ARE ORBIT FIRED SETSPCFT SW: PRESSED SECG= T +336 SEC. GAME: POWERON FAIRINGS JETTISONED ENGINE U THRUSTDECAy ( --_20 SEC)

DAMS ]ND./SW:

AMBER/GREEN

/

SEPARATION

_f TR -356 SECONDS RELAy ENERGIZED '2 RETROFIRE=11-SECOND TIME DELAy ROLLED 180° RADIO GUIDANCE TLM MONITOR BACKUP GUIDANCE SELECTOR SECONDARY AUTO PILOTINDICATOR SECONDARY GUIDANCE MAiN CHUTE DEPLOYED ]0.6K' 80K FT. - COMPUTERCOMMANDS HDS. DOW RE-ENTRY 1 3OMPUTER-OFF 1 :i_ _!_

I

: _! :,_c_ _<_ _ :

SEPARATION

AND INSERTION

GUIDANCE SWITCH OVER RELAY ATTITUDERATEINDICATOR

_ ENGINE il SHUTDOWN ENGINE [I FUEL & OXIDANT METERSREQ=D. PRESS, ENGINE II THRUSTCHAMFERPRESSURE >5,.,_ STAGE I1 IGNITION STAGE I SHUTDOWN

/

MALFUNCTION DETECTION PACKAGE PRIMARy HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SENSOR RGS-IGS SWITCH PRIMARY HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PRIMARy HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS PRiMARy AUTO PILOT GUIDANCE (TARS) MDP ELECTRONIC SWITCHES TELEMETRY AND GUIDANCE

LANDING ALTIMETFF-60K FT. LANDING SQUIB BUS;ARM BAROSTATSARM RELAY 50R FT ALTITUDE DROGUE CHUTE DEPLOY SWITCH RCSRINGS SWITCH; OFF 40R FT. BAROSTAT& INDICATOR PARA DEPLOY SWITCH "_

ETAO,NG MON'TOREO _NDICAT,ONS STAG'NG_LOS" STAGING SW'TCHRS CONlf.OL RELAYSENERGIZED
_ _ STAGING T_l_ SECONDS STAGES I & II SEPARATION ENGINE I FUEL& OXIDANT METERS REQ'D. PRESS. ENGINE I UNDE_FFESSURE INDiCATOR EXT STAGE I ENGINECH_RFF FFESSURE E;'_" tlJ 522K FT & UP: II I-II i _ NORMAL INEFFTION

R SECT,ON _R SEPARAT,ONCHUTE F=O DEPLOYED GU ,LOT,NEE D,SREEEED MAIN SW,TCHEE CHUTE
DROGUE CHUTE; DEPLOY, DISREEF DESCENTANTENNA; EXTEND UHF RESCUEBEACON ANTENNA: EXTEND WATERSEALVALVE; CLOSE

70K-522KFT: MODIFIEDRE-ENTRY 15K-70K FT: RIDE-IT-OUTABORT AND RE-ENTRY (_

_

I PROGRAM INITIATE SIGNAL FIRST MOTION SENSING HOLD DOWN ]BOLTFIRE COMMAND NO-SECOND TIME DELAY TH_.USTCffA,_BFF PRESSURE JE_JlLDUE STAGE I ENGINE IGNITION LIFT-OFF T =O SEC LIFT-OFF

I O-15K _FT: SLATEJECTION COMMUNICATIONS SELEC] ABORT HANDLE POSITION: NORMAL SEQUENCE LIGHTS CHECK SWITCH POSITIONS SELECT CIRCUIT BREAKFF POSITIONS SELECT CREWINGRESS PRE-LAU NCH IMPACT PARA JETTSWITCH MAIN CHUTE JETTISON RELAY& IGN. FLASHING LIGHT; EXTEND HOIST LOOP HF WHIP: EXTEND AC POWER& INSTRUMENTATION_ OFF

SUSPENSION2-POINT

_.

Figure 4-2

Sequential

System 4-4

Simplified

Block Diagram

• .

.

S|DR300

PROJECT

GEMINI

armed, will initiate retrograde automatically. grade manually as a safety precaution. nate as cues to deploy parachutes.

The crew redundantly initiates retro-

During descent, altitude indicators illumi-

After splash down, the main parachute is

Jettisoned, and all systems are shutdown.

Four abort modes comprise the abort sequence.

They are:

seat ejection (mode I);

ride-it-out abort (mode I-If); modified re-entry (mode If); and normal re-entry (mode Ill). The mode selected for abort is related to the spacecraft altitude at

the time the abort command is given.

SYST_40P_TION To simplify explanation, the Sequence System is divided into eight stages. _. The

eight stages are; pre-launch, lift-off, boost and staging, separation and Insertion, prepare-to-go to retrograde, retrograde, re-entry, and abort. shows these sequence stages, and the detailed function of each stage. Figure _-2 Telemetry

guidance, landing and post-landing are related to but not part of the Sequence System. The simplified block diagram is explained in the following paragraphs.

Pre-launch, lift-off, boost and staging, and separation and insertion are explained first. Prepara-to-go to retrograde, retrograde, and re-entry are discussed next.

Abort is discussed last.

PRE-LAUNCH The command pilot and the pilot ingress the Gemini cabin and take their assigned crew stations. The hatches are closed and locked. The crew checks that both D-

rings are unstowed.

The c_..and pilot makes sure that the abort control handle

is in the NORMAL position; the maneuver controller is stowed; the altimeter is set; and the Incremental Velocity Indicator (M) 4-5 is zeroed. He verifies that

SEDR300

the nine

sequence

indicators,

the two ABORT indicator

indicator

lights,

the ATT RATE

indiand

cator light, the ENGINE circuit position. bottom

the SEC _IDANCE

light,

both ENGINE He places panel

I indicator

lights,

II indicator

light are extinguished.

the top three to the closed switches

rows of (up)

breakers

on the left switch/circult the BOOST-INSERT

breaker

He places

and RETRO

ROCE_T

SQUIB

in the the nine for

bow to ABM, indicators

and the RETRO with

and LANDING

switches switch.

to SAFE. He selects

He tests switches

sequence

the SEQ LIGHTS _ST alignment,

gyro run-up

and platform

and performs

on-board

computer

checkout.

The pilot places switches tions. to ON.

the four MAIN Both pilots

BATTERIES

switches

and the three intercom

SQUIB

BA_EI_IES

select and check their and indicators

and uhf communicaor positioned as

The remaining

controls

are also monitored ready

required.

The crew verifies

and reports

all systems

for launch.

LIFT-OFF When the pre-launch countdown reaches zero, the first stage engine ignition chamber signal presone of

is given from the blockhouse. sure buildup. second. rated When Both ENGINE the thrust

Both first

stage

engines

begin

thrust

I indicators

illuminate of these

red but extinguish two engines exceeds

in about

chamber

pressure

77 percent If all and

pressure, remain

a two-second go during

time delay

is initiated

in the blockhouse. fire cc-_ud sensors

systems

this delay,

the hold-down-bolt First motion

is given

the launch ascent

vehicle

is commltted inches

to flight.

detect

vehicle in the

one and one-half

off the pad, and energize A l_5-second shutdown shutdown

time-zero

relays

blockhouse to prevent

and in the spacecraft. accidental release booster command

arm time delay

is initiated time.

engine

prior

to the scheduled the adapter,

staging

The umbilical umbilicals.

is given,

disconnecting

and re-entry mode to

The on-hoard

computer

is switched

from the guidance

inhibit

EMINI
SEDR 300

the

guidance

initiate

mode and enabled

to

accept

acceleration

data.

The lift-off The electronlc

signal is also applied to the electronic T.4m_rand the event tlmer. tlm_T beduinsto count down the tlme-to-go to retrograde. count up the time from lif_-ofT.

The event timer begins to

BOOST ARD STAGING As the missile continues to climb, the crew monitor the boost sequence and ABORT Ind/cators. The two ENGINE I under pressure Indleators, the ATT _ remain extinsulshed. Ind£cator

and both ABORT indicators _st illuminates amber. within the required

The EIglRR II indlcator

The STAGE I FUEL and OXIDT_R_ needles must indicate pressures limits, and the L0_G1TUDINAL ACC_RR_ n_st indicate an

increasing acceleration within prescribed limits for the flight t_me indicated by _ the event timer. the ground. The pilots monitor their indicators and report via uhf l_nk to Ground

Abort mode I prevails during the first 50 seconds of flight.

stations notify the pilot_ when abort mode I is no longer appllcablet and when abort mode I - II becomes applicable. imately the next _5 seconds of flight. Abort mode I-XI is in effect during approxAt T+95 seconds, the crew receives and

acknowledges changeover to abort mode II.

At T+145 seconds, when the acceleration has climbed to nearly 6g's, the first stage engine shutdown arm relays are energized. At appro_4m-tely T+153 seconds, The two ENG]I_EI indiThe staging

the thrust chamber pressure drops to less than 68 percent.

cators illuminate red, and the staging control relays are energized. switches are closed. shutdown. /-_

The stage I shutdown solenoids energize and both engines are The booster seThe explosive bolts Both

Acceleration drops sharply to appro_dmately l.Sg's.

quential system immed/ately ignites the second stage engine.

which unite stage i and stage 2 are detonated, and the stages separate.

4-7

SEDR 300

STAGE I STAGE I FUEL & OXIDIZER OC SIGNALS llJ. FUEL & OXIDIZER PRESSURE INDICATORS

BACK-UP

GUIDANCE

"ON"

_-

SECONDARY GUIDANCE LIGHT (AMBER) ENGINE I

STAGE I SUBASSEMBLY I ENGINE

UNDERPRESSURE SIGNAL

_-

UNDERPRESSURE LIGHT (RED) (SAI RT. HD. LT. _,

ATTITUDE

OVERRATES

ATTITUDE OVERRATE LIGHT (RED)

STAGE I SUBASSEMBLY 2 ENGINE TITAN LAUNCH VEHICLE GROUND COMMAND SHUTDOWN

UNDERPRESSURE SIGNAL _

UNDERPRESSURE LIGHT (RED) (SA2F. D.LT.] L H ENGINE I I

(ABORT)

ABORT LIGHT (RED) (COMMAND PILOT'S PANEL) __ -STAGE II FUEL & OXIDIZEI PRESSURE INDICATORS

STAGE II FUEL & OXIDIZER

DC SIGNALS

GROUND

COMMAND

SHUTDOWN

(ABORT) lip

ABORT LIGHT (RED) (PILOT'S PANEL) _ _ UNDERPRESSURE LIGHT (AMBER) ENGINE II I

STAGE II FUEL INJECTOR UNDERPRESSURESIGNAL

LIFT'OFF MAIN

SIGNAL

J*='*_

i

ELECTRONIC

I ABORT I
COMMAND RELAY

R-_ _ TIMER

_

A T,MER START T,MEB I POWER J ELECTRONIC T,MER I

-

O_O

TIMER

" 8-,,

_

K3-,_II T,MERSTART TIMER POWER

EVENT TIMER l l

NOTE
RELAy K3-11, THE LiFT-OFF RELAY, IS LOCATED ON THE COMMUNICATIONS RELAy PANEL.

Figure

4-3

Boost

and 4-8

Staging

Sequence

PRO

GEMINI
SEDR 300

ENGINE I indicators are extinguished.

Fuel in_ector pressure of the second stage the ENGINE II underThe

engine rapidly increases above 55 percent, ext!_tlshing pressure indicator.

The IDNGITUDINAL ACCETRROMETER begins to c!_mb slowly.

crew reports the results of the staging sequence to the ground station.

(Refer to

The E_GINE II underpressure indicator, the Attitude Overrate (ATT RATE) indicator, and the two ABORT indicators must remain extinguished. OXIDT_ EROME_R The STAGE 2 FUEL and

needles must indicate the required pressures, and the LONGITUDINAL ACCELmust show the required increase.

At approximately T+310 seconds, the spacecraft has climbed above 522,000 feet and its velocity exceeds 80 percent of orbital velocity. The ground station notifies Both pilots acknowledge

the crew that abort mode IIl now replaces abort mode II. the change of abort modes.

SEPARATIOR AND INSERTION At T+330 seconds, the acceleration has climbed to almost 7g's, and the spacecraft has nearly reached orbital velocity and altitude. Appro_ately 337 seconds after tones via the Digital

lift-off, the blockhouse computer transmits the SSECO c_nd Command System to the launch vehicle.

The SSECO solenoids energize SSECO occurs, The on-board computer begins to

thrust decays, and acceleration falls rapidly. compute the delta-V required for insertion.

The c_nd

pilot

waits decay

20 seconds period, the

for

launch

vehicle pilot This

thrust

to

decay.

Near the

the J_A'A"

end of the thrust /_ FAIRING switch

c_nd panel.

depresses switch

and releases energizes nose

on the

main

instrument

fair'n5

Jettison relays K3-13 and K3-17 and scanner cover _ettlson relays K3-18 and K3-19.

4-9

SEDR 300

BIA SQUIB BUS NO. 1

BOOST INSERT CONT. 1

SEP SPCFT SWITCH

-22 -42

-

-26

S/C SEPARATION SQUIB BUS NO. I

"_= m

"J"

"

_'_
¢-_ j

I K3-2 ic

_.o SW,TCH LV/SC J___
G-|

s/cSEP',_T,ON C_ROE _GN.ER2 S_PED NO. 2-_

_
i COMMON CONTROL BUS

I Io K_-_

J

G0,LLOT.NE IGNITER LV/SC W,BE
1-1

I

_% WH,P
ANTENNAS UHF

IIA K3-4_

J

SO.NOlO ACTUATOR UHF ANTENNAJ___ WHIP
NOTE

r==J

_

|

(_)

LATCHING

RELAY

I J MAIN BUS

NO. 1

O

NO.2

O

NO.
SEP _ SPCFT K3-28'

SPACECRAFT SEPARATION SENSOR SWITCHES J z,J

SEQ LIGHTS PWR

SEQ LIGHTS SWITCH

AII

O DIM O AMBER

BIA SQUIB BUS #l =q

_ IND. LTS TEST

_ SEQ. LIGHTS SWITCH

OFF O RED & GREEN

l
BOOST-INSERT

I I

D.K3-,B , i / X| Cl,,Ir K3 38 -. I

I SCANNER COVERI SQUIB 1-1

I
I

CONTROL,_

_
JETT

.
I

_
_
2!!13

I
-K3-|3 .

I
I
JETTISON IGNITER 1-1

FA,R,NG _
." _ RELAY K3-22 K3-24 K3-26 K3-28 K3-42 K3-86 K3-13 K3-18 REDUNDANT RELAY K3-23 K3-25 K3-27 K3-29 K3"_13 K3-87 K3-17 K3-19 NOMENCLATURE SPACECRAFT SHAPED CHARGE IGNITION LAUNCH VEHICLE/SPACECRAFT GUILLOTINE LAUNCH VEHICLE/SPACECRAFT PYRO SWITCH SPACECRAFT SEPARATION SENSOR UHF WHIP ANTENNA ACTUATOR NOSE FAIRING JETTISON LATCH NOSE FAIRING JETTISON SCANNER COVER JETTISON

1
-

I

RELAy PANEL BIA S/C SEPARATION CONTROL BIA S/C SEPARATION CONTROL BIA CONTROL BIA CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS DOCKING BIA NOSE FAIRING JETTISON ACS-RCS

K3-38

K3-39

SQU_BABORT BUS Separation 4-10

POWER D_SrR_BUT_ON Sequence

Figure 4-4 Spacecraft

SI:DR 300

INI
These squibs _ettison detonate relays arm the nose fairing which squibs _ettison and scanner the fairing cover squibs. The

explosive

charges,

and cover.

When thrust

decay

is

complete, on the

the

corn=and pilot, panel

depresses

and releases _-1.

the

._P

SPCFT switch-indicator the is contacts applied of the through

mean instrmnent

shown on Figure squib bus

When

SEP SPC_T switch-indicator the closed

closes,

number 1 power to relays K3-22,

BOOST-INSERT CONT 1 circuit

breaker

K3-2_, and K3-_2. ignition relay.

(Refer to F_Eure _-_).

K3-22 is the spacecraft shaped charge

K3-2_ is the launch vehicle/spacecraft wire guillotine relay. Redundant contacts of the SEP SPCFT

K3-_2 is the uhf whip antenna extend relay.

switch-indicator energize redundant relays with power from squib bus number 2. For simplicity, redundant elements are no_ shown.

Time delays in the relays and pyrotechnics cause the separation events to occur in the following sequence. K3-2_, contacts C energize the launch vehicle/spacecraft K3-26, contacts C i_aediately fire the pyro-

pyrotechnic switch relay K3-26.

tec_-ic switch, open-clrcuiting the wires on the battery side of the guillotine. Next the wire guillotines are fired, severing the launch vehicle spacecraft wires at the interface. Finally the spacecraft shaped charges are ignited, breaking The operation

the structural bond between the launch vehicle and the spacecraft.

of all pyrotechnics mentioned in this section is explained in Section XI.

The launch vehicle may now separate from the spacecraft, or thrust from the Orbit Attitude and Maneuver System (OAMS) may be required to effect separation. When

two inches of separation exist at the interface, the spacecraft separation sensors close. The spacecraft separation sensor relay K3-28 is energized when two of the Contacts A of K3-28 appl_ main bus power

three sensor switches are actuated.

4-11

s30o oR ,..oJ.cT G..,,,.,
!RELAy K1-29 K7-3 K8-16 ELECTRONIC TIMER K8-19 TR-256 SEC SIGNAL K8-29 COMMON CONTROL BUS K1 I-5

_EDUNDANI_ RELAy

NOMENCLATURE MAIN BATTERY POWER INDICATOR EQUIPMENT DISCONNECT TR-256 SECONDS POWER SYSTEM

RELAY PANEL POWER

ECS COMMU NICATIO N.C

RCSAMBER LIGHT

ACS & RCS

INDICATE RETRO ATTITUDE IGS RCSAUXILIARy ACS & RCS

K8-16

K11-7

KI I-9

RCS SQUIB FIRE

ACS & RCS

Kll-8

Kl1-10

RCS SQUIB FiRE RCS RiNG "B"

ACS & RCS

T -25_

__

I

Kll-34 i K12-5

Kll-35

SQUIB FIRE RETRO BIAS

ACS & RCS IGS

MAIN DiM BUS LTS S EQ(_ O LIGHTS BRIGHT ETRO

A'rr IND

K12-5

_1

CONTROL
RETRO BUS _

O"%
CONTROL

O_.
_ ,,_\

I
MAIN CONTROL BUS

SWITCH WIPER BEF POSITION

IGS POWER SUPPLY

I

26V AC

D

BIAS VOLTAGE

I I
FLIGHT DIRECTOR

LTS _ O_ SEQ O LIGHTS

BRIGHT DIM

IbJ

KI-29

K8-17

K1-29

SEQ
J LTS NO. 1 NO.2 MAIN BATTERIES NO. 3 -2r_K ] NO. 4 02 BATE VALVE 9

COMMON CONTROL

CONTROL (_ " _

O 0 •

CABIN FAN OFF

Bus

02., T PATE

..L.

°_."°RMiLo
ABSOLUTE

P_ssw

_
I
I _ ,_.

I

02 HI PATE RECOCK

.Jm

--_,

Figure

4-5

Time

to Retrograde

Minus 4-12

256 Seconds

Sequence

(Sheet

I of 2)

_.>.

SEDR300

SEQ
BUS

II l,v
SEQ LIGHTS O

LT_
RCS

BR,GHT _

] _"-,RI,-, K
Dj Kll-5 i

BUSll

sQu,B1
RCS

I ^ RCB I
I

[

K11-7
K11-9

RETRO BU 12 S A

I
KII-S

KII-10

_c_$

Ic,,K11_81

_ll K11-7

coMMoN
CONTROL BUS -11_40

_'_
K11-7

_,_11-R_
'L_ I Kl1-I0 I T

,

11-39

KTI-7

BUS1 BIA SQUIB

11-79

B K11-34 II
D E Xll-7 Kll-7 KII

-

_; 34

l

ISOLATION SQUIB PRESSURANT PAGKAGE A PACKAGE C

.w_'_-_
R_RO
BUS El

11-.,, KII-7 _ Ell
BUS I II-37 BIA SQUIB T_ BUS1 K11-8

Cll
F

-

c, .. , ,so,.,TioNsQu,, ,,I .
K11-7KI, FUEL 34 PAG'<AGE D

L.L

11-77 _O__

Kll-34 1

11-36

Kli-8

r

KII_ FlEe ,_rJ

, , ' " I

PACKAGE A PRESSURANT ISOLATION SQUIB

I

KII-8 ElY ,_l 11-38 K11-8

, " I

PACKAGE C OXIDIZER ISOLATION SQUIB

=_=

DI_ lImB 41

I

FUEL ISOLATION

SQUIB

_'_

'

SEQ LTS

HI RATE NNUNC1ATOR PANEL) BRIGHT _ K7-3 C II

O_o CABIN FAN

o,_ _
l"l

,k

"
POWER SUPPLy

CABIN FAN

K7-3

_,N o_
BUS SUIT FAN NO. I SUIT PAN NO.2 _

0

• SUIT FAN 1 I O

, E_4. I _'_F_I
K7-3 POWER SUPPLy DIJ _

I
I

SUIT FAN NO. POWER SUPPLy

2 I

O_ SUiT FAN 20

l

_rlK7-3

Figure

4-5

Time

to Retrograde

Minus

256 Seconds

Sequence

(Sheet

2 of 2)

4-13

PROJECT" GEMINI
through the closed SF_ LIG_S

$EDR 300

_____

PWR circuit bresd_erand the SEQ LIGHTS _IG_T-DIM The SEP SPC_T switch-indicator illum_nates

switch to the switch-indlcators. green.

The co_And

pilot observes the delta-V required for insertion which is now disHe fires the aft thrusters until the IVI is nu!led. The

played on the M.

spacecraft is in the required orbit. these positions:

The crew places the following switches to

RETRO ROCKET SQUI_ to SAFE, BOOST-INSERT SQUIB to SAFE, and For the co, mmlcation switches positioned

MAIN PAT_ERXES i, 2, 3 and _ to OFF. at this time, refer to Section IX.

I_P_-TO-GO

'10 I_'I'ROGP, A_ _

Approximatel_ 30 m_nutes before retrofire time, the crew places the C-band beacon switch to CONT and performs platform alignment procedures. spacecraft to the Blunt End Forward (_F) position. Then maneuver the

At _R-256 second_ (_ minutes and 16 seconds before retrofire time), the electronic timer energizes the TR-256 second relay K8-16. (See Figure _-5). The A contacts

of K8-16 close and energize K8-17, K8-19 and KS-_.

K8-17 is the Electrical Power

System TR-256 relay, and its A contacts now close to illuminate the BTRY PWR indicator amber. K8-19 is the Re-entry Control System (RCS) amber light relay, and K8-29 is the indicate retrograde attitude

illuminates the RCS indicator amber.

relay, and illuminates the IND RETRO ATT indicator amber.

The amber BTRY PWR indicator reminds the pilot to turn on the main batteries by ixlacingthe four MA3_ BATTERIES switches to the ON position. Relay KI-29 is The _RY PWR _

energized through the ON position of the four battery switches. indicator illuminates green.

$EDR 300

PROJEC'T--'G-EM

IN I

Depressing the amber IND RETRO ATT switch-ind/cator energizes the retrograde bias relay K12-5. K12-5 extinguishes the amber lamp and illuminates the green lamp of K12-5 also applies the retrograde attitude bias voltage to the

the indicator.

Flight Director Indicator (FDI), and electrically places the inertial platform in the _EF mode. attitude. The FDI needles can now be used to orient the spacecraft in this

DepresslnE the RCS switch-indicator energizes the four RCS squib fire relays KII-7, F11-8, KII-9, and KII-IO. Relays KII-7 and KII-8 are energized from retrograde

bus number i while KII-9, and F1_-i0 are energized from retrograde bus number 2. When any of the four RCS squib fire relays energize, the RCS auxiliary relay KII-5 is latchedt changing the RCS indicator from an amber to a green ind/cation. Relays KII-7 and KII-9 both fire the package A_ C, D, pressure isolation, oxidizer isolation, and fuel isolation squibs of ring B. Relays KII-8 and KII-IO fire the

package A, C_ D, pressure isolation, oxidizer isolation, and fuel isolation squibs of ring A. The RCS RING A and RING B switches are now placed to ACME, and the

attitude controller is operated to fire and test the RCS thrusters.

02 high rate flow is initiated after the TR-256 second sequences at the option of the crew. When the CABIN FAN switch is placed to the 02 HI RATE position, the K7-3 removes power from the cabin fan power

disconnect relay K7-3 is energized.

supply and the two suit power supplies, and illuminates the amber 02 HI RATE _ndicator.

After the TR-256 sequence, re-entry communications are selected, as discussed in S _ Section IX.

4-15

_.--_

SEDR 300

ELECTRONIC I I--, SIGNAL BRIGHT _ B B F PWR. SEQ. LIGHTS

SEPOAMS LINE

_N BUS
RETRO SQUIB BUS #I 1(4-23 ]_

I 11(4-24
01"Lt"_O RETRO SEQ.

q)

CNTL I 11 A _ I

(_)

_'h

T

iI

K4-64 'T _1(4_, B L___,. '1 _-II 1(4-21 11(4-21
_ t

RETRO
SQUIB BUS #1

E
oi"0
RETRO SEQ CNTL, I A 0 RETRO SEQ CNTL I

_.-I. 1

RELAY K4-2 K4-3 1(4-15 K4-74 K4-25 K4-26 1(4-30 K4-36

REDUNDANT RELAY 1(4-22 K4-B I(4.'16 1(4-21 K4-27 K4-2B K4-48

NOMENCLATURE WIRE GUILLOTINE ADAPTER SHAPED CHARGE ADAPTER SEPARATE SENSOR WIRE GUILLOTINE PYRO SWITCH I_RO SWITCH RETRO ABORT PYRO SWITCH TR ARM

RELAY PANEL ADAPTER SEPARATE ADAPTER SEPARATE RETRO FIRE ADAPTER SEPARATE RETRO SEPARATE RETRO SEPARATE BIA CONTROL RETRO SEPARATE SQUIB BUS #I : | | 6 K4-46

J J K4-16 f---,

ARM AU RETRO

J "_

I

K4-64 K4-66

K4-65 1(4-67

SEPARATE E].ECIRECAL LATCH ABORT DISCREI_

RETRO FIRE IGS

: D

| I K4-46

XI K4-36

_

RET_TR_B_ =EOSEP_TE:' ;"
K4-36

--II

B
C K4-36

4
TO ARM RELAY TR SIGNAL

-"

coMMoN
i NOTE
(_ LATCHING LATCHING COIL ON RELAy CONTROL RETRO

o---"--o_r_o._'o__r . ____i_T_T3
RETRO AUTO

=

_]

_°I ,__L.===o=,,:
_ =---_ I
I _

Y,
=_
K4-74

;'
RX

r- L_----" TX

11

BUS #1

o--.--o
RETRO CNTL 1

,'
J K4-2

c>o__T, " ou,..,_.,
SEPARATION SENSOR

II

_
Sequence (Sheet 1 of 2)

.,_

Figure

4-6

Time

to Retrograde

Minus 4-16

30 Seconds

SEDR

300

f-.

'____
'_ _ -

PRO,_c-,G_,N,
ID t K4-23 F K4-23 IGNITERLINES GUILLOTINEI_I

IFI
K4-2

l I I I

_'-_ _-_
_

_cW,_B GU,,L.
IG NITER C-1

IE!
RETRO BUS #I K4-2

i
I

BU,LLOTINB
IGNITER 0-1

]

ADAPTER EQUIP. GUILL IGNITER E-I SECTION WIRE

SQUIB

I_l
K4-2

K4-2 ;l'

Od_

I_l
K4-3

I°i _

• I
' I i

r ADA_ER SHA'ED C_'GE
IGNITER 3-1 IGNITER 2-1 SHAPED CHARGE ADAPTER

IEI K4-3

I

K4-3 I

I_l
K4-21 f_ RBTRO SQUIB BUS #2 E I IK4-2_

I
I

K_-2,
IFI K4-21

_,c ,RE w GU, LL
IGNITER CL2 LAUNCH VEHICLE GUILLOTINE IGNITER DII2

CL/'_

I POWBRW,,E
SECTION WIRE I GUILL IGNITER EI-2 A[_APTER EQUIP. T

D II I IDI I K4-2i

K4-21

IFt K4-25

1

K4-25 E

lit
:

i AOAPTEREQUIP
SWITCH D-! WIRING PYRO IGNITER I WIRING PYRO IGNITER SWITCH E-1 ADAPTER EQUIP.

E K4-25

II

K4-25 PI

I_
RETRO K4-25

I
_

K4_ ,_
K4-26

.
L

PYRO SWTCH GNTER I WIRING ,_,,B,QU, P.
g-I

ou
BUS #l _

_

:_.........:_

IFI
K4-26

"
Sequence

i
(Sheet

FUEL CELL IGNITER B-I PVRO SWITCH

1

E II
K4-26

/ .k

K4-26

PYRO SWITCH
IGNITER C-1 ADAPTER EQUIPMENT IGNITER J-I

WIRING "RO SWITCH
K4-26

Figure4-6

Time

to Retrograde

Minus 4-17

30 Seconds

2of2)

SEDR 300

RETROGRADE MINUS 3O SECONDS Thirty seconds prior to retrograde (_-30 a contact closure. seconds), the electronic timer initiates

This closure energizes the retrograde TR-30 seconds relay

K4-46, which illuminates the SEP OAMS LIRE_ SEP ELEC_ SEP ADAPT, and ARM AUTO RETRO indicators amber. second sequence. Figure 4-6 shows a logic presentation of the TR-30

Some of the sequences shown in Figure 4-6 such as SEP OAM_ However, for sim-

T.I_ES,SEP ELECT, and SEP ADAPT are performed redundantly.

plicity only the sequences powered from retrograde squib bus number I is shown.

As soon as the connand pilot observes that the four indicators have illuminated amber, he depresses and releases the SEP 0AM_ LINE switch-indicator. This switch

closure energizes the OAMS propellant line guillotine relay K4-23 and the retrograde abort pyrotechnle squib relay K_-30. K4-23 changes the SEP OAM_ LINE indica-

tion from amber to green, fires the OAM$ propellant lines guillotine igniter i-i, and then energizes pyrotechnic switch relays K4-25 and K4-26. K4-26 energize pyrotechnic switches B, C, D, E, F and J. Relay K4-25 and

Next, the c@._ud

pilot depresses and releases the SEP ELEC switch-indicator which K4-2 ignites wire guillotine C_ D and E When K4-6_ energizes, Then, the c_o_-_nd

energizes wire guillotine relay K4-2.

and energizes the separate electrical latch relay K4-64.

the SEP ELEC switch-indicator chemges from amber to green.

pilot initiates the equipment adapter separation sequence by depressing and releasing the SEP ADAPT switch-indicator. Closure of the SEP ADAPT switch energizes K4-3 deton-

the adapter shaped charge relay K_-3 and abort discrete relay K4-66. ates shaped charge igniter 2-1 and 3-1.

The adapter equipment section separates, The switches close when _"

and separation is sensed by three toggle sensor switches. the physical separation is one and one half inches.

The closure of au_ two switches

_-18

SEDR 300

s
energizes the ad_pter

PROJECT
separate sensor relay

GEMINI
K4-15. K4-15 changes light the _ l-forms ADAPT the crew K_-66

switch-indicator that the adapter

from amber to green. equipment section discrete

The green

SEP ADAPT

has been

Jettisoned

from the spacecraft.

sends the abort transfer

to the on-board

c_nputer.

Lastly, cator. changes

the co_and

pilot

depresses

and releases

the AP_ ADTO ]IE_O

switch-lndlThis timer relay for the to

The ARM AUTO RETRO the indication

switch latches to green

the TR arm relay KM-36. and arms the electronic ROCKET SQUIB switches

fr_n amber

TR relay contact the ARM position.

closure.

The four _0

are now moved

RETROGRADESEQUENCE
_ A logic diagram previously, there number tronic of the retrograde a sequence redundant sequence is shown in Figure _-7. As discussed i,

whenever

is initiated sequence

from retrograde

squib 1_s _,m_er squib bus

is an identical 2.

initiated

from retrograde

The retrograde

sequence

is initiated

by the TR signal manually by

__om the elec-

timer.

The redundant

sequence

is initiated

the crew.

At Retrograde

(_),

the electronic

timer

latches

the TR signal

relay K_-3_. automatic K_-_,

The fire

TR signal relay relay K_-7. a 5.5-seconds, I_ platform

in the latched

condition

energizes

the retrorocket relay

K_-3_ also

energizes

the 45-second

time delay time delay,

initiates the

ll.O-seconds, free mode.

and a 16.5-second

and deactivates

The retrorocket

automatic

fire relay

red,,ndemtly fires 2. At the is l

retrorocket

number

I from retrograde time delay,

squib bus number

i end numbur fire

end of the 5.5-second :4 energized. a_ nwnber K_-9 2.

the retrorocket number

automatic

relay K_-9

ignites

retrorocket number

3 from retrograde ignited

squib bus number retrosrade squib

Retrorocket

2 is

redundantly

from

SEDR 300

ELECTRONIC

T,_ER]S';G_,L F_'_q
COMMON CONTROL RETRO BUS

(TRS)

..L
i

© ,ND,C_TEB _,CH,NG LATCH CO,L O_ RE_
(_ INDICATES RESETCOIL MANUAL RETRO OF LATCHING RELAY MANUAL RETRO FIRE SEQUENCE

T
K4"40 5 .S SEC K3-7I CONTROL BU S m K4-43

i

T.o it
JjJ_ 11.0 SEC ;

K3-" II
E K3_l

TO ,
° ° 5.5 SEC IE K 3i7j_._ E K4-44

t.D

III

41

K3-71

v

D"

t.°.

11 SEC

t

T.D

K3-71

,

16.5 SEC

rETRO BUS
II SQUIB

::
m

,4"I

-

cl I --

reTrO
SQUIB

T.D.
i

_

BUS
12

ROCKET

K

7

,,,_N,TER ROCKET
,3 ,GN,tER

½E _-_ 41 T I U'- i ql K_-8 K_!_
LjEI "__e

E

ROCKET #I

,ON,tOt

K,-8 1
E

ROCKET
j. j '3 IGNITER

ly
K4-18

71 K4-18

-

41 T i

ROCKET R2 IGNITER

11 11

ROCKET H2 iGNITER

ROCKET

T K 13

ROCKET RETRO

',,GN,TER sou,o III,,?.,_,_E' ',,ON,TER E - 4"I 1 T
BUS

,1
SCANNER _

K,%1, K 18

K4-_' /
SCANNER 18 COVER

j
'

"°'z°" I
HEAD SQUIB ,0 0 RETRO SEQ. CONTROL' SEQ. LIGHTS PWR O DIM

!'¢: !iH°"z°"J
SQU_S
I JETT RETRO J I t -J-" K4-69

,us,,
RETRO SQUIB MAIN

8R, o.t
_V_

K4-19

K4-28

Lt
i_

A

'q _

_

!C_

Bus

SEQ.UGHtS

Figure

4-7 Retrograde

Sequence 4-20

(Sheet

1 of 2)

PROJECT
___
SQUIB BUS ``I F K4-17 l RETRO _ 1 K4-17 F RETRO ADAPTER CHARGE I-1 K3-71 K4-4 K4-7 SHAPED K4-17 I. SHAPED CHARGE 2-1 K3-1R K4-I0 K4-11 RELAy

GEMINI
_.____
REDUNDANT RELAy NOMENCLATURE RELAy K3-72 K4-6 SALVO RETROS 45-SECOND TIME DELAY AUTO FIRE RETRO ROCKET/1 K3-19 RETROFIRE RETRO SEPARATE RETRO FiRE ACS & RCS FIRE RETRO FIRE RETRO FIRE RETRO FIRE RELAY PANEL

SEOR 3O0

1_I

SCANNER COVER JETTISON RETRO ROCKET E3 MANUAL RETRO ROCKET ``2 AUTO

FIRE FIRE

K4__17 I
J __ D _ K4-17 1

RETRO
RETRO ADAPTER SHAPED

K4-]2

K4-S
K4-14 K4-9 K4-13 K4-34 K4-37 K4-38 K4-39 K4-43 K4-18 K4-_3 K4-'44 K4-45

RETRO ROCKET ``2 MANUAL

REERO ROCKET"I MANUAL EtRE
RETRO ROCKET #3 AUTO FIREFIRE RETRO ROCKET ``4 MANUAL RETRO ROCKET ``4 AUTO TR SIGNAL MANUAL 5.5 RETRO LATCH FIRE

RETRO FIRE
RETRO FIRE RETRO FIRE RETRO FIRE RETRO SEPARATE RETRO SEPARATE ACS & RCS RETROFIRE RETRO SEPARATE lOS RETROFIRE lOS lOS RETROFIRE lOS DOCKING

SCANNER HEADS JETTISON - SECOND TIME DELAY

K4-17_

C

!

CHARGE 3-1

K4-40 K4-|7 K4--62 K4"-41 K8-29 K4-42 K|2-S KI2-6

l

_)_I K4 17

_-_i RET CMN CTL BUS ATT IND

K4-17

/

l
j

ADAPTER PYRO H-1 SWITCH

RETRO SEPARATE SHAPED CHARGE RETRO BIAS OFF 11 - SECOND TIME DELAY INDICATE RETRO ATTITUDE 16.5 - SECOND TIME DELAY RETRO BIAS RE-ENTRY ROLL DISPLAy

--I

K3-86

K3-87

NOSE FAIRING

JETTISON LATCH

_'_'_

I

B IJ S

_

(_

K4-73

K4-72

INDEX BAR JETT & LATCH DOOR RELEASE

DOCKING

12-7
CTL RETRO

T II

dl
K4-63

T '
,L __

K13-2
K13-3 K4-69

K13-1
K13-4 K4-68

EMERGENCYRELEASE LATCH
INDEX BAR EXTEND LATCH RELEASE

DOCKING
DOCKING DOCKING

' A'tf K4-63 K12-6 ROLLMIX INTERLOCK | L/H FLIGHT CONTROL ELECTRONICS DIRECTOR I K12-6 ROLLM[X R/H FLIGHT CONTROL ELECTRONICS DIRECTOR SUPPLY lOS POWER !i_ER_TIAL MEASUREMENT ELECTRONICS

_

_

MAIN BUS SEQ LTS B _ K8-29

IND RETRO

_IV

r---_l

"*BUS #1

OOCK,NGSOO,B
_* iGNITER//1

I T
BUSt1

B

_ _"

II

K4-73

K12-.5

K,2_5 .L. ATTLT
_" B COVER #3 RELEASE _ L

LATCH # 1 RELEASE RETR( BUS#1 RETRO

R

SQUIB

l
J

-73

IGNI_R ``1

I
LATCH R2 RELEASE IGNITER RI C I J C -73 COVER E2 RELEASE El IGNITER

I
I

i.

IGNITER ``1 LATCH ``3 RELEASE

D I i

l II

IlK4 -73 D

j LATCHO
RELEASE COVER /1 I. IGNITER/1

I
INDEX BAR EXTEND IGNITER//I K4-73 _ "_ _ E T_ E -73

%-

I I
INDEX BAR JETT IGNITER ``1

I

(1 SEC PYRO T.D.)

Figure

4-7 Retrograde

Sequence 4-21

(Sheet

2 of 2)

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

_s

number 1 and _mber at the is

2 when the

retroroaket time

aut_tic de_y.

fire Retroro_et ttme

relay

K4-31 fire

energizes relay dantly

end of the

3_.0-second

automatic

K4-13

energized

at the

end of the

16.5-second

delay.

K_-23 redun-

fires retrorocket number 4 from retrograde squib bus number i and number 2.

In order to assure retrograde rocket ignition, the commRud pilot initiates manual retrograde ignition by depressing and releasing the MAN FIRE RETRO switch-indicator approximately one second after automatic retrofire initiation. The MAN FIRE

RETR0 switch latches the manual retrograde latch relay K_-S7, energizes retrorocket manual fire relay K4-8, and initiates the _5-second time delay relay K_-6. switch also initiates the 5.5-second, ll-second and 16.5-second time delays. The 5.5, 11 and 16.5-second time delays energize retrorocket manual fire relays K_-IO, K_-12 and K_-I4 respectively, which in turn fire retrorockets number 3, number 2, and number _ respectively. Retrorocket number i is fired by K_-8. As _ This

in automatic retrorocket fire, each retrorocket is fired from retrograde squib bus number i and number 2. Twenty-two seconds after retrofire is initiated, the The coamand pilot moves the JETT RETRO SQUIB ARM Forty-five

last retrorocket ceases firing.

switch on the left switch circuit breaker panel from SAFE to ARM.

seconds after retrograde ignition, K_-4 or K_-6 energizes and illuminates the JETT RETRO lamp on the main instrument panel.

As soon as the command pilot observes the JETT RETRO indicator is amber, he dspresses and releases this switch-indicator. The switch energizes the retro-

grade separate shaped charge relay K4-17, the retrograde bias off relay K_-62, an_ the horizon scanner heads Jettison relay K_-38. Relay K_-I7 fires retrograde

adapter shaped charge igniter I-i, 2-1, and 3-1 and pyrotechnic switch H-I. Relay K_-62 latches the re-entry roll dlsplay relay K12-6 removing roll m_

4-22

SEDR 300

PROJEC"Tinterlock relays: from the flight director controller.

GEMINI
Kh-62 also resets two latch

the retrograde bias relay _I__-5and the indicate retrograde attitude Relay K8-29 extlnsuishes the IRD RETRO ATT indicator. K_-I8 fires

relay K8-29.

horizon scanner cover squib i-i if it was not fired previous],7_urin8 the boost phase. K_-38 ignites the horizon scanner head s_ulh i-i through an 80_aillisecond The firing of pyrotechnic

pyrotech-lc time delay and Jettisons the scanner head. switch H-1 ext!_,n_ishes JETT RLTRO indicators.

the SEP ELEC, SEP ADAPT, S_P OAMS, ARM ADTO RETRO and

On spacecraft 6 and 8 through 12, the JETT RETRO switch also energizes latch release relay K_-69 through the B contacts of thenose fairing Jettison latch relay K3-86.

K_-69 fires the release igniters of docking latches i, 2 and 3 to Jettison them. K4-69 also energizes the index bar Jettison and latch door release relay K_-73. KM-73 fires three latch door cover release igniters. These igniters release the K4-73

latch doors which cover the ports left by the Jettlsone_ docking latches. also Jettisons the docking index bar. is first extended and then Jettisoned.

If the bar was not extended previously, it These functions are not a part of the

retrograde sequence dur_r_ an abort if the abort occurs prior to nose fairing Jettison.

RE-EE_RY After the retrograde adapter and horizon scanner heads have been Jettisoned, the cosm_nd pilot places the RETR0 PWR and RETRO JETT squib switches to SAFE. Using

the attitude controller and the FDI needles, he rolls the spacecraft 180 degrees so that the horizon is visible in the upper portion of his cabin windc_o F _ He

cban_es the ATTITUDE CONTROL mode select switch on the main instrument panel from PULSE to RATE CMD (RE-ER_). The co_and pilot uses attitude control and

4-23

PROJEC-T
__

GEMINI
$EDR 300

_a-euverlng d_rin8 _00,000
_

eleetrmktes the

an_ the

attitude

controller

to

control

the

roll

attitude to computer of impact. RATE CMD

approxt_e]_r feet. As this
t11_ml--m_eB_

next 1D minutes

in which the alti___e aeedles to start calculate to

a4mt-tshes move, the the

altitude a_ the the

the FDI roll computer

begins

point _ for

The cnmmM (I_-ENT) entry the the ]A_ next

pilot

eha_es

ATT]_I)E

C01_ROL mode selec_ c_utes the to the the roll roll

switch

to HE-w_. an_ also 10 _tmates,

The @om_uter n_ mxtomatteal3_ the altitude be_ to p_et to assize places

attitude

optimmn

re-

controls decreases come off the all best

attitude. feet. At 80,000 for drogue

Du_ng At this feet,

approximately altltude, the ec_puter deployto OFF.

100,000 peg.

altimeter

tnd£eator spaoeorsi't ecmmnd

Cc_sanam the ment.

attitude

parachute switches

Then the

guidance

and electronic

ABORTMODES An abort initiated sequence ls at an unschea, any time l_ed termination during the of the spacecraft mission. In all cases has An abort the actual may be abort

_-_

spacecraft

mission. an abort

has to be in4tiated

by the

crew after

cc_mnd

been

received.

An abort indication consists of i11,m_natlon of the ABORT indicators located on the coemand pilot and pilot's panels. three different methods. The ABORT indicator may be illuminated hy

During pre-launch prior to umhilic_l disconnect, the

ABORT indicator may be _11,-.1-atedfrom the blockhouse via hardline through the launch vehicle tail plug connector. may be illu_d After umbilical release, the ABORT indicator

by ground co.w--_ to the spacecraft vla a channel of the DOS

or by ground conmand to the l_unch vehicle to shutdown the booster.

The abort sequence is part of the Sequence System.

The abort sequence co_rises The part of the abort

the abort indicators, controls, relays, and pyrotecb-lcs.

sequence which the crew _-_e use of is determined by the abort mode in effect at the time when the abort e_--.andis received or the decision to abort is made.

SEDR 300

1
INITIATE NORMAL LANDING & RECOVERY DEPLOY EMERGENCY CHUTE AT 10.6K FT. DEPLOY DROGUE CHUTE AT 4OK FT. INITIATE NORMAL RE-ENTRY MANEUVER S/C TO RE'ENTRY ATTITUDE JETTISON RETRO ADAPTER RETRO ROCKETS SALVO FIRED SEPARATION FROM LAUNCH VEHICLE ABOBT CONTROL HANDLE: ABORT 5 SECONDS WAIT FOR THRUST DECAY ABORT CONTROL HANDLE: SHUTDOWN RETRO ROCKET SQUIB SWITCHES: ARMED (PRE-LAUNCH) NORMAL RE-ENTRY & LANDING iNITIATED JETT RETRO SW/LT: PRESSED/OFF JETT RETRO LT.:AMBER 45 SEC. TIME DELAy FOR RETRO JETTISON RETRO ROCKETS: RIPPLE FIRED MANUALLY AUTO RETRO SW/LTS: PRESSED/GREEN RCS, SEPOAMS LINES, SEP ELEC, SEPADAPT, RETRO ATTITUDE ASSUMED BTRY FOWER LIGHT: GREEN IND. RETROATT SW: PRESSED SC MANEUVERED AWAY FROM LV SEPSPCET INDICATOR: GREEN SEP SPCET SWITCH PRESSED DAMS PROP: ON DAMS PWR SW: MANUVR & ATT MAIN BATTERIES (4): ON ABORT HANDLE: SHUTDOWN PILOT EVALUATION OF DISPLAY ABORT iNDICATORS: RED ABORT SITUATION ANALYZED ABORT MODE T . 1/ (15,000 TO 75_000 FEET)

l LANDING SITE CHOSEN & APPROACHED LIFE RAFT iNFLATED & HUNG FROM SPACESUIT SURVIVAL KIT LANYARD PULLED PERSONNEL CHUTE OPENS (BELOW 10s000 FT.) BALLUPE DITCHED: 10,CCOFT 10,000 FT. BAROSTAT ARMED RALLUTE OpENS (ABOVE 17,000 ET) /_, BALLUTE LANYARD PULLED SEPARATION SUSTA]NER FIRED SEATS GONE SENSED & TELEMETERED SEATS EJECTED EJECTION HATCHES ACTUATED & OPENED D-RING PULLED PILOT EVALUATION OF DISPLAY SEAT-MAN SEPARATED ABORT INDICATORS: RED DESTRUCT SWITCHES ARMED ENGINE SHUTDOWN TONES SENT FLIGHT DYNAMICS OFFICER FLIGHT DIRECTOR BOOSTER SYSTEMS ENGINEER RANGE SAFETY OFFICER GROUND STATION ABORT COMMANDS ABORT SITUATION ANALYZED BOOST INDICATORS MONITORED ABORT (LAUNCH MODE I FEET)

ABORT MODE (ABOVE 522,000

TIT FEET)

T

NORMAL RE-ENTRY & LANDING PROCEDURES CONIROL S,/C ATTITUDE TO BEF° JETTISON RETRO SECTION: IND. OFF 45-SECOND TIME DELAY RELAY RETRO ROCKETS (4): FIRED SIMULTANEOUSLY SEP ELEC, SEPADAPT, ARM AUTO RETRO: GREEN RCS, SEP OAMS LINES INDICATORS: GREEN Z7O TUBING CUTTER IGNITER SHAPED CHARGE IGNITION RELAYS EQUIPMENT ADAPTER GUILLOTINE RELAYS PYRO SWITCH RELAYS RETRO ABORT INTERLOCK RELAYS RETRO ABORT RELAYS ABORT HANDLE: ABORT STAGE I (OR II) ENGINE CUT-OFF ABORT HANDLE: SHUTDOWN PILOT EVALUATION OF DISPLAY ABORT INDICATORS GUILLOTINE RELAYS RED GROUND STATION : ABORT COMMAND ABORT SITUATION ANALYZED BOOST INDICATORS MONITORED RETRO ROCKET SQUIB SWITCHES: ARMED (PRE-LAUNCH) STOW D-RINGS

TO 75,000

T MAIN CHUTE OPENS 5.0 SEC. SEAT-MAN SEPARATION 3.0 SEC. SUSTAINER FIRED 2.25 SEC. SEATS GONE SENSORS (TELEMETERED) SEATS EJECTED 2.0 SEC HATCHES OPEN 1.5 SEC EJECTION SEAT D-RING PULLED I SEC PILOT EVALUATION OF DISPLAY ABORT INDICATORS (2) LV TAIL PLUG kV PAD ABORT COMMAND ABORT MODE Z

(75,000

ABORT MODE TO 522,000

Tr FEET)

f-_

i

(PRE-LAUNCH)

/
4-8 Abort Modes Simplified 4-25 Block Diagram

Figure

PROJECT GEMINI
The abort lations mode to be used made on the ground at any time during on the the mission altitude is

SEDR300

____

determined

by calcuattained by

and depends

and velocity

the spacecraft. 522,000 feet.

The critical abort altitudes are 15,000 feet, 75,000 feet, and

The spacecraft reaches 15,000 feet approximate],750 seconds after after lift-off, and 52,000 feet

llft-ofT, 75,000 feet approximately I00 seconds approximately 310 seconds after lift-ofT. is used.

Below 15,000 feet, seat ejection (mode I)

Between 15,000 and 75,000 feet, ride-lt-out abort (mode I-II) is used. Above 522,000

Between 75,000 and 522,000 feet, modified re-entry (mode II) is used.

feet normal re-entry (mode III) is used, except that the spacecraft electronic timer does not illuminate the the timer sequential is updated indicators by ground amber when the c_and. Figure time _-8 to press a

them occurs,

,,_less

presents

simplified block diagram of the abort sequences in each of the three modes.

Abort

Mode I becomes necessary during pre-launch, it is accomplished by usi_

When an abort abort mode I.

The abort c_

is given from

the blockhouse by hardline through

the launch velLicletall plug connector. on the counand pilot and pLlot's panels. 4_.._4ately pull

The command lights both ABORT indicators When the pilots see this display, they When one D-ring

the D-rlngs attached to their ejection seats.

is pulled, both ejection systems are energized.

One-half seconds later, the

hatches are open, and one-half second after that the seats have been e_ected. Sensors detect the are out of the rocket add the seat ejection of the seats and notify the blockhouse that the pilots One-quarter each vehicle. pilots. seat is fired, second after the seats the are distance separates e_ec_ed, between the the main a the

spacecraft. under launch from the

sustalner pilots ejection

which

extende ignites sustatner

Then a pyrotechnic Two seconds after

and

ignition,

-26

SEDR 300

PROd
parachutes illustrations have opened and the pilots

E-CT
are

GEMINI
lowered safely to used the for ground. seat For

and fuller Section

descriptions III

of the

equtl_nent

ejection

abort, refer to

of this manual.

After normal llft-off, and before the Gemini-Titan reaches an alitutde of 15,000 feet, an abort condition could develop. The crew monitor their booster indicators

so that they are aware at all times of the manner in which the flight is proceedIng. Booster operation data is telemetered to the ground for analysis and interThe range safety officer, the booster systems engineer, the flight

pretation.

director, or the flight dynamics officer, who are on the ground, any decide that danger is "1mm4nent and an abort mandatory.

f_

A clm_nel of the DCS is used to send the abort co_and

to the

spacecraft and

ground c_mmsndS are sent to the launch vehicle to shutdown the booster engines. Then the engine shutdown tones are received, the destruct switches of the launch vehicle are armed. red. The two ENGINE I indicators and both ABORT ind/cators illlm_nate

The command pilot and pilot evaluate these displays and pull the D-rlngs. Refer to Section III

The hatches open and the pilots in their seats are ejected, for a description of the remainder of this sequence.

Abort Mode I - II Abort mode I - II is the ride-it-out abort mode. It is effective at altitudes

between 15,000 and 75,000 feet approximately 50 seconds to I00 seconds after lift-off. Abort mode I - II is used when a mode I abort is inadvisable and when a The crew how-

delay to permit entry into the mode II conditions is impractical. _ ever has the option to eject the abort conditions. or to ride-it-out depend_

upon their assessment of

Therefore the D-rings are not stowed during the I - II mode.

4-27

EMINI
Abort off. co_d seconds mode I If - lI begins duri_ stage

SEDR 300

j__._

I boost and the handle then

approximately crew elect to

50 seconds ride _. from it out,

after the

lift-

an abort pilot for

cond_tion abort

develops, control decay,

moves the booster thrust

from NORMAL to the handle

He waits

5

to

moves

SHUTD0_ to ABORT.

The retrograde gized. control These _s is

abort relays

relays arm the

and the _uses co_on

retrograde needed for

a_ort abort _us.

interlock action. Retrograde

relays

are

enerco_on n-m_er

The retrograde squib buses

arme_ from the arme_

control squib squib buses This buses

1 and number 2 are craft fr_ 5 only, Boost

from 0_ separation (BYe) squib

number n_nber

1 and number 2.

On spacearmed

spacecraft Abort for

buses

1 and number 2 are 2.

Tnaert are used

number 1 and mmher arming of buses

Two parallel of relays buses. eliminThen,

circuits ates the

redundancy. the 8-tllqtine energized. adapter salvo

by means

motion

of t_ wire are

switch

ordinarily

required

to arm the switch the relays,

in rapid charge equi_nent the four

sucesston_ _ter relays

relays,

pyrotechnic ignite

and shaped at the Then,

The relays mati_ line,

pyrotechnics separate.

adapter/retrogx_te retrorockets are

and the

vehicles thrusts

fired

and the

81_cecraCt

away from the

launch

vehicle.

If is

the

abort

altitude 7 seconds

is

between after

15,000

and

25_000 fire

fee% is

the

retrograde If

adapter the abort

Jettisoned

retrorocket

salvo

initiated.

altitude is _etween _,000

and 75,000 feet, the retrograde adapter is Jettisoned

45 seconds after salvo fire.

After

retrograde

adapter

Jettison,

the

spacecraft

is maneuvered

to

the

re-entry

attlt-_a.

If the abort altltude is above _0,000 feet, the drogue parachute is If the drogue

4eployed at _0,000 feet, an_ the main parachute at 10,600 feet.

PROJ

EC-T

GEMINI

SEDR 300

parachute

fails

or has not

been

deployed

before

the

spacecraft

descents

to 10,600

feet, the emergency main parachute switch is used to deploy the main parachute.

If one of the two first stage engines should fall and the launch vehicle is above _O,000 feet, the pilots may elect to remain with the engine has boosted them to 75_000 feet. bee_re._ inapplicable. es spacecraft until the operating

At this altitude, abort mode I - II

Abort Mod$ II Abort mode II becomes effective above 75,000 feet. At approximately i00 seconds

after lift-off on a normal mission, the launch vehicle has hoostod the spacecraft to an altitude of 75,000 feet. Ground station cc_uters calculate the t_e for

changeover from abert mode I - II to abort mode II.

The ground station notifies Both

the crew via the uhf cu_=unicatic_s I_-_ of the change to abort mode II.

the c._,_dandilot and pilot acknowledge the change via the same l_-k, and stow p the ejection seat handles feet could be disastrous. (D-ring). Yn_tiation of abort mode I above 75,000

Abort mode IX begines during stage i boost before booster engine cutoff and ends during monitor veloping, fr_ the stage the 2 boost booster before indicators. it. second If stage they engine should to abort sends the cutoff. notice The crew an abort continues to de-

situation

they ground.

analyze If

The decision station

may be theirs co_nand to abort,

or it may come both ABC_ He

a 8round

indicators illuminate red.

In abort mode II, the command pilot must act.

moves the abort handle to the SHOTDOWN position. Since launch vehicle destruct is _-ent he moves the ABORT handle ¢o ABORT. vehicle at the equii_ent

The operatln6 engine is cutoff.

and escape from the fireball is urgent, the launch

The spacecraft is separated _ adapter mating line.

adapter/retrograde

The retroroekets,

4-29

armed by four RETRO ROCKET fired, prope11_ng

SQUIB switches

during pre-launch

checkoff,

are salvo

the spacecraft

away from the launch vehicle.

Since

orbital

velocity

could not have been a re-entry

reached

below

522,000

feet, the spaceis maneuvered to

craft i_ediately t_e retrograde and normal

begins

trajectory.

The spacecraft

blunt end forward

attitude,

the retrograde

section

is Jettisoned,

landing procedures

are initiated.

Abort

Mode III 310 seconds after lift-off, the launch vehicle 21,000 reaches the altiThe

At approximately tude of 522,000 ground link. station

feet and a velocity c_.,-,._nds change a

of approximately

feet per second. mode

from abort

mode II to abort

IIl via the uhf _

If an abort after this time should become be illuminated SHUTDOWN red. The command The shutdown remains pilot

necessary,

the ABORT

indicators handle

would to the

responds is thus

and moves

the ABORT

position.

command

given to the second The command panel. pilot

stage engine. then presses fires mating the

The ABORT handle the SEP SPCFT the shaped

in the S_0WN

position.

swltch-indicator

on the main

instrument

This

switch

charges

and severs the wiring earlier. 0A_8 thrust

at the launch is applied

vehicle/spacecraft distance between

line as described second TR-30 After

to put

stage and the spacecraft. seconds procedures,

The crew perform instrument normal

the TR_256 panel

seconds

and the

using the main

switch-indicators. landing, and post-

retrofire

has been initiated are followed.

manually,

re-entry,

landing procedures

ABORT

SEQUENCE described herein occurs during abort modes II and I - II. The

'

The abort sequence

4-30

PROJEC-T'-GEMI
SEDR 300

NI

description

covers

the series

of events which

which

the abort

control sequence

handle to

and Figure Figure

4-9 shows the electrical 4-9 includes igniters. relay panel The redundant not shown, the switches,

circuits circuit

cause the abort buses,

occur.

breakers,

relays,

and p_notechnic designations and

A table of Figure locations relays,

4-9 gives

the names,

reference relays

of the relays their buses,

and redundant fuses,

of the abort

sequence. are

and squibs

(with

a few exceptions) with those

since the circuitry

and end results clarity

are identical

shown.

The o,,.Ission is made

to maintain

and simplicity.

Abort

mode I, the seat ejection in Section

mode,

is not covered

here.

The events

of this

mode are discussed

III of this Manual.

Abort mode llI is executed spacecraft separation

by performing

a launch

vehicle

engine

shutdown,

a

sequence

and a retrograde from normal without

sequence.

Separation

and retroin that

grade in abort mode the abort instrument sequence panel.

III differs is performed The electrical (Figure (Figure

separation

and retrograde

cues from the indicators however are identical separation sequence

on the main with those shown the

circuits 4-9),

in the shutdown TR-256 seconds

sequence sequence

the spacecraft TR-30

(Figure (Figure

4-4), 4-6).

4-5), the

seconds

Shutdown When the command is closed. shutdown shutdown pilot moves the abort control K3-28 control bus power handle to SHUTDOWN, the SHUTDOWN vehicle to the are

switch engine engine

BIA common

is applied This power

to the launch is also

signal relays relays

and K3-49. Launch

applied

in the Tital

Vehicle. control

The operating bus power

engine(s)

cut off.

As K3-48

and K3-49

energize,

common

is applied

through

their B contacts

to the spacecraft

instrumentation

programmer.

The programmer

4-31

sEoR 3oo
CONTROL

..
:
,"

COMMON
BUS ]_ BOI_NSER T SHUTDOWN

_ RIIK3-48 "_
BII K3-49 _

K3-49

}1",._ B, K3-4B
-COMMAND

_BORT)

INSTRUMENTATION

BOOSTER CUT-OFF

INITIATE

BOOST
HANDLE CUT-OFF

B 1J K3-93 _l

B K3-92 -SHUTDOWN

B K3_ r K3-92 BI ABORT ,,rt _
_ PILOT ACTUATED ENGINE

PROGRAMMER

_IK3-_

:

_MMONH CUT-OFE2 J
CONTROL BUS L_ j O'_ _

i_

1 ABORT CONTROL

O' .... '_
11

mm

T,TAN VV
RETRO PWR SWITCH

:

_ I

-

I

:

CUT-OFFCOMMAND "ENGINE

'N"'ATE B,A CONTROL' 1-1_-_ o_ABORT
SQUIB _ BUS I ABORT CONTROL

ABORT

BOOn-INSERT

©l ..... _ _

:

_

:
i

: _
1,1=

BusOAMB_ SQUIB
BUS 2

OAMBBQUIBC [
COMMON CONTROL

]::I

HANDLE _

_
O_

;

__

O- AlSl K3-38

ERZOBQ01B
_BUS 2 RETRO COMMON B I Kll'8

RETROSQU,

E

Kll-7

BIA

DII

K11 34D_11-7 -

-<

RCS RING A PRESSURE

Kll-8

Rcs

SQU_B

,i'[ PACKAOEA FK"E ,BoL QB S
_:_ C ! Kll-8 ..L

ACTIVATE B,A

Ell..,__, c,,. _ ,I"-,K,I_4_KI,_7 :_
Kll-3_

_
I

_A_i_ZQGEB_ C I

K'I-_ Ell Dll

ql
I ".,L I I* , BUS 1 BUS I

PACKAOE 0 RAC_GE 0
FUEL

KII-B I
RETI_O SQUIB BUS 1

B_0,B , ,SOLBQB _t" T : RETRO E °"_:_1_- _,-34__ .A _1-34 _ , ,BOLSQB .--"
TABLE OF RELAYS RElAy REDUNDANT RELAY 3_q7 3-39 3-49 3-60 3-72 3-93 4-22 4-5 4-6 4-8 4-10 4-12 4-14 4-24 4-27 4-28 4-48 4-43 4-44 4-45 4-67 4-21 11-9 11-10 11-26 11_5 RELAy NOMENCLATURE RELAY PANEL

3-36 3-38 3'-48 3-59 3-71 3-92 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-7 4-9 4-11 4-13 4-23 4-25 4-26 4-30 4-40 4-41 4-42 4-64 4-66 4-74 11-7 ll-B 11-25 11-34

RETROABORT SQUIB BUS ABORT L/V ENGINE SHUTDOWN SIGNAL

RETROSEQUENCE POWER DISTRIBUTION INSTRUMENTATION SEQUENTIAL MONITOR ACS-RCS RETROFIRE INSTRUMENTATION SEQUENTIAL MONITOR RETRO SEQUENCE RETROSEQUENCE RETRO SEPARATION RETROFIRE RETROFIRE RETROFIRE RETROFIRE RETRO SEQUENCE RETRO SEPARATION RETRO SEPARATION BIA CONTROL RETRO FIRE RETROFI RE RETROFIRE RETROFIRE IO S RETRO SEQUENCE ACS-RCS ACS-RCS RETRO SEQUENCE ACS-RCS

ACS ABORT SALVO RETRO INSTRUMENTATION

ABORT

WIRE GUILLOTINE ADAPTER SHAPED CHARGE 45-SECOND TiME DElAY RETRO ROCKET 1 AUTO FIRE RETRO ROCKET 3 AUTO FIRE RETRO ROCKET 2 AUTO FIRE RETRO ROCKET 4 AUTO FIRE DAMS LINES GUILLOTINE LATCH PYRO SWITCH PYRO SWITCH L/V PYRO SWITCH ABORT 5.5 SECOND TIME DELAY 11.0-SECON D TIME DELAY 16,5-SECOND TIME DELAY SEPARATE ELECTRICAL LATCH ABORT DI SCRETE WIRE GUILLOTINE RCS SQ UI B FI RE RCS SQUIB FIRE lATCH

RETRO ABORT INTERLOCK RCS RING B SQUIB FIRE

Figure

4-9

Abort

Sequence 4-32

(Sheet

1 of 2)

---":-"_.

SEDR 300

I

'qL_

PROJECT

GEMINI

(_) RETRO SQU_B _ CONTROL #1

REI_O SQUIB _ Z70 TUBING CUTTER IGNITER

Bos,

_

; ,IK,,-25 liK3-_

DAMS LINE GUILLOTINE

@
'_1 r_4-zo I-_

._

TUBING SHAPED

CUTTER & CHARGE

Bus,
_ _

I 1

-3 "_

I
t

I
I

IGNITER K4-3

ADAPTER SHAPED !EQUIPMENT

zli2_ ,,, _ K
I_

OILLOT,NEOPELLANT ONE
NITER 1-I

I

:
K4 3 g

IC_RGE'GNITE
i EQUIPMENT ADAPTER SHAPED

PYROSW,TCN0B,, " _
• I I K4-74 S/C SEPARATION SQUIB BUS 1 C i. K4-26 PYRO _ITC_ "G" IGNITER

_

Dl_'-3T_r ..C_RGE' , GNTER
g K3-71 i AUTO RETRO K3-71 K4-2

RETRO COMMON

-_1 K4-25 IY PYRO :_NITCH D-I RELAYS

.

_rsEc_._.
D ; _ K3-71 K3-71-C C K -71

_1 _E_[

K4-25 ; ; PYRO SWITCH E-1 ADAPTER WIRING

/_".

PYRO

SWITCHES i

D, E, F, B, C & J

I
_ •

ADAPTER WI_NG

I

RETRO ROCKET II

-

K4-7

R_Ro ROCK_
K4-? F K4-10 RETRO ROCKET

F

K4-26

K4-26

IFUELCELLWIRINGI

_ --_O A'SQUIB SWITCH

,G..TEB
-'L I K4-26 PYRO 9_'ITCH "C = SALVO FIRE ROCKETS

q _'-_-__-R'' R_RO - K K_ --. ',,GN,TER ROCKETRB K.-_
F , F I F RETRO ROCKET 12 ::_

'_ _-, i _ F

_oAR

_l_t" '

K4-26 m .,--CL_I_ A K4-64 :: =

!
I

PYRO SWITCH "J" FUEL CELL WIRING IGNITER

I

.__Oj_O_LR_ RETRO ROCKET 14 SQUIB I SWITCH

_tl --

j F II ._ K4-' 1 F K4L_F I__E_L K4-12 p IK4-13 F F I m

RETRO ROCKET '2 IGNITER

14 IGNITER

' [_I"D"I

_1

WIRE OU,LLOT,NE
IGNITERS C, D & _I_E

K,-R , L_,_ K_-_
_-_ K4-2 K4-2

KI"_J4 _26

I LV/SCW,RE _OB' _; ,GN,TERC I POWOR_,RE
GUILLOTINE ;; I IGNITERDGUILLOTINE

"

RETRO SQUIB

--

K4-1L_ _

--

NOTE
RELAy

IVE

L_TCH COIL OF LATCHING

2 "_iK_D _" K4-2 KI_ (_) j !

GUILLOTINE EQU'P ADAPTER IGNITER E I

K3-36 K4-66

/_

_

8A_DE TcTo_N R sNSELE;E XCITAT, oB_ t__]

Figure

4-9

Abort

Sequence 4-33

(Sheet

2 of 2)

SEDR300

GEMINI
encodes the voltage from this bus as the booster cutoff metry transmission to the ground tracking station. command signal for tele-

Abort _Itiate _hen the c_mand pilots moves the abort control handle to ABORT, numerous relays However five of these relays are key These operations are:

are energized, as shown of Figure _-9.

relays in that they control the principal abort operations.

(i) telemetry of the abort action to the ground; (2) arming of the retrograde buses; (S) activation of the RCS; (k) separation of the spacecraft from the launch vehicle; and (5) salvo firing of the retro rockets.

The relays which control those operations are:

(i) the instrumentation abort

relay, KS-_2; (2) the squib bus abort relay K3-38; (3) the Attitude Control System abort relay K3-59; (4) the retrograde abort relay K3-36; and (5) the salvo retrograde relay K3-TI.

Abort

Telemet:_

When the instrumentation abort relay K3-92 is energized by the abort switch, its B contacts connect common control bus power to the spacecraft instrumentation progra_,er. The progrs_mer encodes this signal as the pilot actuated abort signal

for tel_netery transmission to the ground.

Abort Abort,

Squib _s if it

Armin_ requires that power for the circuits used in the retrograde

occurs,

phase of the m_ssion _come

1-_,ed.iately available.

When the abort switch is

closed, squib bus power is applie_ to K3-38. buses i and 2 and the retrograde co_on

K3-38 arms the retrograde squib _"

control bus.

SEDR 300

f_

PROJE

GEMINI

Re-entry Re-entry use is of the

Control immediately

System and control

(RC8) Activation automatically of the follows spacecraft opening an during and abort. this Re-entry phase. the requires Hence RCS fuel the the RCS and and

RCS for

activated. lines.

Activation This

involves

pressurizing of the

oxidizer pressurant

is done by firing the squibs

fuel, oxidizer,

packages.

In operation, System abort

the abort switch relay K3-59.

applies

BIA squib

bus power squib

to the Attitude bus power Kll-7. to RCS KII-8

Control (ring A) applies The them.

K3-59

applies

retrograde

squib fire relay KII-8 and the RCS retrograde squibs KII-7 thus squib bus power

(ring B) squib

i_re relay

to package

A, C, and D igniters

of RCS ring A.

fired open the ring A fuel and oxidizer retrograde squib bus power to similar

lines and pressurize igniter

applies

of RCS ring B with

similar

results.

The B contact KII-22.

of F13-7 and KII-8 contact

energize

the retrograde

abort

interlock sequence.

relay

KII-25,

A initiates

the station

7.70 separation

OAMS

Lines and Lower Wires

Guillotine in the abort modes controlled by the abort ZTO. section.

Since the retrorockets switch, the spacecraft

are to be fired must separate

from the launch

vehicle

at station

ZTO is on the mating To -_ke must separation

line between

the spacecraft

and the equipment lines which cross

adapter this

complete,

the OAMS propellant

station

be sealed and guillotined.

The abort OAMg

switch

energizes

the retrograde K4-30,

abort

relay

K3-36

which

arms K%-23,

the

lines guillotine and K4-74,

latch relay;

the retrograde When _I-25

abort

pyrotechnlc

switch

relay;

the wire guillotine

relay.

is energized,

it energizes

4-35

SEDR300

K_-23, K4-30, and K_-7_. lant lines guiS.lotine

The D contacts of K_-23 apply power to the OA_ The guillotine

propel-

ig-lter.

now seals and cuts the lines.

Pyrotecb-lc switch G fires, opening the launch vehicle/spacecraft interface clrcuita The lower wire gundles are guillotin_l. spacecraft separation has been taken. The first step toward launch vehicle/

pyrotec_nlc

Switch Ignition

The second step in launch vehicle/spacecraft separation is the removal of power from the hot wires crossing station ZTO. These wires like the propellant lines,

must also be gu_11otine_, an& the guillotine blade could cause a short circuit of the spacecraft power. Pyrotechnic switches B, C, D, E, F, G and J must be

operated to remove power from the wires to be guillotined.

K3-36 and _1-25

apply power to launch vehicle/spacecraft pyrotechnic switch abort

relay K_-30 and to wire guillotine latch relay K_-TM_ In_tlatlng pyrotec_nlc switch ignition. K_-SO applies Ixwer to launch ve1_icle/spacecraftwlr_ng pyrotecBnlc switch G igniter, ope-4_g pyrotechnic switch G. K_-25 and K_-26. KM-7_ energizes pyrotechnic switch relays

K4-25 ignites equipment adapter pyrotechnic switches D, E end F. With the operation

Kk-26 ignites fuel cell wiring pyrotechnic switch B, C and S.

of the pyrotec_nlc switches, the second step in launch vehicle/spacecraft separation has been taken.

U_per Wire Guillotine Y_nitlon The thlr_ step in launch vehicle/spacecraft separation is the cutting of the upper wires that cross station Z70. otines. This is accomplished by actuatln_ the wire guillthe launch vehicle/space-

Three wire guillotines igniters must be fired:

craft wlre guillotine igniter C_ the power wire guillotine igniter D, and equipment adapter wlre guillotine Igniter E.

4-B6

SEDR 300

F
When K_-25 wire cutting and K_-26 relay station

PROJ
energize_ K4-2. ZTO wires° they K_-2

E'C-'T GEMINI
app]_ fires the power wire through guillotine the A contacts i_ntters of K3-TI to

guillotine the

C, D and Z

K_-2, shaped

contact charge K_-2

C energizes relay K_-3

the separate and the abort position.

electrical discrete K_-66

latch relay

relay

K_/o_, K_-6_,

the adapter contact from the re-entry step A

K_-66.

latches

in the energized to the re-entry

changes

the computer to accept

ascent mede

mode

and enables

the computer

data and solve the re-entry in the separation

problem.

K4-3 prepares from the

the way for the fourth

of the launch

vehicle

spacecraft.

Tubing _

and

Structural

Bond Cutt_, step is to sever the ad_pter structural bond. skin at station Z70 an_ break

The fourth and final the launch vehicle

to spacecraft

When K4-2 ZT0 tubing

causes K4-3, cutter

the adapter

shaped

charge

relay_

to energize, charge

K_-3

fires The

the

igniter

an& the equipment

adapter

shaped

igniters.

pyrotechnics

co_plete

the task

of launch vehlcle/spacecraft

separation.

Retrorocket

Salvo

Fire are salvo fired at the same time that the tuh_n_ power and structural s_w.ltaneously Therefore C, D

The retrorockets bond is cut.

To salvo fire the retrorockets, automatic 16._second fire relays time delay

must be applied

to the retrorocket the 5.5, ii.0, and

and thus to the retrorockets. relays must be bypassed. energizes, automatic retrograde

Contacts retrograde

and E of K3-71 bypass co...._on bus power /-_ K4-7, K_-9, K_-II is applied

the time delay

relays.

When K_-2

simultaneously and K_-I3.

energizes As these

the retrorocket energize,

fire relays squib bus power lasts

relays

to the igniters

of retrorockets

i, 3, 2 and _.

Salvo burn

4-37

SEDR 300

PREMINI

approx_tely

5.5 seconds.

_etrograde

Section Jettiso_

When the retrorocket automatic fire relays are energized by K4-2, the 45-second time delay relay K_-_ is also energized. _11_4nates When K_-4 energizes after 45 seconds, it The ZETT P_TRO

the ZETT RE_110indicator as shown on Figure _-7.

switch-indicator is then pressed, and the retrograde section is Jettisoned in a mode II abort. However, in a mode I - IT abort when the altitude is _etween

15,000 and 25,000 feet, the swltch-indicator is pressed seven seconds after the retrorockets beg_n firing. After the retrograde section has been Jettisoned,

normal re-entry and landing procedures are initiated.

The Sequence System as shown in Figure 4-1 comprises the following units; Left switch/circuit breaker panel, consisting of three rows of circuit breakers and one row of switches.

Boost and staging indicators, consisting of seven lights and three meters on the top of the co,_and pilot and pilot's panels.

Sequence controls, consisting of two pushbutton switches, eight switch-indicators, and one indicator are located on the left side of the main instrument panel.

Re-entry switches and indicators, consisting of four switches on the main instrument panel center console and one switch, two lights, and two meters on the c_d pilot 's panel.
_h

Abort controls, consisting of two D-rings on the ejection seats and one abort control handle on the left side of the cabin.

4-38

SEDR 300

PROJECGEMINI
Relay panels, consisting of four relay panels in the re-entry module and four in the equlllnentadapter an_ retrograde sections, and two In the rendezvous and recovery section.

Separation sensing devices, consisting of three each in the equil3nentadapter section and the retrograde section.

The c(_nents

of the Sequence System are described below:

The switches perform of circuit

amd circuit

breakers in the pertain

on the

left

switch of the to

and circuit

breaker

panel

Important breakers

fumcttons however perform

operation largely related

Sequence System.

The top tow

c_,_-.,,n_cattons. to the operation

The second row of the Sequence

of clrcult System.

bre_ ers

functions

Their functions are as follows:

E_CSRC__IC TIMER Circuit B_eaker The electronic timer circuit breaker CB8-15 applies main bus power through contact A of lift-off relay K3-11 to start the electronic timer when the lift-off signal energizes the K3-11. The timer begins counting the t_ne-to-go to retrograde.

E_

T_ER

Circuit Breaker_

The evont timer circuit breaker cBS-I_ applies main bus power through contact B of lift-off relay K3-ll to start the event timer when the lift-off signal energizes KS-11. The event counter counts the time since lift-off occured.

BOOST

CUTOFF

i Ci_,,cuit I_.'eakel"

The boost cutoff I circuit breaker CB3-8 applies BIA c..,..on control bus power to the booster shutdown switch on the abort control and to the secondary guidance

4-39

PROJGEMINI
SEDR 300

(RGS-IGS) switch.

This circuit breaker arms the booster shutdown circuit and

the secondary guidance manual swltch-over circuit.

BOOST CUTOFF 2 Circuit Breaker The boost cutoff 2 circuit breaker CB3-21 applies BIA common control bus power redundantly to the booster shutdown switch, and supplies power for the second stage engine cutoff signal input to the computer.

RETRO AUTO Circuit Breaker The retrograde fire automatic circuit bres_er CB_-l applies retrograde common control bus power to the ARM AUTO EETRO switch. the retrorockets during the abort sequence. It provides power to salvo fire

If CB4-1 is not closed, the elec-

tronic timer TR contact closure will not automatically fire the retrorockets.

RETR0 MAN Circuit Breaker The retrograde manual circuit breaker CB4-2 provides retrograde common control bus power for manually firing the retrorockets, and salvo firing the retrorockets with

the abort control handle.

TR-256 Circuit Breaker The retrograde minus 256 seconds circuit breaker CB8-16 applies common control bus power to relay contacts in the electronic timer and contacts of the TR-256 second relay. CB8-16 enables the TR-256 second signal to illuminate amber the IND RETRO

ATT, BTRT PWR, and RCS indicators on the main instrument panel. SEQ LIGHTS POWER Circuit Breaker The sequence lights power circuit breaker CB6-1 applies main bus power to the sequence Ifght BRIGHT-DIM switch and to open contacts on the barostat switch arm relay and the message acceptance pulse relay.

4-40

SEDR 300

PROJE(JT
LIG_S C0_0L
The sequence l_wer through lights the

GEMINI

Circuit, ]_eaker
control four circuit breaker CBI-13 to applies relay c_n K1-29. control bus

MAIN BATTERIES switches

When the main

battery power indicator relay KI-29 is energize_, the _fRY PWR indicator on the main instrument panel is illuminated green.

The third row of circuit breakers on the left switch/circuit breaker panel perform functions related to the Sequentiml System. The functions are the following:

ATT IND _

RETRO Circ_tit Breake r

The attitude indicate control retrograds circuit breaker CB12-7 applies retrograde c(...... _n control bus power to the IND RETRO ATT switch-indicator and to contacts of retrograde bias off relays K4-62 and K_-63. Power fram CB12-7 energizes retrograde

bias relay I(12-5when the JETT EETRO indicator is pressed.

BOOST-INSERT CONTROL i Circuit Breaker The boost-insert control 1 circuit breaker CB3-1 provides BYA squib bus number i power to 4-_tiate the abort sequence with the abort control handle, Jettison the nose fairing and scanner cover, separate the spacecraft from the launch vehicle, sense launch vehicle/spacecraft separation, extend the ,,_ and diplexer whip antennas, and initiate several experiments.

B00_T-I_SERT _CC_ROL 2 Circuit The boost-insert power redundantly control to the

Breaker breaker CB3-11 connects BIA SQUIB BUS number power. 2

2 circuit

same switches

to which

CB3-1 connects

1_:_,0 _ '_

_

i Circuit _reaker sequence control 1 circuit breaker C_-S connects the retrograde

The retrograde

SqUib bus number i to the SEP OAMS T.'r_s

switch-indlcator, the SEP ADAPT switch-

4-4l

PROJECT
indicator, the _

SEDR300

GEMINI

____

ELEC switch-indicator, and the JETT RETR0 switch-indicator on It also arms the abort discrete relays and the

the main instrument panel.

equil_ent adapter separation sensor switches and relays.

RETR0 SE_ CRTL 2 Circuit Breaker The retrograde sequence control 2 circuit breaker C_-28 connects the retrograde

squib bus number 2 redundantly to the same switches to which the retrograde sequence control i circuit breaker co--ects power and arms the same cir_its.

The sequence lishts test switch connects main bus power to all amber-colored sequence lights and to all lights on the annunciator panel in the AMRRR positionst and to all red or green sequence lights in the _.n & _ position.

SE_ LIGHTS (mIGHT-DIM)

Switch

The sequence light brlght-dlm switch is a single-pole, double-throw toggle switch. It connects the main bus through a diode to all sequence light circuits in the _IGHT position. It connects the bus through a resistor to the same circuits

in the DI}_position.

The fourth row on the left switch/clrcult breaker panel contains eight switches. These switches arm or safety the various squib buses used by the Sequential System. Their functions are as follows.

swit
The boost-insert squib bus arm-safe switch iS a four pole, do_ble throw togsle switch. In the ARM posltlon, thls switch arms the BIA squib buses I and 2 and the These buses arm the SEP SPCFT switch-indicator, the CBTL I and CsT,.2 circut

BIA e.+-.-..on control bus.

BOOST C0TOFF 1 and 2 circuit breakers_ the BOOST _d_

_42

SEDR 300

_-___

PROJECT

GEMINI

breakers, and the relay contacts which fire the nose fairing Jettison, scanner cover Jettison, OAMS activate, RCS activate, spacecraft separate, guillotine and pyrotechnlcs.

Rm_Q _,
The retrograde

(A_U-SA_) S_it,ch
power squib it bus arm-safe retrograde buses it switch is squib bus a fcctr-pole, double-throv retrograde s_ltch_ the switch.

In the ARM position, common control bus.

arms

1 and 2 and the RETRO _T the breakers

Thru these

arms the

ARM-SA_

RETR0 ROCKETS0_J_S AI_-SA_ RETR0 SE_. circuit 1 and 2,

1_ 2,

3_ and _ switches,

ATT ]_D CNTL B_R0, on the breakers left on the switch/ overhead

and RETR0 AUTO and MAN circuit and the panel. RCS _

breaker

panel, breaker

1 and 2 circuit

mritch/circuit

REg_O _TETT (ARM,-SA_) Switch The retrograde Jettison squib bus arm-safe switch is a two-pole double-throw toggle switch. number 2. In the ARM position, it arms retrograde Jettison squib buses number 1 and From these Imses, the retrograde Jettison relays Eat the power to fire H.

the retrograde adapter shaped charges and retrograde pyrotechnic s_teh

_0

_0CKZT S_U]3 z, 3,_4 (Am_-SA_) l, SwAtches
the

The four retrograde rocket squib arm switches apply the voltages which _Ite

four retrofire rockets to open contacts of the retro rocket automatic and manual fire relays. In the safe position of these four switches, the ignition voltage is When both the I_TRO POWER squib arm switch and the four

removed from the relays. RETRO R_

SQUIB arm switches ere placed %o the ARM position, the OAMS squib

buses i and 2 are connected redundantly to the retrorocket fire relays.

4-43

SEDR 300

_

,,_

_j

PROJECT
B00ST-IN_-_ Seven indicators, phase CORTROLS AND INDICATORS three meters and four

GEMINI

controls

are

provided

for

the

boost-

insert-abort

of the

spacecraft

mission.

ndicatora
The two ENG_ thrust ch_nber I indicators underpressure thrust Both 1.25 are provided of the first on the stage pressure ill,-,_uate as the co_ booster of the red pilot's engines. engine at stage is panel Each to indicate

indicator of but

illuminates rated pressure

red when the or less. 0.91%o

chamber indicators later

68 percent 1 ignition above

extin@uished

seconds

pressure

increases

68 percent.

Both indicators li!!-m_-atered at booster engine staging.

cut-off and extinguish quickly at

_GI_

II Indicator

The ENGINE II indicator on the comnand pilot's panel illuminates amher %o indicate the fuel injector underpressure (or off) condition of the second stage engine. The critical pressure for engine 2 is 55 percent of rated value. The indicator

ill, m_nates when the first stage engine is ignited and stays amber through first stage boost. ApprOXimAtely one second after both ENGINE I indicators extinguish,

the ENGINE II indicator also extinguishes, indicating normal staging and engine 2 fuel injector pressure build up.

RATE Indicator The attitude rate indicator on the command pilot's panel indicates an evaluation of the launch vehicle attitude rates during the boost phase. The indicator is but ill_m4nates

extinguishes if the attitude rates remain within acceptable l_mttsp red if the rates exceed these 1_m_ts.

SEDR 300

f-.

S_C_
The

v_dicetor
guidance is indicator on the c_,_A_& pilot's is panel in.cares to vhich that

secondary system

guidance pr_mry

in operation.

The in_cator

extinguished

indAeate

guidance is being used.

The indicator 43_,_-4natesamber tO indicate that

secondary guidance has been selected.

/_O_T _dAcators
Two ABORT indicators are provided, one for each pilot. Both indicators _11,_uate

red when the abort c_-.-_ndis transmitted. 4_4ate

When the ABORT indicator is i11,,_uated, The indicator signals the crew

an_ appropriate action is imperative.

to initiate _._,.ediately the abort mode appropriate for the altitude and velocity of the spacecraft. These modes are described under Sequence System Operation. link

During the l_ost phases the crew has been retainedvia the uhf com_m!cations of the abort mode in effect.

S_AG_ 1 I_/0XIDY_ The stage to monitor an abort in psis vid_l 1 fuel the

_eters end oxidizer meters on the com_ud pilot's panel enable the crew

current if

status

and progress develop.

of the boost These meters tanks.

phase, indicate

and to anticipate the gas pressures are proA time-

condition of the

one should 1 fuel

stage

and oxidizer of the

Dual indicat_ 1 meters is 3_ to

needles _ psia.

for

redundancy. scale 40,

The range near the

stage

versus-pressure pressure is at 20,

bott_

of the

meter

shows the Critical scle.

minimum required fuel After tank pressure stag_ with

and 60 seconds after colvm_ at meters the

lift-off.

indicated

by a shaded applie_, the

low end of the maximum psla.

no signals
!

indicate

4-_5

$EDR 300

PROGEMINI
STAGE 2, FIT_T./O, XID_ Meters pilot's panel indicate stage Redundant pointers

The stage 2 fuel and oxidizer meters on the co_and

2 fuel and oxidizer tan_ pressure over a 70 to i0 psla range. are used.

Critical fuel tank l_ressuresare indicated by a shaded column at the The S-flag at the 30-psia mark indicates the minimum After spacecraft

low end of the scale.

acceptable stored pressure in the tank before pressurization. separation, the meters indicate waT1_,, psia.

Longltudlnal

Accelerometer

The acceler_neter on the ccmnand pilot's panel indicates the rate in g's at which the launch vehicle engines are changing the velocity of the spacecraft. of the accelercmeter is m_-ns _'s memor_ pointers. of the en_r_-es. tO l_'s. The range

The meter has positive and negatlve

The aeceleraneter enables the crew to monitor the effectiveness It is a seco_aa_y indicator of staging.

_S-I_

g_danee

Switch permits the c_ pilot to When back-

The guidance switch above the abort control handle

manually change fr_n prlm-ry guidance to secondary backup guidance. /

up guidance has been selected either manually or automatically during stage I boos% and the groun_ station determines that primary guidance is feasible during

stage 2 boost, primary guidance can be selected again by m_aentarily placing the guidance switch to the R_ position.

D-]_4-,-,s A D-ring Is provided on the e_ectlon seat of each pilot. tO initiate mode I abort at altitude below 70,000 feet. thls vol_ These rings are pulled Refer to Section III of

for the location and operation of these devices.

SEDR300

PROJECT

GEMINI

Abort The is

Control abort

Handle handle is re-entry feet. located in on the abort c_nd I-II, pilot's II an_ side III. of the These cabin. modes It

control for

use_

spacecraft

modes

are effective S_, moved

above 25,000

The three

positions

of this

handle When

are NOI_4AL, is

and ABORT. to _, englne.

In NOFdqAL, the handle cutoff c_u_and

is inoperative.

the handle launch

the e_ine When

is sent _o the operating to ABORT, These without an i_te

vehicle

the abort

handle

is moved

spacecraft differs the from

separation the normal

and retrograde sequences in

sequence that they

is performed. are performed

sequences Ques fr_

indicators

on the gin

instrument

panel.

SEQUENCE The center and

CORTROL8 ARD IRDICATORS indicators, have the and switches-lndicators fol_ring nomenclature, on the .rain in_x-n._nt place in the mission panel

switches_ console functions.

sequence,

FAIRING The Jettison by the cove r.

_shtnttton fairing

Switch is used at the end of secon_ erase engine thrust decay,

switch

ohm.and

pilot to Jettison

the nose fairing,

an_ the horizon

scanner

head

SEP SpC_ The

Switch-ludlcator spacecraft switch-indicator pilot is used in the separation-insertion approxlmate_v the delta-V phase 20

separate

of the sequence. seconds after

The c_.._nd

presses

the switch-indlcator the M causes which displays several

second

stage engine

cutoff when

required

for _nser_ion. Pr4-_rily,

Pressing

the switch-indicator pyrotechnic devices

things

to happen. from the

it detonates

separate

the spacecraft

4-47

PROJECT
. $EDR 300

GEMINI
_ ._._[

launch vehicle.

Secondarily, it extends

the uhf and diplexer antennas and readies

the acquisition aid beacon for use.

As the spacecraf_ moves away from the launch

vehicle, separation sensors close and energize the spacecraft separation relays. The relays illum_nate the In_cator green.

IND RE_IO ATT Switch-Ind/eator The Indlcate retro_'aae attitude switch-lndicator is il/_ated ember when the

electronics timer energizes the TR-256 second relay. crew Co press the uwltch-indicator at this time.

The amber light cues the

When pressured, a bias voltage

is placed on the pitch needle of the FDI, and the inertial platform is electrically placed in the _ llght is _11umlna_. mode. When released the ember light is extinguished an_ a green

The _attery amber light cell the switch ad_pter are

power indleator cues or _ section on, the will the pilot

_11_-In_ted to place the

amber

by the

_R-256 switch change

second to

relay.

The fuel

MAIN BAttERIES to at OFF. This

ON, and the

___P_IES

switch

mus_ be made because of the _in _attery

be Jettisoned changes

retrograde. to

When all green.

switches

Indicator

from amber

RCS Switch-Indicator The RCS _n_4cator Is lllumlnate_ amber by the TR-256 second relay. The amber light

cues the command pilot to activate the 11CSby firing the fuel, oxidizer, and pressurant isolation squibs. fire the RCS has squibs. been The indicator Pressing the switch-indicator energizes relays which changes from ember to green, indlcating that the ._

ac_tva_e_.

SEDR 300

PROJ E-E'C'T'-GEM I IN
__

SEP OAM_ LINES Switch-Indicator , ,, , The separate OA_ lines indicator is illumln_ted amber by the TR-256 second relay to retrograde phase. The amber light cues the crew to seal Pressing the switch-

is the prepare-to-go and sever the OA_

lines before jettisoning the adapter.

indicator energizes relays which ignite the pyrotechnics used to seal and sever the lines. The relays also fire pyrotechnic switches and wire guillotines The indicator

severing some of the adapter-retrograde mating line wiring. changes from amber to green.

E,LEC, ,Switch-Indlcator The separate electrical indicator is also ill_nated relay. F _ amber by the T2-256 second

The amber light cues the crew to sever all the wiring at the retrograde/ Pressing the switch-indicator energizes the wire guillotine The indicator

adapter mating line. relay.

The pyrotechnics are detonated and the wiring is cut.

changes from amber to green to indicate that electrical separation has been accomplished.

SEP ADAPT , ,

J

S_-itch-Indicator

The separate adapter indicator is illuminated amber by the _R-256 second relay. The amber light cues the crew to Jettison the adapter equipment section. Pressing

the s_itch-indicator causes the adapter shaped charge and the ZTO tubing cutter pyrotechnic to be detonated, and the adapter section severed. Separation of the Two

adapter section is sensed by the equipment adapter separation sensors.

closed sensors energize the sensor relay and change the indicator fram amber to green. _ AUTO EETR0 Switch-lndicator

The arm automatic retrofire indicator is illuminated amber by the TR-SO second relay, l_ne amber light cues the crew to arm the automatic retrofire circuits so

4-49

SEDR 300

PRO,JECMINI
that when the electronic rockets patch will timer closes the TR contacts at TR time, the retrothe

fire automatically. co_on

Pressing control

the switch-indicator

completes

from the retrograde

bus to the timer the light relay.

TR contact, from amber

and also

energizes Contact

the TR arm relay. at _R time

The relay energizes

changes

to green.

closure

the TR signal fires

The signal relay rockets at 5.5 second

energizes intervals,

the 45-second

time delay relay,

the retro

and puts the platform

in the free mode.

MAN FIRE

HETR0

Pushhutton

Switch switch connects Contacts the retrograde of this relay common control bus to

The manual the manual

fire retrorockets retrograde

latch relay.

energizes

the 45-second the

time delay relay, platform

fire the retrorockets operation.

at 5.5-second

intervals,

and place

in the free mode

JETT

HETRO

Switch-lndicator retrograde adapter indicator is illuminated begins. amber by the 45-second light cues the pyro-

The Jettison

time delay relay 45 seconds crew to jettison technic

after retrofire adapter.

The amber

the retrograde

Pressing

the indicator disconnect vehicle adapter System

ignites

switch H and other pyrotechnic adapter sever

devices

which

and guillotine line. It

the wires at the retrograde fires the shaped charges re-entry relays vehicle.

section/re-entry the retrograde Sensor

mating section

which

from the

It energizes

the Horizon squibs

scanner

head jettison It removes at TR-256 Finally

which fire the jettison attitude signals

and Jettison

the scanner director

head. needles

the retrograde seconds.

applied

to the flight

It switches

the FDI roll

channel

to the mix mode

for re-entry.

by igniting SEP ELEC,

pyrotecbnl c switch H it extinguishes green

the IND RE_O

ATT_ SEP OAMS T.T_E, amber

HEP ADAPT and ARM AUTO I_TRO

indicators

and the JETT RETRO

4-5o

indicator.

RE-ENVY VEHICLE RELAY PANE_
Ten Sequence through 12. System Four relay panels are installed in Gemini Spacecraft vehicle, 5, 6, _nd 8 three in the and

relay panels

are located

in the re-entry

retrograde recovery

section, section.

one in the equipment See Figure module. 4-1.

section,

and two in the rendezvous Sequence System relay

The following

panels

are in the re-entry

BIA Control

Rela_ Panel control relay panel contains six relays to perform space-

The boost-insert-abort craft separation switch firing.

indicator

control

and launch

vehicle/spacecraft

pyrotec_nl c

Retrograde

Separation

Relay

Panel for adapter retrograde section separation are The

The necessary performed

functions

required relays

by the fourteen

of the retrograde

separation

relay p_el. charge

relays perform TR-BO second

such functions

as pyrotechnic

switch and shaped selection,

ignition, of the

indication,

automatic

IGS free mode

and arming

contacts

of the Time Reference

System.

ACS Scanner Re-entry

and RCS Squib Fire Relay System squib firing,

Panel scanner cover and scanner heads firing jettison, test prior scan-

Control

abort interlock to launch

RCS amber light

actuation,

and RCS ring B squib of the attitude

are provided

by the sixteen

relays

control

system

ner and RCS squib fire relay panel.

f_

Umbilical

Pyrotechnic

Switch

Relay

Panel contains wiring two relays which apply landing

The umbilical squib

pyrotechnic

switch

relay panel umbilical

bus I and 2 pc_¢er to re-entry

pyrotechnic

switch.

4-51

PROJ E-E'CT-'G'EM I N I
._m_mmm

_.

SI:DR300

ADAP_

RELAY PANELS section contains the following three relay panels which control

The retrograde spacecraft ment

separation, contains

retrofire,

and equipment Maneuver

section System

separation. squib

The equip-

section

the Orbit Attitude

fire relay

panel.

S_acecraft

Separation

Control

Relay

Panel panel contains six relays to perform the

The spacecraft following guillotine

separation

control

relay

functions: firing.

shaped

charge

ignition,

and launch

vehicle/spacecraft

Retrograde

Fire Rela_

P_nel relays. rockets, These relays control the automatic, firing --_

The retrofire manual

relay panel has twenty of the retro

and salvo firing

and time the 5.5-second

sequence.

Retrograde

Sequence

Adapter

Separate

Relay

Panel panel contains ignition, abort. twelve relays. line The

The retrograde relays are used guillotine,

sequence

adapter

separate

relay

for equipment

adapter

shaped

charge

propellant

electrical

wire guillotine,

and retrograde

Orbit Attitude

and Maneuver

System

Squib

Fire Relay Panel six relays for firing the OA_ squibs

The 0A_¢3 squib fire relay panel and contro111ug the regulator

contains

valves.

Rendezvous

and Recovery

SECTION

RELAY

PANELS two Sequence System relay panels :

The Rendezvous

and Recovery Jettison

section

contains

the nose fairing

relay panel,

and the docking

relay panel.

4-52

PROJ

ECT-"G"EM
SEDR300

IN I
_.._

Nose

Fair_

Jettison

Relay Panel relay panel contains two relays which control the

The nose fairing Jettlsonfng

Jettison

of the nose

fiairng.

DockinR The

Relay Panel relay panel has eleven the MSG ACPT relays which emergency extend release the docking index bar, latches,

docking

illuminate release

light, effect

of the docking Jettison

and Jettison

the locking

latches

at retros_ade,

the index bar,

and cover the docking

latch ports.

SEPARATION

SENSORS System con+_ins separatio_ Figure two sets of separation sensors sensors. These are the launch vehicle Figure Figure

The Sequence _

vehlcle/spacecraf¢ separation sensors.

and the equipment eonflguration separation vehicle

adapter/re-entry and location. operate. sensors

_-i shows their

4-3 shows how the launch

vehicle/spacecraft section/re-entry are toggle

sensors separation

4-6 shows how the equipment operate. separation moves three Separation sensors

switches which structure modnle. will

are normally

open before as it

is initiated.

The separating re-entry

close the sensors

away from the spacecraft sensors is sufficient

The closure separation.

of any two of a set of

to sense

and indicate

ELECTRICAL

POWER

SYSTEM

Secfion
V
TABLE
/f--.

OF

CONTENTS

TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ................................ SYSTEM OPERATION ...................................
ERE-LAUNCH ............................................... ORBIT ......................................................... RE-ENTRY .................................................... MONITOR AND DISPLAY ...............................

PAGE 5-3 5-7
5-7 5-16 5-18 5-19

_-_=_E_
iiii _.-':-:_ _ii---_ _ ":'ii!iiiiiiii._-_"..-_-j_j_ iiiiiiii!!i!iiiiiii!i!_ iiiiiiiiiiiiii!i!iiiiiiiiii
• °..,.°, .°,.°,..°,,,°°.,t ,.

SYSTEMS UNITS ...........................................
SILVER-ZINC POWER BATTERIES ................................. SYSTEM RELAY PANEL ...................... RELAY PANEL ..............

5-22
5-22 5-23 5-23 5-23 5-23

!!!iHilH!!iiiiiHHililil
!_i_iiiiii_H_ii!!i!iiiiiil iilHii!iiHi!i!HHiHHil iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHi iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiii!i ,,,,,o,,,,,,,,,,, ........ ,_ iHi!!H!iiii!iHiiiiiiiiill !!iiii_ii_iiiiii_i_i_iii_!i iiHiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiii :::::::::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::

POWER DISTRIBUTION

ADAPTER POWERSUPPLY RELAY PANEL ......... AMMETERS .................................................. VOLT METER ................................................ POWER SYSTEM MONITOR ...................... _' FUEL CELL BATTERIES .................................... REACTANT SUPPLY SYSTEM ..........................
5-1

5- 24 ; .... 5-24 5-25 5-33

ii!!!ii!ii!ilH!iiHiiiii!il ,,,., .................. ,,,
,,,,, ........... ................ ,,,.., ,,,,,.,.., ....

"_i'"'-_'.:--i_'i"_'.:i:

SEDR 300

s/c ,I _,c 2A_
CNIL pWR CNTL _ X OVE_

s/c++&9
SECTION I S_CIION 2

+° °"°+"" ++ '
.......

Pw_

IB ''"_+_-+++-'+ +°_
@ @

.
-T

J l i_+++i
DETA".A|

7-=7,
,.._r'_:!

,

lj__,+, :'+ " +'
....

_,:+:,:,_ ,,:,,_ '<,°;,

+ +, .............. '_++I...... ;,+,,,,i +-+,,,+.4 _. ,:+,,,+.:
I I

j'+ L. '++" !+,++,
I
'
_SQUIBSILVER

+ : .'o ,_o+,,m,+/,,_, ...... . _,_
:'-+_;'--; ......................... _4AIN BATTERIES ::........... ".--'| SQU_B BATTE_I+S ..L i i, ..... _.]_..:_

••

i 2+: '°F_' I

+ +i3
ii/mm DETAIL G ERe

..... ;; + + _+':' .. ? J_+%_
DETeU= I

I-] I-]
MAIN ZINC ii in SILVER BATTERIES iRenE

:::][_,£ .+:.+-, ......,,......++I " ....
J I

, ,
I

+,@o!,@+@',@@+@oi,@ .............. I _" I +,.,,,+ ............. I+ +," "+" It£_'-++; " NIl:'8";

Im

DETAIL E J im

_

i

n

SEE DETAIL D-

SEE DETAIL A FUEL CELL

[s/c a & _ (SHO_TJ

__KI
UMBILICAL CONNECTION

/r--FUEl CELL

,A.B+BEC.O

-ADAPTER pOWER SUPPLYRELAY PANEL

_

i_/_

RANGE CONFIG

• 0 2 TAqK

CONNECTION

Figure 5-1 Electrical

Power System Installation
5-2 . +:

(S/C 5,Sand 9)

$|DIt 300

PROJECT_GEMINI

SECTION V

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION

The Electrical Power System for the Gemini Spacecraft basically consists of two fuel cell battery sections, four silver-zlnc maln batteries and three silver-

zlnc squib batteries (spacecraft 6 uses three 400 ampere/hour sliver-zinc batteries in lleu of the fuel cell batteries). system Is provided for the spacecraft. inverters No primary ac electrical power ac power obtain thls systems. See Figure

Devices requiring

power from self-contalned 5-1 for spacecraft

within the individual

5, 8 and 9 configuration,

Figure 5-2 for spacecraft lO, ll 6 configuration.

and 12 configuration,

and Figure 5-3 for spacecraft

F _

The Electrical Power System includes switches, circuit breakers, relay panels, ammeters, a voltmeter and telelights which provide control, distribution and monitoring for the system. Also included as an Electrical Power System subsystem Is

the Reactant Supply System (RSS) which provides storage and control of the reactants (hydrogen and Oxygen) used for fuel cell battery operation (not applicable to spacecraft 6). Provisions are made for utilizing external power and remote

monitoring of the spacecraft power buses during ground tests and pre-launch operations.

The two fuel cell battery sections and four main batteries provide dc power to the spacecraft main power bus (on spacecraft 6, the three adapter module batteries and the four main batteries provide dc power to the main bus). The squib

batteries provide dc power to the common control bus and the two Orbital Attitude Maneuvering System (O_MS) squib buses. dc power to the Boost-Insert-Abort The OAN_ squib buses in turn distribute

(BIA), retrograde, landing and agena squib

5-3

.f-_-_

SEDR 300

__

PROJECT

GEMINI

5-4

_@
,::_; " 2;2- UR-TW, i' '

SEDR PROJECT3OOGEMINI

__

,.............. _...............
@

i_ : ;_-'_;:£T ] ";__T

_,

I,,I,.I._12Ai2°12c
I-I-i-i-i

@ I_ l<_+!,,@J.@J,,@[ I

_...i!!ii.i_

5-8

SEDR 300

MINI
buses via the individual squib bus arming switches. spacecraft 5 and 8 thru 12 configuration configuration Electrical Power System See Figure 5-4 for

and Figure 5-5 for spacecraft 6

schematics.

The fuel cell battery sections, along with the required RSS components, are installed in the RSS/fuel cell module (Figure 5-6, 5-7 and 5-8) which is located in the spacecraft equipment adapter section (on spacecraft 6, three silver-zinc batteries are installed in the adapter battery module (Figure 5-9) which is located in the spacecraft equipment adapter section.) teries are installed in the right cabin equipment bay. The main and squib bat-

The fuel cell SECTION i and SECTION 2 POWER (PWR and CNTL switches on spacecraft 5 and 6), PURGE, X-OVER and stack control switches (IA through 2C) are located on the right instrument panel. The fuel cell _ and CNTL switches are used to The PURGE and X-OVER switches

control the battery module power on spacecraft 6. are inoperative on spacecraft 6.

On spacecraft 5 and 6, a dual-vertical-readout ammeter is located on the right instrument panel. ing of: On spacecraft 5 and 8 through 12, a power system monitor consisthree dual-vertical-readout ammeters and an

a delta pressure

indicator,

ac/dc voltmeter, with associated selector switches, is located on the right instrument panel.

On spacecraft 5, two FCAP indicator lamps are located on the right instrument panel. On spacecraft 6, a conventional voltmeter and _mmeter with associated

selector switches are located on the right instrument panel.

The MAINBAT_ERIES

switches, SQUIB BATS_RIES switches, BUS TIE switches, agena

5-6

• _ :

SEDR 300 -

'

:

:],i

BUS ARM switch, FUEL CET.T, CONT, FCAP (FC PANE5 on spacecraft 5 and 6) and FC 02 and H2 (CRYO 02 and H2 on spacecraft 1% Ii and 12) regulator and heater The FC

circuit breakers are !locatedon the right switch/circuit breaker panel.

02 and H2 regulator emd heater circuit breakers are inoperative on spacecraft 6. The squib bus arming switches are located on the left switch/circuit breaker panel.

The BTRY P_R sequenc_ light, FCAP telelights, 02 and _

heater switches, 02/H2

quantity indicator (integral with Environmental Control system (ECS) 02 indicator) and selector switch are located on the center instrument panel. The 02 and H2

heater switches, quantity indicator and selector switch are identified as CRYO switches and indicator on spacecraft lO, Ii, and 12.

_"

On spacecraft 8 and 9, an 02 CROSS-FEED switch is also located on the center instrument panel. H2 TANK VAC. On spacecraft 1% ll and 12, this switch is identified as

The power system relay panel, power distribution relay panel and

adapter power supply relay panel are located in the left equipment area of the cabin.

SYSteM

OPR"RATION

PRE-LAUNCH In order to conserve spacecraft battery power, external electrical power is utilized during the pre-launch phase of the mission. External power is supplied to

the spacecraft common control, main and squib power buses through umbilical cables 2onnected to the re-entry module and equipment adapter section umbilical receptacles. The external power source is provided by Aerospace Ground Equipment

(4).

5-7

s _--,

SEDR 300

NO rE

CO==OL

FC_?T,__.

I_%lL¥_ I
MAIN

I

J _

_

_

BUS

,A oON STACK
COST SW Clil _ _:_:_ OFF l J

I

SR

I
AP LIGHTS

.... iiii_ oON _II (s/c _i:_i:iiiiiiiiiiiii_:: 5)

========================= I

I I

--

--

Jl I

STACKpWRAPTo CELLTO CELL RLYswITCHEsFUELIB 51_ FUEL (S/C AP LIGHTS

APSW,TCHES

(s/c 8 &UP)

O ON

O_

'
SHUNT

t,r
_sR
AMP METERS _SR

STACK l C

SHUNTS ARE

"_"_

J ..--1

_OwE _ ' _1_,
_,'O%%R _-ll,
2A STACK OFF I I

'

o
ON

_
- I • _

I_J._STACK 2A• I
PWRRLY I

i i_ _STACK _ OFF CONT SW _
.s/cs&uP.:::_ii::!!!iii!i!L N

, _ -7 IT'-,L-_ ,-)1¼1 I 1_;_"_(,7=. I I STACK / 2A _ I I ! JI I _ I I I_'_S_RL¥I I =" 1.4-.4.,I,_ bl_l I L
i -

,,

,,

,r

• I' ,

q"--.J

_-_ii_iiiiili_i_!_ -- --- J ............................... r"

"-1 I,

SUPPLY

.:_PURGE =:=: .... AMMETER (S/C 5) ]A 2B 2C

: COST

ICB

_z

....._(

L__Ji

_,,,_,
SW_

iiii _ SECT _
::" POWER

(S/C8 & uP)
ilSECT 2 SRRLy

iI

Figure 5-4 Schematic-Electrical

Power System S/C 5and 8 thru 12 (Sheet 1 of 2) 5-8

,--,._T_v

k
,'_' "': I TO VOLTMETER

P.oJ.cr oE.,.,
u.-BLOCKHOUSE AGE MAIN 8US
(TO SEQ SYSTEM J

SEO. 3oo

f_"

[_.

_'l_I_I_ ATI_R_ES d_2 d. _o_ _ MA_._ _' o_,

MAIN BATTERIES SWITCHES O

_;_!_i_#_
__

MAIN

1 --_ PWR,NDRLY
BATTER SEC RELAY FROM FUEL

" " AGESQU,B AGE_O,. _O_.V_;O. .._iiiiiii!i!_!Ni_i :;if
u

_ii
OFF TEST

BUS'_BUS',
DISARM (

AGE SQUIB ARMING

| l

DIS-_ ARM,

2C _.:.x_.> ._ S VOLTMETER SELSW IA _ , REFERTO IGS SWITCH FUNCTION LOGIC

TEST

TEST SW

_ BUS

BT

SI

C

CONTROL BUS

TO THE COMMON AND OAMS SQUIB CONTROL BUSES. NOTE EXTERI_[AL POWER APPLIED TO SQUIB BUSESWITH SQUIB BATTERY SWITCHES NO. 1 AND NO. MAIN 2 IN UMB POSITION.

#I SQUIB BUS :

BATTERIES SWITCHES ON:

i

_0_111_ _ . PWR _ _

.================================ JETT #2 MAIN BATTERY POWER APPLIED " IRETRO TO MAIN BUS AND BTRY. PWR dEl_ TELELIGHT ILLUMINATED GREEN,

DO

e_l

R_TRO

_ BIA #1 SAFE _ _1_10 #I J _ J

SECTION

I AND

SECTION 2

POWER SWITCHES (SECT 1 AND SECT 2 PWRAND CNTL. SWITCHES ON S/C 5)ON:

H2LO 2 SUPPLY AND H20 SHUTOFF VALVES ENERGIZED TO OPEN POSITION.

WITH SECTION POWER SWITCHES /_2 SQUIB BUS ARMING RELAY " _lllmO POSITION: (S/C 8 & UP) IN WARMUP THE H2/O VALVES ARE ENERGIZED SHUTOFF 2 SUPPLY AND H20

1
" o,,_j2o,,,_!C_!B
SQU,, BAT,EmE$ _" ' _. TO AGENA CIRCUITS OAMS SQUIB BUS #2 , _ I _ i I ] I

_._1o4
3 J

TOOPEN POSmON. BE (STACK
SHUTOFF VALVES CANNOT ENERGIZED.) POWER RELAYS AND (IA THRU oN: 2C) STACK H2

,o"_o_., CONTROL STACK SW.C.ES
)._._::_._-. __ j JE_i_ i::_A S_ |ii_ _ STACK It 2 SHUTOFF VALVES STACK POWER OPEN ENERGIZED ENERGIZED TO RELAYS POSITION, CONNECTING FUEL TO LATCH POSITION, CELL STACKS TO MAIN BUS.

RETRO ROCKET SQUIB J S_Fe SI

Figure

5-4 Schematic-Electrical

Power 5-9

System

S/C 5 and 8 thru 12 (Sheet

2 of 2)

s

y_

SEDR 300

SECt1 SECtl SECI2 SECT_

_INa_TTF_I_

/ CONTROL

COMMON

_

TO LOAOS

":_::ii!i;_iii_ili)M:::i:i_::!ii_i?:ii?:i_i!i:ii_::ii::_ ....

OFF

+ MI

B_S

''_ j

0

AG-ZN

S_!!ER

I
g" "--"

_

I

'
÷

+ AC_v_ZN

ADAPTER BATTERY I I MODULE

._/_

J

TEST

AG-ZN -M3

,'
ON BUS TIE El UMBO"

.-R

-

UMBO :::::::::::::::::::::: :x::::::::::

SECTION AMMETERS BUS TIE #2 OFF M1 SHUNT M2 SHUNT --OFF UMB 0 . SWITCHES :::::::::::::::: :*:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::':: : 0 _I

ON .... @ @o,,_
OFF SQUI_ BA'_TERIES

J
,\

| :::::::: :::::::

Figure

5-5

Sehematie-Nleetrieal

Power

System

(Spaeeeraf_

6)

(Sheet

1 of

2)

5-10

_

SEDR 300

,f_

i!!_

BATTERY I'EST AMMETER

VOLTMETER

iiiii

1
AGE SQUIB

BLOCKHOUSE ...
AGE _,_BUB
l

ill

,
i
I
ON OFF

i',i iilii
ill

2B 2C

iii

I

_2A

I Ic
CO_.S

--

B 'II'--_, I
|

CIRCUITS

TO

iii
iiiii _ SWITCHES (TEST

_gT BT

AGE SQUIB

AGENCROoML_OuN SQUIB

AGE
#l DIS- ( ARM

iiiii ill i!ii

iiiii
ill
ii ill ill ii! iiiii ii::ii I. iili iiiii ii:_i 2. iiiiii ii i!iii iiili 3. !!i

TO T -5 |

T

T

_lO

MAIN

BAITERY

#2

A_,NG
SWITCH ARM

R_-_Y

POWER RELAY ,ND,_'TOR

ON

ON

DISARM

_"

SQUIB BATTERIES SWITCHES ON: SQUIB BATTERY I_)WER APPLIED TO THE COMMON CONTROL AND DAMS SQUIB BUSES MAIN BATTERIES SWITCHES ON: MAIN BATTERY POWER APPLIED TO MAIN BUS AND BTRY. PWRTELELIGHT ILLUMINATED GREEN. FUEL CELL CNTL. } AND CNTL. 2 CIRCUIT BRF_KERS ENGAGED, SECTION II AND SECTION R2 PWR AND CNTL. SWITCHES ON, AND STACK CONTROL SWITCHES STACK POWER RELAYS ENERGIZED TO LATCH POSITION BATTERIES (At B, C) POWER APPLIED TO THE MAIN BUS. AND ADAPTER MODULE

i
I I

l

SWITCHOB,T'ON: F LOGIC iii 'ATHRU2CDE=ESSBD TOPUNCTION ON _
iiii iii

iiiiiiiiliiiii iiiiiiiiiiiliiii

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii_ililii

ii iiili iii-iJi iiliiiiiiii iiiiiiiil iiiiiill iiiiiii iiiilii i

f

O_,

A

#1 SQUIB BUS

"_==iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

'

C_SAFE

RETRO JETT '1

|

L_ RELAY.

ARMING

,--_,_S

1+ 'Ai_'i'ii + ....... RE%FR 0:!_ Hiiii'iHi'iiii'i!=" A_. _

........... i_iii'ii ETRO JETT R i_O_"_

RETRO JETT #2

I..1" w.-_.

J I

I I #1

I I

I #2 I
#2 SQUIB BUS BIA C_O _ SAFE !1 TO RETRO

I

I

J

--

13

I

k

_Y

p,

OAMBSQU,B
BUS _2

#4

I il)RCW_KEI SQUIBS

Figure

5- 5 Schematic-Electrical

Power 5-11

System

(Spacecraft

6) (Sheet

2 of 2)

-_-_

SEDR 300

FUELCELLBATTERY SECTIONS-

/FUEL CELL MODULE STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY (REF)

_LATCH_YPE SHUTOFF VALVES

TANK

TANK

PRESSURE TRANSD

PRESSURE

TEMP SENSOR

QUANTITY

SENSOR

ESSURESWITCH QUANTITY CONTROL INDICATOR

DC-AC

iNVERTERS QUANTITY CONTROL QUANTITY SEN SOR PRESSURETRANSDUCER _'_"

Figure

5-6

RSS/Fuel

Cell Module 5-12

(S/C

5)

_"

j/

" • iNVERTER

!
i 02 FILL VENT

i i

iNDICATOR

CONTROL

_ PRESSURE REGULATOR AND RELIEF VALVE TANK

REGULATOR AND RELIEF VALVE TANK

CONTROL

SWITCH pFILL VENT VALVE

CONNECTIONS

CONNECTOR

TEMPERATURE CONNECTION .... PRESSURECONTROL HEAT ,_" DUAL SO LENO ID -_ 2.22 CO N NE CTIO N ' SENSOR CONNECTIONS SWIT( -L ...... CONNECTION

Figure

5-7

RSS/Fuel

Cell 5-13

Module

(S/C

8 & 9)

__-_

SEDR 300

FUEL CELL BATTERY

AND RELIEF VALVES

STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY (REF)

TANK

SHUTOFF VALVE

0 2 FILL AND VENT 0 2 TANK HEATER CONNECTION PRESSURETRANSDUCER CONNECTION 42O TANK (REF) , TANK

0 TEMP SENSOR C(_NNEC TION

QUANTITY SENSOR CONNECTIONS

HEAT EXCHANGERS

DC-AC INVERTER H 2 FILL AND VENT VALVES CONNECTION QUANTITY SENSOR CONNECTIONS ESSURESWITCH TEMP SENSOR CONNECTION PRESSURETRANSDUCER' :_

QUANTITY CONTROL

INDICATOR

Figure 5-8 RSS/Fuel CellModule (S/C I0,Ii & 12) 5-14

_._.

SEDR 300

___j

©

JLE STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY (REF)

SILVER ZINC (A, B, AND C)

Figure

5-9

Adapter

Battery 5-15

Module

(S/C

6)

_.

SEOR 300

\


switches i and 2 must be placed in the umbilical squib buses. monitoring (UMB) position Remote control

SQUIB _S

in order to apply of the spacecraft craft power ca/ cables. buses

external

power to the spacecraft relays,

squib bus arming

and remote

of the spaceumbili-

is also accomplished

through

the re-entry

_nd adapter

Prior

to launch,

a_1 MAIN

BATJ_RIES switches

and SQUIB

BATTERIES

switches,

SECTION

POWER

switches switches dancy

(SECT PWR and CNTL (IA through

on spacecraft

5 and 6) and stack to insure _v_w,lm

control redun-

2C) are set to the ON position Power System during

of the Electrical

the launch phase cell batteries launch

of the mission. in cell

On spacecraft sufficient batteries

5 and 8 through

12, the fuel to insure

are activated of the fuel

time prior and RSS.

to launch,

readiness

The common

control

bus and OA_S squib buses in sufficient time prior

are switched to launch,

from external to verify

power

to

the squib batteries battery circuits.

the squib the BOOST-

The BIA buses are armed prior

to launch

by setting

INSERT ARM/SAFE

switch to ARM position.

The re-entry spacecraft

and equipment

adapter

section Normally, A backup

umbilicals umbilical method

are disconnected separation

from the

Just prior to lift-off. solenoid device.

is accomplished is also provided

by an electrical by a lanyard vehlcle.

of separation by movement

initiated

mechanism

which

is actuated

of the launch

ORBIT From launch time until booster separation and insertion into orbit, both the fuel _,

5-16

PROJEC-'G'EMINI
DO. SEDR300

cell battery batteries separation position

sections

(module

batteries

on spacecraft

6) and the four main bus. After booster in the disarm OFF the

are connected

in parallel the MAIN

to the main power BAT_EPS_S power.

is accomplished, to conserve

switches Also

are placed will

the main

battery

the pilots switch

BIA squib buses by setting

the BOOST-INSERT

ARM/SAFE

to SAFE.

In the event of an abort, are not armed prior Sequential ing switches System. which

all squib buses are armed

required

for the abort relays

function t which by the bus arm-

to launch,

via the abort bypass

controlled squib

These relays normally

effectively buses.

the applicable

arm these

The SQUIB BATSERIES mission until

switches

remain

in the ON position All three squib

throughout batteries fault buses

the entire are connected Squib

landing control

is accomplished. bus through diodes

to the common batteries

for individual squib

protection.

i and 2 are connected relays.

to the two 0_S

via the de-energized

squib bus arming

The 02 CROSS-FEED

switch

(spacecraft

8 and 9) re_ins

in the CLOSED position This switch controls the ECS 02 the

except in the event of a loss of RSS 02 tank pressure. 02 crossfeed supply valve, which provides the capability

of connecting

to the fuel cell battery

sections.

(Refer to Figure

5-14).

The H 2 TANK VAC switch venting outside technic the area between vacuum cutter

(spacecraft the inner This

lO, II and 12) provides and outer wall when

the capability

of

of the RSS H 2 supply initiates

tank to a pyroremains

in space. device

switch, this

in VENT position,

to perform

function.

The H2 TANK VAC switch

in the SAFE position

until the pilots

elect to perform this function.

5-17

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI

SEDR 300

The BUS TIE switches remain in the OFF position unless the necessity arises where the pilots must use main bus power to fire the squibs. vide a method of connecting the main bus to the OA_ buses. ments. The BUS TIE switches pro-

squib and common control

The agena BUS ARM switch will be used according to the mission require-

On spacecraft 5 and 8 through 12, a small percentage of the reactant gases must be purged from the fuel cell batteries periodically to insure that the impurities contained in the feed gases do not restrict reactant flow to the cells and to remove any accumulation of product water in the gas lines. This purging function The

is performed by the pilots manually actuating the 02 and H2 PURGE switches.

pilots m_y increase the flow of gases to the fuel cell sections for more effective purging by setting the X-0VER switch to ON position. _'"

HE-ENTRY At 256 seconds before retrograde time (TR-256) the pilots will arm the retrograde squib buses by setting the RETRO PWR ARM/SAFE switch and the individual RETRO ROCKET SQUIBS No. l, 2, B or 4 ARM/SAFE switches to ARM position. grade rockets are used according to the mission requirements. The retro-

The MAIN BATTERIES switches must be returned to the ON position at _R-256 seconds to insure continuity of main bus power at the time of separation of the equipment adapter section# containing the RSS/fuel cell module (battery module on spacecraft 6), fr_ function. the spacecraft. There is no automatic switching provided for this

The stack control switches (IA through 2C) and the SECTION 1 and SECTION 2 POWER switches (SECT i and SECT 2 PWR and CNTL switches on spacecraft 5 and 6) are

--_

5-18

SEDR 300

_

PROJEC--T

GEMINI

set to OFF position after the main batteries are properly connected to the main bus.

After retrograde

rocket firing has been accomplished,

the pilots will set the

RETRO JETT ARM/SAFE switch to ARM.

This switch provides a method of arming the

JETT RETRO switch (center instrument panel), and is effectively an interlock to prevent inadvertent retrograde rockets. Jettisoning of the retrograde section prior to firing of the

After the equipment adapter and retrograde sections are separated from the spacecraft, the pilots will disarm the retrograde squib buses by setting the RETRO PWR ARM/SAFE switch, HEEO switches to SAFE position. JETT AR_SAFE switch and HETRO ROCEET SQUIBS AR_SAFE

At this time, the landing squib buses are armed by

setting the LANDING ARM/SAFE switch to ARM position.

After landing is accomplished, the pilots will disarm the landing squib buses by returning the LANDING ARM/SAFE switch to SAFE. At this time, power will be switches 1 and 2 to

removed from the OAM3 squib buses by setting SQUIB _IES to OFF position. All unnecessary electrical

equipment will be deactivated

conserve the remaining spacecraft batteries for recovery equipment operation. SQUIB BATTERIES switch 1 and the MAIN BATTERIES switches will remain in the

ON position to power the main and control buses throughout the recovery phase of the mission.

MONITOR AND DISPLAY Throughout the mission, visual displays of bus voltage and cub=rentare provided by the system voltmeter and _mmeters. On spacecraft 5 and 8 through 12, a

5-19

SEDR 300

INI
power system monitor_ which consists of a delta pressure indicator, three dual

_-.,eters and an ac/dc voltmeter

is utilized.

The a_eters meter, used

monitor

individual with

fuel

cell stack

current

(IA through

2C).

The volt-

in conjunction co_on

a selector

switch,

displays

individual

fuel cell Inertial

stack voltage, Guidance System

control

bus voltage, output main

GAMH squib bus i and 2 voltage, (spacecraft voltage MAIN with _IES 8 through

(IGS) inverter and individual (BT) position

voltage battery

12 only), switch

main bus voltage in Battery position. Test

the selector switch

and a particular

in _ST

The delta pressure visual display

indicator,

in conjunction

with a selector differential

switch, provides pressure in the

a ___

of 02 versus H 2 and 02 versus H20 sections. In the event

fuel Cell battery the prescribed

that the differential the fuel

pressure

exceeds

limits,

the pilots

must evaluate

cell battery

performance, sec-

and if a _Ifunction tion by setting position.

exists,

shut down the malfunctioning fuel cell power and stack

fuel cell battery control switches 5.

the applicable

to OFF

The delta pressure

indicator

is inoperative

on spacecraft

An out of tolerance delta pressure illumir_ted cator exists. _ps

delta pressure

indication

is also provided inatrument

by the fuel cell The lights are two FCAP indi-

(FCAP) telelights

on the center exists. panel

panel. 5 only,

red when a malfunction on the right instrument

On spacecraft are illuminated

red when a malfunction

The reactant

(02 and _)

supply

quantities

are displayed

on the ECS 02 quantity _"

indicator(centerinstrument panel) when the associatedselectorswitch is set to FC 02 or FC H2 positions. On spacecraft lO, II and 12, this indicator

5-2o

SEDR 300

MINI
and switch are identified as CRY0 02 and H2.

The BTRY I_R sequence light, located on the center instrument panel, is illuminated amber at TR-256 seconds during the mission by action of the TR- 5 relay in the power system relay panel. the MAIN BATTERIES This informs the pilots that they must return

switches to ON position to insure continuity of main bus power of the equipment adapter section containing the

due to the impending separation

adapter power supply (fuel cell battery sections on spacecraft 12 and silver-zinc batteries on spacecraft 6).

5 and 8 through

With all main batteries properly green.

connected to the main bus, the BTRY PWR sequence light is illuminated

On spacecraft ,_

5 and 6 the dual-vertical-readout

section ammeter provides

a

display of section i and 2 main bus current. the adapter power

Section i includes 50 percent of or silver-zlnc batteries Section 2 includes 50 percent

supply current (fuel cell batteries

as applicable) plus main batteries 1 and 2 current.

of the adapter power supply current plus main batteries 3 and 4 current.

The stack ammeter (used for battery test ammeter on spacecraft 6) with selector switch in 1A, IB, 1C or 2A, 2B, 2C positions, battery current. individual main displays 50 percent of adapter module the ammeter displays switch is

With the selector switch in BT position, battery test current as the appropriate

MAIN BATIERIES

set to TEST position.

Displays of common control bus voltage, main bus voltage, OAMS squib bus voltage, and adapter module battery voltage is provided selector switch. f-_ Individual by the system voltmeter (with the particular and battery

main battery voltage

removed from the main bus) is monitored with the voltmeter selector switch in BT position and the applicable MAIN BATTERIES switch in TEST position.

5-21

PRO,JECT

GEMINI
_.___

SEDR300

The FCAP telellghts and reactant quantity indications are not operative on spacecraft 6.

SYSTEMS

UNITS BATTERIES The The

SILVER-ZINC

The four main batteries are 45 ampere/hour, 16 cell, silver-zinc batteries. three squib batteries are 15 ampere/hour, 16 cell, silver-zinc batteries.

squib batteries are special high-discharge-rate batteries which will maintain a terminal voltage of 18 volts for one second under a 75 ampere load.

On spacecraft 6, three 400 ampere/hour, 16 cell, silver-zlnc batteries are installed in the adapter battery module. fuel cell batteries. These batteries are used in lleu of

_11 of the silver-zlnc batteries have an open circuit

terminal voltage of 28.8 to 29.9 volts DC.

The main and squib battery cases are made of titanium.

The approximate activated The

(wet) weight for each squib battery is 8 lbs and each main battery 17 lbs.

adapter module battery cases (spacecraft 6) are constructed of magnesium and the approximate wet weight of each battery is 118 lbs.

The battery electrolyte consists of a 40 percent solution of reagent grade potassium hydroxide and distilled water. The main and squib batteries have a vent

valve in each cell designed to prevent electrolyte loss and will vent the cell to atmospheric pressure in the event a pressure in excess of 40 psig builds up within the cell.

All of the silver-zlnc batteries are equipped with relief valves which maintain a tolerable interior to exterior differential pressure in the battery cases. batteries are capable of operating in any attitude in a weightless state. 5-22 The Prior

PROJECT
____.

GEMINI

SEDR 300

to installation into the spacecraft, the batteries are activated and sealed at sea level pressure. temperature. All of the batteries are coldplate mounted to control battery

P_4_R SYS_M

RELAY PANEL

The power system relay panel contains relays necessary for controlling and sequencing power system functions. The panel contains the control relays for the fuel cell

battery system and RSS, main battery power sequence light relay, TR- 5 relay and the squib bus arming relays.

POWER DISTRIBUTION RELAY PANEL The power distribution relay panel

/ contains the relays required for arming the These relays are controlled by

retrograde squib buses in the event of an abort. the Sequential System.

ADAPTER POWER SUPPLY RELAY PANEL The adapter power supply relay panel contains relays necessary for control11 ng

adapter module power to the main power bus.

The relay panel contains the stack main bus. (On

power relays which connect the individual fuel cell stacks tothe

spacecraft 6 the stack power relays connect the adapter module batteries to the main bus. ) The panel also contains diodes used for reverse current protection

between the adapter power supply and the spacecraft main power bus.

AMMEteRS The main bus section _mmeter (spacecraft 5 and 6) is a dual-edge-readout vertical

reading meter having a 0-50 ampere range with a total accuracy of two percent. /4 The NO. i scale displays main batteries i and 2 and 50 percent of the adapter power supply current. The NO. 2 scale displays main batteries 3 and 4 _-d 50

5-23

k

,.
of the adapter

PROJECT
power supply

sEo 3oo
GEMINI
The ammeter is ground. sh_t co_ected ammeter on spacecraft 6) with

percent

current.

between the

main power bus and spacecraft

The fuel

cell

stack

_eter

(used as a battery

associated selector switch, provides a display of individual main battery test current with the selector in BT position and a particular MAIN BATIERIES switch in _EST position. With the selector switch in IA, IB, IC or 2A, 2B, 2C positions,

the ammeter displays 50 percent of the applicable adapter module battery current. The meter has a 0-20 ampere scale.

VOLTME_IER On spacecraft 6 the voltmeter, used in conjunction with a selector switch, displays main bus, common control bus and squib bus voltage. Individual main battery

voltage may be monitored with the voltmeter selector switch set to BT position and a particular MAIN BATTERIES switch set to _EST position. The voltmeter displays

applicable adapter module batteries (A, B and C) voltage when the selector switch is set to 1A, IB, 1C or 2A, 2B, 2C positions. POWER SYSteM MONITOR The power system monitor reading indicators; ac/dc voltmeter. (not applicable on spacecraft 6) consists of five vertical indicator, three dual-readout smmeters and an The voltmeter has a 0-50 vdc range.

a delta pressure

The delta pressure indicator (not operative on spacecraft 5) and

voltmeter are used in conjunction with selector switches located just below on the instrument panel.

The _mmeters provide a display of individual fuel cell stack (1A through 2C) current (reading must be multiplied by 0.8 on spacecraft 5). the selector switch in appropriate position, The voltmeter, with fuel cell stack ....

displays individual

5-24

SEDR300

voltage, main bus, squib bus and common control bus voltage, individual main battery voltage (with a particular MAIN BATTERIES switch in _EST position) and IGS inverter output voltage with the selector switch in AC position. on the selector switch Is inoperative on spacecraft 5. ac volt range and an 18-33 dc volt range. The AC position

The voltmeter has a 20-33

The delta pressure indicator has a 0-1.5 psi range with the selector switch in either H2 position and a 0-6 psi range with the selector switch in either H20 position. This indicator displays 02 versus H2 differential pressure and 02 pressure for each fuel cell battery section.

\

versus H20 differential FUEL CELL BAT_"RTR.S Construction

The fuel cell batteries used in the Gemini Spacecraft are of the solid ionexchange membrane type using hydrogen (H2) for fuel and oxygen (02) for an oxidizer. The fuel cell battery system is comprised of two separate sections which Each section is made up of three

are sealed in air tight pressure containers.

interconnected fuel cell stacks with plumbing for transferring hydrogen, oxygen and product water. (See Figure 5-10).

Each fuel cell stack consists of 32 individual fuel cells.

Each basic fuel cell

is made up of two catalytic electrodes separated by a solid type electrolyte in laminated form. (See Figure 5-11).

The electrolyte is composed of a sulfonated styrene polymer (plastic) approximately 0.i0 inches thick. _ Thin films of platinum catalyst, applied to both sides of the

electrolyte, act as electrodes and support ionization of hydrogen on the anode side of the cell and oxidation on the cathode side of the cell.

5-25

Figure

5-10 Fuel Cell Battery Section 5-26

PROJECT
/_ _.

GEMINI
SEDR300

A thin titanium screen, imbedded into the platinum catalytic electrode, reduces the internal resistance along the current flow path from the electrode to the current collector and adds strength to the solid electrolyte.

On the hydrogen side of the fuel cell, a current collector is attached by means of a glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy frame which assures a tight seal around the edges of the cell, forming a closed chamber. Ribs in the collector are in contact with

the catalytic electrode on the fuel cell, providing a path for current flow.

The hydrogen fuel is admitted through an inlet tube in the frame of the current collector and enters each gas channel between the collector ribs by way of a series of slots in the tube. Another tube provides a purge outlet,
making

it

possible to flush accumulated inert gases from the cell. is made of approximately 0.003 inch thick titanium.

The collector plate

On the oxygen side of the cell, a current collector of the same configuration and material as the hydrogen side collector is attached. Its ribs, located at right

angles to those of the other collector, provide structural support to the electrolyte-electrode structure.

A Dacron cloth wick, attached between the ribs, carries away the product water through capillary action, by way of a termination bar on one side of the assembly. Oxygen is admitted freely to this side of the fuel cell from the oxygen filled area of the section container.

The cell cooling system consists of two separate tubes bonded in the cavity formed by the construction of the oxygen side current collector and the back side of the hydrogen current collector. Each tube passes through six of the collector ribs The cooling of

and has the cooling capacity to maintain operating temperature.

5-27

SEDR 300

the oxygen current collector,

which holds the product water transport

wicks

provides the coldplate for water condensation

from the warmer oxygen electrode.

The individual fUel cell assemblies are arranged in series to form a stack as shown in Figure 5-12. When assembling the cells into a stack, the ribs of the

oxygen side current collector contact the solid electrolyte of the fuel cell assembly. Titanium terminal plates are installed on the ends of the two outside End plates, which

cells to which connections are made for the external circuit. are honey-comb structures of epoxy-glass

%_minate 0.5 inch thick, are installed

on the outside of the terminal plates.

Stainless

steel insulated tie rods hold the stack together and maintain a compresThis assures proper contact of The fuel cell

sion load across the area of each cell assembly.

the solid electrolyte with the ribs of each current collector. stacks are packaged in a pressure tight container,

together with the necessary

reactant and coolant ducts and manifolds, required electrical

water separator for each stack, and wiring.

power and instrumentation

The hydrogen inlet line, hydrogen purge llne, and the two coolant lines for each cell lead from their respective common manifolds running the length of the stack. cell The

The manifolds are made of an insulating plastic material and the individual connections are potted in place after assembly to provide a leak-tight seal.

oxygen sides of the cells are open to the oxygen environment surrounding the fuel cell assemblies within the container.

An accessory pad is mounted on the outside of the fuel cell section container.

It .... _

includes the gas inlet and outlet fittings, purge and shutoff valves, water valve and electrical connectors. Structurally, the container is a titanium pressure

5-28

/-_
% -

SEDR 300

MEMBRANE 0 2 ELECTRODE

H2 ELECTROOE H2 FEED TUBE FRAME

0 2 CURRENT (ELECTROLYTE) --

;_[ '

H2 CURRENT COLII!CTOR

COLLECTOR _

(
cOOLANT,. TUBES _

¢
PROD. H2O REMOVA_/_ WICKS

GE TUBE

Figure

5-11

Basic

Fuel Cell Assembly

OOLANT /_ COOLANT IN

OUT

MANIFOLD

INLET

0 2

CELL Wl,

I TERMINAL PLATE

•H 2 FEED TUBES

EXCHANGE MEMBib_NL/ ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY

JTACK TIE ROD

(-) TERMINAL PLATE

F _

WATER SEPARATOR BASIN HYDROGEN PURGE MANIFOLD

Figure

5-12 Fuel Cell Stack 5-29

Assembly

SEDR 300

PROJECT GEMINI
vessel consisting Within of a central cylinder with two end covers and two mounting cell stacks are mounted on fiberglassThese rails on the

brackets. impregnated

the container_

the fuel

epoxy rails by bolts which to the mounting

pass through sandwiched

the stack plates. between

are in turn bolted section container.

rings

the two flanges

The hydrogen hydrogen

_nlfolds

on each stack

within

a section

are parallel

fed with

a

shutoff

valve and check valve container

in the feed line to each stack. free volume reaches

Oxygen

is fed into the section contains battery

so that the entire 22.5 psia. isolated

of the container the fuel cell in the coolant line in "_'_,

oxygen at approxlmately sections by two separate will

The coolant

lines.

Any malfunction function

line in one section the other section.

not affect

the cooling

of the coolant

Each

stack in the section line coming

has its own water-oxygen out of the section storage pressure

separators

which

are manifolded oxygen

into a single coolant, container

container. line

All hydrogen,

electrical

and water

connections

at the section pad.

are fastened

to standard

bulkhead

fittings

on the accessory

After

the stacks

are completely unicellular

assembled

within

the container, foaming

all void

spaces

are filled with dampening, possible of each entering

foam.

The purpose

of this

is for vibration to prevent

accoustical

noise deadening

and minimizing

free gas volume

fire propagation. stack to manifold areas around

Thin plastic oxygen

covers are placed

over the top and bottom from

to the stack and to keep the foam material manifolds and oxygen water separator.

the coo1_nt

.Operation The basic principle by which the fuel cell operates to produce electrical energy

5-30

PROd

EC'T

GEMINI
_.__

SEDR 300

and water,

is the controlled

oxidation

of hy&rogen.

This is accomplished On the hydrogen

through side of

the use of the solid electrolyte the fuel cell, hydrogen hydrogen resistance

ion-exchange

membrane.

gas disassociates The electrons

on the cata]_vtic electrode are provided a conducting

to provide path of low

ions and electrons. by the current

collector,

either

to an external

load or to the next

series-connected

fuel cell.

When fuel

a flow of electrons cell, the reaction

is allowed will

to do work

and move

to the oxygen

side of the ions flow side of

proceed.

By use and replacement, electrode

hydrogen

through

the solid electrolyte When electrons

to the catalytic are available hydrogen

on the oxygen oxygen

the fuel cell. and combines

on this

surface,

disassociates 5-13).

with the available

ions to fOrm water.

(See Figure

The co_gen condensing

current

collector water

provides

the means

of distributing

electrons

and

the product

on a surface

to be transported cell wicks

away by the wick are integrated into

system through

capillary

action.

The individual

one large wick which the water

routes

the water

to an absorbent

material

that separates

from the gas.

]By using the oxygen is obtained

outlet pressure

as a reference, removal

a small pressure

differential is suffi-

over the length

of the water water toward

system.

This pressure

cient to push the gas-free

the storage

reservoir.

Waste

heat, generated

during

the fuel cell battery provided by the

ogeration, spacecraft

is dissipated cooling

by

means of the recirculating In addition, _--" incoming fuel the total

coolant

system. the to the

coolant

flow provides

the function the reactant system

of preheating gases

reactant

gases. sections

In the spacecraft, by the RSS. This

are suFplied

cell battery

contains

the reactant

supply

5-31

__ .....

PROJECT

sEoR 300
GEMINI

ELECTRODES

-_,
2H2_ 4H + ÷ 4_ OVERALL 2H 2 + O2 _2H20

,IF
4_ + 4H++ O2._,,-- 2H20

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Figure

5-13 Principal 5-32

of Operation.

PMIN!
,_ S|DR300

tanks, control valves, heat exchangers2 temperature sensors and heaters required for management of the fuel cell reactants. REACTANT SUPPLY SYSTEM The RSS is essentially a subsystem for the fuel cell battery sections. The system (See Figure 5-14).

provides storage for the cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen, converts the reactants to gaseous form and controls the flow of the gases to the fuel cell battery sections. The RSS components are installed in the RSS/fUel cell module. ii and 12, the RSS 02 requirements On spacecraft i0,

are supplied from a central cryogenic 02 tank This vessel also supplies 02 to the ECS.

located in the RSS/fuel cell module.

See Figure 5-6, 5-7 and 5-8 for component installation and Figure 5-14 for a functional diagram.

Components Reactant Supply Tanks Two tanks are utilized to separately contain the cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen required for the operation of the fuel cell battery sections. The tanks are therm-

ally insulated to minimize heat conduction to the stored elements which would cause the homogeneous solution to revert to a mixture of gas and liquid. capable of maintaining temperatures. the stored liquids at supercritical pressures The tanks are and cryogenic

The approximate total amount of liquid stored in the hydrogen vessel is 22.25 ibs for long mission configurations and 5.80 ibs for short mission configurations.

The approximate total amount of liquid stored in the oxygen vessel is 180 ibs on spacecraft 5, 106 Ibs on spacecraft i0, ii and 12 (for ECS and RSS) and 46.0 Ibs _ on spacecraft8 and 9.

5-33

PROJECT GEMINI
_-,_ HYDROGEN •:.:.:-:<.:.:.:.:-:-:-:-:.OXYGEN J_u_o:x-,_g_VENT l TO T/M rJ J

SEO 3o0
AND QUANTITY INDICATOR J CRYO PRESSURE ]

J
VENT VALVE .4

LEGEND

_
I,_ ITCH '_ ; HEATER _ SWITCH SENSOR _ AUTO . J r

o21ooPP
--" QUANTITY PRESSU'R_AND_

m
I _

I

_
Ic_NTORLI_

I
_

,ND_CATOR _
ECS

TEMP.

rlYDROGEN

ON
• _ A°G.E.

HEA.TER

SECTION 1 POWER SWITCH

RESERVOIR I • VALV __.p, _

TEMP. SENSOR TO A.G.E.

!P,LL E
:
I I H 2 STANDBY VENT

TOECS,
ml.
COOL LOOP

HEAT EXCHANGER

[_OPP
CHECK VALVES HIGH PRESSURE LATCH-TYPE

sEc.
COOL LOOP

FROM FUEL _ CELL SECTIONS TO SUPPLY ' FROM FUEL . CELL SECTIONS /_ • P'RI, S_C_ COOL COOL / LOOPv 0 2 HIGH PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE NOT APPLICABLE LOOP TO S/C 10, II & 12 CHECK VALVES HEAT EXCHANGER LATCH-TYPE SHUTOFF

CROSSOVER VALVE LATCHTYPE

REF ECS S/C 10, 11 & 12 FILL VALV_ _

'
J

TEMP.
TO TELEM., & A.G .E. -02 QUANTITY

CONTAINER OXYGEN

_ _
RESERVOIR TO ECS

TE,.,P. _NSOR
TO A.G .E. _N _O

VALVE
OFF ,.L SECTION 2 POWER SWITCH

1

HEATER

HEATER SWITCH

I I

VENT VALVE

AUTO

oN
-- TOT/M

t

Figure

5-14 RSS/Fuel

Cell System

Functional 5-34

Diagram

(S/C 5 & 8 thru 12) (Sheet

1 of 2)

-

SEDR 300

_._

H20 OUTLET PRESSURE REFERENCE

STACK CONTROL

SWITCHES IAz IB & IC A

DIFFERENTIAL H2 STACK (LATCH-TYPE) OVERBOARD VENT

SECTION
COOLANT IN

1 SHUTOFF VALVE (LATCH-TYPE)

PRESSURE REGULATOR WITH FILTERS _-

PRODUCT

L'_ ....

H20 BLEED

02 PURGE

H20

_

(NC)
_x:_xxx xxxxxxxxxx × x:ooooo_

DIFFERENTIAL

XOVER SWITCH

0 ON

STACK CONTROL

SWITCHES 2A s 2B & 2C /_ \

42 LBS DRINK

TO CABIN

"TT T_TI TT TT
H2 STACK SHUTOFF VALVES (LATCH-TYPE)

._o

H20 SHUTOFF

t
CONTROL

H2O OUTLET PRESSURE REFERENCE

Figure

5-14 RSS/Fuel

Cell System

Functional 5-35

Diagram

(S/C

5 & 8 thru

12) (Sheet

2 of 2)

SEDR 300

GEMINI

_._

The hydrogen vessel is composed of titanium alloy and the oxygen vessel Is made of a high strength nickel base alloy. double w_led. inch) provides Both vessels are spherical in shape and

A vacuum space between the inner and outer wall (approximately one thermal insulation from ambient heat conduction. The inner wsl! supplemented

is supported in relation to the outer wall by an insulating material by compression loading devices.

Each storage tank contains a fluid q,_ntlty sensor, a pressure

sensor, a temperaii and 12 has

ture sensor and an electrical heater (the 02 tank on spacecraft 1%

two heaters) installed in the inner vessel in intimate contact with the stored reactants. The fluid quantity sensor is an integral capacitance with an indicator control unit containing unit which oper-

ates in conjunction amplifier.

a null bridge

The sensor varies the capacitance

(in proportion

to fluid level) in a circuit

connected to the null bridge amplifier.

The amplified signal is then used to

drive a servo motor, which in turn operates a visual indicator for quantity indication. circuits. Power inverters supply 400 cycle, 26 vac power to the fluid quantity

The temperature

sensor is a platinum

resistance

device capable of transmitting

a

source signal to a balanced temperature monitoring

bridge circuit. and AGE.

The sensor provides

cryogenic fluid

for telemetry

The pressure

sensor is a dual resistive element, diaphragm type transducer.

The

sensor provides signals for cryogenic fluid pressure monitoring on a spacecraft meter. The electrical heaters provide a method of accelerating pressure build-up

in the reactant supply tanks.

The heaters may be operated either in a manual or

5-Sg

PROJEC--'T
__

GEMINI

SEDR300

automatic heater oxygen

mode.

In the automatic when

mode

a pressure builds

switch

removes 900

power psi8

from the in the a

element

the tank pressure 250 psig indicates

up to a ncmir_1 tank.

tank and a nominal pressure meter

in the hydrogen proper switch

In the man,-_l mode

spacecraft

operation.

Fill

and Vent Valves provide a dual function fittings t-n_ in permitting are provided valve simultaneous for rapid fill

The fill and vent valves and vent service valve. operations. connection When fill

Quick to both

disconnect the storage are made,

ground check connecthe

fill check

and the vent se_vlee

connections

the pressure shaft

of the ground

tion against

the fill and vent valve When ground

poppet

simultaneously is removed,

opens

both

fill and vent ports. automatically check valve returns

service

equipment

the valve

poppet

to its normally poppet 20 psig type,

spring-loaded-closed spring-loaded-closed through

position. valve which

The vent opens when vent

is a single exceeds

system pressure ports.

to relieve

the fill

and vent valve

Heat Exchangers The supply temperature the supply control heat exchangers are finned heat controlled cooling exchangers heat in which from the doublesupply

fluid temperature coolant

is automatically

by absorbing

recirculating pass at

fluid of the spacecraft freezing of the coolant

system.

The special fluid

design precludes

and assures

a reactant

50°F minimum

and 140 ° m_ximum.

Dual Pressure f_

Regulator

and Relief

Valves valves are normally open poppet type reguThe

The dual pressure lators which

regulator

and relief

control

downstream

pressure

to the fUel cell battery

sections.

5-37

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
...__ .__

SEDR 300

regulators maintain the hydrogen pressure at approximately 21.7 psia and the oxygen pressure at approximately 2.2 is referenced to hydrogen pressure. referenced to produce H20 pressure. psia. The oxygen side of the regulators

The hydrogen side of the regulators is

The relief valves provide overpressurization protection for the regulated pressure to the fuel cell battery sections. pressure of sppro_mately This valve is precalibrated to operate at a

i0 psia above the normal supply level.

High Pressure Relief Valves The high pressure relief valves are single poppet type, spring-loaded-closed system overpressurization protection. The valves vent

valves which provide

system gas to ambient when pressure

exceeds the system limlts.

Solenoid

Shutoff

Valves

The solenoid shutoff valves are solenoid operated latching type valves which eliminate fluid loss during the nonoperating standby periods. The valves are

normally open and are closed only during fill and standby periods by applying power to the solenoids.

Crossover Valve The crossover valve is a solenoid operated latching type valve which provides the capability of selecting both dual pressure regulators to supply hydrogen and oxygen to a fuel cell battery section for the purpose of increasing flow rate for more effective purging. The crossover valve is contro_ed by the X-OVER

switch on the right instrument panel.

02 Crossfeed Reactant Valve (spacecraft 8 and 9) The 02 cressfeed reactant valve is a solenoid operated, latching type valve Which

-_

SEDR300

MINI
provides supply. pressure the capability This provides to the fuel supply. of pressurizing a redundant cell battery The crossfeed the RSS with 02 from the ECS oxygen the proper reactant 02 in the switch

method sections valve

of supplying in the event

of a malfunction

RSS oxygen located

is controlled

by the 02 CROSS-FEED

on the

center

instrument

panel.

Operation During pre-launch, with the two separate hydrogen buildup reactant supply tanks After are serviced (using AGE in order are the pressure.

equipment)

liquid

and oxygen. within the

the tanks

are filled,

to accelerate operated, liquid

pressure

tanks,

the internal

tank heaters one hour

utilizing

external

electrical density,

power.

In approximately fluid

is converted

into a high

homogeneous

at a constant

During

the fill operation,

the solenoid are

shutoff

valves

between

the

storage

tanks

and the dual pressure the solenoid valves. shutoff

regulators

closed.

Once

operating power

pressure

is obtained,

valves may be opened homogeneous

by applying

to the coil of the demand.

The high

density,

fluid will

then flow upon

The fluid flows from the supply ture, when entering the heat -423°F coolant

tanks

to the heat exchangers. is approximately The heat -279°F

The fluid

tempera-

exchangers

for the oxygen absorb heat from

and approximately the recirculating applied

for the hydrogen. fluid of the

exchangers

spacecraft

cooling

system.

This heat_ to

to the high

density

fluid,

raises

the temperature

of the reactants

approximately

50°F to 140°F.

The reactants, /_ high pressure shutoff

now in gaseous relief valves

form,

flow through

the heat exchangers, sensors, to the supply

past

the

and AGE temperature

solenoid

valves.

During

fuel cell battery

operation,

if the demand

on the fluid

_-B9

PRO--O--j-EC' GEMINI

SEDR300

_--7

flow is inadequate to keep tank pressures within l_m_ts, the high pressure relief valves will vent, externally, the excess fluid. The AGE temperature sensors on

the heat exchangers are used for pre-launch checkout only.

The reactants flow through the supply solenoid shutoff valves to the dual pressure regulator and relief valves. The dual pressure regulators reduce the

pressure of the reactants to approximately 21.7 psia for the hydrogen and approximately 20.5 psia for the oxygen. The gas now flows through the manual shutoff

valves and is then directed to the fuel cell battery sections at a flow rate that is determined by both the electrical load applied and the frequency of purging. The flow rate of the gases may be increased for more effective purging by opening the crossover valve.

After launch, the supply tank heaters are operated by spacecraft power. heaters operate as required to maintain proper system pressures.

The

5-_o

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM

TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ................................

PAGE 6-3 6-3 6-8 6-11 6-18 6-26 6-32 6-33 6- 33 6 ....... 6- 36 6-42 6-43
6-44

Ill Vl

OXYGEN SUPPLY SYSTEM ............................. CABIN LOOP. ............................................... SUIT LOOP. .................................................. WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ..................... SYSTEM DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS................. SYSTEM OPERATIONS ................................ SERVICE AND CHECKOUT ............................ PRELA UN CH. ............................................... LAUNCH ..................................................... 0 RBIT......................................................... RE-ENTRY.................................................... P0 STLA N DIN G ............................................
EMERG ENCY. ...............................................

_-_:_._ _-:_._--.._ ._--:: iiiii_i:'_ .._ ".-_-" ". "=_ "_ iii_!ii_iiii._ii_:-_-._:: iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii_i!;'_i .°.°°oo°ooooo°o°o°.**°°.o°. ....o.°.°ooo°.,°°°°**°°°.,_
ii_ii_!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!i!

SYSTEM UNITS ............................................ DUAL SECONDARY RATE AND SUIT SYSTEM SHUTOFF VALVE ............................ SUIT OXYGEN DEMAND REGULATOR ............. CABIN PRESSURERELIEFVALVE .......... . ........... SUIT CIRCUIT COMPRESSOR ........................... SOLIDS TRAP............................................... _ DUAL CABIN PRESSUREREGULATOR ............... PRIMARY SUPERCRITICAL OXYGEN CONTAINER .............................................. SECONDARY OXYGEN CONTAINER ................
6-1

6-45 6-45 6-48 6-50 6-53 6-53 6-53 6-57 6-57

--..!----_..---_--:...-.:_ iiiii_iiiiii!!i!!!iii_i_ii i_i_iiiiiiii_i_i!!!_!!!!i --°*.o.....o....o.H.oo..._ .°..°*....*......o....o..°.
................ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

i!i!iiiiiiiiiiH_iiii!!!i!i o.°.,o.°o.° _-'_----_!-_-_-.:--_.:_ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::

:-..---_--_!_---.:---_-::::::::::::::::::::::::::: iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!_iiiiiiil .°.*.°°.°°...°°°...oo..°.H
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::

iiiiiii_iii_iiiiiiiiiiiiiii
.................. ................. ........................ ..°...... .......... ...

iiiiiiiiiiiiiii_iiiiiiiiiii ::iiiiii!iii_iiiiiiiiiiiiiii
i'_'""_.-"_'":!'_":"_"_

PROJECT

GEMINI

Figure 6-1 Environmental Control System 6-2

P ROJ CE-CT'-'G-E-M I N I E
__. SEDR300

SECTIONVZ E_VmOm_rAL S_S_m_ D_scan_IoN

COmmOT SYS_

The Environmental Control System (ECS) (Figure 6-1, 6-2) may be defined as a system which provides a safe and comfortable The system must perform temperature providing gaseous atmosphere for the pilots.

such tasks as providing

fresh oxygen, pressurization, In addition to equipment

control, water removal and toxic gas removal. control

atmospheric

for the pilots, the system provides

cooling and regulated

temperatures

for certain pieces of equipment.

For ease of understanding,

the Environmental

Control System may be separated into These

four systems or loops which operate somewhat independent of each other. loops are: (i) (2) The oxygen supply system. The cabin loop.

(S) The suitloop.
(_) The water management system.

OXYGEN SUPPLY SYST_

There are three oxygen systems:

Primary, Secondary

and Egress.

Primary Oxygen (Figure 6-3, 6-_)

This system stores and dispenses oxygen for breathing and for suit and cabin pressurizatlon.

6-S

_--.

SEDR 300

6-4

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
._._

$EDR300

This

system

provides

oxygen during with

the period

commencing

two hours

prior

to

launch

and terminating

jettison

of the adapter

section

at retrograde.

The primary spherical filled leakage

oxygen

supply

is stored

at supercrltical section

pressure

in a cryogenic This container is

container liquid

in the adapter oxygen

of the spacecraft. Heat

with

at atmospheric insulation

pressure.

is supplied

by thermal heater

through

the container pressure

and by activation point

of an electric Above

in order to build liquid oxygen

to the critical mixture,

of 736 psia. for

this point as a dense it

becomes fluid.

a homogeneous This fluid loop.

described regulated

simplicity

supercritical enters

is warmed,

and filtered

before

the suit or cabin

On spacecraft mission

L0 through Supply

12, a long mission System (RSS)

ECS oxygen

tank will

replace tank,

the short allowing

Reactant

oxygen tank stored

and the ECS oxygen

ECS breathing

and the RSS oxygen line allows both

to be

in the same container. to receive

A tee fitting oxygen from

on the cryogenic the

the ECS and RSS systems

cc_i_on container.

The primary pressure discharge check

loop consists switch,

of the following pressure relief

components: fill

primary

oxygen

container,

control sensor,

transducer, valve,

and vent regulator,

valves, shutoff

temperature valve, filter,

pressure

pressure

valves,

and heat

exchanger.

Secondary

Oxygen

(Figure

6-3,

6-4) of performing pressure the same functions system as the falls

The secondary primary /_ below oxygen

oxygen

system

is capable when

system and operates At retrograde,

in the primary oxygen

75 + i0 psi.

when the primary

container

is Jettisoned

6-5

_____

PROJECT

SEDR 300

GEMINI

_]

Figure 6-3 Primary and Secondary Oxygen System 6-6

6-7

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI
$EDR300 __

with

the equipment oxygen

adapter, system.

the secondary

oxygen

system

ass_nes

the duties

of

the primary

The gaseous re-entry

secondary

oxygen

supply

is stored

in two cylinders of usable

located

in the to

module.

Each tank contains at 70°F.

6.5 pounds supply

oxygen

pressurized before

5000 psig maxim_n

This oxygen

is then regulated

it enters

the suit or cabin loop.

The secondary regulators,

system consists valves and

of two: check

tanks, valves.

fill valves,

transducers,

pressure

shutoff

Egress

System

(Figure 6-5)

This tion

system provides

each pilot with

oxygen

for breathing procedures is provided

and for suit pressurizaat 7%000 feet or below, 5 and 6

in the event that they initiate launch or re-entry.

ejection oxygen

during only.

The egress

on spacecraft

The egress egress kit.

gaseous

oxygen

supply

is stored 0.31 pound

in a tank located of usable

in each seat-mounted oxygen.

Each tank contains

pressurized

Each

egress

system check

consists valve,

of a tank, valve,

pressure

regulator,

pressure

gage,

restrictor,

shutoff

and composite

disconnects.

CABIN LOOP

(Figure

6-6)

Design

cabin

leakage (scc/min)

at ground

test

conditions

is 670 standard Makeup oxygen,

cubic

centimeters

per minute,

of nitrogen

at 5.0 psig.

to maintain

cabin pressure at nominal 5.1 psia level, is called for by the cabin pressure regulator. In order to obtain maximum utilization of oxygen, it first passes

......

6-8

./ _

SEDR300

f_

SUIT(

Figure

6-5

Egress

Oxygen 6-9

System

(S/C

5 & 6)

_'_

PROJECT

SEOR 3oo
GEMINI
TEMPERATURE[m_ PRESSURE iNDICATOR l_J] INDICATOR TO INSTR, _---

M.AIN BUS EQUIPMENT DISCONNECT

CIRCUIT ----COMMON CONTROL R BREAKE_R

FAN OH__ _ e

_

C_ CABIN AIR TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCER

w CABIN FAN • 0 2 HI RATE CIRCUIT BREAKER ( S/C CABIN TO 0 2 HI RATEVALVE I _

$&6

- 8 & UP

COOLANT

TEMP VALVE

= :

--

A

B

PRESSURE TRANSDUCER CABINcoNTROL _i CABIN FAN J J J_ INSTR. TO 1" I !_ CO 2 PRESSURE

AMPLIFIER

_LI_I_
CABIN HEAT EXCHANGER

CABIN

_.
'

CABIN PRESSURE REGULATOR

CABIN FAN PWR SUPPLY TO CABIN __

FROM J OXYGEN SUPPLY

CABIN (S/C 5&6 ) REPRESSURIZATJON VALVE

J j CABIN )

TO SUIT TO TO SUIT FAN CIRCUIT SUIT FAN NO. 1 CIRCUIT NO. 2 CIRCUIT

CABIN RELIEF

/

_
CABIN AIR CIRCULATING VALVE

CAB,N , r c o
VALVE

)
---CABIN VALVE _ "q_

.... SNORKEl, _ INLET _ VALVE

r

_

SMALL PRESSURE BULKHEAD

.! OUTFLOW_ WATER SHUTOFF VALVE

Figure 6-6 Cabin Environmental 6-10

Control

PROJECT
f---

GEMINI
_____

__

SEDR300

through pressure

the suit loop before relief valves.

it is dumped

into the cabin through

the suit

primary fan.

cabin components

for spacecraft removed from

5 and 6 are a cabin spacecraft

heat exchanger 12. This

and a

These parts a relief

have been valve

8 through

loop also a pres-

contains

for both positive valves oxygen to either

and negative

pressure

relief,

sure regulator In the latter

and manual operation,

due_ cabin pressure directly

or repressurize.

is supplied

to the cabin.

LOOP (Fimxe 6-?, 6-8, 6-9)
The pilots suit cooling, circuit are provided within pressurization, the with redundant atmospheres cabin. and This water by having suit removal. circuit a closed provides pressure for

pressurized purification

The suit Circulation Carbon hydroxide a liquid

loop of dioxide and

is

a

closed

system the

with suit

two is by an

pressure provided absorber are

suits by a

operating centrifugal containing in a heat the or

in

parallel.

oxygen and

through are

compressor. lithium exchanger by Water water

odors

removed

bed cooled

activated Monsanto the

charcoal. MCS 198, exchanger

The gases to is is

coolant, within The

a temperature dumped mixed

below

dew point. to the

condensing evaporator.

heat

overboard with fresh

routed

reconditioned

Oxygen

makeup

oxygen.

The was

suit

circuit in

has the

two

modes

of

operation, _-d

the the

nox_al high rate

recirculation mode which

Node shuts

which off

discussed

previous

paragraph

the recirculation

system and _umps

oxygen

directly

into the suit.

6-11

...-__ -.

SEDR 300

;_

PROJECT

GEMINI

/
,. !.._" _._:_ ,;

i
:ii

PEDESTAL

I

: i

i,i

!

CENTER CONSOLE

\

',\
_'_\\. SUIT TEMPERATURE VALVE (2 REQD) (MECHANICALLY LINKED TO CONTROL HANDLES ON PEDESTAL) SMALL PRESSURE

. _ULKHEAD "_

_E_ /

SOLID (2 REQD) /

/
,"

/
I"

i
] /

,/

_"_X_
SECONDARY C PRESSUREREGULATOR (2 REQD) /

/

x

_

j

/
..f ''''S'f

,.#

,

\
TRANSDUCER DISCONNECT

SUIT INLET DISCONNECT DUCT (2 REQD)

(2 REQD)

SYSTEM SHUT-OFF VALVE

Figure

6-7 Suit Loop (ECS Package) 6-12

(Sheet

1 of 2)

F.

PROJECT
F__{\

GEMINI
_]

SEDR 300

r---.-! ...... ]

PEDESTAL

: :

iZ Z
SMALL PRESSURE _

L:t............ .'_
CENTER CONSOLE

)NDENSATE WATER HOSE TEE-SECONDARY 02 SYSTEM (2 OXYGEN TEST BULKHEAD (REF) 1 _, , _ ... ..........._. .

i

i
z _'" / /

/

HOSE

/

/

i
FROM PRIMARY _ / ;' _ 0 2 SUPPLY ;

/ /
/

/
CHECK VALVE / /

/

/
/ COOLANT INLET I) \. COOLANT OUTLET ..................... I / / "'"'_ / ,/ CABIN 02 ..'/

/
REPRESSURIZATION LINE

HOSE (SYSTEM NO.

\ _

i

-'_

_/_" SECONDARy/, \ \ SUPPLY LiNE

02 j/_"

,/"

HOSE (SYSTEM NO.

./
f

SECONDARY 0 2 SUPPLY LINE

H20 OXYGEN HOSE SUCTION OXYGEN HOSE VALVE (3 REQD) HOSE (SUIT CIRCUIT SUPPLY) PRESSURE H20

........ _--_._._
OXYGEN FITTING BULKHEAD

Figure

6-7

Suit

Loop

(ECS 6-13

Package)

(Sheet

2 of 2)

_-_

SEDR300

-_IFT_

_

l !

J

PROJECT
0 2 HIGH RATE

GEMINI
_--_ SNORKEL INLET VALVE _'_

0 2HIGH RATE CK SNORKE' [ SNORKEL PRESSURE B_'K-H_D ' --

L
MANUAL 0 2 HIGH RATE

A,_ER

I I J

_: _-

_

--

--I

-II

INFLOW VALVE

"_

i L

G

I '

_

CHECK VALVE

FROM SUPPLYOXYGEN DUAL HIGH SUIT SYSTEM FLOW F _p _X'_'_"_x_"_"v"_'_'_

SHUTOFF VALVE

I

LO NORMAL LEFT ABSOLUTE PRESSURESWITCH NORMAL "

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE SWITCH

CHECK VALVE

FROM NO. I SUIT PRESSURE DEMAND REGULATOR -PRESSURE LEGULATOR

RIGHT CHECK

._-_

SOLIDS TRAP AND BYPASS SUIT CIRCUIT PRESSURE INDICATOR

SU,TC,RC0.
TEMPERATURE iNDICATOR

POWER SUPPLY

CHECK NO. VALVE I_ ;UIT CIRCUIT _ TEMPERATURE ;ENSOR TEMPERATURE SENSOR

2 SUIT

COMPRESSOR

NO. I SUIT FLOW RATE AND SHUTOFF CONTROL ___ CHECK VALVE

NO. 2 SUIT FLOW RATE AND SHUTOFF CONTROL SUIT CIRCUIT CHECK VALVE

CO,_,AND ODOR ABS'_RBER

TO CABIN PRESSURE REGULATOR TO WATER DISCHARGE

_ SUIT HEAT EXCHANGER WATER SEPARATOR

Figure

6-8

Suit

Loop

Recirculation

Mode

Schematic 6-14

(S/C5,

6, 8 & Up)

(Sheet

1 of 2)

_ ,;-:_.

SEDR 300

-FAN POWER .9-CABIN KECIRC SUPPLY I

PROJECT
DISCONNECT FQ,_.._,_j RELAY

GEMINI

SUIT FAN

SUIT FAN NO.

t

kl

SWITCH

MAIN

BUS

c,"_
__ CIRCUIT BREAKER 24V DC

J
CABIN AIR CIRCULATING VALVE J I I

w;
D,_M_ _ILI _ S/C S & 6 CABIN FAN CABIN FAN CIRCUIT _ SUIT FA

PURGE AI.VE

E,_ _& i •=_ ¢H

OFF

0 2 HIGH RATE

=_

SEQ LIGHTS (SWITCHS)

COMMON 0 2 RATE CONTROL CIRCUIT BREAKER _/C 8 & UP CONTROL _US

TO 0 2 HI RATE VALVE NO. I SUIT FAN POWER SUPPLY

TO 0 2 CONTROL CIRCUIT BREAKER

NO.

I SUIT

CONTAMINATED

0 2

COMPRESSOR
CHECK VALVE

LEGEND

__

_

HIGH _TE

0 NOTE 2

RELAYS AND SWITCHES ARE SHOWN IN THE NORMAL POSITION.

t

Figure

6-8 Suit Loop

Recirculation

Mode

Schematic

(S/C5,

6, 8 & Up) (Sheet

2 of 2)

6-15

.f

_.

SEDR 300

L_!_

_

PROJECT
0 2 HIGH RATE

GEMINI
I SNORKEL iNLET VALVE

MANUAL 0 2 HIGH RATE

I I i

BULKHEAD

'

--

.
_, ..

i___
/pc G )

I VALVE

CHECK VALVE SUPPLY FLOW RATEAND SHUTOFF VALVE

VALVE PRESSURE DEMAND REGULATOR

REGULATOR SOLIDS TRAP AND

AND

..
SUIT CIRCUIT SENSOR _ _.. _ U_" F_W'P,_T_" ...... AND SHUTOFF CONTROL TEMPERATURE CHECK ____

SUIT CIRCUIT INDICATOR

,,

__ ..-:::

POWER SUPPLY

I

__'

I_

,_

(

"_'NO. 2sU,tFAN NO.

2 SUIT MPRESSOR

TE_APERATURE_iM

F_ _

O CHECK

SENSOR

CO ANO SHUTOFF CONTROL

AND _-_ _,_

ABSORBER

l

_L

VALVE
FRESSURE _ REGULATOR

VALVE

C._K

"W"
TO WAT_ DISCHARGE :__

,-

_C®LANF_ _
EXCHANGERwATER SEPARATOR

LOO P

Figure

6-9 Suit Loop High Rate Oxygen

Mode 6-16

Schematic

(S/C 5, 6, 8 & Up) (Sheet

1 of 2)

.I: _-_.

SEDR300

TO CABIN CABIN RECIRC

S/C 5 AND 6 " EQUIPMENT I DISCONNECT I RELAY SWITCH SUITFAN NO. l CIRCUITBREAKER 24V DC MAIN BUS

FAN POWERS._ _ SUPPLY F_

I
CIRCULATING J VALVE } CABIN AIR J __ ._

Vj

l

s/c 5AND6
I"JC A-B IN FAN _ _,_

CABIN FAN

PURGE
VALVE

E

I

_,
OF O2 HIGH RATE

SEQ LIGHTS (SWITCHS)

0 RATE C_NTROL CIRCUIT BREAKi_

COMMON CONTROL BUS

_CSAN0te

TRAOT EO_ITCOBRN'i'EA_

aOL

F_ NO. 1 SUIT COMPRESSOR 1

NO. I SUITFAN

LEGEND
HIGH RATE O2 _C" _ CONTAMINATED0 2

1 '11-

NOTE
RELAYS ARESHOWN IN THELATCHED AND ENERGIZEDPOSITION.

Figure

6-9

Suit

Loop

High

Rate

Oxygen

Mode 6-17

Schematic

(S/C5,

6, 8 & Up)

(Sheet

2 of 2)

PROJECT
__

GEMINI

SEDR 300

The suit loop consists of two suit pressure demand regulator valves, four check valves, two throttle valves, two solid traps, a system shutoff and high flow rate valve, two ccmpressors, one carbon dioxide and odor absorber, and a suit heat exchanger.

WATER MANAG_NT

SYSTEM (Figure 6-10)

The purpose of the water management system is to store and dispense drinking water, collect and route unwanted water to the evaporator or dump overboard.

Drinking water is stored in a tank or tanks in the adapter.

Each tank contains

a bladder and is pressurized to supply water to the transparant tank in the re-entry module.

Spacecraft 5 utilizes two drinking water storage tanks which store both the drinking water and the fuel cell by-product water. One tank uses a combination

of oxygen and fuel cell water as the pressurant while the other tank is pressurized with oxygen.

Spacecraft 6 has only one storage tank and uses oxygen for the pressurant.

Spacecraft 8 through 12 utilizes two storage tanks.

Fuel cell by-product water is The other tank is used to

used as the pressurant for the drinking storage tank. store fuel cell water.

Urine and condensated water from the suit circuit heat exchanger is absorbed by the wick in the water boiler or dumped overboard.

6 -18

,:.o..,sEo 3oo ,:c:,- ,:,v,,,,,, -G

ADAPTER WATER STORAGE TANK "[_" (S/C 5 ONLY) (SEEDETAIL "C" SHEET5)-_

WATER MANAGEMENT PANEL (S/C 6, 8, AND UP)

WATER MANAGEMENT (S/C $ ONLY)

PANEL

_f--_"

ADAPTER WATER STORAGE. TANKS (SEE SHEET 6 FOR S/C 8 & 9) (SEE SHEET 7 FOR S/C 10& UP)

ADAPTER WATER STORAGE TANK "A" (S/C 5 ONLY) (SEEDETAIL "C" SHEET ._

//

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiii

•ADAPTER WATER

STORAGE

TANK (S/C 6 ONLY) (SEE DETAIL "B" SHEET 3) CABIN WATER STOP, GE TANK A (SEE DETAIL "A" SHEET 2 FOR S/C (SEE DETAIL '_." SHEET 4 FOR S/C 6,8 AND UP)

Figure

6-10Water

Management 6-19

System

(Sheet

1 of 7)

PROJECT
___ SEDR 300

GEMINI
__

COLL£CTOR

LIGHT

NTROL VALVE

PORT D PORT A ASSEMBLY PORT E PORT F

PORT C

PORT B "BELLOWS

\
\ WATER TANK

WATER CONTROL VALVE
(AFT LOOKING FORWARD)

DETAIL "A"

S/C 5 ONLY

_-"',

Figure

6-10

Water Management 6-20

System

(Sheet

2 of 7)

PROJECT
._. _ SEDR 300

GEMINI
J__ _-_

©
?,

©

TANK

'_DETAIL B" S/C 6 ONLY

_$HUTOFF PRESSURANT TANK

VALVE

if "_,

Figure

6-10

Water

Management 6-21

System(Sheet

3of7)

.--_-_

SEDR 300

MEASURI NG SYST

I:'_T7

CHEMICAL VOLUME RIN_ U

WATER DISPENSER_

..

\ 4J,4X_...

i: \\

STORAGE DUMP SWITCH

l_r_ >
\

<

SHUTOFF V_

DETAIL 'IA" S/C 6, 8, AND UP

Figure 6-10 Water Management 6-22

System (Sheet 4 of 7)

PROJECT
f_ __

GEMINI
___

SEDR 300

WAI

\\

\ ,,
\
OAMS MODULE STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY (REF)

\

DETAIL "C" (S/C 5 ONLY)

WATER TANK REGULATOR /

Figure

6-10

Water

Management

System

(Sheet

5 of 7)"

6-23

/

__'_.

SEDR 300

WATER STORAGE TANK

ADAPTER RETRO

_c

.

EL CELL WATER STORAGE TANK

t_;L_"-.

SEDR 300

_"

___

PROJECT
WATER STORAGE TANK

GEMINI

ADAPTER RETRO SECTION TANK S

WATER STORAGE TANK

DETAIL"E" ($/C 10, 11& 12)

Figure 6-10 Water Management 6-25

System (Sheet 7 of 7)

PROJECT

SEDR 300

GEMINI

_._

.._

Con_onents of the water manasement system, in addition to the water tanks, are a water control valve, condensate valve, water evaporator and two m-nual shutoff valves.

Urine S_stem (Figure 6-11)

The urine It samples

system

is

designed

for

total volume

management of every

of the urination

crewmens

urinary for

output.

and determines ._lysis. dilution

total

and provides urination chemical

chemical a tracer

Volume is technique.

determined Three tenths

by sampling (0.3)

every

and using is added

ml of tracer

to the urine and samples are taken.

Durln8 postflight operations, the amount

that the tracer has been diluted in each sample determines the q-_ntity of urine voided by the crewmen. The urine system consists of the following components;

a Chemical Urine Volume Measuring System (CUVI_) with selector valve, tracer storage accm,_-tor and collection/mlxin8 bag, a urine receiver assembly with

collection bag, a urine qui_k-disconnect hose and urine solids trap filter, urine sampling bags and a roll-on cuff receiver assembly.

SYS_

DISPLAYS AmD COF_OLS

The displays the cabin

_.d

controls as

for

the

Enviromnental

Control

System

are provided

in

and function O_

specified.

SECO_

S_TOFF Handle

A tuRin,A1 secondary crew for handles complete are located

caqvgen shutoff and positive aft

handle

is

provided

for

each

member of the container. panels.

flight The

shutoff

of each and left

secondary switch/circuit

oxygen

of the right is noted.

breaker

The position

(_EN or _

r_(o

0_-=-._

SEOR 3oo

NOTES

Figure 6-11

Urine System

(Typical)

6-27

SEDR 300

PROJECT GEMINI
O2 In'oH _ Telelight

The 02 HI RATE telelight located on the instr1_ent panel illuminates when the high oxygen rate valve is opened manually or automatically.

The 02 HI RA_

switch

on spacecraft

5 a,d

6 also

activates

the

cabin

fan.

The

switch has three positions; 12 do not have the cabin fan,

CABIN FAN_ 02 HI _, and that position

and OFF. of the switch

Spacecraft 8 through is not used.

C_

AIR RECIRC Handle air recircnlation handle controls the recirculation valve which permits

The cabin

entry of cabin air into the suit circuit for removal of odors and carbon dioxide. This procedure will renovate cabin air without cabin decowpression and reduces the possibility of carbon dioxide pockets by increasing circulation of the cabin atmosphere. _

This handle will control the cabin air inlet valve which provides for ventilation during landing and post!_nding pha_es of the mission.

CABIN VENT Handle

This handle controls the operation of the cabin outflow valve to permit emergency decompression in orbit and cabin ventilation during the landing phase. WA_R SEAL Handle

This handle provides for watertight closure of the cabin pressure relief valve durir_ a water landing.

6 -28

PROJECT
__

GEMINI

SEDR 300

0 2 HI RA'I_ RECOC_ Handle i i ii i

This handle provides for the manual return of the oxygen high rate valve to the closed position, thereby restoring normal oxygen flow rate. Actuation of this

handle also reestablishes the capability of initiating high rate oxygen flow when necessary.

_,

A_d. SUIT _

_icator

A dual indicator provides for monitoring temperatures in the suit an& cabin circuits. Range markings are calibrated in degrees Fahren_elt.

CABIN And P C02 PRESS Indicator

A dual indicator provides for monitoring cabin atmospheric pressure and the amount of carbon dioxide at the suit inlet. calibrated in pounds per square inch. calibrated in millimeters of mercury. Cabin atmospheric pressure is

Carbon dioxide partial pressure is

SEC 02 Indicator

A dual indicator is provide_ for monitoring pressure in the ind/vidual gaseous oxygen containers in the secondary oxygen subsyst_n. from O to 6000 psia t divided into 500-pound lO00-poun_ interval. valtte s. The indicator range is

increnents and nmmbered at each

Readings must be multiplied by i00 to obtain correct

6-z9

PR-OJ E C-T GEMINI
__ SEDR300 _.___

ECS 02 QUANT % and PSIA Meter

This indicator provides for monitoring quantity and pressure of cryogenic oxygen in the primary oxygen container. The quantity scale displays from 0 to 100 The

per cent in 2 per cent increments, numbered at 20 per cent intervals.

pressure scale ranges from 0 to lO00 psia in 20-pound increments, numbered at 200-pound intervals. Red undermarkihgs are incorporated on the oxygen meter

to indicate the point at which thermal pressurization may be discontinued by de-energizing the heaters. Spacecraft l0 through 12 reidentifies the indicator

as the CRYO meter, but it performs the same function as before.

Cryogenic

Quantity

Switch "-_.

This switch allows the same indicator to be used when monitoring the pressure and quantity of cryogen in amy of the three cryogenic containers. ers are: The three contain-

the ECS primary oxygen supply, the RSS or fuel cell (FC) oxygen supply, The switch is located below the indicator on ECS 02, FC 02, FC H2 (PX35) The positions

and the RSS or FC hydrogen supply.

the center panel and has the following positions: and OFF.

Spacecraft iO through 12 have a three position switch.

are; 02, H2 (PX35) and OFF.

The 02 position allows the indicator to monitor the

ECS-RSS oxygen supply and the H2 (PX35) position allows monitoring the RSS or FC hydrogen supply.

ECS O2 HEATER Switch

This switch is connected to the heaters in the ECS primary oxygen container. The switch has three positions; AUTO, OFF, and ON. flight plan display on the center panel. Spacecraft It is located below the lO through 12 reidentifies

the ECS 02 HEATER switch as 02 HEATER switch and connects to heaters in the

6-30

PROJEC'T"-GEM
___ SEDR 300

IN I
_.._

ECS-RSS

oxygen

container.

SUIT FAN Switch

The switch has three positions; in the upper i end number by placing left hand corner

NO i, OFF, a_

NO 1 & 2.

The switch

is located

of the center panel. or independently. _nd placing

This allows Suit

suit fans number

2 to operate

together

fan NO 2 may be operated breaker

switch

in NO i & 2 position

suit fan NO i circuit

switch to OFF.

0 2 CROSS FEED Switch , ,, ,

The 02 CROSS FEED Switch, _. mits oxygen

spacecraft oxygen

6, 8 and supply

9 when in the OPE_ position,
for the ECS to be used is also true.

perin the

from the pri-_ry

module

RSS in the event of RSS oxygen

module

failure.

The reverse

Water Management

Panel

A three knob panel and urine overboard.

is provided

for managing,

replenishing,

and dumping

waste

water

SUIT and CABIN _

Controls

Dual

concentric

knobs

are mounted These knobs

between control

the ejection the operation through

seats

for suit and

cabin

temperature

control.

of valves

regulating heat

the flow rate of primary excb-ngers. Clockwise

and secondary results

coolant

the suit and cabin

rotation

in increased

temperatures.

MA_AL

0 2 NTGH RA't_ Handle on the console control between the members oxygen of the flight crew

This b_n_Lle is located and provides for manual

of the dual high 6-31

rate and suit

system

PROJECT GEMINI
shutoff valve. Actuation of the handle shall initiate the oxygen high of normal flow

rate and de-energize shall be effected

the suit compressor.

Resue_tion

system operation

by actuation

of the oxygen

high rate recock

handle.

SUIT FLOW

Control

Levers for each member of the flight crew for regulation are located flow valve on

An individual of circulatory

lever is provided

oxygen flow through of the pedestal

the suit circuits. and shall provide

The levers

the lower section setting position passed

any selected

from fully open to fully to prevent inadvertent

closed. shutoff

A detent provides of suit flow.

an intermediate may be by-

This detent

by moving

the lever outboard.

Cabin REPRESS

Control

A rotary handle

control

is provided

for

cabin

repressurization The control CLOSED

after

a decompres-

sion has occurred 90 ° between control

and for ELSS

oxygen

supply. and fully

rotates

approximately This

fully OPEN

(repressurize)

(off) positions.

is located

on the center

console

between

the suit flow

control panels.

ECS RTR Telelight

This telelight, illuminates activated.

located

on the annunciator in the primary

panel oxygen

of the center container

instrument

panel,

when the heater

has been m_nually

SYS_

OPERATION

The Environmental and provides

Control

System

(Figure

6-1, 6-2) is semi-automatic of operation. There

in operation r_

positive

control

in all modes

are six

6-32

PROJECT
f-__.

GEMINI
___.]

SEDR 300

operational

modes : I• 2. 3. 4. 5• 6. Pre-Launch Launch Orbit Re-Entry Postlandlng Emergency

Prior to the pre-launch mode, it is necessary to service and to check the system functionally.

SERVICE

AND CHECEDUT

For this operationj it is assumed that the spacecraft has been mated with the booster on the launch pad and in the unservieed condition. The primary, and

secondary and egress oxygen storage tanks are filled. drinking water supply tank are supplied with water. loop cannister is then replaced.

The water boiler

The cartridge in the suit

PRE-LAUNCH

The pre-launch phase is defined as the period after the servle_-_ has been completed and prior to launch.

Suit Loop

The pilots in their suits_ with face plates open_ are connected to the suit

6-33

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI
SEDR 300
r

circuit.

The suit circuit compressor is actuated and the suit temperature

control valve is adjusted to satisfy the pilot desiring the cooler temperature. The other pilot becomes comfortable by adjusting his suit flow rate control valve toward the closed position to obtain a warmer setting. A ground supply Flow

of pure oxygen is connecte_ to the pressure suit circuit purge fitting. is In_tiated with the face plates closed.

The suit circuit gas is sampled A suit circuit

periodically until an acceptable oxygen content is attained. leakage test is conducted.

After satisfactorily completing the suit circuit

leakage test, the primary and secondary oxygen manual shutoff valves are opened and the suit circuit purge system is disconnected and removed.

Cab
The cabin hatches are closed. A ground supply of pure oxygen is connected to The cabin

the cabin purge fltting2 flow is initiated and the cabin is purged. fan is actuated and the recirculation valve is opened. conducted.

A cabin leakage test is

After satisfactorily completing the cabin purge and leakage test,

the cabin purge system is disconnected and removed and the cabin purge fitting is capped.

Oxygen Loop (Figure 6-3, 6-4)

The primary and secondary oxygen manual shutoff valves are opened.

The liquid oxygen inside the primary from a liquid to a supercritical

supercritical

container has been changing

fluid by thermal leakage and heater activation.

6-$4

SEDR 300

A pressure heaters.

control

switch provides control switch

for aut_tic is located

or manual

activation control

of these panel.

The manual

on the center

An indicator quantity

also on the center

control

panel

indicates

both pressure

and

from a transducer

and control

unit that are attached

to the container. o 50 F that

The oxygen in a heat limits

gas flows from the container exchanger. This heat

and is warmed

to approximately a relief valve

exchanger

also contains valve

m_ximum

pressure

to i000 psig.

This

opens, permitting

full flow

and reseats

within

the range of 945-1000

psig.

A discharge

temperature

sensor provides oxygen

an indication, line downstream

for telemetering of the heat

onl_,

of the temperature

in the primary

exchanger.

The oxygen gas is regulated capacity of 0.35

from i000 psia

maximum

to ii0 + i0 psig.

Flow

ib/min with an inlet pressure from 800 to i000 psia and an o inlet temperature of 60 F. This regulator also contains a relief feature that limits downstream pressure to 215 psig in the event of a failed-open condition.

A lO-micron enters

filter

provides

filtration

of the primary

oxygen

supply before

it

the suit or cabin loop.

LAUNCH

Cabin

Loop

The

cabin

pressure

relief to 5.5

valve

opens

to

l_t

the

pressure

differential

between

cabin and ambient

+ .0 psi. .0

6-35

PROJECINI
__ SEDR 300
f

suit

(Fure 6-8)
The

Oxygen is supplied to the suit loop through the suit pressure regulator.

suit pressure is controlle_ to between 2 and 9 inches of water above cabin pressure by the suit pressure regulator.

Suit circuit oxygen from the suit circuit demand regulator recirculates through the suit compressor, the carbon dioxide and odor absorber, the suit heat exchanger and water separator, the pressure suits, and the suit circuit solids traps. There are two compressors in the circuit. One is an alternate to be used

if a compressor failure occurs. tloni_

The alternate compressor is activated by posiThe cartridge of lithium

the SUIT FAN switch on the center panel.

hydroxide and activated charcoal remove carbon dioxide and odors of an organic nature that could have any ill effects on the pilots. As suit circuit oxygen

flows through the suit heat exchanger, the temperature is controlled as selected by the pilots.

Solid traps, located in the oxygen outlet ducts of both pilots' suits, remove particulate solids, preventing contamination of the suit circuit system. An

integral by-pass opens if the traps become choked with collected solids permitting continuous oxygen flow through the suit circuit.

ORBIT

Nonual cabin le_age 5.1 psia.

allows the cabin pressure to decay to a nominal value of 4

The cabin pressure control valve maintains this value automatically.

6-36

PROJECT
__.

GEMINI
SEDR 300 _____

A dual cabin pressure pressure

regulator

supplies makeup oxygen through the pilots'

suits to the cabin on demand, as sensed by two aneroid elements within The regulator supplies the makeup oxygen at a controlled pressure

the regulator.

between 5.0 to 5.3 psia.

The cabin fan on spacecraft 5 and 6 circulates cabin air through the cabin heat exchanger. The cabin fan has been removed on spacecraft 8 through 12. One or both

of the pilots may open their faceplates.

The cabin air circulating valve is in of the cabin oxygen through the

the open position to provide for recirculation suit circuit.

In the event of spacecraft depressurization, whether intentionally or by space_ craft puncture, the dual cabin pressure regulator closes when cabin pressure decreases to 4.1 +0.2 psia, preventing -0.I excessive loss of oxygen.

Loop(Figure 6-9) 6-8,
The suit circuit demand regulator senses cabin pressure and maintains suit

circuit pressure at 2.5 to 3.5 inches of water below to 2 to 9 inches of water above cabin pressure. Should cabin pressure decrease below 3.5 psia, the suit

+0._
circuit demand regulators maintain the suit circuit pressure at 3.5 -0.0 psia When by constant bleed orifices and sensing aneroids within cabin pressure return the regulator.

is restored to 5.1 +0.2 psla, the suit circuit demand regulators -0.i

to normal operation.

In the event of cabin and suit circuit malfunction,

the suit circuit will

S_

automatically

revert to the high rate of operation when suit circuit pressure

6- 37

PRINI

m

SEDR 300

decreases

+0.1 below 3.0 -0.0 psla.

A suit circuit

pressure

sensing

switch This

energizes initiates

the solenoid

of the dual high flow rate and

system

shutoff

valve.

a high oxygen rate flow of0.08
This high flow rate flows directlY regulators. The suit recirculating when the solenoid

ibf nperman(total flow:0.16 Ib/m).
into the suits system by-passing the suit demand

is shut off and the suit compressors flow rate and system shutoff

are de-activated valve when

of the dual high light

has been energized. the suit circuit

The 0 2 HI RATE

on the center panel There located

illuminates control

is on the high flow rate. shutoff valve

is also a manual on the center

for the high flow rate and system

console.

When high

the suit circuit

pressure

is restored

to a level manually

above

3.0 _:_

psia,

the marked _

rate and system shutoff located

valve is reset

by using returns

the control

02 HIGH RATE RECOCK to normal operation

on the center panel. the system shutoff

This valve

the suit circuit the high

by opening

and closing

rate valve.

The suit compressor

is also reactivated.

Water

Management

System

(Figure

6-12)

The drinking

water system

is pressurized

and manually

controlled

by the pilots.

Water

from the adapter

supplY

is used

to replenish

the cabin

tank water

supply.

The w_ter

tank drink

selector

valve

is set in the NORM position.

The pilots manually from the cabin

operate tank.

the drinking

dispenser

to provide

drinking

water

storage

The water positioned

separator between

removes

metabolic of the

moisture suit heat

through

a wicklng

material

the plates

exchanger.

6-9

J-

:_-.

SEDR 300

__
i!ii ...............................................................................................

PROJECT

GEMINI
iiii

_:::::::_::;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::_:::E]E:::::::::::_:::::::::::::::::::::::::;::::_:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::_::::::_::_:::::::::::::::::::::::::_:::_::_::::::::::::::::::::::::_:::::::::::::: ;:P:A:C:E:C:R:A:F T:::;:: C:O:N:F I:G U:R:A:T I:O:N ................................................................................................

H20 VALVE

CONDENSATE VALVE

J

METABOLIC MOISTURE FROM SUIT HEAT EXCHANGER ",11_

DRINKING

SUIT COMPRE SSOR SOLENOID VALVE OVERBOARD URINE CONTROL VALVE

DUMF

_|_

_'" _ _""_,,__

DISCONNECT

UNIT J _

NOMENCLATURE _ DRINKING 02 WATER

WATER EVAPORATOR

/ f-_,

_

FUEL CELL WATER WASTE WATER

LEGEND

GAS

REClRCULATING O Figure 6-12 Water Management
6-39

_,'-'/11_\;" Schematic (Sheet 1 of 2)

j-:_.

SEDR 300

"_'

PROJECT

GEMINI

WATERPRESSURE REGULATOR

SHUTOFF VALVE

J
AOAFTER WATER
STORAGE TANK TO CABIN WATER TANK CHECK VALVE

t
I
CAP

cT---_CAF
_

|

SPACECRAFT 6 CONFIGURATION
r_

FUEL CELL WATER :_:_:_:_:_:`:_:_:_:_:___:_:_:_:.:_:_:_:_:_:_:`:.:.:_;___:_:.:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:_:`:_:`:___:_:_:_:_:_:_:`:_:_:_:`:_:_:_:.:_:_:_:_:_:_:.:_:`:

+,,,, dk
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE REGULATOR ABSOLUTE PRESSURE REGULATOR TO RSS REGUI_ATOR ! ..-..::;.:.:..

VENT _ f._

................_

..................

_,_2_K _- ....._CAF .....
DISCONNECT CHECK VALVE

SPACECRAFT 8 AND UP CONFIGURATION

Figure

6-12 Water

Management 6-40

Schematic

(Sheet

2 of 2)

PROJECT
.

GEMINI

SEDR 300

Urine

Disposal S_stem (Figure 6-Ii)

The Chemical Urine Volume Measuring System (CUVMS) has a four position selector valve labeled URINATE, SAMPLE, Dt_4Pand BY-PASS. Positic_ selection is made by The

rotating the selector valve which is attached to a multi-ported center plug. selector valve includes a positive displacement tracer metering pump which is activated by the handle as it passes over a plunger between the BY-PASS an_ URINATE positions.

This supplies a quantity of tracer solution to the passages Therefore, volume measurement

to mix with the urine in the collection/missing bag.

can only be accomplished when the selector is in the URINATE position and the tracer chemical is added. The urine receiver assembly and collection bag provides for

collecting and sampling urine or overboard dump provisions but does not provide _ for volume measurement. The urine quick-disconnect hose and filter assembly con-

sists of a section of flexible hose with quick disconnect couplers on each end. This assembly connects the CUVMS or the urine receiver assembly to the water management panel through an in-line urine solids trap filter for dumping urine overboard. The urine sampling bags are plastic laminate with a valve that

connects to the sampler port on the CUVMS or the urine receiver assembly for taking urine samples. The urine receiver roll-on cuff is the interface between It provides an air

the crewmen and the CUVMS or the urine receiver assembly. and liquid tight seal for direct urine transfer. the CUVMS direct urine flow as follows.

Selector valve positions on

The SAMPLE position directs urine and

tracer chemical mixture frc_ collection/mixing bag to the sample port and into the sampling bag. board. The D_P position directs the urine/tracer chemical mixture over-

The BY-PASS position (normal purge position) directs the urine flow to panel for dumping overboard.

the water management

6 _41

PROJECT GEMINI

SEDR 300

._j______j

The dump selector valve on the water management panel is positioned to route the urine either to the water boiler or dumped overboard. is to dmnp. The normal procedure

Before it is dumped the urine dump system is preheated by positionA urine dump This

ing its heater switch located on the water management panel.

heater light is also provided and located on the water management panel. light illumluates when the heater is activated.

RE-EFf_Y

O_en

S_stem

The primary oxygen system is disconnected when the adapter section is separated from the re-entry module. automatical_ This re_m_vesthe primly oxygen supply pressure which

activates the secondary oxygen supply.

The system shutoff and high rate valve is positioned to the high rate position before the adapter section is Jettisoned.

Cabin

The pressure in the suit and cabin remains constant at an altitude of approximately 27,000 feet is reached.

5 psia (nominal)

until

As ambient pressure increases during descent, the cabin pressure relief valve edm_ts ambient air into the cabin, preventing high differential pressures. The

6-h2

PROJECT

GEMINI

cabin pressure relief valve begins to open when the ambient pressure

is 15.0

inches of water greater than cabin pressure and opens to maximum flow when the pressure differential is 20 inches of water.

At an altitude of 25,600 feet, or below, the pilots manually open the cabin inflow and outflow valves to circulate external air through the cabin and suit circuit.

Maximum negative pressure on the cabin should not exceed 2 psi as controlled by the cabin relief valve.

s,u t
Prior to re-entry the face plates should be closed.
f-_

The hlgh flow rate of oxygen

is flowing directly into the suit circuit.

When the cabin inflow valve is opened It activates the suit compressor and external air Is circulated through the suit circuit.

POSTIANDING

Ventilation is provided by the suit compressor as long available (12 hours m_,m_m).

as electrical power is

Ambient air is drawn into the vehicle through the snorkel inflow valve, by the suit compressor, discharged circulated through the suit circuit into the cabin, then

overboard

through the outflow vent valve.

6-43

PROJEC'CT--G-EMINI
SEDR 300

The snorkel inlet valve functions as a water check valve.

When the snorkel inlet

valve is above water level t the ball check is retained freely in a wire mesh cage_ permitting ambient air to enter the suit circuit. Normal oscillations

of the spacecraft in the sea may result in the snorkel valve being momentarily submerged. This will cause the ball check to seat and is held there by suction Opening the cabin alr circulating valve allows the

from the suit compressor. ball to drop from its seat.

To prevent water from entering the cabin through the cabin pressure the manual shutoff section of the valve is closed.

relief valve,

_ERGENCY

Cabin Loop

If cabin depressurization

becomes necessary

due to toxic contaminants the cabin.

or fire,

the cabin outflow valve is opened to depressurize

The cabin regulator

will close_ stopping the oxygen supply to the cabin, permitting the escape of toxic contaminants and preventing oxygen assistance to combustion in the event of fire. The cabin repressurization valve permits repressurization of the

spacecraft cabin.

The control knob for the cabin repressurization

valve is located on the lower It is rotated

console and is rotated counterclockwise to open the valve.

6-44

SEDR 300

clockwise to close the valve when cabin pressure is between 4.3 and 5.3 psia. Cabin pressure is then automatically controlled at 5.1 +0.2 psia by cabin -0.i pressure regulator valve.

Egress Oxygen (Figure 6-13) This system is installed on spacecraft 5 and 6 only. Operation of the egress

oxygen system is initiated by three of the four lanyards which are pulled when the seat leaves the spacecraft. One lanyard pulls a pin in the composite disTwo of the re-

connect allowing it to separate and close the normal suit circuit.

maining Imlyards open the container shutoff valve and circuit relief valve activating the egress oxygen system.

Each of the egress oxygen containers is pressurized to 1800 psig with gaseous oxygen. The oxygen flows fro_ the containers through a pressure regulator, where It then flows through a shutoff valve and a

the pressure is reduced to 40 psia.

flow restrictor, which allows a flow of 0.052 to 0.063 Ib/_in, then through a check valve to the suit. After leaving the suit, oxygen flows through the shutoff

and relief valve, which du_s the oxygen overboard, as well as controls the suit +0.6 pressure to 3.5 -0.0 psia if ejection occurs at an altitude above 31,500 feet, and 2 to 8.23 inches of water above ambient at an altitude below 31,_00 feet. S_ UNITS

DUAL SECONDARY OXYGEN RA_

AND SUIT SYSteM SEu_OFF VALVE (Figure 6-14)

The dual secondary oxygen rate and suit system shutoff valve provides a constant flow rate of oxygen directly to the pilot's suit during re-entry or in the event the suit circuit malfunctions during launch or orbit.

6-_.5

,-_

_

SEDR

300

PROJECTGEMINI
TANK SU_T OUTLET ASSEMBLY SUIT

TO SUIT iNLET

_ECONOA,Y OXYGEN_
SUIT OUTLET i

_(_

LANYARD

_ _,_..

_J

CONNECTION

•SHUTOFF AND RELIEFVALVE

ESSUREGAGE

SSEMELY

CONNECTION

OXYGEN

"_"_',

|_.-

--

ASSEMBLY

-CHECK VALVE SHUTOFF AND RELIEF VALVE

/

___

LANYARDS INSTALLED FLOW SCHEMATIC i I

NORMAL

CONDITION

NO

[.J

CHECK

ACTIVATED

SCHEMATIC

SHUTOFF AND RELIEF VALVE

PRESSURE GAGE

Figure

6-13 Egress

Oxygen

Flow Diagram 6-46

(S/C

5 & 6)

.. -_

SEDR 300

f_

9R SHUTOFF SWITCH

0 2 SUPPLy

Figure

6-14

Dual

Secondary

Oxygen 6-47

Rate

and

Shutoff

Valve

SEDR300

MINI

The valve is designed suit oxygen circuit

for manual

and automatic the shutoff

initiation. section

The recirculating is valve

flows through

of the valve, which The shutoff

,_n,_ally opened

and is spring loaded

to the closed position. as long as the solenoid

is held open by a 2_ vdc solenoi_ pin,

is de-energized.

The secondary whenever

flow poppet

valve,

held

closed by spring tension, When

remains

closed is closing

the shutoff

valve is in the open position. arm is released and rotates opening allows

the solenoid

energized,

the butterfly

by spring tension, oxygen

the suit circuit poppet valves.

valve and mech-nically Opening the poppet

the secondary

flow rate

valves

oxygen to flow to each pilot's Ib/min per _n actuates (total that

suit through

fixed orifices

at a rate of 0.08 + 0.008 arm simultaneously

flow 0.16 Ib/min.). de-energizes

The butterf_v

a switch

the solenoid,

turns off the suit compressor lamp on the pilots' to each pilot's pressure

and cabin

fan, and panel. energize below 3.0

illuml nares a SECO]_RY A pressure sensor

FLOW RA_

center

display will

switch attached

suit circuit

the solenoid +O.i psia, -O.0

if the suit circuit shutting

in either

suit decreases

auto_-tically flow rate.

off, the suit circuit control is provided

flow azzd initiating for resetting the valve

the secondary

A manual

to the normal position. Prior to retro-grade

The secondary

flow rate

is used during the solenoid

re-entry. initiating

the pilots

,_n,z=11y disengage

the secondary

flow rate.

SUIT OXYGEN DEMAND

REGULATOR

(Figure

6-1p)

The suit oxygen the primary

demand

regulator oxygen

controls system

the oxygen

to the suit circuit oxygen

from

or secondary

and replenishes

used by the pilots

or lost by lea_age.

6-48

SEDR 300

o M,N,

OXYGEN

OUTLET

_

VENT TO CABIN

SUIT LOOP

Figure

6-15

Suit Oxygen Demand 6-49

Regulator

PROJECT

SEDR 300

GEMINI

__.__[

Cabin pressure is sensed on one side of the diaphragm and suit pressure is sensed on the opposite side of the diaphragm. The differential pressure across

this diaphragm opens or closes a poppet valve admitting or stopping oxygen flow into the suit circuit. With cabin pressure of 5.0 psia the suit regulator main-

tains suit pressure at 2.5 to 3.5 inches of water below cabin pressure.

A resilient diaphragm type valve relieves pressure in the suit during ascent and l_m_ts excess pressure to between 2.0 and 9.0 inches of water above cabin pressure. During descent, the suit demand regulator relieves the secondary oxygen rate flow through the relief portion of the valve, maintaining suit pressure 2 to 9 inches of water above cabin pressure.

A constant bleed and aneroid elements maintain the suit pressure at 3.5 +O.4 psia -0.0 if cabin pressure decreases below this pressure. The bleed flow by-passes the

tilt valve through a bleed orifice and is directed to the cabin pressure sensing side of the pressure demaud diaphragm. A metering valve, controlled by an aneroid,

regulates the reference pressure on the demand diaphragm. The regulator returns +0.2 to normal operation when cabin pressure returns to 5.1 -0.i psia. In the event that cabin decompression and a ruptured relief diaphragm in the regulator occur simultaneously, an aneroid over the relief diaphragm extends to control suit pressure at 3.9 psia maw_mum.

CABIN PRESSURE REW.VE_VALVE (Figure 6-16)

The cabin pressure relief valve automatically controls the cabin-to-amblent differential pressure during launch, orbit and re-entry. Duplicate spring

loaded poppet valves are controlled by servo elements within the valve.

The servo elements control spring loaded metering valves which determine the

6-5o

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
SEDR300 __

CABIN PRESSURERELIEF VALVE

ING CHAMBER (TYP) SENSING (TYP)

METERING VALVE (TYP) SENSING CHAMBER (TYP)

CABIN PRESSURE(TYP) CABIN AIR PORT AND FILTER (TYP)

[TYP)

BLEED ORiFiCE ( DIAPHRAGM (TYP)

SERVO ELEMENT (TYP) _ET VALVE POPPET VALVE

t

CABIN

Sh'_LL PRESSURE BULKHEAD (REF)

J

AMBIENT

"

SCREEN ASSEMBLY

MANUAL

SHUTOFF

VALVE

Figure

6-16 Cabin

Pressure 6- 51

Relief

Valve

PROJECT GEMINI

SEDR 300

-__

---1

f-

pressure within the diaphragm chamber behind the poppet, controlling the poppet position. chamber. A small inlet bleed orifice admits cabin pressure to the diaphragm When the poppet opens, a large orifice permits rapid change in pressure

ensuring quick closure of the poppet.

During ascent the valve will relieve cabin pressure as emblent pressure decreases until cabin differential pressure is 5.5 to 6.0 psia. ing differential pressure in this range. The valve closes maintain-

When cabin pressure decresses below 5-5

psia the servo element closes the metering valve meintaining reference pressure within the diaphragm chamber at cabin pressure. The poppet is held closed by

spring force and the zero differential between the diaphragm and the cabin prevents cabin pressure release. If cabin differential pressure exceeds 5.5 psia the zero chamber to

element retracts, opening the metering valves, allowing the diaphragm discharge to ambient.

The discharge port being larger than the inlet bleed orifice The cabin pressure

permits the diaphragm chamber to approach external pressure.

reacting on the diaphragm overrides the poppet spring force, which opens permlttlng cabin pressure relief to ambient. During descent, as external pressure

increases, ambient air is admitted to the cabin by the valve to reduce the differential pressure. metering As external pressure increases above the cabin pressure the external pressure from enterThe poppet

valves are held on their seats, preventing

ing the diaphragm chamber and retaining cabin pressure in the chamber. valve senses diaphra_n chamber pressure versus ambient pressure.

When the ambient

pressure is 15 inches of water greater than cabin pressure the poppet begins to open permitting ambient air to enter the cabin. differential pressure is 20 inches of water..... The poppet opens fully when the

To preclude water entering the cabin during postlandlng, a manual shutoff valve 6-52

PROJECT
___

GEMINI

SEDR 300

is provided.

SUIT CIRCUIT COMPRESSOR

(Figure 6-17)

Two electric motor driven, single stage compressors circuit.

are incorporated

in the suit the suit and is

One compressor is utilized for circulation of the gases within

circuit, supplying both suits.

The other compressor functions as a backup Either c_pressor can be

activated only by manual selection by the pilots. manually

selected by a switch on the center display panel, and both compressors simultaneously.

can be selected

When secondary oxygen flow rate is selected, the compressor energized. _ Re-entry is made using the secondary rate.

is automatically

de-

At an altitude of 25,600

feet or below the manual inflow valve is opened which re-energlzes the compressor. The suit compressor provides postlanding period, ventilation during landing and for a twelve hour fail.

or until the batteries

SOLIDS TRAP (Figure 6-18)

A solids trap is located in the oxygen outlet duct of each suit.

A cylindrical

40 micron filter strains the gaseous flow in the suit circuit removing the solid matter. In the event that the trap becomes choaked with collected solids,

an integral by-pass opens when the differential pressure across the screen exceeds 0.50 inches of water.

DUAL CABIN PRESSUI_ REGULATOR (Figure 6-L9)

The cabin pressure regulator maintains cabin pressurization by providing makeup oxygen to the cabin on demand. The regulator contains two aneroid elements _hich When cabin pressure decreases, the anerolds 6-53

individually sense cabin pressure.

PROJECT

s300 oR
GEMINI

ELECI_ICAL

FAN CON MOTOR

Figure 6-17 Suit Circuit Compressor 6-54

PROJECT
f_
___

GEMINI
SEDR300 ___

J
z_ _.

SOLIDSTRAP

/

Figure 6-18 Suit Circuit Solids 6-5,5

Trap

__

SEDR300

CABIN PRESSURE SENSING CHAMBER--

CABIN AIRFILTER_

Jp

TO PRESSURESUIT

FROM OXYGEN SUPPLY

Figure

6-19 Dual Cabin Pressure 6-56

Regulator

SEDR 300

PMINI
expand, forcing metering pins open and permitting oxygen flow into the cabin, or develops ib/mln, to 4.0 +0.2 -0.i off the

maintaining leakage oxygen psia,

cabin pressure

+0.2 at 5.1 -O.i psia. capacity

If the cabin

is punctured 10-3

greater

than the flow

of the valve

(4.79 + 0.48) pressure

flow to the cabin by the aneroids

is stopped

when the cabin to cause

decreases to close

expanding

enough

the metering

oxygen.

PRIMARY

SUPERCRITICAL

OXYGEN

CONTAINER

(Figure

6-20)

The prlm-ry quantity

oxygen

container

is a double

walled

tank.

A dual spheres

concentric

cylinder, to the

measuring

devices I heaters

and heat

transfer The first located

are internal

container. which

The tank contains either

two heaters.

is a 12.0 + 2 watt heater on the center panel 3 or controls the activation in a

is activated

manually switch.

by a switch

automatically of the heating supercritical

by a pressure element state.

The pressure

switch

in the tank to automatically The switch de-energizeS

,u_1 ntain

the cryogen when

the heater

circuit

the pressure be-

in the tank is between low the opening controlled

875 to 910 pslg,

and closes

the circuit

15 to 75 psig

+50
pressure. The second heater is a 325 -0 watt heater breaker manually panel. by a switch located on the overhead switch/circuit

The pressure

relief

valve maintains

the oxygen pressure

within

the container

at

i000 -_5 psig,

and prevents

overpressurization

of the containers.

Provisions of oxygen

for servicing are provided.

the primary

oxygen

container

from a ground

supply

source

SEC0_DARY

OXYGEN

CONTAINER

(Figure

6-21) shaped container, having a

The secondary useful oxygen

oxygen

container

is a cylindrical

capacity

of 6.5 pounds

at an operating

pressure

of 5000 psig.

6-57

-+.

SEDR 300

_-_'__

PROJECT
CONTROL

GEMINI
PRESSURE AND

PRESSURE AND QUAF_ITY GAGING SYSTEM POWER INVERTER

TRANSDUCER

OXYGEN PRESSURE CO NTgOI. _VITCH

OUTLET PORT

TO HEAT EXCHANGER HEATEI_'_

TRANSDUCER SENSE PORT

PRESSURIZATION

Figure 6-20 Supercritical

Primary Oxygen 6-58

Container

PROJECT

sEo, ,oo
GEMINI

3ULATOR

OXYGEN

CYLINDER

VALVE

PORT

PORT

RELIE DXYGEN PRESSURETRAN: FILL VALVE

/_

ELECTRICAL RE(

Figure

6-21

Secondary

Oxygen Tartk

6-59/60

COOLING

SYSTEM

eetion
VII
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ............................... SYSTEM OPERATIONS ................................

PAGE __
bQOtOQ_- _ -_ ......

7-3

_" _':_'_"-"__ ": "" ' .-.---_ _--ff_:-_.:-..-:.:-::._. _.:"T'"'"".:'"..'..'".:"I
iiii!i_iiiii[!![iiiiii_iii ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

PRELAUNCH ............................................... i!iiiiiiiiiii!iiiiii i:.:'"'":"_'""'.-"_'.:_"_
LA U N CH ................................................... 0 RBIT ....................................................... 7-10 7 -11

7-5

SYSTEM UNITS ...........................................
PUMP PACKAGE ......................................... RADIATOR ................................................ COLD PLATES .,, .............., HEAT EXCHANGERS LAUNCH COOLING
• .. 0.--o,

7-11
7-11 7-15

ii[[iiii_[[[iii[i[i![_i[ii_
iiiiiiiiiiiiii'_iii_iii!ii
.°°.o°o°...°..°

.......................... ..........................--..-.----. ...... ,°°oo
°o..°.°oo ....... ...... °° ....... ....... °° ....... °°,°o.°..° ° ...... °° ...... °.°..°

.....................,..,..
**° • **......°....*.........

7-15
_ 718

-.°.----°......,-.-°......" .......................... ....... "'"'""°'"
.......................... ..........................
-°°.................... ...... ..o ..... .° ........ . .... °.o ....................... .... ° ...... ..., .°.... ........... ......... .oo0...o.,. • °..... ....... .. ...... °•.. .......................... .......................... • .......... •,• .......................... . ....... o,. ............. o°••, • .......... •..o • •.• ........ ° ........... ..°• ....... • .° ........ • .............. °° ....... ••

TEMPERATURE CONTROL VALVE ..... HEAT EXCH ANGER
• • • °.. °o..

7-18 7 - 22

.:-_.

SEDR300

PROJECT

GEMINI

"
ECS COOLANT (VIEW LOOKING / FROM Z0.00) HEAT EXCHANGER (VIEW LOOKING FROM Z0.00) / TO GROUND COOLANT EQUIPMENT ADAPTER RADIATOR SECTION (TYF)_

SECTION RADIATOR (TYP) PRESSURIZED AREA

EQUIPMENT BAY CGLDPLATES (UNPRESSURIZED)

EXCHANGER

RECORDER COLD PLATES

ELECTRONIC MODULE COLDpLATES TEMPERATURE CONTROL VALVES _.

FROM PRESSURIZEDAREA

SUIT HEAT EXCHANGER

/

COLDPLATES (UNPRESSURIZED)RIGHT EQUIPMENT BAY SUIT AND CABIN CONTROL VALVE

BAY COLDPLATES (UNPRESSURIZED) _ _

"_ /

Figure

7-1 Spacecraft %2

Coolant

System

PROJ

EC-'T GEMINI

sEo 300
COOT.TNG SYSTEM basically of two identical temperature the cooling of each other to provide circuit valves, consists various

SECTION

Vll

S_STEM

DESCRIPTION

(Figure

7-I)

The spacecraft control

cooling

system consists

circuits

functioning

independently Each

requirements package,

for the spacecraft.

cooling control plmabing

of a pump

thermostatic filters,

and directional and the necessary

type heat exchangers, a closed and/or circuit.

rad/ators, circuit. secondary

required

to provide the primary

The coollng circuit,

system may be operated of carrying

in either maximum

and is capable

heat loads

in either

The equipment entry module.

coldplates, The upper battery

cabin and suit heat exchangers radiator panels are located

are located

in the resection.

in the retrograde equipment

The pump package, ground panels located launch

coldplates,

filters, heat

electronic

coldplates, radiator controls are

cooling

and regenerative

exchangers section.

and the lower System manual switches,

are located

in the adapter pedestal

equipment

on the pilots'

console

and the control

warning

lights

and indicators

are located

on the center panel.

The cooling passing vision

systems

in spacecraft around

8 through

12 are provided

with

a means of byThis pro-

the coolant is for ground

the fuel cells when fuel

rather

than throug3

them.

operation

cells are not in use.

During

orbital

flight,

Monsanto

MCS-198

coolant

is supplied

throughout

the cool-

ing system

and thermostatic

control

valves

regulate

the coolant

temperature.

%3

PROJECT-'G
.__. SEDR 300

EM I NI

Temperature sensors, located in the system, provided the necessary telemetering of system temperatures to ground stations.

SYS_

DISPLAYS AW9 COi2_Z,S

Cooling system displays and controls

are

located on panels

in the cabin as shown

in section 3 and function as specified below.

SUIT And CABIN _

Controls

Dual concentric knobs are _unted temperature control.

between the ejection seats for suit and cabin

These knobs control the operation of valves regulating

the flov rate of primary and secondary coolant through the suit and cabin heat exchangers for spacecraft 5 and 6. exchanger. Spacecraft 8 does not have the cabin heat

Clockwise rotation results in increased temperatures.

CABIN And SUIT _

INdicator

A dual indicator provides for monitoring temperatures in the suit and cabin circuits. P_e markings are calibrated in degrees Fahrenheit.

PRIMARY And SECOKDARY Pu_

Switches

These switches are connected to the coolant pumps power supplies, one switch for each power supply. Each switch has two positions; ON and OFF. The switches

are located on the center panel.

On spacecraft 8 through 12 B pump switch in each

loop changes the flow rate from 183 ib/hr to 140 ib/hr.

7-4

PROJ
___

GEMINI
SEDR 300 ___ __.__

Pump lights ill-m4uate when the pumps are activated.

They are located above The _S LO lights

their respective switches near the top of the center panel. ill-,_uate when the coolant level in the reservoir is low.

EVAP PRESS Indicator

+0.0 pstg This light illuminates when pressure in the evaporator builds up to _.0 -0.3 and is extinguished when the pressure falla to 3.1 +0.3 psig. -0.3 EVAP PRESS Heater Switch

This switch is connected to the evaporator heater and is used to heat the w_ter in the evaporator before dumping.

SYSTEM OPERATION

The cooling circuit in which the cooling system operates is dependent upon the temyerature loads generated by the equipment, spacecraft phase of flight and the temperature mission Jettisoned within the spacecraft firing. equipment cabin. Cooling time is provided coolant throu6hout the are

up to with

pre-retrograde the adapter

At this section,

the

pump packages cooling.

terminating

spacecraft

Spacecraft 5 and 8 through 12 require both

loops to be operaC¢'_ oontlnuous],7. In the required

spacecraft 6 the primary circuit operates continuous_7 provldi_ cooling during low temperature loads. Junction with the primly f_ namely - launch, rendezvous,

The secona=ry elreult is used, in con-

circuit, during phases of high temperature loads; and pre-retrograde. Under normal heat loads, the

7-2

SEDR300

number i pump in the primary circuit provides the required cooling.

Under peak

heat loads, the number 1 pump in the secondary circuit is used with the primary circuit number 1 pump to provide maximum cooling. In the event of a number 1

pump malfunction in either circuit, the number 2 pump in that circuit is used. In the event of both pumps failing in one circuit, both pumps of the remaining circuit can be used to provide the required cooling. the number 2 pump in either circuit. ) (Spacecraft 6 does not have

PRE-LAUNCH

(Figure 7-2)

During pre-launch

an external ground

supply of Monsanto

MCS-198

coolant is circulated temperature control _

through the spacecraft

cooling heat exchanger

providing

of the cooling system coolant.

The number i pumps of the primary and secondary

cooling circuits are activated, using an external power source, to provide the required cooling for spacecraft equipment and cabin. The spacecraft radiator

switch, located on the center panel, is placed in the BYPASS position so the cooling system coolant by-passes the radiators and is directed through the ground cooling heat exchanger.

Coolant pump.

is circulated

through each coolant loop by a positive-displacement

gear

Spacecraft 5, and 8 through 12 are provided with 2 pumps in each loop. Selection of loops and number of

Spacecraft 6 has only one pump in each loop. pumps is controlled manually.

The coolant is filtered_ as it leaves the pump, and simultaneously flows to the inlet of the battery coldplate or fuel cell temperature control valve and primary oxygen heat exchanger.

7-6

SEO 3o0
I I COLDP_TE_l;_/ I _ COLO_TE [ _ . _]=_f

_LJ
J l I TAPERECORDER _DI PLATE _ I

o-',-o ,
w::::':':':':':':':-_':':':'::::':':::"'_/ll ...... COLD P E !_:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:_ 5EI.ECTOR AND ADAPTER RELIEF VALVE

":_

II
I

_oco_oocoo

................. _
SELECTORND A RELIEF ALVE V SUITHEAT EXCHANGER

/r.

CA, BIN HEAT EXCHANGER AND FAN (S/C 5 & 6 ONLY)

TEMPERA]lURE CABIN TEMP ! I CONTROLVALVES +2° 40= _4o F

TEMP VALVE

L

m

PRESSURIZED

CABIN

DISCONNECTS /

H20 EVAPORATOR TEMP BELLOWS

LEGEND

.....-.---...--.-.-.-.... PRIMARY COOLANT SECONDARyCOOLANT /_ _ ......... PRIMARY DRAIN LINE SECONDARYDRAIN LINE t OVERBOARD

Figure

7-2 Cooling

System

Flow Schematic 7-7

Pre-Launch

and Launch

(Sheet

1 of 2)

-_

SEDR 300

"'"

FUE

FUEL CELL i1

8&UP

BYPASS
• -' __1 j_

!
I

POWER SUPPLy FILL PORT RSS HEAT EXCHANGER

EXTERNAL

EXTERNAL FILL PORT

RESERVOIR

RESERVOIR

WATER

PUEL C6.L

I

I

II PUMP A . BATTERy ._-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.COLD PLATE COLD PLATE (_/C 6 ONLY) (_/C 6 ONLY)

II

IpUMP

|

(S/C 6 ONLY)

ADAPTER

REGENERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER

REGENERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER

_O_TOR
CIRCUIT

1

1

REGEN_TIVE HEAT EXCHANGER

REGENERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER

GROUND COOLANT INLET

GROUND COOLANT OUTLET

Figure

7-2 Cooling

System

Flow Schematic 7-8

Pre-Launch

and Launch

(Sheet

2 of 2)

PRO,JE 3OcGE s=o
The temperature or battery will control valve

MINI

eoldplate

inlet flow.

maintains the cooling temperature at the fuel cell +2 ° at 75 ° .to F. Temperature increasing above setting Coolant temperature from by-pass lines varies line varies from 80°F

reduce by-pass Coolant

to 165°F.

temperature

from equipment

from 60°F to 125°F.

Coolant steam heat This

enters

the primary lines

o_gen

heat

exchanger before

and then it passes

is routed through

around the

the

discharge exchanger. selector

in the water

boiler

regenerative

It then passes valve

through

the selector and when

and pressure

relief valve. by-pass exchanger heat

is electrically to pass

actuated through

in the radiator cooling heat

position _here

allows

the coolant

the ground

the exterT_al supply absorbs the heat

of coolant from the

flo_.Tingthrough spacecraft's

the ground system.

cooling

exchanger

coolant

The ground coolant

coolant

heat

exchanger

has an airborne coolant

flow capacity flow capacity

of 336 ib/hr, of 425 Ib/hr at

per

loop,

at 125°F.

It has a ground

O°F.
_le coolant is now ready to pass through the outlet temperature exchanger the terzperature control valve. This the

valve valve

maintains

+2 ° at 40 ° _40 F. is below heat

If the coolant a portion

entering

from the ground heat through

this range,

of the coolant at the valve.

is directed

the regenerative

exchanger

and then mixed

The coolant temperature cabin and

then fl_s control

through

the water valves

evaporator meter

to the cabin flow

and suit manual through the

valves.

These

the coolant selector

suit heat

exchangers.

The evaporator

valve

relief

portion depending

allows part

of the coolant

to by-pass

the cabin and

suit heat

exchangers

7-9

SEDR 300

PROJECT

GEMINI
The selector portion of this

on the setting of the manual control valves.

valve allows the by-pass fluid to come from either downstream or upstream of the evaporator. The coolant continues through the various coldplates until it reaches

the battery eoldplates for spacecraft 6 or through the fuel cells on spacecraft 5, and 8 through 12. The coolant has now returned to the reservoir where the cycle

is ready to be repeated.

Shortly before launch, the external cooling and electrical power are disconnected.

zucs

7-2)

During launchx the launch cooling heat exchanger goes into operation in the following sequences. The heat trRnafer characteristics a_idcapabilities of the The Monsanto MCS 198 coolant

ground cooling heat exchanger no longer exist.

fluid now with no place to dissipate its internal heat, which is constantly being generated by _nd absorbed from the loop components, circulates about the temperature control valve of the heat exchanger. When the coolant temperature exceeds

+4 ° 46 _2o F the temperature control valve opens to pressurize a donut shaped bellows which unseats the poppet valve exposing the water in the heat exchanger core to reduced pressure as altitude increases during launch.

When spacecraft altitude exceeds 1OO,O00 feet, water in the heat exchanger will boil absorbing heat from the coolant. overboard in the form of steam. This absorbed heat is then expelled

When the coolant reaches a temperature of 46°Fj the temperature control valve repositions to relieve pressure to the donut shaped bellows holding the poppet open. As this pressure diminishes, a spring behind the poppet will reposition it to the

7-10

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI.
SEDR300 _'---1

closed position.

The evaporator selector valve is positioned to allow all flow

to go through the evaporator.

The water boiler water reservoir is constantly replenished from the suit heat exchanger water separator, and if the need arises, from the drinking water supply tank.

(Figure S) 7After orbiting for approximately 30 minutes, to allow the radiator to cool after

being subject to launch heating, the coolant flow is directed through the space radiators by manual selection of the radiator switch located on the center panel. This by-passes the ground cooling heat exchanger. The evaporator selector valve

is also positioned so that only the flow to the suit and cabin heat exchangers pass through the evaporator.

Prior to retrograde firing, the coolant pump packages, radiators, batteries and various heat exchangers are jettisoned with the adapter equipment section. Prior

to adapter jettisoning and retrograde firing the number i coolant pumps for both the primary and secondary coolant circuits are activated. The suit, cabin, and

equipment bays are cooled to as low a temperature as possible, before the adapter equipment section is Jettisoned.

SYSteM UNITSw

PUMP PAC_E

(Figure 7-4)

The pump package for each coolant circuit incorporates two constant displacement electrical pumps, two pump inverters, an external reservoir, filters, relief and

7-11

SEOR 30o .;PROJECT GEMINI

COLD PLATE COOLANT HIGH POINT FILLPOAT I SYSTEM L ' DISCONNECTSj

COLD PLATE

CONTROLVALVE o÷2° 75 .,4oF

J

(VC 8 a l I ONLY )

I

COLD PLATE

j

ADAPTER

RELIEF AND SELECTOR VALVE

_

24V DC

CABIN HEAT EXCHANGER AND 5 & 6 (S/C FAN ONLY) SUITHEAT EXCHANGER J

SELECTORND A RELIEF VALVE J |

" "_

J CABIN TEMP VALVE I _

_1_ .Ir_

TEMPERATURE CONTROLVALVES +2° 40_ _4o F

24V DC

I
L PRESSURIZED CABIN DISCONNECTS m

H20 EVAPORATOR TEMP BELLOWS

LEGEND

PRIMARyCOOLANT SECONDARy COOLANT PRIMARyDRAIN LINE ......... SECONDARYDRAIN LINE OVERBOARD

Figure 7-3 Cooling System

Flow Schematic-Orbit 7-12

(Sheet 1 of 2)

sEo 30o
•" FUE ! BYPASS FUEL ELL C _1 -8&UP " FILL PORT i i BSS HEAT EXCHANGER RESERVOIR FILL FORT

WATER

(

FUEL n2 CELL

"_

.

I

I
POWER SUPPLy EXTERNAL

|

e
EXT_.NAL

6 ONLY)

___

I PUMP A

| l

IpuMp j l

I |

j COLD [ mATE 1COLD r _TE
(_C 6 ONLY) _[ 1 (S/C 6 ONLY)

BATTERY

_

BATTERY

_

I

I

I

(s/c6ONLY)

REGENERATIVE HEAT ADAPTER RADIATOR EXCHANGER _J

REGENERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER

CIRCUIT

REGENI_.ATiVE HEAT EXCHANGER

REGENERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER

GROUND COOLANT INLET

GROUND I COOLANT OUTLET

Figure

%3 Cooling

System

Flow Schematic-Orbit 7-13

(Sheet

2 of 2)

SEDR 300

BELLOWS

_

LIMIT SWITCH

\

\
FLOW SWITCH

FLUlD RESERVOIR

FILL VALVE --

FILLPORT

--

CHECK -_

'[-|

I

-1"

ELECTRICAL

'2_Mp--/

view A-A

@

pUMp

DRT (OPERATING)

x JI
CHECK VALVE" SECTION R-B

Figure

7-4

Coolant

Pump

Package

7-14

PROJECT"GEMINI
SEDR300

check valves. Pump selection warning

The pump package is provided light

is located

in the adapter

equipment

section. A pump is activated the coolant

by switches

on the pilots'

center pa_-el. When a pump

failure

is provided

on the center panel. to the pump, returns which

the coolant through

flows from the reservoir circuit.

circulates

the cooling

The cooIAut

to an external

reservoir

that A

compensates i00 micron system. coolant

for thermal filter

expansion,

contraction,

and leakage

of the coolant.

downstream

of the pump prevents prevent

contamination the operating

of the cooling pump from pumping failure

Check valves

in the pump package pump.

into the redundant

Flow sensing in the event

switches of pump

il1--_nate

a pump

lamp on the pilots'

center panel

failure.

The

spacecraft

radiator

consists tubes.

of two circnmferential There

radtiator panels o£ tubing

made

of

0.25 inch diameter radiator panel.

cooling

are four sections as part

%0 each structure.

The tubing

is -_nufactured cooling

of the spacecraft

Each panel cooling

incorporates

two parallel

circuits, one circuit.

for the primary Duri_ orbit the cool-

circuit

and the other

for the secondary through

ing system radiates

coolant

is circulated lowering

the radiator.

The heat

of the coolant

into space,

the temperature

of the coolant.

coumu s (Fibre7-6)
The coldplates, other than the battery coolant coldplates, are plate fin constructed are fabricated

units incorporating from al-,_num.

parallel

system

passages.

Coldplates

Battery,

electrical,

electronic

and other heat

generating

7-15

PROJECT
___ SEDR 300

GEMINI
__

COOLANT

FLOW PASSAGE

(TYP) _ .-...

_'--ADAPTER MOLD LINE

INLET

PRIMARY OUTLET-

EQUIPMENT SECTION

RETROGRADE SECTION

Y OUTLET

_

QUARTER PANELS (TYP 4 PLACES)

Figure 7-5 Radiator

Stringer Assembly

7-16

PROJECT
f---

GEMINI
_---'-]

.__

SEDR300

COLDPLATE (TYPICAL)

INLET

/

PRIMARYSECTION
VIEW OF COLD PLATE SEPARATED TO CLEARLY ILLUSTRATE THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY FLOW,

,f_x

SECONDARY SECTION Figure 7-6 Cold Plate

7-17

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
___ ..__

SEDR 3O0

components are mounted on coldplates.

The coolant flowing through the coldplates

absorbs the heat generated by the components2 preventing overheating of the operating equipment.

SEAT EXCHANGI_RS (Figure 7-7, 7-8)

Two types of heat exchangers are used in the spacecraft; namely, plate fin constructed and shell and tube constructed heat exchangers. The suit, cabin,

water evaporator, ground cooling and regenerative heat exchangers are of plate fin construction. construction. The primary oxygen heat exchanger is of shell and tube

The coolant absorbs heat from the cabin, suit and regenerative The ground cooling and water evaporator heat exchangers permit The primary oxygen heat exchanger is designed

heat exchangers.

heat transfer to cool the coolant.

so heat transfer will heat the primary oxygen to a desired temperature.

T_4PERATURE CONTROL VALVE (Figure 7-9)

Temperature control valves are provided in both the primary and secondary cooling circuits. These valves are located at the radiator outlets and at the inlets

to the battery coldplates or fuel cells.

The temperature control valve located in the coolant system radiator outlet automatically maintains the coolant outlet temperature at 40 +_F the radiator capacity has not been exceeded. as long as

The temperature control valve located in the battery coldplate inlet automatically maintains the coolant l-!et teaperature at 75 F or above.

7-18

_._._.

SEDR300

f_

EN OUTLET

0 U;_E_TLANT

....

(SEC

COOLANT __ (PRIMARy) SUIT OXYGEN INLET V_ATEROUTLET

VEIW ROTATED 180 °

TYPICAL PLATE FIN CONSTRUCTION

!

Figure

7-7

Heat

Exchanger-Suit

7-19

PROJECT
._

GEMINI
SEDR300 __

OUTLEt PORT COOLANT LOOP ONE OXYGEN INLET _ INLET PORT COOkANT LOOP ONE OUTLEt PORT COOlaNT LOOP TWO

INLEt PORT COOLANT LOOP TWO

DRT OUTLET PORT VALVE RELIEF COOLANT TUBES

SENSOR PORT OXYGEN TEMPERATURE L OXYGEN PORT TEST

Figure 7-8

Coolant Tube 7-20

Type Heat Exchanger

PROJECT
___.

GEMINI
SEDR300 __

INLET PORT (FROM ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT)

9

4_1

BY-PASS PORT

/

FLUID MIXING SECTION

S_NSING

ELEMENT

CALIBRATION

SCREW

F-_

_,
OUTLET PORT

Figure 7-9 Coolant Temperature Control Valve
7-21

__.

PROGEMINI SEDR300
control valve contains a piston that regulates the inlet flow The piston is spring loaded on one side. A thermostatic actuator

..

The t_perature to the valve.

on the opposite side of the piston determines piston movement, which in turn regulates the coolant flow through the valve. The thermostatic actuator, which

is located to accuratel_ sense mixing temperature, consists of an encapsulated wax pellet that expands or contracts as temperature varies. As temperature around The

the pellet increases, the wax expands exerting pressure on the diaphragm. .

diaphragm moves a piston, which in turn controls the inlet flow to the valve. Temperature reduction aroun_ the wax decreases the pressure in the pellet cup allowing the spring to reposition the piston regulating the flow of cool-nt through the valve.

LAUNCHCOOT.r,G ._ATEXCEA_GE_(Figure 7-10,7-11)
The launch cooling heat exchanger is located in the adapter section. Via its

relief valve it can dump liquids overboard, or if the temperature control valve senses temperature greater than 50°F, it can control the outlet temperature of the pr_,_y and secondary coolants to _6 . . In addition, it serves as

a water reservoir, storing water until it is needed for cooling.

This evaporator consists of a wicking type heat exchanger and is capable of storing seven pounds of water. control the outlet coo_,t A temperature control valve has been set to A relief valve opens and

+_o temperature to _6° _20 F.

allows excess water to be dumped overboard at 2.75 + 0.25 psi differential and reseats at 2.0 psi differential minimum. the poppet to prevent ice formation. An electrical heater is provided in

Coolant flow capacity is 366 ib/hr at 40°F.

.....

7-22

PROJECT
,

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

COOLANT PROMPUMPS

J l

STEAMOVERBOARD

CIRCUITS

REGENERATIVE

f_

COOLANTTO RE-ENTRY MODULE

_11__ SEC

--

COOLAIXrT TO I_' RE-ENTRY PRI MODULE

COOLANT LOOP(PRIMARY)

_@_:_:_:: .- .

COOLANT LOOP(SECONDARY)

Figure

7-10 Launch

Cooling 7-23

Heat Exchanger

Schematic

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR300 __r

ELECTRICAL

FLUID HEATERCOOLANT LOOP (PRIMARY), OUTLET - FLUID HEATER COOLANT

WARNING

LIGHT

J

PRESSURESWITCH--_

\

/

LOOP (PRIMARY) iNLET

STEAM OUTLET WATER 11_ TO AMBIENT

WATER CORE COOLANT LOOP (PRIMARY) OUTLET CORE COOLANT LOOP (SECONDARY) OUTLE1 PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE CORE COOLANT (SECONDARY) LOOP EATER 3 HEATER COOLANT LOOP (SECONDARY) INLET

INLET

CORE COOLANT LOOP (PRIMARY) TO RESERVOIR

CORE COOLANT LOOP (SECONDARY) TO

Figure 7-11 Launch Cooling 7-24

Heat Exchanger

PROJECT
__.

GEMINI

SEDR 300

Water flow capacity is 3 Ib/min when coolin_ is not required

from

the evaporator.

Maximum operating pressure in the fluid heater coolant circuits is 230 psig, and lO0 psig in the core circuits. Maximum operatin_ pressure in the water circuit

is 20 psig with exit port relief valve in normal operation.

The steam exit duct is continuously heated by coolant coming from the pri_-_y oxygen heat exchanger to prevent ice form.tion.

A loss of pressure in either coolant loop will not affect the operation of the valve.

7-2/26

GUIDANCE and CONTROL SYSTEM

VIII
r •

REFER TO THE SEDR 300CONFIDENTIAL SUPPLEMENT FOR INFORMATION CON................. CERNING THE GEMINI GUIDANCE AND CONTROL SYSTEM

::::::::::::::_:"'_-_"_ ,°*o_o_o_°°°°°ooo_o_oo.°o, ........................... ,Jo.ooI°.°°°°°.°°°tetoo_
,oo°6o_oo°oo°°°°o..Hooooo_ ,°.o°°°°°._o°.,°_°o°o°_°o°° ..._°°*°.°o°.°°,_°o..°°o°o. .o°°o°°°°°°_°.,o°°°.°._.o. _o.°°°o°°°°o..°.°.o._o_oo.. *o°°°°o°°°°o°°°..,o.°.°°°o, ..°°°°°°°.°°..°°._.._°°°.°, ,.°°o°°°o°°°.°.°_.o.°_°°.°° ,o°o_°°°°°°°_....°°.o°.°.o. .°°o°°°°°.°.°oo°°°,°o°._°_ °°°°°..°o.o°.°.._H°_,o.o, .o.o°_°.°°°°.°°_°._°_°°°oo ..o.°°°.°°°°°°...,o.o°°°°o, ...°°°.°.°°°°o°.°o.°o°.°°°. ..o°°°°.°°°°°o°°°oo.°°°°.o, .ooo°°°°o°°°°o._°o°o°o°°oo. ..°o°.°.°°..o.°°°°°.o°°°.°, .°°o..°o°°°°.°o°.°°°°°..... ..°°_°...°.°°°°o°...°°°°.°, .°°°°°°.°°°....°..°.°.°°°°. ,o°o°o°..°...o°°°o.°°°°°°.. °°°°°...°°°..o°°°..°°o.°... .°°°°.°°°°...o°°°o°°o°°ooo. .°°°°, ,.°°°°o.°°°° ......... ........... ...... °o.°o°o°°oo°.... ..°°°°° oo°°°°°°°o°.°. .°°°.o..°°°o..o°°.°°°°..°°. ...°°°°.°°.°°°_°oo**.°°.°°, ...o°°°oo°°o..°°°o.°°°°o°°. ....o.°°°.o° ...... o°o°°°°., .... °.°.°°°°.o°°.o..°.°°°°, .... o°°.°°.°°°°°°o..°.°°°., °..o°°°o_°..o.,._o°°°°°°.°. .... °°°°,.°°..°°°°.o°°.°... ...... ,°°°°°o.°°°°° ........ ....... ..°°o..°°°oo°°° ..... ...... ..o.°.°.°....o.°..... ..... °°°o°.o.o°°°. ....... °. .°.°°°°..°... ...... °°°°°°o. ,o.o.°°o .......... .°°°°°°°, .o....°.°° ......... .°o°o.o, °....°°°°o.° ....... .°°°°.°, ..°°.°°.°.° ....... ...°°°°°, .°.o° .......... °.o.°...°°°°.,°°°°o.° o°o.°°°°°.o, ...... .......... °o..°° ........... .°°° ............. °.°°°°°.., ,°°°°° ........ °°...°°.o..°, .° ................ ,°°° ............. .°°°.,.... .°°°o..°. .................. o°°°..°., .o ................. °°°oooo, .° ................. °o°o.°°. •.°°.oo.° .......... .°°..°°, .......... °°.......°°°.°o°, .......... °°,°°°.°° ........ ............ oo°°....°°.o°°, ............ °°_°o.°o°°.°°°, ........... °°°°°°o°.°o ..... ........... °.°° ............ °................... ......................... ........................ .................. °...... °. °°. °°°.o ....

............ 81/2

.° ............... ...........................

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Section
TITLE PAGE

IX

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION.................................
ANTENNAS ................................................. BEACONS ................................................... VOICE COMMUNICATIONS ........................... TELEMETRY TRANSMITTERS ............................ FLASHING RECOVERY LIGHT ..... ............ DIGITAL COMMAND SYSTEM........................

9-3
9-3 9-5 9-8 9-8 9-8 9-8 i'.::_.;_--'.:_'_

SYSTEM OPERATION ..................................
VOICE TAPE RECORDER ...............................

9-9
9-9

i_-_-_!_ _
i_:_i:_ff:_iii._i._ _i:_:_ iiiiii!ii!_iiii_ii:":_":"'_:_ _°°*t°l._ettoo_o°o*°_o.°o°.

ff_"_._'_--_--":_"::{i_-

PRE-LA UN CH .............................................. 9-10 SPACECRAFT/LAUNCHVEHICLE SEPARATION ...9-13 0 RBIT ........................................................ ADAPTER SEPARATION ................................. LANDING THROUGH RECOVERY .................... 9-13 9-17 9-19

i:'.:'::".7:':::'::-::}F:-.:.:}{_

iiiiiiiiiiiiiii_iiiii_iiii _--_.-_--..-.:--.:_--..:.::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

iiiiii[_!iiiii_iiiiiiiii[ii

SYSTEM UNITS ............................................
ANT EN N AS ................................................. 8 EA C0 N S................................................... VOICE COMMUNICATION ............................. TELEMETRY TRANSMITTERS ............................ FLASHING RECOVERY LIGHT AND POWER SUPPLY.......................................... DIGITAL COMMAND SYSTEM ........................
9-]_

9-20
9- 20 9- 39 9-49 9-63 9-68 9-70

iiii_iiii_i_iiii!iliiiiiiil
....°..o..°oo.°°°°°.°.°..°.

iiiiiiii!ii!i_!_i!_iiiiill i_i_iiii!ii_iiiiiiiiiiiiiii ,o.°° .°o°.°°°....°°.°o°°o., _.:_...:._.:.._z._._..:.._ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii_i_iiii "'""'":.:_':"_:':'_'_i iHiiii!!!!ilHiiiiii!!i!iii .... ..°° ..... _i_iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii_i_!!::
.... °........,°°.°..°o° ......... . ........ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

SEDR 300

Figure

9-1

Communication

System

9-2

PROJECT
f_

GEMINI
____j

___

SEDR 300

SECTION IX SYST_ DESCRIPTION

CGMMURICATION SYST_

The Cummanication System is the only c_.,,_,m4 cation link between the ground and the Gemini Spacecraft. The system has the following capabilities: radar tracking of

the spacecraft; two-way voice c_]n_cations and between the crew; grom_

between the ground and the spacecraft,

c@,_,_ndto the spacecraft; Instrmmentation System data To make possible

transmission; and postlanding and recovery aid data transmission. these various capabilities, the C_manication be divided into the following categories:

System contains components that may

antennas, including multiplexers and

coaxial switches; beacons; voice c_._._mications; telemetry transmitters; flashing recovery light; and Digital C_nd _A System. The flashing recovery light and the

uhf recovery beacon are grouped together in a category called the Electronic

Recovery Aids (ERA).
The C_munication System components are located throughout the spacecraft with

the largest concentration being in the right equipment bay of the re-entry module and the electronic module of the adapter equipment section as illustrated in Figure 9-i.

ANTENNAS Eight antennas and one antenna system provide transmission and/or reception capabilities for the various Communication System components. The spacecraft Comuhf recovery;

munication System (Figure 9-2) contains the following antennas:

uhf stub; uhf descent; two uh_ whips; two hf whips; C-band annular slot; and a C-band antenna system consisting of a power divider, a phase shifter, a phase Antenna usage is illustrated

shifter power supply, and three helical antennas.

in Figure 9-3 and described in the individual antenna description. 9-3

PROJECT

300
GEMINI
4_
ZN

I

"

_

I

I _°
0_ Z i-. i-. u_ z

I

--

'
I

I '
t

'r

a.

/\

I /\ I_LX/\ _ I ix

_

/\

"
Figure

I_ I!
9-2 Communications 9-4 System

....
Block Diagram

"

PROJECt
f_

GEMINI
SEDR300

__

To achieve used with

the most the ,,hf use

efficient whips than and the

antenna uhf

usage,

a diplexer

and a quadriplexer make a single it

are

stub

antenna. and/or

The multiplexers receiver with

possible

to

more

one

transmitter

antenna.

Five

coaxial

switches coverage

permit during

antenna

and transmltter/receiver phases of the mission

switching (launch,

for best orbit,

ccmnunication re-entry

the various

and recovery).

BEACONS Four beacons and tracking acquisition in the Comunication the spacecraft aid beacon during System establish the capability of locating are: An and

the mission. beacon

The four beacons

and a recovery

used to locate the spacecraft, The acquisition when the

two C-band beacons operating within

used to track

the spacecraft. is used

aid beacon, is for

on a fixed frequency,

to determine

spacecraft

the range of a ground the ground beacon

tracking

station, during

and provides the orbital

information phase

orientating The recovery frequency, location. by a ground

station

antennas

of the mission. distress

is a transmitter

that

operates

on the international the spacecraft

and is used by the recovery The C-band beacons station, transmit

forces

to determine which,

are transponders signals

when properXy

interrogated

for accurate

spacecraft

tracking.

During

the recovery

phase of the mission,

emergency

communlcatioms

man be estab-

lished by connecting antenna. stowed

one of the uhf rescue beacon transceivers kits.

transceivers

to the uhf recovery Equipment (GFE),

The rescue beacon survival

are Govei_ent

Furnished

in pilot's

9-5

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
___
RE-ENTRY PREPARATION EQUIPMENTADAPTER SEPARATION

SEDR300

®
180" AW Y SPACECRAFT TURN/_IOUND___ SPACECRAFT SEPARATION _ _ 1_ PRE.-LAUNCHI

®

RE,ENTRYc-BAND BEACON-ON (CONT.)

......
........

7_

/ ")o
( / $_ l jf

_

_>UHPT/RNO. R-OF_
HF TIR -OFF AUDIO NO. 1 AND NO_ 2 -ON REAL TIME TELEMETRY (R/T-TM) -ON DELAYED TIME TELEMETRY (DiT-TM) -ON HF WHIPANTENNA-RETRACTED UHF WHIPANTENNA-RETEACTED DIPLEXER WHIP ANTENNA-RETRACTED RECOVERY ANTENNA-RETRACTED DESCENT ANTENNA-JRETRACTED FLASHINGRECOVERY LIGHT-OFF STANDBYTELEMETRY (STBY-TM)-OFF UHF VOICET/R P-/T-TM UHF STUB ANT. D.C.S, RCVRo NO.. 2 ANTENNA USAGE.* ) RE-ENTRY C-BAND BEACONAND ANTENNA SYSTEM _ S/C SEPARATION ADAPTER C-BAND BEACONAND SLOTAI_EN NA ""-_'

SECONDSTAGE CUT-OFF

I JEFTISON NO5_ FAIBJNG_

SECONDSTAGE IGNITION

DIPLEXER HIPANT,-EXTENDED(AUTOMATIC) W UHFWHIPANT. -EXTENDED(AUTOMATIC) ACQUISITION AID BEACON-ON (AUTOMATIC) _J

ANTENNA USAGE: UHF VOICE T/R

DP_.T.C-,'rM RCVR.NO, 2_ UHF STUB ANT, D.C.S° RCVR.NO. 1 "l ACQ,."AID BEACON J_DIPLEXER WHIPANT. RE-ENTRY C-BAND BEACON AND ANTENNA SYSTEM

I FIRST STAGECUT-OFF _ AND JET]'I ON S '_J

('_ORBIT:

VOICE:

HFT/R-ON [_>ADAPTER C-BAND BEACONAND SLOTANTENNA UHF NO. I T/R ( _ OR UHF NO. 2 TIR)-ON ADAPTER C-BAND BEACON( [_ OR RE-ENTRyC-BAND BBACON)-ON _[] ACQ° AID BEACON'ON (WHEN D/T-TM IS OFP)_[] RECOVERY BEACON-OFF

TRACKING:

(_

TELEMETRY: R/T-TM( _> ORSTBYTM)-ON'_] D/T-TM ( E_ OR STBVTM)*-ON (WHEN ACQ, AID BEACONIS OFF) _[] COMMAND: D.C.S. -ON

LIFT-OFF T=O

__

ANTENNA USAGE: UHF VOICE T/R "l UHEWHIPANT° E/T-TM _ OR D.C.S. RCVR.NO. 2) UHF STUBANT. HFVOICE TE-ORBITAL WHIPANTENNA ACQ. AID BEACON "11 D/T-TM _ DIPLEXER WHIPANT. D°C.S. RCVR.NO. 1_1 ADAPTER C.-BANDBEACONAND SLOTANTENNA _>RE-ENTRY C-BAND BEACONAND ANTENNA SYSTEM

.--._

Figure

9-3

Communication

System 9-6

Sequential

Diagram

(Sheet

1 of 2)

SEDR 300

RETRO FIRE (TR)

RETRO ADAPTER SEPARATION TR + 1310 SEC. TR+ 1775 SEC.

JETTISONED: ORBITAL WHIPANTENNA HF UHF WHIPANTENNA & (_ [_ HF T/R-OFF RE-ENTRY ANTENNA USAGE: PREPARATION:

_ NOM CO_.

_

'_

__ DROGUECHUTEDEPLOY __L_

PREDICTED UHF BLACKOUT PERIO _'_ D

% UHF VOICE T/R NO. 2)I UHF ,_ STUB ,) ANT*

%.

UffF VOICE T/R NO. 1 ( [_ P-/T-TM ( E_ STBYTM) D.C.S. RCVR.NO. 2 ACQ. AiD BEACON _1

D.C.S. D/T-TM RCVR.NO. I _ DIPLEXER WHIPANT. RE-ENTRY C-BAND BEACONAND ANTENNA SYSTEM EQUIPMENTADAPTER SEPARATION: EQUIPMENTJETTISONED_ D.C.S. D/T-TM DIPLEXER DIPLEXER WHIPANT° C-BAND SLOT ANTENNA ADAPTER C-BAND BEACON ACQ. AID BEACON COAXIAL SW. NO. 2 ANTENNA USAGE: UHF VOICE T/R NO. I ( [_ UHF T/R NO. 2)'k UHF R/T-TM ( _ STBY-TM) J STUB.ANT. /_-_, (_MAIN RE-ENTRY C-BAND BEACONAND ANTENNA SYSTEM CHUTETWO POINT SUSPENSION: ANTENNA USAGE: DESCENT ANT. EXTENDED (AUTOMATIC) RECOVERY NT.-EXTENDED _,_UTOMATIC) A UHF RECOVERY BBACON'-ON (MANUAL SWITCH) UHFVOICE T/RNO. 1 ( [_ UHF T/R NO. 2) _ DESCENT ANT. P./T-TM( _> STBY-TM) RECOVERY BEACON-RECOVERY ANT. RE-ENTRY C-BAND BEACONAND ANTENNA SYSTEM DURING THIS PERIOD COMMUNICATION IS LIMITEDTO C-BAND BEACON WHILE ANTENNAS AREAUTOMATICALLy SWITCHED AND EXTENDED JETTISONED: UHF STUB ANTENNA

PILOTCHUTEDEPLOY

RENDEZVOUS AND RECOVERY SECTIONJETTISON

\
MAIN CHUTEDEPLOY

RE-ENTRY C-BAND BEACON-OFF RECOVERY BBACON_N UHF T/R NO. I ( []_ ORUHF T/R NO. 2),,ON HF T/R-ON HF/DF (TONEGENERATOR-ON) ORVOICE TRS-OFF P_/T-TM( _ STBY-TM)-MANUAL OFF FLASHING RECOVERY LIGHT-ON (MANUAL SWITCH) RECOVERY WHIPANT. -EXTENDED(MANUAL SWITCH) HF RECOVERY ANT. -EXTENDED DESCENT ANT. -EXTENDED ANTENNA USAGEz UHF VOICE T/R DESCENT ANT. HF T/R HF/DF OR VOICE_ RECOVERY WHIPANTENNA HI: RECOVERY BEACON-RECOVERY NT. A (_ tWO POINT SUSPENSION

_> BACK-UP EQUIPMENT(USEDtN THEEVENTOF A MALFUNCTION IN THE PRIMARY UNIT) . C_>EQUlPMENTTURNED ON ANDOEF OVERGROUND STATIONS BY THEFLIG HTCREW A GROUND COMMAND OR TRANSMITTED THED.C.S. IN THESPACECRAFT. TO /_ UNCONTROLLEDFLIGHT. _FREFERREDANTENNA-USED EXCEPT DURING [_>USED DURING ORBITAL MANEUVERS AND AS BACK-UPEQUIPMENT. MAIN CHUTEJEI"rlSON

,_*'I__

LANDING

Figure

9-3

Communication

System

Sequential 9-7

Diagram

(Sheet

2 of 2)

PROJ E
._@ SEDR300

INI
___

VOICE COMMUNICATIONS Voice communications is maintained by one hf and two uhf transmitter/receivers and the Voice Control Center (VCC). The V_C has ell the necessary controls and

switches required for various keying modes, transmitter/receiver selection, squelch, volume control, and voice recording. The hf voice transmltter/receiver

may also be used for Direction Finding (DF) purposes during the postlanding phase of the mission.

An intercom connector is available for communication between the crew and recovery testa,prior to opening the spacecraft hatches during the recovery phase of the mission. Lightweight headsets are supplied for use when the spacesuit helmets

are removed during orbit, or during postlanding if the helmets or entire spacesuit is removed prior to recovery.

TELEMETRY TRANSMIT'fERS Receiving inputs from the Pulse Code Modulated (PCM) programmer and the on-board tape recorder, parameters frequencies mitters. three telemetry transmitters transmit vital spacecraft system

to the ground stations. and are identified

The three transmitters delayed-time,

operate on different and stand-by trans-

as real-time,

The stand-by transmitter is only used in case of real-time, or delayedfailure.

time transmitter

FLASHING RECOVERY LIGHT The flashing recovery light, used during the postlanding phase of the mission, contains its own power supply and improves visual spacecraft location. DIGITAL CO_4AND SYS___ The Digital Command System (DCS) is the command llnk between the ground and the

9-8

SEDR 300

P R 0 J-'E'G-T GEMINI

spacecraft. packages

The DCS consists

of two uhf receivers, until

a decoder, adapter

and two relay section a

and Is operational Basically,

from pre-launch

equipment

separation. discrete Stored

the DCS receives Cammand

and decodes

two types

of c...... _nds: and

or Real-Time C_nds

(RTC) for spacecraft supply operate digital

equipment information

utilization, to various power

Program

(SPC) that commands

spacedirectly

craft systems. or energize usage.

Real-time

DCS relays System

that control

relays

in the spacecraft

Electrical

that determine

equilment

Stored

program (TRS),

c_-r;_nds are received or the computer.

and decoded

for use by the Time

Reference

System

SYSTH4

OPERATION is semi-automatic System in operation. is described Individual The sequence and theory paragraphs in

The C_-..-_nication System of operation

of the Cum_unication in Figures

in the following

and referenced System Units.

9-2 and 9-3-

components

are described

VOICE TAPE RECORDER Voice tape recordings are made during the mission The TONE Each by placing VOX, AUDIO the RECORD switch

on the VCC to the CONT or MGM position. circuit mately breakers one hour

& UHF T/R i and 2 allows approxilight

must be in the ON position. of recording

tape cartridge

time and is easily

changed. when

An end-of-tape

on the voice tlme remains the tape

recorder

illuminates

for two seconds

two minutes remain

of recording the end of of the

on the tape.

The end-of-tape timing

light will

on when

is reached.

A digital

sigv_l

is applied

to one channel

tape for time

correlation

of the voice

recording.

9-9

PROJECT GEMINI
PRE-LAUNCH C-Band Radar Beacons the BEACONS-C circuit breaker CORTROL pre-launch is placed

SEDR 300

___

During pre-launch

to the ON position switch is

to arm the C-RNTY and C-ADPT BEACON placed beacon C-ADPT enables in the CONT position during

switches. to enable

The C-RNTY

the re-entry station. The

C-band

to reply when properly switch is placed the ground

interrogated

by a ground during

in the CMD position during launch,

pre-launch.

The CMD position C-band beacon is acti-

station

to activate

the adapter

via a DCS channel vated,

if the need arises.

After

the adapter

C-band beacon station.

it will reply when properly

interrogated

by a ground

The C-band antenna when

system,

used with

the re-entry

C-band beacon,

is energized is

the ANT SEL switch

is placed

in the R_TY position. breaker is positioned shifter

The ART SEL switch to ON. supply

armed when controls antenna

the COAX CBTL circuit

The ANT SEL switch in the C-band

application system.

of po,er to the phase

power

UHF Transmitter/Receiver The number unless 1 ,,h_ voice transmitter/recelver occurs in which will be utilized during pre-launch

some malfunction

case the number uhf voice

2 transmitter/receiver stand-

can be selected. by power

For operation through

of either

transmitter/receiver_

is applied

the AUDIO

& UHF T/R circuit breakers transmltter/receiver 1 or number

i and 2, which

must be in the ON position. by placing the MOI_ controls the UHF select of number switch

The selected

will be powered and switch also to the
f_

switch to the number

2 position

switch coaxial

2 AUDIO to the UHF position. connects

The UHF select

1 which

the uhf transmitter/receiver from the c_-,on

quadriplexer.

Coaxial

switch power

is obtained

control

bus

9-10

SEDR300

through

the ON position

of the UHF _AY

circuit

breaker.

The method the

of key-

ing the ,,bf transmitter/receiver on the VCC to VOX (continuous (voice operated

is selected relay), PTT

by positioning (push-to-talk), keying).

KEYING switch INT/PTT

or CONT

intercom/push-to-talk

transmitter

The desired

antenna

usage

is obtained

by placing switch

the ANT CI_ 3 to position switch 5-

circuit

breaker

to the ON position. the quadriplexer was placed during

This places

coaxial

i; thus connecting Coaxial switch 5

to the IN position i when

of the coaxial

in position

the ANT _. With

switch was placed coaxial switch

in the _

position i, the Prior

the C-band beacon

operation.

5 in position and reception. between

uh_ stub antenna F_ to _bilical

is available voice

for ,,bf voice c_munication a hardline

transmission

release, complex

is maintained using

the spacecraft ampli-

and the ground fiers

through

the headset

and microphone

of the VCC.

After umbilical by means

release,

voice

transmission

to the ground

complex

is accsmplished

of the uhf voice

transmitter/receiver.

Real-Time

Telemetr_

Transmitter transmitter The real-time will be operating telemetry during the pre-launch by placing switch

The real-time

telemetry

phase of the mission. the RT _MTR circuit

transmitter and placing

is powered the _

breaker

in the ON position

CONTROL

to the R/T & AC_ position.

The

real-time

telemetry

transmitter

uses the ,,hf stub antenna

via the quadz_-

plexer

and coaxial

switches

3 and 5, the same as the uhf transmitter/receiver.

In case of real-time transmitter

telemetry

transmitter

failure,

the stand-by

telemetry

may be used

for real-time

transmission.

The STBY XMTR CNTL and

9-11

PROJECT GEMINI

SEDR 300

____

circuit breakers must be in the ON position to operate the stand-by telemetry transmitter. If selection is made by the crew, the STBY TM CONTROL switch is Selection can be made by a ground command via the When operating as the

placed to the R/T position.

DCS when the _4 CONTROL switch is in the OFF position.

real-tlme telemetry transmitter, the stand-by transmitter uses the stub-antenna for transmission.

N0n-Operation

Components System components will be non-operational during

The following Communication the pre-launchphase components,

of the mission.

To assure the off condition of these specified below:

the following

switches should be in the position

(onvcc)
BEACON CONTROL - RESC HFANT

OFF
OFF OFF

To assure proper sequential actuation of the various communication components, the following circuit breakers (in addition to those previously described) must be placed to the position listed prior to launch: WHIP ANTENNAS WHIP ANTENNAS WHIP ANTENNAS HF T/R ]_EACONS BEACONS XMTRS TAPERCDR HF UHF DIPLEX ON ACQ RESC DT CNTL

9-12

PROJECT
f_

GEMINI

,7'.

_.__

SEDR 300

SPACECRAFT/LAUNCH _EHICLE SEPARATION Equipment usage after spacecraft/launch vehicle separation is identical to that described under Pre-Launch except for the following: Upon closure of any two of

the three spacecraft separation sensors the acquisition aid beacon is energized. The uhf whip ante_n_ solenoid actuators are powered and release the latch mecha-

nism of the ,h_ whip antennas, allowing them to self extend.

The acquisition aid beacon transmits via the diplexer and ,h_ whip ante-_a on the adapter equipment section. Placing the TAPE RCDR-CTfL circuit breaker to ON

and the _I_CORTROL switch to R/T & ACQ during pre-launch places coaxial _wltch 2 in position i which connects the acquisition aid beacon to the diple_er.

./_ -

ORBIT During orbit, operation of the telemetry transmitters and beacons will normally be controlled by ground c_nds via DCS channels. To operate from ground com-

mands the C-ADPT, C-RNTY and T/M CONTRO_ switches must be in the CHD position.

HF Voice Transmitter/Receiver During orbit hf communications is via the hf whip antenna on the adapter retrograde section. At insertion the adapter hf whip is extended by placing the

LANDING switch to the SAFE position, and the HF ANT switch to the EX_ position. This will place coaxial switch _ in position 2 and allow hf voice transmission and reception via the adapter hf whip. After extension (approximately one minute)

the HF ANT switch is returned to the OFF position.

Stand-by power is applied to the hf transmitter/receiver by the SF T/R circuit breaker which was positioned to ON during pre-launch. The hf tranmmltter/receiver

9-13

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
_____

SEDR 300

is powered by positioning the HF select switch (on the VCC) to RNTY and audio MODE switch i or 2 to the HF position. The method of keying the hf

transmltter/receiver is selected by positioning the KEYING switch on the VCC to VOX, PTT, or COBT IRT/PTT. be selected. During orbit, any of the three keying modes may

URF Voice Transmitter_eceiver The uhf voice trsn_,It_er/receiver operation is identlcal to that described under Pre-Launch with the following exception. Preferred antenna usage during

orbit for uhf trsn_,4_sion and reception is via the adapter retrograde uhf whip antenna. The retrograde uhf whip antenna is selected by placing the ANT SEL Although

switch to the ADPT position which places coaxial switch 5 to position 2.

preferred uhf tran_-1_sion and reception is via the retrograde uhf whip antenna, the uhf stub antenna may be used during orbit by placing the ANT SEL switch to the RRTY position.

Delay Time Telemetr_ TransmiSter The acquisition ald beacon operates continuously during the orbital phase of the mission except when the delayed-time telemetry transmitter is operating_ When the ground station receives the acquisition aid beacon signal, it initiates a DCS command for the delayod-time telemetry transmitter to transmit data stored by the on-board rec_er while the spacecraft was between ground stations.

Delayed-time tran_-_ssion may also be initiated by placing the T/M CONTROL switch to the R/T-D/T position. telemetry tra_ salon. This will initiate real-time as well as delayed-time

9-14

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI
____

SEDR300

Real-time and delayed-time transmission will nox_nallybe initiated from the ground station via DCS channels. At the time the delayed-time telemetry

transmitter is selected, the acquisition aid beacon is turned off and coaxial switch 2 is placed in position 2, allowing telemetry transmission via the diplexer and uhf whip antenna on the adapter equipment section.

As the spacecraft goes out of range the delayed-time telemetry transmitter is turned off and the acquisition aid beacon res_es transmission. This is

normally performed by the ground station but may be accomplished by placing the T/M CONTROL switch to the C_D, or the _T & ACQ position. If the _T &

AOQ position is selected, the delayed-time transmitter is turned off and the real-time transmitter and the acquisition aid beacon begin transmitting. _ If

the CMD position is selected, only the acquisition aid beacon will operate; however, the ground station has the capability of energizing the real-time telemetry transmitter via a DCS channel.

Any of the three previously described methods of disabling the delayed-time telemetry transmitter will place coaxial switch 2 to position I, and allow acquisition aid beacon transmission via the diplexer and uhf whip antenna.

The stand-by telemetry transmitter may be used for delayed-time transmission should failure of the delayed-time telemetry transmitter occur. The stand-by

transmitter is switched to delayed-time transmission by a ground c_-,-_ndvia a DCS channel (if the STBY _ the STBY _ CONTROL switch is in the C_F position), or by placing Delayed-time transmission via

C01_I_OLswitch to the D/T position.

the stand-by telemetry transmitter uses the ,h_ stub or the uhf whip antenna on the retrograde adapter depending upon the setting of the ANT SEL switch.

9-15

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
____ ____

SEDR3O0

Real-Time

Telemetr_

Transmitter

Orbital operation of the real-time telemetry transmitter is similar to that of the delayed-time telemetry transmitter in that the real-time telemetry transmitter is operated only during the period that the spacecraft is within range of a ground station. DOS c_ud The real-time telemetry transmitter is turned on by a

from the ground station or by placing the T/M COl_l_£_switch to the position. Real-time transmission is by the ,,bfstub or the

R/T & ACQ or _T-D/T

retrograde ,b_ whip antenna, depending upon the position of the AR"_SET. switch. In case of failure of the real-time telemetry transmitter, the standThe stand-by transmitter via a DCS channel (if

by transmitter may be used for real-time transmission. is switched to real-time transmission by a ground c_d the STBY _4 COI_OL C0_ROL

switch is in the OFF position), or by placing the STBY _4 The stand-by telemetry transmitter trans-

switch to the R/T position.

mits via the _Jhfstub or the retrograde uhf whip antenna, depending upon the position of the _ _cB_!. switch.

It should be noted that the stand-by telemetry transmitter may be used for delayed-time, or real-time transmission, but mmy not be used simultaneously for both. In the event that both the real-time and delayed-time transmitters fail,

it is up to the ground station to determine the purpose for which the stand-by transmitter will be used.

C-Band P_dar Beacons During orbit, the C-band beacons are used only while the spacecraft is within range of a ground station. Normally, the adapter C-band beacon will be used

during stabilized flight and the re-entry C-band beacon used during roll maneuvers.

9-16

PROJ
__

EC'T" GEMINI
SEDR300

Operation C-RNTY When

of the beacons BEACON

is similar CONTROL

to that

described

under Pre-Launch. kept in the C_

The position. from

and C-ADPT

switches range

are normally

the spacecraft

comes within

of a ground

station,

as determ_ued beacon

the acquisition by ground placing power

aid beacon

sisnal,

power

to the desired beacon

C-band

is applied by

comm-_d

via a DCS channel. or C-RNTT _EACON

The desired CON_ROL switch

may also be selected

the C-ADPT

to the CORT position. transpond when properly is selected, the phase

After interthe

is applied_

the selected station.

C-band When

beacon will

rogated

by a ground

the re-entry

C-band

beacon

ANT SEL switch shifter

should be placed optimum

in the RNTY position coverage.

to energize

and provide

radiation

SEPARATION _ Prior to adapter equipment section separation, the re-entry module antennas are to

selected

by placing

the T/M CONTROL ]_ACON CORTROL

switch to R/T & ACQ,

the ART SEL switch

R_PI"/,and the C-RNTY and reception antenna. adapter during

switch to the CO_T position. antenna until system

Tr-ngmission and the uhf stub with the the

re-entry

is via the C-band

The acquisition equipment section.

aid beacon

will operate

it is Jettisoned is disabled

The hf voice

co,m_un_cations

by placing

HF select retrograde

switch to the OFF position. section will remain

On spacecraft On later

5, the hf whip on the adapter spacecraft, the hf whip may for approximately

extended. switch

be retracted i. 5 minutes

by holding for complete

the HIP ANT retraction.

in the RET position

The following tion¢ _

c@._,unications

components

will be Jettisoned

with the adapter

sec-

Digital

Co._aud

System

(DCS) transmitter

Delayed-time

telemetry

9"17

00

Diplexer C-band Adapter Diplexer annu!_r C-band slot antenna radar beacon

,_b_ whip antenna aid beacon 2 to real-time, beacon. voice conmmnication to uhf,

Acquisition Co_al T_is 1_mlts and tracking telemetry

switch

data transmission C-band

data to the re-entry

Following

equipment

section

separation

and retro

firing, retrograde

section

sepa-

ration will antenn_

occur at which

time the retrograde

uhf whip

and the adapter

hf whip

w_ _I be Jettisoned.

RE-Eh_RY
During the re-entry occur. phase of the mission, two short duration 1310 communication seconds after shield black-

out periods retrofire around created

The first period, seconds

from approximately

time

(TR) to 1775 This

after

TR, is caused by an ionization

the spacecraft. upon re-entry

ionization

is due to the extremely

high temperatures period

into the earths and Recovery

atmosphere.

The second blackout separation

occurs at Rendezvous antenna occurs

(R & R) section is terminated deployment.

when the uhf stub suspension which

is Jettisoned. shortly

This period parachute

at two-point

after main

At R & R separation, switch 3, placing able for real-time

energized

parachute 2.

deploy

time delay

relays

energize

coaxial

it to position telemetry

This makes

the uhf descent

antenna

avail-

transmission

and uhf voice

communications.

9 -18

PROJECT
___ SEDR 300

GEMINI
____ ___

At two-point matically BFAC(_

suspension

the uhf recovery

and uhf descent is turned

antennas

are autothe RESC

extended. switch

The ,,_ recovery

beacon

on by placing

CONTRC_

to the W/O LT position.

Antenna

usage

during

re-entry

is as follows:

Prior

to R & R separation,

real-

time telemetry antenna.

transmission

and ,,hf voice suspension,

e_,,-_cation

is via the ,,h_ stub antenna is used instead system is used

After two-point

the uhf descent

of the uh_ stub. for tracking

The re-entry

C-band beacon beacon will

and C-band

antenna

and the uhf recovery

use the uhf recovery

antenna.

LANDING

THROUGH

RECOVERY parachute is Jettisoned light. by actuating the PARA JETT switch. by eha-_ging

Upon impact the main This extends

the flashing CONTROL

recovery

The light

is energized

the RESC BEACON

switch

from the W/O LT position

to the ON position.

The re-entry by placing position.

C-band beacon

and real-time CONTROL

telemetry

transmitter switch

is turned

off

the C-RNTY BEACON If the stand-by the stand-by

and the T/M CGRTROL transmitter

to the CMD

telemetry transmitter

was selected

for real-time the STBY

transmission, TM CONTROL

will be turned

off by placing

switch

to the OFF position.

The recovery

hf whip antev-_

is extended

by

placing

the HF ANT switch by holding Voice

to the the }IF

PST LDG position ANT switch

for spacecraft

5, or on later spacecraft for approximately

in the EXT position

one minute.

c_un_ca-

tion via the hf transmltter/recelver switch to the RRTY position receiver can also be

is then possible MODE

by placing

the HF select

and either

switch to HF. finding

The hf transmitter/ signal by placing

used to transmit

a direction

either MODE

switch to HF/DF.

9 -19

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
___._

$EDR 300

During the recovery phase of the mission the uhf rescue beacon transceiver may be connected to the uhf recovery antenna. off by positioning The uhf recovery beacon can be turned Lightweight headsets

the RESC BEACON CONTROL switch to OFF.

are provided to replace the spacesuit helmets if the helmets or spacesuits are removed and the crew remains inside the spacecraft. A recovery team disconnect

is used for intercom conversation between the crew and recovery team prior to opening the spacecraft hatches.

SYSTEM UNITS

ANTENNAS UHFDescent Purpose: real-time and U]IF Recovery Antennas The 1_bfdescent antenna is used for simultaneous transmission of the and stand-by telemetry transmitters, and transmission and reception for

the uhf voice transmitter/receiver.

The uhf recovery antenna provides transThe two antennas are used from

mission capability for the uhf recovery beacon.

two-point suspension of the main parachute through final recovery of the spacecraft.

Physical Characteristics: are shown in Figure 9-4.

The two antennas, being similar in physical appearance# Both antennas are mounted in the parachute cable trough

where they are stowed until main parachute t_o point suspension during the landing phase of the mlssion.

The antenna element consists of two one-half inch wide gold plated steel blades bolted together at two places. inches long. The uhf descer_ antenna is approximately lg

The uhf recovery antenna is approximately 18 inches long.

9-20

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

ANIENNA ELEMENT _

• _

ANTENNA

_R%%E._(@OLE

EL_E'---_
TROUGH PARACHUTE CABLE 1

SEAL _

_

!

_/

DESCENT ANTENNA
PARACHUTE BRIDLE

J

RETAINING STRAP (TYPICAL 2 PLACE (STOWED POSITION) RECOVERY ANTENNA

COAXIAL

(STOWED POSITION)

IDLE TROUGHCOV_

MAIN

CONSOLE

I

TROUGH PARACHUTE BRIDLE

LOWER CONSOLE

DISCONNECT

Figure

9-4

UHF Descent
9-21

and Recovery

Antennas

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
___ .__

SEDR 300

Mechanical

Characteristics:

For

rigidity,

the antenna

element

is shsped

in a

0.5 inch wide src having blades, compounding

a radius

of 1.5 inches. element,

The two laminations secured

of steel

a single

antenna

are rigidly

at the lower with

half of the antenna. respect through to each other elongated

To allow a slight during stowage

displacement

of the two laminations two nuts and bolts together

and deployment,

placed

holes

secure the two IA_inations

at the upper half of

the antenna

element.

The antennas are held System

are bent towards

the small strap.

end of the spacecraft The strap is broken

for stowage

and

in place by a retaining

when the Landing the antennas

shifts

from single point to two point

suspension,

allowing

to extend.

Each

of the two antennas stub.

have

a radiation

pattern

which

is identical

to that _-_

of a quarter wave UHF Stub Antenn8

Purpose:

The uhf stub antenna and stand-by

(Figure

9-5) allows

simultaneous transmission

transmission and reception number 2.

of for The

the real-time

telemetry

transmitters, and reception until

the uhf voice transmitter/receivers, antenna may be used from pre-launch used

for DCS receiver

separation

of the R & R section

during

re-entry, preparation Physical

but is normally

from pre-launch

to insertion

and from re-entry

to R & R section

separation. uhf stub antenna, physically constructed as The fairing

Characteristics: in Figure

The

illustrated antenna during which

9-5, is mounted

in the nose of the R & R section. and is covered consists by a nose

protrudes

forward

from the R & R section

the boost phase weighs

of the mission. i.I pounds.

The antenna The mast

of a mast and base of 3/_ inch cobalt shield for

approximately to tubular

is constructed

steel, machined

form, and covered

by a Teflon ablation

9-22

ABLATION

SHIELD

ABLATION

SHIELD

$OCKI

PIN

SPACER

,__

CONNECTOR

L-- CABLE ASSEMBLY

Figure 9-5 UHF Stub Antenna 9-23

SEDR300

GEMINi
protection including The mast during re-entry. the connector, consists The antenna is approximately in diameter section iS. 5 inches long material.

and X.25 inches

over the ablation is mounted

of two sections.

The front

on a cobalt cable. Joint section the

steel ball Electrical

Joint and retained contact between loaded

to the rear

section by a spring is made through

loaded the ball

the mast

sections

and the spring of mast antenna

cable assembly. to approximately

The ball

Joint allows

the front

to be deflected axis.

90 degrees

in any direction

around

The spring of the cable assembly section,

is pre-loaded

to approximately to the erected

_5 pounds position.

to cause the front

when deflected,

to return

The rf connector through shell

is press fitted into which

a socket and makes

contact

to the mast The

the socket and sleeve,

are the same material to the base which

as the mast.

of the rf connector

is mounted

is isolated

from the mast

by a Teflon spacer and sleeve.

Mechanical radiating

Characteristics: length

The uhf stub is a quarter is approximately 11.2

wav_

length

antenna.

The

of the antenna

inches.

UHF Whip Antennas Purpose: Two identical uhf whip antennas (Figure 9-6) supply the required ,Jbf is i,

transmission located

and reception

facilities

during

orbit.

One of the uhf antennas the DCS receiver transmitter. number The

on the adapter

equipment

section

and serves

and the acquisition second uhf antenna,

aid beacon mounted

or delayed-time

telemetry

on the adapter transmitters,

retrograde

section,

serves the real-

time and standby and DCS receiver

telemetry number 2.

the uhf voice

transmltter/receivers,

9-2_

SEDR 300

POWER CONNECTOR

COVER_

COAXIAL CONNECTOR

_.
-LATCH RETAINER LATCH CATCH

COONTERWE'OHT--_
LATCH

"_

[
(SHOWN

.
IN LATCHED CONDITION)

_--COVER_O_E_O,DJ
RELEASEMECHANISM

EXTENSION OF ANTENNA : ANTENNA FULLY EXTENDED

Figure 9-6 UHF Whip Antennas 9-25

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
_.__

5EDR 3O0

Physical Characteristics: no power other than that

The ,,he whip a_ten-a required for

is self extendable and requires The antenna element Is

initial release.

a tubular device made from a 2 inch wide berylliu_ copper strip processed in the form of a tube. _e antenna, when fully extended, forms an element that is in diameter. During stowage, the

approximately 12 inches long and i/2 inch

tube is opened flat, wound inside of a retaining dr_n, and latched in position. Upon release of the latch by a solenoid, rolled the extension strip of the antenna depends

entirely on the energy stored in the

material.

This energy is

sufficient to erect the antenna at a rate of 5 feet/second into its tubular form. In the stored condition, the antenna is flush with the outer skin of the

spacecraft.

Mechanical Characteristics: by a metal lid.

The antenna element is retained inside the housing

"_

A metal post Is attached to the lid and passes through the The bottom of the post is grooved to accept a

center of the coiled antenna.

forked latch which holds the catch post assembly firmly in position prior to release. The forked latch is attached to a miniature pull-solenoid which is

spring loaded in the extended position to ensure that launch shock and vibration loads will not cause inadvertent antenna extension. _hen a voltage from the

Sequence System is applied to the antenna solenoid, the latch will be withdrawn allowing the antenna cap to eject and the antenna to extend. As the catch post

assembly is ejected, a microswitch in series with the solenoid coll opens the circuit to the coil to prevent further current drain from the power source.

9 -26

PROJECT
S _

GEMINI
SEDR 300 ____

__.

The two antennas

are

Jettisoned

with

the corresponding

adapter

section.

HF Whip Purpose:

Antennas The hf whip antennas during provide transmission and reception phases for the hf voice

transmitter/receiver

the orbital

and postlanding

of the mission.

Physical

Characteristics in Figure

:

The hf whip ante-n_s The recovery the pressurized is located

are physically

constructed

as

illustrated pressure

9-7.

hf whip antenna area

is mounted

on the small module.

bulkhead,

outside

of the spacecraft retrograde

re-entry

The other hf whip antenna mechanism encloses housing,

on the adapter

section.

The antenna completely elements.

approximately

6.25 inches wide including

and 22._ space

inches high,

all parts of the antenna_

storage

for the antenna

_

The recovery comprise hf whip

hf whip

antenna

contains

six elements

which,

when fully long.

extended, The adapter a

a single antenna antenna contains mast

mast

appro_mately

13 feet when

3 inches fully

three elements

which,

extended t comprise

single antenna mately

approximately

16 feet

long on spacecraft

5 and 6, and approxiin diameter provide on

13 feet long on later spacecraft. Two connectors, supported

The mast is one inch by the anten-a body,

all spacecraft. of applying

a means

power and connecting

the antenna hf whip hf whip

to the rf connector antenna weighs weighs

on the hf voice 9.0 pounds. 7.5 pounds

transmitter/receiver. The 16-foot version

The recovery of the adapter 6.0 pounds.

approximately approximately

antenna

and the 13-foot mechanism

version

The main

supporting

structure

of the antenna shell.

housing

is the antenna

body

consisting

of a thin fiberglass

9-Z7

F-_

..oJ_cT GEM.N.

IN LIMIT SWITCH

I

I I i

rENNA

I I|

II]

CONNECTOR

,_

SWITCH

III /

/ ,/

,OWER
OARD \ MOTOR C

COVER

2.ASSETTE ROLLERS

i

Figure 9-7

HF Whip Antennas 9-28

PROJECT
f_

GEMINI

___

SEDR 300

The outer shell is made in two sections which mate together and form a completely sealed envelope around all moving parts. The antenna mast elements are heat motor driven cassette.

treated stainless steel strips and are stored in adc

Mechanical

Characteristics :

The strip material

comprising

the antenna elements

is heat treated into a material circular section in such a manner that the e_es of the material overlap approximately 180 degrees. When the antenna is retracted,

the tubular elements are continuously

transformed by guide rollers into a flattened Extension and retrac-

condition, and stored in a strained manner in a cassette.

tion of the antenna is accomplished by a motor which, by means of a chain, drives the storage cassette core. Because of the natural physical shape of the antenna

elements, the antenna has a tendency to self-extend; thus giving an extension time of approximately 25 seconds. Retraction time is approximately 40 seconds. one for

The antenna is stopped within its desired ]_m_ts by two microswitehes, extension and one for retraction, which automatically cut the power

applied to

the motor at the time of extreme limits of the antenna are reached.

The rf connection to the antenna is obtained by a wiper arm sliding on the cassette core drive shaft.

On spacecraft 53 the hf whip antennas sre operated as follows :

Spacecraft control

bus voltage is supplied through the WHIP ANTENNAS -HF circuit breaker to the HF ANT switch. The adapter hf whip antenna is extended during orbit by positioning The adapter hf whip antenna is not retracted during

the HF ANT switch to EXT.

9-29

PROJ

EC"T" GEMINI
SEDR300 _.___[

orbit, but is Jettisoned in the extended position with the retrograde section. After landing, the recovery bf whip antenna is extended by positioning the HF switch to EXT.

ANT switch to PST LDG, and is retracted by positioning the HF _

On spacecraft 6 thro_

12, extension of the hf whip antep_nRsis controlled through The hf antennas are operated as follows:

the HF ANT switch A,_ LAWllZNGswitch.

Spacecraft control bus voltage is supplied through the WHIP ANTENNAS - HF circuit breaker to the HF ART switch, which has momentary type contacts. the LANDING switch or retracted During is in the SAFE position the the and adapter During orbit, can be

hf whip antenna

extended respectively.

by holding re-entry,

I_ ANT switch LANDING switch

in the is

EXT or RET position in the AI_ position.

placed

After landing, the recov_X'y

hf whip antenna can be extended or retracted by or SET position respectively. The HF AFf _

holding the HF ANT switch in the _

switch should be held in the EXT position for approximately one minute for full extension of the antennas, and in the SET position for approxlwately 1.5 minutes for full retraction.

C-Band Annular Purpose:

Slot

_utenr_ slot antem_ (Figure 9-8) serves the adapter C-band

The C-band A-n_lar

radar beacon and is normally used during stabilized flight.

Physical Characteristics:

The C-band annular slot antenna is mounted on the The physical construction is such that the The antenna is approxi-

equipment section of thp adapter.

antenna is flush with the outer skin of the spacecraft.

mately I._ inches in diameter, 1.35 inches long and weighs 8 ounces maximum.

9-30

_--_/) .._.

PROJECTSEOR 3OO GEMINI
!iliJi iiii iiii iiii !i i i
-C-BAND HELICAL iiii;ii iiii

_--_

iiiiiii iiiiiii iiiiiii iiiiiii i!!iiii iiiiiii iiiiiii iiiiiii

iiiii!i
iiiiiii iiiiiii

iiiii!i
_WER DIVIDER -L PHASE SHIFTER POWER SUPPLY iiiiiii iiilgii i!iii!i ii_i!!i ,f

iiiiiii_ .
iiiiiii

iii;iii
ig!iiii

iii[iii
ii!iiii

_

iiiiiii

PHASESHIFTER POWER SUPPLY

_.A_E_.,E,_

_ii i l

iiiiiii
_iiiii! iliiii!

POWER DIVIDER

C-BAND

HELICAL ANTENNA

Figure

9-8

C-Band 9-31

An_nna

Sys_m

PROJECT
.__ $EDR 300

GEMINI
_._

Mechanical Characteristics:

_he antenna radiation pattern is identical to that The antenna is used for both reception

of a quarter wave stub on a ground plane.

and transmission of the adapter C-hcud radar beacon during the orbital phase of the mission. The _ute_a is Jettisoned with the equipment section of the adapter.

C-Band Antenna _stem Purpose: The C-hand ante_ system, consisting of a power divider, a phase

shifter, and three helical antennas, provides transmission and reception capability for the re-entry C-band radar beacon. The power divider supplies equal A phase shifter is in series

transmission power to the three helical antennas.

with one of the antennas to ccmpensate for areas of low or no radiation coverage between lobes of the three individual radiatio_ patterns. A phase shifter power The antenna system ....

supply supplies the phase shifter with 26 vac 453 cps power.

gives the circ,,1_rradiation pattern around the spacecraft longitudinal axis required for ascent, descent and roll spacecraft attitudes.

Physical Characteristics:

The power divider, phase shifter, phase shifter power The power divider, phase

supply, and helical antennas are shown in Figure 9-8.

shifter, and phase shifter power supply are mounted on the small pressure bulkhead, outside the pressurized area of the spacecraft. The power divider

measures approximately 3.86 inches over the connectors, 4.0 inches over the tuning knobs and weighs appro_tely 6.5 ounces. The phase shifter is approximately

5.8 inches long, 2.8_ inches wide at the large end, 1.4 inches high, has a diameter at the small end of about 1.5 inches, and weighs approximately 12 ounces. The phase shifter power supply measures appro_mately 1.5 inches wide, 1.75 inches

high, 3.5 inches long over the eo_ucctor_ and weighs approximately 8 ounces.

9-32

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR 300

The three C-baud helical antennas are mounted flush with the outside skin of the spacecraft and spaced approximately 120 degrees apart. Each antenna unit is approx-

imately 3.4 inches long, 1.8 inches wide, has a depth of 2.21 inches over the connector and weighs approximately 3.5 ounces.

Electrical Characteristics :

The power divider, phase shifter, and helical antennas

comprise an antenna system that satisfies the transmission and reception requirements for the re-entry C-band radar beacon during the launch a_ of the mission. re-entry phases

The power divider is basically a cavity type power splitter.

During beacon trans-

mission, power is delivered to the power divider where it is divided equally among the C-band helical antennas. The power divider compensates for loss of power The power divider co_-

due to the phase shifter in series with the right ante,_a.

+_ins a double stub tuner to compensate for mismatch between the re-entry C-band beacon, the C-band helical antennas, and the phase shifter. Tu,lug is accomplish-

ed by means of a self-locking tuning shell located underneath each tunlng stub cap.

The phase shifter has its own ac power supply.

The input to the phase shifter, is

half wave rectified and applied across a coil wound around a ferrite material. Due to the characteristics of the ferrite material, the rf signal from the power divider is delayed 0 to 180 degrees + 20 degrees at the rate of 453 cycles per second. The changing phase shift of the rf power on one of the C-band helical

antennas with respect to the other two, shifts the lobe of that antenna by approximately + 45 degrees; thus giving the effect of an almost ideal circular radiation pattern around the longitudinal axis of the spacecraft. The combination of the

three antenna elements gives a radiation pattern which extends in all directions except forward and aft of the spacecraft. 9-33

PROJECT GEMINI
The 453 sealed buffer power input phase cps shifter power solid-state stage, supply voltage and to power operate unit supply the is phase a dc-ac shifter. of a volt_e stage of vith 21 volts voltage inverter The which power re_lator_ transformer rms at is supplies supply is

$EDR300

__

a nominal a hermetically

26

vac,

consisting output

single-stage coupled

oscilAator, output. with the The an space-

a push-pull a minimtm fr_n 20 to

provides range

output 30 vdc.

453 + 17 cps applied from C0_TRCL

Input

craft main bus via the BEACON-C the I_TY position

circuit breaker,

C-RF_Y BEACON current

switch and

of the ANT 8EL switch.

Ma_Imtun input

is 370 m111iamperes.

Multiplexers Purpose:

(UHY Diplexer

and

UHF Quadri_lexer) isolation between DCS receiver transmitter number i, and

The uh_ diplexer aid beacon antenna. transmitter,

provides

the acquisition into a c_umon by telemetry

or the delayed-time

telemetry provides

operating the standtransvia

The uhf quadrlplexer the real-time n,_er

isolation

between

telemetry

transmitter,

a ,,h_ voice

mitter/receiver_ coaxial switches.

and DCS receiver

2 operating

into a c_i._._on antenna

Physical

Characteristics:

The physical

representation is

and approximate 9-9.

location

of is

the uh_ diplexer located riplexer surized

and the ,,h_ quadriplexer module

shown in Figure equipment

The diplexer The quadthe pres-

on the electronic is located area

of the adapter

section.

forward

of the small pressurized

bulkhead

outside

of the cabin.

The diplexer contains

is approximately

4. 5 inches

wide,

4 inches high_ and weighs

and 2.7 inches deep; 1.25 pounds.

two input and one output

connectors,

approximately 5.5 inches

The uhf quadriplexer inches high; weighs connectors.

is approximately approximately

5.75 inches wide,

deep, and _.i and one output

2.75 pounds,

and has four input

9-34

3oo
_)F 1
STANDBY TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER REAL-TIME

ANTENNA VIA COAXIAL J5 O'---SWITCH

_

O J3 DIGITAL COMMAND SYSTEM RECEIVER NO.

' ". 2

"

'

-T--_-

T I_ o_0_vo,cE
VIA COAXIAL TRANSCEIVERS

_'_

__

x\

ACQUISITION

AID

_(
J3 O UHF WHIP ANTENNA T _ J

0 BEACON AND s_ DELAYED - TIME
TM TRANSMITTER VIA COAXIAL SWITCH

o 0 _._

°

C

o

° '"

_(

o_ DIGITAL
SYSTEM RECEIVI_

COMMAND NO. I

/'_"

U

Figure

9-9

UHF

Diplexer/UHF 9-35

Quadriplexer

SEDR 3O0

Electrical Characteristics: and the uhf quadriplexer.

Figure 9-9 shows the schematic of the uhf diplexer

Each channel consists of a high Q cavity, tuued to the All channels are isolated from each other withEach channel can be

corresponding operating frequency.

out appreciably attenuating the rf signals passing through it. re-tuned if the assi_ed operating frequency is chs_ed.

The diplexer isolates DCS

receiver number l, and the acquisition aid beacon or the delayed-time telemetry transmitter, depending upon the position of coaxial switch n_ber 2. The diplexer

operates into the ,bf whip antenna on the adapter equipment section.

The uhf quadriplexer isolates the real-time telemetry transmitter, the stand-by telemetry transmitter, one of the two uhf voice transmitter/receivers, and DCS receiver number 2. The quadriplexer operates into one of the following three ubf

antennas, depending on the position of the coaxial switches in series with the antennas: ,,hfstub antenna, uhf descent antenna, or the uhf whip antenna on the

adapter retrograde section.

Coaxial

Switches

Purpose:

Five coaxial switches are used to perform the following functions :

(i) select the acquisition aid beacon or the delayed-time telemetry transmitter output as the input to the diplexer; (2) select one of the two uhf voice transmitter/receiver outputs as the input to the quadriplexer; (3) connect the hf voice transmitter/receiver to the adapter hf whip antenna on the retrograde section, or to the recovery hf whip antenna on the re-entry module; (4) connect the output of the quad_iplexer to the uhf descent antennAj or through coaxial switch 5 to the -_f stub or the retrograde adapter uhf whip ante___r__.

9-36

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
-___

SEDR300

ITEM 1 2

FUNCTION UHF TRANSCEIVERS TELEMETRY TRAN SMITTER/ACQUlSITION AID BE_ON DESCENT ANTENNA HF TRANSCEIVER UHF WHIP/UHF STUB COPTERND INDICATOR A CIRCUIT CONNECTOR

3 _" 4 5

_.... _

_

_ _*:o_ ._:._._:_:_.'_%_'_ ._i_*_:_

_.,__;_'_._:_-_*_:_

:<.-_'%_

_._

_

+28V POSITION

NO.

2

J

L_ 1

____

j o,

+28V POSITION

NO.

1

g

INDICATOR

CIRCUIT NO.

1

E

I SHOWN IN ENERGIZED PiN B POSITION

POWER AND iNDICATOR CIRCUIT CONNECTOR /

Figure

9-10

RF Coaxial 9-37

Switches

SEDR 300

Physical Characteristics:

The physical construction and approxlmate location The location of the switches

of the coaxial _witches is shown in Figure 9-10. is as follows:

Coaxial switch I:

approximately five inches from the small end of the cabin, in

the fourth quadrant.

Coaxial switch 2:

appro_w_tely

I0 inches from the forward (small) end of the

adapter equipment section, in the third quadrant.

Coaxial switch 3: the third quadrant.

appro_tely

i0 inches from the small end of the cabin, in

Coaxial

switch

I_: loca_d

adjacent

to

coaxial

switch

i

Coaxial the third

svitch

5:

approxt_tely

7 inches

fram the

small

end of the

cabin,

in

quadrant.

Each switch and weighs matel_ 2.65

co_tains appr_mately inches

a power 0-5 1.82

connector, pounds. inches

an input

connector, of each wide.

two output switch are

connectors, approxi-

The dimensions high, and 1 inch

lo_,

Electrical Characteristics: used interchangeably.

The five coaxial switches are identical and may be

Basically, the coaxial switches supply single pole double The switch, having a 20

throw switching action as illustrated in Figure 9-10. millisecond ma_

operation time, operates on 3 amperes at 28 vdc and uses a The coaxial switches are

latching solenoid break-before-make switching action. designed to operate _

15 mc to 500 mc, and from 5500 mc to 5900 inc. Pins D

9 -38

PROJECT
___

GEMINI

SEDR 300

and E of each switch are brought out to AGE test points to permit monitoring of the switch positions prior to lift-off. to accomplish the switching action. Pins A and B of each switch are utilized

BE_ACONS Re-entry Purpose : C-Band Radar Beacon The re-entry C-band radar beacon provides tracking capability of the The

spacecraft from lift-off to insertion and from retrograde to landing.

re-entry C-band beacon may be used during roll maneuvers or in the event of adapter C-band beacon failure°

Physical Characteristics : The re-entry C-band radar beacon is a sealed unit which measures approximately 7.64 x 6.14 x 3.02 inches and weighs about 8.3 pounds. nectors. As shown in Figure 9-11, the beacon has power, antenna, and test conLocated on the rear of the beacon are various adjustments for transSolid-state modular circuitry

mitter, preselector, and local oscillator tuning.

is used throughout the beacon with the exception of the transmitter magnetron and the local oscillator. The beacon is mounted on the right forward equipment

bay, and uses the C-band antenna system for reception and transmission.

Electrical Characteristics:

The re-entry C-band radar beacon is a transponder coded interrogation signal from a ground radar

which upon reception of a properly

tracking station, transmits a pulse modulated signal back to the tracking station. By measuring the elapsed time between transmission stations, and compensating and reception at the tracking of the

for the time delay of the beacon, the position The block diagram of the beacon is shown in

spacecraft can be determined.
/_

9-39

PROJECT

SEO 300
GEMINI

_

ADAPTER C-BAND RADAR BEACON

TUNING

PRESELECTOR TUNING

RE-ENTRY C-BAND RADAR BEACON

Figure

9-11

C-Band Radar 9-40

Beacons

SEDR 300

PROJECT
Figure coupler 9-12. The signal arriving

GEMINI
is routed through the directional isolates

at the antemaa circulator.

to one half

of a dual ferrite

The ferrite antenna

circulator

the transmitter both which reception

from the receiver, and transmission. by means

allowing The beacon

a si_le utilizes

system

to be used for receiver of 5600 mc

a superhetrodyne over a range

is tunable,

of a three receiver

stage preselector, frequency

to 5800 me.

The assigned

center

is 5690 me.

The output

of the preselector mixer

is combined an output

with the local intermediate triode

oscillator

frequency The

in the crystal

to produce

frequency

of 80 inc.

local oscillator a ferrite selector. P_ frequency Additional

is of the metal-ceramic for isolation of the mixer

cavity type.

The mixer mixer

contains and pre-

circulator The output amplifier

between

the local

oscillator, tuned

is ampliflod by a video by a pulse

by three detector amplifier

intermediate preamplifier. is supplied of the transdelay, in

stages,

followed

and a video whose

amplification

is obtained

output

to the decoder. mitter after

The purpose

of the decoder signal

is to initiate received. circuitry,

triggering _e system

a correctly

coded

has been correctic_

conjunction

with the delay variation

provides

for a constant The beacon

fixed delay used in determining incorporates triggered a cw _w_unity noise. by

the exact that

position

of the spacecraft.

circuit

prevents

the transmitter below

from being level

by random

The noise

level

is reduced

the triggering

of the transmitter mitter

controlling

the gain of the pulse a one kilowatt divider.

amplifier.

The transsignal

uses a magnetron

and provides

peak pul_

modulated

at a frequency converter converter

of 5765 mc to the power a magnetic voltage amplifier

_he beacon

is powered

by a dc-dc The L8 and

employing provides

and silicon

controlled

rectifiers. between

regulation

for input

voltage

variations

9 -_I

PROJECT
_@
ANTENNA

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

PEAK PO I7 VOLTAGd _L

RECEIVER I __._
COUPLER AMPLIFIER -TRANSMITTER PRF

RECEIVER

TEST POINTS

(_

MONITOR

_

TRANSMITTER PRF

PEA)( FOWER

T

-="SM'_"R

,,

t 1
_ FREQUENCY CRYSTAL MIXER

T=NSM,.ER

1 ' t
PULSE SHAPERAND DECODER DELAY

A_"ODUo_OT I OR,VERAND L "i O:E_:XT"RO I_
O'eR _ _
INTERROGATION

/
GATE COINCIDENCE SYSTEM DELAY

I

-II
CIRCULATOR (DIPLEXEe) PRE-SELECTOR RECEIVER FREQUENCY

H

I.F.

H t£ l

CIRCULATOR (MIXER)

C.W.

®®®

I
LOCAL OSC. VARIATION CORRECTION _ VARIATION CORRECTION #2

® RECE,V_R FREQUENCY

®
SLOPE ll

@
SLOPE #2

®

_1

UNE FILTER

POWER SUPPLY

VARIOUS VOLTAGES

Figure

9-12

Re-Entry

C-Band

Radar 9-42

Beacon

Block Diagram

PROJECT
___ SEDR 300

GEMINI
_____

32.5 vdc.

The input to the converter is filtered by a pl-type filter to minimize

any line voltage disturbances.

Adapter Purpose.

C-Band Radar Beacon The adapter C-band radar beacon provides tracking capability of the

spacecraft during the orbital phase of the mission and is jettisoned with the adapter equipment section.

Physical Characteristics :

The adapter C-band beacon is a sealed unit and measures As shown in Figure 9-i1, the adapter

approximately 9.3_ x 8.03 x 3.26 inches.

beacon has a power and test connector, an antenna connector, and a crystal current test point connector. The beacon contains external adjustments for local

oscillator, preselector (rf filter), and transmitter tuning; switches for selecting the desired interrogation code, and one of two preset transponder fixed delay times. screws. These adjustments and switches are accessible by removing pressure sealing The beacon employs solid-state circuitry, except for the transmitter magThe adapter beacon is located on the

netron and receiver local oscillator.

electronic module of the adapter equipment section and uses the C-band annular slot antenna for reception and transmission.

Electrical Characterlsties:

The adapter C-band radar beacon is a transponder, as the re-entry C-band beacon

which employs the same basic operating principles

to provide spacecraft location data upon receipt of a properly coded interrogation signal. 9-13. A block diagram of the adapter C-band beacon is shown in Figure The

The interrogation signal is fed from the antenna to the duplexer.

duplexer is a ferrite circulator which couples the received signal to the rf filter preselector and also isolates the receiver from the transmitter to permit

9-43

SEDR 300

_

mll Im

_

_

"

I I

ANTENNA

I J2

I

--

DUPLEXER (CIRCULATOR)

--

TRANSMITTER (MAGNETRON)

_

PULSEFORMING NETWORK (PEN)

=

MODULATOR

I

,
I
jADe.

,
1 r I I
-"

]i_
--

' I l=l 'I I
I

,P I_ PU_EEEOR_ MOOO_TOR M,×ER _MPL,F,_R RES'ORER = I ¢ONTRO'

,

[
1

' 1
DECODER

1
I

LOCAL OSCILLATOR

_ =1

: DRIVER

I
DC/DC
CGNVERTER

I
PULSE ASSEMBLY

J

u___

-]

LINE FILTERS

I

REGULATOR AND

L_

_
Figure 9-13

24.5 ro 30v cc POWER Adapter C-Band Radar 9-44

_

_
Beacon Block Diagram

-

r_

J
PROJEC:r
__

GEMINI

SEDR 300

use of a common antenna for reception and transmission.

The superhetrodyne

receiver frequency is tunable from 5395 me to 5905 inc. The assigned operating center frequency is 5690 mc and is selected by adjustment of the rf filter.

The rf filter is a three-stage coaxial resonator

preselector,

employing three separately

tuned

cavities to provide adequate rf selectivity

and to protect

the mixer crystal from damage due to transmitter

power reflected by the antenna.

The output of the preselector is combined with the local oscillator output in the mixer stage to provide a 60 mc output to the intermediate frequency amplifier. The

The mixer consists of a coaxial directional coupler and a mixer crystal. directional coupler isolates the local oscillator

output from the antenna and

directs it to the mixer crystal.

The local oscillator is a re-entrant cavity type

employing a planar triode to generate the cw signal required to operate the mixer.

The intermediate frequency amplifier is a high gain amplifier composed of an input stage, five amplifier stages, and a video amplifier. The amplified video output

is fed to the pulse form restorer circuits which prevent a ranging error due to variations in receiver input signal levels, and also provides a standard amplitude pulse to the decoder for each input signal exceeding its triggering threshold. The decoder determines when a correctly coded signal is received and supplies an output to the modulator driver. CODE switch. The type code to he accepted is selected by the The

Single pulse, two pulse or three pulse codes may be selected.

modulator driver and control circuits initiate and control triggering of the transmitter modulator. The modulator driver supplies two fixed values of overall system

9-45

PROJECT GEMINI
delay. The desired dela_r

$EDR 300

______

is selected by the position of the DLY switch.

An al-

ternate value of maximum dela_ is available by removing an internal Jumper lead. The modulator control furnishes the trigger And turn-off pulse for the modulator"

and limits modulator triggers to prevent the magnetron duty cycle from being exceeded, regardless of the interroKating sign,! frequency. The modulator cir-

cuit employs silicon controlled rectifiers which function similar to a thyratron, but require a much shorter recovery time.

The associated modulator Pulse Formlng Network (PFN) and transformer provide the necessary pulse to drive the transmitter magnetron. selected by the internal co--_ctlons made to the PFN. frequency is tunable from _00 me to _ The desired pulse width is The transmitter _netron

inc. The assigned transmltter center .... •

frequency is 5765 inc. A m_n_m_m of 500 watts peak pulse power is supplied to the antenna under all conditions of rated operation.

The transponder power stq_p_Vcellists of input line filters, a series regulator, and a dc-dc co_verter. The _ supply furnishes the required regulated output The converter

voltages with the --_egulated input voltage between 21 and 30 vdc. e_ploys a multivibrator aM fnll wave rectifier circuits.

Acquisition Purposes acquisition craft within abled

Aid Beacon the beacon range C-band beacons is that supply accurate used station. 3 the to tracking determtue When the data, the spacecomes is dis-

Unltke aid

mere_V a tr=-_tter of a ground tracki_ tracking station

when the spacecraft beacon

comes within the range

of a ground

acquisition

aid

and remains off until the spacecraft is again out of range.

9-_

PROJECT
___
f_

GEMINI
SEDR300

Physical

Characteristics: having

The acquisition

aid beacon,

shown

in Figure

9-14, of

is

cylindrical, approximately 9-I_. weighs

a diameter

of approximately

2.6 inches,

and a height as shown connector

3.5 inches. contains

The acquisition a power

aid beacon

is located antenna

in Figure and

The beacon appro_mately

connector,

a coaxial

17 ounces.

Electrical

Characteristics: regulator,

The acquisition

aid beacon filter.

consists

of a transmitter,

de-de voltage

and a low pass

output

The transmitter

is an all transistorized

unit,

containing

a push-pull

output The

stage

to obtain a minim_ transmitter frequency

output of 200 milliwatts is derived by taking

at a frequency the basic

of 2_6.3 me.

frequency

of an oscillator

and multiplying

it through

a series

of tripler

and doubler

stages.

The transmitter pletely reduce

is powered

by a de-de

voltage

regulator. output output

The regulator voltage

is comTo filter

transistorized the probability in the output

and supplies of obtaining circuit.

a regulated a spurious

of 28 vdc. a band pass

signal,

is placed

UHF Recover_ Purpose: quency location of The 2_3 of

Beacon uhf me, recovery serves as beacon, operating aid by on the international information distress regarding fre-

a recovery

providing

the

spacecraft.

Physical is of shown the

Characteristics: in Figure 9-1_. re-entry

The The

uhf beacon

recovery is The

beacon on is

and the

its aft

approximate right

location bay long,

mounted beacon

equipment 9.0 inches

spacecraft

module.

approximately

9-47

SEDR 300

RE OUTPUT CONNECTOR

_---FILTER ,,/_ TRANSM11T ER

S

'_'-_ POWER CONNECTOR POWER SUPPLY

_"

ACQUISITION AID BEACON

UHF RECOVERY BEACON

Figure

9-14

Acquisition

Aid

and

UHF

Recovery

Beacons

9-48

PRO,JEC
f_

GEMINI
SEDR 300

___

4.0 inches wide, 2.5 inches high, and weighs 3.9 pounds ma_mum. tains one multlpin power connector and one coaxial connector.

The beacon con-

Electrical Characteristics.

The uhf recovery beacon consists of a spike elimi-

nator, a regulator, a dc-dc converter, a pulse coder, a modulator, and a transmitter.

Spacecraft main bus voltage is fed to the switching type regulator through the spike eliminator filter. The voltage regulator provides a dc regulated output

voltage of 12 vdc to the dc-dc converter, the transmitter tube filaments, and the pulse coder.

The dc-dc converter is a solid-state device providing two high voltage outputs to F--, the transmitter and modulator. with the modulator to apply The pulse coder, a solid-state device, operates

correctly coded high voltage pulses to the transmitter

for plate modulation

of the power amplifiers.

The transmitter amplifier.

consists of an oscillator

stage, a doubler stage, and a power a uhf pulse coded output havAn external rf

The transmitter

power amplifier provides

ing a peak power of at least 50 watts to the uhf recovery anten_. band-pass filter is installed between the transmitter especially

output and the antenna to frequencies.

reduce spurious rf radiations, VOICE COMMUNICATION Voice Control Center Purpose:

at the uhf voice transmitter

The Voice Control Center contains switches and controls for selecting The VCC also

the type of voice communication and the desired operating mode. _"

contains microphone and heatset amplifiers, an alarm tone generator, and voice

9-49

•ALARM TONE GENERATOR _)"

COMMON MODULE

CONNECTOR

HEADSET AND

MIKE TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER CONNECTOR R/RECEIVER

AMPLIFIER LOAD

O INT HE

J _

UHF , INT HF HP C)"

UHF_ '...""MODEl

(_J

_J_,

ORE

OUHP_D MODE"-..

.'_

F

NO. 1_0.2

_]UHP,

HE

,

UHF rR_l

c

Ngt, E
• HF J NORM VOX OFF ADIPT_,NTy FIT INT _-_ KEYING

,NpN
q HF[_] OFF :ONT

J

_] , o NO.i SILENCE

o MOM

0.2 o

:,

RECORD

rc AGE TEST POINTS ALARM TONE GENERATOR, TEST POINTS, PUSH-TO-TALK SWITCH, AND HEADSET AND MIKE AMPLIFIER LOAD CONNECTOR

Figure 9-15 Voice Control 9-50

Center

PROJECT
___

GEMINI

SEDR 300

actuated

transmitter

keying

circuitry.

Physical Characteristics: Figure 9-15. craft cabin.

The VCC and its approximate

location

is shown in

The VCC is mounted in the center instrument panel of the spaceThe VCC is modular constructed, approximately 6.4 inches wide, 6.5 pounds.

6.4 inches high,

5.5 inches deep, and weighs approximately

Five connectors located on the rear of the unit provide voice communication system components

connection to the other The function of each

and test connectors.

connector is listed on Figure 9-15.

The switches and controls of the VCC are located on the front panel.

The number

1 and number 2 audio MODE switches are for selection of UHF, INT, HF, or HF/DF .... _ transmission. Below the MODE switches are three thumb-wheel-type modes. multidetent

volume controls, one for each of the above mentioned

In the center is the KEYING switch, a HF select switch, a UHF select switch, and thumb-wheel-type squelch controls for uhf and hf circuitry. The KEYING switch

provides for selection of PTT, VOX, or CONT INT/PTT for the voice transmitters. The UHF and HF select switches provide mitter/receiver. capability of selecting the desired trans-

The ADPT position of the HF select switch is not used.

The record switch, lower right, permits recordings to be made in any mode of operation. Continuous (CONT) or Momentary (MOM) recording can be selected.

9-51

SEO..OO
COMMAND PILOT f J i

/

I

!it

,i_._ >
.J >';;;'9 -_::__''_'_"

_<_(

M Ic lO PIt O N E$

/

.'
#/

-"

L
+._

i

"\_'_,

....

,S-"

HEADSET HEADSET AMPLIFIERS I I

,_ko,:O.,
HELMEt HTj// IG

<qZ
KEYING

vox
RELEASE

__ SUIT DISCONNECT _ __ _ATTITUDE HAND _'_ --0 1 _._ONTROLLER l I SUIT DISCONNECT O O

NORM O. 2

PUSH-TO-TALK SWITCH HELMET

_

_" _l I I _ O HEADSET

oo,
_ RELEASE

o,

LIGHTWEIGHT

.-

--I

'</
VOX

l

t_ :" /,L<_, \
//#_

// ....... _,,,.'-'EADSET \

-_
J
HIES-

"_ PILOT

MICROPHONE AMPLIFIERS

"'-_'

""_='_l_

MICRO pHO N E tLL__ S

_J.

Figure

9-16

Voice Control

Center

Functional 9-52

Diagram

(Sheet

1 of 2)

,-_

SEDR 300

" CONT o _, ,-o-o
.... -@....

f 1";3

I FI

U.E _ ,AUD,O."N ,ooRo0o0C_E_

_
H

_RoM COMPLEX GROUNO
'DICE RECORDER FWR _ECOROER AUDIO INPUT

--

|

...... ,

oI

_E__IZ]
UHF NO. 2 CHASSIS GROUND _UHF D_ _ jJ_ UHF NO. 1 UHE NO. UHFNO. UHF NO. 1 CHASS'S GROUND 2AUDIO(RECEIVER) 2 KEY LINE

_--_oOC 1 _1_0 0

y._
_

_N

oo ' #o. , O"F'_IOPOWE
OFF DOFF I C NO. 2 UHF MAIN F_OWERNO. 2 UHF RECEIVER POWER NO. TO COAXIAL SWITCH !1 2

U.E
_INT

.E/DE 0_T
e" _

0

,0CO_'AL 'l SW'TC.
RE-ENTRY HF AUDIO (TRANSMIT)

I

_

O O_o:t F H

_''_'-'_HFI I "

|

PADI

RE-ENTRY

HF KEY LINE

ADAPTER HF KEY LINE

RE-ENTRY HF AUDIO '

(RECEIVER)

_E-ENTRy HF CHASSIS GROUND

J

_

I

I

I

:

_'_

E

RNTY

HF

_J

(_ _

OFFpT_ =_

pRNIYJRE-ENTRy OAD

HF RECEIVER POWER POWER

RE-ENTRY HF MAIN

_

I
jj

o

"

GO
RE-EN1T_Y HF SQUELCH

f--\

--

_

Figure 9-16 Voice Control

i
--

-IAUDIO NO. 2 PWR FROM GROUND C OMR,.EX J_ J TO GROUND COMPLEX TONE GENERATOR & VOX POWER

Center Functional
9-53

Diagram (Sheet 2 of 2)

SEDR 300

The SILENCE _wltch, lower left, is to permit uninterrupted sleep during extended spacecraft missions. The N01_ position allows reception for both pilots. The

NO. i position removes power fran the command pilot's headset amplifiers and the NO. 2 position removes power from the pilot's headset amplifiers; thus, making re. ception impossible.

Electrical Characteristics:

The VCC contains two headset and two microphone

amplifiers for each of the audio channels.

Figure 9-16 shows a functional block diagram of the VCC.

An audio signal, fr_n

the microphone in the helmets or lightweight headsets, is amplified by two microphone amplifiers and then applied to the MODE switch. With the MODE switch in the

HI_position, the output of the microphone amplifiers is applied to the hf tranemitrer. When the MODE switch is in the INT position, the output of the microphone controls. With

is applied to the four headset amplifiers, via the two TI_Tvol_e

the MODE switch in the I_F position, the output of the microphone amplifiers is applied to the -b_ transmitters. n_ber The _ switch selects uhf transmitter

i or n_mber 2 and also operates coaxial switch i to connect the selected The desired keying mode is selected

transmitter output to the uhf quadriplexer. by a e_....on _IN@ mitters. _e switch.

Three methods may be selected to key the voice trans-

VOX position enables keying of the selected transmitter at the instant The PTT position eanbles keying of the trans-

the microphone has an output signal.

mitter when either push-to-talk switch, on the suit disconnect cables of the attitude control handle, is depressed. The CONT INT/PTT position gives continuous fr_

intere_=u_nication between the crew and push-to-talk keying for tra_ssion

9-5k

PROJECT
___

GEMINI

SEDR 300

the spacecraft to the ground station.

The VCC also controls the power supplies of the transmitter/receivers by means of ground switching. With the MODE switeh i_ a position other than HF and the HF

select switch in the I_NTYposition, a ground is supplied to the hf transmitter/ receiver auxiliary power supply to power the hf receiver.

With the HF select switch in RNTY and the MODE switch in the HF position, a ground is supplied to the hf transmitter/receiver main power supply to power the hf receiver and transmitter. hf. The uhf circuitry operates on the same principle as the

The UHF select switch supplies power ground for the selected receiver.

The MOI_ switch (UHF position) together with the UHF select switch, supplies a _ power return for the uhf transmitter and receiver.

The HF/DF position of the MODE switch is used for direction finding purposes. With the MODE mrltch in HF/DF and the HF select in the RNTY position, the hf transmitter is modulated by a 1,000 eps tone which is utilized to determine spacecraft location.

UHF Voice Transmitter/Receivers Purpose: Two ub_ voice transmitter/receivers are provided for redundant line-ofbetween the spacecraft and the ground.

sight voice c_uication

Physical Characteristics:

The uhf voice transmitter/receivers and their approxiBoth t_tter/receivers are identical

mate location is shown in Figure 9-17.

and are mounted side by side in the forward right equipment bay of the re-entry

9-55

PROJEC:I"
__

GEMINI
____._j

SEDR 300

module.

Each transmitter/receiver 7.7 inches pounds. Each

is a modular

constructed, wide,

hermetically

sealed

--It approximately appro_mately a coaxial 3.0

long, 2.8 inches unit has

2._ inches audio and

deep and weighs connector, and

a multipin

power

connector.

Electrical transmitter,

Characteristics: receiver,

The ,,hf voice

t_tter/receiver

consists

of a

and power supply.

The transmitter driver,

consists

of a crystal

controlled

oscillator,

two rf amplifiers, and power

a

and a push-pull

power amplifier.

All stages

except the driver

a_plifier capable

are transistorized. of producing

The transuitter

is fixed-tuned

at 296.8 mc and is load.

an rf power output modulated

of 3.0 watts (s_n)by

into a 50 ohm resistive modulator

The transmitter

is amplitude

a transistorized

stage.

The am superhetrodyne quency

receiver

is fully

transistorized, circuit

is fixed-tuned limiting. stage

at a freThe squelch

of 296.8 mc, and contains is manually controlled.

a squelch

for noise

threshold

An automatic audio

vol_e

control input

is also

incorporated

to provide

a constant

output with

signal variations.

The ,,b_ voice transmitter/receiver an auxiliary and a main power

is powered

by two dc-dc power

converters

co_prising supplies panel. is

supply.

Operating

for the two power

is limited by two circuit breakers One circuit accomplished UP_ select breaker is provided return

located

on the left switch/circuit Actuation the Voice of the power Control

breaker

for each unit. through

supplies

by ground

switching

Center. switch is

If the

switch is in the NO. i or NO. 2 position other than UHF, a ground is supplied

and the MODE

in a position

to the auxiliary

power

supply

9-56

PROJECT
f-

GEMINI

.__

SEDR 300

AUXILIARY MAIN

AND J I

MAIN

cOVER

POWER

SUPPLY

AUDIO SECIIO N _-,-.,....,_1 AUDIO A ND POWER

_

CHASSIS

ILATOR

TO UHF COAXIAL SWITCH

I I

MODULAR CONSTRUCTION

,h_TTER

Figure 9-17 UHF Voice Transmitter/Receiver 9-57

PROJECT
__ SEDR 300

GEMINI

only, placing the tra-mnitter/receiver into a receive condition. switch in the _

With the MOI_

position, a ground is supplied to the main power supply, plac-

ing the selected uhf voice transmitter/receiver into a receive and transmit condition.

It should be noted that when the uhf transmitter is keyed, the uhf receiver is disabled and ,,b_voice trs_ssions from the ground station can not be received.

HF Voice Transmitter/Receiver Purpose: The hf voice transmitter/receiver is provided to enable beyond the line-

of-sight voice c_=-_,-_cationbetween the spacecraft and the ground.

Physical Characteristics:

Figure 9-18 shows the modular construction and approxi-

mate location of the hf voice transmitter/receiver in the forward right equipment hay of the re-entry module. The unit weighs approximately 62 ounces, is approxiOne multipin audio

mately 8.5 inches long, 3.3 inches wide, and 2.9 inches deep. connector and one rf connector are provided.

Electrical Characteristics:

Basically, the hf voice transmitter/receiver is

electrically identical to the uh_ transmitter/receiver except for the operating frequency and power output. The hf transmitter and receiver are fixed tuned to a

frequency of 15.016 mc and the hf transmitter provides an rf power output of 5 watts.

Actuation of the hf receiver and transmitter is accomplished through the VCC.

If

the HF select switch is in RNTY and the MODE switch is in a position other than HF, the hf transmitter/receiver is in a receive condition. With the MODE switch in the

HF position, the hf transmitter/receiver is placed in a receive and transmit condition.

9-58

PROJECT
._./. SEDR 300

GEMINI
__

MAIN POWER SUPPLy

TO HF COAXIAL

MODULAR

CONSTRUCTION

AUDIO AND POWER CONNECTOR

AUDIO

AMPLIFIER

/_.

tRANSMITTER

Figure

9-18 HF Voice Transmitter/Receiver 9-59

SEDR300

When the hf transmitter is keyed, the hf receiver is disabled.

Voice Tape Recorder Purpose: The voice tape recorder is provided so recordings can be made during the

spacecraft mission.

Physical Characteristics:

The physical construction and approximate location of The voice tape recorder is located

the voice tape recorder is shown in Figure 9-19.

inside the cabin in a vertical position between the pilot's seat and the right-hand side wall on spacecraft 5 and 6. On spacecraft 8 through 12 the recorder is located The voice tape recorder as-

on the left-hand side wall aft of the abort handle.

sembly consists of the recorder, tape cartridge, and shock absorber mounting plate and is supplied as GFE equipment. The recorder is approximately 6.25 inches long,

2.87 inches wide, one inch thick, and weighs 30 ounces maximum without the tape cartridge. The shock absorber mounting plate is approximately 6.3 inches long, The tape cartridge is approxi-

three inches wide, and weighs 20 ounces maximum.

mately 2.25 inches square, 3/8 inch thickI and weighs two ounces.

The recorder contains a power connector and a signal connector located on the end. as shown in Figure 9-19. The recorder is retained in the shock mount by guides The door contains a red plastic lens A safety latch prevents

and two allen-head bolts for easy removal.

so that light from the end-of-tape bulb is visible. accidental opening of the door. and sliding it sideways.

The door is opened by pressing down on the latch

When the latch is released, the spring loaded hinge Flat pressure springs on the

causes the door to open, exposing the cartridge tab.

door hold the inserted cartridge in place and maintains tape contact with the

9/oO

_-

SEDR300

_RTRIOGE

MOUNTING

PLATE

END-OF-TAPE LIGHT

SAFETY LATCH

J

Q

(DOOR OPEN)

ji o
I

POWER CONNECTOR

/_,

VOICE AND TiME SIGNAL CONNECTOR

Figure

9-19

Voice

Tape

Recorder

9-61

SEDR300

recorder

head and end-of-tape

contact.

The tape cartridge is guided into the recorder by step rails on each side of the cartridge. When the recorder door is opened, a heavy tab on the cartridge springs The cartridge contains approximately 180 feet of mag-

up to provide easy removal.

netic tape, a supply reel, _ake-up reel, and associated gears and clutches.

Electrical Specifications:

The recorder is a two-channel transistorized ,,n_tcon-

sisting of the cartridge hold-down mechanism, voltage regulator, voice amplifier, time signal amplifier, bias oscillator, motor drive elrcuitt synchronous drive motor, speed reducti_ unit, capstan, magnetic record head, and end-of-tape circuit.

When the tape cartridge is inserted and secured in the tape recorder, the pressure roller in the cartridge contacts the capstan and the tape is pressed against the record head and the e_x1-of-tape contact. "-_

The voice tape recorder is energized by spacecraft main bus power applied through the TOHE VOX circuit b_r the VCC. and the CONT or MCN position of the _CORD switch on

The voXtage regulator supplies 15 vde to the motor drive cireuits2 bias With the ¥CC and recorder energized, voice signals

oscillator and szplifiers.

from the microphones are applied thro_Bh microphone amplifiers in the VCC to the recorder voice slpllfier. _ voice signal is amplified and applied to the lower The time channel receives a digiThe timinB signml

record head for recording on the magnetic tape.

tal timing signal from a time correlation buffer in the TRS.

is amplified by the recorder time signal amplifier and applied to the upper record head for recording on the magnetic tape.

9-62

PROJECT
[__

GEMINI
__ .___

SEDR300

Simultaneously bias oscillator

with

the voice or timing

signal, heads

a 20 kc bias to make

current

from the

is applied

to the recorder

a linear

recording.

The motor output

drive circuit

consists

of a iBB cps oscillator, motor.

a driver

and push-pull are

stage used to drive the synchronous to one motor through winding

Phase-shift The motor

capacitors speed

connected is reduced

for self-starting.

of 8000 rpm

the speed reduction

unit to a capstan

speed

of 122 rpm.

The end-of-tape the recorder illuminate. minutes _--

circuit

is energized

by conductive causing

foil on the tape contacting the end-of-tape for two light seconds will light when to two

head

and end-of-tape light

contact,

The end-of-tape

will illuminate on the tape. The

of recording

time remains

remain

on when is illumicartridge of re-

the end-of-tape nated. and

is reached. may remove Each

Recordings

cannot be made when cartridge, insert

the light another

The pilot

the used tape cartridge

continue

recording.

provides

approximately

one hour

cording.

The tape speed

is approximately

0.6 inches

per second.

_ELE_

TRY TRANSMITTERS The three telemetry to ground transmitters communication System. provide a radio frequency (rf) link of various

Purpose:

from the spacecraft data obtained

facilities

for transmission

by the Instrumentation

Physical for the

Characteristics: operating frequency.

The three

telemetry

transmitters and

are identical approximate

except location

The physical

construction

of the transmitters are approximately

in the spacecraft 2.75 inches high,

is shown in Figure 2.25 inches wide,

9-20.

The transmitters long, and weigh

6.5 inches

9-63

,__

PRO J E'-E-C'T'--G M I N I E
SEDR 300

approximately 41 ounces.

Each transmitter contains a dc power connector, an rf of the transmitters are

output power connector, and a video connector. Two

located in the right forward equipment bay of the re-entry module, the third is located on the electronic module in the adapter equipment section. Electrical Characteristics: their operating frequency The three telemetry transmitters are classified by

or by their function.

The real-time (low-frequency) telemetry transmitter operates at 230.4 inc. The delayed-time (mid-frequency) telemetry transmitter operates at a frequency of 246.3 inc. The stand-by (hlgh-frequency) transmitter, operating at 259.7 mc, may be used for real-time or delayed-time transmission in case one of the transmitters fails. The telemetry transmitters are solid-state fmtransmitters. After a 30 second

warm-up, the transmitters are capable of continuous uninterrupted operation for 500hours. Information is transmitted to the ground in digital format by deviating

the carrier frequency to the higher frequency deviation limit to transmit s I, and to the lower deviation limit to transmit a 0.

The transmitters receive Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) PCMpulse programmer and voice tape recorder.

trains from the PCM

The real-time transmitter provides the

ground monitoring stations with current real-time data at a rate of 51.2 kilobits per second. The delayed time transmitter provides the ground monitoring station

with data stored on the tape recorder while the spacecraft was between ground stations. The delayed-time data is transmitted at a rate of 112.6 kilobits The stand-by transmitter is used as backup for the real-time _ full-time

per second.

or delayed-time transmitters in event of a failure in eithertransmitter. Transmission of the real-time and delayed-time data provide essentially

9-64

PROJECT
____

GEMINI
___

SEDR300

FROM FCM PRO(

TO ANTENNA VIA COAXIAL SWITCH

POWER CONNECTOR

Figure

9-20

Telemetry 9-65

Transmitters

PROJECT

GEMINI
___]

SEDR 300

coverage throughout the spacecraft mission.

The transmitters can be energized

by a command from the ground station via the DCS or by controls on the instrument panel.

Each transmitter consists of five subassemblies as shown in the block diagram of Figure 9-21. The subassemblies are an oscillator-modulator, a times 12 (x12)

multiplier and power amplifier, a bandpass output filter, a line filter and a de-de converter. The oscillator-modulator and the times 12 multiplier and power

amplifier subassemblies contain the variable resistors, inductors, transformers and tr_-_er capacitors for tuning the transmitter frequency and power output. subassembly components are point-to-point wired. The

The oscillator-modulator consists of a video amplifier, crystal controlled oscillator, phase shift networks and buffer amplifiers. modulated by the video amplifier output. The oscillator frequency is

The phase shift networks provide impe-

dance matching of the crystal oscillator to improve signal linearity for large deviations of frequency. The buffer amplifiers increase signal levels and isolate

the crystal circuit from the frequency multipliers.

The times 12 multiplier and power amplifier consists of a buffer amplifiers, times 4 multiplier, power amplifier and times 3 multiplier which increase the carrier frequency and power to the desired output values. The power amplifier develops

6 to 7 watts of power at a frequency from 75 to 80 mc into the output tripler circuit.

The bandpass filter is used to minimize spurious radiations at the output of the transmitter. The real-time, stand-by and delayed-time transmitters each contain a The filter has a minimum S db _

filter with a different frequency bandpass.

9-66

PROJECT
//_\

,EO, 300
GEMINI
m m ANTENNA

FILTER

MULTIPLIER X3

_1 _1

POWER AMPLIFIER

_
I

BUFFER AMPLIFIER

_

MULTIPUER X4

_1"

BUFFER AMPLIFIER

i

X12

MULTIPLIER

AND

POWER

AMPLIFIER

BUFFER AMPUPIER

_

PHASE SHIFTER

i,,

,-

BUFFER AMPLIFIER

i'--'--II

PHASE SHIFTER

II

BUFFER AMPLIFIER

II

OSCILLATOR

VIDEO AMPLIFIER

_

iNPUT

OSCILLATOR-MODULATOR

V 18 TO 30.5 VDC I NPUT POWER '% f LINE FI LTER DC-DC CONVERTER l_ H i I_ 30 VDC 70 VDC

Figure 9-21 Telemetry

Transmitter
9-67

Block Diagram

SEDR300

bandwidth rf output

of 16 me, an impedance co--ector

of 50 ohms and a vswr of less than part of the bandpass filter.

1.5 to I.

The

J3 is an integral

The line filter prevents operation back and prevents

noise

on the input generated

power bus from affecting within power the transmitter

transmitter

transients

from feeding part

to the input power bus.

The multipin

connector

J2 is an integral

of the line filter.

The de-de converter and a transformer ulated

is a completely

encapsulated outputs

unit employing

transistors,

diodes

to provide

regulated

of 30 vdc and 70 vdc from an u-_egis a constant power input

input voltage

of 18 to 30.5 vdc. the heat dissipation

The converter

type, thus minimizing

caused by high voltage

inputs.

FLASHING Purpose: location

RECOVERY

LIGHT AND POWER SUPPLY recovery light and power supply provide visual spacecraft

The flashing information.

Physical

Characteristics: location

Figure

9-22 shows the physical recovery spring.

representation supply.

and The

approximate light

of the flashing by a torsion

light and its power The plug applying

is self-extended

power

to the light

is kept in place by a compression ly extended at the time the main

spring. parachute

The recovery is Jettisoned.

light will be automatical-

The flashing ejection 3 inches imately

recovery

light power supply

is mounted

in the cabin, aft of the 7 inches long, _ inches wide, light is approxtube is

seats.

The power supply

is approximately

deep and contains 1.25 inches wide, mechanism.

one connector. 0.75 inches

The flashing

recovery

thick, length

and 3.25 inches high, of the light

excluding

and erecting

The overall

and erecting

mechanism

9-68

PROJECT
S _

GEMINI
____

_,__

SEDR300

RECOVERY LIGHT

__

ERING .FLASHING SPRING RECOVERY

LIGHT POWER SUPPLY

(2 REQUIRED) I PLUG (2 REQUIRED)

COTTER PIN_

HINGE

PiN

NUT (2 REQUIRED),

Figure

9-22

Flashing

Recovery 9-69

Light

and

Power

Supply

SEDR300

approximately

6.5 inches.

Electrical parachute

Characteristics: jettison.

The recoveIV light is automatically

extended at main the

The extended recovery light is energized by positioning

RESC BEACON CONTROL switch to ON.

The power supply consists of a battery pack and converter.

The battery pack

consists of several mercury cells to comprise a power source of 6.75 vdc to a dc-dc converter whose output is fed to a voltage doubler and a capacitive network. The 450 vdc output of the voltage doubler is used to power the flashing light while the capacitive network in conjunction with a thyratron, provides trigger pulses to accomplish switching or flashing action of the light. The trigger

pulses occur at a rate of 15 triggers per minute,

DIGITAL COMMAND SYSTEM Purpose The DCS provides a discrete command link and a digital data updating capability

for the com_uter and _RS.

The discrete command link enables the ground to control radar tracking beacons, selection of telemetry transmitters, instrumentation data acquisition_ and abort

indications.

The capability of digital data updating enables the mission control center to update the computer and _RS to bring about a controlled re-entry at a pre-determined point, and allows timed shutdown of equipment controlled by DCS relays.

9-70

PEMINI
___ SEDR 300

Physical

Characteristics

The DCS consists of a receiver/decoder package and two relay boxes as illustrated in Figure 9-23 and 9-24, respectively. electronic module The three con_onents are located in the section.

of the adapter equipment

The receiver/decoder package is approxJn_tely 8 inches high, 8 inches wide, and 12 inches long. Both relay boxes are identical. Each relay box is approximately The combined weight of the The

2.25 inches wide, 5 inches_high, and 3 inches deep.

receiver/decoder package and the two relay boxes is approximately 2B pounds.

receiver/decoder package contains two uhf receivers and a decoder while each of the two relay boxes contain eight relays.

General

Descriptio n

The DCS receives Phase Shift Keyed (PSK) signals composed of a reference and an information signal. The information signal is in phase with the reference for a

logical 1 and 180 degrees out of phase with the reference for a logical O; thus establishing the necessary requirements for digital data.

Types of Commands The DCS receives two types of digital commands: Stored Program Co_ands (SPC). Real Time Commands (RTC) and

RTC causes relays within the DCS to be actuated.

Nine of the 16 relays available for RTC are utilized to perform the following functions: (i) (2) (3) (4) (5) Select the stand-by telemetry transmitter Select the stand-by telemetry transmitter for real-tlme transmission. for delayed-time transmission.

Select the real-time telemetry and acquisition aid beacon transmission. Select real-time and delayed-tlme telemetry transmission.

Actuate the adapter C-band radar beacon. 9-71

SEDR300

Figure

9-23

DCS 9-72

Receiver/Decoder

PROJECT
__.

GEMINI
__

SEDR300

DCS

RECEIVER-

Figure

9-24

DCS Relay 9-73

Box

SEDR 300

PROMINI
(6) (7) (8) (9) Actuate the re-entry C-band radar beacon. llluminate the abort indicators. Actuate the playback tape recorder. Initiate calibration voltage for the PCM programmer. DCS

The remaining seven relays are not utilized and perform no mission function.

channel assignments for the nine functions listed above may be different on each spacecraft.

When the

spacecraft

goes out of range

of the

ground

station,

equipment

controlled

by DCS channels may be shutdown by a signal applied from the TRS to reset the DCS relays. This condition is known as salvo. The DCS relays in one relay box may

be reset by momentarily positioning the TAPE PLY BK switch to RESET.

Message Format and Modulation The ground station transmlts a 30-bit message for SPC and a 12-bit message for RTC. Each bit consists of flve sub-blts. The five sub-blts are coded to repre-

sent a logical 1 or O. vehicle address.

The first three bits of each message designate the

If the vehicle address is not correct, the DCS will reset itself If the vehicle address is accepted the sub-bit

and will not accept the message.

code will be automatically changed for the remainder of the message to reduce the probability of accepting an improper message.

The second three bits of each message designate the system address and identify the re-_Inder of the message as being a RTC or one of the following SPC : computer update, TRS time to go (TTG) to TR, or TRS TI_ to equipment reset (Tx). If the message is a SPC, the last 24 bits will be a data word. If the SPC is a In case of a

TRS TTG TO TX command, the last eight bits are ignored by the TRS.

9-74

PROJEC---'T-'GEMINI
SEDR 300

computer message,

six bits of the data word contains the internal

computer

address and the remaining 18 contains information.

Since a RTC consists of

12 bits, the six bits following the system address contain a 5-bit relay number and a 1-bit relay set-reset discrete.

The PSK modulation signals are i kc reference and a 2 kc information signal. receiver output is the composite audio of the I kc and the 2 kc signals. The

The

composite audio output is filtered to recover the 1 kc and the 2 kc signals. phase co_arator compares the 2 kc to the 1 kc signal.

The

The output of the phase

comparator is used to trigger a flip-flop to produce either a logical 1 or 0 sub-bit. The i kc reference signal is used to synchronize the DCS.

_

Operational Description A block diagram of the DCS receiver/decoder is shown in Figure 9-25. Basically,

the block diagram consists of a receiver, a decoder, and a power supply common to both sections.

The audio outputs of the two receivers are linearly summed in an emitter follower of the sub-blt detector module. bits. The sub-bit detector converts the audio to substorage for the output of the

The 5-stage shift register provides buffer

sub-blt code.

When a proper sub-bit code exists in the shift register, the The output of the bit detector

bit detector produces a corresponding i or 0 bit. is applied to the 24 stage shift register.

The operation for RTC and SPC is

identical up to the input to the 24 stage shift register.

The sub-bit sync counter produces a bit sync output for every five sub-bits. _ bit sync is used to gate the 24 stage shift register.

The

9-75

PROWl
SEDR 300

When a message is received, the vehicle address is inserted into the first three stages of the 24 stage shift register. If the vehicle address is correct, the

vehicle address decoder circuit will produce an output to the bit detector which changes the acceptable sub-bit code for the remainder of the message. The next

three bits of the message, the system address, are inserted into the first three stages of the 24 stage shift register, displacing the vehicle address to the next three stages. The system address decoder circuit identifies the specific address

and sets up the DCS to handle the remainder of the message.

When the system address is recognized to be a RT%

the message is inserted into

the first six stages of the 24 stage shift register and the system address and vehicle address are shifted into the next six stages. The RTC selection circuit

recognizes the first stage of the 24 stage shift register to be a relay set or reset function and will apply a positive voltage to all set or reset relay coils, as applicable. The RTC selection gates select the proper relay from the relay an output which applies

number stored in the 24-stage shift register and provides a power return to the coil of the selected relay.

;_en the system address is a SPC, the six address bits in the 24 stage shift registers are cleared and the remaining 24 bits of the message are placed into the register.

Assuming that the system address recognizes a TRS TTG to TR message, the data flow would be as follows: The TRS TR isolation amplifier, in the inter_ace cirThe READY pulse sets up the TRS When the TRS is ready to accept the

cuit, will apply a READY pulse to the TRS. to transfer TRS TTG to TR data from the DCS.

data, it sends 24 shift pulses, at the TRS data rate, to the TRS input of the DCS.

PROJECT
_

GEMINI
__

SEOR 3O0

SIGNAL STRENGTH TO TELEMETRY

RECEIVER R1

T
'
SUB-BITS _ TIMING ERROR INHIBIT

RECEIVER R2

?
I
s=

_

SIGNAL STRENGTH TO TELEMETRY

SUB-BIT DETECTOR

SUB-BITS

b

I

5 STAGE STORAGE REGISTER

I [CHAN
BIT DETECTOR ADDRESS DECODER ADDRESS DATA _ ADDRESS NO. STORAGE REGISTER RELAY DATA SELECTION RELAY DRIVE

I

FAILURE

SUB-BIT SYNCHRONtZER AND RESET

SET

I 1
2

_

POWER SUPPLY

L END I
JI 20-30V DC INPUT POWER R 'kDy PROGRAM CONTROL .,= TRANSFER IN PROGRESS VALIDIIY

INTERFACE

'
/f_

POWER SUPPLY
TELEMETRY VOLTAGES TO

-

'
1.

NOTE
HEAVY LINES DENOTE DATA FLOW.

_ _
_ O >I U

:
U

_ _;
'_.

=o _-<
_ --

Figure 9-25 DCS Block Diagram
9-77

>-_

_

SEDR 300

PROJEMINI
The data in the 2_ stage shift register ie then shifted out of the register through the DCS data isolation amplifier to the _RS. computer updating and _ operations. _ to TX messages _ The DCS operations for TTG to TR

s_mllar to _

Salvo occurs when _S

TTG to TX reaches zero.

At TX : O, the TRS applies a signal

to the TRS TX input line of the DCS which causes the RTC selection circuits to reset the DCS relays.

After a Sl_ or _

has been carried out by the DCS, a verification signal is The DCS

supplied to the telemetry system for transmission to a ground station.

indicator, on the instrument panel, illuminates when a SPC is transferred to the appropriate system. of data within transfer or if the system the reset supply to which reset the data was transferred for in trans_

Upon completion fails the to next respond message. of data,

100 milliseconds, also

DCS will event

in preparation error

The DCS will _or if the

in the voltages

of a timing out

mission

DCS power

become

of tolerance.

9-78

INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM
TITLE

, ecfion
PAGE

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ................................. SYSTEM OPERATION ...................................
SEQUENTIAL SYSTEM PARAMETERS ................ ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM PARAMETERS ...... ECS PARAMETERS ........................................ INERTIAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM PARAMETERS ..... ACME PARAMETERS ..................................... OAMS PARAMETERS .................................... RE-ENTRY CONTROL SYSTEM PARAMETERS .... AERODYNAMIC AND CREW CONTROL PARAMETERS............................... COMMUNICATION SYSTEM PARAMETERS ....... INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM PARAMETERS ...... PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ...................... RENDEZVOUS RADAR PARAMETERS ...............

lO-5 lO-5

X

10-11 10-16 10-19 10-24 10-26 10-28 10-31 10-33 10-35 10-35 10-39 10-41

SYSTEM U NITS.............................................
PRESSU RE TRA N SD U CERS ............................. TEM PERA TURE SEN S0 RS ............................... SY N C H R0 REPEA TERS .................................. A CCELERO M ETERS........................................ I N STRU M EN TA TI O N PA CKA G ES .................... MULTIPLEXER/ENCODER SYSTEM .................. TRANSMITTERS ............................................ PCMTAPE RECORDER .................................. D C- D C C0 N V ERTERS..................................... BI0- M ED TA PE REC0 RDERS AND POWER SUPPLY .................................
10-1

i"_"_'_"_._. 10-43 :'::::..--:_::."._::'m..= :;. _:.::.._ _ __ :. :.. ::::...':_ ".'. 1O-43 iiiii_!iii!ii'_-_'-_
ff'.:'"'.:'.:."'.:.:"_-:" 7--"_:

1O- 45 !i_iiiiii_!_![i!_[ii_i_ii 10- 47 iiiiii!!iiiiiiiiii!!!!!_i!i .oo..oo°.°°.oo.°°,o. oo,.o.I .oo..o.o°°°..o°°..o....._*,
,°o.°........°°,°.o.°,.._,_ ,oo....o....°...,.°_...._

co2 PARTIAL PRESSURE DETECTOR ...............10-47i!ii!!iiiiii!i!Hiiiiiiiii
10- 50 ,o°°°°o°°_°°.°°.°°°°°°°°°., ii_iiii_iiii_!iiiiiiiiiiiil 10- 50 i_i_!_iiH_!i!iii_i_i 10-54 iii!_iiii_i!i!i_!iiiiiiii ..... ....°°.o......°°°°°°o, ,.....°°°°..°°°°.°°.°°.°.°_ 10-61 10-61 !i!ii!iliHii!i!!iii!Hiiii i_!i!ii_!i_!!iiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilH!iiiii ..., ................... ..., iiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiii
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

1O- 6 5 iiiiiiiiii_iiiiiiiiii!iiill 10-67

M_ -;_.

SEDR 300

(REF)

/
./

/
I ,,:'D
/
/ /._-_ !i
/"

I
/

::2

1

/
;i

/ ,1

/ ,i
\ ':',

:

;

//t
!
I _

i
!i !

i

:7
!/ : i

,_:

'
"...... i

-'

i'

"
#l /:

-_>---"' -'"
""" "-J ' _ \

\

ii:! /! iil

s :
/ /

i i

,i

_::_' i ,_,;, j _ _
:

!/
\ , \ RETRO

/
ROCKET #4(REF)

\.
OAMS (REF) " \ " :

/

//

i ®

/"

ELECTRONICS MODULE (REF) MID FREQUENCE TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER "/

i_." / /:

/%

INSTRUMENTATION ASSEMBLY NO. 2

•HIGH LEVEL MULTIPLEXER

MULTIPLEXER

Figure

10-1 Instrumentation

System

Components

(Sheet 1 of 3)

10-2

j_=-_.

SEDR 300

I

i

_-_ _

PROJECT
_t..,.._._ _-_................. _

GEMINI
.\ RECORDER NO. 2

BiG MED POWER SUPPLY BIO MED TAPE RECORDER NO, I

\\ \ \

\
\

,
/ /

J

/

\

,\
........... \

/

/

®2

/

_.,_ [
%. _

,

.......
\

LOW LEVEL

\\.\ "x,,

_i 1 l
l\

,

/

\
\. \ \

/
\ _\
/ Z f / I

INSTRUMENTATION ASSEMBLY PACKAGE NO. 2 LOW FREQUENCY TELEMETRy

HIGH LEVEL DC-DC CONVERTER & REGULATOR PCM PROGRAMMER"

TRANSMITTER

L_fHIGH FRE( TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER ) TAPE RECORDER// REPRODUCER

_..'

/

Figure

10-1

Instrumentation

System 10-3

Components

(Sheet

2 of 3)

LEGEND
ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 PARAMETER GC04 GB02 GB01 GC0_3 GC01 GD06 CJ01 CJ02 GC05 CH0_ CD04 CD0¢3 CA06 CA02 CH02 CA09 CD02 CD01 CL01 BC03 BA04 BB05 BA06 CA09 HH01 CA09 LC09 CA09 BA05 BA02 NOMENCLATURE REG He AT OX1D TANK TEMPERATURE OXIDIZER FEED TEMPERATURE ITEM 31 32 33 3435 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 PRIMARY ECS 0 2 SUPPLY ROTTLE TEMPERATURE 44 PRIMARy ECS 0 2 TANK PRESSURE PRIMARY COOLANT RADIATOR OUTLET TEMPERATURE (RSS-ECS) INLET TO F.C. SECT 2 TEMP 45 46 47 48 49 DQ08 DQ09 HC04 HC06 HC02 DQ07 PARAMETER LAe5 LD01 MC02 CC05 GC02 IC_.01 KA02 KA03 CB07 KB02 CBOI CB02 HC03

LEGEND
NOMENCLATURE DCS PACKAGE TEMPERATURE ACQ AID ECN CASE TEMPERATURE MID FREQ TM XMTR CASE TEMPERATURE OXYGEN HIGH RATE

FUEL FEED TEMPERATURE REG He AT FUEL TANK TEMPERATURE SOURCE He PRESSURE TCAEI0 HEAD TEMPERATURE PUMP INLET PRESSURE PUMP INLET PRESSURE

SOURCE He TEMPERATURE Z ACCELERATION X ACCELERATION Y ACCELERATION EWD COMPARTMENT ABSOLUTE PRESS STATIC PRESSURE CABIN PRESSTO FWD COMP. CABIN AIR TEMPERATURE REG N 2 PRESSURE-SYSTA PITCH ATTITUDE-SYNCHRO ROLL ATTITUDE-SYNCHRO YAW ATTITUDE-SYNCHRO REG N2 PRESSURE-SYST B SOURCE N2 PRESS-SYST B N2 SOURCE PRESS-RCS SYST B REPEATER REPEATER REPEATER _

PRIMARY COOLANT SECONDARY

COOLANT

REGULATED He PRESSURE SECONDARy SECONDARY COOLANT COOLANT RADIATOR OUTLET TEMPERATURE TEMP AT OUTLET OF RADIATOR

PRIMARy COOLANT

TEMP AT OUTLET OF RADIATOR

CRYO MASS QUANTITY SECONDARY COOLANT PRIMARY COOLANT WATER PRESSURE F.C.

INLET TO F.C.

SECT 1 TEMP

H2 TEMP AT HEAT EXCHANGER OUTLET TANK PRESSURE

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

HA02 HC01 HCD5 CC06 CC03 CA03 CK06 CC01 CC02 CA04 CC04

RCS OXIDIZER

FEED TEMP-SYST A

HYDROGEN F.C.

N2 SOURCE PRESS-RCS SYST A SOURCE N 2 PRESS-SYST A CO 2 PARTIAL PRESSURESENSOR LEFTSUIT INLET AIR TEMP ECS 0 2 SUPPLY PRESSNO. SUIT HEAT EXCHANGER LEFTSUIT PRESSURE RIGHT SUIT PRESSURE ECS 0 2 SUPPLY PRESSNO. RIGHT SUIT INLET AIR TEMP 2-SEC __, 1-SEC

0 2 TEMP AT HEAT EXCHANGER OUTLET

RSS H2 SUPPLY BOTTLE TEMPERATURE CRYO MASS QUANTITY (RSS-ECS)

RETRO ROCKET CASE TEMPERATURE CRYO MASS QUANTITY ADAPTER C-BAND (RSS-ECS)

INLET TEMP-PRI

BCN PACKAGE TEMPERATURE (RSS-ECS)

CRYO MASS QUANTITY

_SS 02 SUPPLy BOTTLE TEMPERATURE OXYGEN TANK PRESSURE

Figure 10-1 Instrumentation

System Components 10-4

(Sheet 3 of 3)

PROJECT
_.

GEMINI
SEDR300

S_ STS_M nRSCRIPTION
The Instrumentation to the performance Data acquisition on board

SECTIONX INS__ION

SYS_

System provides and operation

a means

of data acquisition throughout

with respect its mission. or events inputs to

of the spacecraft

is defined

as the sensing

of specific

conditions

the spacecraft,

displaying

the derived

data from these and later

the crew and ground this data

operation

personnel, reports

and recording and analysis.

processing the

for use in post function

flight

In this respect systems,

data acquisition operational

is shared by all spacecraft and the data processing

the ground

support

system,

facility.

Basically, operational necessary status,

the instrumentation and nonoperational. for determing

Parameters

are divided parameters

into two categories : are those which spacecraft psramare

Operational

the progress

of the mission, flight

assessing

and makin E decisions

concerning

safety.

Nonoperational

eters are those which

are required

for post

mission

ana]jsis

and evaluation.

The basic components conditioners,

comprising

the Instrumentation System,

System

are:

sensors,

signal

Multiplexer-Encoder

and transmitters. system,

Because

the system are

is used to sense Parameters located throughout the

of every

spacecraft

its components

spacecraft

as shown

in Figure

i0-i.

SYSTm_ OPERATION
The purpose the progress of the Instrumentation and condition System is data acquisition necessitating with respect its operation to

of the spacecraft,

PROJECT

so 300
GEMINI
System provides the capability of The data is supplied by which the system fulfills

throughout

the mission.

The Instrumentation

data acquisition and transmission by all spacecraft systems. its purpose are:

to the ground stations.

The basic operations

to sense the various conditions and functions; convert them to

proportional electrical signals (if applicable); condition the resulting signal (when necessary) to make it compatible with the encoding and multiplexing ment; display pertinent dump) transmission; station. equip-

data in the cabin; record data for delayed time (datasignals for real-time transmission to the ground

and provide

An overall block diagram of the Instrumentation

System is shown in

Figure 10-2 and the power distribution

is shown in Figure i0-3.

The system senses the prescribed parameters through the use of sensors which may be contained within the Instrumentation System or which may be an integral part of another system. Typical sensors include pressure transducers, acceleroSignals may also be obtained from such functions Sen....

meters, and temperature sensors.

as switch and relay actuations, and from electronic package monitor points.

sors and signal sources are shown in block diagram form on the applicable data source system illustration.

The majority of the signals acquired are usable for the spacecraft cabin indicators and/or the encoding equipment without alteration. Some of them, however_

are routed to signal conditioning packages (instrumentation assemblies) where their characteristics and/or amplitudes are changed. The resulting signals, low-level

as well as those from the other sensors, are of four basic types:

.../_ _.

SEDR300

REF FIGURE _ 10-4

ADO6 AD08 AD09 AD10 AEI3 AF04 AG02 AG03 AGO4, AG13 AG14 AG,5 AG,8

REF FIGURE 10-5"(

REF F_GURE I0_-_

"BA05 BA06 BB05 BC03 CA06 CD01 CD02 CD03 CD04 CH02 CH03 CB0, CB02

_ _ _ :_" = _ _ _' _ _ > _ O F,GuREREF 10-4.

c_AOI I 6.A02 I : c_,A_ i L _.B01 i 6_B0_ = &.B04 = _D02 _.D03 _,E02 _E27 a, 28 E A.F0, _F02 AFO3 AGO5 AGI0 AG11 AG12 AG16 AG17 AG21 AG22 REF FIGURE 10-5= BD04 BD06 BE04 BE06 AG19 REF FIGURE 10-6_ CB07 DBCG DB_ DC01 DC02 DC03 DQ07 DQ08 DQ09 EA01 _ _ O_ O

[

QC27 QC28 QC29 QC30

REF FIGURE 10-11

BA02 BA04 ---8003 fiB04 ' BC01 BC02 CA02 CJ01 CJ02 ! CJI6 _ CJ17 CJISCJI8 I_T_-CL01 GC01 GC05 OF01 GE02 GE03 GE04 GE06 GE07 GE09 GEll LA06 LA07 GE_ LA08 _0T M80_ MC01 DW02 DW03 DW04GC22 = n_ _._ _ _ _ _, _ ">' _ _

REF -FIGURE 10-5

RL_F .FIGURE 10-6

REAL TIME TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER

REF FIGURE _ 10-5

BG01 BG02 BG03 BG04 CA03 CA04 CB01 CC02 CC05 DAOl DA02 DA03 _

REF FIGURE 10-94

GC02 GC03 GC04 GD06 DWOl HH01 LA02 LA0.4 LA05

REF 10-6

REF FIGURE 10-7-REF FIGURE 10-10.-./" REF

REF 10-9

=
_Z

FIGURE 10-12

co,
_

GE0
REF - FIGURE FIGURE _" 10-12 REF FIGURE _" 10-13 REF " FIGURE 10-7 FIGURE 10-9

REF FIGURE 10-13 t

LD01 MB02 MB03 MC02 LA03

STANDBY TELEMETRY TRANSMITfER _

FIGUREREF _ FIGURE10-7

DD0I CCOI DD02 DD03 DE01 DED2 DE05 EB01 EB02 EB03 REF FIGURE 10-5_

REF FIGURE I0-7= ( J BD01 BD02 BE01 BH0t BE02 BH02 CB02 CC03 CK06 CC04 HA02 HC06 MA21 MA38 HC05 JAI3 JB01 JB02 JB04 JD01 JA04 _ __ _ _ x _ _ _ :3 _ _ _ _ REF FIGURE 10-8 "

REF FIGURE = 10-8 I

L HE04 REF FIGURE 10-6 " r _._

EA02 EA03 EG01 EG02 EG03 EGO4 EGD5 EG06 REF FIGURE 10-11 REF FIGURE 10-10"_ FA01 FA02 EG07 HC01 HC02 HC03 HC04 KA01 FAg3 KA02 KA03 KB02 REF FIGURE 10-12-f i REF FIGURE 10-14 LA01 NA0| NAI_3 NA04 NB01 NB02 NB0_ NBC_ NA02 JB(_ ]C01 JCD2 JC03 JC04 JE03 JE04 JE05 3E06 JE07 JE08 JE01

DELAYED TIME TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER

REE FIGURE_ I0-I0

HE07 HE08

REF FIGURE I0-I0" REF FIGURE 10-13

_-

REF FIGURE 10-15

PCM TAPE RECORDER

_ REF FIGURE I0-11 =(

REF j FIGURE 10-13 =_ REF FIGURE 10-14. ._ FIGURE 10-15

MAlT MA22 MA37 MD06 NA06 NB06 A G06

REF -FIGURE 10-15

REF

=_

JE09

1

J
Figure 10-2 Instrumentation System 10-7 Signal Flow Block Diagram

PROJECT

SEOR 3OO
GEMINI

_N_

o_o

PC-PC CO_.

_I

0

0

_, __L_s _
) 0

0c_o
T
o
o o
>

o,

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o
>

,,
o
>

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a.

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o 5 o
>

o
>

o

,_

o
o
>

o
o
>

o

,_
> >

o> >

o_ o

PRLMARY DC-DC CONVERTER

SECONDARY

DC-DC CONVERTER

E

E E.c. RCSN2S_RCE N2 P'ESSREG H2S_RCE RCS",'2S'_CEI N_, REG PRESS
PRESS TRANSDUCER BA04

II

SYST A PRESS TRANSDUCER HC01

SYST 8 PRESS TRANSDUCER HC02

TRANSDUCER SYST A HC03

I102
TRANSDUCER SYST B HC04 PRI 02 PRESS TRANSDUCER CA02 F.C. H2 RA06

PRESS TRANSDUCER SYST 1 CA03

HAND CONTROLLER ROLL FA02

sEcT ISuPPLYI I i

ATTITUDE ;

RE

RIGHT SUIT PRESS TRANSDUCER CC02

CRYO PRESS& QUANTITY IND CA09 *

COOLANT PUMP PRI INLET PRESS TRANSDUCER C J01

ATTITUDE HAND CONTROLLER PITCH FA01

'

Iw, T ,L T IT!o T .c.o!T ll I T _ T T T i III II
TRANSDUCER CL01 PRESS TRANSDUCER GCOI PRESS TRANSDUCER GC05 F.C. 02 RA05 AT H-X OUTLET PRESS TRANSDUCER CB07 F.C. TEMp AT H-X _)UTLET BC03 TEMP BRIDGE PRI 0 2 - ECS CA06 PR' F.C. TEMP COST VALVE CD01 SEC F.C, COST VAIVF TEMP CONT. VALVE CD03 CONT. VALVE CD04 COOLANT OUTLET TEMP CH02 TRANSDUCER KB02

T
COOLANT OUTLEI" TEMP CH03

T
TEMP GB01

T
TEMP GB02

T
TEMP GC02

T
IFUEL TANK TEMPj
GC03

T
OX_D TANK TEMP GCO4

T
RETRO ROCKET CASE TEMP HHOI

T
ACQ AND BCN CASE TEMP LD01

T
TEMP CB02

T
TO SUIT H-X CKD6

T
TEMP SYST A HA02

T
TEMP SYST A HC(_

T
TEMP SYST B HC06 DCS PACKAGE LA(_

T
ClB_.CON LC09

T
CASE TEMP MCG2 _,

1 1
Figure 10-3

Instrumentation

System

I I I l I J I
Power Control Circuitry Functional Diagram (Sheet 1 of 2) 10-8

7T_

SEDR300

/_"

0

NO.

I

CRYO. C_09 SYSTEM

QTY.

I _

INST PACKAGE NO. 1

C • _--0 | O

I
CONTROL 8US _ CALIB CALI8 _ I _O

NO.2
! PACKAGE NO 2

O NO.2

-TAPE PLYBK RESET O CMD K-D/T STBY t

MULTIPLEXER (RE-ENTRY) H"LEVEL I

TAME_CDR CNTL
CONTROL BUS TO COAX MAIN _ _ I CMD O Pet & D/T

_

II ]' K-D/TII
I

RECO.OER TAPE

XMTR

I

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[

TM coOT_oL
D/T XMTR K-D/F

1 •1
K-D/TSTBY

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MAIN

INSTRUk_EN TATION PACKAGE NO. I

IlK

_

STBY TM CONTROL _ TR

O P/T OFF O D/T

i PROGRAMMER _I

cO_.BO,
BUS

_

_

F-,

ISYNC._REPE.ER_.TC.oo0. .,O-_ED _, ' _,NBUS STBYXMTRMR RCOX.._F_oFF TMXMFR
BIO-MED MAIN --_''O''_O INST ! O CONT TAPE RCDR NO, 1 ,IO-MED ] I BUS ; b O CONT BIO-MED TAPE RCOR NO. 2 SYNCHRO REPeATER-ROLL DQ08

I

POWER SUPPLY BIO-MED

.

TATION INSTRUMEN -

REPEATER-YAW SYNCHRO

I

i

!

4

H TEMP e iNDiCATOR

H TEMP e AT " FUEL TANK INDICATOR

j

H BIO-MEDAT e TEMP OXID TANK INDICATOR

LEFT SEAT GONE SW NA02

I

LEFT & RIGHT SUit FEMP BRIDGE TRANSDUCER

I

T

PRESSURE CC06 _1

,

E

I

/_--_.,

Figure

I II
CONTROLLERYAW FA0_

I AFT.UDE 'ND
T , INSTRUMENTATION PACKAGE NO. 2

INDICATOR SOURCE N2 TEMP

INDICATOR SOURCE N2 TEMP

INDICATOR QUANTITY

10-3

Instrumentation

System

I

' i

Power

Control

i

NX

NY ACCELEROMETER KA03

ACCELEROMETER KA02

Circuitry

Functional

Diagram

11 r
NZ ACCELEROMETER KA01

÷

(Sheet

2 of 2)

10-9

SEDR 300

PROGEMINI
(0-20 my tic),high-level (0-5 vdc), bi-level (0 or 28 vdc), and hi-level pulse (28 or 0 vdc). cators, while System. and digital to the tape a tape data the Signals of selected parameters are supplied to the cabin indisignals of all parameters System are supplied the to the l_ltiplexer/Encoder spacecraft for analog

The Multiplexer/Eneoder signals tape to a serial recorder a portion inches to per

converts

various signal

binary-coded and the of the second station,

digital

presentation The at the

data-dump

real-time real-time and,

telemetry data

transmitter. progra_r play ips back (22

recorder speed for

records of 1 7/8

from the

upon command, will at a speed of _1.25

transmission speed).

a ground

times

recording

Four physiological ments data. are supplied

functions as real-time most

are monitored data, while

for

each

pilot.

All supplied by two

of the

measure-

only are

one is recorded

as delayed-time special (bio-

In addition, recorders.

of the

measurements

mad) tape During lines

pre-launch attached to

operations, the spacecraft

data

acquisition

is

accomplished

by use Between

of hardlaunch

umbilical

and by telemetry.

and orbital insertion, data mitter.

acquisition is via the real-time telemetry trans-

While the spacecraft is in orbit, data is acquired via the real-

time telemetry transmitter for the period while the spacecraft is within range of a ground station. Data during the period while the spacecraft is out of

range of a ground station is recorded On the PCM recorder and played back via the delayed-time telemetry transmitter while the spacecraft is within range of a ground station. A more detailed description of the telemetry transmitters

is given in Section IX.

i0-I0

PGEMINI
__@ SEDR 300

The paragraphs to follow, present a brief description of all instrumentation parameters. The parameters are described in groups identified by their appli-

cable data source system. meters are applicable craft 8 speeifically_

It should be noted that although most of the parais for space-

to all spacecraft, the following parameters

SEQUENTIAL

SYS_M

P_R_ME_ERS

A functional diagram showing the Sequential System parameters is presented in Figure 10-4. The Instrumentation System monitors 41 sequential events and Se-

quential System parameters.

Each parameter

is described

below individually,

or as part of a group of related parameters.

The Time Reference System (TRS) supplies three 24-bit digital words to the 24-bit
j_

shift register of the PCM progr_er. off (_01, _02)

These three signals are:

time since lift-

and time to retrograde (_03).

Time since lift-off is referenced

to the launch vehicle lift-off signal and provides time correlation for the data tape recorders. Time to retrograde (MOB) indicates the time remaining before

retrofire initiation by the TRS.

This signal is used to verify that the correct

retrofire time has been inserted into the TRS by ground command or by the pilots.

l_unch vehicle _econd stage cut-off (ABOI) is monitored cation of this event.

for ground station indi-

This parameter is provided by a signal from the space-

craft IGS computer to a bi-level channel of the progra_er.

Launch vehicle/spacecraft separation (AB03) is indicated to the ground station when any two of the three spacecraft/launch vehicle limit switches close, ener-

i0-ii

__
TO ABORT COMMON CONTROL BUS

PROJECT
J INSTRUMENTATION ABORT RELAY U _

/OFF
RSS H2 SW

GEMINI____
" ELECTRONIC J

IEROM ,'
IT I MERI,
j RECORDERNO. 2 FROM COMPUTER FROM EJECTION _ RIGHT,3 SEAT LIMIT SWS LEFT $ ABORT AF06 AFO3 ! FROM PLATFORM MODE SW-ON POS ' | INPUT POWER FROM BIO MED _

sw, :--_=_
BOOSTER :;

j
j I

CRYO QUANTITY

o_ 300 _SEDR

_:

__
ABOi AF02

; SEP SWS

_

j
SW _, 1 "

SPACECRAFT

SEP

I

LIGHT

z

AG23 AG21 AB03

%=
SENSOR RELAY COMMON I IN !_ t/V ENGINE I _ .L FROM DROGUE DEPLOY SHUT DOWN SW =_ !!OG)UyE I J O C ; DOCKING CATCH RELEASE i L

AB04 AE28 AE27 AE02 ADO2 R O G R A M M E R

FROM BOOSTER SHUTDOWN ORVV

RELAY

J C_

AD03 AC03

SWITCHES FROM EQUIP ADAPTER SEP. _

l,I .
2
1

ADAPTER SEP SENSOR RELAY

FROM DROGUE DEPLOY SW _'_

-_
_ -p

!
DISC

F
CONTROL

J
J _

DROGUE DEPLOY II 4k INST.

ROLL RATE PITCH PATE YAW RATE

PRIMARY RATE GYRO REE.

] J
/

ROCKET FIRE

I

:
4--AGIO m_ AGI I AG12

SECONDARY

1
"-'_'

AUTO FIRE RELAY i FROM RETRO CIRCUITRY ROCKET FIRE [ ==_ _ ROCKET RETRO ROCKET FIRE/2 CIRCUITRY ==_ _Y

CHUTE DEPLOY SW J

REF.

I.._A__I

FROM PILOT

MANUAL

COMMON ROCKET F RE CONTROL J COMMON

SCANNER LDG & REC INST O FROM JETTISON SW _ IN CHUTE JETTISON RELAY FROM RATE GYRO ROLL-SEE F SWITCHES PITCH-SEC g YAW-SEC$ . PITCH-PRI _ ROLL-PR[ f YAW-PRI [

AG17 I INSTRUMENTATION

AG17 /

FROM T-_uT_ REI'RO
MANUAL CONTROL RETRO INST

IcoNT_
_

BUS _

sw

SEC POS [

L

I

J

c, c0, .Y , ,
,,,L--1J It_N_LAY I F
"

)..,..,,J.FROM RETRO f ROCKET FIRE " CIRCUITRY

! A;
._ _J _ _ _' I • I

oo
NO. 2 AG03 AG04 AG]3 4

AG03_ AG04 AGI3

oor7
H G /H I I N T R Y

RETRO ROCKEP MANUAL FIRE E4 RELAy

I
AG15 _

.]

AG]5 AEI3 ADO9 ADO8

I EE
R E L E L M U L T I

I

FROM MANUAL RETRO FIRE F

I

,J.l) REI"RO ROCKET FIRE El RELAY ADO6 1 2" --O

i

I

SW

MANUAL mm_'_ II • REF. SEQUENTIAL SYSTEM INPUT POWER FROM BIO MED RECORDER NO. I RADAR PRIMARy POWER ;.

ADI0 AF04 AGI8

L E X P E

I

FROM ABORT _ SW

_9
SALVO RETRO

AG06

1

'

Figure 10-4 Sequential System

Parameters 10-12

Functional Diagram

PROJ
___

E'-'CT GEMINI
SEDR 300 _____

gizing the spacecraft separation relays.

Actuation of any two of the three

relays applies 28 vdc to a bi-level channel of the programmer.

Rendezvous Radar prlmarypower entry high-level multiplexer.

(AGO6) is a high-level signal applied to the reThis signal originates when the Rendezvous Radar Docking catch release (AC03) originates Actuation of the

primary power switch is energized.

during the separation sequence after docking has occured. release catch mlcroswitch instrumentation

energizes the docking catch release relay in the a bi-level signal to the programmer.

relay panel, and provides

Equipment

section separation (AD02) is monitored

to indicate a safe condition

for retrograde prior to manual initiation ,_ a backup to the automatic system.

or ground command of retrofire as

This signal is originated when any two of

the three separation sensors close, energizing the equipment section separation relays. Actuation of two of the three relays applies 28 vdc to a bi-level

channel of the programmer.

The retrorocket ignition commands are monitored by ground stations to obtain data for calculation of expected re-entry trajectory. manual (ADO6) ignition commands are monitored. Automatic (ADOB) and

Parameters are obtained from

the ignition command of the four retrorockets individually; ADO9, rocket 2; ADO8; rocket 3; ADIO, rocket 4. indicate retrorocket I fire. hlgh-level multiplexer. The manual and automatic retrofire commands

The signals, 28 vdc, are applied to the re-entry

Channel i0 of the Digital Command System is used by the ground station to relay _ the abort command to the spacecraft. Verification of ABORT light lllumluatlon

lO-13

SEDR300

is by (_06)

parameter.

Indication that the pilot actuated abort (AFOI) is supplied to the ground station. The signal is originated when the abort handle is moved to the ABORT position actuating a limit switch which energizes the instrumentation abort relays.

Actuation of one of the relays applies a signal to a hi-level channel of the programmer.

In case of pilot ejection during an abort, left (AFOB) and right (AFO2) ejection seat gone signals are relayed to the ground station. The signals are origi-

nated at the time the ejection seats leave the spacecraft closing the corresponding limit switch and applying the signals to the bi-level channels of the progr_-,ner.

Confirmation of salvo retrofire is given to the ground station in case of an abort. A signal is applied to a hi-level channel of the re-entry high-level

multiplexer when the salvo retrograde relay is energized.

Indication of booster cut-off cap--and(ABO$) is given to the ground station when pilots move the ABORT handle to the SHUTDOWN position, actuating a limit switch. This energizes a relay applying 28 vdc to a bi-level channel of the

programmer.

Ground indication of pilot parachute level channel of the programmer. the parachute instrumentation

deployment (AE_2) is provided via a bl-

The signal is originated when a lanyard from the pilot parachute deployed

actuates a toggle switch, energizing relay.

Io-I

SEDR 300

....
The parachute the CHU_ The relays level JETT Jettisoned switch

PROEMINI
(AEI3) signal is initiated redundant when the pilot jettison depresses relays. high-

energizing

m_in parachute channel

apply a 28-vdc

signal to a bi-level

of the re-entry

multiplexer.

Platform other

mode

selection

(_G05)

is indicated mode

to a ground apply

station.

Any position

than OFF on the PLATFORM of the programmer.

switch will

a signal

to a bi-level

channel

Primary

(AGI6) or secondary station

(AGIT) horizon channels

scanner

operation

can be monitored

by the ground

via bi-level

of the prograswaer.

Primary roll

pitch

(AGO2),

roll

(AGO3),

and yaw

(AGO4) and second-v-j pitch is monitored conditioner multiplexer.

(AGI3), an on or

(AGI4),

and yaw (AGIS), Each signal

rate gyro operation is applied

to indicate whose

off condition. is applied

to a sign_!

output

to a hi-level

channel

of the high-level

Pitch which

(AGIO),

roll

(AGII),

and yaw (AGI2) are applied

rate gyro to three

(prJ._ry

or secondaz_

depending Each of

is operational) conditioners

outputs

signal conditioners. no output than

the signal of 0-0.325

is a transistor output

switch providing for an input input

for an input 0.325 volts.

volts and a 16. 5 volt signals

greater

The conditioned

are applied

to bi-level

channels

of the progran,,er.

Bio-medical lation

tape recorder

on-off

signals

(AGIS, AGI9)

are used for time data.

corre-

of the recorded is provided

bio-medical

data with

the telemetry

An on-off by a hi-level

indication

to the playback

recorder

and to telemetry

10-15

SEDR 300

PRoJ-ae-e-EM,N' -o
signal to the programmer (AGI9) and re-entry high-level multiplexer (AG18). Drogue parachute deployment (AE27) and drogue release (AE28) can be verified by the ground station via hi-level channels of the programmer. initiated when the HI-ALT DROGUE switch is depressed. The signals are

The selected cryogenic quantity switch position is indicated to the ground station by AG21 (Reactant Supply System oxygen), AG22 (Reactant Supply System hydrogen), and AG2B (Environmental Control System oxygen) to allow the ground station to identify the reading of CA09 described under Environmental Control System.

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM PARAMETERS Figure 10-5 shows a functional diagram of the Electrical Power System parameters. Approximately 24 Electrical Power System parameters are monitored by the Instrumentation System. paragraphs. The parameters are listed and described in the following sub-

Fuel cell oxygen (BA02) and hydrogen (BA04) tank pressures are monitored by dual potentiometer pressure transducers installed as part of the fuel cell system. Each dual transducer provides one output to the adapter hlgh-level

multiplexer and the other output drives an indicator on the instrument panel in the cabin.

To evaluate proper operation of the fuel cell# stack IA (BDO1), IB (BD02), 2A (_E01), 2B (_E02) and section I (BHOI) and 2 (BH02) currents are monitored and transmitted to the ground station. Stack C currents are obtained mathesection The

matically by subtracting section A and B currents from the corresponding current. The signals being monitored originate from 50 millivolt shunts.

Io-16

.---'2 =_-

SEDR 300

/ AT F.C.HEATH2 TEMP EXCH, OUT. BC03 J_

J I
LOWLEVEL MULTI(ADAPTER) I PLEXER

F.C.

O_ SUPPLY PRE_'SURE BA02 HIGH LEVEL PLEXER

J

F.C.

0 2 TEMP F.C. H SUPPLY PRE_?SURE BAD4

AT HEAT EXCH. OUT fiB05

(ADAPTER)

F.C. H SUPPLY T_P BA06 J

H2 L_P SWITCH TEMP BA05 F.C, 0 2 SUPPLY CONTROL FUEL CELL COMMON BUS V MAIN _ F.C. SECT I 0 2. t

BC05

F*C. H20

SECT I O AP

-_ BB07 I

SW iT_:2FI

SECT I • CNTL I H2

°

o0, i
DO6 I PROGRAMMER J_ BUS

o-V-o-FUEL CELL PANEL F.C.

SECT 2 O BC06

H2/_P _VITCH 2

COMMON CONTROL BUS FUEL CELL BE O_)_O O PURGE BE

F.C.

SECT 20 2-

K SECT 2 _22 T _

TO O PURGE V'_ LVES STACK

REF. ELECTRICAL _ TO CONTROL ,I _- POWER SYSTEM ]

H20

_

SWITCH

BB_ _ Y _ _ )

,f--\ COMMON

_

SWITCHES

REFS/C INDICATORS TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

co% oL
BUS OAMS BUS 1

O_'_O

SEO LTB
CNTL TEST

BG04-

BG04--

O. o,N0 LT
BUS MON O_O OAMS I SQUIB

BO01

BG01

HIGHLEVEL PLEXER (RE-ENTRY) MULTI-

-BG02 --

-BG02

-

[_

SQUIB OAMS

US2 QUIB F.C.

tf'_ SHUNT STACK IA

_BUSMON2 OAMS SQUIB

BG03

BG(_

F.C. SHUNT

-BD01

INSTRUMENTATION NO. 2 (RE-ENTRY) PACKAGE

-BD01

-

F.C.

SHUNT

NO.

1

BH01

BH01

ELECTRICAL _ POWER SYSTEM REF. F.C. SHUNT

SHUNT MAIN !

BD02 BE01

BD02 BE01

LOWLEVEL MULTIPLEXER (RE-ENTRY)

MAIN /_" NO. 2

J_l

--BE02

BE02 BH02

SHUNT .._

-BH02

Figure

10-5

Electrical

Power

System

Parameters

Functional

Diagram

10-17

PROJECT
__

GEMINI

SEDR 300

shunts are installed at the main buses for the section, and in the lines from stacks A and B to the main buses for stack A and B currents. Each of these

signals is conditioned to a 0 to 20 millivolt signal which is directly proportional to the input current and then applied to the re-entry low-level multiplexer.

The following parameters relate to the ground station information regarding spacecraft main, squib and control bus voltages: BG03 (squib 2), BC_ (control bus). BGOI (main), BG02 (squib l),

Each of these parameters is conditioned

and then applied to the re-entry high-level multiplexer.

The Reactant Supply System (P_S) 02 (BA05) and H2 (BA06) supply bottle temperatures are monitored by means of two temperature sensors located on each supply bottle. The output of the sensors is applied to the adapter low-level multiplexer. .....

Fuel cell section I 02 to H2 (BCO?), section 1 02 to H20 (BB07)3 section 2 02 to H2 (BOO6), and section 2 02 to H20 (BB08) differential pressures are monitored by a pressure-sensitlve switch installed within the fuel cell to provide for safe operation monitoring capability of the fuel cell by the ground station. The outputs of the pressure switch is applied to hi-level channels of the adapter high-level multiplexer.

Oxygen (BB05) and hydrogen (BC_3) temperatures at the outlet of the heat exchanger are monitored and relayed to the ground station via the adapter lowlevel multiplexer.

To provide an aid in evaluating fuel cell operation by the ground station,

lO-18

PROJE-C
f_

GEMINI
SEDR300

___

section

1 02 (_D0_), purging is

section monitored.

2 02 (_0_), The signals

section are

1 _ actuated

(BD0_),

and section pilot by

2

H2 (BE06)

by the

placing the corresponding section purge switch to the H2 or 02 position. signals are applied to the hi-level channels of the programner.

The

ENVIRONMBPrAL CONTROL SYS_

PARAME_ Control System (ECS) instrumenTwentT-eight parameters and

A functional diagram showing the Enviro_ntal tation parameters is presented in Figure 10-6.

RSS/ECS qu-ntities associated with the ECS are monitored by the Instrumentation System and relayed to the ground station for ana_sis.

The primary oxygen tank pressure (CA02) is telemetered to the ground station and _-displayed tiometer layed to in the pressure the spacecraft transducer station cabin. installed via the The signals as part adapter originate of the ECS. from a dual The signal potenis re-

ground

high-level

multiplexer.

A differential

pressure

transducer

is

used

to

sense

cabin

to

forward

compart-

ment pressure differential (CBOI).

The transducer has a dual output used for

cabin indications and for transmission to the ground station via the re-entry high-level multiplexer.

Left (CCOI) and right (CC02) suit to cabin differential pressure is displayed in the spacecraft cabin and telemetered to the ground station. meter pressure transducers serve as the signal source. Dual potentio-

The output of each

transducer is applied to the cabin indicator and to the re-entry high-level multiplexer.
t

z0-19

i :'_-

SEDR 300

"!_
TEMPERATURES

PROJECT

GEMINI
PRESSURES

PRIORY CH02

LOOP

I

PRESSURE CLOI

J

SECONDARY CH0_

OUTLET

I

INLET-SEC CJ02

J

VALVE-PRIMARY CDO3 I RADIATOR CONTROL I

I LOW-LEVEL (ADAPTER) MULTIPLEXER

INLET-PRI CJOI COOLANT PUMP

I

I

J

INLET TO F C SECT 2 CD02 " '

I

PRESSURE

J

I

_°_

I

I c°°'
I TE/_° CA06 SENSOR

, i
-__ AG2_

,I I
J CAoBSUPPLY PRESSSYSTEM AG22

i
I --

I

i

VALVE -SEC CD04

I

I

,[
I

CABIN PRESS CC01

l
iI

I

I
I CB02

I

CC02 CABIN PRESS

h

--

CC03 I AIR INLET J LOW - LEVEL

CC06 PRESSURE DETECTOR

I
CC04 I AIR INLET

I
j

_L,,,LE_R
(REENTRY) CB01 PRESSURE

I

I
I

L

i

CK06 HEAT EXCHANGER

i

I
I

J
Control System Parameter
10-20

L

io co_
CA04 SUPPLY PRESS, SYBT §2

_J

Figure

10-6 Environmental

Functional

Diagram

(Sheet

I of 2)

L_

PROJECT GEMINI
ECS 02 OFF O dF.C. 02 OF'C° H2 CONTROL UNIT ECS 02 QUANTITY r

3oo
SENSOR PRIMARY 02 TANK QUANTITY TO 02 ¢ PRESSURE TRANSDUCER F.C. 02 TANK QUANTITY SENSOR TO H2 4 PRESSURE

_ MAIN BUS

O_O CRYQTY

iI'-. J I l

J

I--_ I I l O

F .C. 02 QUANTITY CONTROL UNIT O

(REF FIG 10-4) F,C. H2 F.C. H2 TANK

SELECT SW

O

O_

QUANTITY CONTROL UNIT

QUANTITY SENSOR

DC-AC INVERTER

AND QUANTITY INDICATOR

DC-AC INVERTER

DC-AC INVERTER J F .C. 02 I

J'_

_

_

_ MULTI PLEXER (ADAPTER)

BI-LEVEL

I

f-_"

J PRI A O ECS IND " 0 0 PRI B O O _ I I t SEC A O O _ I ] SEC B 0 O ' ON SECONDARY PUMP A _ ON PRIMARY PUMP B O LTS _ ,_ON vtvi C_O PRIMARy PUMPA ,o

HIGH-LEVEL i,. co ' 0U

J

TOPRI PUMP A r POWER SUPPLY TO PRI PUMP A CHECK f VALVE LIMIT SWITCH

TO PRI PUMP B I POWER SUPPLY TO PRI PUMP B CHECK _ VALVE LIMIT SWITCH

I

REF ECS SYSTEM

s TO SEC PUMP A POWER SUPPLY _ TO SEC PUMPA CHECK "{ VALVE LIMIT SWITCH

0_...,_0 ON I I SECONDARY PUMP B

_ TO

SEC PUMP B SUPPLY

POWER

MAIN BUS VOLTAGE

_

I TO SEC PUMP B CHECK VALVE LIMIT SWITCH

HIGH-LEVEL (RE-[ NTRY)

MULTIPLEXER CC05 I I

O

O

COMMON CONTROL BUS

ECS I ' RELAY DISCONNECT

(!

T

"( 02 RATE VALVE REF ECS CIRCUITRY SYSTEM

m

02 RATE VALVE

L__
Figure 10-6 Environmental Control System Parameter 10-21 Functional Diagram (Sheet 2 of 2)

i

PROMINI
__ SEDR 300

_e

_o_

station

is

informed

of am 02 high z_te ¢J_

co-dttto_

by CCO_.

This

signal

is orlslzmted when the s_ceere_t

FAN mrltch is

placed in the 02 HI RATE

pOSltlC_, when :m41_i 02 high rate Is selected by the pilot, or 1_en the sult pressure drops below 3-3 psla and 02 high rate is automatically selected. The signal is al_I/ed to a hi-level channel of the re-entz_ high-leTel multiplexer.

TO assure that a safe pressure (C006) is

st_pplyof oxygen is available tO the indicating the percen_e

pilots, CO partial 2 dioxide with

monitored

of carbon

respect to the total pressure of gas in the suits. played in the spacecraft cabin _

C02 partial pressure is dis-

applied to the re-entry hi6h-level multiplexer.

Primary within

and secondary the coolant at the

coolant

temperatures systmn t_let to

are monitore8 performance. .ection

at

various

loc_tions are

loop primary

to evaluate coolant

Coolant fuel

temperatures cell (CDO1),

monitored

1 of the

secondary coolant Inlet to section 2 of the fuel cell (CD02), the radiator control valve in the primary loop (CD03), the secondary loop (CDO_), radiator outlet in the primary loop (C_), and radiator outlet in the secondary loop (CH03).

To relay inforaation concerning proper operatic_ of the coolant loop and pumps, to the ground statio_, primary (C_OI) and secondary (CJ02) coolant pump inle_ pressures are monitored. The outputs of the transducers are applied to the

adapter high-level multiplexer.

The condition of the primary and seco_lary coolant pmnps is monitored by CJI6

A), c.n7

p,p B), C.U8(seconc ryp =p A), andC.T'-9

10-22

PROJECT
__.

GEMINI

SEDR 300

(secoedary

_

B).

The signal is orlgLJ_,,_ v'aen the to bi-level _-ls

eorrespc_Lng c_ the a_sl_er

eonl.ant bl_-level

Pump iS ae_t;ed, multiplexer.

and Is applied

To i_vze at the

safe opersti_ OUtl_ _ the

of the fuel cell, _ter. _ sl_l

pressure

(C_Ol) is monitored

fuel cell.

Is appUed

to the adai_er bl_=

level multiplexer •

The coo].m_ relay the

inlet

_mperature

to the

suit

]_at

exchanger

((_)

is monLtored

to

to Ilzom_ pilots. _e

starless information eutput e_ the

concerning

the environmental is applied

conditio_ of re-entry

temperature

mensar

to the

low.level multlplez_r.

/-_

The poslttcn l_rame_er dependi_ position

of the ¢_0_.

eryopnic

quantity

select

switch ECS 02, quantity to the

Is _

mcmitored 02,

to

identify

The parameter poeittc_

CAO_ t_tca_es of the cryogenic indicated

or _SS H2 quantity swatch. The by AG21

upon the o_ the

select ground

selector

swatch

is

station

(_.c. 02), A_
level pr_r cha--els

(_.C. _),
of the

ana A_Z3(_CS02). m_ s±_nals a_ appl±ea to b_The parameter spacecre_t CAO_ is also applied to the

pro_ra_er. in the

and is

di_pl_yed

cabin.

Secondary 02 supply pressures are monitored in the number i (CA03) and number 2 (CAO_) systems. supply assemblies. The transducers are installed as part of ECS secondary 02 The outputs of the pressure transducers are applied to the

re-entry high-level multiplexer.

As an aid in calculating ECS 02 quantity, the primary 02 supply bottle tempera-

_o -23

PROJECT
_@

GEMINI
_..__

SEDR300

ture

(CA06) is

monitored

and applied

to the

adapter

Low-level

multiplexer.

To provide conditic_ cabin pressure pr_r plexer. air

the

capability cabin

for and to

the

Kround station an aid for

to monitor evaluating

the suit

environmental pressure, absolute to the a

of the

provide

teEperature tz_-ndueer and cabin Cabin

tz_nsducer (CBOT) is temperature is also

(CBOe), provided. is applied

and a folw_rd Absolute to the

compartment is

pressure re-entry

applied

low-level cabin.

multi-

temperature

displayed

in the

spacecraft

To further the air

evaluate entering the

system suit

performance circuit

and pilot

envir_ental with respect to

condition, te=perature are by

Is monitored

2 dual displayed _ltiple_er

temperature in l_e

sensors spacecraft (left

(1 for each suit cabin suit), and are

circuit). applied to suit).

The te:tperatuzes the re-entry

low-level

as _03

and CCO_ (right

IREm_AL GUIDANC_ _

P_

Figure 10-7 shows a block diagram of the Inertial Guidance 8ygtem (IGS) parameters except the digital computer ftmctt_n,_-. The Instr_entatton System

monitors 8 IGS parameters and handles appro_wately

200 conputer _ords.

The Instrumentation System monitors the computer modes of operation; pre-launch, ascent, catch-up, rendezvous, re-entry, and touchdown. Important functions or

parameters (approximatel_ 200) are monitored during each mode of operation. This information is used during post mission analysis and is applied to the programmer.

In addition to the digital computer words, the Instrumentation System monitors the following IGS parameters.

_'_

lo-z_

_": _'_

SEDR 300

DE04

COMPUTER

DE05

HIGHLEVEL MULTIPLEXER (RE"ENTRY)

DC04

YAW

SYNCHRO REPEATER DQ09

INERTIAL MEASURING UNIT

PITCH

SYNCHRO REPEATER DQ07

PROGRAMMER

ROLL

SYNCHRO REPEATER DQ_

DW01

LOW LEVEL MULTIPLEXER ADAPTER

AUXILIARY TAPE MEMORY

DW02 DW03 DW04

HiGHLEVEL MULTIPLEXER (ADAPTER)

Figure

10-7

Inertial

Guidance

System

Parameters

Block

Diagram

10-25

PROJEC:lr"
__

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

Inertial platform attitudes are monitored to provide ground stations with attitude data during flight. Roll (DQ08), pitch (DQ07), and yaw (DQ09) signals

are taken from the Inertial Measuring Unit (IMU), conditioned by synchro repeaters, and applied to the progrs_er.

IGS regulated power is monitored at two points : (I_05).

26 vac (DE04) and 10.2 vdc

These voltages are conditioned and then applied to the re-entry high-

level multiplexer.

Computer START light (DC04) malfUnction signal is the only malfUnction detection parameter monitored. This signal is used for display in the spacecraft cabin

and applied to the bi-level channel of the programmer.

Auxiliary Tape Memory environmental conditions are monitored by case temperature (DWOI) and internal pressure (DW02). Motor drive inhibit (DWO3) and verificationindicate the mode of operation (off,

__

reproduction plus 20 volts (DW04) parameters standby, read, or write).

ATTITUDE CONTROL J_NDMANEUVERING ELECTRONICS PJ_RAME_ERS A block diagram showing the Attitude Control and Maneuvering Electronics (ACME)

System parameters is shown in Figure 10-8. by the Instrumentation System.

Fifteen ACME parameters are monitored

Spacecraft rates in pitch (F&OI), roll (EA02), and yaw (F&O3) are monitored to allow evaluation of the rate control portion of the ACME. from the rate gyro package is conditioned then applied to the high-level rate gyro signals are parallel Each signal and

by a phase sensitive demodulator

channels of the programmer. summed and monitored

Primary and secondary

on the same channels.

10-26

J--:_-

SEDR300

!"
J J I J J j HORIZON PR ffv'_ARy SENSOR (REF) PITCH EB01 ECOI EB01 ECOI SEARCH T EBO3

ROLL

EB02

EB02 HIGHLEVEL MULTIPLEXER

EC02 J SECONDARY HORIZON SENSOR (REF) _J J

EC(Y2 (RE-ENTRY)

_J

I
j J l AC_E INV. (REF)

1
CONDITIONER SIGNAL PACKAGE NO. 2

I I l

J 1
PITCH EA01 EA01 PRI RATE ROLL EA02 EA(]@

"

GYRO (REF)

J

YAW

T

_I

EA03

EA03

[
I

I
I I
GYRO

1__
SEC RA,E I <REEl I
I

I-.._

1
I EG01

I
EG02 J ACE (REF) EG03

I
_" J EG04 EG05

[ I

J.

EG06

EGO7

I_

J

Figure

10-8 Attitude

Control

& Maneuvering 10-27

Electronics

Parameters

Block Diagram

PROJECT

o00

GEMINI

Horizon Sensor operation is monitored with respect to pitch (EB01) and roll (EB02) outputs, and search mode of operation (EB03). monitored mission. to verify inertial platform These parameters Pitch and roll paremeters are

alignment for the retrograde phase of the

(EBO1, EB02) provide pitch and roll attitudes from the

Horizon Sensor during orbital flight when the platform has been shut down to conserve electrical power. PRI or SEC position. The signals originate when the SCANNER switch is in the

The pitch and roll outputs are conditioned and then applied multiplexer. The search mode of operation is monitored

to the re-entry hlgh-level

to determine whether the Horizon Sensor unit is in the search mode, or has sensed the horizon. This signal illuminates the SCANNER light in the cabin and is also channel of the re-entry high-level multiplexer.

applied to a bi-level

ACME inverter 26 vac voltage (EC01) and frequency (EC02) is monitored for post mission analysls. high-level The signals are conditioned and then applied to the re-entry

multiplexer.

The following attitude control modes are monitored

depending upon the position

of

the A_'ITITUDE CONTROL switch; HOR SCAN (EG01), RATE CMD ORBIT (EG02), DIRECT (EG03), _ (EGO4), RATE CMD RNTY (EGO5), RE-ENTRY (EG06), and PLATFORM (EG07).

The signals are applied to bi-level channels of the progra_,er.

ORBIT, ATTITUD_ AND MANEUVERING SYSTEM PARAMETERS The Orbit, Attitude and Maneuvering 10-9 in block diagram form. given in the paragraphs System (0A_8) parameters are shown in Figure

A brief description of each of the 19 parameters is

to follow.

To insure that adequate propellant pressure is available for OA_8, helium source

10-28

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
_ "----[

SEDR 300

1
TEMPERATURES j

[
I
L

HEAD TEMP

F,,o

GD06

]l
I
l

J

REG.oA1.
OX/DIZERTANK GC04 FUEL TANK REG He AT GC03

I I
j I I

LOW-

LEVEL

I

(ADAPTER) MULTIPLEXER

I
I

TEMPERATURE GC02

, sou cE j
I

I

TEMP GB02 OXIDIZER FEED

l

lI

i

FUELFEEO I; II
TEMP GB01 f FIRING CMD FROM OAME (1YP 14 PLACES)

I

GE01 GE02 • GE03 • GE04 GE05 lid • • • • • HIGH - LEVEL MULTIPLEXER (ADAPTER) GEl I GEl 3 GEl4 GEl5 GEl6 • J • • • • ( _ _ f .( f _ _ 5 _ f S

1.O TCA NO. 1"O TEA NO. TO TEA NO. TO TCA NO. TO TCA NO. TO TEA NO. TO TCA NO. TO TEA NO. TOTCANO. TOTCANO. TO TCA NO. TO TCA NOTO TCA NO. TO TCA NO.

I FUEL & OXIDIZER VALVES 2 FUEL & OXIDIZER 3 FUEL & OXIDIZER 4 FUEL & OXIDIZER 5 FUEL & OXIDIZER 6 FUEL & OXIDIZER 7 FUEL & OXIDIZER 8 FUEL & OXIDIZER VALVES VALVES VALVES VALVES VALVES VALVES VALVES REF ORBIT ATTITUDE AND MANEUVER SYSTEM

GE06 GE07

GE08 GE09

9&IOFUEL&OXIDIZERVALVES 11 &I2FUEL&OX[DIZERVALVES 13 FUEL & OXIDIZER 14 FUEL & OXIDIZER 15 FUEL & OXIDIZER '6 FUEL & OXIDIZER VALVES VALVES VALVES VALVES

r -

I I
i

pRESSURES
"F" PACKAGE GC22

|

RESERVE ! I TANK
l sEE_UcME PRESS" GCOl l J

I I

FFigure 10-9 Orbit,

I i L I
t
Attitude & Maneuvering

.EL,O_ _G
PRESS-PKG B

GC(_

I J I I
J
Parameters Block Diagram

System

10-29

PMINI
__ SEDR 300

pressures (GCO1) is monitored. pressure transducer blab-level at

The signal pressura:t and the

ortgt_tes _ks. other

fz_la a duel potenttrmeter One output is used to drive is applied to

the helium multiplexer

the adapter in the

an indicator

spacecraft cabin.

The propellant lines ture is

feed

teaperature to verify that

at

the

fuel

(GBO1) and oxidizer aboard is above

(GB02) feed freeztn8 tempera-

monitored

propellant

and is available for use. and are applied

The signals ori_Lnate _m to the adapter low-level

two individual tempmultiplexer.

erature sensors

To allow monitoring temperature The output is installed

capability of the installed to the

he].t_a

source suppl_

temperature line at the

(GC02)_ a supply tank. sensor

sensor is is applied to drive

on the helium adapter low-level in the

amlttplexer. cabin.

A separate

an indicator

spacecraft

Temperature of the pressure regulated helium is monitored at the fuel and oxidizer is applied to (GC0_) tank the adapter indicators inlet lines. The outputs multiplexer. spacecraft of these temperature

(GO03)
sensors are

low-level in the

Two additional cabin.

sensors

installed

to drive

Regulated transducer. plexer,

helium

pressure

(GC05) is outputs used to is

monitored applied to

by a dual the adapter

potenticueter high-level Reserve

pressure multitank pressure

One of the and the other is

drive

a cabin

indicator.

(GC22) monitors pressure available to the reserve fuel tank.

To provide an indication of ma_m_n

Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA) temperature, This signal is applied

TCA I0 (GD06) injector head temperature is monitored. to the adapter low-level multiplexer.

io-3o

PROJ
__.

EC"T--'GEM I N I
SEDR 300

To provide

ground

station

monitoring

capability

of TCA firing, channels

the following of the adapter (TCA 4),

TCA solenoid high-level GE05

command

signals GEOI

are applied

to hi-level

multiplexer:

(TCA i), GE02

(TCA 2), GEO3

(TCA S), GE04

(TCA 5), GE06

(TCA 6), GE07

(TCA 7), GE08

(TCA 8), GE09

(TCA 9, IO), GEII

(TCAii, 12),GEl3 (TCA13), GEl4 (_A 14),GEl5 (TCA15), and GEl6 (TCA 16).
HE-ENTRY Figure CONTROL SYSTEM PARAMEteRS diagram form the Re-entry Control System System parameters. for

iO-I0 shows in block

Some 2_ parameters ground station

are monitored

by the Instrumentation system performance.

to provide

observation

of proper

Nitrogen _

source pressure, HC05

HC01

(system

A) and HC02

(system

B), and nitrogen Pressure

source temperature,

(system A) and HC06 transducers.

(system B) are monitored. One of the outputs

is sensed by two dual pressure

of each transto the prolow-

ducer is used to drive a cabin indicator, grammer. level Outputs of the temperature and are used

and the other is applied are applied

sensors

to the re-entry indicator.

multiplexer

to drive

a spacecraft

cabin

Because perature

the oxidizer is measured range

has a more to insure

critical that both

temperature

range than

fuel,

its temthe proper feed

fuel and oxidizer Control System.

are within

temperature temperature

for use in the Re-entry

The oxidizer

(HA02) is applied

to the re-entry

low-level

multiplexer.

Regulated (HC04).

nitrogen

pressure

is monitored

for system A (HCO3) and is applied

system B

The outputs

of the pressure

transducers

to the programmer.

To provide firing

for ground

station

monitoring

capability channels

of proper

RCS

TCA

firing,

commands

are applied

to bi-level

of the re-entry

high-level

lO-31

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
__

SEDR300

I
PRESSURES j

I
TO FUEL & OXIDIZER REG PRESS HC04 J I HEOI j. t VALVES , A'CE FIRING CMDS FROM RCSMODE _ SWITCH TYPICAL 16 PLACES

I I
I HE02

I

[
L

RING 8 N2 SOURCE PRESS HC02

I'
J I PROGRAMMER

HE03

HE04 RCS SYSTEM A

REG PRESS HCC_

I I
I
I HE06

I I

I I'
RING A N2 SOURCE PRESS I I

HE07

.col

I I

HEO8

I

_
HIGHLEVEL -_ MULTI PLEXER (RE-ENTRY) HF01 ._

_
-_ 0 _

l

TEMPERATURES

Z L

OXIDIZER HA02

FEED

I

_"

TEMP SYST A

I

HF02 HF(13

,_ 2

N2 SOURCE TEMP HC05 S YST A

I I
J l

LOW-

LEVEL

HF04 RCS )" SYSTEM B " HF05 _'

(RE-ENTRY) MULTIPLEXER

I I I
I

N2 SOURCE TEMP SYST B

I

I
I I I I
I I I
HFO7 HFO6

Hco_

, E

HF08
LOW- LEVEL

RETRO ROCKET 14 CASE TEMP HHOI

I' l f
J

I
I

MULTIPLEXER (ADAPTER)

I

J

'
Block Diagram 10-32

_"

Figure 10-10 Re-Entry

Control System Parameters

SEDR 300

multiplexer.

RCS system A thrusters, 1A thru 8A have been assigned parameters and system B thrusters IB thru 8B are designated

HEO1 thru HEO8 respectively

by HFO1 thru HF08 respectively.

The retrorocket case temperature

(HHO1) was monitored on spacecraft

5.

The

signal originated from a surface mounted temperature sensor located on retrorocket number 4 and was applied to the adapter l_.level multiplexer.

AERODYNAMIC Aerodynamic

AND CREW CONTROL PARAMETERS and crew control parameters are monitored as shown in block diagram

form in Figure I0-ii.

t_

Spacecraft longitudinal (KAOI), lateral (KAD2), and vertical (KAOS) accelerations are monitored to provide phases of the mission. ground station indications The accelerometer during the launch and re-entry

outputs are applied to the programmer.

Static pressure (KB02) is monitored by a potentlometer type absolute pressure transducer. Static pressure is obtained from four static pressure ports equally

spaced around the forward part of the conical section and connected in parallel to the transducer. The transducer output is applied to the programmer.

Pitch (FAOI), roll (FA02), and yaw (FADS) attitude control stick positions are monitored to indicate pilot manual control usage and to evaluate thruster operation. Signals originate from the attitude hand controller potentiometers and

are applied to the programmer.

Two bi-level channels are reserved for events to be monitored the experiments for monitoring of each particular these parameters spacecraft mission.

as required by provisions

Electrical

are provided at the right (FD01) and left

10-33

.._T:=_.

SEDR 300

RIGHT AUX RECEPTACLE FD01

HIGH - LEVEL MULTIPLEXER (RE-ENTRY)

LEFT AUX RECEPTACLE FEOl

STATIC PRESSURE KB02 PITCH ATTITUDE HAND CONTROLLER FA01

ROLL

FA02

YAW

FA03

X VIBRATION 0.02G QC28

PROGRAMME R Nx ACCELEROMETER KA02

y VIBRATION 0.02G QC30

Ny ACCELEROMETER KA03

XVIBRATION 0.2G QC27

Nz ACCELEROMETER KA01

Y VIBRATION 0.2G QC29

Figure

10-11

Aerodynamic

and Crew Control 10-34

Parameters

Block

Diagram

PROJ
__ (FEOI) utility receptacles.

EC'T

GEMINI

SEDR 300

COb_GNICATION SYSq_M PARA_q_S The Instrumentation System monitors ll Co_munlcation System par--,_ters. These parameters are shown in block diagram form In Figure 10-12. tion of each of the parameters is presented in the _phs A brief descripthat follow.

To verify proper DCS performance and aid in malfunction isolation, the following DCS parameters are monitored: diplexer (LAO_) and quadriplexer (LA03) receiver

signal strength, package temperature (LA05), 6 vdc reg-lated power (LA02), 28 vdc regulated power (LA06), -18 vdc regulated power (LAO7), 23 vdc regulated power (LA08), and-6 vdc regulated power (LA09). Parameters LA02, LA06, LA07, LAO8, and

LA09 are conditioned and then applied to the adapter high-level multiplexer except _ LA02 which is applied to the adapter low-level multiplexer. Parameters LAO3, LAO_,

and LA05 are applied directl_ to the adapter low-level multiplexer.

Acquisition aid beacon (LD01) and adapter C-band beacon (LCOg) ease temperatures are also monitored to assure proper equipment performance. signals are applied to the adapter low.level multiplexer. These temperature

INS_TION

SYS_

PARA_TERS

To insure proper operation of the Instrumentation System, various reference voltages and other pertinent data is telemetered to ground stations for --a_ysls. The Instrumentation System parameters are shown in Figure 10-13 in block diagram form. A brief description of each parameter follows.

10-35

_.--; --_.

SEDR 300

l._k09

LA09

L_,06

LA06

DIGITAL COMMAND SYSTEM

LA07

INSTRU MENTATION PKG. NO. ]

LA07

HIGH - LEVEL MULTIPLEXER (APT)

LAO_

LAO8

LA02

LA02

LA03

ACQUISITION AID BEACON TEMP LD01

LA04

LAOI

LOW- LEVEL MULTIPLEXER (ADPT)

ADPT C-BAND BEACON TEMP LCO?

INSTRUMENTATION PKG NO, 2

LA01

PROGRAMMER

DCS PACKAG E TEMPERATURE LA05

Figure

10-12 Communication

System 10-36

Parameters

Block Diagram

PROJECT'-GEMINI
______ $EDR 300

High (MALT) and low (MA38) level zero reference voltages are monitored to insure that proper scaling is being employed by the Multiplexer/Encoding System. The low-level zero reference originates from the 5 vde output of the

dc-dc converter which is attenuated by a signal conditioner to 3 millivolts (the zero reference point) and is then applied to a channel in each of the multiplexers in the re-entry vehicle. progra.,.,er MA38. as This signal is also applied to the

High (MA37)and low (MA21) level full scale reference voltages, as the zero
reference voltages, are required to insure that proper scaling is being employed The 5 vdc output of the de-de converter is to channels of

by the Multiplexer/Encoding System.

attenuated to 4.5 vdc and to 15 millivolts prior to application

the high and low-level multiplexers in the re-entry vehicle, respectively. These parameters are required to provide a measurement of the reference voltage for potentiometer type transducers and resistive element temperature sensors.

Reference voltages for the high and low-level multiplexers located in the equipment adapter are provided by _BOI (full scale) _B02 (zero) and _03 (full scale).

These have the svme characteristics as the reference parameters described above.

Parameter MA22 (calibrate signal) is provided to indicate that a calibration voltage is being applied, thus eliminating the confusion between a data and a calibrate signal. Parameter MA22 will exist whenever the CALIB switch in by the DCS.

the spacecraft cabin is actuated or a calibration is eo_nded

IO-37

_._-

_.

SEDR300

MB01

INSTRUMENTATION PACKAGE NO. 1

--

--

HIGHLEVEL M U'LTIPLEXER (ADAPTER)

LOW- LEVEL MULTIPLEXER (ADAPTER)

MC01

MC02

HIGH -LEVEL MULTIPLEXER (RE-ENTRY)

MD0_ MA3;

CAMERA. EVENT MECHANISM

D/T TM TRANSMITTER

MA21 INSTRUMENTATION PACKAGE NO. 2 _ j_ MA38

LOW - LEVEL MULTIPLEXER (RE-ENTRY)

HIGH - LEVEL MULTIPLEXER (ADAPTER)

MA22 PROGRAMMER

MAg'3

PCM TAPE _ECORDER

Figure

10-13

Instrumentation

System 10-38

Parameters

Block

Diagram

PROJECT
___

GEMINI

SEDR 300

An indication of proper functioning of the PCM tape reco_er monitoring hi-level tape channel motion of the (MA95). This is accomplished recorder

is provided by a signal are to a

by providing tape reels

programmer

when the

in motion.

The rf _ power

output

(MC01) and the

case

temperature

(MC02) of the

delayed.time

telemetry transmitter is monitored to provide an indicatic_ of tranmnitter operation. The transmitter physically located in the adapter is chosen for

these measurements because it is subject to more extreme environmental temperature changes than the other two transmitters. Temperature signals are applied to

th_ adapter low-level multiplexer, and the rf power output is applied to the adapter high-level multiplexer.

_

A camera event (MD06) is indicated to the Kround station when the pilot initiates the camera event mech_ism on the onboard camera. This signal is applied to a

_i-level c_-nel

of the re-entry high-level multiplexer.

PHYSXOLOGXCAL PARAMETEBS The physiological attached logical at various functions points of the to their crew skin. are monitored A block by sensors diagram showing which the are physio-

parameters is shown in Figure I0-I_.

Signal conditioners, located in

pockets of the underwear_ condition the signal_ from the sensors to make them c_atible with the recording and multiplexin_ equipment. All parameters except _11 signals, except is applied to are

the oral temperature are recorded on bio-medical recorders. oral the _ temperature re-entry are applied to the programmer. The following Oral

temperature command pilot

high-level

multipleKer.

parameters rate

monitored:

electrocardiograms i and 2 (NAOI, NA02), respiration

and depth

lo-39

___.%

PROJECT

GEMINI

_l

HIG H- LEVEL MULTIPLEXER (RE-ENTRY)

(RA03 NA06 DURING EVA)

S/C 5&6 ONLY NAOl

NB07

(NOT MONITORED

DUP_ING EVA')

NB01

NA02 PILOT COMMAND PILOT NB(_

r,u_o3 I

]

NA04

I

_ /C5&6

ONLY

_ 'C5&6

ONLY-

NB03 NB05

I
j irll

I
BIO'MED ICAL RECORDER II

BIOMEDICAL RECORDER g2

PROGRAMMER

Figure

10-14 Physiological

Parameters 10-40

Block Diagram

PROJECrF
__ (NA03), and oral temperature 1 and (1_06). pressure 5 and (NA06). 2 (1_01, The (HB05) 6 missions. N]_2), The

GEMINI
followlng respiration pilot rate pressure parameters and depth (NA04) was are (N_03), and the monitored: and

SEDR300

electrocardiograms oral pilot's on temperature blood

com_nd And suit

pilot's inlet

blood

temperature

(I¢B07)

monitored

spacecraft

Electrocardiogra= (EVA). condition place tored of as To allow while oral

1 (NBO1) the outside temperature ground the

is

not

monitored to evaluate suit All other

during the pressure

Extra-Vehicular pilot's (RA03)

Activities

station spacecraft, (NB06).

enviro_=ental is monitored are in moni-

physiological

parameters

previous_v

described.

I:_lfl_ZV'OUS p_ To permit

RADAR PAI_L'_R$ post-mission anaS_sis of the Radar System operation during the rendez-

vous portion block diagram

of the mission,

19 radar parameters is shown

are monitored. in Figure 10-15.

A functional

of the radar parameters

The target

verification

(JC04) parameter

provides

telemetry

information LOCK-ON

that

the spacecraft indicator

radar has located pedestal

the target

vehicle. when

The radar

on the pilot's

will illum_uate is relayed

this event station

occurs.

Tar-

get range rate transmission rendezvous, which

(JA04) information

to the ground

via telemetry During data

and displayed

to the pilots

on the range

rate indicator. close-ra_e

the range to target through

(JAI3) parameter the computer.

provides

is not available

Radar

inner skin (JBOI),

antenna

faceplate

(JB02),

and transmitter sensors.

tube

(JBO4)

temperatures /r_ which

are sensed by resisitive-element to the temperature

temperature

A output bridges

is proportional

sensed

is produced

by integral

i0 -41

-:-_

SEDR 300

__

PROJECT

GEMINI

JA04

JA13

JB01

LOW-LEVEL MULTI PLEXER (RE-ENTRY)

JB02

JB04

IDOI

JO08

JC01

JC02

JCCG RENDEZVOUS RADAR JC04

JEOI

PROGRAMMER

JE03

JEO4

JE05

JE06

JE07

JE_

JE09

AGO6

HIGH - LEVEL MULTIPLEXER (RE-ENTRY)

Figure

10-15 Rendezvous

Radar

Parameters

Block Diagram

10-42

PROJ
___.____

EGT

GEMINI
__.__j

SEDR300

within

the sensor.

_ pressure This

transducer signal

within

the radar

package

senses

radar

pressurization operation,

(JB03).

is used to determine pressure

the validity

of the radar

which

is dependent

on the internal

being

maintained.

Oscillator through

crystal

current

(JC01) and radar information

regulated relative occur.

power

(JEO1 and JEO3 System opera-

JE09)

parameters for

provide

to the Radar Additional rf power

tion and monitor monitored voltage

specific

functions

which

parameters (JC01), agc

to evaluate

the operation

of the radar are: (JC03).

(JCOR),

and narrow-band

agc voltage

SYSTEM

UNITS

PRESSURE

TRANSDUCERS of the pressure transducer electrical as shown and is to sense pressure, signal. There are and to convert six physically Transducers this

The purpose pressure configured different specific Figure

into a proportional pressure physical application

different

transducers appearances of use.

in Figure

lO-16.

have the in

different

pressure

ranges

to accommodate each transducer

The numerical

call outs below

lO-16 identifies lO-1.

the location

and application to those

of the transducer lO-1.

as shown

in Figure

The numbers

correspond

on Figure

The sizes of the units vary 2 1/2 inches x R 1/2 inches The unit position

from about x 4 inches; construction

1 1/4 inches x i 1/_ inches the weights utilizes

x 3 inches 5

to

vary from approximately or Bourdon with

ounce to 1 pound. varies sure. the wiper

a bellows

tube which pres-

of a potentiometer,

proportionally, units

the input

Two potentiometers

are used in the dual-output

to separate

the cabin

10-43

SEDR 300

CASE GROUND

-.Q

Io R c AI
WATER PRESSURE TRANSDUCER REEIGURE F 10-1INDEXNO. 19 FOR LOCATION ABSOLUTE AND STATIC PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
REFFIGURE 10-1 INDEX NO. 39 & 40 FOR LOCATION

SINGLE POTENTIOMETER TRANSDUCER SCHEMATIC (TYPICAL)

H_GH RESISTANCE ELEMENT

LOW RESISTANCE ELEMENT

._..-'--

_

GROUND

_".

IA _ C o E
DUAL POTENTIOMETER TRANSDUCER SCHEMATIC (TYPICAL)

G_ I
ECS SECONDARY SUPPLY PRESSURETRANSDUCER
REF FIGURE I0-I iNDEX 55 & 59 FOR LOCATION NO.

RSS AND PRIMARY ECS SUPPLY PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
REF FIGURE 10-I iNDEX NO. 14, 21 & 30 FOR LOCATION

OAMS PROPELLANT QUANTITY

CABIN AND SUIT PRESSURETRANSDUCER
REF FIGURE 10-1 INDEX NO. 41, 57 & 58 FOR LOCATION

Figure

10-16 Pressure 10-44

Transducers

PROJECT--G'EMINI
SEDR 300

indicator circuit from the multiplexer/encoder (telemetry) circuit, thus avoiding a possible loading error in the latter. With one exception, pressure transducer

outputs range from 0 to 5 vdc.

The OAMS quantity system pressure-temperature

sensor, driving a cabin indicator, has an output of 0 to 24 VDC.

TEMPERATURE Temperature electrical

SENSORS sensors are used to convert temperatures signals. Basically into directly proportional sensors:

there are two types of temperature Variations

a probe type and a surface mounted type. to accommodate specific mounting

exist within each type different

requirements.

Nine physically

types of temperature perature
f_

sensors are shown in Figure 10-17.

With respect to temThe numbers benesth

range, approximately

20 different sensors are used.

each sensor in Figure lO-17 corresponds as shown in Figure lO-1.

to the sensors locations and application

Spacecraft

temperatures

are monitored

by platinum

element temperature

sensors. There

The sensors vary somewhat in size but are roughly 0.4 x 0.75 x 2.0 inches. are two types of resistive-element type. Probes _e

sensors, a probe type and a surface-mounted and surface-mounted sensors

used to monitor fluid temperatures,

are used to monitor surface temperatures. pure-platinum

Both types utilize a fully-annealed The sensors form one leg

wire, encased in ceramic insulation.

of a bridge network whose unbalance will produce an output of 0 to 20 mv dc or 0 to 400 my dc. The 0-20 mv dc outputs sre used for data transmission purposes

and the 0-400 mv dc outputs for cabin displsys.

/_

In some applicstions_ mounting and space requirements necessitate thet the bridge

i0-45

_.-_ --_.

SEDR 300

INRDT _

[

OUTPUT O

#

_1__

r" -

-'I

INPUTO

_:EN_ ---

'E_?J

OUTPUT

0 TYPICAL SCHEMATIC

SURFACE MOUNTED SENSOR AND BRIDGE
REFERTO FIGURE 10-1, INDEX NO. 6,27,31 &34 FOR LOCATION

PROBE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR AND BRIDGE
REFERTO FIGURE 10-1 INDEX NO. 42,54, & 60 FOR LOCATION

MOUNTED SENSORAND BRIDGE REFERTO FIGURE0-1 1
INDEX NO. 2, 3, I|, 17, 20, 22, 35, 48, 50,52 &56 FOR LOCATION

RETROROCKET CASE SURFAC_ I_ MOUNTED SENSOR AND BRIDGE
REFERTO FIGURE 10-t INDEX NO. I, 4, 25, 32 & 33 FOR LOCATION

BRIDGE PACKAGE
REFERTO FIGURE 10-1 INDEX NO. 54 & 60 FOR LOCATION

SURFACE MOUNTED SENSOR ELEMENT
OAMS QUANTITY

'"DGE PACKAGE
REFERTO FIGURE I0-I INDEX NO. 13, 23 & 29 FOR LOCATION

:ELP:,Vp , LBEE
REFERTO FIGURE I0-1 INDEX NO. _3, 23, 29 FOR LOCATION

REFERTO FIGURE I0-] INDEX NO. I0, 12, 15 & ]8 FOR LOCATION

Figure

10-17 Temperature 10-46

Sensors

PROJECT
___

GEMINI

SEDR30O

is remotely located from the sensing element.

In most cases, however, the bridge

and sensing element are housed in the same case.

Regardless of how the bridge and sensing element are housed, combined, they comprise a schematic as shown in Figure 10-17.

SYNCHR0 REPEA_RS Three synchro repeater assemblies, mounted in the upper portion of the aft land-

ing gear will as shown in Figure 10-18, monitor the synchros on the IGS platform gimbals. Each synchro repeater output is adc signal proportional to the spaceTwo outputs

craft roll, yaw and pitch attitude in terms of platform coordinates.

are available per repeater; a course output, which provides 0-5 vdc output for 0-350 degrees of synchro travel and a fine output, which gives 0-5 output for
f_

every 35 degrees of synchro travel; only the coarse output is monitored as shown in Figure 10-18. A dead band of i0 degrees maximum exists, centered around the in the synchro repeater potentiometers. Control of the synchro

iSS-degree position

repeaters is achieved by pilot actuation of the P_RM

mode select switch.

co PARTZAL 2 PEESSUEE _ECTOR
A carbon dioxide partial pressure detector, as shown in Figure 10-19, is utilized to insure that there is a safe level of C02 in the pilots suit circuits. detector is located in the EC8 module. The

The gaseous mixture to be sampled is The

obtained as it exits from the ECS carbon dioxide and odor absorbers.

sample stream is divided through two separate passages, both filtering water vapor, but only one filtering carbon dioxide. The streams then pass into

10-_7

SEDR 300

v

F

m

u

,i

,

N

u

m

I

m

m

M

e_j

AMPLIFIER

[

-

Box

II

[

--

--

--

MECHANICAL

CONNECTION

_

_

J

COARSE

Figure

10-18 Synchro

Repeaters 10-48

and Schematic

Diagram

j:_.

SEDR300

ml_l_,

wain

i

h/_TI_RIA L F ..... ABSORBING

GAS OUTPUT

I

I

/_i

RADIOACTIVE r_

_)

j

I I I
I G _ [NPLIT

fr i _,oo_ r_9:_I _
CONVERTER i

J
k_LGk_ MEG OHM w OUTPUT TO TELEMETRY PANEL METER

I I I I

j J
_]-H20 VAPOR B& N

-.

RES,STOR . ,_L_p?E_ETER ,,
-E _-RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

i_RTR'0oE I--! _r--],oNc.AMB_B I
I ORFICE/

'-t,
GAS OUTPUT /

I

Figure

10-19

C02

Partial

Pressure 10-49

Detector

and

Schematic

Diagram

SEDR 300

identical ion chambers which are polarized with + 50 vdc obtained from a dc-dc w converter contained in the detector assembly; there a radioactive source ionizes the gases. The difference of the electrical outputs is amplified and

provides a voltage which is proportional to the partial pressure of the mixture. The gas is then returned to the inlets of the suit compressors. provides two outputs: use and 0-I00 microamps The system

O-5 vdc into a nominal 2.5 megohm load for telemetry into a 4000 ohm cabin indicator.

ACCELEROME _RS Three linear accelerometers are provided to measure the accelerations along each of the spacecraft axes. pictured in Figure 10-20. The units are appro_mately The accelerometers 1.2 x 1.2 x B inches and are force-

are electrically-damped,

balance, servo-type units with outputs of 0-5 vdc.

The unit which is used for

longitudinal measurements has a range of -B to +19 g and the other two have ranges of m B g. + The accelerometer is a torque-balanced, closed.loop system

with a pendulous mass supported by an extremely low friction Jewel bearing. The schematic of the accelerometer position is shown in Figure 10-20. An electromagnetic

detector notes the slightest movement electrical

of the mass and supplies a The output of

directly proportional

signal to a servo amplifier.

the servo amplifier is applied to a torque generator which tends to restore the mass to its equilibrium position. The output of the accelerometer is obtained

by sensing the voltage _rop across the resistor in the system loop.

INSTNUMENTATION

PACKAGES

A number of the sign_Is in the various spacecraft systems are not compatible

Io-5o

"_ .

PROJECT

GEMINI

Figure

10-20

Servo

Accelerometer 10-51

and

Schematic

Diagram

,

4_L,,_. :\ -\_

='__ _
.._,JJ-_,,,

PROJECT

GEMINI
SEDR 300 _"_

SIGNAL CONDITIONER CARDS SANK B

--SIGNAL CONDITIONER CARDS BANK C

vC'-.

PACKAGE

NO:. I

PACKAGE

NO.

2

Figure

10-21

Instrumentation 10-52

Package

Assemblies

PROJECT
with the instruRentation use. vided circuitry,

SEDR 300

GEMINI

.'

__,

.
for their

..

and therefore,

must be conditioned assemblies)

Two signal-conditioning for this purpose.

packages

(instrtanentation assembly number

are pro-

Instrumentation

i is appro_tely InstruBentation in the upper sealed assembly right hand

8 x i0 x 3 inches number

and is located

in the adapter

section.

2 is approximately bay

i0 x 10 x 8 inches section.

and is located utilize

eqnil=ent

of the re-entry pressure a modular

Both units

containers The

with an operating assemblies employ

of _.5 paid and are shown construction with p_ug-in

in Figure modules

10-21.

that may be replaced, circuit boards

individually.

A module

consists

of one or two standard and a connector

printed

with the necessary board within

component

parts

for attachment in assembly

to a mother number i and for

the package. number 2.

There

are 18 modules provide

spaces

51 in assembly two.

Some modules types

for one data

channel

and others

There are six basic for different

of modules,

and several

of these

have

additional

variations

signal handling

capabilities.

There are six variations the PSD accepts provides adc two input

of the Phase voltages:

Sensitive

Demodulators

(PSD).

Basically, It

one signal voltage for a full scale

and one reference. signal that is in signal

output

of five volts

input

phase with

the reference

and an output

of zero volts

for a full scale

that

is out of phase with provide different

the reference.

The various

configurations special

of this unit curves

full-scale

sensitivities

including

calibration

for rate gyros.

The twelve

types of dc voltage dc voltage inputs

monitors

are designed outputs

to accept

various

positive

and negative

and provide

of 0 to 5 vdc.

10-53

PROJECT

GEMINI

The ac voltage a frequency only with

monitor

accepts

a signal

ranging

from 23 to 29 volts

r=s over

range of 380 to 420 cycles.

The output

is from 0-5 vdc, varying

the input voltage.

There

are nine types of attenuator to signals modules

modules._

These modules

have

various

dc

inputs which are changed range. S_ne attenuator

in the 0-20 my dc range two data channels.

or the 0-5 vdc

contain

The dc milllvolt portional output

monitor

accepts

an input

of 0 to 50 mv dc and provides

a pro-

of 0 to 20 my dc.

The ac frequency frequency varying

sensor

provides

a 0 to 5 vdc output proportional The voltage of the module. level

to an input is _,

fro= 380 cps to 420 cps.

of the input

26 volts rms and does not affect the output

MULTIPLEXE_ENCODER

SYSTEM is divided sources. into five packages Its purpose combine to allow the data signals fro= the to a

The multiplexer/encoder to be sampled signal pickups near their

is to accept and convert

signals these

or signal conditioners, digital signal,

signals

serial binary-coded and to the real-time locations in Figures

and supply this

signal to the tape recorder are shown in their respective

telemetry

transmitter.

The units

10-22 and i0-23.

The multiplexer/encoder plexers,

consists

of a programmer, multiplexers. close

two identical These

high-level

multi-

and two identical

low-level

five units

are dis-

cussed as a single unit because

of their

function

relationship.

The low-level

multiplexers

each weigh

2.6 pounds

and measure

approximately

5.75 x

5.25 x 2.75 inches. weigh approximately

The high-level 3.25 pounds

multiplexers

are 5.25 x 4.75 x 2.5 inches and might be considered as an

each.

The multiplexers i054

PROJECT
____

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

LOW - LEVELMULTIPLEXER

"
ULTIPLEXER Figure 10-22 Instrumentation 10-55 System Multiplexers

..---:_-_. -

SEDR 300

-_

PROJECT

GEMINI

MOTHER BOARDS

(13)_

rIME INDICATOR

Figure

10-23

Instrumentation

System

Programmer

10-56

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR 300 ____

expansion to the data handling capsbility of the programmer and are dependent on the programmer for encoding snd timing. The sampling rates of the multiplexer The low-level 24 at 0.416

inputs are established by the timing chain from the programmer.

multiplexers each ssmple 32 low-level (0-20 millivolts dc) signals: samples per second and 8 at 1.25 samples per second. plexer, 32 high-level

In the high-level multi-

(0-5 vdc) are samples at 1.25 samples per second, and the signals are sampled in sets of eight at a

24 bi-level and 16 bi-level-pulsed sample rste of ten per second.

For the bi-level signals, a binary one (nominally

28 vdc, but at least 15 vdc) may indicate that an event or function has or has not taken place. For example, the indication that the bio-med tape recorders

are on is a one but the indication that the computer is on is a binary zero ..... (nominally zero vdc, but less than 5 vdc). or more represents is a binary one. For bi-level-pulsed signals, 15 vdc

a binary zero, while 5 vdc or less for at least ten milliseconds The pulse conditioning circuitry in the multiplexer senses these

pulses and holds the voltage level until it is sampled by the progrA_er.

The programmer weighs approximately 20 pounds and measures approximately ll x ll x _.5 inches. The programmer may operate as a seLf-contained data handling unit.

The basic functions of the progr_er the multiplexing

are:

data multiplexing; timing, to support The progr_er

functions; and analog to digital conversion.

output is a PCM pulsetrain mitter.

to the tape recorder and the real-time telemetry trans-

The bssic components of the programmer are a high-level analog subcommutator, .... prime subcommutator, master commutator, analog to digital converter, output shift circuitry and input selector, special timing, output fil-

register, dlgital i_ut

ter, and t_De recorder input converter (Figure 10-24).

lo-57

.

..

.

- _-_

SEDR 300

INPUTS LOW LEVEL SIGNALS (6 AT 640 SAMPLES PER SECOND) (6 AT 160 SAMPLES PER SECOND) (9 AT 60 SAMPLES PER SECOND) DIGITAL SIGNALS (24 AT 0.416 SAMPLES PER SECOND) NON-RETURN TO ZERO OUTPUT TO TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER

_,..__.._._..._.._....__

r'(32 AT 1.25 SAMPLES

......

_'--'OGRAMM_R _

i

_

"--I

PERSECO.D)i ......... ! I J
INPUTS HIGH LEVEL SIGNALS (3 AT 40 SAMPLES PER SECOND) (3 AT 20 SAMPLES PER SECOND) (6 AT 10 SAMPLES PER SECOND) BI-LEVE L SIGNALS (40 AT 10 SAMPLES PER SECOND) J J | J

I
ANALOG PRIME SUBCOMMUTATOR MASTER COMMUTATOR CONVERTERDIGITAL REGISTERSHIPT l TO OUTPUT

I
J

I
J TIMING SPECIAL CONVERTER/ TAPE INPUT REPRODUCER I DIGITAL INPUTS -BI-LEVEL OUTPUTS DIGITAL INPUT

I j J

I

L_.......
4 SEC. RESETRETURN TO ZERO OUTPUT TO TAPE RECORDER

__I

LOW-LEVEL MULTIPLEXER

LOW-LEVEL MULTIPLEXER

HIGH-LEVEL MULTIPLEXER

HIGH-LEVEL MULTIPLEXER

T
INPUTS (EACH) LOW LEVEL SIGNALS (24 AT 0.416 SAMPLES PER SECOND) (8 AT 1.25 SAMPLES PER SECOND) INPUTS (EACH) HIGH LEVEL SIGNALS (32 AT 1.25 SAMPLES PER SECOND) BI-LEVEL SIGNALS (24 AT 10 SAMPLES PER SECOND) 8I-LEVE L PU LSE SIGNALS (16 AT I0 SAMPLES PER SECOND) P'-_"

Figure 10-24 Multiplexer/Encoder 10-58

System Block Diagram

PROJECT
f_

oo0

GEMINI

The programmer

high-level

analog subcommutator

segment has the capability

of

sampling B2 high-level signal inputs at 1.25 samples per second.

The analog

subcommutator receives its inputs directly from the signal sources, or from the signal conditioners. the prime subcoramutator The output of the analog subcommutator for further multiplexing. is applied to

The prime subcormmutator, in addition to accepting commutator data output, has the capability

the sampled high-level bi-level

sub-

of sampling40

signals at

lO samples per second, 3 high-level signals at 40 samples per second, B highlevel signals at 20 samples per second and 6 hlgh-level signals at lO sampler per second. The prime subcommutator supplies its output to the master commutator.

_-_

The inputs to the prime subcom_utator, low-level outputs from the two low-level multiplexers, and high-level outputs from the two high-level multiplexers are In

combined into a prime subframe which is applied to the master commutator. addition, the master commutator has the capability of sampling 6 low-level

signals at 640 samples at 80 samples per second, and 24 digital signals at O.416 samples per second.

The output of the master commutator is applied to the analog to digital converter where the analog output from the master commutator is converted to a digital presentation.

The digital data from the output of the analog to digital converter, digital input circuitry, and the two hlgh-level multiplexers (bi-level signals) Is combined in the output shift register into a continuous Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ) Pulse Code

lO- 59

PROJECT

sEo 3oo
GEMINI

Modulated (PCM) wavetrain of 51.2 kilobits per second.

The output of the output shift register is applied to the real-time telemetry transmitter, and to the tape recorder input converter/conditioner.

The tape recorder input converter/conditioner selects data from the 51.2 kilobits per second NRZ output of the output shift register, converts the data to an Returnto-Zero (RZ) output and applies the data to the tape recorder input conditioner module at 5.12 kilobits per second.

The serial outputs, provided from the programmer, all have positive voltages for ones and zero or negative voltages for zeros. The output for the tape recorder

is a 5.12 kilobit per second serial Return-to-Zero (RZ) signal with a +5 volt transition for data ones and a -5 volt transition for data zeros. at 5.12 kilohits per second is also provided for the tape recorder. A clock signal This output The _-_

is a pulse train of 50 percent duty cycle at a peak amplitude of 5 volts. timing of the positive excursion is coincident with data one pulses.

The pro-

grammer output for the real-time transmitter is a 51.2 kllobit NRZ signal with a voltage which is adjustable between 0.I volt and 1.0 volt peak. Separate

hardline outputs are provided to allow various test equipment to be used without degradation of the transmitter or tspe recorder outputs. The hardline

outputs are real-time PCM signal, basic PCM clock rate signal, and master reset pulse signal. The signals are two volts peak-to-peak and are fed over twinex

coaxial or video cables.

The programmer message format includes a master frame and prime subframe; the complete format is transmitted as real-time and only the prime subframe is

io-6o

SEDR 300

tape recorded.

The master frame consists of 160 woNs,

each word consisting of

eight data bits, sampled 40 times per second. required to c_letely

Ninety-six master frames are Every tenth word in the

cycle throug_ all data inputs.

master frame contains prime subframe data. words sampled ten times per second.

The prime subframe consists of 64 prime subframes are required Information bits

_enty-four

to cycle through all data inputs of this part of the system.

are obtained from analog data, arranged with the most significant bit first, digital data, broken into groups of eight bits with the most significant bit first, or bi-level data grouped as eight consecutive data bits (referred to as a bi-level set).

TRANSMI_RS Three telemetry /transmitters are used to transmit the Instrumentation System

data to the ground stations.

Although the transmitters serve the Instrumenta-

tion System, its antennas, and associated switching is part of the Communication System; therefore, the transmitters are described in detail in Section IX, Cc_._.,Anication System.

PCM TAPE RECORI_R The tape recorder is designed for monitoring and for producing a recording of the signals received from the PCM programmer. The tape recorder records PCM

data at a tape speed of i 7/8 inches per second and playback, on command, of this recorded data, will, on command, stop, reverse tape direction and playback the recorded data at a tape speed of 41.25 inches per second. will occur only during record mode. detail in Section IX, Co_unication Erasure of data

The power control circuitry is described in System.

IK-=_-

SEDR

300

Figure

10-25 PCM Tape Recorder 10-62

PRO,.I
___

EC"T

GEMINI

SEDR 300

Telemetered

signals recorded are RZ.

The PCM tape recorder reproducer shown in enclosed tape recorder which is approxiThe tape recorder assembly.

Figure 10-24 consists of one completely

mately 4.3 inches high, i0.0 inches wide and i0.0 inches deep. consists of the cover assembly, Connectors connections capstan drive assembly

and tape transport

on the side of the case assembly provide signal connections, and test connections.

power

Record The magnetic tape recorder is capable of providing a minimum of four hours of recording time at a tape speed of 1 7/8 inches per second. Two tracks of Four hours

simultaneous PCM data can be recorded at 1 7/8 inches per second.

of RZ data at 5120 bits per second can be recorded at 1 7/8 inches per second.

Playback On command, the recorder is to rewind the tape into the supply reel at 22 times the record speed (41.25 inches per second) while reading and playing back the informalion recorded on the tape. Final output of recorded data is in NRZ form.

Diphase

System signal processing while avoiding technique permits the maximum tape utilization with use of the encoding

The diphase efficiency, conventional

certain serious problems

encountered It involves

NRZ recording at high packing density.

of the digital information prior to recording and decoding of the playback and conversion of the reproduced signal into standard NRZ form.

10-63

PROJ
_.

EC'T

GEMINI
.__.__

SEDR 300

The diphase digital desired data

technique

is essentially

a phase-modulated

carrier process.

The

format to be recorded in the reproduce

in RZ with an accompanying

clock, and the

output

mode is of the standard NRZ form.

The diphase

signal to be recorded

is created

in the following flip-flop edge.

manner.

Inverted

RZ data and clock signal are OR gated into a binary tion of the flip-flop represented occurs on every negative going

such that a transizero is Each of the

A logical

in the diphase

code by a square wave a phase transition

at 1/2 the data rate. occurs in the center

time a logical

one is received,

bit cell so that a logic one is represented The output the record of the flip-flop amplifier which is the diphase drives

by a square wave at the data rate. signal. signal This signal is then fed to

the diphase

into the record head.
f_

Record During

Mode the record mode, the input signal is applied is recorded is sent to a preamplifier, encoder and

amplifier. The diphase

A clock signal code produced

to the input of the triggerable on magnetic tape.

flip-flop.

The magnetic

tape is dc erased

prior

to recording. head

The magnetic has a gap width

head utilized approximately

is a high-quality i/3 the recorded wider

instrumentation wave length.

recording

The gap width wave length,

is not critical, the high frequency

but if it is much playback components components are

than I/3 of the recorded

are attenuated accentuated,

and if it is much narrower, causing a difficult

the high frequency problem.

equalization

lO-6#

PROJECT
f ___ SEDR 300

GEMINI
_.____

Reproduce

Mode

During the reproduce mode, the signal is picked up by the magnetic head and applied to the playback amplifier, where it is amplified approximately 60 db, filtered, and equalized to compensate for the effects of the head to tape system. The equalized signal is then fed to an input coupler where approximately 40 db

of hard limiting is provided, thus providing extremely high immunity from amplitude variation in the reproduced signal.

The ability of this system to operate satisfactorily through such a large variation in playback signal amplitude assures a high degree of reliability and

extremely low data drop out.
f_

The outputs of the input coupler, the recorded

diphase signal and its complement, are fed to the one shot timing extractor circuitry and simultaneously to the decoder circuitry.

The function of the timing extractor

and decoder is to produce timing pulses signal. This circuitry detects

from the amplified and limited dlphase playback

the data, using the timing pulses and dlphase sign_!, and produces the final NRZ output.

The output filter is fed the decoder output and filters out some of the higher harmonics of the NRZ output signal. The hardline output amplifiers produce a

hardline output with good square wave characteristics at high frequencies. DC-DC CONVERTERS

The two dc-dc converters (one of which is a standby unit) supply the Instru-

zo-65

j-- _. _

SEDR 300

Figure

10-26 DC-DC

Converter

& Regulators

10-66

PROJ
__.

E(T

GEMINI

SEDR300

mentation x 7 inches hand

System weigh

_-ith regulated approximstely

dc power. seven pounds section

The units each,

are approximately

5.5 x 5.5

and are located in Figure

in the rightThe con-

equipment

bay of the re-entry voltage

as shown which

10-25.

verters supply

are essentially output voltages

regulators

operate

on 18 to 30.5 vdc and

of +5 vdc,

+24 vdc and -24 vdc.

The power

control input

circuitry power

for the dc-dc

converters

is shown

in Figure through

10-3.

Essentially, position panel. overhead power _-

to the dc-dc circuit CONV

converters

is supplied

the on breaker on the

of the DC-DC CONV This arms the DC-DC

breaker

on the overhead Placing the DC-DC

swltch/circuit CONV switch

switch. panel,

swltch/circuit

breaker

to the SEC or PRI position, Usage of the dc-dc converter

will apply regulsted

to the

corresponding

converter.

output voltages

is illustrated

in Figure

lO-B.

BIO-MED

TAPE RECORDERS recorders Each

AND used

POWER

SUPPLY Instrumentation System are con-

The two tape identical. nector

in the physiological

one is approximately projections) termination

9 x 6 I/2 x 1 3/4 inches about three and pounds.

(excluding

and mounting provides

and weighs points

One external The circuitry The recorder capacity is

connector

for all inputs with

outputs. components. The reel

is made up of 19 printed uses recording 880 feet. tape with

circuit a width

boards

solid-state inches.

of 0.497 + 0.001 except

All physiological are recorded

functions_

oral temperature Each recorder

and blood

pressure

of each pilot channels derived
f_

on the tape recorders. The timing System input

has six data pulsetrain Buffer

and one timing

channel.

is a pulse-coded

from the Time Reference

through

the Time Correlation

10-67

PROJECT

GEMINI

This signal is used for time correlation The recorders willoperate 0.029S inches per second.

during post mission analysis.

for a total of i00 hours at a normal tape speed of Recorder operation is controlled by the crew during

the mission without playing back the data.

Upon completion of the mission, the

recorders are removed from the spacecraft so thai the tape can be removed and the data extracted. at 24 vdc. The total power requirement of each recorder is 1.2watts

The electrical control circuitry for the bio-med instrumentation is shown in Figure 10-2 and the location of the components is shown in Figure i0-i. The

recorders are Government Furnished Equipment and are actuated from the spacecraft main bus through the BIO-MED INST circuit breaker and the CONTposition of the BIO-MED RCDR switch (I and 2). _

The bio-med power supply, similar in construction to the dc-dc converters, supplies dc regulated voltage to the bio-med instrumentation. Input power for

the converter is obtained from the main bus through the BIO-MED INST circuit breaker.

io-68

PYROTECHNICS and RETRO ROCKET SYSTEM

,Sectio
XI
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE GENERAL INFORMATION ............................. RECURRENT COMPONENTS .......................... SEPARATION ASSEMBLIES AND

PAGE 11-3 11-3

_-_a_._iiiii_ _4:"..._-__.'=_._

DEV ICES ....................................................... EGRESS SYSTEMS AND DEVICES .................. PA RA CH U TE LA N DI N G SY STEM PY ROTE CH N I CS ........................................... PYROTECHNIC VALVES .................................

11- 8 Ii!ii._.T:_.y:.:_i:_:_N 11-34 !iiiii_]iiiiiiijijiiiiil ii!ii_iiiii!iiiiff:_i._iil
..°..**°..°°°°°°°.°.°°..... :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

11-5 6 _!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!ilH'_ 11-67 ::ii_i_i_!_ili_iii!i_i!i
.°°°, • ,,,,,,°,,,°,, ,°°°.°..°°°°° ,°_°, ,4. °°°°°°°, ...... ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ............ • .., ...........

RETROGRADE SYSTEM ROCKET ................... iiiiiiiiiiiiiiHi 11-7o DOCKING SYSTEM PYROTECHNIC ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
DEVICES ...................................................... 11-77 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiil
............... • ..o.....,.. ..°...,.°.o, ............ ,., ........ ,, ,....,....,,° ,,°°..,,, ........ ......... ..... ............... ,....,...,.. ..., ....................... ...... °.................... :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

........... ° ............... .°°° ........ , ............ ............... °°°°.°.°°.. .................. ° ........ ................ ° .......... .... ° .......... °...°°..°°° :::::::::::::::::::::::::: ................... 11-]:::::::::::::::::::::::::: ,....,°

°

l_L_r_,_
-,

SEDR 3O0
PROJECT GEMINI

SINGLE BRIDGEWlRE DETONATOR (ELECTRICAL RECEPTACLE)

ELECTKICAL INSULATION -FIRING ClRCUI1 PIN

TIME DELAY COLUMN

(WHEN APPLICABLE)

_x CASE

DUAL BRIDGEWIRE DETONATOR (ELECTRICAL RECEPTACLE)

Figure

11-1

Detonator 11-2

(Typical)

SEDR 300

PROJEC'T

GEMINI

SECTION XI

PI'RO,TEC_ICS AND,RETROGRADE ROC_-TS

Dr o A, ,IO
The pyrotechnic devices and retrograde rockets, installed in the Gemini Spacecraft, provide the escape system propulsion modes, enable and disable systems, and separate various sections and assemblies. Pyrotechnics are installed in each of the The retrograde

major sections and in numerous locations throughout the spacecraft.

rockets retard the spacecrafts orbital velocity to initiate re-entry into the earths atmosphere. adapter. The retrograde rockets are located in the retrograde section of the

RECURRENT "_

COMPONENTS To avoid

Some pyrotechnic items are used extensively throughout the spacecraft.

repetition in subsequent paragraphs, their description and operation will be presented at this time. When describing the various systems, these components

shall be mentioned by name only.

DETONATOR Description The typical detonator (Figure ii-i) is a machined steel or aluminum cylinder containing an ignition mix, booster charge and an output charge. In some instances

a pyrotechnic time delay column is used to provide a time delay between ignition and detonation. The case is threaded at one end for installation purposes. An

electrical receptacle is provided at the other end. are provided in two different configurations. _" identical Siring circuits.

Electrically, the detonators

One incorporates two independent, The

The other incorporates only one firing circuit.

Ii "3

SEDR 300

circuits detonator across high

of

both

detonators Each firip4_ wire

are

electrically consists

insulated of

f_om and independent connector

of pins,

the

body.

circuit

two electrical

which a bridge

is incorporated.

The detonator

is used to initiate

explosive

components.

oeration
Upon cause receipt of a 28 vdc electrical to fire. Either signal, circuit the firing (detonators circuit with or circuits will will both the detonator dual circuits) as exist when mix which

initiate circuits ignites

the charge with the same performance are operative. the booster charge. The bridge wire

characteristics the ignition then propagates

ignites charge

in turn to ignite

charge.

The booster

detonation mix will

the output

If a delay column ignites

is installed, charge.

the ignition The output to which

the delay column which and transmits

the booster

charge

detonates

the detonation

wave

to the assembly

it is attached.

CARTRIDGE Description The typical ignition column cartridge (Figure 11-2) is a machined steel sylinder containing time an

mix and an output

charge. a specific

In some instances

a pyrotechnic ignition

delay

is used to provide is threaded

time delay between

and output. An electrical are

The cartridge receptacle provided identical circuits

at one end for installation end.

purposes.

is provided

at the opposite

Electrically, One incorporates only

the cartridges

in two different firing of both circuits.

configurations. The other

two independent, The of _,

incorporates

firing circuit.

cartridges Each

are electrically circuit ceramic

insulated

from and independent

the cartridge pins mounted

body.

firing

consists dielectric

of two electrical

connector

in a high strength

base and with a bridge wire

11-4

-,_'_c :_%

SEOR 3oo

._

PROJECT

GEMINI

FIRING

J
SINGLE BRIDGEWlRE CARTRIDGE (ELECTRICAL ECEPTACLE) R

,_gg'_gN
FIRING
CIRCUIT PINS

\
f_ FIRING

ELECTRICAL

INSERT

Ill lJl
TIME DELAy COLUMN (WHEN APPLICABLE) O o_o ELECTRICAL O c. o 3E WIRE o °o O • 0 o ° o O o o Oo oa

OOo°o

INSULATION

DUAL BRIDGEWIRE CARTRIDGE (ELECTRICAL RECEPTACLE)
CLOSURE

Figure

11-2

Cartridge 11-5

(Gas Pressure)

PROJECT
,

GEMINI
____

SEDR300

connected between the two pins.

The cartridge output is a hot gas pressure.

0_eration When initiated by a 28 vdc electrical sign_!, the firing circuits will cause the cartridge to function. Either circuit (cartridges with dual circuits) will

fire the charge with the same performance characteristics as exist when both circuits are operative. The bridge wire ignites the ignition mix which propaThe

gates burning to the delay co],,mnjif applicable, and to the output charge.

output charge produces gas pressure that is used to operate the specific device in which the cartridge is installed.

FLEXIN T.vw SHAPED R Desc tio n
Flexible Linear Shaped Charge (FLSC) is a V-shaped, flexible lead sheathing containlng a high explosive core. FLSC is used in separation assemblies to sever The specific type, shape

various types, thicknesses, and shapes of ,_terials.

and thickness of the material to be separatea, dictates the amount of explosive contained in the FLSC. In the Gemini Spacecraft and Agena Adapter, the FLSC is

provided in four different core leadings: 7, 10, 20, and 25 grains per foot.

O_eration When installed, the open portion of the V-shaped FLSC is placed towards the item to be severed. by a detonator. The FI_C is detonated by a booster charge that has been initiated The explosive core of the FI_C detonates, resulting in collapse

of the sheathing in the V groove, which produces a cutting jet composed of explosive products and minute metal particles. This Jet produces extremely high _

localized pressures resulting in stress far above the yield strength of the target

L-6

PROd

E-C'T GEMINI
SEDR300

material.

MILD DETONATING FUSE Description Mild Detonating Fuse (MDF) is a strand of high explosive encased in a lead sheathing with s circular cross section. explosive interconnect. explosive per foot. MDF is used as a separation device and as an

As a separation device, the strand contains 5 grains of

As an explosive interconnect, the strand contains 2 or 3.3 The interconnect type MDF is installed in either Both The

grains of explosive per foot.

flexible woven steel mesh or nylon hose and rigid stainless steel tubing.

rigid and flexible MDF have a small booster charge incorporated at each end. booster charges are referred to as acceptor and donor. end that receives a detonation wave from an initiator.

The acceptor being on the The donor being on the end The inter-

that transmits a detonation wave to a component or other acceptor.

connects are attached to various devices by AN type or Bendix type electrical COnnectors.

Operation The MUF used as a separation device is placed in a groove milled in a magnesium ring. The ring is formed to the shape of the items to be separated and is placed The assembly to be Jettisoned is attached to the The bolts have been axially drilled to reduce When detonated, the MDF exerts

between the mating surfaces.

main structure by frangible bolts.

tensile strength to a specified breaking point.

a force against the mating surfaces greater than the tensile strength of the frangible bolts. _ The MDF, used as an explosive interconnect, is initiated when a The

detonator or booster charge propagates a detonation wave to the MDF booster.

if-?

PROJECT

GEMINI

SEDR 300 ,

booster the to _F the

strengthens strand. device

the

wave and transmits at the attached. opposite

it

linearly end,

through

the the

length

of wave

The booster, to which it is

propagates

detonation

E ARA IOSSEMBLIES DEVICES A
There are several different types of separation assemblies and devices used in the Gemini Spacecraft (Figure ii-3). These assemblies and devices are presented

indlvidually in the followlng paragraphs.

SPACECRAgVf/LAUNCHVEHICLE SEPARATION ASSEMBLY Description The spacecraft/launch vehicle separation assembly (Figure ii-_) separates the spacecraft from the launch vehicle by severing the mating ring. The separation _

assembly primarily consists of two flexible linear shaped charges (FLSC) installed around the periphery of the mating ring, three detonators, three detonator blocks, three dual boosters, a molded backup retainer and a back blast shield. boosters are inserted in the detonator blocks. The dual

The dual booster protrude into the

molded backup retainer, indexed directly above the FLSC, when the detonator blocks are installed. The detonators are inserted in the detonator blocks with the outThe back blast shield attaches the

put charge adjacent to the dual boosters.

molded backup retainer and FLSC to the mating ring.

O eratlon
Upon receipt of the 28 vdc electrical signal, the detonators transmit a detonation wave that is propagated to the dual boosters. The dual boosters strengthen the The FLSC detonates and

detonation wave to achieve proper detonation of the FLSC severs the mating r_ng redundantly.

The backup retainer absorbs the shock in the

11-8

PROJECT
_

GEMINI
__]

SEDR300

RENDEZVOUS

AND RECOVERY

--DOCKING

BAR ASSEMBLY

SECTION SEPARATION WIRE BI GUILLOTINE MAIN PARACHUTE REEFING CUITERS MAIN PARAC HU

(S/C 6-8 & UP)

MORTAR CARTRIDGE

CARTRIDGE PARACHUTE REEFING CUTTERS

LiNE GUILLOTINE

MORTAR

WIRE BUNDLE

DROGUE PARACHUIE REEFING CUTTERS DROGUE MORTAR NOSE FAIRING DOCKING DOOR B

_ _ EMERGENCY DOCKING RELEASE SYSTEM (S,/C6-B& UP)

RELEASE CABLE CUTTERS (3 TYPICAL) (S/C 6-8 & UP)

A -DROGUE PARACHUTE BRIDLE RELEASE (3 TYPICAL)

Figure

11-3

Spacecraft

Pyrotechnic

Devices 11-9

(R & R Section)

(Sheet

1 of 3)

--_.

SEDR 300

PROJECT

GEMINI

HORIZON SCANNER HEAD EJECTOR

(2 BEQ) BACKBOARD MDE ROCKET CATAPULT (2 ACTUATOR DROGUE MORTAi_ __ _,

-.%
". _._ SCANNER FAIRING _.

_"_ : 2::::}

ROTECHNIC SWITCHES HORIZON EJECTOR

i.._ h

AIR DOOR ACTUATOR

PACKAGE C A SYSTEM

._,._
"COMPONENT PACKAGE D B SYST EM

":_

D,SCONNECT

i_

B SYSTEM PACKAGE

A

J

-PYROTECHNIC SWITCHES

MDF INTERCONNEC1 PYROTECHNIC WITCH MDF CROSS MDF MANUAL FIRING INITIATOR (2 REQ) COMP ONENT PACKAGE A DETC A -COMPONENT A SYSTEM PACKAGE PACKAGE C B SYSTEM

-SINGLE POINT DISCONNECT

DETONATOR

(A) D

Figure

11-3 Spacecraft

Pyrotechnic

Devices 11-10

(Landing

Module)

(Sheet

2 of 3)

PROJECT

SEO. 3oo
GEMINI
ASSY. VALVE )k VALVE ISOLATION VALVE

R.E.P.

COVER GUILLOTINE Z13.44 (S/C 8 ONLY)

D-10 HAND HOLO GUILLOTINE D-IO ATTITUDE (S/C I0 & 12) UHF-VHF POLARIZATION MEASUREMENT EXPE D-14 (S/C 8 & 9)

TUBE CUT TER/SE ALER_

R.E.P EJECTOR (S/C 5 ONLY)FOOTREST GUILLOTINE -Z]3 DETONATOR (S/C 8 & 9)

._, >
i/_._

ASSY
CUTTER ASSY $ GUILLOTINE

L-:J
D-4, (3 REQ) (S/C 5, 7 & 9) UHF, "/HE POLARIZATION MEASUREMENT GUILLOTINE (S,/C 8 ONLY) D-4, D-7 EQUIPMENT RELEASE GUILLOTINE (3 REQ) (S/C D-I0 HAND HOLD GU (S/C 8 ONLY) D-10 MINIMUM REACTION ROCKET #! UAD III

"_

,-/
JJ QUAD II _._ "

GUILLOTINE _ POWER TOOL DETONATOR (TYP 3

_ H 2 ACTUATOR •

ROCKET

#4

ROCK ET 13

ROCKET MOTOR GUILLOTINES S/C-L/V ADAPTER EQUIP GUILLOTINES TYPICAL 4 PLACES INITIATOR ASSY (2 REQD/MOTOR D-7 DOOR RELEASE GUILLOTINE (REF) RADIONATAR (S/C S&7) EI.EASE GUILLOTINE (REF)

• D-4, D-7 DOOR RELEASE GUILLOTINE (REF) (

:

-NUCLEAR EMULSION & 9) GUILLOTINE (S/C 8 FAIRING JETTISON GU ILLOTINE (S,/C S ON LY) ELECTRO STATIC CHARGE EXP. F INTERCONNECT

BY SPECTROMETER/INTERFEROMETER GU (2 REQ) D-,4& D-7 EQUIP RELEASE D-15 (TYP 3 PLACES) LOW LIGHT LEVEL T.V.

GUILLOTINE (S/C S, & 9)

(S/C 8 AND]I

)

DOOR RELEASE GUILLOTINE

Figure

11-3 Spacecraft

Pyrotechnic

Devices

(Adapter)

(Sheet

3 of 3)

11-11

_._..S_

SEDR 300

r_='%_: ,_

PROJECT

GEMINI

BACK BLAST

BACK-UP SHAPED CHARGE (10 GRAINS PER FOOT

I

HOUSING FIBERGLAS

bNATOR

DUAL BOOSTER LAUNCH VEHICL

SECTION A-A

Figure 11-4 Spacecraft/Launch 11-12

Vehicle Separation

Assembly

PRI
SEDR 300

back blast. shrapnel. the mating

The back blast shield protects the structure and equipment from Proper detonation of only one strand of FLSC is sufficient to sever ring.

EQUIPMENT SECTION/RETROGRADE SECTION SEPARATION ASSEMBLY Description The equipment section/retrograde section separation assembly (Figure 11-5) separates the equipment adapter. section of the adapter from the retrograde consists of two main units: section of the

The assembly basically

the shaped charge

assembly and the tubing cutter assembly.

The shaped charge assembly primarily

consists of two flexible linear shaped charges (FLSC), three detonator blocks, containing
f_

three crossovers

and six boosters,

three detonators,

ten segmented back-

up strips and a molded backup retainer. tion of the detonators. tubing cutter explosive sists of an explosive

The detonator blocks provide for installaof the con-

One detonator block provides for the installation interconnect. The tubing cutter assembly primarily

interconnect

(MDF), two formed aluminum parallel housings,

molded backup retainer,

two flexible linear shaped charges with boosters attached, The explosive interconnect (MDF) is a flexible and end mounted booster charges.

a detonator block and a detonator. nylon hose containing The interconnect the interconnect

a strand of high explosive

has Bendix type connectors

incorporated

at each end for attaching The inter-

to the cutter and shaped charge detonator blocks.

conuect is attached to the cutter detonator block with its booster charge adjacent to one of the boosters on the FLSC. The detonator is installed in the cutter

detonator block with its output end adjacent to the other booster on the FLSC. The cutter assembly is bracket mounted to the inside of the retrograde
t _,

section

of the adapter, forward of the parting line.

The shaped charge assembly is

11-13

. __

SEDR 300

L

'_

PROJECT

GEMINI

SEE DETAIL

"A"\--_
RX_,

A

;RADE SECTION (REP)

A

By / LX

J DETONATOR

INTERCONNECT

MDF---_

SECTION (REF)

C
TUBE CUTTER ASS

MDP INTERCONNECT

SHAPED CHARGE ASSEMBLY

SEVERED (REF) DETONATOR

V_EW A-A

MOUNTING

BOLTS--_

(20 GRAINS PER FOOT)

SHAPED CHARGE (10 GRAINS PERPOOT)-'_

SECTION

C-C

,NTERCONNECT

EXPEOS,VE

__
DETAIL A

Figure

11-5 Separation

Assembly-Equipment 11-14

Section/Retrograde

Section

PROJ
if-_

EC'T" GEMINI
SEDR 300

._.

installed retrograde

around

the outer parting

periphery llne.

of the adapter

at the equipment

section

and

section

Operation When initiated by a 28 vdc electrical charge assembly signal, transmit the detonators a shock Mill fire. wave The detoto the the wave

nators

of the shaped which

or detonation

crossovers

in turn

initiates

the boosters.

The boosters

propsgate

to the FLSC.

The FLSC The

detonates detonator

and functions of the tubing

to sever the adapter cutter assembly

at the parting detona-

llne redundantly. tion to the booster interconnect on the other

propagates

on one strand detonation

of FLSC from the

in the cutter shaped charge

assembly. assembly

The explosive to the booster propagate

transmits strand

of FLSC

in the cutter assembly. The two strands aluminum tubes

The two boosters

the shock wave to the FLSC. detonate tion and sever the twelve

of FI_C in the cutter assembly and one nylon charge tube. Proper detona-

of only one strand of FLSC_ assembly, is sufficient

in both

the shaped separation.

assembly

and tubing

cutter

to achieve

RETROGRADE Description

SECTION/RE-ENTRY

MODULE

SEPARATION

ASSEMBLY

The retrograde to separate ration

sectlon/re-entry

module

separation

assembly

(Figure

ll-6)

functions Sepa-

the retrograde

section

of the adapter the three

from the re-entry straps consists three The

module.

is accomplished The

by severing separation

titanium

and various of three parallel detonator

tubes cutter

and wire bundles. assemblies, three

assembly three

primarily

detonator

housings,

detonators, unions. column.

booster housings

col,-,ns, six explosive comtain a booster

interconnects,

and three booster

column

and a parallel

The cutter

assemblies

11-15

--__

SEDR 300

'_

PROJECT

GEMINI

(25 GRAINS PER FOOT) _1_

I _,

D ETONATOR-"°--U

-_2-_--_I_L_

SHAPED CHARGE

_

HOUSING

SECTION

A-A

(REF)

RE-ENTRY MODULE

(RE_

C
_.__ STRAP (TYPICAL 2 pLACES) SECTION B-B

HOUSING

ADAPTER TIE FAIRING _,_ _SHAPED CHARGE

I
DETONATOR EXPLOSIVE BOOSTER _

,_ERcc
CUTTER ASSEMBLY. (3 REQ)

V//////////////J_
SECTION C-C

Figure

11-6 Retrograde

Section/Re-Entry 11-16

Module

Separation

Assembly

PROJECT
_@

GEMINI

SEDR300

consist

of two parallel

machined

aluminum

bars that

contain

four

strips of FLSC. boosters. The A

The bars are Joined by the detonator detonator is installed

housings

with the parallel housings.

in each of the three around

detonator

cutter assemby the

blies are located explosive

in three places

the parting

llne and are linked

interconnects.

Operation When initiated by a 28 vdc electrical signal, relay the detonators propagation propagate a detonaand The

tion or shock wave to the boosters simultaneously interconnects detonation the shock wave transmit

which

to cutter FLSC interconnects. This

is propagated

to the explosive

the wave to all three cutters FLSC,

cutter assemblies.

is to ensure do

of all three

in the event

one or even two detonators severs the titanium of only two separation.

not function. straps, wire opposing

Detonation bundles

of the cutter FLSC redundantly. cutter

completely Proper

and tubing in each

detonation to achieve

strips

of FLSC

is sufficient

RENDEZVOUS Description The

AND RECOVERY

SECTION

SEPARATION

ASSEMBLY

rendezvous

and recovery and Recovery

section

separation

assembly

(Figure

ll-7)

separates System (RCS)

the Rendezvous section. housing strands The

(R & R) section from the Re-entry consists of Mild Detonating

Control Fuse

The assembly ring,

primarily

(MDF), MDF charges. ring Two

two detonators,

two detonator in parallel

housings

and two booster

of MDF are installed intersect

grooves

milled

in the housing

face. 180 °

grooves

at the booster is attached

charges which

are installed

approximately

apart. _

The R & R section

to the RCS section at the mating

by frangible surface.

bolts, with

the MDF ring fastened

to the R & R section

The detonator

ii-17

_I_

_i_ _

,:,,_oJ_,::-r G_,,,,,
SEDR300

__

FRANGIBLE BOLT (24 REQ)

RENDEZVOUS AND

RECOVERY SECTION {RBF)

=;(Tu._.7 R,No
_--RE-ENTRY CONTROL SYSTEM SECTION RENDEZVOUS AND RECOVERY SECTION (RBF)

SECT'ON

BOOSTER CHARGE A-A

MD F MDF HOUSING

_ RING--_ _ __

FRANGIBLE BOLT _,

R CO._OL E-_.TR¥_YSTEM

_i

_

_--_WASHER

SECTION (REF)-_

.f"

_"

BOC

_

B""

"_

Y

'Ji I SCREW

'_-

SCREW

SECTION

B-B

Figure

11-7 Rendezvous

and

Recovery 11-18

Section

Separation

Assembly

PROJECT
[_______@

GEMINI
SEDR 300

housings are installed in the RCS section, with the detonators indexed directly above the booster charges, when the sections are mated.

0peration When initiated by a 28 vdc electrical wave to the two booster charges. signal, the detonators propagate a detonation

The booster charges strengthen the detonation The MDF detonates, exerting a The force breaks all

wave and transmit it to the dual strands of MDF.

force against the RCS and R & R section mating surfaces.

the frangible bolts and allows the pilot chute to pull the R & R section free of the spacecraft. Satisfactory propagation of either strand of MDF will successfully

separate the R & R section.

WIRE BUNDLE GUILLOTINE _ Description The wire bundle guillotine (Figure i1-8) is used throughout the spacecraft to sever various sized bundles of electrical wires. sizes. The guillotines are used in two

One size can sever a wire bundle up to one and one quarter inches in dia-

meter and the other can sever a wire bundle up to two and one half inches in diameter. Both sizes are similar in design, appearance and operation. The guillo-

tines primarily consist of a body, end cap or anvil, plston/cutter blade, shear pln(s) and an electrically fired gas pressure cartridge. The body houses the

plston/cutter blade, provides for installation of the cartridge, and attachment of the anvil. The anvil is removable to facilitate removal and installation of Two guillotines are used on a wire bundle, Lugs, for attaching the guillotine

either the guillotine or wire bundle.

one on each side of the separation plane.

to the spacecraft structure, are an integral part of the guillotine body.

l1-19

f- _-_-_

SEDR 300

__

.RoJ_._..,,.

WIRE BUNDLE _,

_/

::: _¢_

PISTON/CUTTER BLADE

--MOUNTING

LUGS

N

_,x x,._asvJ L Figure 11-8 Wire Bundle 11-20 Guillotine

ANVIL"

"--_:

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR300 __

Operation When initiated by the proper electrical signal, the cratridge produces gas pressure. When sufficient force As the pin(s) The

This gas pressure, exerts force on the piston cutter blade.

is applied, the piston/cutter blade will sever the shear pin(s).

shear, the piston/cutter blade strokes, and completely severs the wire bundle. wire bundle is then free to pull out of the guillotine body.

WIRE BUNDLE GUILLOTINE Description

(CABLE CUTTING)

The wire bundle guillotine (cable cutting) (Figure 11-9) is used to sever _oven stainless steel cables. cutter blade, cartridges. installation. cap. The guillotine primarily consists of the body, piston/ fired gas pressure

shear pin, anvil and end cap, and two electrically

The body provides a piston actuation area and provides for cartridge The anvil is retained in the barrel section of the body by the end

The anvil and end cap is removable to permit guillotine and cable installaLugs, for attaching the guillotine to the spacecraft structure,

tion and removal.

are an integral part of the body. cutter blade in a retracted

The shear pin is provided to retain the piston/

position.

0_oeration When Inltlatedbya gas pressure. 28 vde electrical signal, the two cartridges fire and produce When The

The gas pressure exerts force on the plston/cutter blade.

sufficient force is applied, the plston/cutter blade severs the shear pin.

plston/cutter blade travels the length of the barrel section and severs the cable installed in the guillotine. The cable is then free to pull out of the guillotine.

11-21

/

_

SEDR 300

I I

_,_

PROJECT

GEMINI

CABLE (REF)

"I/CUTTE R BLADE

ANv'L
1
I
(Cable Cutting)

.=¢.-.-----

B'HEARN,PDE°Ts cuTTE
BODY

[I I

L

CARTRIDGE

Figure

11-9

Wire Bundle

Guillotine

11-22

PROJECT
______

GEMINI
SEDR300 _j__

TUBING C%_R/_A_ Description The tubing cutter/sealer (Figure ll-10) is used to cut and seal two stainless hypergolic Two tubing propellants used in the

steel, Teflon Orbit Attitude are located separation anvil,

lined tubes.

The tubes System

contain (OAMS).

and Maneuvering

cutter/sealer

assemblies section of the body, cutter The

in the adapter, llne. The tubing

one on each side of the retrograde/equlpment cutter/sealer gas pressure consists assembly cartridge, primarily four consists

one electrically The cutter

fired assembly

shear pins and and blade.

assembly. crimper pins). _-

of the piston,

crimper

and blade are attached The piston is secured

to the piston by two of the shear pins,

(sequencing

in the body by the other two shear pins, (initial for the installation assembly. of the cartridge, Lugs, attachment the tubing

lock pins). of the anvil, cutter/sealer

The body provides and housing

for the cutter

for attaching

to the spacecraft

structure,

are an integral

part of the body.

Operation When initlatedby a 28 vdc electrical The gas pressure exerts signal, a force the cartridge on the piston fires and generates

gas pressure. bly. When

of the cutter assemlock pins are The blade first. the the of As

sufficient

force is applied assembly

to the piston,

the initial

severed and the cutter and crimper, the cutter raised extending

strokes to seal and cut the two tubes. contact the tubing

past the end of the piston, down, the crimper

assembly

moves

flattens assembly

the tubing continues

against

portion

of the anvil.

As the cutter between

its travel,

sequencing

pins are severed

the crimper and blade The sealed

and blade, further portion

stopping

the travel

the crimper. with the blade

The base of the piston severing the tubing.

crimp and seal the tubing of the tubing remains in

11-23

_ _

SEDR 300

_)j
__

PROJECT

GEMINI
_3

TUBES

A

CARTRIDGE'_

S.,ELD
iNITiAL LOCK PiN ; PIN _

i_?i!!ilii ii:'!i
TUBE _/_-PROPE LkANT

_'"

g
VIEW A-A (BEFORE FIRING)

;

SEVEREDTUBE"

FREE--_

ANVIL/'_'_

VIEW

A-A

(AFTER

FIRING)

Figure

11-10 Tubing 11-24

Cutter/Sealer

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
SEDR 300 _ _.__

the tubing between

cutter/sealers

at adapter

separation.

The

severed

portion

of the tubing

the tubing

cutter/sealers

is free to pull out at adapter

separation.

PYROTECHNIC Description The

SWITCH

pyrotechnic

switch

(Figure

ll-ll)

functions

to positively bundles

open electrical to their being the re-entry shear

circuits severed. module. pin,

and prevent The

current are

flow in various in various

wire

prior

switches

located

places

throughout actuator

The switches lock,

primarily

consist fired

of the body, gas pressure position body spring

(piston),

spring

and electrically in the switch

cartridge. to switch

The shear pin actuation. receptacles. The contacts are identical in the recep55 contacts. part are in

secures

the actuator

closed

prior

Incorporated _'--

in opposite

ends of the contain

switch hollow

are two electrical leaf contacts. All switches

The end mounted axially design tacles. Lugs,

receptacles

connected

by pins mounted

in the actuator.

and operation One model

with the exception contains 41 contacts,

of the number and the other

of contacts model

contains

for attaching

the switch

to the spacecraft

structure,

are an integral

of the body.

Operation When initiated by a 28 vdc is ported electrical through signal, the cartridge fires and generates The pressure to

gas pressure exerts

that

the switch body

to the actuator.

a force against

a flange

of the actuator. in the body.

The force

causes the actuator moves, the

sever the shear pin and move axially connecting ,_ pins mounted

As the actuator

in the actuator

are disengaged

from the hollow

contacts The to

at one end and are driven further spring lock _ops

into the hollow contacts at the other end. the actuator and prevents

into place behind

it from returning

L_-25

SEDR 300

__,__"_,"

PROJECT

GEMINI

+

/

BODY

"--_

SWITCH LOCKED_

_

ELECTRICAL RECEPTACLE

SHEAR PIN (ROTAIED 90° FOR CLARITY) CONNECTING PINS SWITCH CLOSED SWITCH OPEN

Figure

11-11 Pyrotechnic 11-26

Switch

._

SEDR300

its original

position.

The actuator

is thus

held _

the electrically

open pos_ion.

HORIZON

SCANNER

FAEEG

RE_A_ASSEMBLY

Description The horizon sca_er assemb_ _in scanner fairing release assemb_ and when actuator (Fibre ll-12) secures the horizon The

falri_

to the spacecraft, consists piston, of the

initiated, housing,

Jettisons

th_ fa_i_.

pri_rily

actuator,

actuator

e_ension,

piston,

release

eight locking e_enslon

pins and Go

electrically

fired _s the

pressure actuator

ca_ridges.

The actuator fair_g.

forms a positive is lo_ed the _se

tie between

and the scanner pins. p_s,

The actuator

to the ma_

piston by

four lock_g

The main piston is locked _ that are held in p_ce

of the actuator h_s_g piston. The release provides

by four locking ..... piston is sprig

by the release

energized

in the locked _sitlon. and mounting

The actuator

h_slng

for installation

of the cartridges

for the assemb_.

Operation When init_ted press_e. to the base which The _s by a 28vdc electrical signal, the caPriCes passage fire and produce in the actuator piston gas

The pressure

is po_ed

throu_

a mi_ed moves

h_s_g,

of the piston.

The gas pressure pins to c_ piston,

the release releas_g

forwa_,

enables

the four locking

_board, w_h

the main piston. to move through

pressure

causes the main h_s_g.

at_ched

actuator,

the len_h a sh_lder e_ension tension. ..... fairi_

of the actuator stops the piston to the piston, The act_tor

As the piston reaches The f_r lock_g pins,

the end of the housing, searing the actuator ex-

travel.

cam outboard bei_

into a recess thus freed

and release

the actuator w_h

e_ension

is Jettisoned

the scanner

attached.

ii -27

.._,_--_ _

SEDR300

m

I

CARIRI )

ACTUATOR LOCK PIN (4 TYP)

©
1 EXTENSION

,'T---I m J

p

BEFORE FIRING (ACTUATORLOCKED)

ACTUATOR

AFTER FIRING (ACTUATOR RELEASED)

Figure

11-12 Horizon

Scanner

Fairing 11-28

Release

Assembly

PROJECT
___ SEOR 300

GEMINI
__

HORIZON

SCANNER

RELEASE

ASSEMBLY

Description The horizon scanner release assembly (Figure ll-13) when secures the horizon scanners scanner

to the spacecraft release assembly

and Jettisons primarily

the scanners

initiated. housing, fired

The horizon actuator,

consists

of the actuator

locking cartridges. The

mechanism,

cartridge

housing,

and two electrically housing tang

gas pressure

The actuator locking The tang

is secured

in the actuator

by the locking lock retainer

mechanism.

mechanism

consists

of a tang lock,

and a shear pin. housing. structure. prior

lock is secured housing base

to and is located

in the base a part

of the actuator of the spacecraft

The actuator The scanner to installing stalled

is attached

to and becomes platform

support

and mounting housing

are attached

to the actuator

the cartridge

on the actuator.

The two cartridges

are in-

in the cartridge

housing.

Operation When initiated by a 28 vdc electrical is ported through signal, the two cartridges actuator fire and produce of the actua-

gas pressure tor housing.

which Slots

the hollow

to the base

in the tang lock allow the gas pressure The gas pressure moves axially exerts a force

to flow to the base of the base severing cam open, of the

the tang lock retainer. retainer. The retainer

against

in the actuator

housing,

the releasing

shear pin and exposing the actuator scanners.

the tines

of the tang lock.

The tines

and allowing

the gas pressure

to Jettison

the actuator

and horizon

ii -29

.il_..l_._._\,,l __,, _ -.

PROJECT SEDR 300 GEMINI
(2 REO) _ /

__

,

HOUSING

CARTRIDGE _; ,7.m_7 "

J
_

,/

M .........i

_.:

I

..,
' LOCKNUT

""" ..

i "7"_'-' _"'._*P"_7 ............

.OR_ZONSCANNER _:_ i I ASSEMBLY (_EF)_ ! S -,,,_, j
i SPACECRAFT i 1 :....

i i ,,
\: s .....................

i _

.................................. _!:[_;->ii _ ................. _i {_. i ...... ::..:..::!_.i.: ....... i f'_':7_. .... _ _"
........... ' ........................ ".'.L'.'.'......... / _"'_;_-.--._-,< L ....... L ......... "'.'................... . _-._,.-;_ ( 7 L. z:::=.7 ........... ".............. ./.: ........... L.. i ..v'Lz.-':

...............

I 'x'zti.. ..........................

i!
..............._ /'
SHEAR PI

ii'"

_" ...................... _!< i'_ (}

i(

i....22.Z::::::2:::222 ........................
IANG LOCK RETAINER

DR

OCK

HORIZON SCANNER (LOCKED)

-COTIER PIN

i

7
..]
! /

r"r---.-,-.-d_x , i . L _" '?•
i i t

_ F....... j .............. -_-. !,.......................
i :\

, •

fT....._j, __ i _7'

i:i_::i:i::

_N_LOC_

! ] ;

i HORIZON SCANNER ASSEMBLY (REF)

,
.... _............. j •_.,

i
RETAINf:R LOCK (RRF)

7_ ............ ! J
ACTUATOR

i

f

_ ............................ _ TT.L_.-7 [..._._.2..

HORIZON SCANNER (RELEASED)
TANG

Figure

11-13 Horizon

Scanner 11-30

Release

Assembly

PROJECT
___
f---.

GEMINI
SEDR300 _-_

FHESH AIR DOOR AC_JATOR Description The fresh air door actuator door to the spacecraft actuator is located and below (Figure 11-14) is provided to retain the fresh air

and to eject

the door when hatches,

initiated.

The fresh

air door

forward

of the egress llne.

to the left of the spacecraft prln_arily consists cartridges. The The the of the The

centerline breech, plunger plunger breech

the outer mold

The actuator fired

plunger,

screw and two electrically tie between

gas pressure

forms a positive is retained provides

the fresh

air door and the breech. acts as a shear pin. Lugs,

in the breech

by the screw which

for installation

of the two cartridges. are an integral

for attaching

actuator

to the spacecraft

structure,

part

of the breech.

Operation When initiated by a 28 v_c electrical that exerts signal, a force the cartridges on the plunger. and is ejected free are caused When to fire

and generate force

gas pressure

sufficient

is applied,

the plunger

severs the screw

out of the breech.

The plunger

and fresh air door are then Jettisoned

of the spacecraft.

NOSE FAIRING Description The nose recovery When

EJECTOR

fairing

ejector

(Figure

11-15)

is used to secure until initiated

the rendezvous

and

nose fairing

to the spacecraft ejector

by a 28 vdc signal. Jettison ballistic the nose hose, fairing. actuator The

initiated

the pyrotechnic ejector

will positively of a breech,

The nose fairing assembly, f_ nose fairing

assembly

consists

crank assembly, is attached

and an electrically to the crank assembly.

fired gas pressure An actuator

cartridge. forms a

shaft

ii-31

_.-;_._

SEDR 300

1

SCREW

CARTRIDG E

PLUNGER EJECTED_ SCREW (SHEAR PIN) S[VERED __

SCRfW

ACTUATOR BEFORE FIRING

ACTUATOR AFTERFIRING

Figure

11-14 Fresh

Air Door Actuator

11-32

_....,_f_.-:_.

SEDR 300

ACTUAI"OR ASSEMBLY

J

.__

BALLISTIC HOSE

CRANK MECHANISM

INLET

BODY

END CAP

CRANK MECHANISM

r_

/--LOCK,NG P_N
GAS IMPULSE /ACTUATOR _ S

F_'--'_"_......................................... '"_'_,.',_ / _=---:-l" . "_ " ......

I

I

NOSE FAIRING INSTALLED

SHAFT

SHEAR PIN --_

LCRANK

MECHANISM

NOSE FAIRING Figure 1]-15 Nose Fairing 11-33

EJECTED Ejector Assembly

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR300 _-_

positive tie between the actuator body and the crank assembly.

The actuator

shaft is locked to a piston in the actuator by two locking pins and held in place by a shear pin in the end cap of the actuator. connected to a breech by a ballistic hose. The actuator assembly is

The breech provides for installation

of the cartridges and is positioned approximately nine inches from the actuator. The actuator is installed on the antenna support and fairing actuator fitting of the R and R section and is located on the X axis, five inches from Y zero.

Operation When initiated by a 28 vdc signal, the cartridge generates gas pressure which is transferred through a ballistic hose to the actuator housing and exerts a force on the actuator piston. The gas pressure causes the piston, with attached

shaft, to move, severing the shear pin and continuing through the length of the actuator housing. As the piston reaches the end of the housing, the two

locking pins, securing the shaft to the piston, cam outboard into a recess and release the actuator shaft: The actuator shaft, now free, is Jettisoned, The crank mechanism

with the nose fairing attached, by the crank mechanism.

provides an angled Jettisoning of the fairing from the axial movement of the ejector shaft, without recontact with the spacecraft. A hinge on the nose

fairing, located on the outer mold line, releases and directs the path of the fairing away from the spacecraft.

EGHESS SYSTEMS AND_EVICES The egress systems and devices (Figure 11-16) provide the pilots with a rgpid and positive method of escaping the spacecraft, should an emergency arise. The

system is manually initiated and is used below an altitude of 15,000 feet only. Each system and device is presented in the sequence of their operation

ii-3_

__

SEDR 3OO

SEAT EJECTOR ROCKET

RELEASE SYSTEM

HATCH ACTUATOR _

,

,,/
j_,

\,+
• ,

+/

!_

j_"

_•

;'_

I I

% •,

..

j

-.?.-. '.. _ +: _+;\-_

.,\

X
.
m

_

+
\

\
DROGUE MORTAR BACKBOARD JETTISON ASSEMBLY

+++p j-_ +.. _zz

/-Z
EJECTLON CONTROL (D-RING) +HATCH ACTUATOR INITIATION SYSTEM MDF MANUAL FIRING MECHANISM

,
i _"

t' _+

/

ACTUATOR ASSEMBLY

Figure 11-16 Egress System and Devices 11-35

PROJECT

sEo 3o0
GEMINI
(Figure ii-12) is used to initiate The system is manually of 8 MDF interconnects, The interconnects the firing the by activated two MDF of four to the connect contain

HATCH

AC_'JATOR INITIATION

SYSTEM

(MDF)

Description The hatch actuator initiation system

firing mechanisms either pilot. crossovers rigid hatch

of both hatch

actuators. consists

The system primarily firing

and two manual

mechanisms.

consists mechanisms that cross each

and four flexible actuators.

MDF assemblies

that connect

The two crossovers system firing

are rigid MDF assemblies The firing and a booster

the two initiation dual firing pins,

mechanisms. primers,

mechanisms charge.

dual percussion and tapped

The firing and two cross_-_

mechanism overs. booster

is drilled

for installing

two MDF interconnects are installed

The MDF interconnects

and crossovers

so that the small charge of the firing located

on the end of each MDF is adjacent The firing mechanism feet.

to the booster

mechanism. below

is attached

to the spacecraft

structure,

the pilots

Operation The hatch ejection actuator control initiation system is activated between one-half when either pilot knees pulls the

handle

(D-ring)

located

the pilots inch travel control

and connected a

to the firing mechanism. _0 pound pull

Approximately connecting

and approximately (D-ring) to the pins

of the lanyard will

the ejection

firing mechanism

cock and release primers,

the dual firing pins. the booster detonation wave charge

The firing

strike the dual percussion firing mechanism booster

causing

to detonate.

The The _-_

charge propagates

to the four MDF ends.

interconnecting actuator breech

MDF propagates assembly. firing

the detonation

to the firing pins the detonation

of the hatch wave to

The crossover

MDF propagates

the other pilots

mechanism.

This insures ii-36

initiation

of both hatch

actuators.

._.

SEDR 300

_-_1"_1

__

CTUATOR \ ./ (REF)

/'° // \

\

/
" j/ f HATCH ACTUATOR / / /," /"

,'"

\

\

MDF

INTERCONNECT

iNTERCONNECT MDF HATCH ACTUATOR BREECH i /

, \ FLEXIBLE INTERCONNECT

i i

'_/ J_'"........... --_

_

EJECTION

CONTROL

HANDLE (O-RING) "//_

R_GiD INIERCONNECT MDF "\--

\ / / \\\ / ! i

\

,

\\\ \\

/

/

EJECTION CONTROLS\ HANDLR (D_RING) --/

i
Z
2

\-_.

/
,"--LANYARD CONNECTION TO EJECTION CONTROL / /_

D-RiNG

CRO OVER

f/

MDF S MANUAL FIRING

i ::: ::: ;:i

::

(REF) (REF) LINTERCONNECT CROSSOVER i

FIRING MECHANISM

/-_

BEFORE FIRING ::ii_(AFTER FIRING) !i!i!i !

Figure

] 1-17 Hatch

Actuator 11-37

Initiation

System

PROJECT
,

GEMINI
--__3

SEDR300

HATCH AC_JATOR ASSEMBLY Description The hatch actuator assembly (Figure 11-18) unlocks, opens and mechanically restrains the hatch in the open position. The assembly also furnishes

sufficient pressure to initiate the firing mechanism of the seat ejector rocket/ catapult. The assembly primarily consists of the breech end cap, breech, cylinder, The breech end cap

stretcher assembly, end cap (base) and rod end assembly.

assembly contains the locking mechanism for mechanically restraining the hatch in the open position; provides for installation of the seat ejector rocket/catapult ballistic hose; provides for installation of the breech assembly, and is thread mounted to the top of the cylinder. The breech contains two firing pins, Two _

two percussion fired cartridges, and a gas producing propellant charge.

interconnects, from the hatch actuator initiation system, are attached to the breech adjacent to the firing pins. The stretcher assembly primarily consists of One end of the

the piston and stretch link, and is located inside the cylinder. stretch link is attached to a web inside the piston. to the rod end assembly. the hatch.

The other end is attached

The rod end assembly connects the stretcher assembly to

The end cap is attached to the lower end of the cylinder, and provides The end

for attaching the hatch actuator assembly to the spacecraft structure. cap contains a latch piston that actuates the hatch unlock mechanism.

Operation The hatch actuator functions when initiated by the initiation system MDF interconnects. The shock wave, propagated by the MDF interconnects, causes the two

zz-38

.--_ _--_

SEDR 300

ii::

i

I

EXTENDED
(HATCH OPEN)

_ ....

HATCH STRUCTURE

_:_:_

i

I GAS PRESSURETO SEAT EJECT

II

AssE_.y

ASSEMBLY (REF)

:::::: !:: i::

OR Z END CAP ACUTATOR LOCKED

ACTUATOR LOCK

:::

END CAP

"

ASSEMBLY_

(EXPENDED)

il"_

PISTON

_

ACTUATOR

ASSEMBLY

ACTUAlfOR

ASSEMBLY

i,_'_

\

_,."

BEFOREFIRING

t

AFTER FIRING

_> ;
SPAC ECRAEI" ' STRUCTURE (REF)_] i ./ ._ LOCKED POSITION TRIPPERASSEMBLY --

i::
SPACECRAFT i:" STRUCTURE (REF) _2,,_,

i/

7_:

_

=.J

.... l_._)

) \

(UNLOCKED POSITION)-TRIPPERASSEMBLY

Figure

11-18

Hatch

Actuator

Assembly

11-39

PROJECT
.____ SEDR 300

GEMINI
___

firing pins of the breech assembly to sever shear pins and strike the primers of the two percussion fired cartridges. The cartridges ignite and generate hot gas The propellant charge

which ignites the main propellant charge of the breech. produces a large volume of high pressure gas.

The gas pressure is exhausted into Orifices

the area between the piston of the stretcher assembly and the cylinder.

in the lower end of the piston wall admit the gas pressure to the base of the stretcher assembly. latch piston. The gas pressure is ported through a drilled passage to the

The gas pressure extends the latch piston, which unlocks the hatch The gas pressure then acts on the base of Tmmedlately

through a bellcrank/pushrod mechanism.

the stretcher assembly, moving it through the length of the cylinder. prior to the stretcher assembly reaching full extension, through a port to the ballistic hose.

gas pressure is exhausted

The ballistic hose delivers the pressure As the stretcher

to the firing mechanism of the seat ejector-rocket/catapult. assembly reaches the f_lly extended

position, the lock pin of the locking mechanism The locking

engages the piston of the stretcher assembly and holds the hatch open. mechanism is also operative when the hatch is fully opened by hand. attached to the locking mechanism, actuated.

A lanyard,

permits the hatch to be unlocked, when manually

SEAT EJECTOR-ROCKET/CATAPULT Description The seat ejector-rocket/catapult (Figure ll-19) is used to eject the man-seat mass from the spacecraft. The seat ejector-rocket/catapult basically consists of the The catapult assembly primarily main charge (gas producer),

catapult assembly and the rocket motor assembly.

consists of the catapult housing, firing mechanism, and locking assembly.

The catapult housing contains all of the listed components

ll-40

f:---.

SEDR 300

f--

LOCKING

RING

...._SEAT

AITACH

I.

_EF LIN_)

_:_..::_:_ ._ _

_

.-

_SPACECRAFT ATTACH, (REF)

•RELAY CHARGE BALLISTIC HOSE

Figur6

11-19 Seat Ejector 11-41

- Rocket/Catapult

PROJECT
j___

GEMINI
SEDR300 -__-_

in its base. fired primers, ing pins. ring

The firing mechanism and _ relay charge.

consists

of dual firing pins, plns are secured

dual percussion in place by retain-

The firing

The locking

assembly

consists

of the lock assembly

rlng and a spring to hold the to the spacecraft case, nozzle, igniters, and

in place. The

The base rocket

of the catapult assembly

is attached

structure. motor

motor

primarily upper

consists

of the motor

lock housing, propellant

lock ring, charge.

shear pins,

and lower auxiliary to the motor

the main

The nozzle

is threaded

case and is securby locking

ed by four tangs.

set screws.

The nozzle

is secured

to the motor

lock housing

The locking tangs are held in place by a lock rlng that is retained by four The motor lock housing is secured in the base of the catapult by tang The maln at each to the

shear pins. locks.

The tangs are held in place by the lock rlng of the catapult. charge is located in the motor case with an auxiliary

propellant

igniter

end of the charge. upper aft portion

The top end of the rocket motor assembly of the seat.

Is attached

O_eration The seat ejection cycle is initiated when gas pressure is received will via the ballisthe dual primers. by the

tic hose firing

from the hatch actuator. retaining

Sufficient plns

gas pressure

cause

plns to shear their ignite

and strike

the dual percussion

The primers maln charge,

the relay and main the motor

charges.

Hot gas pressure,

produced

releases

lock housing Wlth through

by displacing

the lock ring against released, the gas

the spring through press1_re propels Prior to complete makes

piston

action. motor

the motor

lock housing of the

the rocket ejection

the length housing, severs

catapult

housing.

from the catapult a stop whlch

the lock rlng of the motor its four shear pins. The tang Separation

lock housing locks

contact with lock housing

of the motor

cam open and release lock housing 11-42

the rocket motor.

of the rocket motor

from the motor

allows

the hot gas from the

PROJECT
.__

GEMINI
$EDR 300 __j

catapult main charge to ba1!_stic hose to initiate the thruster assembly.

THRUSTER ASSEMBLY-SEAT/MAN SEPARATOR Description The thruster assembly - seat man separator (Figure 11-21) is the active portion of the seat/man separation assembly. The thruster supplies a stroke of adequate The

length and power to a webbed strap that accomplishes seat/man separation. thruster assembly primarily consists of the thruster body, thruster piston, firing mechanism and percussion fired gas pressure cartridge.

The cartridge and The firing

firing mechanism is installed in the upper end of the thruster body. mechanism contains a firing pin, retained by a shear pin.

The ba114stic hose The

from the harness release actuator is attached to the firing mechanism. _....

thruster piston is located in the thruster body and is retained in the retracted position by a shear pin. The thruster body is mounted on the front of the seat

structure, between the pilots feet.

Operation High pressure gas from the harness release actuator is transmitted through the ba_llstic hose to the thruster firing mechanism. The gas pressure causes the The

firing pin to sever its shear pin and strike the primer of the cartridge. cartridge is ignited and generates gas pressure.

The gas pressure exerts force on As the piston

the thruster piston, causing the piston to sever its shear pin.

extends out of the thruster body, the strap is pulled taut effecting seat/man separation. B_TJ_TE DEPLOY AND EEL_ASE SYSTEM Description
f_

The ballute deploy and release system (Figure I1-22) primarily consists of the

11-_3

.j_

.

SEOR300

__

_ORTTOBALL,ST,CHOSEli!' il _ii

j_

L_

_EIRING

MECHANISM

RELEASE ACIUATOR

BEFORE FIRING

BALLISTIC HOSE TO THRUSTER (REF)

TIME DELay CC

_CARTRIDGE

FIRED

FIRING

LANYARD CONNECT

TO THRUSTER

FIRING MECHANISM

AND CARTRIDGE

RELEASE

ACTUATOR

AFTER

FIRING

Figure

11-20 Harness

Release 11-44

Actuator

Assembly

4;.

PROJECT

sEoR 300
GEMINI
IHRUSTER ASSEMBLY (BEFORE FIRING) THRUSTER EXTENDED (FIRED) (REF)

HOSE (REF)

PERCUSSION

THRUSTER

THRUSTER ASSEMBLY SEAT/MAN SEPARATOR (TYP)

j

HARNESS RELEASE ACTUATOR (BEE)

BALLISTIC HOSE (REF)

I
I (REF)

STRAP ASSEMBLY

(REF)--

Figure

11-21 Thruster

Assembly-Seat/Man 11-45

Separator

j-

-_.

SEDR 300

PROJECT GEMINI

PIN

SEQUENCING i::ii ANEROID -FIRING

CUTTER ,_ ASSEMBLY

•'_'_\

DEPLOY CABLE

_ LAN_'ABD LOCK BALL (RELEASED)-

SYSTEM BEFORE ACTIVATION

TO DEPLOY II SEQUENCING CUTTER

LEGEND
S WORKING GAS PRESSURE CUTTER EPLOY (ACTIVATED)

i':ii OEeLOV
C ABLE

BLOCKED GAS PRESSURE

BALLUTE

DEPLOY

ACTIVATED

:,ii!!

ABOVE 7500

FEET ONLY

Figure

11-22

Ballute

Deploy

and Release 11-46

System

(Sheet

1 of 2)

.i-=_.

SEDR

300

_-_i_
_-'\

]

PROJECT
_BALLUTE

GEMINI
RISER {SEVERED)

PISTON/CUTTER

(ACTIVATED)

41'

(ACTIVATED) pEPLOY GAS BLOCKED

PISTON I _ (ACTIVATED)

f--"

_

CARTRIDGE

FIRED

iiill _iii _!

PISTON/CUTTER HOSE

ili i
i!ii_ iiii_ iii

iiiii iiHi

ASSEMBLY ACTIVATED BELOW 7500 FEET

iiiili _,iE
iiiii
iiiii iiiii iiiii

iiili iiiii iiiii
!ilii iiili

iiii
iiii iiii_

"

iiiii !!i[i

BALLUTE RELEASE ACTIVATED ABOVE 7S00"FEET

_i i

Figure 11-22 Ballute

Deploy and Release System (Sheet 2 of 2) 11-47

PROJECT
__ SEDR 300

GEMINI
__

firing ta_ed

assembly, within the the

deploy firing

cutter

and hose, is the

and release release

guillotine firing

and hose.

Con-

assembly, firing

aneroid

mechanism and sequencing housing

cartridge, and piston.

deploy

mechanism and cartridge,

and the

The basic function of the system is to deploy and release the ballute

between specified altitudes and prevent ballute deployment below specified altltudes. The system is located on the upper left side of each pilots backboard.

The deploy firing mechanism and the release aneroid firing mechanism is linked to the pilots seat by individual lanyards.

.Operation The system is _n_tiated by the lanyard pull as seat/man separation is effected. When initiated above 7500 feet, the release aneroid is armed and the deploy firing mechanism Is activated. The firing pin of the deploy firing mechanism strikes the The cartridge generates gas pressure The pressure is ported through the

primer of the cartridge and causes ignition. after burning through the time delay column. deploy hose to the deploy cutter assembly. allc_s the ballute to deploy.

The cutter severs a nylon strap that

The armed aneroid functions when an altitude presThe aneroid sear releases the cocked firing The firing pin strikes the primer,: The pressure

sure level of 7500 feet is reached.

pin of the ballute release firing mechanism.

which ignites the cartridge and causes it to generate gas pressure. is ported through the release hose to the release guillotines

The guillotine When the _

severs the ballute riser strap and allows the ballute to be carried away.

system is activated by the lanyard pull below 7500 feet, both cartridges are im- ; mediately initiated. The time delay incorporated in the deploy cartridge permits The pressure is ported ;

the release cartridge to generate gas pressure first.

through the release hose to the release guillotine, _hlch severs the ballute riser ."

ll-_8

PROJECT

sEoR3oo
GEMINI

strap.

Simultaneously gas pressure is ported to the sequencing housing and The piston is actuated, causing it to block the gas exit The gas pressure, generated by the deploy cartridge,

sequencing piston.

of the deploy cartridge.

does not reach the deploy cutter, preventing deployment of the ballute.

DROGUE MORTAR-BACKBOARD JETTISON ASSEMBLY The drogue mortar-backboard jettison assembly is provided to deploy the personnel drogue parachute and to separate the backboard and seat from the pilot.

Description Drogue Mortar The drogue mortar (Figure 11-23) functions to fire a weighted slug with sufficient

velocity to forcibly deploy the personnel parachute and to initiate the backboard Jettison assembly firing mechanism. The drogue mortar primarily consists of the

mortar body, mortar barrel, drogue slug_ main cartridge (gas pressure), initiator cartridge (detonator), aneroid assembly, main lanyard, manual lanyard, and the main and manual firing mechanisms. body and contains the drogue slug. a shear pin. The mortar barrel is threaded into the mortar The drogue slug is retained in the barrel by

The aneroid assembly is attached to the mortar body and contains The main lanyard is enclosed in a rigid housing to The housing is attached to the main The main

the main firing mechanism.

prevent Inadvertant pulling of the lanyard.

firing mechanism housing at one end and to a take-up reel at the other.

lanyard, a fixed length of cable, is attached to the main firing mechanism at one end and to the take-up reel at the other. The take-up reel incorporates an exThe main cartridge is

tendable cable that is attached to the ejection seat.

threaded into the mortar bodyt with the primer end, adjacent to the main firing mechanlsm_ and the output end in the mortar body pressure cavity. ll -_9 The manual

k__

PROJECT
MORTAR

GEMINI

lUTE CONTAINER

:HUTE

lING EJECTED

MECHANISM

_SLUG

BACKBOARD FIRINO ME( MAIN (

/
ANEROID RELEASES ARMED /

/

/'
(REF) MANUAL LANYARD_

RELEASEDAND FIRED
/_FIRING PIN RELEASED ACTION) (ANEROID

ARMED AND

COCKED

_

©

.//_ATTACHED TOSEAT

Figure

11-23 Drogue 11-50

Mortar

PROJECT
lanyard lonyard. is enclosed in a flexible Is attached conduit

s°00 3
to prevent The manual

GEMINI
inadvertant pulling of the

The lanyard

to the manual

firing mechanism

at one end and Is threaded into the to the maln right slde

to a manual

pull handle body.

at the other. The primer

firing mechanism is threaded and adjacent to the upper

Into the mortar manual

end of the detonator end 90 degrees is attached

firing mechanism, output area.

and its output The drogue

cartridge of each

mortar

pilots

backboard.

Backboard

Jettison

Assembly assembly (Figure when 11-24), functions to separate the back-

The backboard

jettison

board and seat from the pilot, mortar.
i _ .

initiated

by the pressure consists interconnect

from the drogue firlng MDF), lap (FLSC), to the

The backboard

Jettison

assembly

primarily

of the MDF

mechanism,

MDF time delay assembly,

cartridge

(detonator), pin,

(time delay

MDF manifold

Jetelox

release

interconnect MDF),

(Jetelox

pin MDF), cutter

belt disconnect, and interconnect drogue mortar delay

interconnect (strap

(belt disconnect

restraint

strap

cutter MDF).

The MDF firing mechanism pln retained firing

Is attached

body

and contains

a shear fired

pin.

The MDF time in the MDF firing

cartridge The

is a percussion interconnect

cartridge

and Is installed is connected (jetelox

mechanism. mechanism

(time delay MDF)

to the MDF firing pin MDF) is connected (belt disThe

and the MDF manifold.

The interconnect pin.

to the MDF manifold connect MDF) interconnect strap cutter fold wlth end.

and the Jetelox release

The interconnect

is connected (strap (FLSC).

to the MDF manifold Is connected component

and the lap belt disconnect. to the MDF manifold terminate

cutter MDF) The three

and the restraint in the MDF maniMDF) donor

interconnects

their acceptor

end adjacent pin retains

to the interconnect the Jetelox

(time delay

The Jetelox release

Joint to the seat until

i1-51

,.-_

SEDR 300

MECHAN I SM HOUSING

MECHANISM HOUSING

"_

GAS PRESSURE FROM DROGUE SHEAR PIN NG PIN MORTAR PIN (SEVERED)

CARTRIDGE E DELAy MDF) INTERCONNECT

CARTRIDGE RCONNECT

_

i_

SECTION

B-B BEFORE FIRING

SECTION B-B AFTER FIRING

BEFORE FIRING

_

AFTER FIRING

RESTRAINT

ST_PS--_ MDFFIRINGMECHANISM iliil " _HOUSING

¢FB

"

CUTTER

FLSC (7GRAINS

+7
(REF) MDF FIRING MECHANISM_

i!il
RESTRAINT

VIEWA-A '
STRAP CUTTJ:R (FLSC)

_+

B '

.

- ,'

cuT_FER (FLSC) ERCONNECT (STRAP CUTTER MDF)

(BELT DISCONNECT /---

MDF) LAP BEL'r DISCONNEC_

INTERCONNECT gETELOX PIN MDI

_hc__"
_lJC

_%x,%x

VIEWC+C

.... _%_i::_::_ .....
"-:'::_! !_...

_ "-

LAP BELTADJUSTER--_ D SCONNECf "_

//=-

PIN (2 REQ) CAM (2 REQ'

%
_ I I +_INTERCONNECT

_

+,
::_ !ii_ i::iii

INTERCONNECT

\//_"_ _o_ x_._'_)gll _ ,,'--CAM _ /

/

,
' I

(BELTD'SC_)I_E_ MDF)_.

' ' I

' I

' I

BOO_
_1_ LOCK BALL (4 REQ)_ _ /

_,STON
/---SHEAR PIN JOINT /--JETELOX

_1
NN$/ _F,,,=-_ _,_,_x_._

/--FISTON(ACTUATED)iiii BEFORE_:/":_--J[I I II
/--SHEARPIN (SEVERED) i!_i ii!i! _ LAPRELTADJUSTER (DISCONNECTED)_ -(ROTATED)

!!PIN

L

/

_

_

. BEFORE FIRING

:+'--_LOC_BAL.• AFTERF,R,NG+_,t_ ii++ __ +--.
_1_"_1 _ l_x_x_ (SEPAP-:ATED)-7 ::ii! U_ AFTER FIRING RELEASED) _ _iii_ ........ _A" IF///A J }

_ETELOX I'_N RELEASE
Figure 11-24 Backboard Jettison 11-52 Assembly

H+:i
(Sheet 1 of 2)

,AP OISCONN,CT BE_.T

f_.,

SEDR 300

INTERCONNECT (STRAP CUTTER

LOCK

BALL

(BELT DISCONNECT

TO EGRESS KIT

U_¢Co°x"Z_0_,-/l I
BEFORE FIRING

,.TE_CON.E_
(JETELOX PIN MDF) -J

_,.G_O,?RELEASE
AFTER FIRING

OX RELEASE PIN

Figure

11-24

Backboard

Jettison 11-53

Assembly

(Sheet

2 of 2)

PROJECT
___ SEDR

GEMINI
300 ___

initiated. lock balls,

The

Jetelox

release

pin primarily

consists

of the body, is provided

piston,

four the of strap

and a shear pin. properly

The lap belt disconnect The lap belt piston

to unfasten consists

lap belt when the housing, cutter

initiated.

disconnect

primarily

two lock pins, two cams, to sever the pilots

and a shear pin.

The restraint

is provided

shoulder harness. and a booster.

The cutter primarily

consists

of the housing,

two strips of FLSC

Operation Drogue Mortar is initiated by the pull of the main lanyard, at seat/man sep-

The drogue mortar aration. reel.

The extendable reaching

cable, attached

to the seat, uncoils the cable pulls lanyard

from the take-up reel free

Upon

the end of its travel, The fixed length main of 5,700 feet, pressure

the take-up

of the rigid housing. pulled,

attached

to the reel is and arms releases the

and if in excess

cocks the main firing mechanism level of 5,700 feet, the aneroid

the aneroid.

At an altitude pin.

the cocked main firing main cartridge, which

The firing

pin strikes

the primer

and ignites causes

produces

gas pressure.

The gas pressure

the drogue

slug to sever

its shear pin and travel initiates the backboard

out of the mortar firing mechanism. firing mechanism The aneroid therefore

barrel. When

Simultaneously, initiated by the

the gas pressure main lanyard

below 5,700 feet, the main cartridge.

is cocked

and immediately position

released because delay

to fire the main of the altitude

is in the release is not armed

pressure

level,

and does not manually by

the cartridge the manual firing

firing. lanyard

The drogue mortar handle

may be initiated The lanyard

pulling

at any altitude. the primer

cocks and releases cartridge _-".

the manual

pin, which

strikes cartridge

of the initiator

(detonator).

The initiator

detonates and ignites the output charge

_i-54

PROJECT

sEo 300
GEMINI
the gas pressure for drogue slug ejection when the main mortar to sever cartridge of

of the main and backboard

cartridge, firing

which

produces

mechanism

initiation.

Backboard

Jettison

Assembly assembly is caused to function

The backboard the drogue

jettison

mortar

is fired.

Gas pressure

from the drogue

main cartridge, its shear pin time delay, which trans-

causes the firing and strike the

pin of the backboard of the time delay a detonation

firing mechanism, cartridge. After

the primer

the proper

cartridge

propagates

wave

to the MDF

interconnect,

mits the wave manifold

simultaneously,

to the three

MDF interconnects wave

attached

to the MDF by the three and

assembly.

Simultaneously, to the restraint pin.

the detonation strap cutter

is propagated lap belt

MDF interconnects the Jetelox

(FLSC),

disconnect,

release

The detonation

wave propagated

by the interconnect it to sever the

(jetelox pin MDF) acts upon the piston of the Jetelox pin, causing shear pin. balls. piston As the piston moves, exerted a recess in the piston Joint,

is aligned with the lock into the wave,

The pressure recess,

by the Jetelox the Jetelox

forces the lock balls kit.

and releases

joint

and egress MDF), wave

The detonation against

propagated

by the interconnect

(belt disconnect The detonation

is directed moves

the pisit

ton of the lap belt disconnect. to sever the shear pin.

the piston

causing

As the piston moves, The lap belt

the cams rotate

and retract

the pins

from the lap belt adjuster. partially connect cutter nation

separates

and permits propagated

the pilot to be by the interstrap

free of the backboard. (strap cutter MDF),

The detonation

wave,

is transmitted strengthens

to the booster

of the restraint

(FLSC). wave

The booster

and increases

the reliability The FLSC

of the detodetonates

for proper

detonation

of the two strips

of FLSC.

ii-55

r --I PROJECT GEMINI

and severs the two restraint straps allowing the pilot to be completely free of the backboard. The seat may be released m_nually by the pilot actuating the

seat single point release b-halle. Effective spacecraft 5 and 6 a cable from the single point release, pulls a ball retaining pin from the MDF manifold. The

pressure of the interconnect (jetelox pin MDF), moves the ball aside and pulls out of the MDF manifold.

PARACHUTE LANDING SYS_

PYR(Y_NICS

The Parachute Landing System (Figure 11-25) is provided to safely recover and land the re-entry module, after its entry into the earths atmosphera_. The pyrotechnic portion of the system consists of the drogue, pilot, and main parachute reefing cutters; the drogue and pilot parachute mortars; the drogue parachute bridle release guillotines; the pilot parachute apex line guillotine; and the main parachute disconnects. lng paragraphs. Each of these pyrotechnic devices are presented in the follow°

DROGUE PARACHU_

MORTAR ASSEMBLY is provided to positively deploy the drogue

The drogue parachute mortar assembly chute.

The assembly is similiar to the pilot parachute mortar assembly (Figure

11-25) in design and operation.

DROG_E PARACHUTE

RF_._ING CUTIERS reefing cutters are provided to disreef the drogue chute. reefing cutters (Figure 11-26)

The drogue parachute

The cutters are simillar to the pilot parachute in design, operation, and number.

DROGUE PARACHUTERIDLE B RELEASE GUILLOTINES The drogue parachute bridle release guillotines ii-56 are provided to sever the bridle

.,. __;i. _,,_,<_.,.

PROJECT

GEMINI SEC>R 300

I_!_

--j

BRIDLE DISCONNECT

\ .-\ /._J "I j ./ .... . .. \ \. \ \ \ PARACHUTE BRIDLE (REF)

/ //

(.
/
". __ "_ "_\ _ _"_ /, /?

\

,,

y _,, ',.,-... "\ _;_i ::i ",i 7-.
ii 1/ f : h: l..ll / / ' / \ \ '_ "_'" ............... _'_ "" "'" ""

_.

S_NGLE POINT
DISCONNECT PILOT PARACHUTE MORTAR PRESSURE

"'"

/

/

//

PARACHUTE REEFING LINE CUTTERS

/ /
X\ ]

/


_ " PARACHUTE MORTAR

FWD BRIDLE DISCONNECT

_AIN PARACHUTE REEFING LINE CUTTERS --

DROGUE MORTAR PRESSURE r PARACHU I_E APEX LI NE DROGUE PARACHUTE REEFING LINE C GUILLOTINE

DROGUE PARACHUTE MORTAR-

DROGUE PARACHUTE BRIDLE RELEASE GUILLOTINE (3 REQ)

Figure

11-25

Parachute

Landing 11-57

System

Pyrotechnics

PROJECT
___ SEDR 300

GEMINI
__

at its three attach points.

The release guillotines are similar in design and

operation to the cable and wire bundle guillotine (Figure I1-9).

PILOT PARACHUTE MORTAR ASSEMBLY De script ion The pilot parachute mortar assembly (Figure ].I-26)functions to deploy the pilot parachute in the event of a malfunctlonlng drogue chute. The mortar assembly is The mortar

located in the forward end of the rendezvous and recovery section.

assembly primarily consists of the mortar tube, sabot, breech, orifice, frangible bolt, washer and two electrically fired gas pressure cartridges. The base of the

mortar tube is attached to the breech and the breech is attached to the rendezvous and recovery section structure. the mortar tube and breech. locknut. The flanged orifice passes through the base of

The orifice is secured beneath the breech by a

One end of the breech is drilled and tapped to provide for installation The sabot is located in the lower section of the mortar The frangible bolt passes

of the two cartridges.

tube and is secured by a washer and a frangible bolt.

through the washers, the center of the sabot mortar tube base, and is threaded into the base of the orifice. The pilot chute is installed in the sabot.

Operation The mortar functions when the cartridges are initiated by a 28 vdc electrical signal. The cartridges generate gas pressure that is ported through the breech When sufficient pressure is exerted on the The gas pressure

and orifice to the base of the sabot.

sabot, the frangible bolt will part and release the sabot.

propels the sabot and pilot chute out of the mortar tube, thus effecting positive chute deployment. _-_

11-58

SEDR 300

MORTAR CARTRIDGE

DROGUE PARACI lUTE

RTAR TUB

BREECHASSEMBLY _

SABOT

MORTAR TUBE

CARTRIDGE_

FRANGIBLE BOLl ORIFICE

SECTIONA-A Figure 11-26 Pilot Parachute 11-59 Mortar Assembly

PROJECT
__.

GEMINI
SEDR300 __

PILOT PARACHUTE pescriptlon

REEFING

CUTTERS

The pilot parachute reefing cutters (Figure 11-27) are provided to disreef the pilo t chute by severing the reefing line. The reefing cutters primarily consist and percussion fired time delay skirt

of the cutter body, cutter blade, firing mechanism cartridge.

Two cutter assemblies are sewn to the inside of the parachute

band 180 degrees apart. components

The reefing cutter is a tubular device, with all its The firing mechanism is contained

contained within the cutter body.

in one end of the cutter body and consists of a firing pin, lock ball, spring, and sear pin. The firing pin is retained in the cocked position by the lock ball. A lanyard is attached to the sear The

lock ball is held in place by the sear pin. pin and to the parachute canopy. pin when the sear pin is pulled.

The spring is precocked and energizes the firing The cartridge is installed in the center portion The cartridge consists of a The cutter blade is stake

of the cutter body and is roll crimped in place.

percussion primer, time delay column and output charge.

locked in the cutter bod_, below and adjacent to the output end of the cartridge. A washer is crimp locked in the end of the cutter body, and serves as the anvil and stop for the cutter blade. the cutter blade and washer, A hole in each side of the cutter body, between of the reefing cable.

permits installation

Operation Deployment of the pilot chute causes the reefing cutters to be initiated. As the

canopy extends, the lanyard is pulled taut and pulls the sear pin from the firing mechanism. The lock ball moves inboard and unlocks the firing pin. The spring

energized firing pin is driven into the primer of the cartridge and ignites the

ll-60

f _-z>.

SEDR300

/ i . i
.i ,. _ _ >.,

\

, \'%.,,

i\ ;".i

\.i \
REE.,NO
CUTTERS

7 ,_ ," .{ _,
I ii
CUTTERS

,tt \ _ •
_

PARACHUTE REELED

PARACHUTE DISREEFED

_,............---,EEF,NO L,NE I_EEI
--FIRING _CUTTER BLADE PIN

__............ /r _--_ / /-_.:_ /_.oo°_
_--ANVI L WASHER _ SAFETY PIN HOLE PIN

REEFING CUTTER BEFORE FIRING

7U£EE"

O_J_UT

.,R,.O .,N

COLUMN

PRIMER

I'_-_

REEFING CUTTER FIRED

Figure

11-27 Pilot

Parachute 11-61

Reefing

Cutters

PROJECT

sEo 30o
GEMINI
When sufficient force is exerted_

time delay column.

After the specified t_me delay, the cartridge produces gas

pressure that exerts force on the cutter blade.

the cutter blade shears the stake lock and strokes to sever the reefing cable. Proper functioning of only one of the two cutters is sufficient to perform pilot chute disreeflng.

PILOT PARACHUTE APEX LINE GUILLOTINE Description The pilot parachute apex llne guillotine (Figure 11-28) is provided to sever the The guillotine

pilot chute apex llne, in the event of a drogue chute malfunction.

primarily consists of the body, cutter blade, and two electrically fired gas pressure cartridges. The cutter blade is retained by a shear pin. The body provides "--_

for the installation of the two cartridges, and incorporates drilled passages from the cartridges to the cutter blade. Design of the guillotine allows the apex line The guillotine

to pull free, when the pilot chute is deployed by the drogue chute.

is located in the forward section of the rendezvous and recovery section.

O perat. !on When initiated by a 28 vdc electrical signal, the cartridges produce gas pressure.

The pressure is ported through a drilled passage to the head of the cutter blade. Sufficient pressure causes the cutter blade to sever the shear pin and stroke to cut the apex llne. The apex line is thus free of the malfunctioned drogue of the pilot chute.

chute, permitting mortar deployment

MAIN PARACHUTE REEFING CU_'2ER The main parachute reef£ug cutter (Figure 11-29) is provided to disreef the main

11-62

SEDR 300

_

MOUNIlNG

LUGS

z

BEFORE FIRING

AFTERFIRING

Figure

11-28

Pilot

Parachute

Apex

Line

Guillotine

11-63

__

PROJECT

GEMINI

i i

i:

//, "+" "... , ...... .

',, 'b

I \ t ;i\JJ _,

,//!';'" ' ':_','_, ;' k;x,----_._
r, _1 _,. _t {i f t :: _1 A';2"

'C'5.

\\

...... i_"-''-'_7''+'._

//

i?'

CUTTERS

2)_
PARACHUTE REEFED

'__REEE
PARACHUTE DISREEFED

NO

REEFING LINE (REF)

_CUITER

BLADE GAS

CUTTER BODY FIRING FIN

IM10 NT_ IJ-,_.m-_flt _ -, _,,,,-,,,_.
_'" _ANVIL WASHER " _OUTPUT --STAKE LOCK CHARGE _TIME DELAy "--PERCUSSION PRIMER \ __SEAR SAFETY PIN HOLE PIN COLUMN

REEFING CUTTERBEFORE FIRING

BLADE

FIRING

PIN

,//_

......
CUTT ER

/-o.I_E

/- ,- Loc_ _ALL

_--TIME DELAy COLUMN

'_

PERCUSSION PRIMER

REEFING CUTTER FIRED

.-_,

Figure 11-29 Main Parachute 11-64

Reefing

Cutter

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR300 ___j_ _

parachute. band

Three

reefing apart.

cutters

are located cutters cutters.

on the inside are slm_lar Proper

of the canopy

skirt in

120 degrees

The reefing chute reefing

in design

and identical

operation the three

to the pilot cutters

operation

of only one of

is sufficient

to dlsreef

the parachute.

MAIN

PARACHUTE

DISCONNECT

De script ion The main assembly assemblies marily parachute disconnects (Figure ii-30) include the s_ngle point disconnect

and the forward are identical,

and aft bridle in design

disconnect

assemblies. The disconnect

The disconnect assemblies fired piston, pri-

and function.

consist

of the breech The breech

assembly, assembly The piston

arm, and two electrically consists of the adapter,

gas preslead slug, pin.

sure cartridges. /-_ snubber

disc, and plunger.

is retained

in the adapter The

by a shear

The lead slug is located under

on the end of the piston. The adapter

snubber disc is located into the spacecraft is threaded The onto

the head of the plunger. with the piston

is threaded

structure

extending

into the arm.

The breech

the adapter disconnect adapter section.

and the cartridges is mounted

are installed

in the breech.

single point The System ring

on the hub of the main parachute on the forward disconnect section. the

adapter

assembly. Control

assembly

is located bridle

ring of the Re-entry

The forward

is mounted

at the top of the forward disconnect is located

of the Re-entry

Control

System

The aft bridle crew hatches.

fox-ward of the heat

shield

between

Operation When F_ initiated by a 28 vdc electrical produce signal, the disconnect cartridges are igpassages

nited.

The cartridges

gas pressure

that is ported through

drilled

ii-65

..- _ _

SEDR300

•,

PROJECT

GEMINI

'i'_

ADAPTER

DISC

SRACECRAF] STRUCTURE (REF) LEAD SLUC

BREECH

SHEAR PIN" SNUBBER

_
structure reE_ l\\\\\_//,_\\\x/

I l_///'//'/_/,
/

_J
\

C AETR,OOES

_.'/._\'_×\\'-.\\\\\1

DIscONNECTASSEMBLY BEFORE FIRING
PIN SHEARED PISTON

SLUG MUSHROOME ARM RELEASED

7

SPACECRAFT STRUCTURE (REF) Ij

_____._ L
Figure 11-30 Main

J
DISC

,
Disconnects

_-_

DISCONNECT ASSEMBLY FIRED Parachute 11-66

_,-.

SEDR3O0

in the breech, exerts

to a common

chamber

at the head

of the plunger. in turn propels

The gas pressure the piston by phyThe

a force on the head The piston

of the plunger,

which

sical contact. plunger strikes

severs the shear pin and is driven the piston, The snubber since the head

into the arm. of the plunger a cushioning the back

is prevented a shoulder shearing

from following in the adapter. the plunger

disc provides strikes

effect,

to pre_nt the lead

head.

As the piston mushrooms.

of the arm, retains The

slug at the end of the piston in the arm, preventing causes

Mushrooming

of the slug,

the piston pull

the piston

from hindering

arm operation.

of the parachute

the arm to cam open, thus releasing

the riser or

bridle.

PYROTECHNIC DES CRIPTION Pyrotechnic

VALVES

valves(Figure

ll-31)are

installed Control the flow

in the Orbit System(RCS). of fluids.

Attitude

and Maneuver-

ing System(OAMS)and actuating pyrotechnic valve body, devices, valves nipple,

in the Re-entry used to control

The valves are one time The spacecraft contains cartridge, depend-

that consist ram, seal, valve,

of the electrically and screw.

fired high either

explosive

The nipple, in the valve

open or closed

Ing on the particular The ram, incorporating indexed directly

is installed

body and welded is located

into place. body, in the open

the seal and screw at its head of the nipple. Two types

in the valve is installed

above the center

The cartridge of valves

valve body

at the top of the ram head. closed. The "A" packages valve.

are used;

normally

and normally closed

of the RCS and OAMS, contain of the OAMS contain

a normally a normally open,

non-replaceable closed,

Tne "E" package valve.

and a normally

non-replaceable

If the valves

in the "A" and "E"

11-67

-___

:_i_

PROJECT
SEDR 300

GEMINI
__

OAMS PACKAGE"E"

BEFORE FIRING

P,

FLOW /

RCS PACKAGES "A" "C" "D' A AND B RINGS (REF)

AFTER

FIRING

NIPP

NORMALLY OPEN VALVE (NON-REPLACEABLE)

Figure

11-31

Pyrotechnic 11-68

Valves

(Sheet

1of2)

k__,_

_

PROJECT

GEMINI

OAMS PACKAGE "A" AND "E" RCS PACKAGE"A" BEFOREFIRING

OAMS PACKAGE "C" AND "D" RCS PACKAGE "C" AND "D" BEFORE FIRING

i'#,i
FLOW S ECTIONS REMOVED FLOW IPPL[ SECTIONS REMOVED

NORMALLY CLOSED VALVE (NON-REPLACEABLE)
/

NORMALLY CLOSED VALVE (REPLACEABLE)

Figure

11-31 Pyrotechnic 11-69

Valves

(Sheet

2 of 2)

f.._

SEDR 300

packages are defective, or the cartridge has been fired, the packages must be changed. The "C" and "D" packages of the RCS and the 0AMS contain normally These valves are attached to the exterior of the

closed replaceable valves.

package, and if defective or the cartridge fired, may be changed individually. OPERATION Normally open valve; the pyrotechnic valve is caused to function when the cartridge is initiated by a 28 vdc electrical signal. Ignition of the cartridge The ram is driven down The ram, having a sealing the valves are valve has

produces gas pressure that acts on the head of the ram.

on the nipple, severing and removing a section of the nipple.

tapered cross section, is wedged in the nippled opening, completely nipple, thus stopping the flow of fluid. all basically identical Normally

closed pyrotechnic The non-replaceable

except for nipple design.

two closed end nipples butted together.

The ram severs and removes the end of A hole is incorporated in the The replaceable pyrotechnic valve

each nipple and wedges itself between the ends. ram, allowing fluid flow after ram actuation.

has a nipple installed with a bulkhead in the cross section that stops fluid flow. The ram removes the section of the nipple containing the bulkhead and wedges itself in place. A hole incorporated in the ram allows fluid to flow.

RETR0_RADE ROCEET SYSTEM
The retrograde rocket system (Figure 11-32) primarily pellant rocket motors and eight igniter assemblies. provided to retard spacecraft orbital velocity consists of four solid proThe retrograde rockets are

for re-entry and to provide

distance and velocity to clear the launch vehicle in the event of an abort during ascent. The rocket motors are s_,_etrically located about the longitudinal axis _-_

SEO 30o
ADAPTER, GRADE ROCKET

/ /

/

RETROGRADE ROCKET IGNITER ASSEMBLY

RETROGRADE ROCKET MOTOR

MOUNTING

LUG

NozzLE

ASSEMBLY

TEST ADAPTER /

Figure

11-32 Retrograde 11-71

Rocket

System

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR 300 __

of the spacecraft rocket motors the re-entry

and are mounted

in the retrograde optically aligned

section prior

of the adapter.

The to

are individually, module.

to mating the adapter

RETROGRADE Description The

ROCKET

MOTOR

ASSEMBLY

spacecraft

contains

four retrograde

rocket

motor

assemblies

(Figure

11-33)

that are imately

identical 13 inches

in design in diameter.

and performance,

spherical

in shape,

and are approx-

Rocket

Motor

Case from titaniumalloy and welded in two hemispherical at the equator. operation. sections. Each The _

The motor halves

case is formed

are forged,

machined,

together motor

hemisphere

is insulated is drilled nozzle insert

to reduce

heat transfer to provide

during

The aft hemisphere assembly. The throat

and tapped

a mating

flange

for the nozzle

assembly, and nozzle

a partially bulkhead.

submerged The nozzle

type,

consists

of the expansion titanium

cone,

bulkhead

is a machined case.

alloy,

bolted to the flange at the aft end of the motor to provide molded for expansion silica cone installation. phenolic resin and

The bulkhead

is threaded

The expansion is threaded graphite

cone is compression into the nozzle snd is pressed bulkhead. into the

of vitreous

The throat nozzle material cessed closure closure

insert is machined The throat

from high density insert is insulated during motor

bulkhead. to reduce

from the bulkhead

by a plastic insert is renozzle The

heat transfer

operation.

The throat

into the motor is sandwiched incorporates

case to reduce nozzle between a shear the throat groove that

assembly

length.

A rubber

insert permits

and the nozzle bulkhead. ejection

at a predetermined

11-72

---_.

SEDR 300

iNSERT

<..A
NOZZLE BULKHEAD "_, LANT TES_ GRAIN

%.

INSULATION ASSEMBLY (2 RE(_) SHEAR GROOVE

EXPANSION

CONE

NOZZLE

CLOSURE

NOZZLE

CLOSURE

SHEAR GROOVE EXPANSION CONE

_::,. :_ii_':: ";..: ....

ROAT INSERT

INSULATION

SECTION A-A
IGNIT GRAIN CONFIGURATION NOZZLE BULKHEAD _" " J

MOTOR CASE

/

Figure 11-33 Retrograde

Rocket Motor 11-73

Assembly

PROJECT

sEoR 30o
GEMINI
at motor ignition. checking A test adapter of the rocket fitting motor. pressure material that provides propellant grain to case.

internal

pressure

level,

or basically

is incorporated

in the closure

to permit

Rocket Motor Propellant The motor case is lined with a rubber

case adhesion. The propellant tion. degrees

The rocket motor grain

propellant

is cast and cured in the motor burning eight pointed

is cast in an internal grain is ignited

star configuramounted 180

The propellant

by the two igniter case, adjacent

assemblies, to the nozzle

apart on the aft end of the motor

assembly.

Operation The retrograde normal mode entry. rocket motors function in two modes: motors normal and abort. In the re_-_

of operation,

the rocket

are used to initiate intervals

spacecraft

The rocket motors

are fired at 5.5 second

in 1-2-3-4

order.

The propellant igniter eight motors

grain of the rocket motor The propellant grain

is ignited burns

by the hot gases

from the of its by the velocity.

assemblies.

over the entire The thrust and retards are fired

surface

pointed

star configuration to the

until

exhausted. structure motors

produced spacecraft

is transmitted

spacecraft

In the abort mode requirements may

of operation, direct.

the rocket

in salve or as mission

RETROGRADE Description

ROCKET

IGNITER

ASSEMBLY

The retrograde propellant igniter

rocket

igniter

assemblies rocket consist

(Figure motor.

11-34) The

are used to ignite the contains eight _

grain

of the retrograde that primarily

spacecraft

assemblies

of the case, head

cap, grain, booster

ii-7_

PROJECT OEM,N,
IGNITER ASSEMBLY 2 PLACE!

f--

j;U TON E BOOST BOO
.......... __ _ _ S _N_cT_
Figure 11-34 Retrograde Rocket Igniter Assembly 11-75

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

pellets, pellet basket, and initiator. small solid propellant rocket motor.

The igniter assembly is essentially a The case and head cap are individually machOn the intermaterial

ined from a stainless steel alloy and have a threaded interface. nal surface of the case, at the gas exit, a silica-phenolic is bonded to reduce heat transfer during igniter firing. cured in a phenolic paper tube.

insulating

The grain is cast and

The grain is inserted into the igniter case The booster pellets, consisting of boron

prior to case and head cap assembly.

potassium nitrate, are contained in the pellet basket, located in the head cap. The pellet basket is held in place by the head cap and is installed prior to case and head cap mating. The initiator cartridge consists of the body, one The basic func-

firing circuit (bridge wire), ignition mix, and output charge. tion of the initiator is to fire the igniter.

The initiator is threaded into

the head cap of the igniter at the time of igniter assembly build up at the vendors.

Operation When initiated by a 28 vdc electrical signal, the initiator of the igniter assembly is activated. The initiator ignites the boron pellets, which boosts The igniter grain generates hot gas which is The hot gases provide the

the burning to the igniter grain.

exhausted into the retrograde rocket motor cavity.

temperature and pressure for retrograde rocket motor propellant grain ignition. Either igniter is sufficient to initiate burning of the rocket motor.

11-76

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
SEDR 300 -__

DOCKING

SYSTEM

PYROTECq_NIC devices

_VICES for docking are located devices in the R and E section utilized for docking

The pyrotechnic

utilized 11-3).

of the spacecraft consist (a) of:

(Figure

The pyrotechnic

A pyrotechnically the spacecraft

actuated

indexing

bar to aid the astronauts

in matlng

with

the TDA. ejected actuated latch cable receptacles. cutters to release the three latch

(b) (e)

Three pyrotechnically Three pyrotechnically covers.

DOCKING

BAR ASSEMBLY

Descriptlon
l-

The docking piston,

bar assembly

(Figure

11-35) primarily cutter piston, two jettison

consists

of the cylinder,

inner

inner piston

extension,

indexing

bar, housing/manlfold, and a locking mechabar,

two breeches_ nism. prior

extension

cartridge,

cartridges,

The basic

function

of the assembly

is to extend

and lock the indexing bar after

to the docking

maneuver

and to jettison

the indexing

the docking visually

operations

are completed.

The purpose

of the indexing The docking

bar is to aid both bar assembly

and mechanically in the rendezvous

in the docking and recovery mounted

maneuver. section

is located structure. the locking provide in the cartridges

and attached

to the section contains

The housing/manifold, mechanism and provides

at the top of the cylinder, of two breeches.

for installation

The breeches

for the _nstallation extension breech

of cartridges.

One extension

cartridge

is installed

on the left hand

side of the manifold on the right hand

and two jettison

are in_talled

in the jettison

breech

side of the manifold.

11-77

1-- -_..

SEDR 300

RETAINING LOCKING INDEXING EXTENDED BAR

LOCK PIN INDEXING BAR

CARTRIDGE RETAINING LOCKING PiN

SHEAR PIN

.CYLINDER PISTON

PISTON

EXTENSION

ORIFICE

NNER PISTON EXTI_NSION

BEFORE
ACTIVATION

DOCKING
EXTENSION ACTIVATED

BAR
CYCLE

INDEXING

BAR

ASSEMBLY

EXTENDED

_-..,

Figure

11-35 Docking

Bar Assembly 11-78

(Sheet

i of 2)

I-T_ _.

SEDR 300

INDEXING DOCKING ASSEMBLY BAR

EAR

JEITISI_ED

PLUG _"

CARTRIDGES

,so.

,

SHEARED EXTI_ISION PIN ENGAGED SHEAR

_--

sHEAR PIN_

LOCKING MECHANISM LOCKING MECHANISM

%_

OUTFR PISiON

PISTON

'

INDEXING

BAR

EXTENDED

INDEXING JETTISONED

BAR (RE-ENTRY)

JETTISON CYCLE ACTIVATED

Figure

11-35

Docking"

Bar 11-79

Assembly

(Sheet

2 of 2)

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

The hollow inner piston extension protrudes through the cutter piston base and is attached to the inner piston. The indexing bar is secured to the

outer piston by a shear pin and retained in the cylinder by a retaining pin.

Operation The indexing bar is extended by the gas pressure generated when the extension cartridge is initiated by a 28 vdc signal. The gas pressure is ported into the The gas pressure

cylinder and enters an orifice in the base of the indexing bar.

is then ported through the hollow inner piston extension and exerts force on the bottom of the outer piston, causing it to sever the retaining pin and extend the outer piston with indexing bar attached. When fully extended, the indexing bar

is secured in place by the pin of the locking mechanism engaging a groove in the outer piston. The extension cartridge has dual bridge wires with a separate The indexing bar is

electrical circuit to each bridge wire for redundancy.

jettisoned when the dual jettison cartridges are initiated by a 28 vdc electrical signal. The gas pressure generated by the jettison cartridges is ported into the

cylinder and through an orifice in the outer piston to a cavity between the inner and outer pistons. The thrusting action of the inner piston causes the indexi1_ Both the inner piston and the

bar to sever the shear pin and be jettisoned. indexing bar are Jettisoned.

Initiation of only one jettison cartridge is sufficThe jettison cs_-tridgeshave a two second

ient to jettison the indexing bar. pyrotechnic

time delay to assure that during an abort mode the extend cartridge

will be firing first to extend the bar before the Jettison cycle iz initiated.

EMERGENCY DOCKING RELEASE SYSTEM Description The emergency docking release system (Figure 11-36) contains three release assemi1-8o

SEDR 300

EMERGENCY DOCKING RELEASESYSTEM INSTALLATION

LATCH RECEPTACLE STUD

LATC PA '
• j--

GASPRESSOREPORT
CONNECTOR

CATTACHED_---....._ _ _--_.

CARTRIDGE SHEAR PI _ COLLAR ELECTRICAL

EMERGENCY DOCKING RELEASEASSEMBLY (UNACTUATED)

SPACECRAFT

C LOSURE CAP GAS PRESSURE

GAS PRESSUREPORT

ELECTRICAL PAWL _---" _ CONNECTOR

STRUCTURE ,_EE_--_/
(SHEARED) SHEAR PIN (SHEARED). COLLAR

EMERGENCY DOCKING RELEASEASSEMBLY (ACTUATED)

/f-_.

Figure

11-36

Emergency

Docking 11-81

Release

System

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
SEDR300 _____

blies

located

s2mmetrically

about

the longitudinal at the outer release system piston body

axis and attached

to th,

rendezvous

and recovery system

structure

mold lineo

The basiefunction from the docking assemblies and side

of the release vehicle primarily

is to positively release

the spacecraft failure. closure

in the event of normal consist

The release

of a latch pen, body, cartridges. member

cap stud assembly

two gas pressure of a common assembly,

The release

is attached and recovery protrudes

at the opposite section.

structural

of the rendezvous release

A stud

torqued

into the dockir_

piston

out of the unit body. Installation unit is actibody.

The latch pan is secured to the stud by a collar of the closure vated cap seals the area above cartridges,

and shear pin. piston. Each

the release

by two pyrotechnic

installed

in the base of the release

Operation Malfunction docking ridges pressure of the normal system. docking Upon release system requires the use of the emergency signal, the cartgenerate gas of

release

receipt

of a 28vdc assemblies. passages

electrical

are ignited

in all three through

release drilled

The cartridges

that is ported The pressure

in the body to the underside separating the shear pin fro_

the piston.

displaces the piston

the piston,

the latch pawl

and moving

stud up into the body to clear the latch pawl. vehicle latch, is thus parted from the

The latch pawl being held emergency condition. release body.

by the docking The spacecraft

is then free to move

out of the docked

TRANSPONDER Description The Target

COVER

Docking

Adapter

has a single Flexible jettison the transponder ii-82

Linear

Shape

Charge

(FLSC) assembly

ring assembly

to open and

cover.

The jettison

PROJECT
,____

GEMINI
SEDR 300 "[_ ---_

consists

of one FLSC, blocks,

installed

around

the inside

edge of the transponder ring. The explosive are inserted

cover, ring in ring.

two detonator is bolted

two detonators

and an explosive door.

to the TDA under the transponder blocks, which

Detonators

the two detonator

are installed

on the TDA under

the explosive

Operati on Upon wave receipt of a 28 vdc electrical to the FLSC. signal, the detonators transmit severs a detonation

that is propagated

The FI_C detonates, ring absorbs from

and jettisons in back of the One strand of

the transponder

door skin.

The explosive

the shock shrapnel. door.

blast and protects FLSC is adequate

the transponder

and structure

to sever and Jettison

the transponder

_-

FUEL CELL HYDROGEN TANK VENT ACTUATOR Description The fuel cell hydrogen tank vent actuator tube to allow after (Figure 11-37) is utilized to puncture the inner

the hydrogen

tank plnch-off

any gas in the void between is in orbit,

and outer tank walls the thermal efficiency

to escape

the spacecraft

thus increasing assembly con-

of system.

The hydrogen shear

tank vent actuator breech,

sists of a body, piston/cutter and an electrically cutter blade which guard. fired

blade,

pin, guard,

ballistic

hose,

gas pressure

cartridge.

The body houses

the piston/ of on The nine

is retained The actuator

by a shear body

pin and provides is bonded

for attachment

the blade

assembly

and strapped

in place hose.

the fuel cell hydrogen breech inches contains from the

tank and connected

to the breech and

by a ballistic

the gas generating actuator.

cartridge

is positioned

approximately

_i-83

BODY PISTON

SHEAR PIN BLADE

VENT TUBE

BLADE GUARD

NK (REF)

BODY PISTON

SHEAR PiN BLADE GUARD

/ I \ ..........

i _lt _ _) / /

I I i

.- BLADE

!

ENT TUBE (SPLIT)

H2 TANK(REF)

Figure

11-37

H 2 Tank Vent Actuator 11-84

Assembly

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR 300 _ ___._

Operation When initiated by a 28 vdc electrical signal, the cartridge generates gas pressure that is transferred through a ballistic hose to the actuator body which exerts a force on the piston/cutter blade. the piston/cutter blade to mov% vent tube. The gas pressure causes

severing the shear pin and spliting the

The blade guard is attached to the actuator body and forms a

barrier which will stop the blade when the piston reaches the end of its stroke.

11-85/86

LANDING

SYSTEM

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

TITLE
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
..._.......=..= .................

PAGE
12 3
_°°°o°.°c:;=;=,o.o_° * ==:=:====::"=:=

SYSTEM OPERATION .................................. _2=3 !N_;__:-?_d_i$i_
SYSTEM UNITS ............................................
DROGUE PARACHUTE ASSEMBLY .................

EM EN OPERAnO ERG CY N............................ 2-Z i!i_-iHii'_'_'.--' 1
12-7
12-7

!-_HilHi!iiiiHiii-_lii-_
iiiiiiiiiiii_ii_i_iii_i
***.°o..o.°°oooo...°°o.o**.

PILOT PARACHUTE ASSEMBLY ...................... 12-12 iiiiii_ii_i!i!i!!iiii_ MAtHPARACHUTE ANDR_SERSSEMBLY ]2-_4 ii_iiii_ii!iiiiiii!!ii A .....
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::

ig!_ii i i i i i i i_i _i
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::

i i _i _!i i i i i i i i il
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::

o°.°°°.°°o.°°oo..°°°°°°°°°. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

_-"

i::::::::::::::::::::::::::: i i i_i_i;_i i !i !i i_il
°°**°° ..................... ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii_

i_i i i !i_i!i _i _i i i !
......................

12-1

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::

o....

_

SEDR 300

PILOT MORTAR ASSEMBLY UE MORTAR ASSEMBLY BRIDLE DISCONNECT

",,,
/ LEG DROOl

/

/ /

/
// _PILOT CABLE

.."_ _

SECTION A-A

RISER MAiN GUARD RING ASSEMBLY

/.\
'_" _"_'_'_. ...... _/

,
/
I /
/

ADAPTERASSE
RECOVERY SECTION (R &R) CARTRIDGES

MORTAR

CABli (REF)

FORWARD BRIDLE DISCONNECT RC S SECTION (REF) J LEG

SINGLE POI! DISCONNECT

MAIN

pARACHUTE AFT BRIDLE

NOSE FAIRING

CONTAINER BAG AND CONTAINER ASSEMBLY CABLE TROUGH

MAIN

DISCONNECT BRIDLE ASSEMBL

BRIDLE LEG TRAy

MAIN

PARACHUTE DEPLOyIVENT

_LE_I

FORWARD BRIDLE LEG I

TO MAIN

pARACHUTE

SlCllOlj B-B

SECTION C-C

Figure 12-1 Parachute Landing System 12-2

PROJECT
f'\

GEMINI
SEDR 300 ___

SECTION

XII

LANDING

SYSTEM

SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION Landing System (Figure 12-1) provides surface a safe rate of descent the proper to attiin

The parachute return

the re-entry

module

to the earth's for a water

and furnishes

tude to the landing module series from is utilized feet. for

impact.

A system of three parachutes the velocity

stabilizing the final

and retarding stage

of the spacecraft sus-

50,000

During

of descent,

the main parachute system

pension a more three

is changed favorable

from a single point for a water (a drogue

to a two point landing.

in order to achieve System consists of

attitude assemblies

The Landing assembly,

parachute

parachute

a pilot

parachute reefing The cutters,

assembly, disconnect Landing

and a main parachute assemblies, with riser

assembly), assemblies, of the

two mortar and attaching aft bridle section

assemblies, hardware.

entire assembly, Figure 12-2 form.

System,

the exception

leg and disconnect

is located illustrates Figure

in the rendezvous the sequence

and recovery

of the spacecraft. to impact in block

of events

from re-entry sequence

diagram

12-3 illustrates

the electrical

of the landing

system.

SYSTEM Prior

OPERATION to re-entry, the landing and postlandlng common control This electrical buses power to

are armed by positioning the two barometric Indicaters.

the LANDING switches

switch to ARM. for illumination

also applies

pressure

of the lO.6K

and 40K warning

When

the altimeter activated.

indicates

an altitude switch

of 50,000 feet, energizes deploys two

the HI-ALT

DROGUE

switch

is

manually _

The drogue

single

pyrotechnic drogue

cartridges The

in the drogue

mortar.

The drogue

mortar

the reefed

parachute.

12-3

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
__

SEDR300

PRESSURESWITCH ACTIVATES BAROMETRIC

ILLUMINATES UGHT

_

_

DROGUE SWITCH

DROGUE MORTAR

DROGUE CHUTE DEPLOYED

CHUTE DISREEPED (16 $EC. T.D,)

BAROMETRIC SWITCH ACTIVATES

10.6K WARNING LIGHT I LLUMI SATES

DISCONNECT GUILLOTINES (80MS PYRO T.D.) SWITCH 2.5 SEC. ELEC. TIME DELAy DROGUECHUTE

UTE DEPLOYED I J

DISREEFED (6. SEC. PYRO T. D

I
MAI N CHUT E DEPLOYED REEFED

FIRED (50-70 MS T.D.) I MDF RING

9
DISREEFED (10 SEC. PYRO T.D "-_ LDG ATT SWITCH SINGLE POINT DISCONNECT J_l/I SUSPENSION ANTENNA EXTENDED

UHF DESCENT ANTENNA EXTENDED

BEACON ACTIVATED Q

I

IMPACT

+

"_!

AND FLASHING RECOVERY LIGHT RELEASE HOIST LOOP

J
_IIP

LEGEND

PILOr

ACTUATED CONNECTION

@

PAPA JET/ SWITCH

PARACHUTE JETTISONED

MECHANICAL

RECOVERY LIGHT ACTIVATED -_._._,_____; -,. ._

Figure

12-2 Landing

System

Sequential

Block

Diagram

12-4

PROJECT
f_"

GEMINI
"-1

___

r- ....................

SEDR 300 DROGUE ....................
T K5-93 t'__ "-_ I CABINAIR INLET IGN. t -MORTAR DROGUE -_ _ --,,._" K5-94

.__]

O O LDG. SEQ. CONT. Ri

i

C_ _

CHUTE

_

LDG. O "CONT.

SEQ. O /2

'
"ANDING SQUIB I _

I-- ................... I

PARA DEPLOY ...................

r"l
--

7

'
I LANDING SQUIB

I

Ks._ _ .......
= m K5-85

K5-87

-

t

DROGUE CHUTE DISCONNECT PILOT CHUTE

APEXCAR_ GU,LLOT,NE .........
K5-88 MORTAR K5-90

_5_
( KSB-86

__,B: _-"I MA,NCHUTEoEPLOy I--__,_
L- .................. EMERG DROGUE ...................

K5-89

o._
I I L ................... I- ....................

- S,NGLEPO,NT -RELEASE LDG. ATT. -- .................. pAPA JETT ....................

_
I I J 1

'

I I I_ ----

RECOVERY LIGHT RELEASE J FLASHING MAIN CHUTE JETTISON FWD MAIN CHUTE JETTISON AFT --

K5-22 _

I j "

f_

_" •,

_J _
--

_._DELAY -SEC TIME
UMBILICAL PYRO SWITCH --

I-_-

I; _5_

R & R SECTION A K5 -7 GUI LLOTIN E

1 K5"g A

'

II
K5-91

'

"_"_"

_,RSECt'ON --"_--_
WIRE GUILLOTINE COAXIAL /

II
K5-92

;

IB I I K5-91

'

K5-97 /"_--_-._

-

DESCENT ANTENNA SELECT

-j _

B I I K5-91

K5-7

K5-5

JETTISON PRIMER i

3B

K5-8

II

,-'q_-__ R &r SECTION (_) J co_D
pYRO SWITCH 10.6K

-__n'-Cq_ K5-6

II

- / R'RSECT'ON / --MAIN BUS 10.6K BAROMETRIC INDICATOR PG_TLANDING CONTROL BUS LANDING AND

SEQ. LIGHT PWR.

oo

8AROSTAT

h

pAPA CONT.

60

BAROMETRIC

sw_rcn

Figure

_nD,CAtOR 12-3 Landing 12-5

4OK

System

Schematic

SEDR 300

parachute ployment, parachute

is

reefed

to 31m_t the

opening

shock

load.

Sixteen

seconds

after

de-

two pyrotech-lc reefing cutters disreef the drogue parachute. s+__b_iLtzes the re-entry module.

The drogue

At appro×lwately 10,600 feet, the PARA switch is activated. the three dro_e ring detonators.

The PARA switch fires

cable guillotines and sets a 2.5 second time delay to the MDF After the drogue riser legs have been cut, the drogue parachute

pulls away from the re-entry module extracting the pilot parachute fr_n the pilot mortar tube with the apex line. limit the initial shock load. When deployed, the pilot parachute is reefed to Two lanyard initiated pyrotechnic reefing cutters 2.5 seconds after the pilot

disreef the pilot chute six seconds after deployment.

chute has been deployed, the MDF ring fires separating the rendezvous and recovery section frcB the landing vehicle. The pilot parachute functions to decelerate the

re-entry module, remove the rendezvous and recovery section, and deploy the main parachute.

As the landing module falls away from the rendezvous and recovery section, the main parachute is deployed in a reefed condition. The main parachute is disreefed

by three lanyard initiated pyrotechnic reefing cutters ten seconds after deployment. The two decelerations provided by the main parachute divide the retarding shock load. After the main parachute has been disreefed, the manually operated L_G ATT

switch is actuated to chan_e the single point suspension system to a two point suspension system. attitude for impact. the PARA _ The two point suspension system provides a more favorable As soon as the landing module contacts the ocean surface, The PARA JETT switch energizes the forward and Upon c_pletion of the

switch is activated.

aft bridle disconnects releasing the main parachute.

PROJECT
_.__

GEMINI
SEDR 300

landing, the landing module is prepared for transmitting data and recovery information through the erected recovery antenna.

_ENOY

OPERATION

In the event the drogue parachute does not deploy or deploys improperly, the PHE-MAIN IO.6K switch is actuated. The closure of this switch fires the three

drogue cable guillotines, the apex line guillotine, and the pilot parachute mortar and starts the 2.5 second time delay to the MDF rings. deploys the pilot parachute in a reefed condition. The pilot mortar

From this point, the emer-

gency sequence of events is exactly the same as used during a normal landing. Figure 12-4 illustrates the emergency sequence of events in block diagram form, and Figure 12-5 illustrates the emergency deployment.

DROGUE PARAC_

ASSEMBLY

The drogue parachute assembly (Figure 12-6) stabilizes the re-entry module and deploys the pilot parachute. This assembly consists of an 8.3 ft 441ameterconi-

cal ribbon parachute with twelve 750-pound tensile strength suspension lines. A three legged riser assembly attaches the parachute assembly to the rendezvous and recovery section.

When initially deployed, the drogue chute is reefed to 43 percent of the parachute diameter in order to reduce the opening shock load. Sixteen seconds after deployInitiation of the

ment, two pyrotechnic reefing cutters disreef the drogue chute.

PARA switch fires three cable guillotines located at the base of the three riser legs. As the drogue chute pulls away from the rendezvous and recovery section, an

12-7

_;,_:.

SEDR300

BARO. SW ACTIVATES

10.6K WARNING LIGHT ILLUMINATES

EMERG 10.6K SWITCH

PARACHUTE APEX LINE GUI LLOTI NE

i oou
DISCONNECT GUILLOTINES (80 MS PYRO T .D. )

Q
PARACHUTE MORTAR (.5 SEC PYRO T .D.) PILOT PARACHUTE DEPLOYED PARACHUTE DISREEEED (6 SEC PYRO T .D.

ELECT. TIME DELAy

FIRED (50-70MS

T.D.)

SECTION SEPARATES

MAIN

CHUTE

LEGEND

DEPLOYED

(_II_P_

PILOT

ACTUATED

ELECTRICAL

CONNECTION

(IOSEC T.D.)

LOG ATT SWITCH

MAIN PARACHUTE SINGLE POINT DISCONNECT

BRIDLE SUSPENSION ACTIVATED

UHF DESCENT ANTENNA EXTENDED

q
UHF DESCENT ANTENNA EXTENDED pARA JETT SWITCH

H H
AND FLASHING RECOVERY LIGHT RELEASE ! PARACHUTE JETTISONED

ANTENNA EXTENDED

U.ERESCUE ¢

® Q

IMPACT

+

RECOVERY ACTIVATED FLASHING

L,G.T
12-8

l

®''
....

,7_ _

"iiit/': _
_._.

Figure

12-4

Emergency

Landing

Sequential

Block

Diagram

--

->_

-_-..

SEDR 300

69" _EF)-_

(TYPICAL 12 pLACES)

(TYPICAL 12 PLACES) 96" (REF)

/
PENSION LINE-RISER JOINT /

._/_----'RISER

SEPARATION JOINT

110" (REF)

(TYPICAL 3 PLACES)

/,

._RISER

FITTING

JOINT

PARACHUTE

IN

REEFED CONDITION

PARACHUTE

IN

DISREEFED

CONDITION

Figure

12-6

Drogue

Parachute 12-10

Assembly

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
___

SEDR 300

apex line, which is attached to one of the riser legs, extracts the pilot parachute from the pilot mortar tube. the pilot parachute The drogue parachute remains attached to and recovery

during the entire descent of the rendezvous

section of the re-entry module.

Drogue Parachute Morts_,Assembly The drogue parachute mortar assembly stores and protects the drogue parachute during flight and deploys the drogue parachute when activated by the HI-ALT DROGUE switch. An insulated metal pan retains the parachute in the mortar tube The breech assembly,

which has a diameter of 7.15 inches and is 9.12 inches long.

located at the base of the mortar tube, contains two electrically actuated pyrotechnic cartridges and an orifice. .... The cartridges generate gases which enter the

mortar tube through the orifice and eject the drogue parachute and sabot.

Drogue Mortar Sabot The drogue mortar sabot is an aluminum cup located in the base of the mortar and functions to eject the drogue parachute with a piston llke action. In order to

insure the most effective ejection, the sabot is fastened to the base of the orifice by a frangible bolt, and an O-ring, located near the base of the sabot which contacts the inner wall of the mortar tube to prevent any escape of gases generated by the two pyrotechnic cartridges. When enough pressure to break the

frangible bolt has built up, the sabot and parachute are expelled from the mortar tube. After ejection, the sabot remains attached to the parachute bag and aids in

stripping the bag from the parachute.

Drogue Parachute

Deployment

Bag

The drogue parachute deployment bag protects the drogue parachute during deployment

12-11

PROJECT
.@

GEMINI
SEDR 300 _---1

and allows for an orderly deployment of the parachute. from cotton sateen and nylon.

The bag is fabricated

A 0.35 pound aluminum plate, sewn into the top

of the bag, aids in stripping the bag from the canopy during the deployment.

PILOT PARACHUTE

ASSEMBLY assembly (Figure 12-7) decelerates the re-entry module and and recovery section from the lending module which results During flight, the pilot parachute The 18.3 foot dieaeter canopy is of

The pilot parachute

removes the rendezvous

in the deployment of the main parachute.

assembly is stowed in the pilot mortar tube.

the ringsall type having 16 gores and fabricated from I.I and 2.25 ounce per square yard nylon. Sixteen nylon cord suspension lines, which are 17 foot long

and have a tensile strength of 550 pounds each, attach the canopy to the riser assembly. tensile A iO.7 foot long split riser, constructed of four layers of 2600 pound assembly to the rendez-

strength dacron webbing, holds the pilot parachute

vous and recovery section of the spacecraft.

When initially deployed, the pilot

parachute is reefed to 11.5 percent in order to limit the opening shock load to SO00 pounds. Two pyrotechnic reefing cutters disreef the parachute 6 seconds and

after deployment. recovery

The pilot parachute

remains attached to the rendezvous

section throughout

the entire descent.

Pilot Parachute

Mortar Assembly mortar assembly is similar in design and operation to the During normal operation of the Landing System, In the event

The pilot parachute drogue parachute

mortar assembly.

this assembly serves only to store and protect

the pilot parachute.

of a failure in the deployment of the drogue parachute,

the pilot parachute mortar _"

can be activated to deploy the pilot parachute by initiation of the PI_E-_IN IO.6_T_

12-12

t_

SEDR300

JOINT

(16)

LINES (16)

APEX LINE 13.0 IFT(REF)

RISER

JOINT (2)

RECOVERY SECTION 16.5 FT (REF)

PARACHUTE IN REEFED CONDITION

PARACHUTE IN DISREEFED CONDITION

Figure

12-7

Pilot

Parachute 12-]3

Assembly

PROJECT
.__

GEMINI
_______

$EDR300

switch.

Actuation

of the PEE-MAIN

IO.6K

switch

fires

the three parachute

drogue mortar. through

cable After the normal

guillotines,

the apex line guillotine, has been Figure deployed, 12-5

and the pilot the landing

the pilot parachute sequence of events.

is completed parachute

illustrates

the pilot

deployment.

Pilot

Mortar

Sabot sabot functions are the same as those Mortar Sabot. of the drogue mortar sabot.

The pilot mortar

Refer to the description

of the Drogue

Pilot

Parachute

Depl0_ment

Ba 6 bag is similar to the drogue parachute attached to the apex deployment line for

The pilot parachute bag in design extraction

deployment

and use, except

for the bag handles

by the drogue

parachute.
7--

MAIN The

PARACHUTE

AND RISER ASSemBLY (Figure 12-8 and 12-9) is of the ringsail gores type with a diameter in colors of to strength

main parachute

of 84.2 feet. international

The nylon canopy orange and white. inte6_l

has seventy-two Seventy-two riser. Each riser

alternating lines

suspension suspension consists

are attached

eight legs of a single of 550 pounds.

line has a tensile of eight layers

The 3.25 foot integral strength nylon webbing.

of 5,500

pound tensile

The canopy

is fabricated

from i.i and 2.25 pressure of

ounce per square yard 120 pounds per sqn-_e

nylon and is designed foot. However,

to operate

at a dynamic

by reefing

the main parachute, When initially

a maximum deployed, the

load of 16,0OO pounds parachute mum rate

is experienced

at deployment. The disreefed

is reefed to i0.5 percent. of descent

main parachute weight

allows

a maxi-

of 31.6 feet per second

for a module

of 4,400 pounds.

12-14

.-_

SEDR 300

LINE

949.6

IN. (REF)

MAIN

PARACHUTE

26.4

IN. (REF) I

/_11_

PARACHUTE IN REEFED CONDITION Single Point Suspension System

Figure

12-8

Main

Parachute

and

12-15

_

PROJECT

SEOR 300
GEMINI
•58 FT (REF)

22 FT (REF)

SUSPENSION JOINTS

LINE

LINES (72)

MAIN

pARACHUTE

BRIDLE LEGS

r

_'-MAIN 061N.

PARACHUTE

LINE OF VERTICAL DESCENT

PARACHUTEcoNDITIoNIN DISREEFED Suspension System

Figure

12-9

Main

Parachute

and 12-16

Two

Point

PROJEC
__

GEMINI
SEDR 300

Main Parachute

De_lo_ment

Ba_ and Container

Assembly

The main parachute deployment bag and container assembly (Figure 12-1) stows the maln parachute. This assembly is located in the aft end of the rendezvous and The deployment bag is fabricated from a In order to insure a full

recovery section of the spacecraft.

cotton sateen material reinforced with nylon webbing.

and orderl_vdeployment of the maln parachute, the suspension lines must be stretched out prior to the release of the canopy. Therefore, transverse locking

flaps are incorporated in the bag to separate the canopy from the suspension lines. Four restraining straps hold the deployment bag in the container until

deployment.

The main parachute container is 22.25 inches in diameter and 21.32 inches long. The container is closed on the forward end and is secured to the rendezvous and recovery straining section by four vertical reinforcing straps of the deployment brackets. At deployment, the re-

bag are unlocked, the risers and suspension The deploy-

lines are extended, and the canopy is pulled from the deployment bag. ment bag remains attached to the container by four bag handles.

Main Parachute

Bridle

Assembl_m

The main parachute bridle assembly (Figure 12-9).provides a two point suspension system in order to achieve the optimum attitude for a water landing. bridle straps constitute the main parachute bridle assembly. Two separate

The foi_ard bridle

strap is an 85 inch long nylon strap with a looped end connected to the forward bridle disconnect. Prior to single point release, the forward bridle is stowed The aft bridle is 106 inches long and connects

in the bridle tray (Figure 12-10). f-_

to the aft disconnect which is located _-..ediatelyforward of the single point

12-1T

SEDR 300

DISCONNECT SINGLE POINT HOIST LOOP COVER

LEG) ASSEMBLY

TROUGH

DISCONNECT

ASSEMBLY

TRAy

MAIN GUARD R_NG ASSEMBLY

SUPPORT DISCONNECT ASSEMBLY

Figure

12-10 Main

Parachute 12-18

Support

Assembly

SEDR 300

hoist loop (Figure 12-10).

Constructed

of heat resistant nylon, the aft bridle

is stowed in a trough that extends from the front of the Re-entry Control System section to the aft disconnect during flight. An insulating cover shields the eft

strap in the cable trough until the single point suspension is released, at which time the bridle leg tears through the insulation.

Main Parachute

Release is released from the landing module

Upon landing in the water, the main parachute by activation of the P_RAJETT switch.

This initiates the forward and aft dis-

connect pyrotechnics

and allows the chute to pull away from the landing module.

/-

DOCKING

SYSTEM

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

_

TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ...............................
RENDEZVOUS APPROACH RIGIDIZING AND RECOVERY SECTION .................................................. AND MOORING AND SEQUENCE ......... UNRIGIDIZING

PAGE 13-3
13-3 13-6

SEQ U EN CE...............................................

13- 7

iiiii:':'-'_-i'_;"_

SYSTEM OPERATION .................................
DO CK IN G SEQ UEN CE.................................. MANEUVERING SEQUENCE ......................... SEPARATION SEQUENCE ..............................

13-9
13- 9 13-14 13-15

!ii_iiiiii!iiiii:_?'_ii
iiiiiiiiiiiiii_ii:lii!l._i'i..
°O''***'H°*'°°'°°H,O*O..°

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!i_iiH!i! !i!iiii!!!!!!!ii_iii_iiiii H*...o..°.°...°o..** .o.o,.
°o...*o.....o...oo. Ho° oo°* °.o.. ....... o...o ...... ....°o°.,o.o°.. °.....,,.o..,o,.

SYSTEM UNITS ...........................................
MOORING MOORING UMBILICAL LATCH RECEPTACLES .................... LATCH COVER ASSEMBLIES .......... CONNECTORS ............................

13-18
13-18 13-18 13-20 13-20 13-22

_i!i_!!H_i!H_Hiiiiiiiii_
iiiiiiiiiiii_iiiiiiiiiii_il ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiH!iiii!!! iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiii!i ............... ,...**...... iiiii!iiiiiiiii!ii!i!iiiii! iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
_

INDEX BAR ASSEMBLY ................................ RADAR SY STEM AN D PYR OTECHNIC
r_

DEVICES .................................................. TARGET

::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ...... o ....................
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::

_

_ _ _

VEHICLE STATUS DISPLAY PANEL ...... 13-22
_3-_

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
............ .,.o,°o.oo..,°. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

"

PROJECT

s30o oR
GEMINI

VEHICLE DOCKING ADAPTER CONE UMBILICAL PAD

; BAR US AND RECOVERY (R & R) SECTION

GEMINI

SPACECRAFT 1

DOCKING

RECEPTACLE LATCH HOOK

Figure

13-1

Docking 13-2

System

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR 300 __ .__]

SECTION XIII

DOCKING SYSTem4

SYST_

DESCRIPTION
on spacecraft 8 through

The Docking System (Figure 13-1) is used two major assemblies:

12 and utilizes

the spacecraft Rendezvous and Recovery (R & R) section and These assemblies permit the spacecraft The TDA assembly may be

the Target Docking Adapter (TDA) assembly.

to mate with the target vehicle during orbital flight.

mounted on either the Agena Target Vehicle (ATV) or the Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA). docking. The docking cone receives the spacecraft R & R section during

Electrc_echanical devices in the spacecraft and the docking adapter

control the docking operations automatically or as directed by the pilots or the _-_ ground control stations. separately. For convenience, these major assemblies are considered

In this section, details of the R & R section of the spacecraft,

approach and mooring, rigidizing and unrigidizing to the target vehicle are presented. Details of the TDA are presented in the Target Docking Adapter section.

RENDEZVOUS AND RECOVERY SECTION The R & R section of the spacecraft (Figure 13-2) contains the following Docking System units: the support structure, a nose fairing, an index bar, 3 mooring

latch receptacles, 3 latch-receptacle covers, an umbilical connector (receptacle), two rendezvous umbilical connectors (pads), pyrotech-Ic cable cutters and ejection devices. Other components of the R & R section are not concerned with docking.

The main structure is secured to the spacecraft and serves as a mounting structure for other units.

"....

The nose fairing is rigidly but temporarily fastened to the forward end of the

13-3

.---

SEDR 300

N PARACHUTE STORAGE (REP)

(_(_)

R & R SECTION CHUTE (REF) 1 / / / // \_. CHUTE (REF)

/
/ I % \\ RADAR (RRF.) "Q /t ,_ _ RECE,TACLE (REF)

--SLOT AND LATCH ROD

/ .//

-TL
CABLE ASSEMBLY

-r

-_"_

_---'-'----- "--- ---;Z -

_

.....t

LATCH RECEPTACLE NOSE F, _

....... :
_'_ _ LATCH RECEPTACLE

(REF) *JETTISONED AT S/C SEPARATION FROM LAUNCH VEHICLE

."

x

I___

_-_

CABLE CUTTER (pYROTECHNIC)

COVER
LATCH COVER MOORING LATCH RECEPTACLE I

ROD ASSEMBLY

_

CLOSE

,,,J.._ .............. _-t
J_ ,,, _ _ SECTION A-A

R & R SECTION

Figure

13-2

R

& R Section,

S/C

13-4

PROJECT
//

GEMINI
SEDR 300 _____

__.__

R & R section. vehicle.

The fairing is Jettisoned at spacecraft separation from the launch igniter severs a shear pin and swings the fairing clear of are exposed as the fairing is

A pyrotechnic

the spacecraft. Jettisoned.

The docking latch receptacles

The index bar is so located that it coincides with the slot in the The bar is extended pyrotechn_cally by the

docking cone when properly aligned.

pilots and remains extended until Jettisoned at retrograde adapter separation. The pilots use the bar to align the spacecraft with the docking cone. use another set of igniters to Jettison the bar. or Jettisoned prior to nose fairing Jettison. The pilots

The bar can neither be extended

The three latch receptacles the R & R section. it is Jettisoned.

are equally spaced around the forward perimeter

of

The lower latch serves as a pivot for the nose fairing when The exposed receptacles latch with the mooring latch hooks on

the docking cone as the two units come in contact during the docking maneuver. The latch receptacles will remain latched until unlatched automatically by the separation sequence. The latch receptacles are Jettisoned Just before re-entry or

during an emergency.

The cavities left by the Jettisoned receptacles are covered Relays prevent these operations

by pyrotechnlcally released covers before re-entry. until after the nose fairing has been Jettisoned.

The Rendezvous Radar is located in the front part of the R & R section and consists of the transmitter-receiver unit plus 3 receiving antennas and one transmitting antenna. docking. The radar (and encoder) are used to control the target vehicle before The pilots can initiate a number of encoded c_ands this. via the Command Link

System to accomplish

13-5

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
______

SEDR 300

The rendezvous umbilical pads mate with the rendezvous umbilical lever assemblies on the docking cone, at the same time the latch hooks engage the latch receptacles.

The main ,n_iLical receptacle mates with its umbilical plug during the rigidizing sequence of the docking maneuver. line control of the target vehicle. encoded commands. _he umbilical connection provides direct hardThis control includes simple switching and

Pyrotechnic igniters are used to extend the index bar, Jettison the index bar and the mooring latches, Jettison the nose fairing and release the latch covers. pyrotechnic igniters are fired electrically from the crew station. The

APPRO_m

AND MOORING S_UENCZ to the

The approach and mooring sequence is initiated by a ground station co_and target vehicle.

Using the Digital Cr._._d System, the ground station will turn circuits and extend the dipole antenna

on electrical power and radar transponder on the TDA.

This allows *-_ pilots of the spacecraft to make contact with the

target vehicle using the Rendezvous Radar System.

The pilots will begin tracking and control the target vehicle at IOO n_u_ieal miles separation. the pilots can use the C_mand

approximately

When the separation is about 20 nautical miles, Link System to unrigidize the docking cone and

turn on the acquisition Lights. the C_

At about 500 feet separation, the pilots use

Link to turn on the approach lights and status display panel lights.

The pilots will extend the index bar pyrotechnically and decrease the spacecraft closing rate to 0.7 feet per second. docking light. Later, the pilots turn on the suacecraft

As the target vehicle is approached, the pilots use spacecraft

13-6

PROO-----O-ECTG EM I N I
f

_l_-

SEDR 300

thrusters

and the

index

bar

to align

the

spacecraft

with

the

docking

cone.

When proper mooring ing cone

aliment is

is

achieved

the

pilots

begin

the is

mooring

sequence. to

The the dock-

sequence in the docking

completed

when the position. three

spacecraft First contact

firmly between

connected the

un_igidized cone is with

R & R section protruding fraa

and the

electrical

discharge

fingers

the docking cone. between rate. spring the As the loaded to

These discharge fingers are so wired that any static charge and the thrust latch the the target vehicle will be dissipated into then the at a controlled coos the the

spacecraft pilots mooring create

R & R section are punhed

further aside, At the

docking

hooks latched

drop behind the

latch

receptacles _ilical

condition.

same time

two rendezvous

connectors are mated and provide direct hardllne control to the TDA

mooring drive system.

RIGIDIZING

ABD UNRIGIDIZ_INGS_UENCZ and the unrigidize sequence is initiated are autaaatie spacecraft the ones they are

The rigidize sequence initiated. contacts to the the latch The rigidize latch

sequence pushes Latch

when the and then is sensed

R & R section hooks limit to lock on

hooks,

them aside engagement

allows

receptacles.

by three

switches,

c_e at each latch position.

The sensing switches route target vehicle electrical

power through the rigidize limit switches to the rigidized power control relay. The relay energizes, connecting target vehicle electrical power to the moorlng drive system motor. When the system is rigidized, the rigidized l_mlt switches The

open, de-energizing the rigidized power control relay and stopping the motor. main uubilical plug is extended during the rigidize sequence.

13-7

, BAR f _ TARGET VEHICLE (EXTENDED) IONE

R & R SECTION

,PACECRAFT LATCH HOOK DISCHARGE DEVICE APPROACH MOORING LATCH RECEPTACLE

I

I MOORING

iPACECRAFT

TARGET VEHICLE

; CONE

I SPACECRAFT [_> NOT OPERATIONAL ON ATDA.

.,°,o,z,+
Figure 13-3 Docking 13-8 System

iW++ IIII
STATUS DISPLAY PANEL DETAIL A +_'_

Operation

PROJECT
___

GEMINI

SEDR 300

The unrigidize sequence is automatic once it is initiated by either ground command or by the pilots. When the mooring drive system is unrigidized, the unrigidized When

limit switches route target vehicle electrical power to the latch actuator. the mechanism is unlatched, the unlatch sensing switch routes target vehicle electrical power to the separation timer.

The timer, after a 30-second delay,

applies power to the reset side of the latch actuator through the latch reset control relay and the latch reset relay. docking maneuver can be repeated. The latch hooks are reset so that the

Normally the cone does not rigidize after

reset of the latch hooks but if the pilot does not back away within the 30-second delay before reset, the cone will rigidize. have to be repeated. The unrigidize seq_nce would then

The Docking System operation ing is accomplished.

(Figure 13-3) illustrates the sequence

in _aich

dock-

Control of the Docking System is primarily electrical but

pyrotechnic devices and mechanical sensing switches are integrated into the system. The Docking System electrical block diagram (Figure 13-_) ll-_ operation. together

various assemblies used in the docking

The electrical systma provides

the capability for the pilots or ground station to control the docking operation.

The operation of the Docking System consists of three basic functions: (i) Docking sequence, (2) Maneuvering sequence, (3) Separatic_ sequence.

_e

docking sequence consists of approach, mooring, rigidizing and main _ilieal

connection.

13-9

I- :_-

SEDR300

S/C

TDA

TARGET VEHICLE

LIGHT SWITCH DOCKING _

LIGHT DOCKING INDEX BAR

M
BAR SWITCH EXTEND RELAY EXTEND IGNITER TRANSPONDER OR PROGRA_ER VEHICLE

I
CONTROL ENCODER NDDE_R l I LATCH RESET CONTROL

_T

SEPARATION TIMER (30 SEC DELAY)

I
MAIN UMBILICAL t _ MAIN UMBILICAL LIMIT SWITCHES (3) UNRIGIDIZED 1 LATCH ACTUATOR _,

I

s,o_

_

L___
__ RENDEZVOUS UMBILICAL DRIVE SYSTEM POWER CONTROL RELAY

CONTROL SWITCHES

t
RELEASE IGNII"ER

RENDEZVOUS UMBILICAL

TARGET VEHICLE POWER

LATCH RELEASE SWITCH

LATCH RECEPTACLE

hq H T
LATCH HOOKS

SENSING SWITCHES (3)

LIMIT SWITCHES (3)

LEGEND PILOT FUNCTION MECHANICAL CONNECTION

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION

F/gure

13-4

Docking

System

Electrical

Block

Diagram

13-10

.

:

PROJECT

GEMINI

A_roach
The pilots in coordination with the ground station control the Docking System (Figure 13-3 and Figure 13-4).

During the approach phase, the Digital Co_ud

System is used to switch on the

target vehicle covmaandcircuits, the docking adapter radar transponder and to extend the docking adaoter dipole antenna boom. With this accomplished, the

pilots and the ground stations can control other docking adapter/target vehicle functions via the Co.,.;.and Link System. Typical commands sent during the approach

phase are UNRIGIDT_R and ACQUISITION LIGHTS ON at about 20 nautical miles separation; APPROACH LIGHTS 0N, STATUS DISPLAY ON and STATUS DISPLAY _RIGHT at When the DOCK light on the status display panel is illuminated, If the light

near approach.

the system is un_igidized and the latch hooks in docking position.

is not on, the UNRIGIDIZE command is given again, either by the pilots or the ground station. In addition, the pilots operate the following switches during DOCK LT (or EXT IE on spacecraft 8 through 12), _JS ARM and In the ON position, the DOCK LT (or EXT LT) switch

the approach phase:

INDEX EXTEND/POD EJECT.

applies main bus power through the CABIN LIGHTS circuit breaker to the dock light. In the INDEX EXTEND position, the _ EXTEND/POD EJECT switch applies 0AMS

squib bus 1 and 2 power to the index bar extend relay coils through the BUS ARM switch. The energized index bar extend relays apply docking squib bus power to

the extended igniters on the index bar assembly.

The pilots use the extended

index bar to align the spacecraft with the docklng cone.

Mooring _As proper alignment is achieved_ the pilots maneuver the spacecraft to slide the indexing bar into the slot (at the tip of the V-notch) in the docking cone (Figure

13 -11

-

_

•....

,i. ¸

SEDR 300

?
CONE TARGET VEHICLE ,f_ FINGERS

SPACECEAFT

T
"I I
I[ARGET VEHICLE

'

il
13-5 Rigidizing 13-12 Operation

SPACECRAFT

I

!

// /..

Figure

PROJECT
____

GEMINI

SEDR 300

13-3).

The pilots

increase with

the the

forward electrical

thrust

as

the

spacecraft fingers.

enters This

the

docking

cone and makes thrust actuate increase the

contact provides

discharge the

temporary to cone.

enough mooring

momentum for latch hooks

spacecraft interior

R & R section of the

spring

loaded

on the

docking

Actuation of the latch hooks captivates the spacecraft R & R section in the docking cone and automatically initiates the rigidize sequence. At the same time the two

rendezvous umbilical connectors are mated and provide direct hardline control to the TDA mooring drive system. The completed mooring operation connects the

spacecraft firmly to the docking cone.

_dizing
Rigidizing (Figure 13-5) is the process of pulling the docking cone in toward the F-_ adapter main structure until it reaches a firm seating against the pads (part of the adapter main a flexible et_cture). connection This operation the is cone required and the is because adapter impraetieal the cone dsmpers

form only

between

structure. under

Maneuvering the spacecraft/target vehicle ccmbtnetion unrlgidized conditions.

The docking cone is rigidized as soon as the mooring operation is completed. mooring is coRpleted_ three limit switches mounted on the TDA latch assemblies aut_tically

As

activate the mooring drive (rigldizing) mechanism motor, which in drive cables, gear boxes Ltuka_s connected

turn, drives the rigldizing linkages through the fl_ble and drive arms. The drive arms apply tension to the

rigtdizi_

to the target docking cone.

As the Linkages are retracted, the docking cone is pl_ is

pulled toward the docking adapter main structure and the main _ilieal extended. _en the docking cone bottoms an the adapter pads, on the ,_tus cltaplay the moor_

drive _he

mecha_ima stops

and the

RIGID light

_li:tllmLt_tes.

13-13

PROJECT

GEMINI

SEDR 300

fizl Joint

e_nn__et$on manewqers

between vlth the

the rye

8paeecr_t 'vehicles.

and the

target

docking

vehicle

enables

The rlgidizlng as bask-up rigidize instx_m_nt applies target to the

sequence to the

can also

be initiated

by the

pilots pilots

or the have

ground

stations

automatic eoRe.

system. (1) _his dr_ve

In tl_Ls ease, the the (2) _--_,d of the

the

two ways to on the main and

the

doekZng

Position by-I_eses mo_Or. via the

RTGTD-OI_-STOP switch, dock lstch. ],trait

_n__nel, to I_(]ID. power to the moori_ p_r

_rltehes

Send the

I_GZDZZE c_m_and to the _ch is the routes power

vehicle

c_l

Li_.System, seq_nee

moOr_nK d_Te

mo_or..The

remainder

same as when

If

the

ri_ldize once the

litLt docking

sw£teh

.should

fail

to

remove

p_r

from

the

moorlng driwe

meter the

eerie is to

ri[idized, _OP

:thepilot peS_tion.

Can r_oye

power by placing

RIGID-OFF'STOP mrlteh

the

Main r_i:llcsl C_tlon The main .umbilical drive the mee_a._m, plu_ out :oftts p_u8 in the In the castn_ ri_dized :so that _Ins doek_ng adap_r ,as.s_!_:.is the ._th sC_u_a b_ the moorin_ e_ends sl_eere_

condition, it _es extended

moori_-driP, the reeep_e_e

seeh_n_sz on the

R & R section.

The:p:u_

and m_ted :until the

cone is unriEidized.

The maneuvering ec_mon Ope_tlons. mission d_ng

sequence Host

is

sub_ect

to

considerable sequence,

va_f_tion is sub_eet,

except to

for

a few

Of %he maneuvertn8 the _ollowing

individual on most _.

requZz_aents;

hoverer,

operatlons:are _p_l (ATV).

m_ss_ons Y_th _

:A_ena Target Yeb_ele

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
_.__._

SEOR 300

When the docking cone is rigidized, the pilots can use the Command Link System to turn off the acquisition lights, the approach lights and the target vehicle radar transponder. maneuvering co_ands In addition, they will dim the status display lights and send to the ATV. When the pilots have the ENGIRE switch in the

A_4 position, the target vehicle propulsion systems can be used for attitude changes, orbit adjustments, etc. At the end of a maneuvering sequence, the Link System is used to return the A co._.._nd via the Digital However,

ENGIBE switch is set to STOP and the Co_and

target vehicle to the pre-docking status if desired.

Command System may be substituted for any pilot co_nand if necessary. ground c_nd

cannot ove_-_idepilot-swltched functions such as engine arm.

No maneuvering sequence has been considered when docked with the ATDA.
f--.,

SEPARATION EQUENCE S
As the maneuvering phase ends, the pilots will perform the separation sequence. Existing conditions at the time will determine whether the mode is normal or emergency (Figure 13-6).

Normal The normal separation sequence is initiated by a coamand to the target vehicle cuwmand progremmer to unrigidize the docking cone. may initiate this cu_.and. The pilots or ground control

Receipt of this co_,nandby the target vehicle c_nd

progr-mmer starts the mooring drive mechanism motor and lights the MSG ACPT light in the crew station. When the cone is unrigidized, the mooring drive motor stops

and the latch mechanism actuator is energized to retract the latch hooks and release the spacecraft. The unlatch limit switch, within the latch mechanism, The 30-second time

stops the actuator and starts a 30-second time delay relay.

delay normally allows the pilots sufficient time to back away from the docking cone

13-15

+. -_

SEDR 300

i

":__ "'=

PROJECT

GEMINI

_/

(MOORED POSITION)

LATCH HOOK

LINKAGE _ LATCH

MOORED

AND

RIGIDIZED

,'"

+,111

--

--

_---CONE

LATCH NORMAL SEPARAIlON

RECEPTACLE _ --_]

EMERGEN

&TION

_--_/"

_

I

I_LATCH

HOOK

'L
Figure 1g-6 Separation 13-16 Sequence

_!

f"

PROJECT
f--,

GEMINI
SEDR 300 ___._

___

before the latch hooks are reset to the mooring position.

At retrograde adapter

Jettison, the pilots will Jettison the index bar and the docking latches and release the docking latch covers (Figure 13-2).

An exception to the normal sequence as presented can arise if the pilots should fail to thrust clear of the docking cone during the 30-second time delay before the latch hooks are automatically reset. In this case, the rigidize sequence Is _ pilots would then

initiated automatically after the latch-reset function. have to send the UNMIGIDIZE command a second time.

The pilots will then have These

another 30-second period in which to thrust free of the docking cone. operations may be repeated several times if necessary.

A backup operation to the normal sequence may be initiated by the pilots if the C_,._andLink System should fail. In this case, the pilots would place the UNDOCKThis applies The

OFF switch on the main instrument panel to the URDOCK position.

power to the mooring drive mechanism, which starts the unrigidized sequence. remainder of the operation is the same as the normal sequence.

_sergency If the pilots cannot thrust free of the docking cone by using the normal separation sequence or if emergency conditions exist, they may employ the emergency separation sequence (Figure 13-6) to rapidly separate the spacecraft from the target vehicle. The pilots initiate the emergency separation sequence by pressing an This switch fires pyrotech-4c

emergency release switch in the crew station.

igniters at each of the three docking latch locations, separating the latch _-_ receptacle from the spacecraft. the docking cone. The pilots then fire thrusters to back out of

The latch covers are released and the index bar Jettisoned at

13-17

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
___._j

SEDR 300

retrograde the docki_

adapter

Jettison.

The emergency of the spacecraft.

separation

sequence

permanently

removes

capabilities

SYST_ _TS The Docking System ,.n_t_ not are part those units _t_Lch are system° are not concerned Those discussed units solely which with have docking docking

and in addition, functions section. are but are

are _

of another systems

of other vhtch

in detail

in this

Some -n!ts vith

are mounted on the R & R section of the spacecraft at all and therefore are not discussed.

not concerned

docking

MOORING LATCE I_Am._
The mooring latch receptacles (Figure 13-2) are fixed ,m4ts, shaped to mate vith the latch hooks on the docking cone. They are securely but tenporarily fastened

to the main structure of the R & R section. fired the to separate the easily la_h push let receptacles the latch loose hooks drop are

Pyrotechnic igniters are electrically fram the aside R & R section. spacecraft to create When docking, enters the during the latched the

receptacles

as the the catches

docking condition. boost

cone and then The la_h

the hooks

behind

receptacles

protected

by the

nose

fairing

phase.

MOORINGLATCH CO_ER Each mooring assembly, shaft, latch cover asmmbly (Figure 1_-2) consists of a cover, cable and the a spring cutter. eover

a chat% sad latch latch and cable

assembly, keep the

a cable spring

and a pyroteeh,4c campressed

assembly

retracted until the cable Is cut by the pyrotechnic cable cutter (guillotine). The guillotines are electrically fired. sable, the the cavity latch left drops by the dagn, alloying the As each guillotine cuts it associated spring assembly The covers to slide the cover over of

Jettisoned

receptacles.

prevent

v_=rheatl_

13-18

PLUG

EPTACLE

"

FITTING

©

?
SECTION

_BLY

ViEW A-A

/

/

/i

LATCH

LATCH

SPACECRAFT FREE

INSULATION

_

ELECTRICAL WIRING

EPTACLE ASSEMBLY

RENDEZVOUS UMBILICAL

MATED

CONTACT 8 PLACES

(TYP)

UMBILICAL

MATED

Figure

13-7 Umbilical 13-19

Connectors

PROJECT
_@

GEMINI
_--_

5EDR 300

the latch

cavities during re-entry.

_BILICAL

CONNECTORS connector (Figure 13-7) is a 9 conductor receptacle-plug assembly.

The main ,_ilical

The receptacle is designed to mate with the plug as the Docking System is rigidized. The plug is extended and retracted by the rigidizing mechanism. As the plug This

enters the receptacle, it forces the insulator block into the receptacle. action allows the receptacle and plug contacts to touch.

When the plug is reThe in-

trected, the spring returns the insulator block to the closed position. sulator block covers the end of the receptacle.

The two rendezvous umbilicals are mated automatically when the R & R section latches to the TDA. The rendezvous umbilical consists of an electrical slide

contact on the R & R section and a single pin lever assembly on the docking cone. During the docking sequence, the electrical slide contact depresses the

spring loaded lever assembly slightly providing an electrical connection between the spacecraft and the _@..

INE_X BAR ASSEMBLY The index bar assembly (Figure 13-8) includes the bar, a housing, a pyrotechnic extension mechanism and a pyrotechnic jettison mechanism. igniters are fired electrically from the crew station. The pyrotechnic

The extension igniters

generate a gas pressure which forces the bar up until the socket in which the bar fits reaches a stop. This is the extended position of the bar. The bar is

jettisoned in the same way, except that the gas pressure forces the bar out of the socket and ejects it into space. left by the Jettisoned bar. The Jettison igniters also seal off the opening

The jettison igniters have a l-second pyrotechnic

delay to assure that the extend igniters will be fired first.

13-20

.--_.

SEDR 300

£XTEND

IGNITERS

Figure

13- 8

Index 13-21

Bar

Assembly

PROJECT

GEMINI SEOR 3OO

RADAR

SYSTEM

AND

PYROTECHNIC

DEVICES Radar System units and the Pyrotechnic The necessary operation Devices are

The details presented

of the Rendezvous VIII

in Section

and XI respectively.

information is presented

to exelsewhere

plalm how these units fit into the Docking in this section.

System

TARGET

V_ICLE

STATUS

DISPLAY

PANEL 13-3) is mounted on the TDA of the target vehicle. cone.

The status display It is located This

panel

(Figure

on the docking

adapter

Just back

of the V-notch during

in the docking

gives the pilots

a full view

of the panel

the approach

and docking with either

sequence.

The displays

on the panel and their

functions

when docking

the ATV or the ATDA are explained

in the following

paragraphs.

ATV Displays (l) DOCK (green light) when illuminated, hooks indicates are reset. indicates that the docking cone is that the docking cone is

--_igldlzed (2) RIGID (green

and that the latch light) when

ill,_4nated,

rlgidized. (3) _ (green llght) when ill,m_nated, -28 volts indicates dc regulated, power that +28 volts 115 volts _0 dc unregulated, cps single

+28 volts de regulated, phase and I15 volts (4) MAIN a.

400 eps 3 phase illmnlnated, firing,

are operating. the following: has exceeded 27,000 rpm (1046

(red light) when With the main level),

indicates the turbine pressure

engine

sensor

the hydraulic between

is below

1500 + 20 psi, or the tanks is below

differential 2 + 2 psi b.

pressure

the fuel and oxidizer

..... engine not firing, the differential pressure between the

With the main

fuel and oxidizer

tsars is below

2 + 2 psi (fuel above

oxidizer).

13-22

PROJECT'-GEMINI
___ SEDR300

(5)

MAIN (green light) when illmminated, indicates that the main fuel ta,_ is above 15 + 2 psia, the oxidizer tank is abo_ pressure is above 50 _ 5 psia. that the engine control cir15 + 2 psia and hydraulic

(6)

_

(amber light) when ill_mminated,_leates

cuits are closed and either the main or secondary engines may be fired by command • (7) SEC HI (green light) when illt_Linated,indicates that more than lllO + 20 psi expulsion gas pressure exists in both nitrogen spheres for a 50 second thruster firing and that more than ITO + 5 psi regulated pressure exists in both (8) propellant tank light) pressure gas manifolds. indicates nitrogen that spheres more than for 360 + 20 psi

SEC LO (green expulsion thruster propellant gas firing _nk

when illmzinated, exists in both

a 150 seconds exists in both

and more than gas manifolds.

170 + 5 psi

regulated

pressure

(9)

ATT (green light) when ill,_Inated, indicates that the Agena attitude control sys_ is active.

(lO)

MAIN TIME (clock display) indicates by minute and second hands the time remaining for gin engine burn. The regulated 28-volt dc power is applied This causes the display

to the display unlt when the main engine is rn-n_ug. unit to decrease the time re_ining second of burning time. (ll)

indieation at a rate of one second per

SEC TIME (clock display) indicates by minute and second hands the n_sber of seconds of 200-pound secondary propulslon system burn time remaining. The regulated 28-volt DC power is applied on separate wires for high and

r-

low thrusters of the secondary propulsion system.

This causes the display

unit to decrease the time-remainin8 indication at a rate of one second per

13-23

PROJECT
__.

GEMINI
SEDR 300

second (1/12) (12)

of burn time

for

the

high

eons_ption for the

and a rate

of one twelfth rates. pressure re-

seeomd per second display)

of burn time indicates control

low eonmmption of total spheres.

ATT GAS (synehro maining in the

the

percentage system gas

A_ena attitude

ATDA Displays When docking (1) with the ATDA only four displays are used, the others are inoperative. cone is

DOCK(green

light) when illuminated, indicates that the docking

unrigidlzed and that the latch hooks are reset. (2) RIGID (green light) when ill-m_uated, indicates that the docking cone is rigidized. (3) A_ control (_) (amber light) when ill_insted, system light) has been activated. indicates three axes. that 0 degree per second rate indicates that ring A of the reaction

ATT (green control

when illmainated, selected in all

has been

13-2_

TARGET DOCKING ADAPTER (TDA)

XIV
TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ................................. SYSTEM OPERATION ...................................
DOCKING DOCKING DOCKING APPROACH CONE ........................................... ADAPTER .....................................

PAGE 14-3 14-3
14-3 14-7

SYSTEM UNITS .............................................
CONE .......................................... ASSEMBLIES ........................... LIGHTS ....................................... CONE DAMPER

14-9
14-9 14-9 14-10 14-10 14-12 14-12 14-13 14-14 14-14

MOORING LATCH ASSEMBLIES ....................... TARGET VEHICLE STATUS DISPLAY PANEL ........ MOORING DRIVE SYSTEM ..................... ACQUISITION LIGHTS .................................... RADAR TRANSPONDER AND ANTENNAS STATIC DISCHARGE DEVICE ............................ ......... .........

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..-...*.-.-.-.-.%-.-.....-...*...-.,. ..-,-.-...,.-...*...-,*.-.*.-o-.-.-.,. . •..., -.-...,...o..-.-...-o-.-.,. • -., *.,.-.,.,.-.-,-.-.-.,.*.*.*.-.*, ..-.-.-.-.-.-.-...-.-.*...**...,....-,

:-:-:.:.:-:.:°:.:.:.:-:.:.:-:-:-:-:.:. .:.:.:.:.:-:.:.:.:-:-:-:.:.:-:.:-:-:.: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
*.*,***-.-...-.%-,°....,.......

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
• • *.......,***-...-.*...*...°,*.-.*. • **..-***-.-.-.-***-...*.*.-.-**.,.-.

14-1

:-:-:-:-:-:':':':':':'1":-:-:':-:':':

...--. ;_._

SEDR300

,=. ,= . o..,c-r
ANIENNA IISITION LIGHT (2 2EQD) CLE . RENDEZVOUS ANTENNA DISPLAy LATCH CA_'LE i NDICATORS LINKAGE DIPOLE ANT. ASSEMBLY EXTENSIO _ MOTOR POWER UNIT MOORING LATCH - _.

DRIVE

E_ DOCKING ADAPTER TRAN! COVER APPROACH (2 REQD)

\

DAMPERS (7 REOD)

SPIRAL ANIENNA

DISCHARGE FINGERS

STATIC

DISCHARGE

DEVICE LATCH HOOK (3REQD) -CONE MOORING SURFACE

Figure

14-1

Target

Docking 14-2

Adapter

Assembly

PROJ
___

EC-"T GEMINI
SEDR 300

SECTION XIV

TARGET DOCKING ADAP_R

SYS_

DESCRIPTION

The Target Docking Adapter (Figure 14-1) may be mounted on either the Agena Target Vehicle or the Augmented Target Docking Adapter. The Target Docking

Adapter is mounted on the forward equipment section of the target vehicle and becomes the mounting structure for all other components of the Target Docking Adapter.

The docking cone receives the spacecraft during docking maneuvers.

Electro-

mechanical devices in the spacecraft and the docking adapter rigidlze the docking cone as soon as the mooring operation is completed. Rigidizing

operations may be automatic or as directed by the pilots or the ground control stations.

SYSTEM OPERATION The Target Docking Adapter (TDA) consists of two major subassemblies (Figure 14-1): the docking cone and the docking adapter.

DOCKING CO_E The docking cone (Figure 14-1) is connected to the docking adapter by seven cone damper assemblies, three lateral and four longitudinal, and is the mounting structure for the mooring latch assemblies_ the umbilical plug assembly, two rendezvous umbilical lever assemblies, the latch release actuator and a static discharge device. The latch assemblies are released

and reset by the latch release actuator as a part of the unrigidize sequence. f_ With the target vehicle control circuits operating, the cone unrigidized and

I_-3

_-_,i_ _ _

PROJECT

S,DR30O
GEMINI
_LINK ASSEMBLY (TYP 3 PLACES) RIGIDIZING UMalLICAL PLUG ASSEMBLY (TYP 3 PLACES )

DOCKING LATCH ASSEMBLY

ASSEMBLY

ELECTRIC _CONE STRUCTURE f

DISCHARGE DEVICE

\

STBUCTURE

LATCH

HOOK

RETRACTED

{DISENGAGED)

POSITION

LATCH

HOOK

EXTENDED

(SET) POSITION

Figure

14-2

Cone Assembly 14-4

PROJECT
___

GEMINI

SEDR 300

ready for docking, the latch assemblies are reset.

In the reset condition, and Recovery

the latch assemblies are spring loaded so that when the Rendezvous

section enters the docking cone, the latch hooks engage the latch receptacles. The cone has a V-notch, with a slot at the bottom of the V, cut into the cone's upper surface. This notch and slot, together with the index bar,

indexes the spacecraft to obtain proper alignment between the spacecraft and the docking target.

The seven cone damper assemblies

are attached in three sets and are equally

spaced at 120-degree intervals around the rear perimeter of the docking cone. One set, has a single lateral and two longitudinal damper assemblies and is connected to the cone behind the V-notch. Each of the two lower sets consists The _-mpers connect

of one lateral and one longitudinal damper assembly.

the cone to the adapter structure and absorb the shock of the actual docking thrusts. They are arranged to absorb thrust from any direction and to compensate

for any misalig_aent of the two vehicles.

Three umbilical

connectors

provide the connection

for electrical

circuits

between the spacecraft and the TDA so that harallne c_s from the spacecraft to the TDA.

may be tran_Itted

The main umbilical plug assembly (Figure 14-2) is mounte<1on one of the cone structural members which supports one of the latch assemblies. In the

rigidlzing operation, the mooring drive mechanism extends the plug out of its casing so that it mates with the receptacle on the spacecraft.
i

The plug remains

14-5

SEDR 300

MAIN
ARMED

[_

NOT OPERATIONAL

ON ATDA.

Figure

14-3

Status 14-6

Display

Panel

SEDR300

extended

and mated until

the cone is unrigidlzed.

Two rendezvous cone assembly when the

umbilical

lever assemblies with the

(Figure

14-1)

are mounted

on the

and are mated engage

an electrical

contact

pad on the spacecraft

latch hooks

latch receptacles.

DOCKING

ADAPTER docking units are mounted the target on the docking status adapter (Figure the 14-1):

The following the mooring acquisition approach

drive system, lights,

vehicle

display

panel,

the radar

transponder,

three

radar

antennas

and two

lights.

The mooring the adapter the adapter three

drive

(rigidizlng)

system draws

the docking plug.

cone tightly

against into by

structure structure

and extends

the umbilical

The cone is drawn

by the rigidizing boxes

linkages.

The linkages

are driven motor,

gear boxes. flexible and

The gear drive

are driven

by a single gear box.

electric The motor

through

cables

and an H-drive when

is started into the

automatically cone.

the cone rlgidlzed adapter

the spacecraft

is latched

The docking

Is unrlgidlzed command through

(motor reversed) the umbilical

and the spacecraft connection. Prior

released

by a single pilot the unrigidizing Command

to docking, transponder

process

is initiated radio

by rf con_nand (radar-

Link or uhf ground

link).

The target adapter visually

vehicle

status display

panel

(Figure

14-3)

is mounted the V-notch functions

on the docking in the cone. docking It

structure displays

snd on one cone dsmper, information Vehicle to the pilot (ATV).

just above on twelve

when

with the Agena Target

The display

consists

of nine lights,

14-7

SEDR 300

two clocks and one synchro indicator. supplied from the Agena power system.

_11 power required by the panel is The ATV displays are as follows: (green light), MAIN (red light),

DOCK (green light), RIGID (green light), _

MAIN (green light), ARJ_D (amber light), SEC HI (green light), SEC LO (green light), ATT (green light), MAIN T_ (clock display), SEC TIME (clock display)

and ATT GAS (synchro

display).

The status display p_nel via-ally displays information to the pilot on four functions when docking with the Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA). display consists of four lights: DOCK (green light), RIGID (green light), Power required by the panel is The

ARMED (ember light) and ATT (green light).

supplied from the equil_nentsection of the ATDA.

The two acquisition lights aid the pilots in visual tracking of the ATV. They produce a flashing light that can be seen for approximately 20 nautical miles. They are mounted at the outer edges of the adapter structure so that The lights Once the

they are visible to the pilots around the outer edge of the cone. are mounted so that they rotate outward as the cone is unrigidized.

cone is unrigidized the lights are spring held in the outward position.

The radm_ transponder and the radar antenn-_ (2 spiral and i dipole) are used for pilot cc_ and tracking of the target vehicle. The ra_-_ transponder

is energized and the dipole antenna (boom) is extended by uhf ground command. The two approach lights are mounted on the lower inside structure of the adapter. They are arranged to shine through the rear of the cone and on the upper inside

I_-8

PROJECf_ __

GEMINI
SEDR300 __

surface near the V-notch. command. _en

The lights are turned off and on by pilot or ground

on, they aid the pilot in attaining proper all_,-,,entf the o the docking cone.

spacecraft as they approach

sYs
The TDA system units are those units which are concerned with mooring, rigidizin_ and unrigidizing the dockinz cone to the docking adapter. Units

_Thich are part of the other systems (Radar, Command Link and Docking) are not discussed in detail in this section.

DOCKING

CONE

The docking cone (Figure l_-l and 1_-2) is designed to mate wlth the spacecraft R & R section. In the moored condition, the spacecraft R & R section flts tight The cone This action

against the cone bottom and is held there by the mooring latch hooks. shape tends to guide the spacecraft to the proper mooring position. is aided by a V-notch and its terminating slot.

When the spacecraft index bar

is aligned with the slot, the spacecraft and target vehicle are properly oriented in roll for mooring. three cone d_mper assemblies. mooring drive (rigidizing) The cone is connected to the docking adapter by A rigidizing linkage links the cone to the

system mounted on the docking adapter main structure.

CONE DAMPER ASSEMBLIES _o sets of damper assemblies are composed of one lateral and one longitudinal

assembly and one set is composed of one lateral and two longitudinal assemblies (7 dampers in all). f_ When subjected to an impact, the dampers (Figure 14-1) In this _ay, most of the

compress slowly, absorbing energy as they move.

14-9

SEDR 300

PROJE-'E'-G
energy of impact is absorbed by the fluid

EMI N I
in the dampers and very little return the dampers

transmitted

to the target

vehicle. when

Springs

and gas pressure is dissipated.

to their extended

positions

the impact

Two approach are positioned illuminate docking

lights

are mounted

on the docking

adapter

(Figure

14-1).

They

so that they

shine through final approach

the rear

opening

in the cone to to the target surface of

the notch during Some

of the spacecraft the entire

vehicle.

light, however, turn the lights

reaches

inner

the cone. Electric

The pilots power

off and on by using vehicle power

the C<-_.,_,_ud Link.

is supplied

by the target

system.

MOORING LATCH ASSEMBLIES
There are three mooring latch assemblies (Figure Each 14-2). assembly Each assembly is mounted

to the cone as shown in the illustration. which actuates connected latching the mechanism.

contains

a bellcrank are to the

The bellcranks

of the three

assemblies

together actuator

by a cable assembly. by a linkage. When

One bellcrank

is connected

the actuator

is extended,

the bellcrRnks This

are rotated

so that the latch assemblies which must exist

are in the reset to mooring.

condition.

is the condition slides

Just prior

As the spacecraft the hooks are pushed

into the docking

cone and contacts catches

the latch hooks,

aside to allow the latch the hooks drop in behind in place. which

to get in front (elevated plug

of the hooks.

As this happens, and hold

the catches

part

of the receptacle)

the spacecraft structure

_%e umbilical supports a latch

is mounted

on one of the cone actuator is _

members

assembly. or resets

The latch the latch

electrically

driven

and either

retracts

hooks.

Power

14-10

FLEXIgLE

D

/

/

ARM

\
DRIVE SHAFT

ONE

OVERCENTER

LINK ASSEMBLY

SPRING

RETRACTED)

-_=

OVERCENTE, UNK_ /
DRIVE ARM-

_'4_

//
_

FI I1"11'._ ""V_.
I

!

INO CONE

c__.
Figure 14-4

"---LIMIT

_\J_k____ _____o.,,o,o,z_o,,_E_.
SWITCH _MOORING

(CONE EX_ENOEO) Mooring 14-11 Drive

SUPROU (RE_I

System

PROJECT
.__

GEMINI
_l__ "_

SEDR300

to the latch actuator

is switched

by the latched limit switch.

sensing During

switch,

the unlatched sequence,

limit switch and the unrigidized the actuator is energized

the unrigidize

automatically

to rotate When

the bellcranks the latches

and retract are disengaged, reset. is present. initiate

the latch hooks

to the disengaged delay before switch

condition.

there is a 30-second The latched sensing

the latch hooks only when

are automatically the latch receptacle

is operated

If the latch receptacle the rigidize sequence

is present,

the latched

sensing

switch will

when the latch hooks

are reset.

TARGET

VEHICLE

STATUS

DISPLAY

PAREL i_-3) is located cone. on the docking gives adapter Just

The status

display

panel

(Figure

back of the V-notch of the docking on the panel Section.

in the docking

The notch

the pilots cone.

a full view

panel during

near approach

to the docking in detail

The displays System

and their functions

are presented

in the Docking

MOORING

DRIVE

SYS_.I (Figure 14-_) is composed an H-drive, A drive of a power three unit (DC motor six limit

The mooring and gears), switches

drive system four flexible

drive shafts, linkage.

gear boxes,

and a mooring box.

drive

arm is attached

to the output

shaft of each gear

The power shafts turn,

unit

supplies power unit.

to the gear boxes The gear boxes

through

the flexible

drive in

and the H-drive retract or extend

rotate the drive When

arms which

the rigldizing

linkage.

the linkage

is retracted,

the docking vehicle

cone is rigidized

to the docking

adapter

and the spacecraft/target The linkage also moves an

combination

can be operated

as a single unit.

ik-12

PROJECMINI
___ SEDR 300 __

actuator which extends the umbilical plug out of its casing. is extended, the umbilical plug is retracted

When the linkage

into its casing and the docking supported by the

cone is moved aw_y from the adapter so that it is completely dampers.

The limits switches sense when the linkage is either fully extended

or fully retracted and in each case remove power from the drive motor when the limit is reached.

The power unit is operated to retract (rigidlze) the system by the actuation of three sensing switches on the mooring latch assemblies. The sensing switches

energize the mooring drive power unit when the spacecraft is latched to the docking cone. The linkage can also be retracted by the RIGIDIZE co_nd to

the target vehicle command programmer. the linkage is fully extended. unlatch

Limit switches stop the power unit when

The same limit switches also apply power to the of the mooring latch assemblies.

side of the latch release actuator

ACQUISITION

LIGHTS

The acquisition lights (Figure lh-l) are used for visual guidance and tracking of the target vehicle when the vehicles are 20 nautical miles or less apart.

Two lights are provided.

They are mounted on the docking adapter and are held

in the retracted position during the boost and insertion phases of a mission. The docking cone holds the lights in the retracted position until the cone is unrigidizedby the pilots via the Co_mandLink.

Each light consists of a capacitor discharge flashing light system.

The lamp

flashes at a rate of 65 flashes per minute and has a minimum of I00 candles

14-!3

PROJECT

GEMINI

effective intensity through an included angle of _90 longitudinal axis.

degrees from the lamp

A reflector increases the intensity so that the lamp is

visible from 20 nautical miles with the intensity of a third magnitude star. The pilots turn the lights off and on via the Command Link,

RADAR TRANSPONDERANDANTENNAS The radar transponder and antennas are considered part of the Rendezvous in Section VIII. Radar

System, the details are presented

STATIC DISCHARGE DEVICE A discharge device (Figure l_-l) is mounted on the docking cone to neutralize the electrostatic potential between the spacecraft and the target vehicle.

This device consists of three flexible metal fingers that protrude docking cone. vehicle.

from the

They make the first contact between the spacecraft and target

The device is so wired that any static charge between the two orbiting

vehicles will be dissipated at a controlled rate.

14-14

AUGMENTED DOCKING

TARGET ADAPTER

Seofion
XV
TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE AUGMENTED TARGET DOCKING 15-3 15-13 15-27 15-35 15-63 15- 81 15- 95 PAGE

ADAPTER-GENERAL ...................................... SEQUENTIAL SYSTEM ....................................... ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM ........................... COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ............................ INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM ........................... PYR OTECHNIC DEVICES A N D SEPA RA TIO N A SS EM B LIES ................... TA RG ET STA BI LI Z A TI O N SY STEM .................... REA CTION CONTR OL SY STEM ..........................

:'_iii_i_i:."_i!i_i!i:iiiiiiii :!:i:i'i:!:i:i._!:i:i:i:i:i:i :::::::::::::::::::::::::::

15-1o7 i::iiiiiiiii!i::ili::ii!!iii!i!i::i

i! i! i i !i i i! i i!i

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:!:!:i:!:i:i:i:i:i:i:i:i:i:?:i
:.;.;.;.:.:.;.:.;.:.:.:.:.:.:..'.:.:.:.
,_

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
.%°°%o°%%°°%°°°°°°°°°°%%°°° °%° .°°%°.°°°°°.°°%°°%°°°.%°.°°°°°%° .%°°%%°°%°°°°°.°°%°°%°°° °°.° .°°° .°.%°°%°°*°°.°°°°°°°°°°%°°%%°°°°° .%°°.°%°°°.°°°.°°°°°°°°...°°°%°..., °°°%°°o.°°°°°.°°°...o.°°°.°°%°°.°.°_ .° .... .° ........... °-°-°°°-°-°%.°°.°°..°.°.°.°°°°°°-°..°

15 - 1 /_.

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AUGMENTED TARGET DOCKING ADAPTER-GENERAL

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE ATDA DESCRIPTION ASCENT SHROUD ........... TARGET DOCKING ADAPTER ....... EQUIPMENT SECTION. • . REACTION CONTROL SY_;TEM'MODI;LE . . BATTERY MODULE ........... ATDA OPERATION ............. ATDA SYSTEMS ........ . .... DOCKING SYSTEM ....... • • • SEQUENTIAL SYSTEM ......... ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM ....... COMMUNICATION SYSTEM......... INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM ..... TARGET STABILIZATION SYSTE:M: .... REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM ....... LIGHTING SYSTEM ........... _' . . PAGE 5 5 15-6 15-6 15-6 15-6 15-7 15-7 15-9 15-9 15-9 15-9 15-10 15-10 15-IO 15-10 I5 -10

__

• .

PROJECT

SEO 3oo
GEMINI

AS

139.17

117.00

DOCKING

241.52

/_............
AS

I

I U

TARGETDOCKING ADAPTER 1146.05

(TYPICAL6 PLACES) PLACES) _*EQUIPMENTSECTION

RCSMODULE -72.00 J BATTERY ODULE M

-102.35

LAUNCH

CONFIGURATION

Figure

15-1 Augmented

Target 15-4

Docking

Adapter

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
___ .___

SEDR300

AUGMENTED

TARGET

DOCKING

ADAPTER

- GENERAL

ATDA DESCRIPTION J The An_,ented the Gemini provided

,

Target

Docking

Adapter

(ATDA)

is an alternate

target

vehicle Target

for

Spacecraft.

The ATIIA may be objectives

substituted

for the Agena

Vehicle

sufficient

mission

can be accomplished. functions It does,

The ATDA is capable The ATDA is not to

of performing capable control

all but

one of the major maneuver.

of the Agena. have

of a translational attitude rates.

however,

small

thrusters

The ATDA power, /-_

(Figure

15-1)

consists

of a Target

Docking

Adapter

(TDA)

augmented It is made

with up

cn_mm4cation, sections

instrumentation or modules.

and stabilization They are: System

systems. shroud,

of five major

the ascent

the TDA, the

equil_nent section, module. visible

the Reaction

Control

(RCS) module,

and the battery shroud are

Only the equipment when the ATDA

section,

part of the TDA, and the ascent vehicle. A mating vehicle.

is mated mates

with the launch the ATDA

ring attached

to the equipment

section,

to the launch

The ATDA

is cylindrical

in shape;

approximately

ii feet

long,

5 feet in diameter constructed

at the greatest for the most

cross section

and 3 feet at the _llest. alloy, the ATDA weighs

Although

part of al_num aboard.

a Little

over 2000 pounds daylight stripes. hours, The

with all equipment the equipment other sections

To aid in locating black

the ATDA during longitudinal

section

is painted

with white color.

and modules

are aluminuR

15-5

PROJECT

GEMINI
__ ____

SEDR300

ASCENT SHROUD The ascent shroud is a weather tight Jettlsonable fairing, constructed of phenolic fiberglass. It is 9 feet 9 inches high and 5 feet 5 inches in diameter. The

shroud is used to protect the TDA from aerodynamic pressures and thermal damage during launch. At the end of the boost phase, the shroud is Jettisoned by a

ground command to expose the docking cone for mission operation.

TARGET DOCKING ADA_ The TDA is an electrmmechanical Imlt constructed to receive the Gemini Spacecraft and to rigidly dock with it. 4 feet long. adapter. The TDA is 5 feet in diameter and approximately a docking cone and an

The TDA consists of two major assemblies;

The docking cone has a V-shaped notch to provide a roll alig_nent path The adapter assembly mates the

for the spacecraft during the docking maneuver.

TDA to the equipment section and is the mounting structure for all TDA components. A complete description of the TDA is contained in Section XIV of this manual.

EQUII_ENT SECTION The equipment section is 60 inches in diameter and 54 inches long. This section The c_n-

contains the largest concentration of the ATDA electronic components. ponents are mounted on internal cross beams. is provided by four access doors.

Entry into the equipment section

REACTION CC_ROL

SYSTEM MODULE The

The RCS module is approximately 40 inches in diameter and 18 inches long.

module contains two side-by-slde rings of eight thrust chamber assemblies and duplicate fuel, oxidizer, and pressurant supplies. The RCS supply tanks are

mounted on the RCS module but extend into the equipment section.

15-6

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
$EDR 300

BATTERY MODULE The battery module contains the three main batteriem and two squib batteries. The module is 36 inches in diameter and approximately 18 inches long.

ATDA OPERATION Before the ascent shroud is installed on the ATDA, the docking cone is rigidized. During pre-launch operations, ground personnel check out the ATDA using ore-board equilmnentin conjunction with Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE). AGE power cables

are used to supply power to the ATDA systems during pre-lannch to prevent depletion of the batteries. Just prior to lift-off. The cables are removed and internal power selected

The ATDA is boosted by an Atlas Launch Vehicle into a circular orbit. 15-2).

(See Figure

At the end of the boost phase, the ATDA is separated from the launch

vehicle; the ascent shroud that covers the TDA is Jettisoned; sad all systems that are used in orbit are turned on or put in readiness to operate.

As the ATDA passes over the launch facility, a Gemini Spacecraft is launched into an elliptical coplanar orbit. spacecraft. A catch-up maneuver is performed by the 250

When the spacecraft gets within radar range (appro_mately

miles), rendezvous computations are performed and the spacecraft is maneuvered within 100 feet of the ATDA. are adjusted in preparation At this time relative velocities and attitudes for docking.

While the docking maneuver is being performed, ATDA systems stabilize the rotation of the ATDA in all three axes. f_ When the spacecraft enters the doc_ng cone,

the docking latches engage and the rigldize motors are actuated. is docked and rigidly connected to the ATDA.

The spacecraft

C_.,._ndsto un_igidize and ,mlatch

15-T

s3oo .oJ,:c'ro.
_1_ (WCO) =-_='_r +10 SEC

#

REPARATION

ORBIT

RENDEZVOUS

UNDOCK OO@ CMD®
SUSTAINER ENGINE (SECO) • TSS OFF CMD (IF REQD)® C_ UNRIGIDIZE AND UNLATCH(_ ACQ LTS-OFF _)

"

_F

/

VERNIER ENGINE

I

2°/SEC RATE-DRACnVAT_®@
CUTOFF I =/BEC RATE-SELECT(_ (_) RENDEZVOUS RADAR TRANSPONDER CMD_ RIG[DIZE STOP CMD®

RIGIDIZE ®® ® CMD@
ARMED LT--ON I(1(1_ REQD) (IF DOCK LT-ON@ OK TO DOCK RCS POWER OFF CMD(_D RENDEZVOUS AND

ALL SEPARATION EVENTS RELAyS-DRENERGIZED DCS CMD INTERLOCK RELAY-_ESET POWER DROP RElAY-ENERGIZED 2-RECOND TIME DELAy RELAY-ENERGIZED DOCKING CONE-UNRIGIDIZED_ ACQUl Sn'lo N UGHTS-ON STATUS, RUN AND APPROACH LIGHTS-ON SPiN RATE MODE-SELECTED RCS POWER-ON L-RAND BOOM ANTENNA-IEXTENDEO(_ TDA ASCENT ANTENNA*OFF STUB AblTENNA-SELECTED 10 SEC. TIME DELAY RElAy-ENERGIZED SEPARATION LIMIT SWITCH-ACTIVATED(_ LV-ATDA SEPARATION AV-3FPS BY BUNGEE CORDS RCS RING B SQUIB-IGNITED 2 SECOND TIME DELAy RELAy-ENERGIZED SHROUD EXPLOSIVE FLSC SQUIB-IGNITED BOLT SQUIB-IGNITED SQUIB BUSES-ARMED (_) SQUIB ARM/DISARM RELAyS-ENERGIZED(_) INTERLOCK RELAYS-LATCHED(_ SHROUD JET[ SQUIB FIRE RElAYS-ENERGIZED DCS SEPARATION INITIATE COMMANDS SENT(_ VERNIER ENGINE CUTOFF (VECO) +10 SEC.

DOCK

BOOSTER ENGINE TOFF (RECO}

C-RAND

BRACON-GN

TM-ON L-RAND RADAR-ON RENDEZVOUS RADAR TRANSPONDER._ENABLED SQUIB BUS-ARMED RCS RING ACQUISITIONA SELECTED LIGHTS-ON (IF REQD)(_ _)

TSS 0°/SECOND RATES (3 AXES)-SELECTED STATUS, BUN AND APPROACH LTS-O N SQUIB BUS-DISARMED PRE RENDEZVOUS _,

I

SEPARATION EVENTS _t L-BAND TRANSPONDER-OFF BOOST TDA CONE-RIGIDIZED PRIMARY C-RAND BEACON-ON TDA BLADE ASCENT ANTENNA-_LECTED DCS--ON (USING LAUNCH ANTENNAS) RCS HEATER SWITCH-ON PRI TM-ON (USING IAUNCHAf',ITENNA) RCS POWER-OFF RCS RINGS-INACTIVE ALL TDA EQUIPMENT-OFF (UNLESS NOTED) PRI TSS-ON; 2°/SECOND MODE RCS RING B -SELECTED SQU[8 BUS-DISARMED UHF WHIP ANTENNA.EXTENDED SQUIB BATTERIES-ON MAIN BATTERIES-ON L-BAND DIPOLE ANTENNA-RETRACTED ACQsAPPROACH , RUN & STATUS DISPLAY LTS-OFF UFT-OFF

I TDA LTS-ON/OFF El OR #2-ON/OFF C-BAND BEACON TM P1 OR P2-OI_OFF TSS li OR #2-ON/OFF TSS RATES (3 AXES)-MONITORED (VIA TM) RCS POWER-OI_/OFF ACQUISITION LIGHTS-ON/OFF TM ANTENNA-SELECT WHIP OR STUB RCS RING-SELECT A OR B RATE CNTL 2°/SEC-ON/OFF SQUIB BUS-ARM/DISARM L-RAND CMD-ENABLE/D[SABLE L-BAND ORBIT CMDS (AS REQD) RADAR-ON/OFF

j

I
RCS HEATER SWlTCIt-OFF DCS-ON (USING lAUNCH ANTENNAS) AGE CHECKOUT (USING TM, DCS AND

LEGEND
LOCAL AGE) TELEMETERED-REAL TIME DIGITAL COMMAND SYSTEM RF COMMAND LINK HARDLINE UMBILICAL CMD SYSTEM TSS FLSC TARGET STABILIZATION SYSTEM FLEXIBLE LINEAR SHAPED CHARGE

! j

LIFT-OFF

PIlE-lAUNCH

Figure

15-2

Sequence

Of Events

15-8

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_____

SEDR 300

can be given via the hardllne mnbilieal which mates during the docking sequence or by ground e<-,_,_a_nds.

ATDA SYST_ Eight systems establish the rendezvous and docking capability of the ATDA. systems are: These

Docking, Sequential, Electrical Power, Co,_un_cation, InstrumentaSequential functions,

tion, Target Stabilization, Reaction Control and Lighting.

such as ATDA/launeh vehicle separation, ascent shroud separation, and RCS activation, are performed by pyrotechnic devices and mechanical separation assemblies. These are described in a separate subsection.

DOCEING SYST_ ._ The Docking System is utilized to mate, secure, and rigidize the spacecraft with the ATDA. XIII • A detailed description of the Docking System is contained in Section

SEQUENTIAL SYSTEM The Sequential System prepares the orbiting ATDA for rendezvous and docking with the Gemini Spacecraft. The system controls the sequence and t_mlng of events

which occur at ATDA/launch vehicle separation.

ELECTRICAL POWER SYST_24 The Electrical Power System consists of the batteries and buses which supply and distribute dc power to all the systems of the ATDA. The system includes a means

of substituting ground power for the on-board batteries in order to checkout the ATDA systems before l_unch.

15-9

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GEMINI
SEDR 300 _._

C_UNICATION

SYS_

The C_._unication System provides the means of tracking the ATDA_ transmitting information as to the condition and progress of the ATDA. The C_unications

System also accepts switching c,_-_nds from the ground station.

INS_ATION

SYS_

The Instrumentation System monitors and collects information on the enviro_ental conditiona of the ATDA and on the operationsl conditions of its electronic and electromechanical equipment. This informati_ is assembled in the proper format

and signal conditioned (if necessary) by the Instrumentation System, for transmission to the ground station by telemetry.

TARGET TABILIZATI0_ S SYST_ The Target Stabilization System (TBS) monitors the attitude rates of the ATDA and generates thrusting cuawands to control it at preselected rates.

....

REACTI_

CC_I_OL SYSTD_ These thrusters are

The RCS is the dual rings of eight small thrusters each.

fired by TSS c_-...,.ands. They produce the yaw, pitch, and roll thrust to control the ATDA at the selected attitude rate.

LIGHTING SYST_4 The Lighting System consists of the acquisition, approach and status display panel lights on the TDA, and the running lights on the equipment section. description of the TDA lights is contained in Sections _III and XlV A

Description of Runnin_ The six running lights

Lights are mounted on the surface of the A_I)A equipment section.

_.

15-10

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SEDR300

Two are green,

two red, and two amber.

Viewing

the space vehicle

from the TDA and the

end, the green lights amber at the bottom. line with each other.

are on the top left, Lights

the red on the top right, are arranged of each lamp which cover

of the same color intensity

on a longitudinal is approximately reduce the

The unfiltered

21 candlepower. light transmission with a clear

The dome-shaped

color filters Each

each lamp filter

less than 15 percent. dome.

lamp and color

is covered

protective

Operation

of Running

Lights of the running on the ATDA lights is checked during pre-launch. the boost

The operational At lift-off, phase. lights

readiness

all lights

are off. events,

They remain

off during

At the end of the separation are turned on together. rendezvous.

all TDA lights

and the x_mnlngs the C_ni out

The lights

may be

left on until exercise

Spacecraft

and ATDA

If the rendezvous

is not carried power,

as scheduled ATDA lights

or if there is some reason can be turned

for conserving c_,--and. After

electrical station

all

off by a ground on again. umbilical

Ground

digital lamps

c_.,_._andan turn these c can be turned

lights

docking,

the acquisition

off by hardline

c_....ands.

15-11/le

SEQUENTIAL

SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS T i TLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ........... SYSTEM OPERATION ........... • SQUIB BUS ARMING . ..... SEPARATION INITIATE COMMAND: .... ASCENT SHROUD JETTISON ...... FIRST 2-SECOND TIME DELAY_ • • • ATDA-LAUNCH VEHICLE SEPARATiOI_ . . . SEPARATION SENSING ........ RCS RING B ACTIVATION_ ....... TEN-SECOND TIME DELAY ........ RCS POWERAPPLICATION ........ UHF ANTENNA SELECTION ........ TRANSPONDER ANTENNA EXTENSION .... DOCKING CONE UNRIGIDIZING ...... ACQUISITION LIGHTS ON........ RUNNING LIGHTS ON......... STATUS DISPLAY LIGHTS ON : ..... APPROACHLIGHTS ON ......... LAST 2-SECOND TIME DELAY . ..... SEQUENTIAL POWERDROP OUT...... SYSTEM UNITS......... POWER AND SEQUENTIAL I_EI'AyI_ANEI_. . SYSTEMS CONTROL RELAY PANEL ..... SEPARATION SENSORS ......... PAGE 15-15 15-15 15-15 15-16 15-16 15-16 15-18 15-18 15-18 15-19 15-19 15-19 15-19 15-20 15_20 15-21 15-21 15-22 15-22 15-22 15"23 15-24 15-24 15-24

_ '

15-18

SEDR 300

latch coils of the squib bus arm relays to the DCS pulse relays is bus.

and the separation

command

initiate command

relays

An open set of contacts the latch

on both separation of the squib

initiate to

also ready to connect control bus.

coils

bus arm relays

the common

When

the primary

DCS execute

on command

(channel

18) is sent at VECO plus bus ant the separate (See Figure

lO command

seconds, initiate

the DCS pulse bus is armed. relays redundantly

The DCS pulse

latch the squib

bus arm relays.

15-4. )

SEPARATION The primary interlock System

INITIATE

COMWAND on command latches K31-2 the 1 and 2 DCS command and K31-1 interlock separation

DCS execute

relays,

K31-2 and K31-1.

the Sequential K31-2

in the on condition shroud

until a cycle Jettison relays

of operation K31-3

has been completed. separation

and K_I-I energize timer relays K31-15

and K31-4, events

2-second relays

and K31-14,

and separation events

10-second

time delay

K31-5 and K31-6. of the shroud

The ATDA

separation

begin

to happen

with the energizing

jettison

relays.

ASCENT The

SHROUD

JETTISON squib fire relays, K31-3 and K31-4, energize immediately. igniters of

shroud

jettison

Their C, D, E and F contacts four shroud sheared off. explosive bolts. the

connect

squib bus power charges

to redundant

Explosive shroud

cause the bolts assembly, which

to break

as if in

This allows

separation

is described

the Pyrotechnics separates and

and Separation

Assemblies

subsection_ to function. vehicle.

The shroud

falls

away from the target

FIRST

2-SECOND

TIME

DELAY System. The ti_e delays

Three time

delays

are built into the ATDA Sequential

15 -16

PROJECT
-_-_"
DCS PULSE BUS DCS COMMAND CHANNEL 9 RELAY

sEo, 3oo
GEMINI
DCS COMMAND RELAY DCS PULSE BUS SQUIB

SQUIB BUS I K31-:_ /

41
K31-3 K31-3

+iiis
BOLT IGNITER I-I

i"++u°+'°+'
BOLT IGNITER 2-2

__'L_] K31-a K31
K31-3 K31-3_rl T

BOLT IGNmR 2-2
BOLT IGNITER 2-2 I BOLT IGNITER 1-1

K31

' ''3SHROUOEXP'OS'VEI 1'3SHROUOEXELO'IVE _R+S+OODEXPLOSIVE I I"SHROUO°XPLOSIVE+
BOLT IGNITER I-I _ _,, _,=,-- K31-4 I ATDA SHAPED CHARGE [ IGNITER 1-2 IGNITER 3-2 I [ ATDA SHAPED CHARGE --_ IGNITER 2-1 SHAPED CHARGE IGNITER 3-I l _ _ ATDA SHAPED CHARGE

_ K3']_

K_I} ---q_/'q_ COMMON

1_ATDA -9

K31_9_D K31-5

g TROL B

I NSTR'UMENTATIO N

:<+, _-_.IA }__+-_+T:_
11-8 J©
__ K31-9

IT
SQUIB BUS ! KB31-9 K31-9 E FUELISOL _ RCS RING OXID B PKG C S_ I-I

L__,m,,_
SQUIB :431-10 FUEL ISOL SQB 1-2 K31 -I0 RCS RING B PKG C OXID ISOL SQB 1-2

K3!:13 I®

®,--t

I K:++-:+ I--'

J ATOA/L_V_..._PARAnON SENSOR SmTCHE_

ISOL SQB 1-1 I

PRESS ISOL SQB 1-1 RCSRINGBI_GA J

PRESSISOL SQB 1-2 RCSRINGBPKGA

RELAy

REDUNDANT RELAY K31-1

RELAY NOMENCLATURE #l DCS COMMAND #2 #1 #2 lI #2 SEPARATION EVENTS INTERLOCK

RELAY PANEL ATDA POWER & SEQUENTIAL ATDA ATDA ATDA ATDA ATDA PWR & PvVR& PWR & PWR & PWR & SQL SQL SQL SQL SQL

K31--2 LATCH COIL OF LATCHING RELAY (_ RESET COIL LATCHING OF RELAY K31-7 K31-9 K31-3

K_I-4 K31-5 K31-6

DCS COMMAND SEPARATION EVENTS INTERLOCK SHROUD JETTISON SQUIB FIRE SHROUD JETTISON SQUIB FIRE SEPARATION EVENTS 10-SECOND TIME DELAY SEPARATION EVENTS 10-SECOND TIME DELAY

K31-10 K31-I I K31-12 K31-13 K31-8 K31-15 K31-14 K32-13 K34-4 K16-2 K35-2 K35-3 K36-1 K36-2 K36-3 J., K16-17

SEPARATION SENSOR POWER DROP #! ATDA SHAPED CHARge & RCS RING B SQUIB FIRE #2ATDASI'IAPEDCHARGE&RCSRING B SQUIBFIRE R1 SEPARATION POWER DROP 2-SECOND TIME DELAy I/2 SEPARATION POWER DROP 2-SECOND TIME DELAY #1 SEPARATION EVENTS POWER DROP SLOW RELEASE #2 SEPARATION EVENTS POWER DROP SLOW RELEASE El SEPARATION 2-SECOND TIMER R2 SEPARATION 2-SECOND TIMER ANTENNA CONTROL RCS RING "B" CONTROL UNRIGIDIZE COM.MAND ACQUISITION LIGHTS POWER BOOM ANTENNA EXTEND STATUS DISPLAY & RUN LIGHTS POWER RUN LIGHTS POWER APPROACH LIGHTSPOWER

ATDA PWE & SQL ATDA PWR & SQL ATDAPWR&SQL ATDA PWE & SQL ATDA PWR & SQL ATDA _ & SQL ATDA ATDA ATDA ATDA ATDA PWR & SQL PWR & SQL PWR & SQL SYSTEMS CONTROL SYSTEMS CONTROL

/'_

MOORING SQL CONTROL ATDA SYSTEMS CONTROL ATDA SYSTEMS CONTROL ATDA SYSTEMS CONTROL ATDA SYSTEMS CONTROL ATDASYSTEMS ONTROL C

Figure

15-4 Sequential 15-17

System

Schematic

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

prevent event. mating timer

the violence

or rapid occurrence is inserted

of one event between

from disruptin_ shroud

any other and

The first time delay ring separation. K31-14

ascent

Jettison

This delay

is controlled

by the separation

2-second

relays,

and K31-15.

ATDA/LAUNCH Two seconds are the ATDA contacts shaped device ATDA

VEHICLE

SEPARATION shroud Jettison, K31-9 and K31-10 are energized. Their These C and D The

after ascent shaped

charge

and the RCS ring B squib to the shaped the mating

fire relays. igniters

connect

the squib buses severing

charge

(or squibs). separation and shove the

charges

explode,

ring.

The mechanical cords contract

now performs

!_ke a catapult. with

The bungee a separation

out of the launch vehicle

velocity

of 3 feet per

second.

SEPARATION

SENSING its movement away from the Atlas Launch Vehicle, sensors the blast

As the ATDA starts shield surface position

that held the plungers

of the separation springs

in the preloaded thrust the plun-

is left behind.

The compressed

in the sensors

gers downward

and the linkages sensor

pull the toggles need close

down to the closed positions. to complete the sensing circuit.

Onl_ two of the three The closed System station switches

switches common

connect

control signal

bus power

to the Instrumentation to the ground monitoring

Programmer. as the ATDA

This bi-level separation

is telemetered

parameter.

RCS RING B ACTIVATION At lift-off, the RCS fuel and oxidizer is isolated tanks are isolated from the thrusters, ta_ by --

and the nitrogen pressurant

from the fuel and oxidizer

15-18

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GEMINI
SEDR 300

pyrotechnic

valves.

The B, E and F contacts

of relays valves.

K31-9

and K31-10

connect valves

squib bus power fire, activating

to six RCS ring B pyrotechnic ring B of the RCS.

The pyrotechnic

_N-SECOND The second given. relays, control

TI_

DELAY when the execute command to initiate iO-second connect events b_ separation time delay is

time delay begins

It is timed K31-5

redundantly When

by the separation these events relays relays.

events

and K31-6.

energize,

they

the common relays turn

bus to the separation select

The separation the L-band

apply RCS power, on the ATDA and K31-6

the uhf antennas,

extend

antenna,

lights,

and tu_rigidize the docking time delay.

cone.

The B contacts

of K31-5

control

the last 2-second

RCS POWER

APPLICATION control relay, K_-4, connects B select common relays control were bus power to all by

The RCS latching RCS DCS solenoid command,

valves.

RCS ring A/ring

set at lift-off,

to select ring B. generating rate

The Target

Stabilization commands.

System These

has been operating commands now switch

since

lift-off,

stabilization

the various

RCS ring B thrusters

on and off to stabilize

the ATDA.

UKF ANTENNA The antenna

SELECTION control relay, K32-13, 3. This connects the common control bus to the position transmitter and

1 input on coax

switch

switches

the primary blade

telemetry

one of the DCS receivers

from the uhf ascent

antenn-

to the uhf stub antenna.

TRANSPONDER The L-band

ANTENNA

EXTENSION antenna extend relsy, K35-3, connects the common control

transponder

bus to the extend

terminals

of the sntenns

drive

motor.

Within

30 seconds, the

15-19

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SEDR300

transponder antenna rises to e height of approximately 85 inches and closes the extend limit switches. the drive motor. One of the switches removes the extension voltage from

The other switch connects the common control bus to the This parameter is telemetered to the ground antenna has been fully

Instrumentation System programmer. monitoring extended. station, confirming

that the L-band transponder

DOCKING

CO_E UNRIGIDIZING

The unrigidize comm_nd relays, K16-2 and K16-17, are latched, energizing the unrigidize winding of the mooring drive motor and the unlatch winding of the latch release motor. The mooring drive motor runs, activating three sets of

unrigidized limit switches (one open and two closed). runs, closing the latch actuator limit switch.

The latch release motor -_

The opened set of limit switches One closed

causes power to be removed from the drive motor unrigidize winding. set of limit switches resets the undock circuit.

The latch actuator limit

switch and the other set of closed limit switches completes a circuit between contacts of K36-I and the DOCK light on the status display panel. This circuit

also causes the unrigidize parameter to be applied, through contacts of K16-20, to the Instrumentation System programmer. This parameter is telemetered to the One set of rigidized

ground station for telemetry confirmation of cone position.

limit switches opens to prevent the RIGID light on the status display panel from illuml nating.

ACQUISITION

LIGHTS ON

The acquisition lights are located on the top left and bottom right of the docking cone. The acquisition lights, like the docking cone behind which they are mounted, during ascent. When the mooring drive motor

are held in a rigid retracted position

15-20

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SEDR300

unrigidizes the docking cone, the movement causes the lights to move outward from behind the cone into their operating positions. The acquisition lights

power relay, K35-2, applies common control bus power to the lights.

RUNNING LIGHTS ON The running lights power relay, K36-2, and status display and running lights power relay, K36-I,are latched. K36-2 connects main bus power to the red,

green and amber running lights at station -5.00 which is near the Target Docking Adapter. K36-I applies the same power to the three running lights at The running lights can be turned off by

station -49.00 near the RCS module. DCS command.

_

STATUS DISPLAY LIGHTS ON The status display panel on the ATDA is the same panel as the one used on the Agena Target Vehicle. lights: However, the ATDA uses only four of the status display

DOCK, RIGID, ARMED and ATT (attitude).

The status display and running lights power relay, K36-1, which powered up three of the running lights, also connects power to the circuits which control the status display lights. At this time, only the DOCK light illuminates. The

DOCK light illuminates green to indicate that the TDA cone is u_rigidized and the docking latches are ready to receive an entering spacecraft. The green

RIGID light which indicates a rigidized docking cone, the amber ARMED light which indicates RCS ring A has been activated, indicates that zero degree per second rates ha_ f_ now. and the green ATT light which been selected cannot illuminate

These indicators will illuminate when the appropriate function has been

selected by DCS command.

15-21

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APPROACH

LIGHTS

ON relay, inside K36-3, connects These main bus power floodlights, to the two approach

The approach series-wired lights,

light power floodlights

the TDA.

called

are located

near the bottom

of the TDA and illuminate The two lights lights.

the space behind on and off

the docking

cone for a visual which control

approach. the running

are turned

by the commands

LAST 2-SECOND The third time

TIME DELAY delay is a 2-second interval between the start of the separaThis delay is

tion events and _the removal provided by the separation of K31-11

of Sequential power drop time

System delay

relay power. relays, E31-11

and K31-12. by K31-1

The B contacts and K31-2,

and K31-12 drop

connect

squib bus power,

switched

to the power

slow release

relays.

SEQUENTIAL Many

POWER

DROP

OUT by the ten second by permanent they no longer K32-13, time delay relays, are latching to which to maintain K36-I, relays.

relays,

energized are latched Hence,

Such relays been

magnets

in the positions power

they have their K36-2 and

switched.

need electrical K35-I,

selected positions. K36-3 without

Relays

K34-4,

K35-2, to their

K35-3, coils

are of this kind. changing their

Power which contact

was applied

can be removed

positions.

Besides

the latching

relays,

there

are twelve These

relays, relays

the

contacts

of which

change when the relays squibs and to produce to their

are deenergized. time delays. After

are used

to fire the power

their

functions

are completed,

coils also may be removed.

15-22

PROJECT
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GEMINI
SEDR 300 __

The power drop sequence is accomplished in seven steps:

First, a 2-second time

delay is placed between the application of the separation events signal and the start of the power drop sequence. to reach a steady state. The delay permits the separation events relays

Second, power drop 2-second time delay relays KSl-ll

and K31-12 close, connecting squib bus power to power drop slow release relays K31-13 and K31-8. Third, the power drop relays connect the common control bus Fourth, K31-1 and K31-2 reset, opening

to the reset coils of K31-1 and K31-2.

the circuit from the squib buses to KBl-B, K31-4, KBi-5, K31-6, E31-9, K31-lO, K3114 and K31-15. Fifth, K31-5 8nd KS1-6 deenergize, disconnecting squib bus power from eight separation events latching relays and from KSl-ll and I(31-12. Sixth, KS1-11 and KSl-12 deenergize, disconnecting squib bus power from K31-1S and fK31-8, the slow release relays. Seventh, in approximately 40 to 70 milliseconds,

K31-13 and K31-8 deenergize, disconnecting the common control bus from the reset coils of KBl-1 and KSI-2. This step completes the power drop-out sequence.

SYSTEM UNITS The units of the Sequential System are the relays, the relay panels and sensor switches which control or monitor the separation events. At] of the Sequential

System relays are located on tilepower and sequential relay panel and the systems control panel.

Although some unrigidizing relays are operated by the separation events signal, the relays and their relay panels are properly part of the Docking System. sensor switches which monitor separation are discussed here, the pyrotechnic The

devices which cause separation and some of the separation events are discussed in the Pyrotechnics and Separation Assemblies subsection.

15-23

PROJECT
_._.._@

GEMINI
___ ___

SEDR 300

POWER AND SEQUENTIAL

RELAY PANEL

The power and sequential relay panel (Figure 15-3) is approximately 8.7 inches hlgh by 9.8 inches wide by 3.5 inches thick. equipment section of the ATDA and provides sequential 15-4. relays. This panel is located in the structure for fifteen in Figure

a mounting

These relays and their functions are identified

Seven connectors provide

electrical access to the relay solenoids and

contacts. designation.

Relays mounted on this panel are identified by a K31 series reference

SYSTE_

CONTROL RELAY PANEL 7.5 inches high

The systems control relay panel (Figure 15-3) is approximately by ll.5 inches wide by 3.5 inches thick. section of the ATDA and provides

This panel is located in the equipment structure for eight sequential in Figure I_-_. relays. The

a mounting

Seven of these relays and their functions are identified

remaining relay, KSS-1 is used to complete a telemetry path, confirming when the docking cone is unrigidized. In addition to the sequential relays, eleven system These relays are used to select seconSix connectors

control relays are located on this panel.

dary systems or different modes for the various ATDA systems. provide electrical access to relay solenoids and contacts. this panel are identified SEPARATION SENSORS sensors are electromechanical

Relays mounted on

by a KS2 through K36 series reference designation.

The separation

devices used to detect the separation

of the ATDA from the launch vehicle. double-pole double-throw

The electrical part of the sensor is a 0nly switch 2 uses both poles. (See

toggle switch.

Figure 15-4. )

....

15-24

PROJECT
f \

GEMINI
SEDR300

___

The mechanical and a linkage is basically

part of the sensor designed a plunger to operate or piston

is a bracket, the toggle. confined

on which

the switch 15-3. )

is mounted, The linkage to both

(See Figure

in a housing.

Shafts

attached

faces of the plunger shaft, which

extend

out the top and bottom the position somewhat

of the housing.

The bottom

is narrow, controls hole,

of the plunger. than a toggle

The top shaft, which switch handle, the housing machinand

is thicker, has an oblong ed into it. holds A compression against

larger

spring

fits over the top shaft of the housing. the toggle

inside

the plunger

the bottom

The toggle

of the switch

extends position.

into the top shaft hole which pulls

into the down or closed

Three

separation with

sensors

are mounted vehicle

in the end of the equipment ring. Each sensor

adapter

where

it

interfaces

the launch

mating

fits through shaft extends

a hole into of

cut in the end of the equipment the mating the mating ring. A heat

section,

so that the control shield shafts

and shrapnel

protective The sensor

surrounds

the inside

ring and forms a trough. When the vehicles

rest against pushes

the bottom and

of this trough. plungers upward

are mated,

the trough

the shafts

in the housing, These

compressing

the springs

and moving

the toggles sensors.

to the up position. When the shaped

are the launch positions the mating ring,

of the separation stays loaded

charge

severs

the trough The spring

with the launch sensor switches System.

vehicle

and the sensors the path

leave with the A_DA. control

now complete

from the co_on

bus to the Instrumentation

f_

5-25/26

ELECTRICAL POWER

SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ........... SYSTEM OPERATION ............ PRE-LAUNCH ............. ORBIT. ......... - . - - - SILVER-ZINC MONITORING . i;i_ i. CONTROL AND BATTERIE :s A E PAGE 15-29 15-31 15-31 15-31 15-32 15-33 15-33

,_

svs, ......... ..... s om,
D,OOE PANEL..
POWER AND • • •

15-33

SEQUEI_TIAI"I_ELAY I_AICIEI_. :

15 -27

_

PROJECT GEMINI SEOR 3OO

I__--'_

) SEQUENTIAL RELAY PANEL

PANEL

MONITORING

EQU|PMENI" SECTION .) (REF BATTER_ MODULE SQUIB SILVER-ZINC BATTERIES (2 REQ*D)

MAIN SILVER-ZINC BA'r'fERIES (3 REQ'D)

MAIN

BATTERY

SQUIB BA11|KY

I IL_S h_i_j

_

_

_
SWITCHES

_

_ l

POWER CONTROl.

Figure

15-5 Electrical

Power 15-28

System

Installation

$EDR 300

P RO J--JE"C"T GEMINI
ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

SYS_.M

_SCRIPTION

The Electrical Power System for the Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) basically consists of three silver-zinc main batteries, two silver-zinc squib batteries, a control and monitoring panel, a diode panel and relays for controlling squib bus power. Refer to Figures 15-5 and 15-6.

The three main batteries provide dc power to the ATDA main power bus.

The two

squib batteries provide dc power to the common control bus and the two squib power buses which are isolated from the _n and co.on control bus. The con-

trol and monitoring panel provides switching for the power system and the capability for utilizing Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) external dc power and remote monitoring of the power system parameters.

The diode panel provides electrical isolation between the two squib batteries for individual battery fault protection. of a redundant nature. the ATDA. All of the power system circuits are

No primary ac electrical power system is provided for

Devices requiring ac power will obtain this power from self-contained

inverters within the individual systems.

Both squib batteries supply power to the common control bus.

Squib battery i

and squib battery 2 are separately connected to squib bus i and 2 respectively via the squib bus arm relays. System (DCS). These relays are controlled by the Digital Co-_and

15-29

_-_.

SEDR300

,-RoJcT
MAIN BATTERIES MI VOLTAGE MONITOR

MAIN

BATTERY ON MAIN O O BUS

OFF

ORD PWR SWITCHES

T/M

o

"-_

ON ---'-----------0

CURRENT{ MONITOR VOLTAGE

PWR

i
1 j

M2 {
MONITOR M3 VOLTAGE MONITOR OFF O_ PWR "

{
I

_
" CONTROL BUS DCS PULSE BUS --_.

GRD PWR MAIN Z DCS PULSE BUS IS CONNECTED TO COMMON VIA DCS.

o_.

_
SQUIB BUS CONTROL CHANNEL 1 1'_ MO D'_

T/M

_
Z_ GO L_ _C RESET

-"-1
SQUIB BUS 1

GRD PWR

#I SQUIB ARM RELAy

Sl VOLTAGE MONITOR

{
-

PWR AG-ZN $I DFF"---O ---O ON liJ I_1

r_

K31-I INTERLOCK SQUIB SQUIB BATTERY T/M S • #2 DCS CMD SEP I mR2SQUIB"_ ARM RELAy RELAy

sou,
BUS 2 T/M Y POWER & SEQUENTIAL RELAY PANEL

BATTERIES_ "1

SWITCHES GRD PWR

AG-ZN VOLIAGE MONITOR

C_

_

Figure 15-6Electrical Power System Schematic 15-30

PROJEC-T
___

GEMINI

SEDR300

The three main batteries and two squib batteries are installed in the battery module, which is located in the opposite end of the ATDA from the docking adapter. The control and monitoring panel, diode panel and power and sequential

relay panel (containing the squib bus arm relays) are located in the equipment section of the AT_A.

SYSteM

OPERATION

PHE-LAUNCH
In order utilized supplied panel voltage cables. to conserve during to the the ATDA batteries, checkout AGE external ATDA systems. to the current, dc electrical power is is

pre-launch ATDA through Remote squib

of the

Exte _r__! power control ..R

AGE cables monitoring battery

connected of main bus is

monitoring main battery the AGE

receptacles. and individual

individual

voltage

also

accomplished

through

External power is applied to the main power bus and c_u the MAIN BATTERY and SQUIB _ switches to the GRD _

control bus by setting position. Just prior

to launch, all battery switches are set to ON position and the AGE cables are removed from the ATDA. The squib power buses are not armed prior to launch.

ORBIT
The squib power buses are armed via the two squib arm rel_Vs Just prior to orbital insertion. the DCS. The relays are energized to latch position by a con_Rud from

Ccmnon control bus voltage, squib bus 1 and 2 voltage and nmln bus

voltage and current are monitored by the Instrumentation System.

After the required squib functions for orbital insertion are accomplished, the

_5-31

PROJECT
__ SEDR 300

GEMINI
_._._

squib buses are disarmed by a command from the DCS and may be rearmed if required. with the The squib buses are disarmed prior to rendezvous of the spacecraft A_DA.

SYSTEM |_SITS ,a , ,, SILVER-EriC BATSERIES The three ma!n batteries are 400 ampere/hour, 16 cell, silver-zinc batteries and are identical to the adapter power supply batteries used on spacecraft 6. The

two squib batteries are 15 ampere/hour, 16 cell, silver-zinc batteries and are identical to the squib batteries used in the spacecraft.

The main battery cases are constructed of magnesium. (wet) weight of each main battery is 118 Ibs. constructed of titanium. ibs.

The approximate activated

The squib battery cases are

The approximate wet weight of each squib battery is 8

The squib batteries are special high-discharge-rate batteries which will

maintain a terminal voltage of 18 volts for one second under a 75 Ampere load. All of the silver-zinc batteries have an open circuit terminal voltage of 28.8 to 29.9 volts.

The battery electrolyte consists of a 70 percent solution of reagent grade potassium hydroxide and distilled water. The squib batteries have a vent valve in The valve will vent the cell to

each cell designed to prevent electrolyte loss.

atmospheric pressure in the event that a pressure in excess of 40 psig builds up within the cell.

All of the silver-zinc batteries are equipped with relief valves which maintain a

15-32

PROJECT

GEMINI 3oo
pressure in the battery cases. state. The Prior

tolerable batteries

interior

to exterior

differential

are capable

of operating

in any attitude

in a weightless are activated

to installation

into the battery

module,

the batteries

and sealed

at sea level pressure.

CONTROL

AND MONITORING

PANEL

The control

and monitoring Control

panel System

contains

the main and squib battery switch. and test This panel cables

switches

and the Reaction receptacles

(RCS) heater power

also provides

for connecting

AGE external

to the ATDA.

DIODE

PANEL contains diodes required to provide individual fault protection control

The diode panel

for the squib batteries. bus via these blocking

The squib batteries diodes to provide

are connected isolation.

to the common

battery

POWER AND SEQUENTIAL

RELAY PANEL

The power and sequential System, contains

relay panel,

which

is essentially

part

of the Sequential sequencing

the squib bus arm relays The squib arm relays

in addition

to the other

and control

relays.

are controlled

by the DCS and redundantly

by the Sequential

System.

15-3313_

f--\

COMMUNICATION

SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS T I TLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ........... ANTENNAS f_" L BEACONS. : : : : : : TELEMETRY : TRANSMITTERS DIGITAL COHHAND SYSTEM SYSTEM OPERATION ....... RADAR TRACKING ........... DIGITAL COMHAND ........... TELEHETRY .............. SYSTEM UNITS .............. ANTENNAS .............. BEACONS .............. TELEMETRY TRANSMITTERS DIGITAL COMMANDSYSTEM ! ! ! i ....... . i ! ! . PAGE 15-37 1 5-37 15-3' 1 5"39 15"39 15"39 15-39 15-4_ 15 -4_ 15-51 1 5-51 1 5-57 15-57 15-59

. .

_ ...... .......

15 -35

____

PROJECT

GEMINI

ASCENT ANTENNA RADAR BEACONS -DIPLEXERS C-BAND ANTENNA

" "

TELEMETRY TRANSMITTERS (2)

/"

SWITCH (3) ANTENNA

DCS RELAY / MODULES (3)

.f,/ ] // • ./ //" ,

/ /

_;y /[
[/

.." ./
..."

C-_'N0
POWER DIVIDE_S 12) C-_NO ANTENNA

f 1
\ ,

-'/ il
,_ /

:';

r"" '

DCS
RECEIVER-DECODER UHF WHIP ANTENNA UHF STUB ANTENNA

Figure

15-7 Communication

System

15-36

PROJECT
f_ _@ SEDR 300

GEMINI
_.___j

CC_@gJ_CATI ON SYSTEM HJ ,,,,

SY_

DESCRIPTION l_nk between the ground and System provides

The C_-....,n_ cation System is the only c_unication the Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA). the following capabilities:

The C_--Ication

radar tracking of the ATDA, ground C,:--..AUd the to To make possible these various capabilities,

ATDA, and telemetry transmission.

the C.-,..._ml cation System components may be divided into the following categories: antennas, including diplexers and coaxial switches; beacons; telemetry transmitters; and a Digital C.._aud System (DCS).

The C_-.Im_cation System components are located throughout the ATDA with the largest concentration being in the equipment section.
f_

The location of the

C_m._mieation System components is illustrated in Figure 15-7.

Three uhf antennas and two sets of C-band helical antennas provide transmission _nd/or reception capabilities for the various C_unication System components. uhf

The Co_.unication System (Figure 15-8) contains the following antennas: stub, uhf whip, uhf ascent, and two sets of C-band helical ante_n-s.

Each set

of C-band antennas consist of a power divider and three helical antennas. Three coaxial switches permit antenna and transmitter/receiver switching for best DCS and _elemetry e..... unication with the ground stations during the various phases of the mission (pre-launeh, launch, orbit, and docking).

15-37

- _-_..

SEDR 300

__i__

PROJECT

GEMINI

>
c__o.>
ANTENNA

i
i ,o_B i
PRIMARy _-

rmn
i c-_.o B,ACON I
I C _HANNEL l

i ,,,..._1

A

PWR

C-BAND BEACON C-BAND _

! _

r I

• DCS_

SECONDARY I

' C_

AN_NNA _

_'-- ..I

-

PWR

DIPLEXER

COAXIA

IN

T/M

J

,2
I il

Bw,,cH
il _

BE,_>N_I,_ J

I
ISEP. +8 SEC.) t K32-13 AN'_NNA CONTROL ELAY i

U o_
E WHIP/STUB ANTENNA ELAy

I

,A_

I'=.__..I
J C

PWR

I

(iAL AN_NNA _ UHF WHIP r_ _ I II DIPLEXER

IN

T/M

I

i

i

i

I

I

DCS RECEIVER-DECODER n 1 1

/
l

"ll

Figure 15-8 Communication 15-38

System Block Diagram

PROJECT
___ SEDR 300

GEMINI

BEACONS Two C-band radar beacons establish the capability of tracking the ATDA during the mission. The beacons are transponders which, when properly interrogated by The radar

the ground station, transmit signals for accurate ATDA tracking. beacons are controlled by DCS cow,ands frc_ the ground stations.

TRT._ETRY TRAN_I T_RS Two identical transmitters supply the radio frequency link from the ATDA to the ground for transmission of instrumentation data. During pre-launch the telemetry During orbit, telemetry

transmitters are used for pad checkout of the ATDA.

transmission is made while the ATDA is in range of a ground station.

f

_

DIGITAL CQMMAND SYST_ The DCS is the c_auication link for ground c@.,_-audso the ATDA. t The DCS These

receives and decodes c.--,,-_dransmissions from the ground stations. t

c.!N_.*._nds used to operate relays which control the operation of various ATDA are equipment.

The IES consists of a receiver-decoder and three relay units located in the equipment section. The DCS operates from pre-launch throu@hout the mission.

SYST_

OPERATION

The AT_A C_mm, cation System operates from pre-launch throughout the _ission. m_ The sequence and theory of operation of the C_u_xication System is as described

in the following paragraphs and as illustrated in Figures 15-7 and 15-8.

RADAR TRACKING
S _

_adar tracking of the ATDA is accomplished by the use of two C-hand radar beacons. Complete redundancy of the tracking capability is available by using 15-39

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
_j___

SEDR 300

two beacons_ each controlled by a DCS channel and operating with its own antennas.

The radar

beacons are transponders which, upon reception of a properly coded

interrogation signal from the ground station_ transmit a pulse modulated return signal. The location of the ATDA is determined by measuring the elapsed time

between transmission and reception at the tracking station, conpensating for the known time delay of the beacon.

At lift-off, the primary C-band beacon is activated via channel 14 of the DCS. The pri_y insertion. the reminder beacon is used used for to tracking control during the the launch phase radar selected and orbital beacons via during DCS

The DCS is of the

operation beacon

of the can be

mission.

The secondary

channel 17 should it be needed as a result of pr_

beacon malfunction.

The ground interrogation signal is coupled from the antenna to the receiver via a ferrite circulator (Figure 15-9). the tr_-m4tter mission. The circulator isolates the receiver from antenna for reception and trans-

to permit the use of a c_on

The rf filter is a three stage preselector, employing three separately

tuned resonator cavities which gives adequate rf selectivity and protects the mi_er crystal fr_ damage by the reflected tranm4 tter power from the antenna.

The output the m1_er.

of the

preselector

is

c rmbined

with

the

local

oscillator

output

in

The mix_-.r consists of a coaxial directional coupler and a crystal.

The directio-a1_cou_ler isolates the local oscillator output from the antenna and directs it to the mi_er crystal. The local oscillator is a re-entrant cavity type the signal required to operate the mixer.

which uses a planar triode to generate

15-_0

_-=,_

SEDR300

_ I
J2 _ (CIRCULATOR) DUPLEXER _

_ _I_°
TRANSMITTER _ (MAG NETRON) I TRANSFORMER & PULSE FORMING NETWORK (PEN) MODULATOR

I
J

i
TUNING ADJ. /..._

1
RF FILTRR (PRESELECTOR) $ MIXER AMPLIFIER RESTORER

Jt
CONTROL

l

t
LOCAL I OSCI LLATOR _

, I
_ I DECODER

1
MODULATOR DRIVER

I I

I

l
CONVERTER

I

I

'

I

I
I REGULATOR AND LINE FILTERS

I
I

i
!
24.5 TO 30V OC POWER

I
Figure 15-9 C-Band Radar Transponder 15-41 Block Diagram

PROJECT
.@

GEMINI
SEDR300 _._

The intermediate frequency amplifier is a high gain amplifier composed of an input stage, five amplifier stagesj and a video amplifier. The amplified video output

is fed to the pulse form restorer circuits which prevent a ranging error due to variations in receiver input signal levels, and also provides a standard amplitude pulse to the decoder for each input signal exceeding its triggering threshold. The decoder determines when a correctly ceded signal is received and supplies an output to the modulator driver. CODE switch. The type code to be accepted is selected by the The

Single pulse, two pulse, or three pulse codes may be selected.

modulator driver and control circuits initiate and control triggering of the transmitter modulator. delay. The modulator driver supplies two fixed values of overall system The

The desired delay is selected by the position of the DLY switch.

modulator control furnishes the trigger and turn-off pulse for the modulator and limits modulator triggers to prevent the magnetron duty cycle from being exceeded, regardless of the interrogating signal frequency. The modulator circuit

employs silicon controlled rectifiers which function s_m_lar to a thyratron, but require a much shorter recovery time.

The associated modulator pulse forming network and transformer provide the necessary pulse to drive the transmitter magnetron. The desired pulse width is

selected by the internal connections made to the pulse forming network.

The transponder power supply consists of input line filters, a series regulator, and a de-de converter. The power supply furnishes the required regulated The

output voltages with the unregulated input voltage between 21 and 30 vdc. converter employs a multivibrator and full wave rectifier circuits.

15-_e

PROJE--C"T'--GEMINI
__ SEDR300

The output of the transmitter is applied to the power divider via the circulator. The power divider gives equsl transmission power to the three helical antenna radiating elements.

DIGITAL CC_¢_ND The DCS provides a discrete link between ground cc_nd and the ATDA. _e

discrete link enables the ground command to control the operatio_ of the various ATDA systems. The c_nd transmissions from the ground are received and decoded

by the DCS and are used to operate DCS relays that control power directly or energize relays ih the ATDA that determine equipment usage. the DCS is used for pad checkout of the ATDA systems. During pre-launch

Discrete c.,_._de are

sent to the ATDA via the DCS and their execution is verified from instrmnentation data.

The uhf ascent and the uhf whip antennas are used for the reception of DCS ground cu_nds during pre-launch and lift-off through ATDA separation. At

separation coaxial switch 3 changes DCS reception from the uhf ascent antenna to the uhf stub antenna. The two diplexers permit the use of a c_--,_onntenna a

for reception of DCS cu_.._andsnd telemetry transmissions. a

The DCS consists of a receiver-decoder and three relay ,mlts. decoder contains two uhf receivers and the decoder.

The receiver-

The two receivers are

redundant, and the system will operate properly if only one receiver is functioning. Each of the three DCS relay units contains eight magnetically latched Each relay is set or reset by a DCS cuK_and.

relays.

The DCS receives phase shift keyed frequency modulated signals composed of a reference and an infol_nation signal. The information signal is in phase with

15-43

SEDR 300

the reference for a logical I and 180 degrees out of phase with the reference for a logical O, thus establishing the necessary requirements for digital data.

The ground sub-bits.

e,-_v_nd

to

the

DCS is a 12-bit message.

Each bit consists of five The

The five sub-bits are coded to represent a logical i or O.

first three bits of each message is the vehicle address.

The second three bits

of the message is the system address specifying real time c,_!_and. The last six bits in the message contain a five-bit relay number and a one-bit relay setreset discrete c_=,,,_. Table 15-i lists the DCS channels and contains a brief

description of their function.

The DCS uses two types of c_-ds. is received. _-_s type c_-,-_nd

One type cn-_and is executed the mument it operates DCS ch_-nel relays which directly control Power is applied in the set condition and

power to the selected ATDA system. removed in the reset condition.

The other type c_

is received but not immediately executed.

These co_a_ds

operate DCS channel relays that connect the control circuits of selected ATDA systems to a pulse bus. The c.-_,_udsare executed when the pulse bus is energized

by an execution c_..-_nd. The channels marked by an asterisk in Table 15-1 indicate the DCS c..... _nds which require _- execution c,.,_i_-d.

A block diagram of the DOS recelver-decoder is shown in Figure 15-10.

Basically,

the block diagrsm consists of a receiver, a decoder, and a power supply c--,mon to both sections.

15-_h

.-_

SEDR 300

DCS COMMANDS
CHANNEL '1 2 *3 *4 *5 *6 *7 *8 *9 "10 "11 "12 "13 14 *'15 16 17 *'18 "19 *20 "21 22 23 24 FUNCTION ARM AND DISARM BUS FOR SQUIB POWER SELECTSPIRAL ANTENNA COMMAND COMMAND UNRIGIDIZE R|GIDIZATION FOR L-BAND TRANSPONDER AND UNLATCH OF TDA CONE WHEN LIMIT SWITCHES CLOSE

TURN ACQUISITION

LIGHTS ON OR OFF

TURN PRIMARY CONVERTER AND TRANSMITTER ON OR OFF TURN PRIMARY STABILIZATION SELECTRCS RING A OR B COMMAND SEPARATION SEQUENCE SYSTEM ON OR OFF

TURN SECONDARY CONVERTER AND TRANSMITTER ON OR OFF TURN SECONDARY STABILIZATION SYSTEM ON OR OFF

TURN RCS RING POWER ON OR OFF SELECT BIASED RATE DAMPING OR NORMAL RATE DAMPING TSS MODE

TURN PRIMARY C-BAND BEACON ON OR OFF EXECUTE PRESELECTEDDCS COMMANDS PRIMARY OR SECONDARY DCS EXECUTE SELECT TURN SECONDARY C-BAND BEACON ON OR OFF EXECUTE PRESELECTEDDCS COMMANDS TURN L-BAND TRANSPONDER ON OR OFF CONTROL SELECTION OF WHIP OR STUB ANTENNA COMMAND SEPARATION SEQUENCE

ENABLE OR DISABLE L-BAND TRANSPONDER TURN OFF TDA LIGHTS WITH THE EXCEPTION OF ACQUISITION NOT ASSIGNED LIGHTS

* INDICATES DCS COMMANDS

THAT REQUIRE AN EXECUTION COMMAND

** INDICATES DCS EXECUTION COMMAND

Table

15-1

15-45

;_>

SEDR300

......_'1"_

_

PROJECT

GEMINI

Y
SIGNAL STRENGTH TO TELEMETRY _ RECEIVER El

Y
RECEIVER /?2 := SIGNAL STRENGTH TO TELEMETRY

'
SUB-BIT DETECTOR SUB-BITS ."

I

I
I

5-STAGE STORAGE REGISTER

SUB-BITS

_.

I K'EcI
BIT DETECTOR ADDRESS DECOOER

TIMINGRR___.__ j E INHIBIT

| j

_<
ADDRESS

SUB-BIT SYNC

FAILURE -

i sit
SUB-BIT SYNCHRONIZER SET i :_ _ AND RESET J J :I READY

I
24-STAGE STORAGE REGISTER

DATA
RELAY NO. )

I

i

RELAY SELECTION

RELAy DRIVE

l

1 TO RELAYS

POWER SUPPLY

°1
PROGRAM CONTROL

VALIDITY

_

I

INTERFACE

20-30V DC INPUT pOWER 1.

NOTE
HEAVY LINES DENOTE DATA FLOW.

TELEMETRY VERIFICATt ON

Figure

15-10 Digital

Command 15-46

System

Block Diagram

PROJECT
f--

GEMINI
SEDR 300 __

___

The

audio outputs of the two receivers are linearly s_.,,-,_d an emitter follower in The sub-bit detector converts the audlo to sub-

of the sub-bit detector module. bits.

The 5-stage shift register provides buffer storage for the output of the The states of the five stages of the shift register repreWhen a proper sub-bit code exists in the shift register, The output of the bit

sub-bit detector.

sent the sub-bit code.

the bit detector produces a corresponding I or 0 bit. detector is applied to the 24-stage shift register.

The sub-bit synchronizer counter produces a synchronizing bit output for every five sub-bits. The synchronizing bit is used to gate the 2_-stage shift register.

When a message is received, the vehicle address is inserted into the first three stages of the 24-stage shift register. If the vehicle address is correct, the

vehicle address decoder circuit will produce an output to the bit detector which changes the acceptable sub-bit code for the r_._inder of the message. The next

three bits of the message, the system address, are inserted into the first three stages of the 2_-stage shift register, displacing the vehicle address to the next three stages. The system address decoder circuit identifies the specific address

and sets up the I_S to handle the remainder of the message.

When the system address is a real time e,:-,,_,_a.d,message is inserted into the the first six stages of the 2_-stage shift register Rr_ the system address and v_h_cle address are shifted into the next six stages. The real time c_-_ selection

circuit recognizes the first stage of the 2_-stage shift register to be a relay set or reset function and will apply a positive voltage to set or reset all relay coils, as applicable.
f_

The real time c.-,,_Ind selection gates select

the proper relay from the relay n_m_oerstored in the 2_-stage shift register and

15-h7

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

provides

an output

which applies

power

to the coil of the selected

relay.

Upon completion fails to respond

of data transfer within

or if the system

to which

the data was transferred in preparation error in for

I00 milllseconds, reset

the DCS will in the event

reset

the next message. transmission

The DCS will also

of a timing become

of data, or if the DCS power

supply voltages

out of tolerance.

The DCS power supply receivers and decoder

operates

from the ATDA main power dc voltages.

bus and supplies

the

with regulated

A verification a ground

signal

is supplied

by the decoder

for telemetry

transmission

when

command

has been

received.

T_._RY Transmission Operation 6 and i0. of instrumentation data is accomplished is controlled by the telemetry station transmitters.

of the transmltters An interlock

by the ground

via DCS channels operating at

in the ATDA prevents

both transmitters

from

the same time.

Coaxial ascent through switch

switches

select the antenna

used for telemetry pre-launch

transmission. checkout

The uhf

and uhf whip antennas ATDA separation. from

are used during separation

and lift-off of coaxial

After

the output connection antenna

3 is switched

the uhf ascent

to the ,,bf stub antenna.

Data from the Instr=_entation transmitters transmitters composed

System

progr_er

is supplied

to the telemetry trains. The format

in non-return-to-zero relay the information

pulse

code modulated

pulse

to the ground

stations

in a digital

of l's and O's at a rate of 51.2 kiloblts

per second.

The carrier

15-48

PROJ
___

EC--'T GEMINI
SEDR 300

frequency is deviated to the higher frequency deviation limit in order to transmit a i and to the lower deviation limit to transmit a O. 15-II is a block diagram of the telemetry transmitters. Figure

The transmitters

operate on the same frequency and are identical in operation.

:, The input signal is amplified by the video amplifier and is used to modulate the Output of the oscillator. stability. The oscillator is crystal controlled for good frequency

The modulated signal is passed through a series of buffer amplifiers The buffer amplifiers increase the signal level and isoThe phase shifters

and tw0"phase shifters.

late the crystal circuit from the frequency multipliers.

provide impedance matching of the crystal oscillator to improve signal linearity for large deviations in frequency.

A times-four multiplier, a power amplifier, and a times-three multiplier increase the carrier frequency and power to the desired output values. The bandpass fil-

ter minimizes spurious radiations at the output of the transmitter.

The line filter prevents noise on the input power bus frc_ affecting transmitter operation and prevents transients generated within the transmitter from feeding back to the input power bus.

The transmitter dc-dc converter is a c_npletely encapsulated unit employing transistors, diodes and a transformer to provide regulated outputs of 30 vdc and 70 vdc from ,,nregulatedinput voltage of 18 to 30.5 vdc. The converter is a constant

power input type, thus minimizing the heat dissipation caused by high voltage inputs •

15-49

.._.- . _

SEDR300

i___,_1_

PROJECT

GEMINI

I I

, I
I iNPUT

i

I
,., _o,,,,o, o _oou,,,o,,o,,o / I ....

I / I
MULTIPLIER J _ POWER AMPLIFIER _ BUFFER AMPLIFIER _

MULTIPLIER X4

_

BUFFER AMPLIFIER J

I
m m m m i _ m _

_
m i _

--

I

A-2X12 m MULTIPLIER POWER AMPEIFIER BOARD| m m AND m m m m

I
18TO30,5VDC INPUT POWER _ A-5 LINE -_ ! A-4 DC-DC _ 70VOC @ 162MA FILTER

I
Transmitter 15 - 5 0

CONVERTER

_

30 VDC @ 42MA

Figure

15-11

Telemetry

Block

Diagram

F

_

E@
Antennas The three uhf antennas

PROJ

EC"T GEMINI

sE°R 3oo
provide s_ultaneous t_-Az_ssion The uhf

(ascent,

stub

and whip)

for the telemetry transmitters and reception for the DCS receivers.

ascent antenna is used during pre-launch for pad checkout and from lift-off until ATDA separation. after ATDA separation. The uhf stub antenna gives _directianal roll coverage

Switching from the ascent antenna to the stub antenna is The uhf whip antenna pro-

accomplished by coaxial switch 3 at ATDA separation.

rides omnidirectional yaw coverage and is used from pre-launch throughout the mission. The antennas have a quarter-wavelength radiation pattern.

DHF Ascent Antenna The ,,_fascent antenna (Figure 15-12) is mounted on the Target Docking Adapter cone where it is protected from wind blast and launch temperatures during lift-off by the ascent shroud.

The uhf ascent antenna is appro_mately

16 inches long.

The antenna element con-

sists of two I/2-inch wide gold,plated steel blades which are bolted together. For rigidity, the antenna element is shaped in a O.5 inch wide arc having a radius of 1.5 inches. The two laminations of steel blades, compounding a single

antenna element, are rigidly secured together with nuts and bolts at the top and bottom.

D_F Stub Antenna The uhf stub antenna, p_ysically constructed as illustrated in Figure lS-l_, is mounted on the battery module. The antenna protrudes aft _ the battery module

15-51

-_

SEDR 300

POWER CONi_

COVER _-_

UHF WHIP ANTENNA

J

//
BASE

CONNECTOR

,

/" _

\\

_- -_\\\\\\

Figure

15-12 UHF Ascent, 15-52

Stub,

and Whip Antennas

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
SEDR300 ____

into the forward boost phase

section

of the launch vehicle.

_,I s protects

it during

the

of the mission.

The

antenna

consists

of a mast

and base

which

weighs

approximately

i.i pounds. form, and long

The mast covered

is constructed by a Teflon

of 3/4-inch shield.

cobalt

steel_ machined

to tubular

ablation

The antenna

is approximately

13.5 inches material. The steel

including

the connector, length

and 1.25 inches

in diameter

over the ablation 11.2 inches long.

The radiating mast ball consists

of the ante_-_

is approwlmately section

of two sections.

The front

is mounted

on a cobalt cable.

Joint and retained between the mast

to the rear sections The ball

section

by a spring

loaded

Electrical

contact loaded
f_

is made Joint

through

the ball

Joint

and the spring of mast to be axis. to

cable assembly.

allows

the front

section around

deflected

to appro_wlmately

90 degrees

in any direction

the antenna 45 pounds

The spring of the cable assembly cause the front section, when

is preloaded

to approximately

deflected,

to return

to the erected

position.

The rf connector through shell

is press

fitted

into a socket

and makes

contact

to the mast The

the socket and sleeve,

which

are the same material to the base which

as the mast.

of the rf connector

is mounted

is isolated

from the mast

by a Teflon

spacer and sleeve.

UHF Whip Antenna The uhf whip antenna antenna is extended fairing is mounted during protects on the equipment section of the ATDA. The whip A

pre-launch

and is used throughout from damage during

the mission. launch.

fiberglass

the antenna

The antenna beryllimm

element

(Figure

15-12)

is a tubular

device made

from a 2-inch forms

wide an

copper

strip processed

in the form

of a tube.

The antenna

15-53

PROJECT

GEMINI

element

that

is approximately

9.2 inches

long and i/2 inch in diameter.

C-Band

Antennas

and Power

Dividers antenna supply the transmission Each and reception antennas consists

Two sets of C-band helical capability

for the C-band radar beacons. elements (antennas)

set of helical divider. located

of three radiating have lobes a radiation

and a power

The three antennas Two of the in flight.

pattern toward

with three

s>_etrically

lobes.

are oriented

the earth when

the ATDA is roll-stabilized

The C-band helical flush with antenna

antennas

(Figure

15-13)

are mounted

on the equipment apart.

section Each

the outside

skin of the ATDA and spaced 3.4 inches long,

120 degrees

,,-_t is approximately

1.8 inches wide, approximately

has a depth

of 2.21 inches

over the connector,

and weighs

3.5 ounces.

The power connectors,

divider

(Figure

15-13) measures

approximately

3.86 inches about

over the

4.0 inches

over the tuning

knobs, and weighs

6.5 ounces.

The power divider transmission, equally double

is basically

a cavity type power to the power elements.

splitter. where

During

beacon

power is delivered

divider

it is divided contains a

among the C-band

radiating

The power between

divider

stub tuner to compensate radiating

for mismatch Tuning

the C-band beacon by means of a self-

and the C-band locking t,m!ng

elements.

is accomplished

shell located

underneath

each tuning

stub cap.

Diplexers The two uhf diplexers metry transmitters provide isolation between the DCS receivers antenna for both and the teletransmission The

to permit

the use of a c_on are located

and reception.

The diplexers

in the ATDA

equipment

section.

15-5_

...dr:__.

SEDR 300

UHF "DIPLEXERSpowER

i

C- BAND HELICAL ANTENNA

SWITCHES

(TYPICAL 3 PLACES)

•C-SAND

ANTENNAS

i

_il

,OWE, DIV,DE,

±
J3 ANTENNA O _ ! ( O J1 11EUEMETRY TRANSMITTER

_j.__
UHF DIPLEXER

(

O_

SOLENOID COM/_ON

C

RF POSITIONS

+28V INDICATOR

POSITION

NO,

I I

-__ - _ j .....
SHOWN IN ENERGIZED PIN B POSITION

CIRCUIT NO.

POWER AND INDICATOR CIRCUIT CONNECTOR

_"

RF COAXIAL

SWITCHES

Figure 15-13 C-Band Antennas, Diplexers, And Coaxial Switches 15-55

SEDR 300

GEMINI
physical representation and a schematic of the diplexers is illustrated in Figure 15-13.

The diplexer is approx_m-tely

4.5 inches wide, 4 inches high, and 2.7 inches and weighs approximately

deep, contains two input and one output connectors, 1.25 pounds.

Each channel consists of a high Q cavity, tuned to the corresAll channels are isolated from each other without Each channel can

ponding operating frequency. appreciably attenuating

the rf signals passing through it. frequency is changed.

be re-tuned if the assigned operating

Coaxial

Switches

The three coaxial switches permit antenna and transmitter/receiver selection. The coaxial switches are located in the ATDA equipment section. construction Figure 15-13. and approximate The physical in

.....

location of the coaxial switches is illustrated

Coaxial switch 1 is used for antenna selection for the primary telemetry transmitter.

Coaxial

switch 2 is for antenna

selection

for the secondary telemetry

transmitter.

Coaxial switch B provides antenna selection either of the telemetry transmitters.

for one of the DCS receivers and

Each switch contains a power connector, and weighs approximately 0.5 pounds.

an input connector,

two output connectors,

The dimensions

of each switch are approxiThe three coaxial the coaxial

mately 2.65 inches long, 1.82 inches high, and i inch wide. switches are identical and may be used interchangesbly.

Basically,

15-56

PROJECT
__.

GEMINI
______j

SEDR 300

switches supply single-pole double-throw switching action as illustrated in Figure 15-13. The switch, having a 20 millisecond maximum operation time,

operates on 3 amperes at 28 vdc and uses a latching solenoid break-before-make switching action. The coaxial switches are designed to operate from 15 mc to Pins A and B of each switch are utilized to

500 mc, and from 5500 mc to 5900 mc. accomplished the switching action.

BEACONS The two C-band radar beacons supply the tracking capability for the ATDA. The

two radar beacons are transponders which transmit a reply when properly interrogated. The beacons are located in the equipment section of the ATDA. Each

beacon consists of a superheterodyne receiver, a decoder section, and a transmitter. The receivers are tuned to a center frequency of 5690 megacycles and to 5765 megacycles. The transmitter peak power output is 500

the transmitters watts mi_m_n

to the antennas.

Code spacing for the beacons is 3.0 microseconds.

The C-band beacon is a sealed unit and measures approximately 9.34 inches by 8.03 inches by 3.26 inches. As illustrated in Figure 15-14, the beacon has a power connector, and a crystal current test point

and test connector, an anten_ connector.

The beacon contains external adjustments for local oscillator, pre-

selector (rf filter), and trans_nittertunlng; switches for selecting the desired interrogation code; and one of two preset transponder fixed delay times. These

adjustments and switches are accessible by removing pressure sealing screws. The beacon _nploys solid-state circuitry, except for the transmitter magnetron and receiver local oscillator.

TELEMETRY TRANSMITTERS
The telemetry trau_dtters provide the instrunentation data tran_mlssion capabil-

15-57

_,:_;_,
/
/ /

SEOR 30o

__

@

COAXIAL SWITCH

POWER CONNECTOR

TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER

C-BAND RADAR BEACON Figure 15-14 C-Band Beacon and 15-58 Telemetry Transmitters

SEDR 300

ity.

The telemetry transmitters are located in the ATDA equipment section.

The

physical construction and approximate location of the telemetry transmitters is illustrated in Figure 15-14.

The two telemetry transmitters are identical.

They weigh about _i ounces and Each transmitter

are 2.75 inches high, 2.25 inches wide and are 6.5 inches long. contains adc connector.

power connector, an rf output power connector, and a video input

The telemetry transmitters are solid-state frequency modulated transmitters. Each transmitter consists of an oscillator-modulator, a times-12 (x12) multiplier and power amplifier, a bandpass output filter, a line filter and a dc-dc converter. After a 30-second warm-up, the transmitters are capable of continuous _m_nterrupted operation for 500 hours. watts minimum power output. The transmitters operate at 2_6.3 megacycles with 2.0

Peak carrier frequency deviation is + 150 kilocycles.

DIGITAL CC_ND

SYSTH_

The DCS consists of a receiver-decoder and three relays and supplies the link for ground cc_mands to the ATDA. The DCS components (Figure 15-15) are located in

the equipment section of the ATDA.

The two DCS receivers operate on a fixed frequency in the 406-450 megacycle range. Each receiver consists of a preselector, local oscillator and multiplier,

two intermediate frequency strips, a discriminator, and an output audio amplifier.

The decoder contains a sub-blt detector, a bit detector, an address decoder, a 5stage and a 24-stage storage register, relay selection circuits, and a syachronizing and reset circuit.

15-59

L-t_

s300 oR F'RoJEcT G_,N,

(TYPICAL 3 PLACES)

'DCS RECEIVER/bECODER

Figure

15-15

DCS Receiver/Decoder 15- 60

and Relay

Boxes

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
_____

$EDR300

The receiver-decoder 12 inches long.

package

is approximately ax_ identical.

8 inches

high,

8 inches wide,

and

The relay boxes

Each relay

box is approximately of the The each of

2.25 inches wide, receiver-decoder receiver-decoder the relay boxes

5 inches high, and 3 inches deep. package pacMage and the relay boxes contains

The combined weight 23 pounds. while

is approximately

two uhf receivers

and a decoder

contain

eight relays.

zS-6z/6

INSTRUMENTATION

SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS T I TLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ........ SYSTEM OPERATION ....... . . . . PAGE 15-65 15-66

PCM PROGRAMMER 6P R T[O .....

15-66
15-70 15-71 1 5"72 1 5-72 . • 15-73 15"73 15"74 1 5 " 74 15-75 15-75 15-75 15-77 1 5-79 1 5-79

SEQUENTIAL SYSTEM PARAMETERS : . . ELECTRICAL SYSTEM PARAMETERS .... TARGET STABILIZATION SYSTEM PARAMETERS ....... DIGITAL COMI_ND" SC(S÷EM PARAMETERS ...... REACTION CONTI_OI" SYSTEM" PARAMETERS . . . RENDEZOUS RADAR" TI_AI_SPONDER" PARAMETERS ..... . . I NSTRUMENTA I(_N "SYSI_EI_ T PARAMETERS STRUCTURAL PAI_AMETEI_S'" " ..... " ....... SYSTEM UNITS ........ . .... TEMPERATURE SENSORS... ° .... SIGNAL CONDITIONER . . . . ..... DC-DC CONVERTERS .......... PCM PROGRAMMER.......... TELEMETRY TRANSMITTERS .......

. , °

15-63

-_..

SEDR300

LIMIT _/VtTC HES

(TO09)
ANTENNA (TC0|)

JSRADAR TRANSPONDER ('rBI3 e TBi4, TB15)

(TA07, TAGS, TB01, TB02)

SENSORS (3 PLACES) (TC03)

/
SENSOR (TA02)

\

---- RIGIDIZED (3 PLACES) (TC04)

LATCH

DCS RECEiVER-DECOD ER PC_'ER RELAY AND SEQUENTIAL PANEL (TC08) ION {TA03, TA0,(- TA06, TC20) a

SENSOR

(TB08, TB09_ TB10) EQUIPMENT BEY TEMPERATURE SENSOR (TA01)

Figure

15-16

Instrumentation 15-64

System

PROJ
S _ __

EC"]"
SEDR 300

GEMINI
-___ "---1

INSTRUMENTATION

SYSTEM

SYSTEM _ESCRIPTION The Instrumentation System provides a means of data acquisition with respect to the progress and condition of the ATDA. sensing of specific conditions Data acquisition in the ATDA is the

or events on board the ATDA and displaying the In this respect

data derived from these inputs to ground operation personnel. the data acquisition support system.

is shared by all ATDA systems and the ground operation

The basic components

of the Instrumentation

System are:

temperature

sensors,

signal conditioners, dc-dc converters, and a programmer.

The location of the

Instrumentation System components and various signal monitoring points are illustrated in Figure 15-16.

The Instrumentation System supplies 43 parameters (measurements) to the ground station. The system primarily monitors ATDA system parameters. These parameters of the

are used for determining the progress of the ATDA and the performance various systems, and for
making

decisions concerning mission safety and success.

During pre-launch checkout of the ATDA, ground commands are given and their execution is verified from instrumentation data. Equipment status and sequential

switch positions are monitored to insure all ATDA systems are in lift-off configuration. During the orbital phase of the mission, the Instrumentation System

supplies real-tlme telemetry information while the ATDA is within range of the ground station.

15 -65

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
_'-_

SEDR3OO

SYSTEM OPEI_TI

ON

The Instrumentation System is controlled by ground cow,handsvia the Digital Com• mand System (DCS). DCS channel 6 is used to apply main bus power to the primary

dc-dc converter and telemetry transmitter; while channel i0 controls power to the secondary converter and telemetry transmitter. An interlock in the wiring arrange-

ment of the power control relays (K33-I and EB3-2) prevent application of power to the primary and secondary units simultaneously. A block diagram of the ATDA

Instrumentation System is illustrated in Figure 15-17.

The Instrumentation System obtains data from temperature sensors, pressure transducers, switch and relay actuations, and various monitoring systems. The majority points in the ATDA with the multiplex--r

of the signals obtained are compatible

ing and encoding equipment without alteration.

Some of the signals, however, are

routed to a signal conditioner where their characteristics and/or amplitudes are changed. The resulting signals, as well as those from other sensors, are of three low-level (0 to 20 millivolts de), high-level (O to 5 vdc), and The programmer combines and converts these inputs into

basic types:

bi-level (0 or 28 vdc).

a serial binary-coded digital signal and supplies it to the telemetry transmitters. PC_ PROGP_J_ER OPERATION The basic functions of the Pulse Code Modulated (PC_) progr_u_er are: data multi-

plexing; timing, to support the multiplexing functions; and analog to digital conversion. The output of the prog_er to the transmitter is a pulse code

modulated pulse train.

A block diagram of the PC_ programmer is illustrated in

_gure 15-18.

The basic components of the prog_er prime subc_tator,

are a high-level analog subc_utator,

master c_-._-utator,nalog to digital converter, output a

15-66

PROJECT

SEO 3OO
GEMINI
CONVERTER PRIMARy

SYSTEM

RADAR SYSTEM

BAY TEMP SENSOR

I
DCS PULSE K33-1 PRIMARY T/M PWR CONTROL . RELAy

HIGH LEVEL ZERO REF EQUIPMENT BAY TEMPERATURE TRANSPONDER RF POWER TRANSPONDER ANTENNA CASE TEMPERATURE ANTENNA)

TBO1 TA01 TB13 18t4 TBI5 TC01 TB12 TB16 TB17 TC|0 TCI1TOTC}8

.

m

I

SELECTION (DIPOLE OR SPIRAL)

BOOM EXTENDED(DIPOLE RCS N2 REGULATED PRESS

RCS RING A N2 SOURCE PRESS RCS RING B N2 SOURCE PRESS RCS RING A/B ON TCA NO. 1 THROUGH NO. 8FIRING

ATDA SEPARATION RIGIDIZED SEQUENTIAL SHROUD JETTISON SPACECRAFT FREE SYSTEM LATCH RELAY MONITOR UNRI GIDIZE/LATCHES RESEE

TC(]_ TC04 TC05 TC09 TC08 TC21

1P | I TELEMETRy PRIMARy I TRANSMITTER

DCS PULSE BUS ON-OFF t_" I DCS RECEIVER NO. DCS RECEIVER NO. 2 STRENGTH 1 STRENGTH

TC2O TA04. TA03

l I
DCS SYSTEM

I

BATTERY MODULE TEMPERATURE SQUIB BUS SAFE SQUIB BUS ARMED

TA02 TE06 TC07

°
O / TELEMEtry SECONDARY L ERANSMITTER I

SQUIB. BUS NO.

2 VOLTAGE S / G N A

TB06 TB04 TB(_ TB05 TA05 TB1O

CONTROL BUS VOLTAGE MAIN BUS VOLTAGE SQUIB BUS NO, I VOLTAGE MAIN BUS CURRENT

I

YAW RATE

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

l I
TARGET STABILIZATION SYSTEM

II"l
K33-2 SECONDARy TIM PWR CONTROL RELAY

PITCH RATE AC VOLTAGE

L
C O D I T

TBO8 TBO7

(HIGH-LEVEL FULL SCALE) (LOW-LEVEL FULL SCALE) (LOW-LEVEL ZERO REF) DES VALIDITY

'
O N E R

TA07 TA08 TIB02 TA06

PULSE

f_

MAINBusBUS "}_

O'_lIA _

T

DC-DC CONVERTER

"-_

m

Figure 15-17 Instrumentation System Block Diagram 15-67

_f_-_..

SEDR 300

HIGH-LEVEL INPUTS 13 AT 1.25 SAMPLES PER SECOND t _

BI-LIEVEL INPUTS 19 AT IO SAMPLES PER SECOND HIGH-LEVEL INPUTS 3 AT 40 SAMFtES PER SECOND l _

LOW-LEVE L INPUTS 3 AT 80 SAMPLES PER SECOND 5 AT 640 SAMPLES PERIbECONDt

HIGH-LEVEL ANALOG SUB COMMUTATOR

_

PRIME SUB COMMUTATOR

_

MASTER COMMUTATOR

_

DIGITAL CONVERTER

-_

SHIFT REGJSTER

OUTPUT FILTER

TO TRANSMITTER

RECORDER SPECIAL TIMING _ iNPUT CONVERTER/ REPRCOUCER TAPE

-_ [

DIGITAL

INPUT

I_,_UTS _)*-_

S;ELFCTOR

CIRCUITRY

Figure

15-18 PCM Programmer 15-68

Block Diagram

SEDR 3O0

shift register, filter, and tape

digital

input

selector

and input

circuitry,

special

timing,

output

recorder

input

converter/reproducer.

The programmer 1.25 samples

high-level per second. sources,

analog

subcommutator

samples

13 high-level

inputs

at

The analog

subcommutator

receives

its inputs

directly

from the signal analog plexing.

or from the signal to the prime

conditioner. subcom_utator

The output

of the multi-

subcommutator

is applied

for further

The prime

subcommutator,

in addition samples

to accepting 19 bi-level

the

sampled

high-level

analog

subcom_utator

data output, signals

signals

at i0 samples

per second, sup-

and 3 high-level f_ plies its output

at 40 samples

per second.

The prime

subcommutator

to the master

commutator.

In addition commutator signals

to accepting samples

the inputs

from the prime

subcommutator, per

the master

5 low-level

signals

at 640 samples

second and commutator

3 low-level
is applied com-

at 80 samples

per second. converter

The output where

of the master output

to the analog mutator

to digital

the analog

from the master

is converted

to digital

data.

The digital the output pulse

data from the output shift register which per

of the analog provides second.

to digital

converter

is applied PCM

to

a continuous The output through

non-return-to-zero of the output filter. shift

train of 51.2 kilobits to the telemetry

register

is applied

transmitter

the output

Timing

of all operations Two crystal

in the PCM programmer controlled which oscillators

is provided and a series

by the special of counters

timing

circuits. to supply

are used

the gate pulses

determine

the sampling

rates

of the programmer.

15-69

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR 300 ____

The digital

input selector

and input

circuitry

and the tape recorder during ATDA operation. data

input conThe Instru-

verter/reproducer mentation System

components does

are not utilized digital

not sample

data or record

for data-dump

transmission.

The output signal with serial

signal

from the PCM programmer that is adjustable voltage

is a 51.2 kilobit between

non-return-to-zero The

a voltage

0.i volt and 1.0 volt peak. voltage

output has positive

for a i and zero or negative

for a 0.

A brief description following applicable paragraphs.

of all AT_A

instrumentation

parameters

is contained identified

in the by their

The parameters system. 15-17. Data

are described

in groups

data source

flow from the signal

source

to the programmer

is illustrated

in Figure

SEQUENTIAL

SYSEM

PARAME_ System monitors signals six Sequential originating progrRmmer. System parameters. or relay The sequenactuations

The Instrumentation tial parameters and are supplied

are hi-level directly

from switch

to the PCM

During pre-launch all control When

checkout

of the ATDA,

latch relay mode

monitor required

(TC08) indicates for launch

that

latch relays relays

are in the sequential are latched or reset

condition.

all control

in the proper relays

position

a 28 vdc signal mode reduces

is applied this

to the PCM programmer.

One or more

in an abnormal

signal to 0 vdc.

With At

the ascent

shroud

installed,

a 24 vdc signal

is applied

to the PCM programmer. the voltage

shroud

Jettison

(TC05),

the 24 vdc circuit to 0 vdc.

is broken

thus reducing

applied g_r

to the programmer to indicate separation ATDA

A 24 vdc signal is supplied (TCOS). close. This signal results

to the PCM prowhen any two of

separation switches

the three

sensor

15-Yo

SEDR 300

PROJECT

GEMINI
is

Unrigidize/latches reset (TC21) indicates the Target Docking Adapter cone unrigidized and all latches are reset. is supplied to the PCM programmer.

When this condition exists a 24 vdc signal rigi-

Rigidized (TC04) is obtained from three

dized limit switches which close when the rigidized limit is reached.

When all

three limit switches are closed a 28 vdc signal is applied to the PCM programmer. Spacecraft free (TC09) indicates whether or not physical attachment exists between

the A_DA and the spacecraft.

A 24 vdc signal is fed through one or both of two does mot exist.

limit switches to the PCM programmer when complete attac_ent

ELECTRICAL SYS_M

P_ERS

The Electrical System supplies the ground station with 8 parameters which indicate the condition of the ATDA batteries. _Five of the signals are routed through the

signal conditioner to make them compatible with the PCM programmer circuits.

Battery temperature (T__02)indicates the battery case temperature.

A resistive

element temperature sensor mounted on the battery supplies the low-level signal to the PCM programmer.

Squib bus safe (TC06) and squib bus armed (TC07) are bi-level signals applied to the PCM programmer which indicate the position of the squib control relays. When all relays that control power to squib igniters are deenergized (TC06) a 24 vdc signal is obtained. When any of these relays are energized it removes When one or more of the squib control

the 24 vdc signal from the PCM programmer.

relays are energized (TC07) a 24 vdc signal is applied to another channel of the PCM progr_,.mer.

f_

Main bus current (TA05) is used to monitor the total current being drawn from

15-71

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
_.___

SEDR 300

the batteries. main bus. level

The signal

originates

from a 50 millivolt conditioner

shunt installed which provides

at the a low-

The signal output

is routed

to the signal

signal

to the PCM programmer.

Main bus voltage

(TB03),

control (T_06)

bus voltage

(TB04),

squib bus i voltage station

(TB05), with

and squib bus 2 voltage information through relative

are measured condition. before being

to suppS_v the ground The high-level applied

to battery

signals

are routed

the signal

conditioner

to the PCM programmer.

TARGET

STA_VT,T_ATION SYS_ System

PARAMEteRS monitors four parameters signals from the Target Stabilization conditioner

The Instrumentation System. prior These

signals

are high-level

conditioned

by the signal

to being applied

to the PCM programmer

......

AC voltage operation. evaluation

(TS07) gives an indication Pitch, roll, and yaw rates control portion

of the output (T_08, TB09, of the Target

of the inverter TSIO)

that is in to allow Prlma_y

are monitored

of the rate

Stabilization

System.

and secondary depending

rate package

signals

are monitored selected

on the same telemetry

channel,

on which

system has been

by the DCS.

DIGITAL

CO_%ND

SYSTEM

PARAME_2RS for ground monitoring. Three These signals provide

The DCS supplies information

four parameters

relative

to the o_eration

of the DCS.

of the four

signals

are low-level

signals.

Receiver indication

i signal

strength

(TAO3) and receiver of the signals

2 signal

strength

(TA04) give an in the DCS.

of the strength

received

by the receivers

15-72

PROJECT
__.

GEMINI
_____

SEDR 300

DCS validity (TA06) is monitored to indicate that a command signal was received by the DCS receiver-decoder.

DCS pulse bus (ON-OFF) (TC20) indicates that power is applied to the DCS execute circuitry. A 28 vdc hi-level signal from the DCS pulse bus is applied to the each time the pulse bus is energized by a ground command.

PCM programmer

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM PARAMETERS Five parameters from the Reaction Control System are monitored to indicate the condition of the system. Reaction Control System ring A/B (TCIO) is a hi-level A 28 vdc signal to PCM Thruster

signal that indicates which thruster ring is energized.

programmer indicates ring A operation; 0 vdc indicates ring B operation. .....

firing, TCA i through 8 (TCII through TCI8), are bi-level signals are are monitored to indicate proper operation of the Reaction Control System, Bi-level A

pulse signals of 0 or 28 vdc are derived from the solenoid command signals. 0 vdc signal indicates thruster firing. Regulated nitrogen pressure (TBI2)

is a high-level signal obtained from a potentiometer-type transducer to indicate the pressure (0-500 psi) of the Reaction Control System regulated nitrogen.

Ring A and B nitrogen source pressure (TBI6, TBIT) parameters indicate the source pressure in each nitrogen supply. The pressure is measured by a potentio-

meter-type pressure transducer which is a part of the Reaction Control System.

EENIEZVOUS RADAR TRANSPONDER P___S To monitor the operation and environmental condition of the rendezvous radar transponder, four parameters are relayed to the ground station. A temperature

transducer installed in the transponder supplies a high-level signal output for traneponder case temperature (TBI/_).

15-73

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
_.__

SEDR300

Beam

(dipole)

antenna

extended

(TCOI)

is monitored

for operational the antenna

reliability. is extended. selection is An

An output output

of 28 vdc from the boom

actuator

indicates

of 0 vdc indicates spiral

the antenna

is not fully usage.

extended. Selection

Antenna

(TBIS) indicates governed

or dipole antenna

of the antenna

by the strength dipole

of the interrogating

signal.

An output

of 1.O to 5.0

vdc indicates usage •

antenna

usage and O to Ou 5 vdc indicates

spiral antenna

Transponder voltage \ ponder Loss

rf power supply

(TBI3)

is a high-level

signal

that indicates As

when the high long as the transis energized. of an .....

power

in the radar transponder signals

is energized. power

receives

interrogation

the high-voltage the power

supply

of the interrogating

signals

deenergizes

supply.

An output

2 to 5 vdc indicates off condition.

an on condition,

and an output

of 0 to 0.5 vdc indicates

INSTRUMENTATION To insure proper parameters low-level

SYStem4 PABAMET_RS scaling is being These employed reference full-scale that have by the Instrumentation signals, (TB02), been low-level System, four (TA07),

are monitored. zero

full-scale

(TA08), high-level

and high-level

zero (TBOI) con-

are outputs ditioner. verification

of the de-de converter The data received

conditioned provide

by the signal

from these parameters System

the ground properly.

station

that the Instrumentation

is functioning

STRUCTURAL Equipment indicates

PARAMET_mS bay temperature the temperature (TAOI) is the only that exists within structural parameter bay. monitored and

the equipment sensor which

The temperature a low-level

is measured signal

by a resistive-element

temperature

supplies

to the PCM programmer_

15-7h

PROJ
___

E-'CT" GEMINI
SEDR 300 ___

SYS__.M UNITS , J , ,, TEMPERATURESENSORS The two temperature sensors are resistive-element, surface-mounted, sensors that convert the te_uerature into directly proportional electrical signals. The

sensing elements are fully-annealed pure-platinum wire encased in ceramic insulation in a strain-free manner to provide maximum stability.

The physical construction of the sensors and a typical schematic is illustrated in Figure 15-19. The sensors are approximately 0.4 inches by 0.75 inches by They have a temperature range

2.0 inches and weighs a maximum of 0.075 pounds.

of O to 400 degrees Fahrenheit and provide a 0 to 20 millivolt dc output.

"-

One of the temperature sensors is mounted on the battery case and the other in the equipment section at the intersection of the equipment support assemblies.

SIGNAL

CONDITIONER

The signal conditioner is approximately I0 inches by i0 inches by 8 inches and weighs about eight pounds. section of the ATDA. signal conditioner. The signal conditioner is located in the equipment construction of the

Figure 15-19 illustrates the physi_l

The signal conditioner contains 12 signal conditioning modules:

one ac voltage

monitor; four de voltage monitors; one dc m_11_volt monitor; three atten,,ators; and three phase sensitive demodulators. boards using printed wiring techniques. The modules are constructed on circuit

_

The ac voltage monitor accepts a signal ranging from 23 to 29 volts rms over a

15-75

.

SEDR 300

F..O.,.CT

__11

MODULES

TEMPERATURE SENSOR AND

BRIDGE

SIGNAL CONDITIONER

OUTPUT

C

INPUT

C

_7 J

t

,.p_T o
OUTPUT 0

'

!SENSING

I _.E_',',_T I
L,.___ J

|

TYPICAL SCHEMATIC TEMPERATURE SENSOR

Figure 15o19 Signal Conditioner 15-76

& Temperature

Sensor

PROJECT
f_L

GEMINI

__

SEDR 300

frequency range of 380 to 420 cycles. only with the input voltage.

The output is from O to 5 vdc, varying

The four types of dc voltage monitors are designed to accept various positive and negative dc voltage inputs and provide outputs of O to 5 vdc.

The de millivolt monitor accepts an input of 0 to 50 millivolts and provides a proportional output of O to 20 millivolts.

There are three types of attenuator modules.

These modules have various dc

inputs which are attenuated to the 0 to 20 millivolt range or the O to 5 vdc range. Some attenuator modules contain two data channels.

f_

There are three variations of the phase sensitive demodulators. the phase sensitive demodulator accepts two input voltages: and one reference.

Basically,

one signal voltage

It provides a dc output of five volts for a full scale

input signal that is in phase with the reference and an output of 0 volts for a full scale signal that is 180 degrees out of phase with the reference.

DC-DC CONVER_ERS The two dc-dc converters supply the Instrumentation System with regulated dc voltages of +5 and + 24 vdc. 'l_ne converters are essentially voltage regulators

which operate on 18 to 30.5 vdc and supply regulated outputs.

The dc-dc converters (Figure 15-20) are approximately 5.5 inches by 5.5 inches by 7 inches3 and weigh about seven pounds each. ATDA equipment section. The converters are located in the

15-77

DC-DC CONVERTER ,MI BOARDS 3OTHER _

T1 (TEST CONNECTOR) PCM PROGRAMMER

Figure

15-20

DC-DC

Converter 15-78

and PCM

Programmer

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

PCM PROG_ The PCM progra_ner is located in the equipment section of the ATDA and encodes all instrumentation data for transmission. The progrsn_er weighs approximately (Figure 15-20).

20 pounds and is ii inches by ii inches by 4.5 inches.

The programmer is composed of 16 subassemblies.

Thirteen of the subassemblies

are multilayer printed-circuit boards (mother-boards) constructed of a glassepoxy bass material laminated at high temperatures. Most of the programmer

subassemblies are embedded in polyurethane foam to provide rigidity and damping. An elapsed time meter indicates total operating time.

_ELEMETRY TRANSMITIERS Two telemetry transmitters transmit the Instrumentation System data to the ground stations. Although the transmitters serve the Instrumentation System,

the antennas and associated switching are part of the Cu_..unicationSystem; therefore, the transmitters are described in detail in Section XV, Cu_._m4cation System.

f_

PYROTECHNIC AND SEPARATION

DEVICES ASSEMBLIES

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE INTRODUCTION ............. EXPLOSIVE BOLTS ............ DESCRIPTION ............. OPERATION ........... PYROTECHNIC VALVES: . o . o . . . . . . DESCRIPTION ............. OPERATION ...... FLEXIBLE LINER'SHAPED CHARGE: ..... DESCRIPTION ............. OPERATION ....... SHROUD SEPARATION ASSEMBLY: ...... DESCRIPTION ............. OPERATION .... ATOA/LAUNCH VEHICLE SEPARATION'ASSEMBLY DESCRIPTION... , ......... OPERATION .............. PAGE 15-83 15-83 15-85 15-85 15-85 15-86 15"87 15-87 15"87 15"89 15"89 15"90 15-92 15-92 15-92 15"93

F_,

15-81

=-_.

PROJECT GEMINI

SEDR 300

__

SPRING LOADED N

SPRING

STEEL BANDS PRING ACTUATOR

_OLTS (4 REQ'D.)

; "C" PACKAGE BY PYROTECHNIC VALVE

@
RCS _D" PACKAGE

PY_ROTE CHNIC VALVE

PACKAGE
rE SEPAKATI ON ASSEMBLY

(FLEXIBLE LINEAR SHAPED CHARGE, HEAT PROTECTION ANO SHRAPNEL SHIELD AND FAIRING) \

RCS "A" PACKAGE

NCH VEHICLE "ION ASS'Y

BUNGEE CORD (8 REQ'D .)

SEPARATION BARS (4 REQ'D.) RCS "C" PACKAGE PYROTECHNIC VALVE

Figure 15-21

Pyrotechnic

Devices 15-82

and Separation

Assemblies

PROJECT
___

GEMINI

SEDR300

PYROTECHN, DEVICE S AND SEPARATION IC

ASSSMRT,TR. S

ODUC ION
The pyrotechnic the Augmented devices and separation Adapter assemblies (ATDA), (Figure 15-21), installed events in

Target

Docking

are used to execute by these devices,

initiated

by the Sequential order, are:

System.

The events

executed

in sequential shroud,

release

the shroud retaining vehicle mating ring,

bands;

Jettison

the ascent

sever the ATDA/launch vehicle and activate

separate System

the ATDA

from the launch

the Reaction

Control

(RCS).

The pyrotechnic and the events _

devices executed bolts

and separation

assemblies

which

perform

these

functions

by them are as follows: - release assembly shroud retaining bands. the shroud. vehicle mating ring.

Explosive Shroud Flexible

separation Linear

- separate

and Jettison

Shaped

Charge

- sever the ATDA/launch assembly - provide

ATDA/launch

vehicle

separation

a separation

velocity

between Pyrotechnic valves

the launch

vehicle

and the ATDA. the RCS.

- open lines

and activate

Expnosn , BOLTS
Explosive bolts (Figure 15-22) are located around at four points on the ATDA. two bolts Two bolts secure

secure the steel retaining the base tial of the shroud_ the bolts assembly

bands

the shroud. line. their When

The other _-4tiated

at the separation explode, releasing

by the Sequen-

System,

respective

clamps and allowlng

the separation

to Jettison

the shroud.

The bolts are electrically cables each are located

connected

to the Sequential

System line,

via two cables. near the base of

The

90 degrees

from the shroud

separation

segment.

15-83

,.-d_" _-_

SEDR 300

O M,N,
L_r_
16REQ'D) _i_ _i_ DETONATOR CONNECTOR (2 REQJD)

__]

TYPICAL EXPLOSIVE BOLT CROSS SECTION
EXPLOSIVE CHARGE

DETONATOR

(2 REQ_D)

)
WASHER (2 REQJD)

RCS PACKAGE "A" BEFORE FIRING
I N I PPLE CARTEIDGE

iiii ii::i ii!i i_!_ i
_:_:

RCS PACKAGE "C" AND "O" BEFORE FIRING

_

ii ii) .....

i!i!i _

o

--

_:_:i

_o FLOW
_-SCREW

ii!ii
(4 TYPICAL)

_:_: :_:_ AFTER FIRING _:_: :::: AFTERFIRING

! _!i

REMOVED
NORMALLY CLOSED VALVE (NON.REPLACEABLE)

iiili
:_:_
:::! NORMALLY

_EMOVED
CLOSED VALVE (REPLACEABLE)

.....

Figure 15-22 Pyrotechnic

Valves and Explosive

Bolts

15-84

PROJECT

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

DESCRIPTION The four identical explosive bolts are five inches long, 5/8 of an inch in diameter and are made of stainless steel. into each end of the bolts. from each end of the bolt. A deep cylindrical cavity is machined

The cavities extend in approximately two inches A solid part in the center is not drilled out. The The

end of each cavity is tapped to receive the threaded electrical detonator.

bottum of each cavity is so designed that the explosive blast will cause the bolt to break or fail at the central solid part as though sheared off there.

The detonators used are of the bridge wire type. using two detonators per bolt.

Redundancy is maintained by

A sleeve is slipped over the outside of the bolt The sleeve maintains the parting

and held in a center position with set screws.

planes of each bolt outside the clamps which it holds in place, and prevents any bolt fra_entation from piercing the shroud.

OPERATION When the shroud Jettison squib fire relays connect squib bus power to the eight shroud explosive bolt detonators_ a current sufficient to set off the l_-!tion mix, flows in the bridge wire. The energy frcm the ignition mix detonates the The stress

Penta Erythritol Tetra Nitrate (PETN) explosive charge next to it.

which the explosion puts upon the bolt structure causes the hollow parts on each side to break away frcm the central solid part.

VALVES PYROTECHNIC Six pyrotechnic valves (Figure 15-22) are installed in the RCS. Three valves

are used in each ringj one valve for each packs4_e. Each ring has a fuel package (called the "D" package)j an oxidizer or "C" package, and a pressurant or "A" pac_e° _e v_ives isolate t_e fuel_ oxidizer and pressurant from the rest of

15-85

PROJ
__

EC'"

GEMINI

SEDR 300

the RCS by keeping them in their respective supply tanks.

When the valves of

either A or B ring are actuated_ pressurant is released into the _,-eland oxidizer ta-_, and fuel and oxidizer are forced into lines to the eight The pyrotechnic valves are one-tlme actuating devices

activated thrusters.

which control the flow of these fluids.

Two types of valves are installed in the RCS. type however is replaceable, the other is not° nonreplaceable type.

Both are normally closed.

One

The RCS package "A" uses the

The RCS packages "C" and "D" use the replaceable type.

If a nonreplaceable valve is defective, or if the squib has been fired, the package must be changed. Replaceable valves can be changed individually

without chapping the whole package.

DESCRIPTION A pyrotechnic valve consists of a cartridge, a valve body, one or two nipples, a ra_, a seal and a screw. The replaceable valve uses one closed-end nipple The nipple

which is installed within the valve body and welded into place. is in the line from the supply. the fluid from the supply.

As long as the nipple is intact, it blocks

The nonreplaceable valve has two closed-end nipples The ram is

butted together; one is the inlet, the other is the outlet port.

in a slot or channel in the valve body, indexed directly above the centers of the nipples. The seal and screw are in the head of the ram. The cartridge is

in the valve body at the top of the ram head. prevent blow-by of the actuation gas. generate the energy to drive the ram.

The function of the seal is to

The function of the cartridge is to The ram has two functions. The other is to c_plete One is to the line

shear off the nipples and open the lines.

by aligning the hole in its body with both sides of the llne.

15-86

PROJECT
f_

GEMINI

__.

SEDR 300

OPERATION At Vernier Engine Cut-Off (VEC0) plus 12 seconds, the squib buses are connected to six squibs on the three pyrotechnic valves of RCS ring B. in an identical manner. Each valve operates suffi-

The squib sets off the cartridge which generates

cient gas pressure to drive the ram.

The ram is propelled along the channel, and As the ram comes to rest at the

the ram head shears off the nipples in its path.

opposite end of the channel, a hole through its body is aligned with the lines once blocked by the nipples. llne s. Fluid flows freely from the supply tank through the

This same process is repeated on RCS ring A the first time this ring is selected by a Digital Command System (DCS) command.

FLEXIBLE

LINEAR

SHAPED CHARGE device which severs

The Flexible Linear Shaped Charge (FLSC) is the pyrotechnic the ATDA/launch vehicle mating ring. Figure 15-2S.

The FIASCis shown in cross section in

The FLSC is a V-shaped flexible lead sheathing containing a core The specific type, shape and thickness of the In

of cyclonite (RDX) high explosive.

material to be severed by a FLSC dictates the amount of explosive to be used. this explosive separation assembly, dual strands of FLSC are used.

DESCRIPTION The FLSC assembly consists of three detonator blocks, three crossovers, three dual boosters, a molded backup retainer and a back blast shield. wire detonators f-_ third. Single bridge

are used in two detonator blocks, a double bridge wire in the

In each detonator block, the crossovers are next to the detonators, and The crossovers apply the shock wave

the boosters are next to the crossovers.

15-87

RiNG

_UNGEE CORDS (TYP.)

SINGLE BRIDGE WIRE

TWO BRIDGE WiRE DETONATORS

_

DETONATOR PROTECTION SHIELD _ND SHRAPNEL _--SHAPED CHARGE

_---

BACK BLAST SHIELD

DETONATOR

DETONATOR

BLOCK_

D CHARGE EQUIPMENT

MOLDED BACKUP RETAINER BACK BLAST SHIELDFIBERGLASS FAIRING

Figure15-23

FLSC

Mechanical 15-88

Separation

Assembly

PRO,J
___

GEMINI
SEDR 300 ___

to the booster.

The booster propagates the shock wave to the FLSC to insure

detonation of both strands.

When the explosive separation assembly is installed, the dual FIaC is attached to the periphery of the ATDA/launch vehicle mating ring. the V-shaped FLSC is place_ toward the surface to be cut. The open portion of

The detonator blocks are installed on the inside of the mating ring and extend through the skin into the FLSC molded backup retainer. The detonators are The back A

wired to the ATDA sheped charge and RCS ring B squib fire relays.

blast shield surrounds the molded backup retainer and is attache_ to it. fiberglass _ fairing covers the retainer,

shield and FLSC to protect the explosive

separation assembly from aerodynamic heating.

OPERATION At VECO plus 12 seconds, the Sequential System connects the squib buses to four ATDA shaped charge igniters, setting them off. The igniters detonate the crossdetonate the redun-

over, the crossover detonates dant strands of FLSC.

the boosters, and the boosters

As the FLSC detonates,

the concussion

collapses the sheathing

in each V-groove. and minute

This directed action produces metal particles.

a cutting Jet of explosive products

The Jet in turn produces

extremely high localized pressures. The

The resulting stress is far above the yield strength of the ring material. skin is severed and the ATDA is detached, assembly to operate. permitting the mechanical

separation

SHROUD SEPARATION ASS'_'MBLY The shroud separation assembly is designed to Jettison the ascent shroud at

15-89

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
_____

SEDR 300

the completion until

of the launch phase. then explosive assembly

The shroud

is held together releasing

by steel

bands and

after VEC0,

bolts

are fired,

the steel

bands

allowing segments,

the separation one long

to function.

The shroud

is constructed

in two When

segment

(including

the nose cone)

and one short

segment.

Jettisoned, side.

the shroud

separates

and falls

away to the rear,

one segment

on each

DESCRIPTION The shroud actuators; latches; blocks; separation assembly spring (Figure 15-24) consists of two preloaded two spring loaded spring nose

two preloaded

thrusters;

two pivots; detents;

two elastic

latch cords with ball

two pair

of split

anchor bolts).

and two pair of steel bands actuators are mounted

and clamps

(held together

by explosive

The spring line.

at the base

of the shroud

at the separation center of gravity.

The spring

thrusters

are mounted

just below

the shroud together

The nose latches and unlatch tension

hold the upper

end of the shroud to part

before

Jettison, cords detents apply on The

to permit

the segments

at the nose. engaged.

The elastic The ball

to the latch handles

to keep

the latches

the cords are clamped anchor blocks, which

in the anchor blocks are compressed

to hold tension

on the latches.

and trapped

in the parting cords.

line by the tension when the

of the steel bands, pulled together

maintain

tension bolts,

on the latch compress

The base clamps, and hold

by explosive

the spring actuators Docking until Adapter (TDA).

shroud base assembly

in firm contact together System.

with the Target

The entire bolts are fired

is held

by the steel bands,

the explosive

by the Sequential

15 "90

/

_-.

PROJECT

s,o. 30o
GEMINI

_%R_

NOB_ED_

STEEL BANDS

EXPLOSIVE BOLTS

PIVOT BRACKE,

f

)

S_NONUE_Elr_R CTRICAL

....._

LANYARD

NOSE LATCH

tARGET

DOCKING

i i

ASCENT SHROUD SEPARATION PLANE

L

ADAPTER

=_

!_

SlurI NO ACTUATOR (EXPANOED)

Figure

15-24 Shroud

Separation

Assembly

15-91

PROJ
_@ SEOR300

INI

OPERATION Operation Sequential of the shroud System separation assembly (Figure 15-24) bolts. is initiated When by the fire,

signal which

fires

the explosive bands

the bolts

they release Four lanyards bands spread.

clamps

in the steel retaining to disconnect

and in the base bolt

of the shroud.

are used

the explosive

cables as the retaining apart, driving pivots

Spring actuators on the TDA. and release

spread the shroud base the base has spread latch nose cords. latches thrusters separate,

against blocks

brackets separate

When

far enough, When tension

the anchor is removed the shroud

the elastic

from the latch cords, to separate apart,

the spring loaded The spring

open and allow now drive lanyards

at the nose.

loaded

the two segments tight discon-

nose first.

As the shroud connectors

segments

are pulled The lanyards

on two electrical

near the base when

of each segment. segments

nect the electrical mately 50 degrees.

connectors The shroud

the shroud

are separated

by approxi-

segments

continue

to swivel

on the pivots until allow the shroud

separated

by approximately from the ATDA.

180 degrees.

At this point segments

the pivots

to separate the ATDA.

The two shroud

then fall behind

and away from

ATDA/IAUNCH

VEHICLE

SEPARATION

ASSemBLY assembly (Figure it with 15-23) is used to release velocity.

The ATDA/launch the ATDA

vehicle

separation vehicle

from the launch

and provide

a separation

DESCRIPTION The separation eight bungee ring assembly consists of the mating ring; and four ring; a catapult, rails. made up of The mating and provides provides

cords and attaching bonds

separation vehicle

structurally from which

the ATDA to the launch

during

ascent

a base

the bumgee

cords are suspended.

The mating

ring also

15 -92

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
__

SEDR 300

a separation line where the two vehicles are severed pyrotechnically when orbit is achieved.

The catapult is elastically stressed to approximately 500 pounds and provides a separation velocity when the mating ring is severed. An attaching ring sup-

plies a co, non surface for attaching the eight bungee cords which provide the thrust for the catapult. The attaching ring also provides a surface on which The bungee cord catapult is suspended

the battery module rests during launch.

from hangers on the underside of the mating ring.

Four separation rails span the RCS and battery module to guide the ATDA during the separation sequence. damaging The rails protect the RCS and battery module from

contact with the mating rlng or launch vehicle during separation.

OPERATION At VECO plus 12 seconds, the Sequential The pyrotechnics System initiates the separation sequence.

sever the mating ring and allow the separation assembly to The ATDA# which weighs approxi-

catapult the ATDA away from the launch vehicle.

mately 2000 pounds, separates from the launch vehicle at a velocity of approximately three fps (_wo mph).

15-93/94

TARGET STABILIZATION

SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE SYSTEM DESCRI PT I ON........... SYSTEM OPERATION ......... RATE COMMANDS ........... SECONDARY OPERA'FION......... ELECTRICAL POWER .......... SYSTEM UNITS ........... RATE GYRO PACI_A(_ES..... ATTITUDE CONTROL ELECTR6NiC_; .... ORBIT ATTITUDE AND MANEUVER ELECTRONICS ............. POWER INVERTERS ........... PAGE 15-97 15-1OO 15-1OO 15-101 15-101 15-101 15-101 15-102 15-104 15-105

-_-

15 -95

"_

.

PROJECT

sEo. 3oo
GEMINI

SECTION (REF)

/ I
1

MANEUVER ELECTRONICS

RATE GYRO PACKAGES.

PROJECT
f--,
__. $EDR 300

GEMINI
-__-_

TARGET STABILIZATION

SYSTEM

SYS_EMDESCRIPTION The Target Stabilization System (TSS) is used in conjunction with the Reaction Control System (RCS) to contx_l the rotational rates of the ATDA in the pitch, roll and yaw axes. It provides two modes of control which are selectable from

a ground station via the Digital Command System (DCS) or from the spacecraft via the Command Link.

Prior to the docking phase of'the mission, the TSS operates in the Biased Rate Damping (BRD) mode. In this mode, the TSS establishes nominal ATDA rotational

rates of 1.8 degrees per second in the pitch axis, 2.2 degrees per second in the
r_

roll axis, and 0.25 degrees per second in the yaw axis. lished to provide uniform solar heating, minimum

These rates are estaberrors, and

radar ellipticity

maximum DCS and Rendezvous

Radar reception.

The BRD mode is selected prior

to launch and is initiated by the Digital Cu,_and System after the ATDA is inserted in its orbit.

For the docking phase of the mission, the TSS is placed in the Normal Rate Damping (NRD) mode. In this mode, the ATDA rotational rates are stabilized

at less than 0.5 degrees per second in all three axes to faciliate spacecraft docking.

The TSS incorporates basically the same equipment as the Attitude Control and Maneuver Elect_incs Electronics ,_ in the Gemini Spacecraft. It consists of an Attitude Control (OAME)

(ACE) package, an Orbit Attitude and Maneuver Electronics

package, primary and secondary Rate Gyro Packages (RGP), and primary and secondary

15 -97

_
J

PROJECT

s oR3oo
GEMINI
-1
ATTITUDE CONTROL ELECTRONICS (ACE)

r

, SECONOAR_ " I
--

I
RATE AMP.

I_'TEG_°PAC_AGE r ,I I ,_)__

_ _ = _',C.C.ANNE_ - --'_ I = I

AMP

,
_ Y
400 CPS RATE GYRO J

SWITCH

IYAW

_SECONDARY I

,,
_ 1

I

I

k

J
_"

'_,_RY [-PACKAGE 7

DC BIAS POWER

DCBUS_R

--

_j

_, -.
_J _J

ROLLCHANNEL (SAME AS PITCH CHANNEL)

_
+ YAW

-_ ....... .........
VOLTAGE DIVIDER O DAMPING LN BIASED RATE ]NO BIAS POWER SUPPLy I ; -L..,. ....

YAW CHANNEL EXCEPT

____FROLL I--1 I
J -YAW ..] j J

(SAME AS PITCH CHANNEL, NO MIN.

PULSE CKTS)

DC BIAS POWER

'_-

--I

--

J j ( SEC CIRCUIT SELECT PRI CIRCUIT SELECT DC BUS POWER

I

-(TO INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM) PRI AC POWER PRIMA,Ry POWER INVERTER OFF . J SEC

PULSE BUS (DC MOMENTARy)

PRI -_. OFF BUS SEC SELECT & [:_ ' CONTROL BUS (DC)

POWER SECONDARY INVERTER

O_ A

SECI
I

Figure

15-26

TSS

Functional

Block

Diagram

(Sheet

1 of 2)

15-98

_

SEDR 300

_-'_'
r ---

,_,_o..,E_C'," _,,_,
m ORBIT ATTITUDE & MANEUVER ELECTRONICS (OAME)

_-I

I

PRII

J I
J J

sE¢ [ S_'KE SUP':_ESSO_ I
PRI SPIKE SUPPRESSOR

I l

_J

-d

VALVE DRIVER A SEC

_

T
SPIKE SUPPRESSOR

_

TORCS

l

I I

_1

,, ,
I
L__

I

;.t--.-_

sEc/

,,

I

SPIKE SUPPRESSOR

T

I,

-_--I

ILL], [_P,K_soPPREss_]

I NOTE
J_ DCS CONTROLLED

Figure

15-26

TSS

Functional

Block

Diagram

(Sheet

2 of 2)

15-99

PROJECT
_@

GEMINI
__

SEDR300

Power Inverters (PI). the ATX)A (Figure 15-25).

All equipment is located in the equipment section of

oFm A ca
The T_S controls the firing of the RCS thrusters to establish the rotational rates c_nded by a selected control mode. The existing rates in the three Signals reprewith

ATDA axes are sensed by three rate gyros in the operating _P.

senting these rates are supplied to the ACE package where they are c_pared signals representing the commanded rates for each axis (Figure 15-26).

When a

difference exists between an actual rate and a c_..._ndedone, the appropriate rotation1 c_ud (i.e., pitch up, pitch down, etc. ) is developed to effect a is routed from the ACE to the QAME package where it

rate change.

This c_

is used to develop individual thruster firing c_._;_nds. The firing cu_,ands, in turn, are trsmsa_tted to the RCS to fire the thrusters. tinue to fire until the rate 8yro and rate c_nd tude. At this time, the thruster firing c_,ands The thrusters con-

signals are of equal magniare terminated.

RATE COMMAWnS The rate c_s, within the TSS. in the BRD control mode, are generated by a voltage divider The voltage divider generates c_..._ndsonly for the pitch and

roll axes since the yaw axis is rate damped in both control modes.

When the BRD mode is selected, the rate control relays in the system control relay panel are latched. This causes a 26 vac, 400 cps supply voltage to be The outputs of the voltage divider are used as

applied to the voltage divider. cc_a_s

to establish the pitch and roll rotational rates for the BRD mode. are always in phase with the basic 400 cps supply voltage.

These c_,_ds

15-I00

PROJECT
S _

GEMINI
__.__

_

SEDR 300

Selection of th_ NRD control mode causes the rate control relays In the system control relay panel to reset. Thus, the excitation voltage is removed from This results in the ATDA

the voltage divider, and its outputs drop to zero. being rate damped about all three axes.

SECONDARY OPERATION The TSS has provision for either primary or secondary system operation. Selec-

tion can be made from the ground, via the DCS. different RGP and power inverters are utilized.

For each type of operation, In addition, certain selections

of the ACE and OAME packages are redundant to provide for primary and secondary operation.

_-

ELECTRICAL POWER The basic operating power for the TSS is 28 vde from the ATDA main bus. This

power is used by the power inserters to produce the 26 vac, 400 cps power for the system components.

SYSTEM UNITS

RATE GYRO PACKAGE The two rate gyro packages in the TSS are identical. Each is approximately Each unit con3.5

inches by 4 inches by 5.6 inches and weighs about 4 pounds.

tains three individual rate gyros which sense ATDA rotational rates in the pitch_ roll and yaw axes. freedom sensors. The gyros are hermetically-sealed, single-degree-of-

They receive 26 vac, 400 cps power from the power inverter Each

and provide outputs to the ACE package and the Instrumentation System. one also has a torquing capability for use during ground checkout.

The output

of each gyro is _._.00cps si_;nalwhose amplitude is proportional to the angular !5_I01

SEDR 300

rate phase

about the sensitive with

axis.

The signal can be either in phase depending on the direction thro_sh a scale

or out of Upon which

the supply voltage,

of rotation. factor

leaving

the RGP, the rate

signal level

is routed

network

attenuates

it to the proper

for use by the ACE.

A'i'21TUDE COI_i_ROL EI_CTRON!CS _l_le ACE package weighs is approximately 16.3 inches mode by 8.4 inches by 5.1 inches and circuits, rate amplifiers switches, minimum (presmps), pulse

about 17 pounds. smplifiers,

It contains

logic

switching circuits, smplifiers,

demodulators, supply. to provide

positive

and negative except

and a bias power are redundant

All sections, for prima_ 7

the mode logic operation.

and rate

or secondary

The ACE package

generates rates.

the rotational The logic

commands

to effect specific

necessal_ commands

changes is developed

in ATDA rotational by summing

for producing input

the rate gyro and rate command the two signals

signals

together.

_nis is aecon_are

]_ished by routing of equal magnitude

to a common

summir_

point.

If the signals that the

and are directly

out of phase, one.

it is indicative

sctusl rate is the same as the commanded null each other out, amd a zero-level

In this instance, signal

the signals In cases to

resultant

is obtained.

_,.herethe rate gyro si_snal has a different the rate cor_and, resultant a specific phase signal either an additive

magnitude

or phasing

with respect

or difference level

signal (deadband

will result. threshold), signal

If the it causes is in

is greater

than a certain

rotational

contend

to be developed. will

A resultant

which

with the 400 cps supply voltage

cause a negative

rotational

co_m_'mnd resultant

(pitch down, roll left or yaw left)

to be produced.

An out-of-phase

sl6nal will cause a positive command (pitch up, roll right or yaw right) to be produced.

15-102

SEDR 300

PROJEC:I"
I_ode Logic _ne mode logic section perfo_s several

GEMINI

functions

within

the ACE.

First,

it

establishes ational mode

and maintains in the TSS.

the conditions This basically

for effecting consists switches

the rate command

operservo

of setting which route

up the proper the rate

loop gain and turning from the logic ACE

on the transistor

signals the mode the

rate preami01ifiers the operation

to the switching of the primary supply).

amplifiers. and secondary

In addition, circuits

controls

within

(except

for the bias power only supply

This is accomplished circuits. directly Primary by a relay and

by m_plyiD_ secondary operation control

operating, voltages of the bias power relay panel.

to the selected is controlled

in the system

Amplifier Each

Sections signals resulting from the summing amplifies process and is routed to a of

of the three

rate preamplifier. the input amplifier. level signal

The rate preamplifier and supplies it to either

reverses

the phase

the primary 8mplifies

or secondary the signal

switching

The switching

amplifier

further

to a usable

for the demodulator.

Demodulators The demodulators If the input discriminate between in-phase and out-of-phase transmits ac signals. dc signal

signal

is in phase,

the demodulator

a positive

to the positive transmits

switch.

If the input

signal is out of phase, switch.

the demodulator

a negative

dc signal

to the negative

/

15-io3

SEDR 300

Posltive and _gati_ Sw'Atches
The positive switches, through when turned on by the demodulator in the positive output, provide This a

path to ground connection

transistors

switch circuits.

to ground

acts as a logic to fire.

cc-,,_.mndo the 0AME where t In the same manner, thrusters.

it causes the switches

positive-torquing control the firing

thrusters

the negative

of the negative-torquing

Minimum

Pulse

Circuits and negative pulse switches for the pitch Each of these switch and roll circuits circuit. channels generates The

The outputs

of the positive to trigger is fed back

are also used a pulse which pulse causes (nominally, held

minimum

circuits.

to the inout to be Thus,

of its respective clamped

the switch circuit 18 milliseconds).

on for the duration circuit

of the pulse on, it is

when

a switch

is turned

on for at least this duration.

ORBIT ATTITUDE

AND MANEUVER

_.RCTRONICS 8 inches by 10.2 inches by 3 inches and weighs three replaceable module

The OAME package about 8 pounds. boards

is approximately

It has a removable

cover and contains board)

(two relay boards the OAME

and one cemponent of primary for each

as well

as fixed valve

components. circuits valves.

Electrically,

consists circuit

and secondary

driver

and a spike suppression

of the eight

thruster

solenoid

The OAME converts

the logic When

c_ands turned

from the ACE into individual on, the valve valve driver provides

firing

c_nds

for the RCS thrusters. ground to actuate

a circuit diode/

a thruster

solenoid

in the RCS. channel

A back-to-back is provided

zener diode spike suppressor

for each thruster

in the OAME

15-Io_

$EDR 300

___
to minimize voltage

PROJ
transients

E--C-T GEMINI
valve is actuated or de-actuated.

when a solenoid

POWER

INVERTER inverters convert main bus dc power to 26 vac, 400 cps, slngle-phase are

The power power

for use by the ACE, primary

RGP and system

control

relay panel.

The two units Each

designated

and secondary 5 inches

and operate

as such in the system. and weighs about

package

is approximately

by 5.3 inches

by 4 inches

7 pounds.

15-105/106

REACTION

CONTROL

SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS T I TLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ........... PRESSURANT GROUP FUEL/OXIDIZER GROIJP: : : : : : : : : THRUST CHAMBER ASSEMBLY GROUP .... SYSTEM OPERATION • • • FUEL/OXIDIZER GROUP. PAGE 15-109 15-11 2 15-112 15-113 5-113

f'_

p_s_o,,N,! iGROUPi ! 'l S-llS o,oov..i i i ! THRUST ASSEMBLY.... CHAMBER
15-113
15-1 1/-I. 15-115 15-115 15-115 15"1 16 15-116 15-1 17

SYSTEM UNITS. . . PRESSURANT ST(_RAGE I:AI_K: : : : ." . . "A" PACKAGE ..... . . ..... PRESSURE REGULATOR ......... "B" PACKA(;E......... . . . . FUEL TANK......

ox.o.z._, iiiiiiii -r.N.,. ....

"C" AND "D" PACKAGES PROPELLANT SUPPLY SHUTOFF VALVES . THRUST CHAMBERASSEMBLY GROUP ....

15-117
. 15-117 15-118 15-1 18

15 -107

SEDR 300

__D-_-"

PROJECT

GEMINI
NOTE
THIS SCHEMATIC TYPICAL FOR RINGS A AND B

,_,,

(
N2 FUEL TANK BURST DIAPHRAGM t VALVE CHECK l':] I__

• % "

"% PURGE

FUEL TANK

POR'
VALVE

L-i
pc'_ccxxxxxx_ _ FUEL OXIDIZER MANUAL VALVE TEST I PACKAGE NORMALLY CLOSED PYROTECHNIC VALVE HIGH PRESSURE MANUAL CHARGING VALVE HIGH PRESSURE _q CHARGiNG_ PORT

I.......... TEEcS:'c_J E

"B" PACKAGE

VENTVALVE, ......... .-.-. ............................................... J ..)J _ ............ .............
RELIEF FILTER VALVE

,
I | TEST

_ _ER

"D" PACKAGE

VENT

.....
"_X

RELIEF V TEST PORT ALVE

OVER,OARO
_ _ el:: _

PRESSURE REG[ L6.TOR

NORMALLY

CLOSED VALVE

FILTER INLET

VALVE

PYROTECHNIC

FILTER

_

!

B -_I

,NTERCHEC_I / _E: ' I IP,_f _
VALVE TEST

___%_.::_ _::_i ,,_.,.c.oJ I L,_='_--.) ........................... 1_: __"_ ........... P,LTERI Li:Ii_ .I-_
_;E;_:,
RELIEF VALVE

_

MANUAL

TEST

PRESSURE
I SOURCE I_MI_ SENSOR TRANSDUCER

N20XIDIZERI TANK VENT

,_1

........
£'4

PYROTECHNIC

VALVE

I-

_

_1 _

............................................................ ,......... __.:.:.:.,.n_

I

_1"

E,LTER.......................... I

HIGH PRESSURE MANUAL CHARGING VALVE

MANUAL VALVE

TEST

/"-_

Figure

15-28

Reaction

Control 15-110

System

Schematic

(Sheet

I of 2)

/

"_

SEDR 300

PROJECT

GEMINI

[]

THESE VALVES ARE SET TO THE OPEN POSITION BEFORE LAUNCH AND REMAIN OPEN THROUGHOUT THE MISSION

25_

25l

OFF/ON

VALVE []

J:_l OFF/ON :.;._,_.:.:.:.:. .... .:._'i_._

::

ER SUPPLV• VALVE
25# VALVE (16 TYP.) 'OXIDIZER (16 TYP) VALVE HEATER 25l

Figure 15-28 Reaction Control System Schematic (Sheet2 of 2) 15-111

PROJEC'T
__

GEMINI
SEDR300 ____

signal from the Sequential System.

Ring B is thus activated and it begins Ring A is not activated until it is sethe

immediately to execute TSS co_m-nds. lected.

For explanation purposes, the RCS is divided into three groups:

Pressurant, Fuel/0xidizer (or propellant) and Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA).

PRESSURANT GROUP The pressurant group (Figure 15-28) consists of a pressurant tank, "A" package, pressure regulator and "B" package. Valves and test ports are provided at Filters

accessible points to permit servicing, venting, purging and testing. are provided throughout the system to prevent contamination.

The pressurant is

stored and isolated from the remainder of the system by a normAlly-closed pyrotechnic actuated valve, located in the "A" package.

FUEL/OXIDIZER GROUP The fuel/oxidizer (propellant) group (Figure 15-28) consists of expulsion bladder storage tanks, "C" (oxidizer) and "D" (fuel) packages. Valves, ports and test

ports are provided at accessible areas to permit servicing, venting, purging and testing. nation. Filters are provided throughout the system to prevent contami-

The propellants are isolated in the storage tanks from the remainder

of the system by normally-closed pyrotechnic actuated valves in the "C" and "D" packages. ture. Heaters are installed on the packages to maintain an operating tempera-

The propellants used are: Oxidizer - Nitrogen Tetroxide (N294) conforming to Specification MIL - P - 26539A

15-112

PROJECT
f_

GEMINI
_.___

___

$EDR300

_EL

- Monomethyl

Hydrazine MIL

(N2H3CH3)

confroming

to Specification

- P - 27403

THRUST _ The TCA group

ASSEMBLY GROUP (Figure 15-28) consists of eight 25-pound TCA's used for attitude

(rot!, pitch and yaw) control valves valves, which open

of the ATDA. Heaters,

Each TCA installed

is equipped

with two solenoid solenoid

simultaneously. the oxidizer

on the oxidizer

maintain

at an operating

temperature.

SYSTmOPERATION
RCS thruster 15-28) _-_ operation is controlled by signals from the TSS. System. The RCS The RCS, vehicle (Figure in conin the

is activated

by a signal provides

from the Sequential attitude control

Junction with roll, pitch

the TSS,

of the target

and yaw axes.

Ring

B of the RCS module control

is selected

during when

pre-launch power

by a DCS commaud

to pro-

vide attitude Vehicle

and is activated seconds.

is applied

at ATDA/Launeh of a

separation

plus eight

Selection

of ring A, in the event

malfunction

in ring B, may be accomplished

by a DCS command.

The operation and Thrust

of the RCS is described Assembly.

in three

groups,

Pressurant,

Fuel/Oxidizer

Chamber

PRESSURANT (Figure

GROUP High pressure The tank port. nitrogen i_ serviced (N2) pressurant through is stored at 3000 psi high presfrom the in the

15-28)

pressurant F_

tank.

the "A" package tank

sure gas charging

Pressure

from the pressurant

is isolated

15-113

PROJECT
__

GEMINI
_-_r

SEDR300

remainder

of the system

by a normally-closed nitrogen pressure

pyrotechnic is monitored

actuated

valve

located

in the "A" package. sure transducer instrumentation is opened

Stored

by the source presstation as

located data.

in the "A" package Upon command,

and relayed

to the ground

the "A" package

pyrotechnic

actuated

valve The pressure to The

and nitrogen routes

flows to the pressure

regulator

and "B" package. The regulated an output

"B" package is sensed

the pressure

to both propellant ("B" package) pressure

tanks.

by the pressure System

transducer indicating

and supplies

the Instrumentation check valves prevent

downstream

of the regulator.

backflow

of propellant feature

vapors

into the pressurant

system.

The "B" package oxidizer

has a safety

to prevent

over pressure

of the fuel and downstream of

tank bladders.

Should

the system first

be over pressurized the burst

the regulator,

the pressure through

would

rupture

diaphragms,

then be

vented overboard

the relief

valves.

FUEL/OXXDIZER GROUP
Fuel and oxidizer serviced through propellants are stored in their ports respective in the tanks, and are

the high pressure are isolated valves

charging

"C" and

"D" packages.

The propellants

from the remainder

of the system by a normally Upon valves command, the "C" and to

closed pyrotechnic (oxidizer) propellants the thrust

in the "C" and "D" packages. pyrotechnic their actuated

and "D" (fuel) package are distributed chamber inlet

are opened system

through

separate

tubing

manifold

solenoid

valves.

Two motor operated the TCA's.

valves

are located

in the propellant to launch

feed lines, upstream

of

These valves

are opened prior

and will remain

open through_

out the mission.

The valves are not connected electrically.

Heaters are

15-Ii_

$EDR 300

connected

to the output on prior

lines of the "C" and "D" packages to launch by the RCS HRTS switch.

to prevent

freeze-up

and are turned

THRUST

CHAMBER

AS_MBLY

GROUP solenoid valves are controlled by signals from the TSS. through on

The TCA fuel and oxidizer In response

to the signals,

the valves

open and propellants The fuel

are directed

small injector one another, are connected turned

Jets into the thrust they

chamber.

and oxidizer

impinge

where

ignite hypergolically solenoid switch.

to burn and valve

create thrust. freeze-up

Heaters

to each TCA oxidizer by the RCS HRTS

to prevent

and are

on at launch

SYSTEM

UNITS

PRESSURANT

STORAGE

TANK is stored in a welded, titanium volume spherical tank. The

The nitrogen tank is 7.25

(N2) pressurant inches

in diameter

and has an internal

of 185.0

cubic

inches.

Nitrogen nic valve

gas is stored until

at 3000 psi and held therein by a sequential signal. from their

by the "A" package nitrogen under

pyrotechpressure

released

This

is used to expel

the fuel and oxidizer

respective

tanks.

"A" PACKAGE The "A" package consists of a pressure valves. transducer, The pressure isolation valve, filters the and

two high pressure source pressure

gas charging and supplies

transducer

monitors System, valve

an output gas.

to the Instrumentation closed isolation

indicating is used to

the pressure isolate

of the stored

The normally

the pressure

from the remainder

of the system.

15-_5

PROJECT

sEoR 300
GEMINI
Two

The valve is pyrotechnically opened to activate the system for operation.

dual seal, high pressure gas charging valves and ports are provided, on on each side of the isolation valve. The upstream valve is used for servicing, venting

and purging the pressurant tank, while the downstream valve is used to test downstream components. entering the system. Filters are installed to prevent contaminants from

PRES_JRE REGUIATOR The pressure regulator is conventional, mechanical-pneumatic type. The regu-

lator reduces the source pressure to system operating pressure. reduces any contamination in the gas to an acceptable level.

An inlet filter

"B" PACKAGE The "B" package consists of filters, pressure transducer, three check valves, two burst diaphragms, two relief valves, regulator output test port, fuel tank vent valve, oxidizer vent valve, check valve test port and two relief valve test ports. The inlet filter reduces contam_uation in the gas to an acceptable level.

The relief valve filters prevent particals from a ruptured burst diaphragm from entering the relief valves. Test port filters prevent contaminants from entering The pressure transducer monitors the reguCheck The

the system through the test ports.

lated pressure and supplies an output to the Instrumentation System.

valves prevent backflow of fuel or oxidizer into the pressurant system. burst diaphragms

are safety devices that rapture when the pressure reaches the

design failure pressure, thus, prevents imposing excessive pressure on the propellant bladders.

The two relief valves are conventioan mechanical-pneumatic type with the pre-

15-n6

PROJECT
f-,.
___

GEMINI
__

SEDR300

set opening pressure.

In the event of burst diaphragm rupture, the relief valve The valve reseats when a safe level Manual valves and system.

opens to vent excess pressure overboard. is reached.

This prevents venting the entire gas source.

ports are provided to vent, purge and test the regulated

FFEL TANK The fuel tank is a welded, titanium cylindrical tank which contains an internal bladder and purge port. The tank is 5.10 inches outside diameter, 30.7 inches The nitrogen

in length and has a fluid volume capacity of 546.0 cubic inches.

pressurant is imposed on the exterior of the bladder to expel fuel through the "D" package to the TCA solenoid valves. vent the fuel tank bladder. The purge port is proveded to purge and

OXIDIZER

TANK

The oxidizer tank is a welded, titanium cylindrical tank which contains a bladder and purge port. The tank is 5.10 inches outside diameter, 25.2 inches in length The bladder is a double is imposed on

and has a fluid volume capacity of 439.0 cubic inches. layered Teflon, positive expulsion type.

The nitrogen pressurant

the exterior of the bladder to expel the oxidizer through the "C" package to the TCA solenoid valve. oxidizer The purge port is provided for purging and venting the

tank bladder.

"C" AND _'D" PACKAGES The "C" and "D" packages are identical in operation and are located downstream of the tanks of their respective F" system. Each package consists of filters, an isolaThe in llne filter reduces

tion valve, propellant charging valve and test valve.

15-i17

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
SEDR 300 __

partical contamination to an acceptable level. taminants from entering the system.

The valve filters prevent conclosed isolation valve is

The normally

used to isolate propellants from the remainder of the system until ready for use. The isolation valve is opened pyrotechnically charging valve is located upstream to activate the system. of the isolation valve and

The propellant

is used for sel_iclng and venting the system. the system, downstream of the isolation valve.

A test valve Is used to test

PROPELLANT

SUPPLY SHUTOFF

VALVES supply shutoff valves are located downstream of the

Motor operated propellant "C" and "D" packages. nected electrically.

The valves are opened during pre-launch

and are not con-

THRUST CHAMBER ASSEMBLY GROUP Each TCA consists of two propellant combustion valves, injection system, calibrated orifices,

chamber and expansion nozzle.

The fuel and oxidizer

solenoid valves upon

are the normally-closed command.

quick acting type_ which open simultaneously

The action permits fuel and oxidizer flow into the injector system.

The injectors use precise Jets to impinge fuel and oxidizer streams on one another for controlled mixing and combustion. fixed devices used to control propellant the combustion chamber. The combustion flow. The calibrated orifices are Hypergollc ignition occurs in

chamber and expansion nozzle are lined

_ith ablative materials and insulation to absorb and dissipate heat and control external wall temperature. TCA's are installed within the RCS module mold line, TCA's are located -_

with the nozzles terminating flush with the outer mold llne.

at fixed points on the RCS module in a location suitable for attitude control.

15-i18

PROJECT
__ SEDR 300

GEMINI

Thermostatically controlled electric heaters, located at various points in the system, are used to prevent propellant from freezing.

f_

EXTRA-VEHICULAR ACTIVITY

XVI
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ............................... SYSTEM OPERATION ................................. ELSSCHESTPACK OPERATION ....................... HAND HELD MANEUVERING UNiT OPERATION ..................................... SYSTEM UNITS ........................................... ELSS CHESTPACK ........................................ EILSS25 FOOT UMBILICAL AND EILECTRICAL JUMPER .................................

PAGE 16-3 16-6 16-6 16-15 16-17 16-17 16-18 16-20 16-20 16-22 16-23 16-23

"i:!:i:i:i:i:i:i:i:i:!:i:i:!:i "-"-'-'-'-"-'-'-'-'-'-"""" !_!_i!i!ii_i_i_!_!i!!i!_iii_!iii_i

ELSS 50 FOOT UMBILICAL ............................ HAND HELD MANEUVERING UNIT ................ GASEOUS NITROGEN MODULE .................... EVA HANDRAILS ........................................ HANDHOLDS AND FOOTREST ........ • • • • • • • * • • • • * •
/_

iii_i!iiiii!iiiii!_ii_iiiiii_i! :::::::::::::::::::::::::: :.:.:.:.:.:-:.:-:-:-:-:-:.'-:-:-:-:.', :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: i:i:i:i:i:!:i:i:_:_:i:_:i:i:i: ":':':':':':':':':':':':':':':': :::::::::::::::::::::: .'.-.-.°.',*.%%%%'.%°.%'.'.'*'. ""'""'"'""'""""""" .:.:.:.:°:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:
-.- .%-.....-...-.o.*.-.-,..-.-...o.

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: -.-.-o-..,-.o°o.°.,°-°-.-.-.-°o.*... :.:-:.:-:-:-:-:.:-:-:.:.:.:-:-:-:-:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:-:,:-:-:.:-:.:.:.:.:
....°.*........°.°......o.°...*.°.

:.:°: :.: :.:.:.:.:.:.:. :.:.:.:.: : :_:i:i:i:i:i:i:!:!:!:i:!:i:i:_
- °.°.*o-o.°-,.°-.O.-oO..°-°-..°O..o

::::::::::::::::::::::
]L@ ] :.:.:.:.:-:-:-:-:°:.:.:-:.:-:.:-:,:":':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':':

._..

SEDR 300

Figure

16-1

Typical

Use of EVA Equipment 16-2

SEDR 300

SECTION

XVI

EX_HICU_R

ACTIV!_£

SYS_H

DESCRIPTION Activity (EW!) is that portion to conduct of the mission during which maneuvers. wearing a the

_xtrs_ehiculsr pilot egresses

from the cabin

experiments performance

and perform

The purpose pressurized form

of EVA is to: suit in a free maneuvers

determine space

man's

capabilities

environment, independent

demonstrate of the

the ability

to per-

controlled

in space

spacecraft,

and conduct 8 through

experiments 12 missions.

outside

the spacecraft.

EVA is planned

for spa cecrs_

EVA is accomplished with:

usi_

the E_ra-vehicu_r Li_ S_port _

Life Support

System

in conjunction

the Extra-vehicu_r

Package

on spacecraft

8; the Hand Held U_t on

Maneuvering spacecraft

Unit on spacecraft 9 and 12.

and ll; and the Modular Unit

Maneuvering

The ModularNaneuveri_

is an expe_ment;

therefore on

it is not included spacecraft information 8 which

in the EVA System utilized

description.

No EVA was accomp_shed Life Support Package;

the Extra-vehicular configuration

therefore,

pertaining

to that

is not included.

The Extra-vehicular EVA System and s_plies

_fe

Support

System

(EI.SS) is the prima_ The E_S pro_des

component

of the control the

on each spacecraft the necessary

mission.

environmental to support

electrical The E_S

and tether

connections

pilot during the entire EVA. umbilical_ and electrical

consists basical_ umbilical

of a chest pack, for spacecraft _neu-

jumper.

The E_S

is modified

l0 and ll to include a nitrogen hose to s_p_ vering Unit _ forward trated (HHMU). The NE_ thrust

propel_nt through

to the Hand He_ space.

is used to maneuver Typical

It provides is illus-

or reverse in Figure

as re_ired.

use of EVA e_ipment

16-1.

16-3

_.._.

SEDR 300

STOWAGE BOX

STOWAGE

/

/

/

/

,

\

j/ /

UMBILICAL

\

(s/c loa it)

\

(S/C 9 A 12)

N

,'_';_

'
,I,.0.
I ,v._°'.A,s ,,_ (S/C 9

l,_.] .....
OVERHEAD SWITCH AND CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL

COMMAND

PILOT MAIN /_'EVA
02 DISCONNECT

INSTRUMENT PANEL

(S/C

8, 10 & 11)

__

•_'=_'_

RIGHTSWITCHAND CIRCUIT

:

_':

BREAKER PANEL (S/C 8, 10 & 11)

L SUIT TEMPERATURE PANEL

Figure 16-2 Typical Locations of EVA Equipment and Support Provisions 16-4

(Sheet 1 of 2)

.._.%_.

SEDR 300

L_,_;---

PROJECT

GEMINI

DIS

RELEASE ASSEMBLY

NITROGEN DISCONNECT PANEL (S/C 10 & 11)

HAND

RAILS

HOLD (2 PLACES)

_--THERMAL

COVER

HHMU NITROGEN MODULE (S/C 10 & 111

Figure

16-2 Typical

Locations

of EVA

Equipment

and Support

Provisions

(Sheet

2 of 2)

16-5

SEDR 300

EVA support

provisions

consist

of handrails,

handholds,

footrest,

lights

and

tether attach points.

These aid the pilot in maneuvering to the rear of the

adapter and in donning the back pack or performing experiments in that area. Figure 16-2 illustrates provisions. the typical location of EVA equipment and support

SYSTEM OPERATION The EL$S provides suit pressurization and environmental control during EVA. Oxygen, from the spacecraft primary oxygen supply, is supplied to the ELSS chest pack via the umbilical. The umbilical oxygen attach point is located Oxygen flow to the umbilical On spacecraft

on the center pedestal in the spacecraft cabin.

is controlled by the REPRESS valve on the suit temperature panel.

missions utilizing a back pack, a limited oxygen supply in the back pack replaces the spacecraft oxygen supply to permit farther excursions from the spacecraft.

In addition to supplying oxygen to the chest pack, the umbilical provided voice communications and telemetry information, as well as a tether restraint. The

modified ELSS umbilical used on spacecraft i0 and 11 also includes a propellant hose for the HHMU. The electrical jumper provides a single connecting point

for the chest pack and pressure suit to the umbilical.

ELSS CHEST PACK OPERATION

O_gen

Loo_ - Normal Operation

Oxygen enters the chest pack at the spacecraft UMBILICAL 02 CONNECTOR or the 02 CONNECTOR. The connectors are self-sealing quick disconnects. In

either case the oxygen is supplied through check valves to a flow control

.....

16-6

PROJEC'-'C'T-'GEM
,f.--, ___ SEDR 300

IN I

valve.

Figure 16-3 is a functional diagram of the ELSS chest pack and Figure

16-4 illustrates its physical construction and external controls and indicators.

Oxygen flow to the suit loop is manually controlled by the 02 FLOW SELECTOR valve. The selector valve has three positions: OFF, _DIUM (restricted flow),

and HIGH (full open). valve position.

A push-to-turn motion is required when changing the

The valve handle and valve position indications are illuminated The selector valve is adjusted to give maximum comfort.

for use during darkness.

Oxygen enters the suit loop at the ejector. circulating the flow through the suit loop.

The ejector supplies the means of The energy of the expanding high-

pressure oxygen (92 psia) from the selector valve provides the required energy .... for circulation of the low-pressure (3.7 psia) gas from the evaporator-condenser.

The oxygen entering the ejector is heated by two i0 watt heaters connected in series. One of the heaters is wrapped around the ejector throat and the other The heaters are energized when

is wrapped around the inlet line to the ejector. power is applied to the chest pack.

Suit pressure is maintained at 3.7 psia by the suit outflow valve which vents a portion of the exhausted suit gas overboard. In addition to maintaining Suit suf-

pressure, the suit outflow valve accomplishes two additional functions:

ficient carbon dioxide is vented to maintain a safe level within the suit loop and a portion of the heat load is removed with the vented exhausted suit gas. The remaining exhausted suit gas enters the evaporator-condenser to be cooled.

The evaporator-condenser is a temperature-controlled heat exchanger.

Cooling

is accomplished by transferring heat to water stored in the integral metal

16-7

T_

SEDR 300

"__

PROJECT
VENT

GEMINI
VENT

_

Ev_P_ _ SO,TOUTFLOW _U_T'o°_w
VALVE TRANSDUCER CONTROLVALVE ' _"" '' !;_

OXYGEN

SUPPLY

J

.

L_'I

CHECK
VALVE

_
_ =r

' J •

"

" " " ,

""

":" "

" '

" " "" "_ PRESSURE REGULATOR

HOSE CONNECTORS

SUIT DUAL CONNECTORS - -

FLOW , •

- "_ • i'

CHECK HEATER LINE VALVE TEMPERATURE

MANUAL BYPASS VALVE

ii _: _;'_ i_ TO SPACECRAFT

SENSOR
REDUCER RELIEF VALVE IHECK

;:il
-_ '_-_ "_

SU,T CIRCUIT

EJECTOR VALVE FILL VALVE VALVE "

ELOWCONTRO, _-- -- VALVE FILL PORT MMU 02 UMBILICAL 02 L

_'
j

J[_" i:.JJ %L_-c_ ".::
_

CONNECTOR

CONNECTOR

Figure 16-3 ELSS (]best Pack Functional
16-8

Diagram

SEDR 300

ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR

MANUAL VALVE

SHUTOFF

Figure 16-4 ELSS Chest Pack
16-9

PROJECT
___

GEMINI
__

SEDR3OO

wicks of the heat e_musted suit gas

exchanger. condenses The

As the gas is cooled the water vapor and is separated water and removed is passed heat

in the _,_cks

with evaporant through

by capillary wicks

action.

condensed heat sink.

vapor

the evaporant

to the evaporative

%lue evaporative

sink uses the condensed of water which must

water vapor as a coolant

thereby

reducing

the initial

amount

be stored in the heat sink.

The outlet

temperature

of the gas leav%ng valve.

the evaporator-condeL_ser

is coi_rolled

by the EVAPORA_ condenser maintain outlet outlet

FLOW CONTROL controls

A temperature

sensor at the evaporatorCOntrOL valve in point to

the operation at a nominal

of the EVAPO[@,}_' FLOW 45 degrees Fahrenheit. lowering

the temperature

An increase the boili1_

gas temperature

opens

the flow control greater

valve,

of the stored water, The EVAPORANT prevent

thus allowing valve

heat

dissipation the ELSS

in the heat exchanger. is in operation to

FLO_T CONTROL

is shut-off sink.

until

loss of the water level during

in the heat operatio_

If suit temperature ma_ be closed.

falls to an un-

comfortable

the valve

Oxygen There are:

Loop

- Emergency

Operation that are considered as emergencies. These conditions

are three

conditions

loss of external failure.

oxygen

supp]$ pressure,

low suit pressure,

and heat the EVA°

exchanger The first which

Each

of these three are

conditions

is cause for aborting for; while

two conditions

automagical]_ manual

compensated action

the third_

is not as critical 7 requires

by the pilot.

In the event the external ambient conditions),

pressure

falls below 67 + i0 psig pressure reducer

(reference

to

the emergency

automatically

actuates

16-io

PROJECT--'GEMINI
___ SEDR 300 _._.__

to supply emergency oxygen to the ejector.

The emergency oxygen supply has

the capacity of delivering oxygen to the ejector for a period of 16 to 27 minutes, depending upon the setting of the 02 FLOW SELECTOR valve. The pres-

sure reducer has a relief feature which will vent the emergency oxygen supply overboard should the pressure reducer fail in the open position. Sufficient

oxygen will he vented to avoid pressurizing the suit loop above 5.0 pslg. A pressure gage on the instrument panel allows monitoring of the emergency oxygen supply pressure. The emergency oxygen, upon leaving the storage tank,

passes through a manual shutoff valve, a pressure reducer, and a line heater. A temperature sensor located downstream of the heater is used in conjunction with a temperature control circuit to maintain the emergency oxygen at a temperature of 45 degrees Fahrenheit. A flow sensor in the emergency oxygen line

initiates an audio and visual alarm when the emergency oxygen supply is being used.

A demand type suit-pressure regulator in parallel with the BYPASS-NORMAL and 02 FLOW SELECTOR valves opens in the event suit pressure decays below B.B psia. Oxygen flow through the suit-pressure regulator is from the same supply which is supplying the suit loop via the ejector. maintain suit pressure at B.B psia. initiates The suit-pressure regulator will

A flow sensor in series with the regulator

an audio and visual alarm when flow through the regulator is sensed.

A failure of the evaporator-condenser will cause a considerable rise in suit inlet temperature. If, after increasing the 02 FLOW SELECTOR valve to HIGH,

sufficient cooling in the suit loop is no_ obtained, the BYPASS-NORMAL valve is placed in the BYPASS position. This increases the flow of oxygen to the

16-11

PROJECT GEMINI
suit loop. type. The BYPASS-NORMAL valve is the push-to-open for use during

so 30o
and push-to-close darkness. of a temperature module, Figure control and

Valve position

is illumlnated

Electrical

Operation portion of chest pack consists

The electrical oscillator heaters,

module,

oscillator

and light

controller

battery,

relay,

and associated

switches

-nd indicators.

16-5 is a schematic

of the chest pack

electrical

comgonents.

The chest pack operates supplied utilized. external external

from battery

power

or external

power

from the spacecraft power is or ....

throug_h the umbilical. A control power.

During

normal

operation

external

relay in the chest pack is energized

is used to select the umbilical

internal

The relay

through

and supplies breaker and the

power to the chest pack when When

the spacecraft battery

ELSS PWR circuit is utilized

is closed.

the relay is de-energized on the chest pack

power

EIZS PWR indicator

instrument

panel

illuminates.

The battery electrolyte. nected used,

is the

silver-zinc

alkaline

type using

potassium

hydroxide cells

as the con-

The battery

consists

of a group

of series-parallel Regardless the battery is placed

to provide

a nominal

load voltage

of 2_ v_c. until

of the power power switch,

the chest pack circuits underneath the access

are not powered

located

door on the chest

pack,

in the ON

position.

The oscillator a logic control

and light circuit.

controller

module

consists

of a voltage

regulator

and

The voltage

regulator

supplies circuit

the necessary consists of a

28 vdc

and i_ vdc re_11_te_

voltages.

The logic

control

16-12

PROJECT
i

GEMINI

flip-flop and an _

gate.

_e

OR gate obtains trigger inputs fr_ f!_ sensors.

the _it

pressure

regulator and emergen_ _ts, the _

o_gen

Upon receipt of one of the trigger an out_t _e

gate causes the flip-flop to change states and p_vide the temperature control and oscil_tor

to the audio oscillator _ ala_ c_

module.

be reset by _press_g

the AUDIO pushb_tton on the control panel which

causes the flip-flop to reset.

_e

tem_ra_re

control and oscillator mo_leprovides
!

control for the _ergency _e emergency

o_gen o_gen in_ts

line heater and the audible and visible warning devices. l_e heater is contro_ed by the temperat_e

control circuitry obtaining

from the emergency ox_en _en the tem_rat_e and a triter

temperature sensor and emergency oxygen fl_ bel_ fl_ 45 degrees

sensor.

sensor indicates a t_pera_re fr_ the eme_ency o_gen

Fahre_eit,

sisal

sensor exists, the _en

temperature control circuit a_s

power to be supplied to the line heater. the lye

the temperature at the sensor exceeds _5 degrees Fahre_eit, deact_ated. A sisal represent_g fl_ sisal a tempera_re

heater is

in excess of 45 degrees Fa_enheit before the Ene heater is fl_

and an emergency o_gen activated. sisal. osci_ator _e _e

have to be p_sent

EMERG 02 li_t

is also i_uminated

by the emergency o_gen from the flip-fl_ to _e

oscillator is activated by the outer and light contro_er and wi_ supp_

of the pilots

an audible ala_

headset and to the s_cecraft

via the umbilical.

The suit-pressure regulator flow sensor signal, in addition to triggering the OR gate of the oscillator and light controller, Is used to illuminate the SUIT PRESS indicator light.

The pressure transducer

in the suit loop monitors

suit pressure.

The output is

].6-].4

$EDR 300

PROJECT GEMINI
returned to the spacecraft for transmission as telemetry information. The

pressure transducer is a variable reluctance transducer with an output of 0 to 5 vdc with a sensed pressure of 2.5 to 5 psig.

The wrap-on heaters at the ejector provides 20 watts of power to maintain the suit loop inlet temperature at 45 + lO degrees Fahrenheit. When the battery heaters.

switch is placed in the ON position, power is applied to the nap-on

The panel illumination lights are turned on and off by the battery switch. A three position switch (TEST, DIM, BRIGHT) controls the intensity of the panel lights and the emergency indicator lights. In the TEST position, the panel

lights, emergency indicator lights, and the warning alarm audio oscillator are _ tested. The voltage regulator provides the reduced voltage for the low-

intensity position of the light switch.

The following light indicators on the instrument panel are not operational unless the experimental back pack is connected: PRESS. H202, RCS, 02 PRESS, and FUEL

The H202 pressure indicator is operational when either of the back

packs are connected.

HAND HELD MANEUVERING UNIT OPERATION The HHMU (Figure 16-6) provides the necessary propulsion required to maneuver in space. The HHMU has two tractor nozzles and a larger pusher nozzle. The

HHMU provides two pounds of thrust in the positive or braking direction. The pusher nozzle is attached to the major assembly and is used to supply the braking thrust. each side. forward The two tractor nozzles are on arms which extend out on

This positions the nozzles for thrusting in the positive or

direction.

16-15

SEDR 300

PROJECT

GEMINI

BRAKING

THRUST

DETAIL A

TRACTOR NOZZEL-

_J
RROFtJLSION TRIGGER (SEE DETAIL A) i _: i ]

TRACTOR NOZZLE

N2

N 2 SHUTOFF VALVE

Figure16-6

Hand

Held 16-16

Maneuvering

Unit

SEDR 300

Be

trigger

is pivoted

in the ce_er

so the tractor

nozzles

or the pusher

nozzle s_plies s_plies

can be co_rolled nitrogen nitrogen

with one hand. nozzle

Squeezi_

the lower end of the trigger the upper end of the trigger

to the pusher to the tractor

and squeezi_

nozzles.

_e

propulsion

gas for the _,_ in the adapter metal

is provided equ_ment

by two bottles _e

of gaseous

nitrogen

that are mounted adapter

section.

gas is routed to the connector and a lever by

skin through

tubing.

A quick disconnect of the ada_er

shutoff valve opening

are located

on the outside

and can be reached

a small

door on the spacecraft

skin.

SYS_M

_'II_

E_S _e

_ST

PACK is 18 by lO by 6 inches and weighs 42 pounds when _i_ de_ces on the chest pack used by the pilot seven indicators, include four _e

ELSS chest pack _erati_

charged. valves,

three switches, housing

two meters,

and five eo_ectors. finish.

chest pack

is mo_ed

from fiberglass

with a volar

_en

in use, the chest pack

is positioned to be_w

on the pilots

chest

(occ_ying

an

area from above the thins visible be_ and accessible. _e

the chin), and the control

panels are readi_ we_

chest pack is held in p_ce personal harness. The be_

by a self-adheri_ ends are lald across to the chest

attached of the

to the pints

strips

same self-adhering,

web-belt

material

affixed

pack.

Two dual o_gen o_gen

connectors

are prodded pressure

with the chest pack the egress

to pe_it

continuous preparation container.

flow to the pilots _e dual

suit duri_

and ingress

procedures.

connectors

are stowed

in the left hand a_

stow_e

16-17

PROJECT GEMINI
EY_SS 25 FOOT UMBIIICA_ AND ELECTRICAL JUMPER

SEDR 300

_.___]

The 25 foot umbilical assembly restraint that contains

(Figure

16-7)

is an aluminized supply hose,

mylar

and nylon

covered

the pilots

oxygen

electrical

leads and

tether.

The restraint strength egress D-ring

tether

consists

of a flat nylon

ribbon with by

a minimum

breaking

of 900 pounds.

The tether

is connected

snap rings to the right hatch opening, and to the

bar, located

at the forward

end of the right

on the pilots harness.

Electrical

leads

through

the ,_,_ilical are wrapped and c¢--,mmication

around

the oxygen

hose and

ca_i_¥ the bio-med power

instrumentation

signals,

and spacecraft
r_

to the chest pack. by an umbilical

The umbilical cor_ guard.

is protected

in passing

over the hatch

opening

The oxygen connects cabin. Oxygen

supply hose

routes

spacecraft

primary

oxygen panel

to the chest pack. in the spacecraft

It

to the d_sconnect The oxygen

on the suit temperature is disconnected when

supply hose

the back pack is connected. pack.

is supplied

from the supply tank contained

in the back

The electrical

jumper provides

a single connecting

point

between

the pressure the

suit and chest pack to the umbilical. signals passing between the chest pack,

The electrical pressure

Jumper interconnects

suit, and spacecraft.

The 25 foot umbilical,

electrical

Jumper,

and umbilical

cord guard

are stowed

in the left hand aft stowage Jumper, and umbilical

container.

The 25 foot umbilical, on spacecraft

electrical

cord guarcl are used

8, 9 and 12 missions.

16-18

PROJECT
pf-_-\

GEMINI
SEDR300 __

__

P1 34 33 17 14 4

MATES WITH SUIT ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR 36 35 20 37 18 15 5 16 10 II 25 24 23

SPACECRAFT

ELECTRICAL JUMPER

JI 34 33 17 14 4 36 35 20 37 18 29 28 30 15 5 16 11 25 24 23 22 21 10 31 32 27 13 26 9 12 3 7 2 19 6 8

P1 i ONLY

25 FOOT UMBILICAL

ELECTRICAL SPARES NOT USED , • •

34 I:'2

33

17 14

4

36

35

20

37

18

29 28

30

15

5

16

IO

24

23

I1

25

7

8

32

31

27

26

19

9

I

MATES WIT H SPACECRAFT ELECTRICAL CONNEC[O_

Figure

16-7 ELSS

25 Foot

Umbilical

and

Electrical

Jumper

16-19

PROJECT

SEDR300

GEMINI

_._

ELSS

50 FOOT UMBILICAL

The

50 foot umbilical that contains

(Figure

16-8)

is an aluminized supply hose,

mylar EH_

and nylon nitrogen

covered hose, electri-

assembly

the pilots tether.

oxygen

cal leads and restraint

The restraint strength

tether

consists

of a flat nylon

ribbon

with a minimum

breaking

of 900 pounds.

The tether

is connected

by a snap ring to the egress clamp to the pilots harness.

bar in front of the right

seat and by a harness

Electrical the bio-med

leads

through

the umbilical and

are wrapped

around

the hoses cabling are

and

carry

instrumentation and

communication pneumograph.

signals.

_ne

monitors established Electrical opera-

an electrocardiogram through power tion.

impedance

Communications

a left and right microphone

and a left and right

earphone.

is supplied

in + lO vdc and -lO vdc along with power is protected in passing over the hatch

for chest pack opening

The umbilical guard.

by a nylon on the on

chaffing

The oxygen panel

supply hose

connects

to the oxygen

disconnect

suit temperature the chest pack. the pilots hatch

in the spacecraft hose

and to the bZMBILICAL 02 CON_CTOR are the quick disconnect

The nitrogen and the HHMU.

connections

aft of

The 50 foot umbilical 50 foot umbilicsl

is stored

in the left hand

footwell

stowage

pouch.

The

is used

on spacecraft

i0 and ii missions.

HAND

I_LD

MANEUVERING

UNIT

The }IHMU provides

the

necessary

propulsion

required

to maneuver

in space.

The ....

HHMU is stowed in the left hand aft s+owage container.

The HI_dU is used with

16 -20

I___

PROJECT

GEMINI
N 2 CONNECTOR TO HHMU'_

"

_.=-_

To_ECRAE, _

E_C,RICA' MATE_ _ACK W,TH _.E_,
CONNECTOR TO SPACECRAFT ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR _. 18 15 16 t2 4 7 9 3

E'ECTR.C_
CONNECTOR TO SUI T 14 /

ELECTP,_CAL SPAEES 29 13 28 12 -EXTERNAL POWER ........... --EXTERNAL POWER

23 24

P,'_.IKE RMIKE

i 23 24

10 11 35 --R LMIKE _A_ H_ADS_T _"

--

25 11 10 _ 35

20

37
33 34 17

--

_EAE ,k .EAOSET---_,
U EAR HEADSET--_--_ ,_ EAR HEADSET _ EKG NO, --EKG NO, 2 2 _" _ I _ _" L J ------

'×,:_:-L
_ _ i L /(_ J _ l

3,
20 36 18 33 34 17

36 --R 18 --------

--IMPEDANCE 14

PNELIMOGRAPH

L"_ i

_

4

.... 5 15 _IOVDC IOVDC ........ --10VDC RETURN _-b I

r I

i I 5 15 16

"1"

"I2_

3o

_- MATES WiTH S/C '

ELECTELCA_. CONNECTOR Figurel6-8 ELSS 50 Foot Umbilical

ELECTRICAL SUIT MATES WiTH CONNECTOR

t_

16-21

SEDR300

the 50 foot umbilical on spacecra_

lO and Ii.

The H_

is co_tructed _

of fiberglass reinforced with po_ester lo_, 6 in_es wide, and 1 in_

resin.

The HHMU

is _pro_mate_

in_es

thick.

A pivoted

trigger controls the operation of the two valves. on the main body of We blies which swivel aw_ HH_.

The pusher nozzle is moused assem-

The two tractor nozzles are on 14 inch a_

from the forward end of the HHMU.

GASEO_NITROGEN

MODULE is bracket mounted in the _acecraft

The gaseous nitrogen module (Figure _-2) adapter section. and fi_ va_e. The modu_

consists of two bottles, a pressure regulator, bottles is routed to a _ick disconnect and

Nitrogen from _e

shutoff valve located aft of the right hatch by a _arter

inch metal tubing.

An access door (Figure _-2) phase. The door is _ened _

protects the disconnect and valve duri_ compressi_ the _ri_ latch assemb_.

the _unch Movement

of the door past the ve_ical

position dise_a_emthe

hinges for removal]'

Each nitrogen bottle will hold up to 438 cubic inches of gaseous nitroge_ providi_ a system c_aci_ of 8_ cubic inches, whi_ is usab_ represent ll.5 pou_s

of nitrogen (_.75

for the pilot). The nitrogen +i0 is stored at a pressure 5000 to 5500 pslg and is regulated to _0 -15 pslg by a built-in reg_ator mate_ l_ psig. on the b_tle. The press_e at the HHMU will be appro_-

pounds of the _trogen

The system has sufficient capacity for a little over five usage.

minutes of co_inuous

16- 22

SEDR 300

EVA HANDRAILS

The two EVA handrails are located along the top of the adapter and aid the pilot in maneuvering from the spacecraft cabin to the rear of the adapter. rails are illustrated in Figure 16-9. The hand-

Launch vehlcle-spacecraft ment section.

sel_Lration releases

the handrail

on the adapter

equip-

The handrail is held in the stowed position by a release pin. At separation,

The release pin is physically attached to the launch vehicle.

the release pin is pulled away with the launch vehicle allo_ringthe handrail to move slightly aft. This a]_lowsthe handrail to clear the spacecraft retainUpon full extension the handrail is

Ing hooks and self-extend by spring force. -_'t"_ locked in the extended positicm.

The forward handrail release button.

is extended manually by the pilot when he depresses the the

Depressing the release button releases the stop and all_s

handrail to move slightly forward.

This forward movement allows the handrail

to clear the retaining hooks emd self-extend by spring force.

An umbilical guide (Figure 16--2)is located at the rear of the handrail on the adapter equipment section. The umbilical guide assembly prevents damage to the The umbilical guide assembly

umbilical in passing over the edge of the adapter.

is extended when the handholds and footrest in the adapter are extended.

HANDHOLDS

AND FOOTREST

The handholds and a footrest are located in the adapter on spacecraft 8, 9, ll,
f

and 12 mlssions_

These provide a means for the pilot to hold on and remain in

16-23

PROJECT
__
HANDRAIL RELEASEBUTTON

GEMINI
__

SEDR300

(TYPICAL 2 PLACES) STOWE D POSITION

////_

t

:2
EXTENDED POSITION

.

BUTTON

N DRAI L RELEASE

__'::::_

IRETAIN]NG

BOLT

MATING STOWED POSITION

LINE

SPACECRAFT ----_'1_r/ _RETAINING (TYPICAL HOOKS _ RETAINER kAUNC H VEHICLE /

2 PLACES) EXTENDED POSITION

Figure

16-9 EVA 16-24

Handrails

PROJE(T

SEOR 300
GEMINI

the adapter to don the back pack (on spacecraft mission 8, 9 and 12) or perform experiments. Figure 16-2 illustrates the handholds and foot rest.

=_nehandholds and footrest are retracted prior to use and are self-extended by spring action. On missions utilizing a back pack, the handholds are held in On

the retracted position by the thermal covering which protects the back pack. missions without a back pack, a retaining bar is used.

The handholds and footrest are extended when the INDEX EXTEND-POD EJECT switch in the cabin is positioned to POD EJECT. The switch is located on the right The switch controls two guillo-

switch and circuit breaker panel (Figure 16-2).

tines which sever the cables holding the handholds and footrest in the retracted position. A mechanical latch locks them in position. On spacecraft 9 and 12 the

control switch is labeled INIEX EXTEND-EVA BARS EXT.

A light is installed on each handhold to illuminate the adapter area during the dark side of the revolution. The lights are controlled by the EXT LTS switch The lights are illustrated in

on the right switch and circuit breaker panel. Figure 16-2.

A mirror is attached to each handhold to allow the pilot to observe the back pack during the donning procedure. pilot. The mirrors may be positioned as required by the

Figure 16-2 illustrates the physical location of the mirrors.

The back packs are attached to the spacecraft by means of a retaining bolt which passes through a guillotine. After the back pack is donned by the pilot, the

command pilot positions the BACK PACK-DEPLOY switch (located on the maln instru-

f
ment panel) to the DEPLOY position. This actuates the guillotine and severs the retaining bolt releasing the back pack.

16-25