# Chapter 6 Practical 1.

2 standing wave and partial reflection

Objectives: 1. To observe partial reflection at a mismatched termination. 2. To observe standing waves on a line with mismatched termination 3. To know that the standing waves are equal to the sum of the incident and reflected waves. Equipments: TLD511 (Transmission line demonstrator), variable phase sine-wave generator (e.g. Feedback VPG608), 600R resistor, 200R resistor, 1k8 resistor, links

TLD511 Transmission line demonstrator

Procedures:

1. The terminators are removed and the generator, two links and a 600R terminator are connected as shown in figure below.

2. On the generator, the frequency is set to about 2.5Hz, and the amplitude is adjusted until the travelling wave on the display is just lighting two sections up and two down in each column of the display. This is called amplitude. 3. The 600R terminator is removed and a standing wave appears. 4. The 1k8 terminator is substituted. Note that the standing wave is reduced. Its minimum and maximum values are noted and the values of the reflected pulse in practical 1.1 are compared. 5. The 1k8 terminator is replaced with one of 200R. units of

Observations:

When the 600R terminator is substituted with 1k8 terminator, it is found that the maximum amplitude obtained is +3 units. A reflection coefficient describes either the amplitude or the intensity of a reflected wave relative to an incident wave, when wave propagation in a medium containing discontinuities is considered. The reflection coefficient is closely related to the transmission coefficient. 1k8 terminator is being replaced with 200R terminator, the results obtained have some similarities. The amplitudes obtained for both are constant positive units when the ‘hold’ button is pressed. However, the results also show some differences. 1k8 terminator only gives results with positive amplitude while 200R can give result with negative amplitude. Not only that, the maximum amplitude that the 1k8 terminator can give is +3 units whereas the maximum amplitude that 200R terminator can give is only +2 units.

Results:

Steps 1. With 600R terminator (frequency of about 2.5Hz) 2. Remove the 600R terminator 3. Substitute 1k8 terminator

Results Amplitude of +2 units Amplitude of +4 units Step input to B: amplitude of +3 units Step input to A: -amplitude changes from +2 units to +3 units (press ‘hold’button) -amplitude changes from +1 to 0 and to +1 again (repeatedly)

Diagram (as shown below) 1 2 To B: 3 To A: -4(press ‘hold’ button) -5 (‘hold’ button released

4. Replace 1k8 with one of 200R

Step input to A: To A: -6(press ‘hold’ button) -amplitude from +2 units to +1unit - 7(‘hold’ button (press ‘hold’button) released) -amplitude from -1 unit to +1unit To B: -8(press ‘hold’ button) (‘hold’button released) Step input to B: -amplitude from constant +1 unit to +1, 0, +1, 0 unit repeatedly(press ‘hold’button) -amplitude with constant of +1unit (‘hold’button released)

Diagram1

Diagram 2

Diagram 3

Diagram 4

Diagram 5

Diagram 6

Diagram 7

Diagram 8

Discussion: The maximum amplitude occurs when the incident and reflected waves are both a maximum at the same time and place. Since the incident wave was amplitude, and the reflection coefficient was ½, the reflected wave is added to the incident wave gives a maximum of 2 units of 1unit. This

3 units of amplitude. The reflection

coefficients with 200R and with 1k8 terminators were of opposite sign, or equivalently they differed by 180’ in phase. Thus the phase of the reflected wave in the one case must differ by 180’ from the phase of the other reflected wave. To produce a corresponding change in ‘reflected’ waves supplied by the variable-phase oscillator, its phase controls must likewise be adjusted by 180’ (e.g. in practice on the VPG608 the lead/lag switch must be thrown, the phase control set to the difference between 90’ and its former setting).

Conclusion: If a transmission line is ‘correctly terminated’, for example in its characteristic impedance, all the power sent down the line is absorbed at the termination and no signal returns. Furthermore, if the line is open circuit or short circuit at the termination, complete reflection of the signal occurs. A wave, travelling in a line of characteristic impedance Zo and incident on a termination of impedance Zb gives rise to a reflected wave those amplitude is that of the original wave reaching the termination multiplied by a reflection coefficient, that has a voltage wave of formula: .