2

Colloquial Russian

The Colloquial 2 Series Series Adviser: Gary King

The following languages are available in the Colloquial 2 series:
French Italian Russian Spanish

Accompanying cassettes and CDs are available for the above titles. They can be ordered through your bookseller, or send payment with order to Taylor & Francis/ Routledge Ltd, ITPS, Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hants SP10 5BE, UK, or to Routledge Inc, 29 West 35th Street, New York NY 10001, USA.

2

2

Colloquial Russian
The next step in language learning
Svetlana le Fleming and Susan E. Kay

First published 2003 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001
This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2006.

“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group © 2003 Svetlana le Fleming and Susan E. Kay Printed and bound in Great Britain by TJ International, Padstow, Cornwall All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Le Fleming, Svetlana. Colloquial Russian 2: the next step in language learning / Svetlana le Fleming and Susan E. Kay. p. cm. – (The colloquial 2 series) Includes indexes. ISBN 0-415-26116-3 1. Russian language – Conversation and phrase books – English. 2. Russian language – Textbooks for foreign speakers – English. 3. Russian language – Spoken Russian. I. Title: Colloquial Russian two. II. Kay, Susan E., 1947– III. Title. IV. Series. PG2121.L364 2003 491.783′421–dc21 2002152412
ISBN 0-203-38052-5 (Master e-book ISBN)

ISBN 0-203-38670-1 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0–415–26116–3 (book) ISBN 0–415–26117–1 (cassettes) ISBN 0–415–30250–1 (audio CD) ISBN 0–415–26118–X (pack)

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4111 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Contents

Acknowledgements How to use this book Unit 1

vii viii 1

Rossiq i russkij qzyk
Russia and the Russian language

Unit 2

Transport
Transport

39

Unit 3

Turizm
Tourism

57

Unit 4

Migraciq
Migration

75

Unit 5

Sport
Sport

92

Unit 6

Kul;turnaq 'izn; v Rossii
Cultural life in Russia

111

Unit 7

Sredstva massovoj informacii (CMI)
The mass media

128

Unit 8

Rynok truda
The labour market

146

Unit 9

Demografiq
Demography

163

Unit 10

Obrazovanie
Education

180

Unit 11

Rossijskoe Ob]estvo
Russian society

198

vi

|

Contents

Unit 12

Zdravooxranenie
The health service

216

Unit 13

Vybory v Dumu
Elections to the Duma

234

Unit 14

Internet
The Internet

250

Grammar reference Key to exercises English–Russian vocabulary Russian–English vocabulary Grammar index Russian index

270 288 308 318 342 344

1111 2111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Acknowledgements

The Authors and Publishers would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce material in this book: Argumenty i fakty, Delovye lyudi, Itogi, Komsomolskaya Pravda, Literaturnaya gazeta, Moskovskie novosti, Nezavisimaya gazeta, Novoe vremya, Priglashaem na rabotu, Salon krasoty, Stolichnoe obrazovanie, Vash dosug, Versiya, Vremya novostei. Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge ownership of copyright. The publishers will be glad to hear from any copyright holders whom it has not been possible to contact.

How to use this book

Colloquial Russian 2 is intended for students who, working on their own or with a teacher, have already completed a first-level course in Russian and want to continue their study. The book starts with a revision unit which covers all the basic structures, including cases and aspects, so it is not a problem if you are a bit rusty. The book is thematically based and draws on sources from newspapers and magazines. The aim is to provide interesting information about Russia at the same time as introducing new vocabulary and language points. It addresses some of the particular problems of learning Russian, such as memorising vocabulary, stressing words correctly and choosing the right preposition. Each unit contains a brief section in English on its theme, a dialogue, a text, usually based on a newspaper article, as well as various other written materials encountered in everyday life: advertisements, tables and graphs, questionnaires and forms to complete. The text is also illustrated by photographs. There are a variety of exercises, designed to test comprehension and practise the new language points. In the sections on word building, guidance is given on how to increase your Russian vocabulary. Key new vocabulary is given in each unit and there is a cumulative Russian–English vocabulary, including all key words, at the end of the book. The English–Russian vocabulary contains all the words needed for the English–Russian translation exercises. At the end of the book there is also a key to exercises, quick reference grammatical tables and an index of the language points covered in the course. On the accompanying tapes and CDs you will find not only the dialogues but also comprehension exercises and exercises to practise the new language points in each unit. The exercises on stress are a particular feature. And don’t forget, there’s a website to support the Colloquials course. At <http://www.routledge.com/colloquials/ russian> you will find extra exercises as well as links to sites that build on the material in the units.

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

1 ROSSIQ I RUSSKIJ QZYK

In this unit you will ◗ learn some facts about the history of Russia ◗ revise the basic structures of Russian grammar including cases and aspects

When Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in March 1985 he recognised the need for fundamental economic reform. His policy of perestrojka (economic restructuring) had very little impact, but his other famous introduction, glasnost;, an element of freedom of speech and political freedom, ultimately led to the collapse of the USSR. Reformist politicians were successful in the elections of 1989, revolutions took place in the Soviet Union’s East European satellites during 1989–90, and the republics of the Soviet Union also started to demand independence. The final blow was the unsuccessful coup by conservative elements in August 1991, which eroded Gorbachev’s position and brought Boris Yeltsin, President of Russia, to the fore. The Soviet Union was finally dissolved in December 1991. The collapse of the Soviet Union was also the birth of a new Russia. Since then Russia’s history has not been smooth, characterised by such notable events as Yeltsin’s violent clash with parliament in October 1993, ending in the siege of the Russian ‘White House’, and the financial collapse of September 1998. Despite its problems, Russia is a country with a rich culture, huge resources, both human and physical, and its capital Moscow is now a vibrant and exciting city.

2

|

Russia and the Russian language

Language revision ♦
Rules of spelling
These rules apply throughout Russian and impact on all the other language points described below. 1 2 3 4 After After After After g, k, x, ', h, w, ] replace y by i. ', h, w, ], c replace unstressed o by e. g, k, x, ', h, w, ], c replace q by a. g, k, x, ', h, w, ], c replace [ by u.

Cases
Understanding of the case system is fundamental to a grasp of Russian. Cases hardly feature in English: there is only some differentiation in the use of pronouns. Contrast ‘I like her’ with ‘She likes me’. The forms ‘I’ and ‘she’ are used when they are the subject of the verb, or nominative case, and ‘her’ and ‘me’ when they are the object, or accusative case. In Russian, not just pronouns, but nouns and adjectives proclaim their role in the sentence by changing their ending, and the number of cases extends beyond nominative and accusative to six in total. Comprehensive tables of the endings of nouns, adjectives and pronouns are at the back of the book.

The nominative case Uses of the nominative case
1 The nominative is the case of the subject of the verb: ´ ´ Moskva procvetaet. Moscow flourishes. 2 It is also used as the complement of (i.e. following) the non´ existent present tense of the verb ‘to be’ and after \to ‘it is’ and vot ‘here is’: ´ ´ca. Moskva – stoli Moscow is the capital. ´. ´ca. Vot Moskva |to stoli Here is Moscow. It is the capital.

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

3

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

The nominative may also be found after the past tense of byt;, where the permanence of a state is being emphasized: ´wkin byl veli ´t. Pu ´kij po\ Pushkin was a great poet.

Endings in the nominative case Singular nouns
Masculine cns. -j -; prezident ´ president ´ tramvaj tram kreml; kremlin Feminine -a -q -; gazeta ´ newspaper ´ revol[ciq revolution vozmo ´'nost; opportunity Neuter -o -e -mq vino ´ wine ´ zdanie building vremq ´ time

Note: There are three genders of nouns in Russian and, in most instances, the gender is indicated by the letter a noun ends with in the nominative singular. When a noun ending in -a or -q clearly refers to someone of male gender, the word is masculine: mu'hi ´na ‘man’; ´dq ‘uncle’. In practice, this means that it changes its endings like dq a feminine noun but adjectives and verbs agreeing with it have masculine endings.

Plural nouns
Masculine Singular prezident ´ ´ tramvaj kreml; Plural prezidenty ´ ´ tramvai kremli ´ Feminine Singular gazeta ´ ´ revol[ciq vozmo ´'nost; Plural gazety ´ ´ revol[cii vozmo ´'nosti Neuter Singular Plural vino ´ ´ zdanie vremq ´ vi ´na ´ zdaniq ´ vremena

4

|

Russia and the Russian language

Notes: 1 The spelling rule may require a change from -y to -i: kni – ´ga knigi ‘books’. ´ ´ ´reg – 2 Some masculine nouns have a nominative plural in -a: be ´ ´ ´ berega ‘banks’; veher – vehera ‘evenings’; dom – doma ‘houses’; ´ ´ go ´rod – goroda ‘towns’. ´ ´ 3 Nouns in -anin end in -ane: anglihanin – anglihane ´ ‘Englishmen’ but gospodi – gospoda ‘gentlemen’. ´n ´ ´ 4 Other exceptions: uhi ´tel; – uhitelq ‘teachers’; brat – brat;q ´l;q ‘chairs’; drug – druz;q ‘friends’; syn ´ ‘brothers’; stul – stu ´ ¨ ´ ´ ´ – synov;q ‘sons’; derevo – derev;q ‘trees’; rebenok – deti ‘chil´ ´ dren’; helovek – l[di ‘people’; mat; – materi ‘mothers’; doh; ´ – do ´heri ‘daughters’. (Note that all forms of mat; and doh;, apart from the nominative and accusative singular, have -er- before the ending). 5 Some nouns, generally of foreign origin, are indeclinable. They never change their endings and do not even have a plural. Adjectives describing them will decline in the usual way, however. Their gender can generally be determined by their ending, as with declinable nouns, but note taksi – neuter. ´

Adjectives
There are two basic sets of adjective endings: hard and soft.
Masculine Hard Soft interesnyj ´ interesting drevnij ´ ancient Feminine interesnaq ´ drevnqq ´ Neuter interesnoe ´ drevnee ´ Plural interesnye ´ drevnie ´

Notes: 1 Adjectives with stressed endings have the masculine ending -o ´j: ´ ´ kruto krutaq, kruto krutye ‘steep’. ´j, ´e, ´sskij, ru ´sskaq, 2 Endings may be altered by the spelling rules: ru ´sskoe, ru ´sskie ‘Russian’; xoro ru ´wij, xoro ´waq, xoro ´wee, ´ xoro ´wie ‘good’; bol;wo bol;waq, bol;wo bol;wi ‘big’. ´j, ´e, ´e

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

5

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Pronouns
Singular q ty on ´ ona ono ´ kto hto I you (singular and familiar) he, it (masculine) she, it (feminine) it (neuter) who what Plural my vy oni ´ we you (plural and polite) they (all genders)

Masculine moj tvoj naw vaw ves; hej ´ \tot tot my your (singular and familiar) our your (plural and polite) all whose this/these that/those

Feminine ´ moq ´ tvoq ´ nawa ´ vawa vsq h;q ´ \ta ta

Neuter ¨ moe ¨ tvoe ´ nawe ´ vawe ¨ vse ¨ h;e ´ \to to

Plural moi ´ tvoi ´ ´ nawi ´ vawi vse h;i ´ \ti te

Note: The third person forms are indeclinable and remain the same whatever the case gender or number of the noun they describe: ego ´ ¨ ee ix his, its (m and n); her, its (f ); their

6

|

Russia and the Russian language

Exercise 1
Pick out the nouns, adjectives and pronouns in the nominative case from the following passage.
´ Moskva – Moscow ´rvoe letopi ´ ´. ´sitsq k 1147 godu Pe ´snoe upominanie o Moskve otno ´ ´zdal;skij knqz; {rij Vladi ´ Osnovatel; Moskvy byl su ´ ´mirovih ´kij. |to on vy bral me ´sto dlq stroi ´roda. Go ´rod ´ Dolgoru ´tel;stva go ´ ´ke ´ntrom ru ´sskix zeme ´l;. Moskva ´ ros bystro i u'e v 14-om ve stal ce ´ ´rvyj perenes ´da ¨ ostavalas; stoli ´ ´cej vplot; do 1713 go kogda Petr Pe ´ ¨ ´rg. To ´ ´ ´sle ´vyj go ´rod – Peterbu ´l;ko v 1918 godu u'e po stoli ´cu v no ´tskogo So[za, ´ cii Moskva sno stala stoli ´va ´ ´ Revol[ ´ ´cej, snahala Sove ´ ´m a poto Rossi ´i.

For information on dates and other uses of ordinal numerals see Unit 4.

Vocabulary ♦
vybrat; ´ knqz; (m) ´ letopi ´snoe upominanie ´ osnovatel; (m) ´ ostavat;sq otnosi ´t;sq k perenesti ´ rasti ´ stroi ´tel;stvo to choose prince chronicle reference founder to remain to date from to transfer to grow construction

Exercise 2
Answer the questions in Russian. One word answers will suffice. 1 2 3 4 5 ´ca ´i? ´j ´rod stoli Rossi Kako go ´? Kto osnoval Moskvu ´ ´cej v 1713g? ´j ´rod stal stoli Kako go ´cu tuda? ¨ Kto perenes stoli ´ ´cej v 1918g? ´j ´rod stal stoli Kako go

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

7

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

The Moscow Kremlin

Exercise 3
Put these phrases in the plural.
´snyj mosko ´j; ´vnij ru ´sskij kreml;; ´vskij muze dre intere ´'naq \konomi ´ strawnoe istori ´ ´heskoe sobytie; slo ´heskaq ´ma; naw znameni ´rik. proble ´tyj isto

The accusative case Uses of the accusative case
1 The accusative is the case of the direct object of the verb: ´. ´kij osnoval Moskvu ´ {rij Dolgoru Yuriy Dolgorukiy founded Moscow. 2 It is also used after certain prepositions: v / vo ‘to, into’ (motion), ‘during’ (time); za ‘beyond, behind ‘(motion), for; na ‘to, on to’ (motion), ‘for’ (time); o / ob / obo ‘against’; po ‘up to, each’; pod ´ ‘under’ (motion); pro ‘about’; spustq ‘after, later’; herez ‘across, ´ through, in (after a period of time)’.

8

|

Russia and the Russian language

More detailed information is given about most of these prepositions in later units: Unit 2 – na; Units 4 and 6 – v; Unit 8 – za; Unit 6 – o / ob / obo, pro; Unit 10 – po. ´. Stoli ´cu perenesli v Moskvu ´ They moved the capital to Moscow. The accusative is also used without a preposition to denote duration in time or space: My tam 'ili vs[ zi ´ ´mu. We lived there all winter. ´ ´ ´gu domo ona molhala. ´j Vs[ doro She was silent the whole way home.

Endings in the accusative case Singular nouns
Masculine Acc. inanimate animate as nom. as gen. (see below) Feminine Nom. gazeta ´ ´ revol[ciq ´'nost; vozmo Acc. gazetu ´ ´ revol[ci[ ´'nost; vozmo all nouns Neuter Acc. as nom.

Plural nouns
Masculine Acc. inanimate animate as nom. as gen. (see below) inanimate animate Feminine Acc. as nom. as gen. all nouns Neuter Acc. as nom.

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

9

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Adjectives and pronouns
Masculine Singular inanimate as nom. animate as gen. Plural inanimate as nom. animate as gen. Feminine Singular interesnu[ ´ drevn[[ ´ ´ ´ mo[, tvo[ ´ ´ nawu, vawu vs[, h;[ ´tu, tu \ Plural inanimate as nom. animate as gen. Neuter Singular as nom. Plural as nom.

Singular q ty ´ on / ono ´ ona kto hto ´ menq ´ tebq ´ ego ¨ ee ´ kogo hto

Plural my vy oni ´ nas vas ix

Note: Ego ee and ix are preceded by n- after a preposition, as they are in ´, ¨ all cases other than the nominative: poxo na nego ‘like him’. ´' ´

Exercise 4
Put the words in brackets into the accusative case.
´sskaq 'e ´n]ina). 2 My e ´dem v (malen;kaq ´ta 1 Q zna[ (\ molodaq ru ´ ´ ´ ´vnq). 3 Vy xoti idti na (sovreme ´nnaq angli ´rskaq dere primo ´te ´ ´jskaq ´sa) i (klassi ´sskaq o ´lq) my ego ne ´pera)? 4 (Vsq nede ´ p;e ´li ´heskaq ru ´zdili vo (Franciq) na (me ´sqc). 6 My vstre ´tili vi ´deli. 5 My e ´

10

|

Russia and the Russian language

The Russian White House, home of the parliament or Duma. Photo: N. Kay

´nin perenes (ru ´sskaq stoli ´da ¨ (vawa sestra) u vxo v (teatr). 7 Le ´ ´ ´ ´ca) ´hen; xorowo (on) znaem. ´ v (Moskva). 8 (Kto) vy vi ´ ´deli? 9 My o ´

The genitive case Uses of the genitive case
1 The genitive is the only case ending which English retains on nouns. It is the -’s ending used to denote possession. Similarly, in Russian, the genitive indicates possession or translates ‘of ’. ´tin – prezident Rossii. ´ ´ Pu Putin is the President of Russia. ´ ´hen; slo ´'naq. Rol; prezidenta o The President’s role (role of the President) is very complex. 2 The genitive is also used after a very large number of prepositions: bez ‘without’; vdol; ‘along’; vne ‘outside’; vnutri ‘inside’; ´ vperedi ‘in front of, before’; vmesto ‘instead of’; vo vremq ´ ´ ´ ´g ‘during’ (named events in history); vo ´zle ‘by, near’, vokru ‘around’; v tehenie ‘during’ (with words such as nedelq ‘week’ ´ ´

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

11

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

or god ‘year’, indicating periods of time); dlq ‘for (the sake of)’; ‘do ‘up to, until’ (time or place); iz ‘from, out of’; iz-za ‘because of, from behind’; iz-pod ‘from under’; kro ‘except’; mi ‘past; ´me ´mo napro ´tiv ‘opposite’; o ´kolo ‘around, near’; ot ‘from’; po ´sle ´ ‘after’; pro ´tiv ‘against’; radi ‘for the sake of’; s / so ‘from’; sredi ´ ‘among; u ‘by, near, chez’: vo vremq perevoro ´ ´ta during the coup pro ´tiv prezidenta ´ against, opposed to the President ´ radi Bo ´ga for God’s sake ´ ´za do raspada Sovetskogo So[ ´ until the collapse of the Soviet Union ´g ´ ´ ´ byli tanki vokru Belogo do ´ma there were tanks round the White House More detailed information is given about iz-za in Unit 7, about the differences between iz, ot and s in Unit 5 and between s and so in Unit 12. The preposition u + genitive ‘in the possession of’ is used to translate ‘to have’ into Russian: ´ ´ ´ U prezidenta byla bol;waq vlast;. The President had great power. ´ Note that bol;waq vlast; is the subject of this sentence; literally ‘Great power was in the possession of President’. 3 The genitive singular is used after o / o ‘both’ and the numerals ´ba ´be ´ dva / dve ‘two’; tri ‘three’; hetyre ‘four’ and compounds ending in those numerals. The genitive plural is used after all other ´ numerals, except for odi / odna / odno / odni ‘one’, which is an ´n ´ ´ adjective agreeing with the noun it describes. ´my ´ ´ dvadcat; tri hlena Du twenty three members of the Duma ´my ´ ´ pqtnadcat; hlenov Du fifteen members of the Duma There is much more detailed treatment of cardinal numerals in Unit 9.

12

|

Russia and the Russian language

4 The genitive is used after expressions of quantity such as mno ´go ´ ‘a lot’; malo / nemno ‘a little, few’; neskol;ko ‘several’, sko ´go ´ ´l;ko ‘how many’; bol;winstvo ‘the majority’, and on its own as a ´ partitive genitive, to indicate part of a substance or ‘some’: ´ ´ Poli ´tika vyzyvaet malo interesa v Rossi ´ ´i. Politics arouses little interest in Russia. ´ ´ My vypili vina We drank some wine contrast: ´ My vypili vino ´ We drank the wine 5 The genitive is found in several negative constructions: ´det ‘there is not / was not, will not be’: after net / ne bylo / ne bu ´ ¨ U Gorbaheva ne bylo kompetentnyx sovetnikov. ´ ´ ´ Gorbachev did not have competent advisers. ´ V tako situacii net drugo vyxoda. ´j ´go ´ In such a situation there is no other way out. ´ after ne vi ´dno / ne slywno / ne zametno ‘cannot be seen / heard / ´ discerned’: ´da. Belogo do ´ ´ma ne vi ´dno ots[ The White House cannot be seen from here. as the direct object of negative verbs: ¨ Gorbahev ne imel podder'ki sredi naro ´ ´ ´ ´da. Gorbachev did not have support among the people. However, when the object is more concrete, the accusative is preferred: Q ne vi ´'u ego avtomobi ´l;. I don’t see his car. There is much more detail about the negative in Unit 13.

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

13

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

6 The genitive is also used as the direct object of certain verbs: ´ ´ 'elat; (po-) ‘to wish’; dostigat; / dostignut; ‘to achieve’. ´ Expressions such as shastli ´vogo puti ‘bon voyage’ are in the ´ ´ genitive because the verb 'elat; is understood. Some other verbs ´t;sq ‘to fear’; 'dat; take either the genitive or the accusative: boq ´ ´ ‘to wait for’; iskat; / po- ‘to seek, look for’; o'idat; ‘to expect’; prosi ´t; (po-) ‘to ask for’; trebovat; (po-) ‘to demand’; xotet; ´ ´ (za-) ‘to want’. Generally the genitive is used if the object is abstract and the accusative if it is a concrete object or a person: ´ ´ iskat; po ´mo]i ‘to seek for help’; iskat; dom ‘to look for a house’. There are more examples in Unit 11.

Endings in the genitive case Singular nouns
Masculine Nom. prezident ´ ´ tramvaj kreml; Gen. prezidenta ´ ´ tramvaq ´ kremlq Feminine Nom. gazeta ´ ´ revol[ciq ´'nost; vozmo Gen. gazety ´ ´ revol[cii ´'nosti vozmo Neuter Nom. ´ vino ´ zdanie vremq ´ Gen. vi ´na ´ zdaniq vremeni ´

Notes: 1 Never forget the effect the spelling rules have on endings: kni ´ga – kni ´gi. 2 Remember that the accusative of masculine animate nouns is the same as the genitive: ´ My za syna i pro ´tiv otca ´. We are for the son and against the father. 3 Some masculine nouns also have alternative genitive endings in -u or -[. They are most commonly found in the sense of ‘some’: ´ Kupi ha[ ‘Buy some tea’. Note also the expression mno ´ ´go naro ‘a lot of people’. ´du

14

|

Russia and the Russian language

Plural
Masculine Nom. Gen. plural Feminine Nom. Gen. plural gazet ´ nedel; ´ ´ revol[cij ´'nostej vozmo Neuter Nom. Gen. plural vin morej ´ ´ zdanij ¨ vremen

prezident ´ ´ tramvaj kreml;

prezidentov gazeta ´ ´ ´ tramvaev kremlej ´ nedelq ´ week ´ revol[ciq ´'nost; vozmo

´ vino ´re mo sea ´ zdanie vremq ´

Notes: 1 Masculine nouns: mesqc – mesqcev ‘months’ (because of the spelling rule); ´ ´ moskvi – moskvihej ‘Muscovites’ (also nouns ending in -', ´h ´ ¨ -w and -]); sloj – sloev ‘layers’ (because of the stressed ´ ´ ´ ending); anglihanin – anglihan; brat – brat;ev; stul – ´l;ev; drug – druzej; syn – synovej; rebenok – detej; ¨ stu ´ ´ ´ helovek – l[dej. ´ ´ 2 Feminine nouns: ´ ideq – idej ‘ideas’; sem;q – semej ‘families’. ´ ´ ´ ¨ Sometimes a vowel (-o-, -e- or -e-) is inserted between the last two consonants of nouns ending in -a: studentka – studentok ´ ´ ‘female students’; devuwka – devuwek ‘girls’; nouns ending in ´ ´ nq generally do not have a -;: pesnq – pesen ‘songs’, but there ´ ´ ´xnq – ku ´xon; are exceptions: derevnq – dereven; ‘villages’; ku ´ ´ ‘kitchens’. 3 Neuter nouns: derevo – derev;ev ‘trees’. ´ ´ Sometimes a vowel is inserted between the last two consonants of nouns ending in -o: okno – o ´ ´kon ‘windows’; pis;mo – pisem ´ ´ ‘letters’; kreslo – kresel ‘armchairs’. ´ ´

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

15

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Adjectives and pronouns
Masculine and Neuter interesnogo ´ drevnego ´ ´ moego ´ tvoego ´ nawego ´ vawego ´togo \ ´ togo ´ vsego ´ h;ego Feminine interesnoj ´ drevnej ´ moej ´ tvoej ´ ´wej na ´ vawej ´toj \ toj vsej h;ej Neuter interesnyx ´ drevnix ´ moi ´x tvoi ´x ´wix na ´ vawix ´tix \ tex vsex h;ix

Notes: 1 Remember that the accusative plural of masculine and feminine animate nouns is the same as the genitive and that adjectives or pronouns agreeing with them will also take endings like the genitive: ´sskix 'en]in i ix mu'ej. ´ ´tix ru Q zna[ \ ´ ´ I know these Russian women and their husbands. 2 The genitive of personal pronouns and kto is the same as the accusative. The genitive of hto is hego ´.

Exercise 5
Put the words in brackets into the genitive.
´ ´ Perevoro 19 avgusta 1991 go ´t ´da – neskol;ko (zamehaniq) ´ ´rvaq popy tka (perevoro v Ro ´t) ´ssii proizowla v avguste 1991 go ´da, ´ Pe ´ ´ ´) ´ kogda ne ´ ´skol;ko (hlen) (by vwee Politb[ro organizovali zagovor i ´ ´ ´ ´tiv (no ´vaq demokratiq i Gorbahev). (Gorbahev) ne bylo ¨ ¨ ´ vy stupili pro ´ ´ ´mq (zagovor), i zagovo ´reny v uspe ´xe ´r]iki by li uve ´ v Moskve vo vre ´ ´jstviq). Oni znali, hto u (Gorbahev) net (bol;waq ¨ (svoi de ´ ´ ´ ´

16

|

Russia and the Russian language

´r'ka) (naro ´d). Odno iz (sobytiq), ´ ´ politi ´heskaq vlast;) i (podde ´roe stimuli ´t) ´ koto ´rovalo popy tku (gosudarstvennyj perevoro byla ´ ´ ´ nacionalizaciq Rossi ´ ´ej (gazovaq i neftqnaq promy wlennost;) i ´ ´ ´nie (vnu ´trennie ce ´ny) na neft;. Odnako popy tka (perevoro ´t) ´ povywe ´ ´voe pravi ´ soratniki) provali ´las;. No ´tel;stvo (El;cin i ego ´ ´bovali (are ´st) (organizatory) (puth). Tepe u'e ´r; ´ rewi ´tel;no potre ´ ´niq), hto popy tka (perevoro v avguste 1991 ´t) ´ ´ ni u (kto) net (somne ´tskij So[z). ´da ´ go – odna iz (prihi ´ ´ny) (raspad) (Sove ´

Vocabulary ♦
byvwij ´ ´trennij vnu vystupit; pro ´ ´tiv ´ ´ gazovaq i nefqnaq promywlennost; ´ ´ gosudarstvennyj dejstvie ´ ´ zagovor / zagovo ´r]ik former domestic to act, come out, against gas and oil industry state action plot / plotter

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

17

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

povywenie ´ podder'ka ´ popytka ´ pravi ´tel;stvo prihi ´na provali ´t;sq proizojti ´ ´ raspad rewi ´tel;no sobytie ´ somnenie ´ ´ soratnik uvereny v uspexe ´ ´ hlen Politb[ro ´

increase support attempt government reason to fail to happen, take place collapse resolutely event doubt comrade-in-arms confident of the success member of the Politburo (political bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party)

Exercise 6
Answer the questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 Who were the instigators of the coup? Why did they feel that Gorbachev was vulnerable? Which economic policy helped provoke the coup? What was the Yeltsin government’s response to the failed coup? In what significant historical event was the failure of the coup an important factor?

Dative case Uses of the dative case
1 The dative is the case of the indirect object of the verb: ´ ¨ ´ Gorbahev peredal vlast; El;cinu v dekabre 1991g. Gorbachev handed over power to Yeltsin in December 1991. 2 The dative is also used after certain verbs that take a direct object ´ in English: verit; (po-) ‘to believe’; pomogat; / pomo ‘to help’; ´ ´h; sledovat; (po) ‘to follow’ (orders etc.); sovetovat; (po-) ‘to ´ ´ ´ advise’; ugro'at;, grozit; ‘to threaten’: ´

18

|

Russia and the Russian language

Rossi grozit perevoro ´i ´ ´t. A coup threatens Russia. There is further information on verbs with the dative in Unit 5. Note the constructions with uhit; ‘to teach / learn’ and uhi ´ ´t;sq ‘to learn’: ´. ´ Q uhu ego ru ´ ´sskomu qzyku I teach him Russian. ´s; ru ´sskomu qzyku ´. Q uhu I am learning / studying Russian. But note: ´ ´sskij qzyk. ´ Q uhu ru I am learning Russian. There is more information on verbs of teaching and learning in Unit 10. 3 The dative is used with the prepositions k ‘towards (place), by (time)’ and po ‘according to, along, through, by’: k veheru ´ ‘by evening’; k do ‘towards the house’; po po ´mu ´hte ‘by post’; po ´lice ‘along the street’. There is more information on the use of u po in Unit 10. 4 The dative is used with a large number of impersonal expressions: ´ ´ ´ nam interesno ‘it is interesting for us’; Prezidentu nado rewi ‘the President has to decide’. These expressions are dealt ´t; ´ with in detail in Unit 12. Note also On nam izvesten ‘He is known to us’. 5 Note this use of the dative with the infinitive: Hto mne delat;? ´ What am I to do? 6 The dative may also be combined with certain reflexive verbs: ´ ´deru prixo ´ditsq rewat;. Li The leader has to decide.

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

19

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ ´ ´det; prezidenta. ´ Emu xotelos; uvi He wanted to see the President. These expressions are also covered in Unit 12. ´ Note the construction with the reflexive verb nravit;sq (po-) ‘to like’: ´ ¨ Im ne nravilas; poli ´tika Gorbaheva. They did not like Gorbachev’s policy – literally Gorbachev’s policy was not pleasing to them. ´'en / nu'na / ´ 7 The dative is also used with the short adjective nu ´'no / nu'ny to translate ‘to need’: ´ nu ´ ´ ´ ´mo];. Emu nu'na byla po He needed help. There are further examples of this construction in Unit 12.

Endings in the dative case Nouns
Masculine Singular prezidentu ´ ´ tramva[ ´ kreml[ Plural prezidentam ´ ´ tramvaqm ´m kremlq Feminine Singular gazete ´ nedele ´ ´ revol[cii ´'nosti vozmo Neuter Singular ´ vinu ´ zdani[ vremeni ´ Plural vi ´nam ´ zdaniqm ´ vremenam Plural gazetam ´ nedelqm ´ ´ revol[ciqm ´'nostqm vozmo

20

|

Russia and the Russian language

Adjectives and pronouns
Masculine and Neuter interesnomu ´ drevnemu ´ ´ moemu ´ tvoemu ´ nawemu ´ vawemu ´tomu \ ´ tomu ´ vsemu ´ h;emu Feminine interesnoj ´ drevnej ´ moej ´ tvoej ´ ´ nawej ´ vawej ´toj \ toj vsej h;ej Plural interesnym ´ drevnim ´ moi ´m tvoi ´m ´ nawim ´ vawim ´tim \ tem vsem h;im

Singular q ty ´ on / ono ´ ona kto hto mne tebe ´ ´ emu ej ´ komu ´ hemu

Plural my vy oni ´ nam vam im

Exercise 7
Put the words in brackets into the dative.
Iz zapi ´sok 'urnalista ´ ´tro 1991 go ´dem po (Sado ¨ ´da. My e ´voe kol;co ´) Teploe avgustovskoe u ´ ´lyj dom). My u'e slywali iz peredah po (radio), i po ´ ´ k (Be ´ ´ ´dnie ´ta. Esli sudi ´ (televi ´denie) o popy tke perevoro ´t; po (posle ´niq) po (radio), (soldaty) ni ´t; soob]e ´ ´ ´kto ne prikazyval strelq ´ ´s ´'et li armiq (puthi po (tolpa). Vopro v tom, pomo ´ ´ ´sty) ili

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

21

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´du[t li soldaty prisoedi ´nitsq k (demokraty i El;cin), posle ´ ´ ´? ´ ´ ´sqtsq raznye my sli. Pohemu ´ (prikazy) iz Kremlq V golove prono ´ ´ ´li, Gorbahev? (Puthi ´? ¨ ´to \ proizowlo Kto vinovat? Neu'e ´ ´sty) ne ´jstvovat; ¨ ¨ ´ nravilas; poli ´ ´tika Gorbaheva? (Gorbahev) nado by lo de ´ ´r'ka vsex l[de Tepe (vse ´j. ´r; rewi ´tel;nee? Sejhas (on) nu'na podde ´ ´ ´st? Vokru Be ´g ´logo do ´ma – to ´lpy demokraty i El;cin) ugro'aet are ´ ´ ´logo ´da. (My) pohti nevozmo ´'no projti bli naro ´ ´ ´'e k (zdanie) Be ´ ´ma, no (my) tak xo ´hetsq uslywat; El;cina. On stoi na tanke i ´ do ´t ´ ´d). Vse polny \ntuziazma pomo ´h; (on i ego ´ ´ obra]aetsq k (naro ´ ´ ´d) ´l ¨ ´ soratniki). K (obe powel do'd;, no nikto ne xote uxodi (Vse) ´ ´t;. ´los; byt; hast;[ isto ´rii. xote ´

Vocabulary ♦
v golove prono ´ ´sqtsq mysli ´ ´ vinovat dejstvovat; ´ neu'eli ´ ´ obra]at;sq k ´ peredaha po televi ´deni[ poslednee soob]enie ´ ´ ´ ´ prikaz / prikazyvat; prisoedini ´t;sq k ´t; strelq sudi ´t; po hast; thoughts run through (my) mind guilty, to blame to act really? is it possible? to address television broadcast latest report order / to order to join to shoot to judge by part

Exercise 8
Answer the questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 6 What was the weather like on the nineteenth of August? How had the writer heard about the attempted coup? What reasons for the coup are suggested? Was it clear which side the army was on? Where did the crowds congregate? Who addressed them and from where?

22

|

Russia and the Russian language

Instrumental case Uses of the instrumental case
1 The instrumental case is used to translate ‘by’ or ‘with’ referring ´ to the instrument with which an action is performed: pisat; ´nkami ‘to ´ ´m karandawo ‘to write with a pencil’; okru'at; ta encircle with tanks’. Note its use after certain verbs indicating ´ ´j movement of parts of the body: maxat; ruko ‘to wave (with) ´t; golovo ‘to shake one’s head’; ´ ´j one’s hand’; kivat; / kivnu ´mi ‘to shrug one’s shoulders’. There is further ´ po'imat; pleha information on how the instrumental is used to translate ‘by’ in Unit 10. 2 It is also used after certain prepositions: za me'du ´ nad pered ´ pod s behind, beyond, for (to fetch) between over in front of, before under (place) with (accompanied by)

There is more information on the uses of za in Unit 8 and on s in Units 5 and 6. 3 The instrumental is frequently used as the complement of byt; ‘to be’ when this verb is in the past or future tense or the infinitive: On xotel byt; prezidentom ‘He wanted to be president’. ´ ´ 4 The instrumental case is used after several verbs: ´ ´t;sq zanimat;sq / zanq ´ interesovat;sq (za-) ´ ´ okazyvat;sq / okazat;sq ´ ´ ostavat;sq / ostat;sq po ´l;zovat;sq (vos-) stanovi ´t;sq / stat; ´ uvlekat;sq / uvleh;sq ´ ´t; upravlq ´t;sq qvlq to be engaged in, occupied with to be interested in to turn out to be to remain as to use, enjoy to become to be keen on control, manage, govern to seem, be

There is information on these and other verbs with the instrumental in Unit 6.

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

23

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

5 The instrumental occurs in certain adverbial expressions of time: ´trom in the morning u veherom in the evening ´ vesno in spring ´j o ´sen;[ in autumn ´mi for days on end celymi dnq ´ ¨ wepotom in a whisper ¨ dnem in the daytime no ´h;[ at night letom in summer ´ zimo in winter ´j

and in some expressions of manner: bego at a run ´m

Note also the phrases takim o ´ ´brazom ‘in that way, thus’; and ´ drugi ´mi slovami ‘in other words’. 6 The instrumental is also used in defining dimensions: vysoto in height ´j ro ´stom tall dlino in length ´j wirino in width ´j

´ reka wirino v desqt; metrov ´j ´ ´ a river ten metres wide

Endings in the instrumental case Nouns
Masculine Singular prezidentom ´ ´ tramvaem ´lem roq ¨ kremlem Neuter Singular ´m vino ´ zdaniem vremenem ´ Plural vi ´nami ´ zdaniqmi ´ vremenami Plural prezidentami ´ ´ tramvaqmi ´lqmi roq ´mi kremlq Feminine Singular gazetoj ´ nedelej ´ ´ revol[ciej ´'nost;[ vozmo Plural gazetami ´ nedelqmi ´ ´ revol[ciqmi ´'nostqmi vozmo

24

|

Russia and the Russian language

Notes: 1 Do not forget the possible impact of the spelling rule: vrah – ´ ´ vraho ‘doctor’; tovari] – tovari]em ‘comrade’; gosti ´m ´nica – gosti ´nicej ‘hotel’. ¨ 2 If the ending is stressed, -em and -ej are replaced by -em or ´ ¨ ¨ -ej: zemlq – zemlej ‘earth’. ¨ 3 The instrumental of masculine surnames ending in -ov, -ev, -in, -yn is ym: El;cin – El;cinym. Otherwise they decline like nouns. For the complete declension, including feminine and plural surnames, see the tables at the back of the book.

Adjectives and pronouns
Masculine and Neuter interesnym ´ drevnim ´ moi ´m tvoi ´m ´ nawim ´ vawim ´tim \ tem vsem h;im Feminine interesnoj ´ drevnej ´ moej ´ tvoej ´ ´ nawej ´ vawej ´toj \ toj vsej h;ej Plural interesnymi ´ drevnimi ´ moi ´mi tvoi ´mi ´ nawimi ´ vawimi ´timi \ temi ´ vsemi ´ h;i ´mi

Singular q ty ´ on / ono ´ ona kto hto mnoj ´j tobo im ej kem hem

Plural my vy oni ´ ´ nami ´ vami i ´mi

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

25

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 9
Put the words in brackets into the instrumental.
´lee (qsnaq). V \ ´tot den; (Utro) 20 avgusta situaciq stala bo ´ ´ ´ ´r'ana ´ ´dstvo) ode El;cin stal (si ´mvol) demokratii: pod (ego rukovo ´ ´da nad (kommunisti ´ra). Gorbahev bo ¨ ´l;we pobe ´heskaq nomenklatu ´rnost;) sredi rossi ´l;zuetsq (populq ne po ´jskix demokratov. ´ ¨ ´ Nerewi ´tel;nost; Gorbaheva qvi ´las; (glavnaq prihi ´na) kri ´zisa ego ´t ´j ´braz) El;cin s (ego xarizmati ´ poli ´tiki. (Tako o ´heskij avtorite ´rennost;) stal (glavnaq politi ¨ i tverdaq uve ´ ´heskaq sila) v Rossi ´ ´i.

Vocabulary ♦
nerewi ´tel;nost; oder'ana pobeda ´ ´ rukovo ´dstvo ¨ tverdaq uverennost; ´ indecision victory was achieved leadership unshakeable confidence

Prepositional case Uses of the prepositional case
The prepositional case is used after certain prepositions: v ‘in’ (place); na ‘on, at’ (place); o / ob / obo ‘about, concerning’; pri ‘at the time of, in the presence of, adjoining’. More information about v may be found in Units 4 and 12, about na in Unit 2 and about o / ob / obo in Unit 6.

Endings in the prepositional case Nouns
Masculine Singular prezidente ´ ´ tramvae kremle ´ Plural prezidentax ´ ´ tramvaqx ´x kremlq Feminine Singular gazete ´ nedele ´ ´ revol[cii ´'nosti vozmo Plural gazetax ´ nedelqx ´ ´ revol[ciqx ´'nostqx vozmo

26

|

Russia and the Russian language

Neuter Singular vine ´ ´re mo ´ zdanii vremeni ´ Plural vi ´nax ´x morq ´ zdaniqx ´ vremenax

Note:
´ Certain masculine nouns take the ending -u after the prepositions v and na, though not after other prepositions taking the prepositional ´ case. These nouns include: les – v lesu ‘in the forest’; bereg – na ´ ´ ´ ´ beregu ‘on the bank’; pol – na polu ‘on the floor’; sad – v sadu ´ ‘in the garden’; ugol – v uglu ‘in the corner’; god – v pro ´wlom ´ ´ godu ‘last year’; wkaf – v wkafu ‘in the cupboard’; Krym – v ´ Krymu ‘in the Crimea’.

Adjectives and pronouns
Masculine and Neuter interesnom ´ drevnem ´ ¨ moem ¨ tvoem ´ nawem ´ vawem ´tom \ tom ¨ vsem ¨ h;em Feminine interesnoj ´ drevnej ´ moej ´ tvoej ´ ´ nawej ´ vawej ´toj \ toj vsej h;ej Plural interesnyx ´ drevnix ´ moi ´x tvoi ´x ´ nawix ´ vawix ´tix \ tex vsex h;ix

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

27

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Singular q ty ´ on / ono ´ ona kto hto mne tebe ´ ¨ nem nej kom ¨ hem

Plural my vy oni ´ nas vas nix

Exercise 10
Put the words in brackets into the prepositional case.
´lyj dom naxo ´snenskaq ´ditsq v (centr) Moskvy na (Krasnopre ´ 1 Be ´mq perevoro ´ta Gorbahev byl v (Krym) na ¨ naber'naq). 2 Vo vre ´ ´reg) mo ´logo do ´rq. 3 V (zdanie) Be ´ma zasedaet parlament Rossi (be ´ ´ ´ ´i. ´sno slywat; ob (\ sobytiq) v (vawa strana). 5 Mili ´ti ´ ´ 4 Intere ´ ´ ´ciq ´logo do ´]ad;) o ´kolo Be ´ma. 6 O (kto) idet reh;? O ¨ byla na (plo ´ ´ta? Q nihego ne zna[ o (oni 7 El;cin byl v ´ (li ´dery) perevoro ´ ´). ´lyj dom) a organizatory perevoro by li v (Kreml;). ´ta ´ (Be ´

Vocabulary ♦
´ zasedat; to sit (of parliament)

Exercise 11
Answer the questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Gde Gde Gde Gde Gde Gde Gde ´ditsq Be naxo ´lyj dom? ¨ ´ta? byl Gorbahev vo vre ´mq perevoro ´ditsq Krym? naxo zasedaet parlament? ´ ´ ´ciq? byla mili ´ byl El;cin? ´ta? ´ by li organizatory perevoro ´

28

|

Russia and the Russian language

Reflexive pronouns
In addition to the personal pronouns and possessive pronouns ´ referred to above, there is the reflexive pronoun sebq and the reflexive ´ possessive pronoun svoj. Sebq means myself, yourself, himself etc. referring back to the subject of the verb. In consequence, it has no nominative. The other forms, common to all genders, singular and ´; plural are: acc. / gen. sebq dat. sebe; instr. sobo prep. sebe: ´ ´j; ´ ´maet to Ona du ´l;ko o sebe. ´ She thinks only of herself. The endings of svoj are the same as those of moj and tvoj. It translates any possessive – ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘his’ etc., provided it refers back to ownership by the subject of the verb. ´ ´ On l[bit svo[ rabo ´tu. He loves his work. To use ego in this sentence would mean it was someone else’s work. ´ In sentences with a first or second person subject svoj may be used as an alternative to the first or second person possessive: ´ ´ ´ My l[bim nawu / svo[ rabo ´tu. We love our work.

Sam
Sam is the emphatic pronoun ‘self’: ´ ´ Ona sama sdelala. ´ She did it herself. The full declension is in the grammar summary.

Short form adjectives
The adjectives referred to earlier are all long or attributive adjectives. There are also short or predicative adjectives. They are used only in the predicate of the sentence, separated from the noun or pronoun they describe by the verb ‘to be’: ´ Kniga byla interesna. ´ ´ The book was interesting. To form a short adjective remove the -yj or -ij from the long adjective. This gives you the masculine. For the feminine add -a, for the

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

29

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

neuter -o, and the plural -y: zdoro ´vyj ‘healthy’ – zdoro zdoro ´v, ´va, zdoro ´vo, zdoro ´vy. If the masculine form ends in two consonants a vowel is sometimes inserted between them; interesnyj – ´ interesen. ´ Some adjectives, including those ending in -skij, have no short form.

Adverbs
Adverbs are formed in the same way as neuter short form adjectives. ¨ ´ ´ ´ Bystryj ‘quick’ – bystro ‘quickly’: on idet bystro ‘he is walking quickly’.

Verbs
Compared with English, Russian has very few tenses: one present, two future and two past. Verbs fall mostly into two conjugations, or patterns of endings: first and second. First conjugation verbs may often be recognised by their infinitive ending in -at; or -qt;: delat; ´ ´t; ‘to do, make’; terq ‘to lose’. Second conjugation verbs more often end in -it; or -et;: govorit; ‘to speak’; smotret; ‘to look at’. ´ ´ However, there are a small number of second conjugation verbs ending in -at; and -qt; and irregular first conjugation verbs ending in -it;, -et;, -ti. Note that tables of the endings on verbs are given at the back of the book.

Formation of the present tense – first conjugation
Regular first conjugation verbs ending in -at; or -qt; – remove the -t; from the infinitive and add: -[, -ew; -et, -em -ete, -[t:

delat; ´ q dela[, ´ ty delaew;, ´ ´ ´ ´ on / ona / ono delaet my delaem ´ vy delaete ´ oni dela[t ´ ´

Remember that, as there is only one present tense in Russian, q dela[ ´ may translate as either ‘I do’ or ‘I am doing’, dependent on the context.

30

|

Russia and the Russian language

In addition to regular first conjugation verbs there are also verbs which take regular first conjugation endings, but their present tense stem is different from the infinitive stem, so it has to be learnt. Where the present tense stem ends in a vowel, the endings are the same as on delat; and, where it ends in a consonant, the endings ´ are -u, -ew;, -et, -em, -ete, -ut. If the ending is stressed, e is replaced ¨ by e: myt; ‘to wash’ q mo ´[ ty mo ´ew; ´ on / ona / ono mo ´ ´et ´ pisat; ‘to write’ ´ q piwu ty piwew; ´ ´ on / ona / ono pi ´ ´wet idti ‘to go’ ´ ´ q idu ¨ ty idew; ´ ¨ on / ona / ono idet ´ my mo ´em vy mo ´ete oni mo ´ ´[t my pi ´wem vy piwete ´ oni pi ´ ´wut ¨ my idem ¨ vy idete ´t oni idu ´

Much more about the stress of present tense of verbs may be found in Unit 10. Verbs with infinitives ending in -avat; drop the syllable -av- in the present tense; verbs ending in -ovat; replace the -ov- by -u- and those ending in -evat; replace the -ev- by -[-: ´ davat; ‘to give’ ´ q da[ ¨ ty daew; ´ ¨ on / ona / ono daet ´ sovetovat; ‘to advise’ ´ q sovetu[ ´ ty sovetuew; ´ ´ on / ona / ono sovetuet ´ ´ ´ voevat; ‘to wage war’ ´ q vo[[ ´ ty vo[ew; ´ ´ on / ona / ono vo[et ´ ¨ my daem ¨ vy daete ´ oni da[t ´ my sovetuem ´ vy sovetuete ´ oni sovetu[t ´ ´ my vo[em ´ vy vo[ete ´ oni vo[[t

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

31

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Watch out for the effect of the spelling rules on such verbs: ´ tancevat; ‘to dance’: ´[, tancu ´ew;, tancu ´et, tancu ´em, tancu ´ete, tancu ´[t. tancu

Second conjugation
Remove the last three letters from the infinitive and add the endings: -[, -iw;, -it, -im, -ite, -qt. Some second conjugation verbs are also affected by the spelling rules: govori ‘to speak’ ´t; ´ q govor[ ty govori ´w; ´ on / ona / ono govorit ´ ´ ´ der'at; ‘to hold’ ´ q der'u ty der'iw; ´ ´ on / ona / ono der'it ´ ´ my govori ´m vy govorite ´ ´t oni govorq ´ my der'im ´ vy der'ite ´ oni der'at ´

If the stem of a second conjugation verb ends in the consonants -d, -t, -s, -z, -st, that consonant will change in the first person singular (q form) only. Other forms are regular. If the stem ends in -b, -v, -p, -f, and -m an -l- is inserted between the stem and the ending in the first person singular only: vodi to lead ´t; platit; to pay ´ prosit; to ask ´ vozit; to convey ´ svistet; to whistle ´ l[bi to love ´t; q q q q q q
´ vo'u ´ plahu ´ prowu ´ vo'u ´ svi]u ´ l[bl[

ty ty ty ty ty ty

vo ´diw; ´ platiw; pro ´siw; vo ´ziw; svisti ´w; ´ l[biw;

Irregular verbs
There are a small number of irregular verbs in Russian: moh; ‘to be able’ ´ mogu mo ´'ew; mo ´'et ´ begu be'i ´w; be'i ´t mo ´'em mo ´'ete mo ´gut be'im ´ be'ite ´ ´t begu

´ be'at; ‘to run’

32

|

Russia and the Russian language

xotet; ‘to want’ ´

´ xohu xo ´hew; xo ´het em ew; est

xoti ´m xoti ´te ´t xotq edi ´m edi ´te ´t edq

est; ‘to eat’

Reflexive verbs
Add -sq after a consonant or -; and -s; after a vowel: ´ vstrehat;sq ‘to meet’ ´ vstreha[s; ´ vstrehaew;sq ´ vstrehaetsq ´ vstrehaemsq ´ vstrehaetes; ´ vstreha[tsq

There is much more information about reflexive verbs in Unit 4.

The verb ‘to be’
Byt; has no present tense. For alternative ways of translating ‘to be’ see Unit 6.

Use of the present tense
In addition to a straight translation for one of the English present tenses, Russian uses the present tense in some additional circumstances. Actions which started in the past and are continuing in the present are conveyed in Russian by the use of the present tense: ´sskim qzyko ´ ´ ´ ´da zanima[s; ru ´m. Q u'e hetyre go I have been studying Russian for four years already. In indirect speech or questions Russian uses the tense in which the original statement or question was made. This frequently means that Russian uses the present tense where English uses the past: ´sskim qzyko ´ Q sprosila ego zanimaetsq li on ru ´ ´, ´m. I asked him whether he was studying Russian. ´sskim qzyko ´ ´ On skazal, hto on zanimaetsq ru ´m. He said that he was studying Russian. Verbs of motion have two different present tenses, which have some similarities to the two present tenses in English. This is explained fully in Unit 2.

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

33

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 12
Complete the sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into the present tense.
´tskij So[z bo ´bliki ´ ´l;we ne (su]estvovat;). By vwie respu ´ Sove ´ ´r; (qvlq ´t;sq) nezavi tepe ´simymi gosudarstvami. Okolo dvadcati ´ ´ ´blik (vxodi respu ´t;) v sostav Rossi ´ ´jskoj Federacii. Parlament RF ´ ´ ´ma. On (sostoq ´t;) iz dvux palat. @urnali (nazyvat;sq) Du ´ ´ ´sty hasto ´ ´ne ne (interesovat;sq) poli (pisat;), hto rossiq ´ ´ ´tikoj. Oni bo ´ ´l;we ´t;) poli ´ ne (doverq ´tikam. Q (shitat;), hto oni pravy . A Vy? Kak ´ ´ ´mat;)? Net, my ne (moh;) soglasi ´r'ivat;) Vy (du ´t;sq! My (podde ´nta i vo vsem (soglawat;sq) s nim! ¨ prezide ´

Aspects
There are, in the overwhelming number of cases, two Russian verb infinitives for every English one. For example ‘to do’ may be delat; ´ or sdelat;. The first of these is the imperfective infinitive, or infini´ tive of the imperfective aspect and the second is the perfective infinitive or infinitive of the imperfective aspect. The present tense is formed from the imperfective infinitive. There are both imperfective and perfective past and future tenses formed from the respective infinitives.

Formation of the imperfective future
The imperfective future is formed from the future tense of byt; ‘to be’ + the imperfective infinitive: ´du delat; q bu ´ ´dew; delat; ty bu ´ ´ on / ona / ono bu ´ ´det delat; ´ ´dem delat; my bu ´ ´dete delat; vy bu ´ oni bu ´ ´dut delat; ´

The formation is exactly the same for the second conjugation and ´du govorit;, etc; q bu ´du est;, etc. for irregular verbs: q bu ´

34

|

Russia and the Russian language

Formation of the perfective future
The perfective future is formed in the same way as the present tense, but using the perfective infinitive. Note the irregular perfective dat;: sdelat; ‘to do’ ´ sdela[ ´ sdelaew; ´ sdelaet ´ dam daw; dast sdelaem ´ sdelaete ´ sdela[t ´ dadi ´m dadi ´te ´t dadu

dat; ‘to give’

Formation of the imperfective and perfective past
Both the imperfective and perfective past are formed in the same way, but from their respective infinitives. Where the infinitive of a Russian verb ends in -t; the past tense is generally formed by removing the -t; and replacing it by: -l (masculine singular), -la (feminine singular), -lo (neuter singular), -li (plural all genders): delat; ´ sdelat; ´ – – delal delala delalo delali ´ ´ ´ ´ sdelal sdelala sdelalo sdelali ´ ´ ´ ´

Note, however, the following exceptions: – Verbs ending in -eret;: ´ umeret; ‘to die’ ´ ´mer ´ u umerla ´ privyknut; ‘to get used to’ ´ ´ privyk privykla vozniknut; ‘to arise’ ´ voznik ´ vozni ´kla but note kri ´knut; ‘to shout’ kri ´knul kri ´knula ´ prygnut; ‘to jump’ ´ ´ prygnul prygnula kri ´knulo ´ prygnulo kriknuli ´ ´ prygnuli ´merlo u ´merli u

– Some verbs ending in -nut; drop the -nut; in the masculine: ´ privyklo vozni ´klo ´ privykli vozni ´kli

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

35

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

– Verbs ending in -st; remove the -st; before adding the past tense endings: past; ‘to fall’ est; – Verbs ending in -ti: idti ´ nesti to carry ´ vesti to lead ´ rasti to grow ´ – Verbs ending in -h;: teh; to flow leh; to lie down moh; dosti to achieve ´h; ´ ¨ tek, tekla, teklo tekli ´, ´ ´ ¨ leg, legla, leglo legli ´, ´ ´ mog, mogla, moglo mogli ´, ´ dosti dosti ´g, ´gla, dostiglo, ´ dosti ´gli ¨ wel, wla, wlo, wli ´ ¨ nes, nesla, neslo nesli ´, ´ ´ ¨ vel, vela, velo veli ´, ´ ´ ros, rosla, roslo rosli ´, ´ pal el ´ ´ pala ela ´ ´ palo elo ´ ´ pali eli ´

Imperfective and perfective pairs
The perfective is often differentiated from the imperfective by the addition of a prefix. Common prefixes include: vy-, za-, na-, o-, ot-, pere-, po-, pod-, pri-, pro-, s-, u-: ´ pit; / vypit; to drink ´ ´ hitat; / prohitat; to read ´ ´ pisat; / napisat; delat; / sdelat; ´ ´ Other pairs are differentiated by a suffix: ´ rewat; / rewi to decide ´t; ´ pose]at; / poseti to visit ´t; ´ vstavat; / vstat; ´ davat; / dat; ´ ´ sobirat; / sobrat; to collect ´ nadevat; / nadet; to put on ´ or by the presence of the infix -yv- or -iv- in the imperfective: ´ podpisyvat; / podpisat; ‘to sign’. For more about verbs of this ´ type see Unit 14. ´ Govori ´t; has two perfectives: skazat; ‘to say, tell’ and pogovorit; ‘to talk, speak’. Some other unusual perfective pairs include: ´ ´ brat; / vzqt; ‘to take’; pokupat; / kupi ‘to buy’; stanovi ´t; ´t;sq / stat; ‘to become’.

36

|

Russia and the Russian language

Difference in usage between the imperfective and perfective aspects Imperfective aspect
1 Unfinished or continuous actions: On celyj den; smotrel televi ´ ´ ´zor. He was watching / watched television all day. ´du rabo ´. ´ Zavtra q bu ´tat; v sadu Tomorrow I will work in the garden. 2 Habitual or repeated actions: ´ ´ ´ My hasto igrali v tennis \tim letom. ´ ´ We often played / used to play tennis that summer. ´ ´ Oni bu ´ ´dut plavat; v mo ´re ka'dyj den;. They will be swimming / will swim in the sea every day. 3 Emphasis on the process of the verb: ´ ´ ´ Q l[bl[ katat;sq na ly'ax. I love skiing. ´ ´ ´ 4 After the verbs nahinat; / nahat; and stat; ‘to begin’; konhat; ´ / ko ´nhit; ‘to finish’; prodol'at; ‘to continue’ and some other verbs with similar meanings, the imperfective infinitive is always used: ´toj kni Q to ´l;ko hto ko ´nhila rabo ´tat; nad \ ´goj. I have only just finished working on this book. For other verbs meaning ‘to stop’ see Unit 14.

Perfective aspect
1 Emphasis on completion or result. This may be a single action: On ko ´nhil rabo ´tu. He finished the work. ´ ´ ´ Vy dol'ny prohitat; \tu kni ´gu sego ´dnq. You must read (finish reading) that book today. or a series of actions, each one completed before the next one starts: ´ ´ Q vstanu, primu duw i odenus;. ´ I will get up, take a shower and get dressed.

Rossiq i Russkij Qzyk

|

37

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

2 Some perfectives with the prefix po- imply that the action is performed for a short time only: ´ My posideli v sadu i powli domo ´ ´ ´j. We sat in the garden for a while and went home. For aspects in relation to verbs of motion see Unit 2.

Subjunctive
In addition to the five tenses described above Russian also has a subjunctive, formed by using the particle by with the past tense: Q sdelala by ‘I would have done it’. Fuller information on the subjunc´ tive is given in Unit 11.

Imperative
The third person imperative may be formed from either the imperfective or perfective verb: delaj(te), sdelaj(te) ‘do!’. For fuller ´ ´ ´ ´ information on this imperative see Unit 2. Davaj / davajte, impera´ tive of davat;, is used with the first person plural (my form) of the ´ future perfective to form a first person imperative: Davajte sdelaem ´ ‘Let’s do it’.

Exercise 13
Choose the appropriate verb form from the alternatives in brackets.
´ Raspad SSSR ´rvyj konfli ´tskom So[ze (sluhi ´ ¨ Pe ´kt v Sove ´tsq / sluhi ´lsq) e]e v ´. ´m ´) 1986g v Alma Ate Zate v 1989g (nahinalsq / nahalsq konfli ´ ´kt ´'du Arme ´niej i Azerbajd'anom po po ´vodu Nago ´rnogo Karabaxa. me ´ ´ A s 1989 konfli ´kty stali (voznikat; / vozni ´ ´ ´knut;) prakti ´heski ´ povs[du: na Ukrai ´ne i Kavkaze, v Moldavii i Pribaltike. ´ ´ ´ ´tskoe rukovo ´dstvo snahala ne (ponimalo / po ´nqlo) isto ´kov Sove ´ ´ ´nie si ´tix konfli \ ´ktov. Odnako primene ´ ´ly v Ri ´ge i Vi ´l;n[se ´ ´xa ne (prinosi / prineslo (Nahinalis; / ´). v qnvare 1991g uspe ´lo ´ ´ry o no ´vom so[znom dogovo ´ ´re. Konfederati nahali ´s;) peregovo ´vnyj ´nij (vyzyval / vyzval) nedovo ´l;stvo so storony ´ ´ xarakter predlo'e ´ ´ ´q perevoro ´ta pro ´tiv konservatorov i (voznikala / vozni ´ ´ ´kla) ide ´. ´da nad puthi ´rm voob]e Pobe refo ´stami (privodi / privela) k ´la ´ ´ ´nty nekontroli ´ruemomu raspadu SSSR. V dekabre 1991g prezide ´

38

|

Russia and the Russian language

´ssii Rossi ´i, Ukrai ´ny i Beloru (podpi ´syvali / podpisali) ´ ´nie o likvidacii SSSR i sozdanii Sodru ´'estva soglawe ´ ´ Nezavi ´simyx Gosudarstv. ´

Vocabulary ♦
´ voznikat; / vozni ´knut; dogovo ´r isto ´k nedovo ´l;stvo peregovo ´ry po po ´vodu ´ povs[du ´ podpi ´syvat; / podpisat; soglawenie ´ predlo'enie ´ primenenie si ´ ´ly prinosi / prinesti uspex ´t; ´ ´ sluhi ´t;sq ´ sozdanie ´'estvo Nezavi Sodru ´simyx ´ Gosudarstv to arise treaty source dissatisfaction negotiations on the subject of everywhere to sign an agreement proposal use of force to bring success to happen creation Commonwealth of Independent States

Exercise 14
Answer the questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 Where did the first conflict break out in the Soviet Union? What did Armenia and Azerbaidjan fall out about? Where did conflicts break out in 1989? How did the leadership try to subdue the Baltic States in 1991? What was it about the proposals for a new Union treaty which upset the conservative faction in government? 6 Who signed the agreement to abolish the Soviet Union? 7 What was its substance?

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

2 TRANSPORT

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ about the transport system in Russia to use the imperative how to form the comparative more about the preposition na

Because of Russia’s immense size, rail and air are the most important modes of transport. Travel by rail is still reliable and cheap, as it was in Soviet times. Although more investment is needed for construction and track maintenance, especially in the remote regions where climatic conditions are very difficult, there have been considerable recent improvements. Compared with Soviet times domestic air travel is expensive and the number of internal flights has been reduced. Although dozens of private airlines were set up after the break-up of the Soviet state airline, Aeroflot, they do not offer the same comprehensive service to provincial towns. Road transport is slow as there is no motorway system and roads are not well-maintained outside major cities.

40

|

Transport

Dialogue 1
A conversation between a passenger and a booking clerk at Moscow’s International Airport Sheremet'evo 2
´ P ASSA@IR

´ K ASSIR ´ P ASSA@IR ´ K ASSIR

´ P ASSA@IR ´ K ASSIR ´ P ASSA@IR ´ K ASSIR

´ P ASSA@IR ´ K ASSIR ´ P ASSA@IR ´ K ASSIR

´ P ASSA@IR ´ K ASSIR

´ty na ´ Ska'i ´te, po'alujsta, zdes; proda[tsq bile ´ ´l ´'no ¨ ´l;ko hto prilete iz Lo ´ndona. Mne nu samolet? Q to ´t; ´tsk. lete v Irku ´hno. A kako kompaniej Vy xoti lete ´t;? U ´j Da, kone ´ ´te ´go nas sejhas mno aviakompanij. ´ ´ ´vle? A kakaq kompaniq dewe ´ ´ ´vle lete Transa\ ´t; ´tom nemno doro ´go ´'e. ´ro, A\roflo Dewe ´t; A\roflo ´bnee lete ´tom. Samolety ¨ No vam udo ´[tsq s terminala Wereme ´t;evo odi ´ta A\roflo otpravlq ´ ´n, ´ ´ |to nedaleko ots[da. ´ ´, ´tom. Kogda vyletaet samolet? ¨ Xorowo polehu A\roflo ´ ´ ´jsa. Odi – he ´rez 2 hasa, a drugo – nohno ´j ´j Est; dva re ´n ´ rejs. ´ ´rvym re ´jsom. A sko ´t? ´l;ko sto bile ´it Po'aluj, polehu pe ´ ´ta ´imost; bile tuda i obratno vmeste s nalo ´gom – 250 Sto ´ ´ ´sli Vy leti \konomi ´llarov. |to e do ´te ´heskim klassom. ´ ´dete plati Kak Vy bu ´t;? Nali ´hnymi i ´li kredi ´tnoj kartoj? ´ ´t;evo Kredi ´tnoj kartoj. A kak dobrat;sq do Wereme ´ ´ odi ´n? ´jsovym avto ´tnym ´'no dobrat;sq re ´busom i Mo ´ ´li marwru ´tnym taksi Tak bystre ´e. taksi Lu ´. ´hwe poez'ajte marwru ´ ´. A gde ostanavlivaetsq taksi ´ ´? ´nka tut rq ´dom. Idi prq po korido ´mo ´ru, poverni Stoq ´te ´te ´mo u vy xoda iz a\ropo ´rta Vy uvi ´ napravo, i prq ´ ´dite ´tnye taksi marwru ´. A q ne opozda[ na registraci[? ´ ´ ´hno, ne opozdaete. He ´rez 10 minu Vy bu ´t ´dete v Kone ´ ´t;evo odi To ´t, ´v;te zaranee bile Wereme ´n. ´l;ko prigoto ´ ´nty. Ne zabu ´d;te baga'! I vse ¨ pasport, vse Vawi dokume ´ ´ ´ ´det v porq ´dke! bu

Vocabulary ♦
´ dobrat;sq do ´ zaranee to get to in advance

Transport ´tnoe taksi marwru ´ me'dunaro ´dnyj nalo ´g nohno rejs ´j ´ opozdat; na (+ acc) ´t;sq otpravlq ´t; povernu ´ po'aluj rejsovyj avto ´ ´bus sto ´imost; (f ) ´nka stoq to ´l;ko hto

|

41

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

minibus international tax night flight to be late for to set off, depart to turn perhaps regular bus cost (taxi) rank, stop just

´ ´ N.B. bilet tuda i obratno – return ticket; plati ´ ´t; nali ´hnymi – to pay ¨ ´det v porq ´dke – everything will be OK cash; vse bu

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 What airlines operate within Russia? What are the methods of payment for an air ticket? What does a ticket to Irkutsk cost? How do you get to Sheremet'evo Terminal 1 from Terminal 2? What do you need to check-in?

Language points ♦
Imperatives
In the above dialogue there are several examples of the second person imperative: ´ Ska'ite po'alujsta ´ ´mo Idi prq ´te tell (me ) please go straight on

Imperatives can be formed from either imperfective or perfective verbs. Remove the last two letters from the third person plural (oni ´ form) of the present or future perfective to find the stem of the verb. Add -i if the stem ends in a consonant or -j if it ends in a vowel: ´t ´ ´ ´ idti – idu – id – idi ‘go!’; hitat; – hita[t – hita – ´ ´ hitaj ‘read!’.

42

|

Transport

Verbs with their stem ending in a single consonant that are stressed on the stem throughout their conjugation take the imperative ending ´d; ‘forget’. ´dut – zabud – zabu ´ -;: zabyt; – zabu ´d;te. ´ For the plural or polite form add -te: idi ´te, hitajte, zabu The reflexive ending is -sq after -j or -; and -s; after -i or -te: ´ ´ odevajsq, odevajtes;; oden;sq, oden;tes; ‘dress’. ´ ´ ´ Verbs ending in -avat; form their imperative irregularly: davat; ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ – da[t – davaj(te) ‘give’; vstavat; – vsta[t – vstavaj(te) ‘stand’. Note also est; – ew;(te) ‘eat’ and pit; – pej(te) ‘drink’. Stress is on the same syllable in the imperative as in the first person ´ ´ ´ singular (q form): pisat; – piwu – piwi(te) ‘write’. The imper´ ative of poexat; is poez'aj(te). ´ Generally the imperfective imperative is used to express general injunctions to perform or refrain from actions. It is often found in negative sentences: ´jte bilet! Ne terq ´ Povernite napravo! ´ Do not lose your ticket! Turn right! A perfective imperative relates to one particular occasion:

Exercise 2
Put the verb in brackets into the imperative to complete the sentence. ´sor v ´sor v korzi ´s;te mu Example: (Bro ´sit;) mu ´nu. – Bro korzi ´nu! ´t;) mawi ´nu. 2 (Zakazat;) gosti ´nicu. 1 (Ostanovi ´ ´t;) aviabile ´wij bank. 4 (Kupi 3 (Porekomendovat;) xoro ´ ´t. ´it;) no ´vu[ doro ´gu. 7 (Poe ´ 5 (Zakry t;) dver;. 6 (Postro ´xat;) do ´t;) poe ´t;) passa'i k ´ra ´rga. 8 (Oplati ´zdku. 9 (Provodi Peterbu ´vit;sq) k poletu. ¨ ´ezdu. 10 (Prigoto po

Exercise 3
Examine the special offer from Transaero Airline (shown on p. 43). Answer the questions in English. 1 What flights does Transaero have? 2 What planes does the company use?

Transport

|

43

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

TRANSA|RO
aviakompaniq SPECIAL:NOE PREDLO@ENIE: XITROU – MOSKVA ot £199 (+nalog £26.10) Rossijskaq aviakompaniq TRANSA|RO su]estvuet na rynke bolee 8 let i vypolnqet regulqrnye rejsy iz Moskvy (Domodedovo) v Sankt-Peterburg, Vladivostok, Omsk, Noril;sk, Krasnoqrsk, Ekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Orel, Ni'nevartovsk, Almaty, Astanu, Karagandu, Tawkent, Kiev, Odessu, London, Frankfurt, Tel;-Aviv, |jlat (Izrail;), Pafos (Kipr).

Rejsy me'du Londonom i Moskvoj vypolnq[tsq na novyx sovremennyx samoletax Boing 737–700. Dlq passa'irov, pribyva[]ix v Moskvu rejsom <Transa\ro> iz Londona, predostavlqetsq besplatnyj transport ot a\roporta do centra Moskvy. Na bortu samoleta passa'iram predlagaetsq novoe uluhwennoe men[. K uslugam passa'irov biznesklassa – komfortabel;nye biznes-zaly v a\roportax Xitrou i Domodedovo.

XITROU (Terminal-2) – MOSKVA (Domodedovo) e'ednevno
Nomer rejsa UN 344 Vylet 22.05 Prilet 05.10 Tip samoleta Boing 737–700

MOSKVA (Domodedovo) – XITROU (Terminal-2) e'ednevno
Nomer rejsa UN 344 Vylet 13.20 Prilet 14.25 Tip samoleta Boing 737–700

Zabronirovat; i priobresti bilety mo'no v ofise <Transa\ro Turs> v Londone

´ ´ ´t;sq N.B. su]estvovat; – to exist; predlagat;sq – to be offered; predostavlq ´hwennoe men[ – improved ´ ´t; rejs – to fly; ulu – to be offered; vypolnq menu; e'ednevno – daily; zabroni ´ ´rovat; – to book; priobresti – to acquire ´

44

|

Transport

3 4 5 6

From which airports does the company fly? What additional services does the company offer? What is the cost of a flight from London to Moscow? What time does the flight arrive in London?

Text 1
@eleznye doro ´ ´gi Rossii ´

´gi – nade'nyj i dewevyj vid rossi ¨ ¨ @ele ´znye doro ´jskogo ´ra ´ ´ ´ transporta. V evrope ´jskoj hasti Rossi ix struktu napominaet ´i ´ ´ ´ ´. ´ ¨ ´rony gigantskoe koleso Ego centr – Moskva. Ot nee v raznye sto ´t ´ ´ ´ ´hnee, tem magistralej idu radiusy – magistrali. No hem vosto ´vyx 'ele ´g ¨ ´tomu stroi me ´n;we. Po\ ´tel;stvo no ´znyx doro ostaetsq ´ ´ ´ ´it; doro ´gi v Rossi s ka'dym go ´dom va'noj zadahej. No stro ´i ´vitsq vse doro i trudne Ved; stroi ¨ ´'e ¨ ´lee stano ´e. ´tel;stvo idet v bo ´ ¨ ´viqx. Sto ´imost; materialov, tq'elyx klimati ´heskix uslo ´dovaniq, truda rabo ´ ´hix tepe vywe. oboru ´r; ´ ´ ´voe napravle ´g No ´nie v stroi ´tel;stve 'ele ´znyx doro – sozdanie ´ ´ ´rye u'e ime ´gix vysokoskorostnyx magistralej, koto ´ ´[tsq vo mno ´[ doro ´ ´gu v Rossi plani stranax mi ´ra. Pe ´rvu[ taku ´i ´ru[t ´rgom. Poezda smo ´ ´it; me ´j ´gut postro ´'du Moskvo i Sankt-Peterbu ´ ´ ´logi vse ha]e ¨ ´ dvi ´gat;sq po nej gorazdo bystre Odnako \ko ´e.

Transport

|

45

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ ´tiv stroi pro ´tel;stva taki magistralej. Ix argume ´x ´nty: v ´ ´ ´ ´go rezul;tate stroi ´tel;stva unihto'aetsq mno zeme ´l;, vyruba[tsq ´ . No s drugo ´ ´j storony, 'eleznodoro ´'nyj transport lesa ´ ´ ¨ ¨ ´]e drugi On vybrasyvaet v vo ´zdux v \kologi ´heski vse e]e hi ´x. 20 raz me ´n;we vre ´dnyx ve]e ´stv, hem avtomobi ´l;nyj. ´ ´'nyx magistralej Mosko ´vskaq 'ele Sredi 'eleznodoro ´ ´znaq ´duhi stoli ´ ´ ´ga ´boe me doro zanimaet oso ´sto. Bu ´hnoj magistral;[ ´etsq bystre drugi De ´ ´ ´vskix vokzalov – ona menq ´e ´x. ´vqt; mosko ´roven; ´ ´dy u vizi ´tnaq kartohka stoli ´cy. Za posle ´dnie go ´'ivaniq na vokzalax stal namno ´g ´ ´go vywe, uslu dlq obslu ´ ´etsq dvi'e ´ ´l;we. Organizu passa'i ´rov stalo bo ´nie skorostnyx ´ ´v ´lee vyso ´kim komfo ´rtom. Oni \lektropoezdo <|kspre ´ss> s bo ´ ´ly, Rqzani, Vladi ´gi, ´ ´ ´dnq kursi sego ´ru[t do Tu ´mira, Orla, Kalu ´ Qroslavlq. ´gkie ´ ´ ´m V taki poezdax v pe ´x ´rvom i vtoro klasse dvuxme ´stnye mq ´'ivaetsq ´ ´taet bufe vi ´n kre ´sla, rabo ´t, ´deo. Ka'dyj vago obslu ´ ´ ´rost; \lektri ´m. ´hno, samoe glavnoe – sko ´hki. provodniko I, kone ´ly obyhnaq ´go ´he. Naprime do Tu Vre ´mq v puti stalo namno koro ´ ´ ´r, ´ ´ty, a <|kspre ´ ¨ \lektri ´hka idet 3 hasa 44 minu ´ss> na has me ´n;we ´ty. ´ 33 minu – 2 hasa

´ Po materialam Nezavi ´simoj gaze ´ty, 2000

Vocabulary ♦
´duhi bu ved; (emphatic particle) ´ vizi ´tnaq kartohka vrednoe ve]estvo ´ ´ ´ vybrasyvat; ´ vyrubat;sq ´ ´ vysokoskorostnaq magistral; dvi ´gat;sq dvi'enie poezdo ´ ´v dvuxmestnye kresla ´ ´ 'eleznaq doro ´ ´ga ´ zemlq being you see; after all visiting card harmful substance to emit to be cut down high-speed railway to move rail traffic double seats railway land

46

|

Transport

koleso ´ koro ´he kursi ´rovat; ´gkij mq ¨ nade'nyj ´ napominat; napravlenie ´ ´dovanie oboru ´'ivat;sq obslu ´ ´ ostavat;sq zadahej provodni ´k sko ´rost; (f ) skorostno \lektropo ´j ´ezd ´ sozdanie sto ´imost; (f ) proezda ´ stoli ´hnyj stroi ´tel;stvo trud rabo ´hix ´ unihto'at;sq ´roven; (m) obslu ´'ivaniq u ´ga uslu hi ´]e \lektri ´hka

wheel shorter to run soft reliable to resemble trend equipment to be served to remain the task train attendant speed express train creation cost of the journey capital construction labour to be destroyed standard of service service cleaner local (electric) train

¨ ¨ N.B. s drugo storony – on the other hand; vse e]e – still; vremq v puti – ´j ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ travel time; samoe glavnoe – the most important thing

Exercise 4
Answer the following questions in English. 1 What does the layout of the railways in European Russia resemble? 2 Why is it ever more difficult to build railways in Russia? 3 What is the new trend in railway construction? 4 Where will the first high-speed rail link run? 5 Why are ecologists opposed to the construction of high-speed railways? 6 What type of transport is ecologically cleanest? 7 What changes are taking place in the Moscow rail network?

Transport

|

47

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 5
True or false? ´tom (doro ´'e, dewe ´bnee)? 1 Lete A\roflo ´t; ´vle, udo ´tsk vyletaet iz a\ropo ´n, ¨ ´rta (Wereme 2 Samolet v Irku ´ ´t;evo odi Wereme ´t;evo dva, Domode ´dovo)? ¨ ´'e, dewe ¨ 3 Putewe ´stvovat; na samolete (doro ´vle, nade'nee), hem ´ezde? na po ´i, ´ 4 Vysokoskorostnye magistrali u'e ime ´ ´[tsq (v Rossi v ´ne)? zapadnyx stranax, v Ukrai ´ ´ ´'nyj transport (grqzne hi 5 @eleznodoro ´ ´e, ´]e, opasnee) ´ ´l;nogo transporta? avtomobi ´ ´'ivaniq na vokzalax stal (lu ´hwe, xu ´'e, 6 Uroven; obslu ´ bystre ´e)? ´'ivaetsq (provodniko oficiantom, ´m, ´n ´ 7 Ka'dyj vago obslu ´ ´l;]ikom)? nosi

Language points ♦
Comparatives Long (attributive) comparatives
Almost all Russian adjectives can be turned into comparatives by putting the words bo ´lee ‘more’ or menee ‘less’ before the long form. ´ Bo ´lee and menee never alter, whatever the case or number of the ´ adjective: ´ ´ bo ´lee bystrye poezda ´ ´ na menee bystryx poezdax ´ faster trains on less fast trains

‘Than’ is translated by hem, preceded by a comma: ´hwe ezdit; na bo ´ ´ Lu ´ ´lee bystryx no ´vyx poezdax, hem na ´ staryx. It is better to travel on faster new trains than on old. Four adjectives have a one-word declinable comparative, used instead of adjective + bo ´lee: bol;wo ´j ´ malen;kij bo ´l;wij men;wij ´ bigger, greater smaller, lesser

Transport

|

49

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

ploxo ´j xoro ´wij

´dwij xu ´hwij lu

worse better

´hwie poezda ‘better trains’; bo ´ lu ´l;wij vybor ‘greater choice’. Four more adjectives have a one-word declinable comparative in addition to the bo ´lee form. The form used depends on the context: molodo ´j ´ staryj vyso ´kij ni ´zkij bo ´lee molodo ´j ´ mladwij ´ bo ´lee staryj ´ starwij bo ´lee vyso ´kij ´ vyswij bo ´lee ni ´zkij ni ´zwij younger (things) younger, junior (people) older (things) elder, senior (people) higher, taller (literal) higher, superior (figurative) lower (literal) lower, inferior (figurative)

´ ´ ´ ´ bo ´lee starye poezda ‘older trains’; starwie brat;q ‘elder ´ brothers’; bo ´lee vyso ´kie go ´ry ‘higher mountains’; vyswee obra´ zovanie ‘higher education’.

Exercise 6
Put the adjective in brackets into the appropriate form of the long comparative.
´nstvo predlagaet (intere ´snyj) poe ´zdki v 1 Turisti ´heskoe age ´ ´znye doro stali (nade'nyj) vi ´gi ´ ¨ Rossi 2 @ele ´[. ´dom transporta. ´ ´ ´l;stvie. ´ ´ 3 Ezdit; na (by stryj) skorostnyx poezdax – odno udovo ´ ´tno 'it; v (staryj) go ´zdki v Rossi ´rode. 5 Dlq poe 4 Priq ´ ´[ ´neg. 6 Bile ´ty v teatr proda[tsq po ´j) ´mma de ´ nu'na (bol;wo su ´ ´ ´nam. 7 (Vyso ´kij) obrazovanie ispytyvaet kri ´ (ni ´zkij) ce ´ ´zis. ´ntov. 9 (Bogatye) ´ rabo ´tat; s (malen;kij) hislo stude ´m 8 Legko ´ ´ ´zdit; (udo ´rvym klassom. 10 U menq odi ´ ´bnyj) pe predpohita[t e ´ ´ ´n ´j) ´ (molodo brat i dve (starye) sestry. ´

Short (predicative) comparatives
The short comparative is formed by adding -ee (alternative ending -ej) to the stem of the adjective. The ending is the same for all genders and for the plural. It is better to use the short form to translate sentences where the verb ‘to be’ comes between noun / pronoun and the

50

|

Transport

comparative. Otherwise, use the long, bo ´lee form. The short comparative also renders sentences beginning ‘It is / was / will be . . . er’: ´ No ´vye poezda bystree ´ New trains are faster. ´ ´dut udo ´ Skorostnye poezda bu ´bnee Express trains will be more convenient. ´hwe letet; A\roflo Lu ´ ´tom It is better to fly by Aeroflot. Contrast: My edem na bo ´ ´lee no ´vom po ´ezde ‘We are going on a newer train’. Short comparatives of some adjectives end in -e:
bli ´zkij vyso ´kij gro ´mkij ¨ dewevyj ´ 'arkij krepkij ´ ´gkij mq ploxo ´j ´ rannij ´ sladkij stro ´gij ´zkij u ´ hastyj wiro ´kij ´ malen;kij bli ´'e vywe ´ gro ´mhe dewevle ´ ´ 'arhe krephe ´ ´ghe mq ´'e xu ´ ran;we ´ sla]e stro ´'e ´'e u ´ ha]e wi ´re men;we ´ closer higher louder cheaper hotter stronger softer worse earlier sweeter stricter narrower more often wider smaller ´ bogatyj glubo ´kij ¨ dalekij dorogo ´j koro ´tkij molodo ´j ni ´zkij prosto ´j redkij ´ ´ staryj ti ´xij xoro ´wij hi ´styj bol;wo ´j ´ bogahe ´b'e glu ´ dal;we doro ´'e koro ´he molo ´'e ni ´'e pro ´]e re'e ´ ´ starwe ti ´we ´hwe lu hi ´]e bo ´l;we richer deeper further dearer shorter younger lower simpler rarer older quieter better cleaner bigger

N.B. bo ´l;we also means ‘more’ and men;we ‘less’. Po ´ ´zdnij has two alternative forms – pozdnee / po ´ ´z'e ‘later’. Some adjectives do not have a short comparative, e.g. adjectives ending in -skij. When a comparative is required, ´lee form. use the bo

Exercise 7
Complete the following sentences using a word meaning the opposite of the first comparative.

Transport

|

51

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ ´nie do Lo ´ndona 1 Q starwe brata, brat . . . menq na 5 let. 2 Rasstoq ´ ´ ´t; ´e, ´xat; po ´he, ¨ ´ezdom ´ koro do Moskvy . . . 3 Lete samoletom bystre e ´ ´'ivanie lu ´hwe, v provi ´sskij . . . 4 V Moskve obslu ´ncii . . . 5 Ru ´e, francu ´zskij . . . 6 Aviacio ´nnyj transport ´ qzyk trudne ´ ´e, ´zda v pe ´rvom ´'nyj . . . 7 Sto ´imost; proe grqzne 'eleznodoro ´m ´ ´trqt vi ´dqt ´ klasse vywe, vo vtoro . . . 8 Ha]e l[di smo ´ ´ ´deo, . . . xo ´zdili na po ´. ´ezde, . . . stali letat; na v kino 9 Ran;we vse e ´ ´ ´ ´wa[t ¨ ´l;we smo ´trqt televi samolete. 10 Sejhas bo ´ ´zor, . . . slu ´vle, na po ´buse dewe ´ezde . . . radio. 11 Exat; na avto ´

After a short comparative, ‘than’ is usually rendered by putting the object of comparison into the genitive: Avto ´bus udo ´bnee po ´ezda. The bus is more convenient than the train. The genitive cannot be used to translate ‘than’ if the object of comparison is not in the nominative: Bystree exat; na po ´ ´ ´ezde, hem na avto ´buse. It is faster to go by train than bus. or not a noun or pronoun: ´hwe v Rossii, hem zdes;. Lu ´ It is better in Russia than here. or ‘his’, ‘hers’, ‘its’ or ‘theirs’: Naw tur interesnee, hem ix. ´ Our tour is more interesting than theirs.

Exercise 8
Change the adjectives to short comparatives and put the words in brackets into the genitive.
´mka). 2 Moskva staraq (Peterbu ´rg). ¨ 1 Hemodan tq'elyj (su ´ ´ ´ ´c ´ ´lga wiro ´kaq 3 Ote staryj (mat;). 4 Sestra molodaq (brat). 5 Vo ´ ´ ´mza). 6 Me ´sqc fevral; koro ´tkij (mart). 7 Po ´ezd dewevyj ¨ (Te ´ ¨ ´koe (o ´zero Ness). 9 Mosko ´vskoe (samolet). 8 Ozero Bajkal glubo ´ ´ ´stoe (lo ´ndonskoe metro ´). metro hi

52

|

Transport

Constructions with the comparative
Kak mo ´'no as . . . as possible Kak mo ´'no dewevle ´ as cheap as possible Hem . . . tem the . . . er, the . . . er ´hwe Hem dewevle, tem lu ´ the cheaper the better ´hwe ‘So much the better’. Note: Tem lu ´ ´ Gorazdo / namno / kuda ´go much . . . er ´ ¨ Po ´ezd gorazdo / namno dewevle samoleta ´go ´ the train is much cheaper than the plane ¨ Vse ever . . . er ¨ Stro ´it; doro ´gi stano ´vitsq vse doro ´'e (i doro ´'e). Building roads is becoming ever more expensive / more and more expensive. Note also the use of v and na in measuring difference: na has men;we ´ ´ v dva raza bo ´l;we an hour less twice as big

Exercise 9
Use the construction hem . . . tem to form sentences. ´ ´ ´ ¨ Example: Prostaq zadaha – ona legkaq. – Hem pro ´]e ´ ´ ´ zadaha, tem ona leghe.
´dlennyj – on dewevyj. 2 Sobo staryj – on ´bus me ¨ ´r 1 Avto ´ ´snyj. 3 Ozero glubo ´k ´ ´koe – ono opasnoe. 4 Helove staryj – ´ intere ´ ´mnyj. 5 Doro daleko – ee tru ´ga ´ ¨ ´dno stro ´it;. 6 Vo ´zdux hi on u ´styj ´t ´ ´v;q. 7 Marwru prosto – on legkij. ´j ¨ ´to xorowo dlq zdoro – \ ´stvie koro ´slo mq ´gkoe – ono ´ezd bystryj – putewe ´tkoe. 9 Kre ´ ´ 8 Po ´k ´bnoe. 10 Helove bogatyj, on – ploxo ´j. udo ´

Transport

|

53

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Comparative of adverbs
The comparative of the adverb takes the same form as the short comparative of the adjective: ´ ´dqt bystree. Poezda xo ´ Trains travel more quickly.

Preposition corner ♦
Prepositions are among the most difficult words to translate. A preposition rarely, if ever, has a direct equivalent in another language which covers all its uses. This regular section will help your knowledge of how Russian prepositions are used.

Na + accusative
Note the variety of uses of na + accusative and the different ways in which it may be translated into English.

Expressions of place – ‘to, onto’ denoting motion towards
Points of the compass: na sever, [g, vosto zapad ´ ´k, ´ to the north, south, east, west places which, in origin, were not single buildings: ´ ´ na vokzal, stadio stanci[, po ´n, ´htu to the (mainline)station, stadium, station, post office Open spaces: ´licu, plo na u ´wad;, dvor onto the street, square, yard rivers, islands and some mountain ranges: ´ ´ na Vo ´lgu, Kipr, Ural, Kavkaz to the Volga, to Cyprus, to the Urals, to the Caucasus activities or places which denote activity: na koncert, lekci[, uro rabo ´ ´ ´k, ´tu, fakul;tet ´ to the concert, lecture, lesson, to work, to the faculty

54

|

Transport

Expressions of time
na Ro'destvo ´ na drugo den; ´j tur na 5 dnej at / for Christmas on the next day 5-day tour

´ noh; na 20-oe maq night of the 19th to 20th May ´ On poexal tuda na dva go ´ ´da He has gone there for two years

Other useful expressions using na + accusative
bilet na po ´ ´ezd vid na reku ´ na vid na dvoi ´x spros na poxo ´'ij na After verbs: ´t; na vliq ´ 'alovat;sq / po- na nadeqt;sq na ´ ´ ´ naznahat; / naznahit; na ´ ´ opazdyvat; / opozdat; na ´ otvehat; / otvetit; na ´ ´ polagat;sq / polo'it;sq na ´ poxodi ´t; na ´ soglawat;sq / soglasi ´t;sq na ´ tratit; / po- na to to to to to to to to to to influence complain hope for, rely on appoint to be late for reply to rely on resemble agree to spend on train ticket view over the river in appearance for two demand for like

Na + prepositional
Expressions of place – ‘on, at’ indicating location
Used with all the same nouns as na + accusative meaning ‘to’: ´ ´ na severe, [ge, vosto ´ ´ke, zapade in the north, south, east, west ´ ´ na vokzale, stadio ´ne, stancii, po ´hte at the (mainline)station, stadium, station, post office

Transport

|

55

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´lice, plo na u ´wadi, dvore ´ on the street (outside), square, in the yard (outside) ´ ´ na Vo ´lge, Kipre, Urale, Kavkaze ´ on the Volga, in Cyprus, in the Urals, in the Caucasus na koncerte, lekcii, uro ´ ´ ´ke, rabo ´te, fakul;tete ´ at the concert, lecture, lesson, at work, in the faculty Means of transport: na metro na avto ´, ´buse, na taksi po ´, ´ezde, teploxo ´de, velosipede ´ by metro, bus, taxi, train, boat, bicycle ´ na nogax na svoej so ´ ´vesti on one’s feet on one’s conscience

Expressions of time
´du]ej nedele ´ na \toj, pro ´wloj, bu ´ this, last, next week na dnqx na protq'enii ´ ´ ¨ na moem veku Note also: ´sskom qzyke na ru ´ in Russian but ´sskij qzyk ´ perevodit; / perevesti na ru ´ ´ to translate into Russian After verbs: ´ ´ igrat; na (musical instruments) gitare to play the guitar 'enit;sq na ´ to marry (for a man) ´ ´t; na nastaivat; / nastoq to insist on the other day over the course of in my lifetime

56

|

Transport

´ ´ skazyvat;sq / skazat;sq na to tell on, have an effect on sosredoto ´hivat;sq / sosredoto ´hit;sq na to concentrate on

Exercise 10
Put the words in brackets into the appropriate case, accusative or prepositional.
´lica). 2 Ne vse stude ´nty regulq ´rno xo ´dqt na ´ 1 My vy wli na (u ´kcii). 3 Menq ne bu ´ ´det na (bu ´du]aq nede ´lq). 4 My e ´dem tuda (le ´ ´e ´ezd). 5 Na (drugo den;) powel do'd;. 6 Xolodne na ´j ¨ na (po ´ver). 7 Kni na (ru ´sskij qzyk) ohen; dorogi 8 On xorowo ´ ´ (se ´gi ´e. ´l;). 9 On perevel vse p;e ´sy Wekspi ¨ igraet na (roq ´ ´ra na ´zskij qzyk). 10 Moj drug 'eni ´sskaq). 11 On ´ (francu ´lsq na (ru ´til na (vse vopro ´sy) pravil;no. 12 Ona poxo ´dit na (mat;), a otve ´ ´c). 13 Ne opozdaj na (po ´ezd)! ´ on na (ote

Exercise 11
Translate into Russian. 1 You can pay for your ticket either by cash or credit card. I prefer to pay by cash. 2 Help me please to find the taxi rank. I have a lot of luggage. 3 A rail ticket is three times cheaper than an air ticket. 4 The most important thing is speed. Express trains are much faster now, and travel time is shorter. 5 Ecologically rail transport is still cleaner than other kinds of transport. 6 The faster the trains, the better it will be for all travellers. 7 Travelling by a faster and more comfortable train is a pleasure.

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

3 TURIZM

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ about tourism in Russia how to use verbs of motion about prefixes on verbs of motion how to differentiate between tak'e / to'e words with the root -xod-

In Soviet times the State Tourist company, ‘Intourist’, had a monopoly. Its chief activity was organising travel for foreign tourists within the USSR. Although many tourists travelling to Russia still prefer to go on organised tours, there is now a much greater variety of holidays on offer and much more scope for arranging travel yourself. Travel agencies proliferate on the streets of major Russian towns, offering everything from cruises on the Volga to fishing trips to the Kola peninsula. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, foreign travel opportunities for Soviet citizens were very limited, generally restricted to countries within the Soviet sphere of influence. Most Russians holi¨ dayed in their own country. Trade Unions issued putevki ‘holiday vouchers’, which entitled their members to holidays in Soviet resorts, such as those on the Black Sea. But now Russians themselves have become enthusiastic travellers, at home and abroad, fuelling the boom in tourism.

58

|

Tourism

Dialogue 1
A conversation between a traveller and a travel agent
´ ´et ´zdka po <Zoloto ´>. ´mu kol;cu P UTEWESTVENNIK Menq interesu poe ´'ete predlo'i Hto Vy mo ´t;? ´meni? ´l;ko u Vas vre T URAGENT A sko ´meni u menq to ´ ´l;ko 2 nede ´li. P UTEWESTVENNIK Vre ´]ij mome ´nt u nas bol;wo vybor. Est; ´j ´ TURAGENT V nastoq ´ry. ´busnye, a tak'e teploxo ´dnye tu avto ´ ´hwe poe ´xat; na po ´'et byt;, lu ´ezde? Q slywal, ´ P UTEWESTVENNIK Mo ´ ´ hto v Rossi est; skorostnye poezda, bo ´i ´ ´lee bystrye, hem starye? ´ ´> ´zdqt na ´mu kol;cu turi ´ hno po <Zoloto Oby ´sty e T URAGENT ´buse i ´de. |to pro ´]e, udo ´bnee i avto ´li na teploxo ´vle. Na po ´e. ´ezde slo'ne dewe ´meni zajmet takaq poe ´zdka? ´l;ko vre ¨ P UTEWESTVENNIK A sko ´ ¨ ´, ´l;ko gorodo Vy xoti ´v T URAGENT Vse zavi ´sit ot togo sko ´te ´r, ´wij avto ´busnyj poseti ´t;. Vot, naprime est; xoro ´go kol;ca>. |to tur na vse goroda <Zoloto ´ ´ ´vnyj tur. Est; teploxo ´dnyj tur, to ´'e na semidne ´ni[, ne na vse goroda. Vy uvi 7 dnej. K so'ale ´ ´dite ´, Uglih, Kostromu Qroslavl;. ´ ´dnye mesta? P UTEWESTVENNIK A na kaki tu ´e ´ry u Vas est; svobo ´ ´ry. Ka'dyj hetve v 10 ´rg T URAGENT Poka est; mesta na vse tu ´ ´ ´ ´tnicu v 5 ´v ¨ ´bus, a ka'du[ pq haso utra idet avto ´ ´ ´hera s rehno ´etsq ´go vokzala otpravlq hasov ve ´ ´d. teploxo ´du ´t, ´de. Govorq pejza'i na P UTEWESTVENNIK Po'aluj, poe na teploxo ´ ´ ´'ij vo ´lge potrqsa[]ie, sve ´zdux! Mo ´'no xorowo ´ Vo ´ ´t;! otdoxnu ´stvovat; na teploxo ´da ´de ´to ´mq go putewe T URAGENT Da, v \ vre ´ ´l;stvie! Shastli – odno udovo ´vogo puti ´! ´e P UTEWESTVENNIK Bol;wo spasi ´bo!

Turizm

|

59

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Vocabulary ♦
predlo'i ´t; ´ poka ´ potrqsa[]ij semidnevnyj tur ´ teploxo ´d to offer for a while stunning, fantastic seven-day tour boat

N.B. <Zoloto kol;co – Golden Ring (the route on which many ancient ´e ´> ¨ ´]ij Russian towns are situated); poezdka zajmet – the trip will take; v nastoq ´ moment – at the present moment; odno udovo ´ ´ ´l;stvie – pure pleasure; shastli ´vogo puti – have a good trip! ´!

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 What trip does the traveller want to go on? What does the agent recommend? What is the ‘Golden Ring’? Why is it better to travel round the ‘Golden Ring’ by bus? What tours can the agency offer? How long does a bus tour round the ‘Golden Ring’ take? Why does the traveller decide to go by boat?

Exercise 2
Select holidays which answer the following criteria. 1 2 3 4 5 Must have high quality accommodation. Of award-winning quality. Include a boat trip. Seaside and city combination. Opportunity to see as many of the Golden Ring towns as possible. 6 Includes a visit to an outdoor museum.

60

|

Tourism

Belye nohi Sankt-Peterburga (3 i 5 dnej: klassiheskie letnie tury, vkl[ha[]ie |rmita', nohnu[ \kskursi[ <Mosty zagovorili>, <Fontany Petergofa>, Carskoe selo, Pavlovsk i mnogoe drugoe)

Serdce Rusi severnoj (6 dnej: Velikij Ust[gVologda-KirillovFerapontovo, s pose]eniem velikix severnyx monastyrej: KirilloBelozerskogo, Ferapontova, Spas-Priluckogo, a tak'e <muzeq pod otkrytym nebom> znamenitogo Velikogo Ust[ga) Soloveckie ostrova! (7 dnej: legendarnye Solovki na Belom more po pravu nazyva[t <vos;mym hudom sveta>) Ki'i + Valaam + Solovki! (9 dnej: legendarnaq programma, s 1999 g, vpervye v odnom kombinirovannom ture pose]enie trex 'emhu'in Rossii. Diplom 1 stepeni v konkurse <Marwrut–2000–Rossiq>. 11 \kskursij) Kareliq! (9 dnej: otdyx v presti'nom otele <Kalevala> + \kskursii po One'skomu ozeru na ostrov Ki'i i na znamenityj vodopad Kivah)

Belye nohi Sankt-Peterburga (3 i 5 dnej) + otdyx na Finskom zalive (7 dnej: pansionaty v kurortnom poselke Repino v 40 km ot S-Peterburga na beregu Baltijskogo morq) Sem; gorodov Zolotogo kol;ca (5 dnej: Sergiev Posad– Aleksandrov–Suzdal;– Vladimir–Gus;-Xrustal;nyj– {r;ev-Pol;skij–Pereslavl;Zalesskij)

Zolotoe kol;co + otdyx na Volge (11 dnej: Rostov Velikij– Qroslavl;–Kostroma–Ples + otdyx v pansionate <Vol'skij priboj>)

´'ina – pearl; vodopad – waterfall; hu sveta – wonder of the world ´do ´ N.B. 'emhu ´

Turizm

|

61

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Text 1
´ Na bortu teploxoda <Grigorij Pirogov> ´ ´ ´

´we, ´ ´go ´zduxu, i po su Za svo[ 'izn; q mno putewe ´stvovala i po vo ´ ´ ´ ´de. I vot v \ ´tom godu q no nikogda ne plavala na teploxo ´]ij tur na teploxo i rewi e ´ ´de rewi ´las;. Q nawla podxodq ´la ´xat;. ´'noj kompaniej. My vybrali ´ ´ ´ Pravda, ne odna, a so svoe dru ´j ´ ´ ´rij Pirogo ´v> – nebol;wo teploxo koto ´j ´d, ´ryj soverwaet <Grigo re ´jsy v vyxodnye dni do Tveri i Ugliha. My rewi ´ ´ ´li plyt; do Tveri ´. ´tnicu my priwli na Rehno vokzal v 17 haso za has do ´ ´j ´v, V pq ´ ´ ´da, bystro prowli registraci[ i poluhi otplytiq teploxo ´ ´ ´ ´li ´ ´ ´de dve passa'i kl[hi ot svoi ka[t. Na teploxo ´ ´x ´rskie paluby ´ ´ i tre ´t;q – otkrytaq, gde mo'no pozagorat;. Samye ´ ´ ´ ´ ´j ´ komfortabel;nye ka[ty razme]a[tsq na vtoro palube. Hem ´ ´su ´da ´ ´'e ona sto ´it. Na \ ´toj bli ´'e k no teploxo ka[ta, tem doro ´ ´ ´ditsq i kapitanskaq ka[ta. ´ 'e palube naxo ´ ´ ´l;ko teploxo nahal otplyvat;, vse vywli na paluby. ´d ´ Kak to ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´zdux, potrqsa[]ie pejza'i, klassnaq kompaniq, Sve ´'ij vo ´zyka i pi ´ ´go raz ¨ ´tdyx. Q mno mu ´vo – vse obe]alo hude ´snyj o ´ ´ ´ge e ´zdila na mawi po doro Moskva – Tver;. Mne kazalos;, hto ´ne ´ ´ ¨ q zna[ ee vs[ <ot> i <do>. No vi ´dy iz okna avtomobi ´lq

62

|

Tourism

´da: soverwe ´nno ne poxodi ´li na to, hto my uvi ´deli s teploxo ´'i, doma o ´ ´tdyxa, prive ´da, plq 'ivopi ´snaq priro ´tlivye rybaki ´ ´ ´ ´rge. na beregu reki Q byla v vosto ´. ´ ´v ´tu my priplyli v Tver;. Zdes; u nas byla V 12 haso v subbo ´ ´rsiq. Ona vxo ´ra. ´dnaq \ksku ´dit v sto ´imost; tu pewexo ´ ´ ´ ´ ´d |kskursovo provela nas po nabere'noj do pamqtnika Afanasi[ ´roda, v Niki ´tinu, zate my prowli he ´m ´ ´rez most v centr go ´ karti ´nnu[ galere Iz galere my vywli hasa v hetyre i do ´[. ´i ´ ´ ´'ina rewi ´rodu, zajti v kafe zakusi i u ´li poxodi po go ´t; ´ ´, ´t; ´ ´fe. My to ´l;ko prowli metro 20, kak uvi ´v vypit; hawku ko ´ ´ ´deli ´tno udivi ´ ´ ¨ ´ malen;kij restoranhik. Ce ´ny nas priq ´li, vse bylo ´sno, mi i namno dewe ´go vku ´lo ´vle, hem v Moskve ´. ´v ´hera. A v voskrese Iz Tveri my otplyli v 6 haso ve ´ ´ ´n;e v 11 ´nku <Xvo ´ ´ ´v ´d ¨ ´jnyj haso utra teploxo prihalil na zelenu[ stoq ´ ´ ´ ´ bor>. Zdes; v lesu na beregu reki my kupalis; i zagorali, e ´ ´li ´ ´v ´hera my othalili ot wawlyki pi ´, ´li pi ´vo. V 5 haso ve ´ ´j ´ra ´byli na Se ´vernyj rehno gosteprii ´mnogo Bo i he ´rez 3 hasa pri ´ ´ ´de – prekrasnyj o ´tdyx v vokzal stoli ´cy. Krui na teploxo ´z vyxodnye dni. ´

´g>, 2001 Po materialam 'urnala <Vaw dosu ´ ´

Vocabulary ♦
vyxodnye dni ´ zakusi ´t; ´ kl[h ot ka[ty ´ nabere'naq nos teploxo ´da otplytie ´ ´ othalit; ´ paluba ´ pamqtnik ´rsiq pewexo ´dnaq \ksku ´ pozagorat; ´ prihalit; ´]ij podxodq poxodi ´t; na (+ acc) weekend to have a bite to eat cabin key embankment bow of the ship departure (by boat) to set sail deck monument walking tour to sunbathe to moor suitable to look like

Turizm

|

63

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ razme]at;sq rewi ´t;sq ´ soverwat; rejs ´nka stoq udivi ´t; xvo ´jnyj bor wawlyk ´

to be accommodated to make up one’s mind to sail stop to surprise coniferous forest kebab

´ ´we – by air N.B. na bortu teploxo – on board ship; po vo ´da ´zduxu i po su ´ ´ and land; <OT> I <DO> – inside out; nahal otplyvat; – set sail; byt; v ´ vosto ´rge – to be delighted; Afanasij Niki ´tin – fifteenth-century Russian merchant adventurer; 'e (emphatic particle) – exactly

Exercise 3
Answer the following questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 What kind of cruises does the Grigoriy Pirogov offer? How many decks are there on the ship? Where is the captain’s cabin? What can you see from the ship? What did the walking tour of Tver’ include? Why did the friends like the little restaurant in Tver’? How did the cruise end?

Exercise 4
True or false? ´hwij spo ´> ´sob putewe ´mu kol;cu (na 1 Lu ´stvovat; po <Zoloto ´ezde, pewko na teploxo ´m, ´de)? po ´[tsq (s 'eleznodoro ´dy otpravlq ´'nogo vokzala, s 2 Teploxo ´ ´go ´roda)? rehno vokzala, iz ce ´ ´ntra go ´g ´rij Pirogo soverwaet re ´v ´ 3 Grigo ´ ´jsy (v vyxodny e dni, vokru sve ´ta, ka'dyj den;)? ´ ´'e k no teploxo ka[ta, tem ona (dewe ´su ´da ´ ´'e, 4 Hem bli ´ ´vle, doro ´'e)? xu ´hnye, potrqsa[]ie, neoby hnye)? ´m ´ ´ 5 Pejza'i za borto by li (sku ´ ´ ´ ´ry poseti ´li (istori ´heskij muze 6 V Tveri passa'i ´j, kreml;, ´nnu[ galere karti ´[)? ´ry (sobirali griby , ´ ´jnyj bor> passa'i ´ ´ 7 Na stoqnke <Xvo kupalis;, pe ´ ´li pe ´sni)?

64

|

Tourism

Language points ♦
Verbs of motion
Verbs of motion are essential to any discussion of tourism. The ones we are going to look at first are: ezdit; / exat; / poexat; ‘to go (by ´ ´ ´ vehicle), travel, ride’; xodi / idti / pojti ‘to go (on foot), walk’. ´t; ´ ´ Ezdit; / exat; and xodi / idti are all imperfective verbs. Ezdit; ´ ´t; ´ and xodi are ‘multidirectional’ verbs, used for repeated journeys, ´t; particularly round trips, such as to work and back: Udo ´bnee ezdit; na rabo ´ ´tu na po ´ezde. It is more convenient to travel to work (and back) by train. Moj syn xo ´dit v wko ´lu. My son goes to school (i.e. there and back every day). They are also used for generalisations, where the occasion and direction of the journey is imprecise: ´ Obyhno turi ´sty ezdqt na avto ´ ´buse. Usually tourists go by bus. Or simply the direction is non-specific: ´licam. On celu[ noh; xodi po u ´ ´l He walked the streets all night. Exat; and i ´dti are ‘unidirectional’ verbs, used for single journeys in a particular direction: ´ Sego ´dnq q idu na rabo ´tu pewko a domo edu na ´m, ´j ´ avto ´buse. Today I am walking to work but coming home by bus. Even where a journey is repeated, if a single direction is stressed, exat; / idti are used: ´ ´ ´ ¨ Ka'dyj hetverg v 10 haso idet avto ´ ´v ´bus. The bus goes every Thursday at 10. ´ ´ Q vsegda edu domo na taksi. ´j ´ I always come home by taxi. Note that xodi / idti are used when trains, buses, boats, trains ´t; ´ and other forms of public transport are the subject. Ezdit; / exat; ´

Turizm

|

65

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

are used for cars and other smaller vehicles, as well as for the action of passengers on any form of transport. Poexat; / pojti are perfective verbs. They convey the idea of ´ ´ setting off on a journey: ´ Q poedu v 5 haso utra. ´ ´v I will go / set off at 5 a.m. ´hwe poexat; rano. ´ Lu ´ It is better to go / set off early. They are also used if a completed journey was in one direction only: ´ Poexala tuda na teploxo ´ ´de. I went there by boat. Where a round trip has been made ezdit; / xodit; are used: ´ ´ Q ezdila v Rossi[ letom. ´ ´ ´ I went to (and returned from) Russia in the summer. Note the use of the perfective past tense in the phrases: ¨ q powel poexali ´ I’m off let’s go

Figurative use of verbs of motion
Where verbs of motion are used figuratively, only one of the imper´t ´ ¨ fectives is ever used: do'd; idet ‘it is raining’; dela idu xorowo ´ ¨ ¨ ‘things are going well’; idet lekciq ‘a lecture is taking place’; idet ´ fil;m ‘a film is on’.

Exercise 5
Use the appropriate form of ezdit; / exat; / poexat; or xodi / ´ ´ ´ ´t; idti / pojti to complete the sentence. ´ ´
´e ´gut . . . gorazdo bystre po vysokoskorostny m ´ 1 Poezda smo ´ ´ ´znye doro . . . v raznye koncy ´gi ´ ´ magistralqm. 2 Ot Moskvy 'ele ´ ´ ´ppa . . . v Sankt Peterbu ´rg. Ona ´ strany. 3 Amerikanskaq turgru ´ ´ ´det tam tri dnq. 4 Angli ´ppa u'e . . . v Sankt bu ´jskaq gru ´rg. Ona vernu ´las; v Moskvu vhera. 5 V koto ´ ´ ´rom hasu ty Peterbu ´ ´ ´trom? Q zaka'u taksi. 6 V subbo sneg . . . ves; den;. ´ ´tu . . . zavtra u ´

66

|

Tourism

Yaroslavl

Words including the root xod
´ The word xod means ‘movement’: na xodu ‘on the move’; v xo ´de ‘in the course of’. By spotting it as the root of other words you may be able to work out their meaning, or, at least, remember them more easily. Prefixes add to or qualify the meaning of the root. In several of these examples it indicates the direction of the movement: ´ vxod ‘entrance’; vyxod ‘exit’; doxo ‘income’; rasxo ´d ´dy ´d ´d ‘expenses’; perexo ‘crossing’; poxo ‘hike’. Suffixes indicate the part of speech: ´ ´ xodit; ‘to go / walk’; vxodnoj ‘entrance’ (adj.); ´t ´ ´ poxo ka ‘gait’; xod;ba ‘walking’ – 10 minu xod;by ´d ´ ‘a ten minute walk’; vyxodno den; ‘day off ‘; vyxodnye dni ´j ‘weekend’. Xod combined with another root paroxo ‘steamship’ (par ‘steam’); teploxo ‘motor ship’ ´d ´d (teplo ‘warm’); pewexo ´ ´d(nyj) ‘pedestrian’ (pewij ‘foot’); ´ ´dno ‘vessel’). sudoxo ´dnyj ‘navigable’ (su

Turizm

|

67

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 6
Complete the following phrases using an appropriate form of a word with the root xod.
´rez u ´licu; v . . . peregovo ´; ´rov; doro ´'nye . . . . . . v metro . . . he ´t; ´kie; . . . zo ´na; . . . bile tur na . . . ; v . . . dni. sli ´wkom vyso

Language points ♦
Prefixed verbs of motion
´ Key verbs in any discussion of travel are: priez'at; / priexat; ‘to ´ ´ arrive’ and uez'at; / uexat; ‘to leave’. The perfective of each pair ´ is a prefixed form of the verb exat; ‘to travel, go by vehicle’, which ´ was discussed earlier in the unit. A whole series of verbs exists to describe travel in different directions, formed by adding prefixes to ez'at; / -exat;. Unlike the unprefixed ezdit; / exat; / poexat;, these ´ ´ ´ prefixed verbs of motion only have one imperfective. They are normally followed by a preposition which reinforces the meaning. Note the hard sign -#- between prefixes ending in a consonant and -ez'at; / -exat;. Some common examples: Imperfective ´ v#ez'at; to drive in ´ vyez'at; to drive out Perfective v#exat; ´ ´ vyexat; Preposition v + acc iz + gen do + gen

´ doez'at; doexat; ´ to drive as far as ´ zaez'at; zaexat; ´ to call (on a person) to call (at a place) to call for ´ ob#ez'at; to drive round ´ ob#exat;

k + dat v or na + acc za + instr ´g vokru + gen or without a preposition

68

|

Tourism

´ ot#ez'at; ot#exat; ´ to drive away from ´ pereez'at; pereexat; ´ to cross to move from to move to ´ pod#ez'at; pod#exat; ´ to drive up ´ priez'at; priexat; ´ to arrive, come ´ proez'at; proexat; ´ to drive past to travel a given distance ´ raz#ez'at;sq raz#exat;sq ´ to disperse ´ uez'at; uexat; ´ to leave (a place) to leave (a person) Examples:

ot + gen herez + acc or without a preposition iz or s + gen v or na + acc k + dat v or na + acc

mimo + gen without a preposition po + dat

iz or s + gen ot + gen

´ Oni doedut do Bajkala sego ´ ´ ´dnq. They will travel as far as Lake Baikal today. ´ ´zdno veherom. My priexali v Moskvu po ´ ´ We arrived in Moscow late in the evening. All the same prefixes can be added to the stems -xodit; / -jti to create verbs which describe motion on foot in a variety of directions. Note the -o- between prefixes ending in a consonant and -jti: vxodi ´t; vojti ´ to walk in, enter v + acc

Exercise 7
Replace verbs of motion describing travel in a vehicle by those describing travel on foot. Example: Veherom my poexali v kino – Veherom my ´ ´ ´. ´ powli v kino ´ ´.

Turizm

|

69

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ntov priez'a[t v MGU. 2 Vy ´ 1 Ka'dyj god tysqhi stude ´ ´ ´dem ´ma za 2 hasa do otxo po ´da ´ezda. 3 Poe ´ ´ dol'ny vyexat; iz do ´ ´rt ´herom! 4 Mne obqzatel;no nado zae ´xat; v ´dnq ve na konce sego ´ ´ ´ku. 5 Q do ´xat; ot vas he ´rez has. 6 Ne nado ´l'en ue bibliote ´ ´du odna. 7 Q zae ´xal k dru ´gu, no ego ne ´ ´ zaez'at; za mnoj, q poe ´ ´ ´ ´xal. 8 On pod#e ´xal k kasse i zaplati za ´ma, on u'e ue bylo do ´ ´l ´xali do le i ostanovi ´sa ´xali benzi 9 My doe ´n. ´lis;. 10 Oni proe ´ ´tili nas. 11 Kogda Vy bu ´dete pereez'at; he ´rez mi ´mo i ne zame ´ ´ ´ku, bu ´d;te ostoro ´skol;ko raz ob#e ´xal vokru ´g ´'nee. 12 On ne re ´ma. 13 Moj drug privez mne slovar;. ¨ do ´

Other verbs of motion
In addition to ezdit; / exat; / poexat; and xodit; / idti / pojti, ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ described above, there are other verbs of motion with two imperfectives. These include: Imperfectives nosi / nesti ´t; ´ vozit; / vezti ´ ´ vodi / vesti ´t; ´ ´ begat; / be'at; ´ ´ letat; / letet; ´ ´ plavat; / plyt; ´ lazit; / lezt; po ´lzat; / polzti ´ brodi / bresti ´t; ´ ´ taskat; / ta]it; ´ ´t; gonq / gnat; ´ katat; / katit; ´ Perfective ponesti ´ povezti ´ povesti ´ ´ pobe'at; poletet; ´ ´ poplyt; polezt; ´ popolzti ´ pobresti ´ pota]it; ´ ´ pognat; pokati ´t; Meaning to carry (on foot) to convey, carry (by vehicle) to lead (on foot) to run to fly to swim, sail to climb to crawl to wander to drag to chase, drive to roll

In deciding which verb to chose, follow the guidelines set out for ezdit; / exat; / poexat;: ´ ´ ´ ´ My nesli naw baga' na ostano ´ ´vku avto ´busa. We were carrying our luggage to the bus stop. ¨ ´ Povezem komp;[ter domo na mawi ´j ´ne. We will take the computer home in the car.

70

|

Tourism

Prefixes may be added to the imperfective verbs above to form new imperfective / perfective pairs which indicate the direction of ´ movement. There are some changes to the stems: -plyvat; instead ´ ´ ´ ´ of plavat;; -lezat; instead of lazit;; -taskivat; instead ´ ´ ´ of taskat;; -bredat; instead of brodit;; -katyvat; instead of ´ ´ ´ ´ katat; and a change of stress in -begat; and -polzat;. Otherwise the prefix is added straight to the stem, without any addition or alteration: Imperfective vvozi ´t; to bring in, import vnosit; ´ to carry in vvodi ´t; to lead in ´ vbegat; to run in ´ vletat; to fly in ´ vlezat; to climb in ´ vpolzat; to crawl in Perfective vvezti ´ vnesti ´ vvesti ´ ´ vbe'at; vletet; ´ vlezt; vpolzti ´ Preposition v + acc v + acc v + acc v + acc v + acc v + acc v + acc

´ Rejs priletaet v Lo ´ndon v 18.00. The flight arrives in London at 18.00. ´ Rossi vyvo ´q ´zit les na Zapad. Russia exports timber to the West. ´ ´ Mal;hiki ube'ali ot milicionera. ´ The boys ran away from the policeman.

Exercise 8
´ ´ ´ Insert prefixed forms of -begat; / -be'at;, -letat; / -letet;. ´
´ ´ (-begat; / -be'at;) ´mnaty. Kogda on . . . na ostano ´vku, avto ´bus ´ On by stro . . . iz ko ´ ´ ´trov. On . . . do ¨ u'e uwel. Ran;we on ka'dyj den; . . . 5 kilome ´ ´

Turizm

|

71

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ta za 10 minu ´t. Po doro ´ge na rabo ´tu on . . . v universite ´ku. Q xote s nim pogovori ´l ´ bibliote ´t;, no on u'e . . . On . . . ko ´gu v \ ´tom ´ mne i stal by stro govori hto-to. Ne nado . . . doro ´t; ´ ´ste. On . . . v zal soverwe ´nno raste ´rqnnyj. me ´ (-letat; / -letet;) ´ ´tnicam samolet . . . iz Lo ¨ ´ndona v 10 haso ve ´v ´hera i . . . v Po pq ´ ¨ ´m Moskvu v 5 utra. Benzi ko ´ ´n ´nhilsq i samolet s trudo . . . do ´rvyj . . . vokru sve ´g ´ta. My priwli v a\ropo ´rta. On pe ´rt a\ropo ´ ´ ´rez Atlanti ´zdno, samolet u'e . . . Ego mehta – . . . he ¨ ´ po ´ ´heskij okean. ´

Exercise 9
Choose the correct verb from the brackets and use it with the appropriate preposition.
´ ´ ´ ´ (priplyt; v, otplyt; s, doplyt; do, pereplyt; herez, ´ ´ ´ ´ uplyt;, podplyt; k, proplyt;) ´t, ´ ´d ´go My opozdali na 5 minu i teploxo u'e . . . rehno vokzala. ´ ´ ´trom. On s trudo . . . be ´rega. On pe ´rvyj ´m My . . . Tver; rano u ´ ´skol;ko kilome ´trov i vdrug . . . Gol;fstri ´m. On . . . ne ´vstvoval sebq plo ´ ´dlenno . . . be ´regu. On . . . ´xo. Lo ´dka me pohu ´ ´re. daleko v mo

Figurative use of verbs of motion
Not all verbs of motion are used literally. Note the following examples of figurative usage: provodi / provesti vremq ´t; ´ ´ ´ vremq proletaet ´ ´ vyxodit; / vyjti iz kri ´ ´zisa ´ sxodi / sojti s uma ´t; ´ prixodi / prijti v go ´t; ´ ´lovu proxodit; / projti ´ ´ ´ registraci[ vvodit; / vvesti zako ´ ´ ´n ´ zavodi / zavesti hasy ´t; ´ to pass time time flies to get out of a crisis to go mad to come to mind to register to introduce a law to wind up a watch

72

|

Tourism

nanosi / nanesti u]erb ´t; ´ ´ perevodi / perevesti ´t; ´ rasxodi ´t;sq / razojti ´s; razvodi ´t;sq / razvestis; ´

cause damage translate to split up get a divorce

Some verbs have meanings which are not directly related to movement at all: proisxodit; / proizojti ´ ´ prixodi ´t;sq / prijti ´s; naxodi ´t;sq to happen to have to to be situated

Exercise 10
Insert a suitable prefixed verb of motion used figuratively to complete the sentences.
´dno bu ´det . . . iz \ ´ ´togo kri 1 Tru ´zisa. 2 On tak . . . na svoego otca. ´ ´ ´wlom godu parlament . . . no ´vyj zako 4 |migraciq ´n. 3 V pro ´ ´ ´rb. 5 My tak ve ´selo ´mnyj u]e speciali ´stov . . . Rossi ogro ´i ´mq by stro . . . 6 Moi hasy ostanovi ´ ´ proveli den;, hto vre ´ ´ ´lis;. ´mer, ona . . . s uma ot go ´rq. 8 |tot Nado ix . . . 7 Kogda mu' u ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´hen; . . . 9 Naw dom . . . na beregu reki 10 On . . . vsego tur nam o ´. ´sskij qzyk. ´ Di ´kkensa na ru

Language points ♦
To'e / Tak'e
´ Both to ´'e and tak'e mean ‘also’. To ´'e is more often used when it repeats an existing circumstance: ´ On ustal, i q to ´'e. He is tired and so am I. ´ ´'e. Moj brat vrah. Ego 'ena to ´ My brother is a doctor. His wife too. ´ Tak'e should be used in the sense of ‘in addition’, particularly after a, no

Turizm

|

73

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ ´ Moj brat biznesmen, no on tak'e muzykant. ´ My brother is a buisnessman but he is also a musician. ´ry. ´ Est; avto ´busnye, a tak'e teploxo ´dnye tu There are bus, and also boat trips. ´sskij qzyk, a tak'e po ´ ´ ´ Q izuha[ ru ´l;skij. I am studying Russian and, in addition, Polish. ´ ´ ´ V letnie kanikuly my mno plavali, a tak'e katalis; ´ ´ ´go na lo ´dke. During the summer holiday we swam a lot and also went on a boat. ´ To ´'e can usually be replaced by tak'e, but not the other way round. ´ ´ ´ ´'e ´ V \tom godu my edem v Rossi ´ ´[. Moq sestra to ´ ´ (tak'e) edet tuda. ´ This year we are going to Russia. My sister is also going there.

Exercise 11
´ Decide whether to use to ´'e or tak'e.
´ ´zski, q . . . govor[ neplo ´ ´ ´xo. 1 Moq mat; xorowo govori po-francu ´t ´j, ´l;ko muze a . . . park by li zakry ty. 3 My . . . soglasi ´ ´ 2 Ne to ´lis; ´ s nim. 4 Pohemu on . . . ne prixodi ´l? 5 My rewi ´li, hto fil;m ´pyj, no . . . o ´l;ko glu ´hen; strannyj. byl ne to ´

Exercise 12
According to a survey by sociologists, only 2% of Russians can afford a super-expensive holiday, anywhere on the planet. So where do those with hardly any money spend their holidays? This is how 1,600 Russians answered the question.

74

|

Tourism

ECЬ ПPOBECTИ ГДE BЫ COБИPAET
Hа даче 25%

OTПУCK?
Hа Черном море – За границей –

сийского центра

4% 1% B другом городе, – 4% селе России B CHГ – 2% 45% Oстанемся дома – , Oгдыхать не поедем – 23% нет денег
Пока не решили –

изучения общест

венного мнения

6%

´vda>, maj, 2001 Gaze ´ta <Komsomo ´l;skaq pra

Exercise 13
Translate into Russian. 1 Last year I went on a cruise round the world and visited many interesting countries. 2 Our cabin was on the upper deck of the boat, and the view was stunning. 3 You have to arrive at the river station one hour before the boat departs. 4 I think the best way to travel around the Golden Ring is by bus or by boat. You will not see much if you go by train. 5 Everything in Russia interests me, but especially ancient historic towns like Novgorod and Pskov. 6 As the ship was setting sail we all went out on deck.

Pис. Дм. Полухина.

по дaнным Всерос

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

4 MIGRACIQ

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ about migration to and from Russia how to ask questions using li about reflexive verbs how to use ordinal numbers and form dates more about the preposition v

Legal emigration from the Soviet Union was mostly confined to Jews heading for Israel, or Germans from the Volga region going to West Germany. It was considered unthinkable and unpatriotic for Russians to leave their Motherland and it was made very difficult for them to do so. After the collapse of the USSR the situation changed: mass emigration became a threat to the economic well-being of the country as the best qualified and educated left in their thousands. The situation has now stabilised, though many are still leaving in search of a better life and greater opportunities. A far more serious problem nowadays is immigration: Russia is being flooded by refugees. Among them are ethnic minorities trying to escape discrimination or Russians who suddenly find themselves unwelcome and without a job in the new independent republics.

76

|

Migration

Dialogue 1
A conversation between a journalist and a sociologist
´ @ URNALIST

´ S OCIOLOG

´ @ URNALIST ´ S OCIOLOG

´ @ URNALIST ´ LOG S OCIO

´ @ URNALIST

´ S OCIOLOG

´da ´n ´dnom 20 maq 1991 go Rossi prinqla zako o svobo ´ ´q ´ ´zde i vy ezde. Mno ´lis;, hto nahnetsq ´gie boq ¨ ´ v#e ´ti massovaq \migraciq iz SSSR. Opravdalis; li \ ´ ´ ´ ´zy? progno ´r;, kogda prowlo 10 let, mo ´ ´'no skazat;, hto net. Tepe ´ ´ ´moj stala ne \migraciq, a ´lee ser;eznoj proble ¨ Bo ´ ´ ´xat; v Rossi o ´sto. immigraciq. Ved; prie ´ ´[ ´hen; pro ´itsq, hto rossi ´hen; Zapad bespoko ´ ´jskie grani ´cy o ´[tsq plo ´ ´xo. legko perejti Oni oxranq ´. ´ ´na Rossi poka tranzi ´q ´ ´tnaq zo dlq immigrantov. No q ´ ´ma[, hto tak bu ´det do ´lgo prodol'at;sq. Grani ne du ´ ´cy ´dut ukreplq ´t;sq, i v Rossi bu ¨ bu ´i ´det ostavat;sq vse ´ ´l;we immigrantov. bo ´ ´hwe li zakryt; grani ´ A ne lu ´cy? ´lat; nel;zq Rost hisla immigrantov – ´! ´togo de Net, \ ´ ´ ´n ´ ´to ´ \ blago dlq Rossi Hislo rossiq umen;waetsq, i ´i. ´ ´sli my zakro ´ka ´em grani e ´cy, to k seredi ´ne ve ´nie Rossi re ´det rabo ´tat; nasele ´i ´zko sokrati ´tsq. Kto bu ´'da na immigraci[. u nas? Odna nade ´ ´ ´emu, bo ´l;we vsego immigrantov v Rossi bu ´ Po-mo ´ ´[ ´det ´ priez'at; iz Kitaq. U'e sejhas kitajcev v Rossi ´ ´ ´ ´ ´i ´rty shita[t, hto k seredi ´n. pohti millio |kspe ´ ´ ´ne ´ka kitajcy bu ´dut vtorym naro ´sskix. ´dom po ´sle ru ´ ve ´ ´to Ne ka'etsq li Vam \ opasnym? ´ ´ ´du]ee. Po\ ´tomu nado Immigraciq iz Kitaq – nawe bu ´ ´ ´ ´ ´mat; o tom, kak sotru ´dnihat; s immigrantami, kak du ´ ´b]estvo. inkorpori ´rovat; ix v nawe o ´

´gi> 2001 Po materialam 'urnala <Ito ´ ´

Vocabulary ♦
bespoko ´it;sq ´ blago ´t;sq (+ gen) boq to be worried good to be afraid

Migraciq

|

77

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

grani ´ca ´ ´ kitaec, Kitaj nade'da ´ naselenie ´ o ´b]estvo ´ opasnyj ´ opravdat;sq ´ ostavat;sq ´t;sq oxranq ´t; zako prinq ´n seredi ´na veka ´ sokrati ´t;sq ´dnihat; s (+ inst) sotru ´t;sq ukreplq ´ umen;wat;sq hislo ´

border Chinese, China hope population society dangerous to be justified to remain, stay to be guarded to pass a law the middle of the century to decrease, reduce, be reduced to cooperate with to become stronger to decrease number

N.B. zako o svobo ´n ´dnom v#ezde i vyezde – law on free passage ´ ´

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions in English. 1 2 3 4 What law was passed on 20th May 1991? What did people fear might be the consequences of that law? Why does Russia need immigration? Which immigrant group will predominate in the future?

Language points ♦ Use of li
Note the use of the particle li to frame questions in the dialogue: ´ ´ti progno Opravdalis; li \ ´zy? Have these forecasts proved to be correct? The key word, usually the verb, is moved to the beginning of the sentence, followed by li. Contrast the affirmative statement: |ti ´ progno ´zy opravdalis;. Frequently such questions are asked in the negative: ´ ´ ´to opasnym? Ne ka'etsq li vam \ Doesn’t that seem dangerous to you?

78

|

Migration

Contrast: ´ ´ |to ka'etsq opasnym. That seems dangerous. The key word in a sentence is not always a verb: ´hwe li zakryt; grani ´ Ne lu ´cy? Would it not be better to close the borders?

Exercise 2
Convert the following statements into questions using the particle li.
´ma \migrantov ne kasaetsq Rossi 2 Q ne du ´ma[, hto 1 Proble ´ ´ ´i. ´ di ne uez'a[t po \konomi on prav. 3 L[ ´ ´heskim moti ´vam. 4 Ona ´det so mnoj. 5 Su]estvu ´et proble ´ma trudoustro ´jstva ne e ´'encev. 6 On rasskazal mne o poe ´zdke v Rossi 7 Vse stude ´nty be ´ ´[. ´dut v Rossi e ´[.

Text 1
´ciq ili immigra ´ciq? |migra ´
´ ´ ´ ´ ¨ E]e nedavno proble ´ma \migrantov byla proble ´moj zapadnyx ´ ´ ´ ´j stran. Ona pohti ne kasalas; Rossi No u'e so vtoro polovi ´ ´i. ´ny ´ ´ ´ ´v 1980-x godo migraciq me ´'du Rossi ´ej i stranami dal;nego zarube ´';q usi ´livaetsq. Re ´zko uveli ´hivaetsq vyezd nasele ´ ´niq na ´nnoe me ´ postoq ´sto 'i ´tel;stva v drugi strany. Napravle ´e ´niq ´ ´ ´ ´ \migracii snahala zavi ´seli ot nacional;nosti. Uez'ali te, u ´ ´ ´ ´ ´dstvenniki v SWA, Izraile, Germanii. Pozdne v kogo byli ro ´e, ´ ´ ´dy poqvi ´vaq tende ´l;we stali uez'at; 90-e go ´las; no ´nciq: bo ´sskie. Kak pravilo, l[di uez'a[t po \konomi ´ ´ ´ ru ´heskim moti ´vam. ´ ´gie u'e poluhi ´tu na no ´vom Mno ´li i ´li nade ´[tsq najti rabo ´ me ´ste. ´[t speciali ´ ´l;wu[ hast; \migrantov sostavlq Bo ´sty. A sredi ´ ´ ´ speciali ´stov l[di s vyswim texni ´ ´heskim obrazovaniem. |ta ´et ´. ´ ´ ´v> volnu stranu Ved; takaq \migraciq no ´sit <ute ´hka mozgo ´ ´ ´sit strane ogro ´mnyj u]e bezvozvratnyj xarakter i nano ´ ´rb. Iz-za

Migraciq

|

79

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

¨ ´vitsq vyjti iz ot#e ´zda speciali ´stov Rossi vse trudne stano ´i ´e ´ \konomi ´heskogo kri ´zisa. ´ ´ ´ ´j vid migracii: immigraci[ Raspad SSSR vyzval drugo ´ ´voe qvle ´go ´'encev nasele ´niq. Vozni ´klo no ´nie – be ´'enstvo. Mno be ´blik SSSR. Mno ´t ´gie begu prie ´xalo v Rossi iz byvwix respu ´[ ´ ´ ot vojny i nacional;nyx konfli ´ ´ktov. Poqvi ´las; proble ´ma ix ´ ´[ ´jstva. Osnovnu hast; be 'il;q i trudoustro ´'encev (dve tre ´ti ´[t ru ´sskie. ´ ´ ´b]ego hisla immigrantov) sostavlq o ´ ´ ´ ´ ¨ ¨ ´dom vse rastet immigraciq inostrannyx gra'dan S ka'dym go ´benno \ ´hnyx ´to zame iz bli ´'nego zarube ´';q. Oso ´tno na vosto ´x na grani grani ´cax Rossi ´i. Naprime ´r, v oblastq ´cax s ´ ´ ´ ¨ ´ ´ Kazaxstanom bystro rastet hislo kazaxov. A hislo kitajcev ´ ´ ´ ´ke vdol; grani ´cy s Kitaem na Dal;nem Vosto bli ´zko k hi ´slen´ nosti rossi ´jskix gra'dan. ´ ´ ´ V evrope ´jskoj hasti strany do migrantov poka ne tak zame ´ ´lq ´tna, ´ ´ no ona bystro uveli ´hivaetsq. Na dnqx m\r Moskvy zaqvi hto ´ ´l, ´t ´ ´ ´ v stoli 'ivu 400 tys. nelegal;nyx immigrantov iz dal;nego ´ce ´ ´ ´m, \ ´to vyxodcy iz Kitaq, V;etnama, zarube ´';q! V osnovno ´ ´t ´ ´ ´lii, Afganistana, Iraka. Bol;winstvo \ ´ ´tix l[de xotq Mongo ´j ´ ´ ´ ´ ue ´xat; na Zapad, v evrope ´jskie strany i rassmatriva[t Moskvu ´ ´l;ko kak vre to ´mennyj <tranzi ´tnyj punkt>. No on hasto ´nnyj, tak kak zapadnye strany ´ ´ ´ prevra]aetsq dlq nix v postoq ´ ´ ´ ´ otkazyva[tsq prinimat; ix i posyla[t obratno v Rossi ´[.

´gi>, 2001 Po materialam 'urnala <Ito ´ ´

Vocabulary ♦
´ ´ bezvozvratnyj xarakter be'enec, be'enstvo ´ ´ ´ volnovat; vremennyj ´ vyzvat; ´ vyxodec iz (+ gen) ´ do ´lq ¨ 'il;e of a permanent character refugee, refugee problem to disturb temporary to cause of . . . origin share accommodation

80

|

Migration

zavi ´set; ot (+ gen) zametnyj ´ zaqvi ´t; ´ inostrannyj gra'dani ´n ´ kazax ´ kasat;sq (+ gen) nadeqt;sq na (+ acc) ´ o ´blast; (f ) o ´b]ee hislo ´ ´ ´ otkazyvat;sq prinimat; ´nnoe mesto 'i postoq ´ ´tel;stva ´ prevra]at;sq v (+ acc) ´ rassmatrivat; rezko ´ ´t; sostavlq trudoustro ´jstvo uveli ´hivat;sq usi ´livat;sq utehka mozgo ´ ´v hi ´slennost; (f )

to depend on noticeable to declare foreign citizen Kazakh to concern to hope for province, oblast total number to refuse to accept / take permanent residence to turn into to regard as sharply to constitute placement in work to increase to intensify brain drain numbers

´ ´nin citizen of Russia, N.B. kak pravilo – as a rule; v osnovno – mainly; rossiq ´m referring to any person living in Russia, not necessarily someone of Russian ethnic origin; bli ´'nee zarube';e – ‘the near abroad’: former republics of the USSR, ´ ´ssiq, Moldaviq, Kazaxstan, ´ ´ now the independent states of Ukrai ´na, Beloru ´ziq, ´ ´ ´ ´ Uzbekistan, Tad'ikistan, Kirgizistan, Turkmenistan, Gru ´ ´ ´ Armeniq, Azerbajd'an, Latviq, |sto ´ ´niq, Li ´tva; dal;nee zarube';e – ´ ´'estvo Nezavi ‘the far abroad’ all other foreign countries; SNG (Sodru ´simyx ´ Gosudarstv) – CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) consisting of all former republics except the Baltic Republics of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia

Exercise 3
Answer the following questions in English. 1 When did the problem of migration arise in Russia? 2 Why do the majority of emigrants go to the USA, Israel or Germany? 3 Why is emigration damaging the Russian economy? 4 Who are the Russian refugees referred to in the passage? 5 What is the particular problem of illegal immigration in Russia?

Migraciq

|

81

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 4
True or false? ´jskie grani ´cy (nevozmo ´dno) perejti ´? ´'no, legko tru ´, 1 Rossi ´q ´tnyj punkt, kone 2 Rossi dlq immigrantov (tranzi ´ ´hnyj punkt, ´heskaq strana)? turisti ´ ´i ´dstvie, blago, spase 3 Rost hisla immigrantov dlq Rossi (be ´ ´ ´ ´nie)? ´i ´hivaetsq, ne izmenq ´etsq)? 4 Nasele ´nie Rossi (umen;waetsq, uveli ´ ´i ´'nego zarube ´ 5 Bol;winstvo immigrantov v Rossi iz (bli ´ ´';q, dal;nego zarube ´ ´';q, zapadnyx stran)? ´ ´n ´ru[t ´ 6 Bol;winstvo rossiq \migri po (nacional;nym, ´ ´heskim, politi ´heskim) moti ´vam? \konomi

Language points ♦
Reflexive verbs
Reflexive verbs are easily recognised by -sq which is added after the verb ending. This ending changes to -s; after a vowel, although not after ; or j. In the strictest sense, a verb is only reflexive if the subject of the verb is performing the action of the verb on itself: ´ ¨ Mat; odevaet rebenka. The mother dresses the child. ´ ¨ Rebenok odevaetsq. The child gets dressed (dresses self). Many intransitive verbs (not taking a direct object) end in -sq in contrast to transitive (taking a direct object) verbs of the same meaning without -sq: ´ Dver; zakrylas;. The door closed. ´ On zakryl dver;. He closed the door. Although in English the transitive and intransitive verbs are often the same, in Russian they are always differentiated, commonly by the

82

|

Migration

reflexive ending. There are a large number of examples of reflexive verbs used intransitively in the dialogue and text about migration: ´ ´ ¨ Massovaq \migraciq nahnetsq. Mass emigration will begin. ´det prodol'at;sq. ´ ´ Situaciq bu The situation will continue. ´ Hislo umen;waetsq. ´ The number is falling. Contrast the transitive use of these verbs when they are without the reflexive ending: ¨ On nahnet rabo ´tu. He will begin work. ´ ´ ´ ´ Ne'elatel;no prodol'at; \tu situaci[. It is undesirable to continue this situation. ´ umen;wit; hislo immigrantov. ´ ´ to reduce the number of immigrants Only the transitive verb may be followed by the infinitive: ´ prodol'at; rabo ´tat; ´ ´ nahinat; hitat; to continue working to start reading

Other common transitive / intransitive pairs are: ´ ´ konhat; / konhat;sq ´ ´ prevra]at; / prevra]at;sq ´t; ´t;sq rasprostranq / rasprostranq ´ ´ sobirat; / sobirat;sq ´ uvelihivat; / uvelihivat;sq ´ ´ ´ sokra]at; / sokra]at;sq to to to to to to finish turn spread gather increase reduce

Sometimes the transitive and intransitive verbs are differentiated in ´ ´ English as well: povywat; ‘to raise’; povywat;sq ‘to rise’. Intransitive verbs may be used with a passive meaning: ´[tsq. Grani ´cy plo ´xo oxranq Borders are badly protected.

Migraciq

|

83

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´dut ukreplq ´t;sq. Granicy bu ´ The borders will be strengthened. Contrast: ´et Rossiq plo ´ ´xo oxranq grani ´cy. Russia protects her borders badly. ´det ukreplq ´t; granicy. Rossiq bu ´ ´ Russia will strengthen her borders. The reflexive is an alternative to the third person plural as a way of expressing the passive: ´[t grani Plo ´xo oxranq ´cy. Borders are badly protected. ´dut ukreplq ´t; grani Bu ´cy. Borders will be strengthened. Some reflexive verbs indicate reciprocal actions: ´ Oni pocelovalis;. ´ They kissed (one another). Not all verbs ending in -sq have an obvious reflexive or passive ´ meaning: stanovi ´t;sq ‘to become’; starat;sq ‘to try’.

Exercise 5
Select the appropriate verb.
´'ency (nahali / nahali ´dy. 1 Be ´ ´s;) pribyvat; v Rossi v 90-e go ´ ´[ ´z (opravdal / ´ ´ 2 Dver; (otkry la / otkrylas;). 3 Moj progno ´ ´kciq (konhaet / konhaetsq) v 4 hasa. 5 Za opravdalsq). 4 Le ´ ´ ´ ´ ´dnie dni prezide ´nt Buw (ulu ´hwil / ulu ´hwilsq) svoj posle ´jting. 6 Hislo immigrantov vse vre ´mq (uveli ´ ¨ re ´ ´hivaet / ´nta (ukrepi / ukrepi uveli ´hivaetsq). 7 Vlast; prezide ´la ´las;). ´dy na obrazovanie. 8 Pravi ´tel;stvo (sokrati / sokrati ´lo ´los;) rasxo ´ ´ssiq ´ ´ 9 Uroven; 'i ´zni (povy sil / povy silsq). 10 Disku ´her ´nty (prodol'aet / prodol'aetsq). 11 Ka'dyj ´ ´ ´ ve stude ´be. 12 On (ko ´nhil / ko ´nhilsq) (sobira[t / sobira[tsq) v klu ´ ´ govori ´t;.

84

|

Migration

Exercise 6
Read the following report from the ‘Moscow News’, July 2001.

Posle raspada Sovetskogo so[za v Rossi[ iz stran SNG i Baltii pribylo 8 millionov migrantov. Liw; desqtu[ hast; iz nix – 800 tysqh – gosudarstvo kak-to obnade'ilo, prisvoiv status. Za vse gody tol;ko 22 tysqhi <statusnyx> semej poluhili 'il;e i 98 tysqh migrantov poluhili mizernye vozvratnye ssudy. V qnvare 2001 goda v oheredi na 'il;e ostavalis; 69 tysqh semej (iz nix 17 tysqh – slaboza]i]ennye) i 32 tysqhi helovek 'dali ssudy.

´da ´ ¨ N.B. vozvratnaq ssu – loan; slaboza]i]ennyj – vulnerable; kak-to – ¨ somehow, somewhat; obnade'it; – to reassure; prisvo ´it; status – to confer status

From the information in the report above answer the following questions in English. 1 How many migrants arrived in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union? 2 What is their situation in Russia? 3 How many families were housed? 4 How many families were given loans? 5 What was the waiting list for housing in January 2001?

Language points ♦
Ordinal numerals
Ordinal numerals are adjectives which agree with the noun they describe. Only the last element of a compound ordinal numeral is an adjective and it is the only element which changes its ending. Earlier ´ ¨ elements are cardinal numbers: na dvadcat; hetvertom meste ‘ in ´ twenty-fourth place’. All ordinal numerals decline as regular hard adjectives, with the exception of tretij, whose declension is in the ´ grammar summary.

Migraciq

|

85

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Dates
The following examples show how ordinal numbers are used to express dates in Russian: ´ pervoe maq ´ ´ pervogo maq ´ ´ dvuxtysqhnyj god ´ ´ v dve tysqhi pervom godu ´ ¨ ´ k dve tysqhi hetvertomu go ´du ´ ´ pervogo maq dvuxtysqhnogo go ´ ´da ´ ´ zako ot dvadcatogo maq ´n ´ v dvadcatom veke / stoletii ´ ´ v devqno ´stye go ´dy the 1st of May on the 1st of May the year 2000 in 2001 by 2004 on the 1st of May 2000 law of the 20th May in the twentieth century in the 1990s

It is also possible to use v + prepositional with years in the plural: ´ v devqno ´styx godax in the 1990s v seredi ´ne devqno ´styx godo ´v in the mid-1990s Note this use of godo as the genitive plural of god. In other contexts ´v let is always used. Other useful phrases relating to dates: ´? v kako godu ´m ´ kako hisla? ´go in what year? on what date?

Exercise 7
Answer the following questions. ´e ´dnq hislo ´? 1 Kako sego ´dnq (1st May, 7th November, 25th December, 23rd February, Sego 30th October, 4th August)

86

|

Migration

´? ´m 2 V kako godu ´i ´ ´jka v SSSR Revol[ciq v Rossi proizowla in 1917. Perestro ´ nahalas; in 1985. SSSR raspalsq in 1991. In 2000 prazdnovali ´ ´ ´ ´tsq in 2010. ´vogo tysqhele nahalo no ´ ´tiq. Kto znaet, hto sluhi ´ ´mer in 1953. Stalin u ´ ´go ´go ´da? 3 Kako hisla i kako go ´ ´kaq ote Veli ´hestvennaq vojna nahalas; on 22nd June 1941. On ´ ´ ´i ´wkin rodi ´lsq ¨ 19th of August 1991 v Rossi proizowel puth. Pu ´tnik byl zapu ´]en on 12th April on 1st June 1799. Pe ´rvyj spu 1961.

Exercise 8
The following advertisements all offer help with immigration. List the different countries and services offered.

Migraciq

|

87

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´nnoe N.B. VN@ – vid na 'i ´tel;stvo – registration permit; PM@ – postoq mesto 'i ´ ´tel;stva – permanent residence; brak – marriage; nedvi ´'imost; – ´ property; gra'danstvo – citizenship; propi ´ska – registration

Language points ♦
Preposition corner The preposition v Expressions of place
We have seen how frequently v + accusative is used after verbs of motion indicating arrival or entry. It translates ‘to, into’ when followed by most countries, towns, geographical regions, buildings, receptacles. ´, ´ v Ameriku, Moskvu pustyn[, wko ´ ´lu to America, Moscow, the desert, school ´]ik ´ v butylku, q into the bottle, the drawer The exceptions are those nouns normally preceded by na, which were listed in Unit 2.

88

|

Migration

V + prepositional is used with the same nouns as take v + accusative, but to indicate ‘in, inside’: ´ v Amerike, Moskve, pustyne, wko ´ ´ ´le in America, Moscow, the desert, at school ´]ike ´ v butylke, q inside a bottle, drawer

Expressions of time
V + accusative is also used in many expressions of time: v kako den;? ´j on what day? v ponedel;nik, vo vto ´ ´rnik etc. on Monday, Tuesday etc. v pervyj den; ´ on the first day (but remember na drugo den; ‘the next day’) ´j v pervyj raz ´ for the first time ´ dva raza v den; twice a day ´t. ´ ´ On prohital gazetu v dvadcat; minu ´ He read the newspaper in 20 minutes. (Za + accusative may, alternatively, be used in this way to express the time taken to complete an action. It must be used with the noun ´ has to avoid confusion with telling the time: v dva hasa ‘at 2 o’clock’; ´ za dva hasa ‘in two hours’). v v v v No ´vyj God xoro ´wu[ pogo ´du ´ sovetskie vremena ´ ´ starinu at in in in New Year good weather Soviet times olden times

v pervu[, posledn[[ nedel[ ´ ´ ´ ´ in the first, last week (but remember na \toj, pro ´wloj, ´du]ej nedele) bu ´ v pervu[ o ´ ´hered; in the first place (but na oheredi ‘in turn’)

Migraciq

|

89

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Note also: ´ dlino v hetyre metra ´j ´ wirino v pqt; metrov ´j ´ ´ v dva raza bo ´l;we Verbs followed by v + accusative: ´ brosat; / bro ´sit; v to throw at verit; / po- v ´ to believe in ´ ´ vstupat; / vstupi ´t; v parti[ to join (the party) ´ ´ igrat; / sygrat; v tennis, futbo ´ ´l to play tennis, football ´ postupat; / postupi ´t; v universitet ´ to enter (university) ´ prevra]at;sq / prevratit;sq v ´ to turn into smotret; / po- v okno / zerkalo ´ ´ ´ to look out of the window, in the mirror ´t; ´ strelq / vystrelit; v ´ stuhat; / po- v dver; to shoot at to knock at the door four metres long five metres wide twice as big

V + prepositional is also used in certain expressions of time: v kako mesqce? ´m ´ in what month? v qnvare, fevrale etc. ´ ´ in January, February etc. ´du]em godu ´ ´ v \tom, pro ´wlom, bu during this, the past, the next year Note that when god is preceded by other adjectives v + accusative is used: v pervyj / poslednij god ‘in the first / last year’. ´ ´ ´ ´ v \tom, dvadcatom veke ´ ´ in this, the 20th century (but note v srednie veka ‘in the ´ middle ages’)

90

|

Migration

´du]em ´]em, bu v pro ´wlom, nastoq in the past, present, future ´ v detstve, mo ´ ´lodosti, starosti in childhood, youth, old age v vo ´zraste desqti let ´ at the age of ten ´ v nahale, v seredi ´ne, v konce ´ at the beginning, in the middle, at the end Note also: v xoro ´wem nastroenii ´ v pqti dejstviqx ´ ´ v tom hisle ´ ´ nu'dat;sq v ´t; obvinq / obvini ´t; v ´ owibat;sq / owibit;sq v ´ ´ ´ priznavat;sq / priznat;sq v ´ t;sq v somneva ´ ube'dat;sq / ubedi ´t;sq v ´ stvovat; v uha in a good mood in five acts including

Verbs followed by v + prepositional: to to to to to to to need accuse of be mistaken in admit, confess to doubt be convinced of participate in

Exercise 9
Put the words in brackets into the accusative or prepositional, as appropriate.
´det v (sreda). 2 V (noq ´br;) powel sneg. 3 V (ploxaq ¨ 1 On prie ´ ´ ´da) ne sto ´it vyxodi ´ my 'i pogo ´t;. 4 V (nahalo) vojny ´ ´li v ´. ´ Moskve 5 Byli li immigranty v Rossi v (devqtnadcatyj vek)? ´ ´i ´ ´dnij god) vojny my 'i ´wlyj ´ 6 V (posle ´li v Saratove. 7 V (pro ´ ´xali v Sankt Peterbu ´rg. 8 V (pe ´rvaq nede ´lq) marta god) my peree ´ ´xali v Lo ´dnie veka) ´ndon. 9 Tri raza v (den;). 10 V (sre oni ue ´ ´ ´ ´ ´dy) sem;q \migri ne bylo immigrantov. 11 V (dvadcatye go ´ ´ ´rovala ´riku. v Ame

Migraciq

|

91

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 10
Complete the following sentences by using v or na, as appropriate.
´xali (v / na) vosto 2 Nam nu'na ko ´k. 1 Oni poe ´ ´ ´mnata (v / na) dvoi ´x. ´rvyj den; poe ´zdki ona zabole ´la. 4 (V / Na) drugo den; ´j 3 (V / Na) pe ´ ´vstvoval sebq plo ´ ´licu. 6 My ´xo. 5 Oni vywli (v / na) u on pohu ´ ´ ´lgo 'dali (v / na) vokzale. 8 zakazali tur (v / na) 10 dnej. 7 My do ´ ´ ´ ´]ik. 9 Oni 'ivu (v / na) o ´t ´strove Mal;ta. On polo'i hek (v / na) q ´l ´ ´

Exercise 11
Decide which case to use, accusative or prepositional.
´nty igra[t v (volejbo ´ny uhastvu[t ´gie stude ´l). 2 Sportsme 1 Mno ´ ´ ´til. ´ v (sorevnovanie). 3 Q postuhal v (dver;), no nikto ne otve ´ ´ ¨ ´skrennost;). 5 Moj syn postupi v 4 Q somneva[s; v (ee i ´ ´l ´t). 6 Q bo ´r[ v (kommuni ´l;we ne ve (universite ´zm). 7 My tak ´n;gi). 8 Ego obvini v (korru ´pciq). 9 Ves; den; ´ nu'daemsq v (de ´ ´li ´rkalo). 10 On vstupi v (partiq) e]e molody m. ´trit v (ze ¨ ´ ona smo ´l ´

Exercise 12
Translate into Russian. 1 The Soviet Union ceased to exist on 25 December 1991. 2 Thousands of refugees from the former republics of the USSR continue to cross the border into Russia. Many are fleeing ethnic conflicts. 3 In the 1990s illegal immigration to Russia, especially from China, increased almost twofold. 4 Emigration does a lot of harm to the Russian economy since it is mostly highly trained specialists who leave the country. 5 How many migrants came to Russia after the collapse of the USSR? 6 Would it not be better to close all Russian borders?

5 SPORT

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ how sport has changed in Russia about the sports facilities available how to use kotoryj to introduce clauses about superlatives more about the prepositions s, ot and iz about verbs with the dative about stress on masculine nouns

Sport in the USSR was always very important as its sporting achievements boosted national prestige. Sports facilities were free and those with talent could take up any kind of sport regardless of its cost, if it was approved by the state. Things have changed since then. Russia now follows international trends and has adopted a commercial approach. On the one hand, as in most Western countries, people take up sport to improve their health and appearance, and the number of sports clubs and fitness centres is growing fast. They are quite expensive and not everybody can afford to join them. On the other hand, new extreme and dangerous sports are becoming popular, especially among the young, who seem to like living on the edge and experiencing the surge of adrenaline.

Sport

|

93

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Dialogue 1
From an interview with the fitness director of the Greenway Club, Leli Savosina
´ @ URNALIST ´ S AVOSINA ´ @ URNALIST ´ SINA S AVO

´ @ URNALIST ´ S AVOSINA

´ @ URNALIST ´ S AVOSINA

´ @ URNALIST

´ S AVOSINA

´ @ URNALIST ´ S AVOSINA

´t ´nami sporti ´ba. ´dnq vse xotq stat; hle Sego ´vnogo klu ´t, ´v;q. ´to Govorq hto \ neobxodi ´mo dlq zdoro ´rwenno soglasna! V nawem stre ´ssovom o ´b]estve Q sove ´ ´ ´sob snqt; stress. ´to sport – \ spo ´ntre? ´'no snqt; stress v Vawem ce Kak 'e mo ´ ´r, mo ´soby raznye. Naprime ´'no zanimat;sq Spo ´ ´ ´be ¨ fi ´tnesom. U nas v klu est; trena'ernye zaly s ´ ´jwej sporti ´xnikoj. Zanq ´tiq na trenanove ´vnoj te ´rny. Est; zaly dlq a\ro ¨ ´hen; populq ´biki, zaly 'erax o ´ ´ ´nnis, skvow. ´ dlq igry v te ´jn dlq ´ Q slywal, hto u Vas zamehatel;nyj basse ´ plavaniq? ´ ´jn u nas otli ´l;zuem ego ne ´ Da, basse ´hnyj. My ispo ´tij plavaniem. Zdes; provo ´l;ko dlq zanq ´dqtsq to ´ ´tiq po akvaa\ro ´bike. zanq ´e ´bika? A hto tako akvaa\ro ´bika – \ no ´vok. ´to ´vyj vid sporti Akvaa\ro ´vnyx treniro ´dit dlq l[dej l[bo ´go vo ´zrasta. Plavat; Ona podxo ´ ´ ´tno, a dvi ´ ´zyku voob]e ´ vsegda priq ´ ´gat;sq v vode pod mu ´selo i legko ´hen; ve ´. o ´be ´'et zanimat;sq spo ´rtom Znahit, v Vawem klu mo ´ ´ ´ ´k. Ne obqzatel;no byt; professio´j l[bo helove ´ ´nom. nal;nym sportsme ´ ´hno 'e, net. U nas rabo ´ta[t o ´pytnye Kone ´ktory, koto ´rye razrabo ´ta[t dlq vas programmu instru ´ ´tij. zanq ´nom klu ´ba? ´'no stat; hle A kak mo ´hwe vsego i dewe ´vle vsego priobresti ´ ´ ´togo lu Dlq \ ´ ´bnu[ kartu. Ona daet pravo svobo ´niq ´dnogo pose]e klu ´ ´ ¨ ´ ´jna, trena'ernogo zala. ´biki, basse ¨ klassov a\ro ´ ´

´n ´ Po materialam 'urnala <Salo krasoty >, 2001 ´ ´

94

|

Sport

Vocabulary ♦
´ ´tie plavaniem zanq ispo ´l;zovat; ´bnaq karta ´ klu ´ obqzatel;no o ´pytnyj priobresti ´ ´tiq provodi ´t; zanq ´ razrabo ´tat; programmu spo ´sob snqt; stress ¨ trena'er swimming lesson to use membership card necessary, obligatory experienced to acquire to conduct lessons to work out a programme means to relieve stress training equipment

´ N.B. pravo svobo ´dnogo pose]eniq – right of free attendance; soverwenno ´ ´ ´ sna – fully agree; 'e – (particle) adds emphasis to what is being said – then sogla

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 6 What role does sport play in modern society? What activities does the fitness club offer? What is the club’s pool used for? Why is aqua-aerobics suitable for all age groups? What is the role of the club instructors? How do you become a member of the club?

Exercise 2
Look at this advertisement for the Greenway Club and answer the questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 6 What What What What What What does the advertisement say about the club pool? types of training are on offer? are the different kinds of aerobics offered? is the Mama + programme? is the Healthy parents programme? discounts does the club offer?

Sport

|

95

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

ГРИНBEЙ KЛУБ
ВОДНО-CПОРТИBHЫЙ KOMПЛEKC МИРОBОГО KЛACCA
Бассейн олимпийского стандарта (50 м)
• обучение плаванио детей и взрослых • подводное плавание

Aква-аэробика
• силовые уроки в H2O • кик-боксинг в H2O • танцевальные уроки «Далматин» – детский фитнес центр • TT-(Teen Team) – программа для подростков • «Mама +» – программа для беременных, для мам и их новорожденных детей • «Здоровые родители» – программа для оздоровления пожилых людей • кабинет специалиста по физической реабилитации а также CAУHЫ с оригинальным дизайном

Tренажерный Зал
• индивидуальные и групповые тренировки • тренировочные программы лобой сложности • наличие тренажеров на все группы мышц, изобилие свободного веса

Aэробика
силовые уроки, групповые и индивидуальные велоаэробика (сайклинг, спининг) стрейчинг (гибкость и сила, развитие гибкости) NEW Йога (йогафит, Kундалини, хатха) танцевальные уроки (танец «живота», школа «Break dance») • NEW Боевые искусства Tай-бо, Кибо • NEW Пилатес • • • • •

COЛЯРИЙ МАCCAЖ БAР

C 1 ИЮHЯ CKИДKA 30% HA BCE BИДЫ KAPT
MOCKBA, 124321, ЛEHИHГРAДCKИЙ ПPOCП., 39, TEЛ.: 967–68–15, 967–68–13, 967–68–12

N.B. silovye uro ´ ´ki – weight training lessons; gi ´bkost; – flexibility; mywca – ´ ´sstva – martial arts; ´ ´ muscle; tanec <'ivota> – belly dancing; boevye isku ´ ´ programma dlq beremennyx – programme for pregnant women; ´ ´ novoro ´'dennyj – new born; ski ´dka – discount; podvo ´dnoe plavanie – underwater swimming

Text 1
´l;nyj sport v Moskve. |kstrema ´
´, ´ ´rod ne Moskva <zabole ´la> \kstri ´mom. Xotq na pe ´rvyj vzglqd, go ´ ´ ´dit dlq \kstremal;nyx razvlehe podxo ´nij. Pobli ´zosti net okeana ´ ´ ´lnami, na koto ´ryx mo ´'no zanimat;sq se s gigantskimi vo ´rfingom, ´ryx mo ´'no prygat; na ly'ax, snoubo ´rdax i net gor, s koto ´ ´ ´li ´ ´ ´rnyx velosipe ´to go ´dax. No stoli ´hnyx \kstremal;]ikov \ ne pugaet.

96

|

Sport

´ ´dnye v go ´rode Potomu hto \kstri dlq nix – stil; 'i ´m ´zni. Mo ´ ´ ´vki, koto ´rye hasto proisxo ´dqt na kra[ ´ \kstremal;nye tuso ´rnee. Prito adrenali ´ ´vqtsq vse populq ¨ ´k ´ryj opasnosti, stano ´na, koto ´ ´sit kolossal;nejwee udovo ´l;stvie, ´tom, prino ispytyvaew; pri \ ´ ´dni narko ´tiku: \ ´hetsq pere'i ´va. I hem bo ´l;we ´to xo sro ´t; sno ´ ´l;we kajf, i tem le ¨ adrenali ´na, tem bo ´ghe zabyvaew; obo vsem na sve ´te. ´ ´ ´rnye velosipedi ´vka, Bajkery (go ´sty) – samaq mnogohi ´slennaq tuso ´et ´raq ob#edinq do tridcati tysqh helove V osnovno \ ´m, ´to koto ´ ´ ´k. ´ta dvadcati ´dnye rebq ´ryx est; mo ´-tridcati let, sredi koto ´ ´ ´'a]ie. V go ´ ´ ´rode davno ´ stude ´nty, komp;[ter]iki, bankovskie slu ´ ´ ´nov, ce ´ryx ha]e vsego ´ u'e est; ne ´skol;ko bajk-regio ´ntry koto ´ ´ ´'eny v parkax, taki ¨ raspolo ´x, kak Izmajlovskij, Filevskij, ´hnyj sad i, kone ´sstvennym ¨ ´ry s ix isku Nesku ´hno, Vorob;evy go ´ ´ ´nom (bajkery i ly'niki nazyva[t \ me ´to ´sto gornoly'nym sklo ´ ´ ´vskimi Al;pami>). V <vyso ´kij sezo ´n>, koto ´ryj <Mosko ´br;, massovye <s#e ´ ´ ´dqt ´lq ´zdy> proisxo prodol'aetsq s apre po oktq ´ ´ ´ ka'dye vyxodnye. Sobiraetsq, kak pravilo, do pqti ´ ´desqti helove ´k, ´et ´vka pomi ´nok predstavlq e]e i intere ¨ I tuso ´mo go ´snejwee wou, ´gu ´ ´rogo, bajkery p;[t pi i demonstri vo vre ´mq koto ´vo ´ru[t drug dru ´ ´ ´gie stoli nove ´jwie velosipe ´dnye tr[ki. Mno ´hnye bajkery ne ´glyj god. Ne ´ ´ sleza[t s velosipe ´dov kru ´kotorye utver'da[t, hto ´ ´j ´mu samyj bol;wo kajf dlq velosipedi ´sta – lete ´t; po kruto ´nu. ly'nomu sklo ´ ´du]ee spo ´ ´rta prinadle'i im i |kstremal;]iki ve ´rqt, hto bu ´t ´ ´rye, po ix mne nere ´dko 'alu[tsq na gorodski vlaste koto ´x ´j, ´ni[, ´ [t ix vser;ez. Bajkeram, naprime ne razrewa[t ´ ´ ¨ ne vosprinima ´r, ´ ´ ´ ´ ustraivat; sorevnovaniq v parkax, shitaetsq, hto velosipe po ´dy ´rtqt ´vyj spo ´sob snqt; stress, – govori ´to ´ grunt. <A ved; \ samyj zdoro ´t ´ ´ ´rgij Il;i lu ´dku bajker Geo ´n, ´hwe hem xodi po baram i pit; vo ´t; ´t; narko ´ ´ ´tiki. Moskva – ideal;nyj go ´rod dlq i ´li potreblq ´ ´rta. Zdes; est; prakti \kstremal;nyx vi ´dov spo ´heski vsq infra´ra.> struktu

´ ´ Po materialam gaze ´ty <Argume ´nty i fakty>, 2000

Sport

|

97

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Vocabulary ♦
´'a]ij ´ bankovskij slu ´ volna ´ ¨ vosprinimat; vser;ez go ´nki (pl) gornoly'nyj sklon ´ go ´rnyj velosiped ´ grunt ´ 'alovat;sq na (+ acc) ´sstvennyj isku ispytyvat; prito adrenali ´ ´k ´na kajf ´glyj god kru kruto sklon ´j ly'a, ly'nik ´ ´ mnogohi ´slennyj ´t; ob#edinq pere'i ´t; pobli ´zosti pomi (+ gen) ´mo po ´rtit; ´t; narko potreblq ´tiki ´t; predstavlq prygat; ´ ´ pugat; razvlehenie ´ ´ razrewat; (+ dat) raspolo ´'en ´ slezat; s (+ gen) sro ´dni (+ dat) s#ezd tr[k tuso ´vka ´ ´ ustraivat; sorevnovaniq ´ utver'dat; bank employee wave to take seriously race ski slope mountain bike soil, ground to complain about artificial to experience an adrenaline surge kicks, high all-year-round steep slope ski, skier numerous to unite to experience nearby apart from to damage to use drugs to represent to jump to frighten entertainment to allow situated to get (climb) down from akin to congress; convention stunt get-together to hold competitions to claim

´ N.B. na pervyj vzglqd – at first glance; na svete – in the world; na kra[ ´ ´ ´ opasnosti – on the brink of danger, on the edge; v <vyso ´kij> sezo – during ´n ´ the high season; shitaetsq – it is considered

98

|

Sport

Exercise 3
Answer the following questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Why have extreme sports become popular? Is Moscow a suitable venue for extreme sports? What kind of people go mountain biking? When is the ‘high season’ and what takes place? Why do the local authorities not like bikers? What do bikers say in their own defence?

Exercise 4
True or false? ´ ´ ´t, ´go ´ 1 Sredi bajkerov mno (po'ily x l[de mo ´j, ´dnyx rebq ´stkov)? podro ¨ ´e ´zero, ´ 2 Na Vorob;evyx gorax est; (gornoly 'nyj sklon, bol;wo o ´ ´vnyj klub)? sporti ´ ´kij sezo ´n> prodol'aetsq (s noqbrq po mart, s apre 3 <Vyso ´ ´lq ´br;, kru ´glyj god)? po oktq ´e ´ 4 |kstremal;]iki 'alu[tsq, hto gorodski vlasti (ne ´ ´ ´[t im mno vnimaniq, ne ¨ ´go prinima[t ix vser;ez, udelq ´ ´ puska[t ix v parki)? ´ ´ ´bika podxo ´dit dlq (professional;nyx sportsme 5 Akvaa\ro ´ ´nov, ´go ´zrasta, molode'i)? ¨ l[de l[bo vo ´j

Language points ♦
Genitive of cardinal numbers
There are some examples in the text of numerals in the genitive, either after prepositions or to translate ‘of’: do tridcati tysqh helovek ´ ´ ´ ´ta dvadcati-tridcati let ‘guys ‘up to 30 thousand people’; rebq ´ ´ of 20 to 30’; do pqti ´desqti helovek ‘up to fifty people’. ´ Note the change of ending on the numeral and the fact that the noun following is in the genitive plural. Cardinal numerals will be dealt with in greater detail in Unit 9.

Sport

|

99

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Kotoryj
´ There are a large number of examples in the text, |kstremal;nyj ´ryj is used. Meaning ‘which, that, sport, of the way in which koto who / whom’, koto ´ryj is a relative pronoun used to introduce adjectival clauses. It declines like a hard adjective. The number and gender of koto ´ryj are determined by the noun to which it refers and the case by its role in the adjectival clause: ´ V vyso ´kij sezo koto ´n, ´ryj prodol'aetsq s aprelq . . . ´ In the high season, which lasts from April . . . In this example koto ´ryj is masculine singular to agree with sezo ´n ´ and nominative because it is the subject of prodol'aetsq. ´ Net gor, s koto ´ryx mo ´'no prygat;. There are no mountains from which to jump. Here koto ´ryx is feminine plural to agree with go ´ry and genitive after s. Note that adjectival clauses are introduced by kto ‘who / whom’ or hto ‘which, that’, not koto ´ryj, if they refer back to a pronoun: ¨ te, o kom idet reh; ´ ¨ vse, hto zna[ those of whom we speak everything that I know

Exercise 5
Insert the relative pronoun koto ´ryj in the correct form.
´ ´j, ´go ¨ 1 V Moskve mno l[de . . . zanima[tsq plavaniem. 2 On 'ivet ´ ´ ´rode, . . . net da'e na karte. 3 Po ´sle matha my v malen;kom go ´ ´ ´ ´ ´m, ´ ´dnq na stadio ´ne. 4 Mno ´gie powli k druz;q . . . ne bylo sego ´ ´vki, . . . q poseti ¨ tuso ´la, proisxodi ´li na Arbate. 5 Vorob;evy ´ ´rny sredi bajkerov. 6 V ´ gory, na . . . est; ly'nyj sklon, populq ´ ´ ´ ´go ´'no zanimat;sq Moskve est; mno sporti ´vnyx klubov, v . . . mo ´ ´ny, s . . . ´rtom. 7 Sego ´dnq na festivale vystupa[t sportsme spo ´ ´ ´dstvo pro ´mit;sq. 8 Sport – luhwee sre ´tiv my xoti poznako ´m ´ssa, o . . . mno ´t ´go govorq v o ´b]estve. 9 Grinvej-klub, . . . stre ´ren sredi molode'i. ´l;ko 3 go ´da, o ´hen; populq ¨ to ´

100

|

Sport

Language points ♦
Superlatives
Extreme sport lends itself to description as the fastest, most dangerous, newest, etc. The most straightforward way of expressing ´ such superlatives in Russian is by putting samyj before the adjec´ tive. Samyj, which is a hard adjective, is in exactly the same number, ´ ´ gender and case as the adjective it describes: zanimat;sq samymi ´ opasnymi vi ´dami spo ´rta ‘to engage in the most dangerous sports’. The eight adjectives with one-word comparatives, referred to in unit 2, form their superlatives variously: Comparative bol;wo ´j ´ malen;kij ploxo ´j xoro ´wij vyso ´kij ni ´zkij molodo ´j ´ staryj bo ´l;wij men;wij ´ ´dwij xu ´hwij lu bo ´lee vyso ´kij ´ vyswij bo ´lee nizkij ´ nizwij ´ bo ´lee molodo ´j ´ mladwij ´ bo ´lee staryj ´ starwij Superlative ´ samyj bol;woj ´ ´ samyj malen;kij ´dwij or ´ samyj xu ´dwij xu ´hwij or ´ samyj lu ´hwij lu ´ samyj vyso ´kij ´ vyswij (figurative use) ´ samyj ni ´zkij ni ´zwij (figurative use) ´ samyj molodo (things) ´j ´ ´ samyj mladwij or ´ mladwij (people only) ´ ´ samyj staryj (things) ´ ´ samyj starwij or ´ starwij (people only)

Exercise 6
Put the adjectives in brackets into the superlative in the appropriate case.
´be ´xnikoj. 2 Tam mo ´vaq) sporti ´'no 1 V klu est; zal s (no ´vnoj te ´jne. 3 Klub ne to ´l;ko prinimaet plavat; v (zamehatel;nyj) basse ´ ´ ´ ´rtom (xoro ´wij) spo ´sob (sporti ´vnyj) l[de 4 Zanimat;sq spo ´j. ´ ´j) snqt; stress. 5 (Bol;wo kajf dlq \kstremal;]ikov 'it; na ´ ´ kra[ opasnosti. ´

Sport

|

101

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

The dialogue and the text contain examples of an alternative type of superlative: ´ ¨ trena'ernye zaly s novejwej sporti ´ ´vnoj texnikoj ´ gyms with the latest sports technology ´et predstavlq interesnejwee wou ´ puts on a most interesting show These superlatives are formed by replacing the adjective ending with -ejwij, and decline like xoro ´wij: staryj – starejwij. Their ´ meaning is less literally superlative than the variant with samyj, more a way of giving added emphasis. Adjectives with stems ending in g, k, x change those consonants to ', h, w and take the ending -ajwij: ´ veli ´kij – velihajwij ´ vyso ´kij – vysohajwij ´ glubo ´kij – glubohajwij ´ ´ koro ´tkij / kratkij – krathajwij ´ ¨ legkij – leghajwij ´ stro ´gij – stro'ajwij ´ ti ´xij – tiwajwij ´ wiro ´kij – wirohajwij ´ Note also bli ´zkij – bli'ajwij.

Exercise 7
´ Rewrite the following phrases using the construction odin / odna / ´ odno iz followed by the ejwij / ajwij superlative. ´ Example: do ´bryj helovek – odi iz dobrejwix l[dej ´ ´n ´ ´
´vaq texnolo ´giq; glubo ´koe o ´zero; prosto vopro ´j ´s; Staroe zdanie; no ´ ´ ´kaq reka; krasi wiro ´ ´voe i ´mq; va'naq zadaha; hi ´ ´ ´styj vid ´haj; slo ¨ ´'naq proble transporta; ser;eznyj slu ´ ´ma; opasnaq ´ bole ´zn;; veli ´kij pisatel;. ´

Superlative of adverbs and short superlative
The superlative of the adverb is formed by adding vsego ‘of anything / ´ everything’ or vsex ‘of anyone / everyone / all’ after the comparative: ´ ´ On prygaet vywe vsex. He jumps highest (higher than anyone).

102

|

Sport

´ ´ta rabo Mne nravitsq \ ´ta bo ´l;we vsego ´. I like this work best (better than anything). This same construction may also be used as the superlative of the short form adjective: |ta kniga interesnee vsex. ´ ´ This book is the most interesting.

Exercise 8
Examine the advertisement (shown on page 103) for the stuntsmen’s festival and answer the questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 Where does the stuntmen’s festival take place? Which teams are taking part in the show? Why are Russian stuntmen the strongest in the world? Who will appear as well as the stuntmen? How will the show end?

Language points ♦
Preposition corner S, ot and iz ‘from’ S + genitive
In expressions of place s is the opposite of na and means ‘from’. Use it to translate ‘from’ with those categories of nouns which use na to mean ‘to’ or ‘at, on’: s s s s s s s s severa ´ ´ vokzala ´licy u ´ Urala koncerta ´ rabo ´ty po ´ezda velosipeda ´ from from from from from from from off a the north the station the street the Urals the concert work the train bike

Sport

|

103

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

После своего выступления каскадеры споют вместе со звездами рока.

´ ¨ N.B. kaskader – stunt man; smertel;no opasnyj – deadly dangerous; ´ ´ ´tie – event; stepen; ri ´ ´ska – level of risk; zaverwat; – to finish; meropriq ´ ´ka zvezda ro – rock star; ubedi ´t;sq – to be convinced

104

|

Sport

S is commonly used to translate ‘from, since’ in expressions of time: s s s s aprelq ´ ¨ trex haso ´v ´ utra leta ´ since since since since April 3 o’clock morning summer

S may also translate ‘from’ in the sense of cause: s go ´rq ´ki so sku from grief from boredom

However, ot is a safer choice in this type of context, as it is less collo´ quial: ot radosti ‘from joy’. ´ ´ Note that nahinat; / nahat; s + genitive means ‘to begin with’ as well as ‘begin from’: ´kvy A ´ nahat; s bu ´ ´ nahat; s nahala begin with the letter A begin from the beginning

´ C + genitive combines with storona ‘side’ in several expressions: ´ ´ s odno storony . . . s drugo storony ´j ´j on one hand . . . on the other hand ´ s moej storony ´ on my part ´ s levoj storony ot + genitive ´ to the left of ´ C is used with sdaha ‘change’: ´ ´ sdaha s rublq change from a rouble C + instrumental means ‘with, together with, accompanied by’: ´'em poexali tuda ´ My s mu ´ My husband and I went there ´ ´ Ona ponimaet s trudo ´m She understands with difficulty haj s moloko ´m tea with milk ´sskim akcentom govori ´t; s ru ´ to speak with a Russian accent

Sport

|

105

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

This use of s should not be confused with the use of the instrumental without a preposition to mean ‘with’ in the sense of ‘by means of’: rezat; no'o ´ ´m to cut with a knife Note also: S Ro'destvo ´m ¨ S dnem ro'deniq ´ Merry Christmas Happy Birthday

Ot + genitive
In expressions of place ot is used to mean ‘from a person’: Q poluhi ´la pis;mo ot nego ´ ´ I received a letter from him ¨ ´ On uwel ot 'eny He left his wife It also means ‘away from’, often after verbs prefixed with ot-: ´ Teploxo otplyl ot pristani ´d ´ The boat moved away from the quay Note some other expressions of place using ot: daleko ot go ´ ´roda far from the town v desqti kilometrax ot go ´ ´ ´roda ten miles from the town In expressions of time s + genitive . . . do + genitive is used to mean ‘from . . . to . . .’: ´ ´ s pervogo fevralq do pervogo marta ´ ´ from 1st February to 1st March s dvux do pqti ´ from two o’clock till five o’clock S . . . po . . . + accusative has the slightly different meaning of up to (and including): ´ ´ s pervogo fevralq po pervoe marta ´ ´ from 1st February to 1st March inclusive

106

|

Sport

Ot . . . do . . . ‘from . . . to’ is used to express distance: ´rga ´nie ot Moskvy do Peterbu ´ rasstoq the distance from Moscow to St Petersburg Note some other expressions of time using ot: vremq ot vremeni ´ ´ den; oto dnq from time to time from day to day

In expressions of cause ot means ‘from’ and can refer to both physical and emotional reasons: ´ My umiraem ot go ´loda We are dying from hunger ´lis; ot radosti ´ Oni zasmeq They burst out laughing from joy Note also the following expressions: ´ ´ bez uma ot \toj devuwki ´ crazy about this girl ´ v vosto ´rge ot podarka delighted at the present ´ Note the expression ot i ´meni ‘on behalf of ’: ot i ´meni otca ‘on behalf of my father’. Some verbs followed by ot: zaviset; ot ´ ´ za]i]at; / za]iti ´t; ot ´ osvobo'dat;sq / osvobodi ´t;sq ot ´ ´ otkazyvat;sq / otkazat;sq ot ´ otlihat;sq ot ´ ´ otstavat; / otstat; ot to to to to to to depend on defend from free oneself from refuse be different from lag behind

Iz + genitive
In expressions of place iz is the opposite of v and means ‘from’. Use it to translate ‘from’ with those categories of nouns which use v to ´ mean ‘to’, ‘into’, ‘in’: iz Ameriki ‘from America’; iz pustyni ´ ´ ‘from the desert’; iz wko ´ly ‘from school’; iz butylki ‘from the ´]ika ‘from a drawer’. bottle’; iz q

Sport

|

107

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ Iz may also be used to indicate source or material: uznat; iz ´ gazety ‘to find out from the newspaper’; sdelat; iz stali ‘to make ´ ´ from steel’. It can also be used to indicate cause: iz nenavisti ‘out of hatred’; ´ ´ iz blagodarnosti ‘from gratitude’. Note also: izo vsex sil ‘with all one’s might’; odi iz nix ´n ‘one of them’.

Exercise 9
Complete the following sentences by selecting s, ot or iz, as appropriate.
´ 1 My prie ´xali (s / ot / iz) [ga. 2 Oni ne sleza[t (s / ot / iz) ´ velosipe ´dov kruglyj god. 3 Stol sde ´lan (s / ot / iz) de ´reva. 4 De ´ti ´licy). 5 My poluhi ´tu informaci[ (s / pri ´wli (s / ot / iz u ´li \ ´ ´l;ko odna (s / ot / iz) vas sdala \kzamen. ot / iz) dire ´ktora. 6 To ´ ´ ´ ´togo po dvadcatoe i[nq. 8 Ona (s / ot / iz) ´ 7 (S / Ot / Iz) desq ´ ´ ´j ´ezd otxo ´dit (s / ot / ´ Francii. 9 (S / Ot / Iz) kako storony ? 10 Po ´ iz) vokzala v 18.00 ´

Verbs with the dative
There are some verbs in this unit which are followed by the dative case: ´ ´ ne razrewa[t bajkeram they do not permit the bikers Other verbs taking the dative include: verit; (po-) ´ ´ grozit;, ugro'at; ´ ´t; doverq zavi ´dovat; ´ mewat; (po) podxodit; / podojti ´ ´ ´t; pozvolq / pozvolit; ´ ´ pomogat; / pomo ´h; ´ ´ prikazyvat; / prikazat; to to to to to to to to to believe threaten trust envy stop, hinder suit permit help order

108

|

Sport

´ radovat;sq (ob-) sledovat; (po-) ´ sovetovat; (po-) ´ ´vstvovat; (po-) sohu ´t;sq / udivit;sq udivlq ´

to to to to to

be pleased follow advise sympathise with be surprised

Idti can be used with the dative in the expression: ´ ¨ Vam idet it suits you

´du]ee ´ Note how the verb prinadle'at; ‘to belong’ is used: bu prinadle'i im ‘the future belongs to them’. ´t But when membership of a group or club is referred to, the verb is ´bu bajkerov ´ ´ followed by k + dative: Oni prinadle'at k klu ‘They belong to a bikers club’.

Exercise 10
Use the words in brackets in the correct form.
´rnye velosipe 1 Bajkery ne (ve ´ ´rit;) (gorodski vlasti), hto go ´e ´ ´dy ´rtqt grunt. 2 K so'ale po ´ni[, \tot rejs ne (podxodi ´t;) (my). ´pa o ´hen; (idti (moj ote 3 |ta wlq ´) ´c). 4 Vrah (sove ´tovat;) ´t;sq spo ´j) zanq ´rtom. 5 Ona ne (razrewat;) (svoi de (bol;no ´ ´ ´ti) ´t;) (tako helove ´ge. 6 Kak mo ´'no (doverq ´j igrat; na doro ´ ´k)? ´'nost;) uhastvovat; v sorevnovaniqx. 7 On (radovat;sq) (vozmo ´ ´ ´ ´t;sq) (tvoj vy bor). 9 On vsegda (pomogat;) (mat;). ´ 8 Q (udivlq ´ ´ ´vstvovat;) (be 10 Q tak (sohu ´'ency). 11 Mne ka'etsq, (Rossi ´ ´q) ´v. ne (grozi ´t;) ute ´hka mozgo 12 Q (zavi ´dovat;) (sovreme ´nnaq ´du]ee (prinadle'at;) (oni 13 My vsegda ¨ molode';): bu ´ ´). ´ ´ktora. (sle ´dovat;) (sove ´ty) instru

Language points ♦
Stress
One of the greatest problems that Russian gives to the foreign speaker is identifying the stressed syllable of each word. There is a considerable difference in the pronunciation of stressed and unstressed vowels. For example, in xorowo each ‘o’ is pronounced quite differently. The ´

Sport

|

109

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

first is ‘e’ as in father, the second is ‘a’ and only the final, stressed ‘o’ is pronounced as an ‘o’. To misplace the stress renders words unintelligible to a Russian listener. The situation is further complicated by the fact that stress on words alters when their case or ending changes. This is the first of a series of guides to common stress patterns on different parts of speech in Russian.

Masculine nouns
Fixed stress – stress remains on the same syllable throughout the declension, singular and plural: avto ´bus ‘bus’; velosiped ‘bicycle’; ´ universitet ‘university’. This groups contains a large number of ´ nouns with three or more syllables, but also some one and two ´ syllable nouns: vid, avtor. Fixed final stress – the stress moves from the final syllable in the nominative singular to the ending in all other cases: stol ‘table’ ´ ´ (gen. sing. stola; nom. pl. stoly; gen. pl. stolo no' ‘knife’; um ´v); ‘mind, intelligence’. This group includes several nouns with suffixes ´ ´ ´ i ´k, ic, o ´ ´k, a', ar;: gruzovik ‘lorry’; dvorec ‘palace’ (dvorca, ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ dvorcy, dvorco ´v); konec ‘end’ (konca, koncy, konco ´ ´v); kuso ´k ´ ´ ´ ´, ´v); baga' ‘luggage’; slovar; ‘dictio‘piece’ (kuska, kuski kusko nary’. Mobile stress – there are three different patterns of mobile stress on masculine nouns. Type 1 – stress on the stem in the singular and on the ending in the ´ga, etc; pl. krugi krugo etc.); drug plural: krug ‘circle’ (sing. kru ´, ´v, ´ga, druz;q druzej); most ‘bridge’ (mo ´, ´ ‘friend’ (dru ´ ´sta, mosty, ´ mosto ´v). Many masuline nouns with their nominative plural in -a ´ follow this pattern: go ´rod ‘town’ (go ´roda, goroda, gorodo adres ´v); ´ ‘address’; po ´ezd ‘train’; dom ‘house’. Type 2 – stress on the stem in the singular and nominative plural (and accusative plural if it takes the same form as the nominative), on the ending in all other plurals: volk ‘wolf’ (vo ´lka, vo ´lki, ´xo ‘ear’ (u ´xa, u ´wi, uwej); zub ‘tooth’ (zu ´ba, zu ´by, ´ volko ´v); u zubo ´v). Type 3 – a very small number of masculine nouns have the stress on ´, ´ni, the ending, except in the nominative plural: kon; ‘steed’ (konq ko ´, konej); gvozd; ‘nail’ (gvozdq gvo ´ ´zdi, gvozdej). ´

110

|

Sport

Exercise 11
Translate into Russian. 1 I was advised by my doctor to take up sport and join a sports club. He says that sport will help me to relieve stress. 2 Can you recommend sports classes that will suit me? 3 When you are young, you are ready to risk everything. You do not think about danger. 4 He became a stuntman when he was twenty, and, even at the age of forty, he still performs the most dangerous stunts. 5 There are no high mountains around Moscow from which one can parachute. 6 The city authorities have a lot of problems with Moscow bikers who damage the soil in city parks.

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

6 KUL:TURNAQ @IZN: V ROSSII

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ about film and theatre in Russia alternative ways of translating ‘to be’ about verbs with the instrumental how to form and use active participles more about the prepositions o and pro about stress on feminine nouns

Theatre, together with opera, ballet and cinema, has always played a very important role in Russian cultural life. Despite censorship in Soviet times, the standard was high, art subsidies were generous and tickets cheap. With the arrival of the market economy things have changed; theatre and cinema have lost state subsidies and the route to survival has been to produce plays and films that appeal to mass audiences and guarantee a full house. But not every Russian artist was prepared to sacrifice his integrity; some have preferred to leave the commercial theatre and have formed small companies where they are free to experiment. A few, however, like the director of the Maly Theatre in St Petersburg, Lev Dodin, have managed to achieve success in changed circumstances.

112

|

Cultural life in Russia

Dialogue 1
The General Director of the Moscow International Non-Competitive Film Festival, MOFEST, B.V. Volodin, answers questions from a journalist.
´ @ URNALI ST

´ V OLODIN

´ @ URNALI ST ´ V OLODIN

´ @ URNALI ST ´ V OLODIN ´ @ URNALI ST ´ DIN V OLO

´ @ URNALI ST ´ V OLODIN ´ @ URNALI ST ´ DIN V OLO

´go Bori Vladi ´s ´mirovih, ne mno li kinofestivalej v ´ ´ ´dnyj nawej strane U nas u'e est; <Me'dunaro ´ ´? ´vskij>, <Kinotavr>, <Okno v Evro ´ ´pu> i mosko drugi ´e. ´mnoe Vy owibaetes;. Fi ´ ´l;mov v mi vypuskaetsq ogro ´re ´ ´'e provo ´ditsq mno ´go – koli ´hestvo. Festivalej to ´ ´j ´to pohti 650 v god. I \ zamehatel;no. Znahit, mirovo ´ ´ ´ ´graf 'iv i v prekrasnoj rabo ´hej fo ´rme. kinomato ´ No hem 'e otlihaetsq Vaw festival; ot drugi ´ ´ ´x festivalej? ´ ´[tsq ´m, ´ti V osnovno vse \ festivali ´ qvlq ´hwie rabo ´nkursnymi. Ix cel; vy qvit; lu ´ty s ´ ko ´mo];[ '[ri @[ri oce po ´. ´ ´nivaet fi ´l;my. A na ´nkursnyx festivalqx glavnyj oce neko ´ ´ ´n]ik – zri ´tel;. Kaki 'e fi ´e ´l;my Vy sobiraetes; pokazyvat; na ´ ´ festivale? ´ Zadaha nawego festivalq – pokazat; samye intere ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´snye posle ´dnie fi ´l;my. ´dut pokazany? Hto za karti ´ny bu ´ Samye izve ´ ´stnye, u'e poluhi ´vwie priznanie u ´ ´nskij fil;m <Xleb i ´go mirovo zri ´telq. |to ital;q ´lnehnogo sve ¨ t[l;pany>. |to <Vkus so ´ ´ta> re'issera ¨ x pokole Iwtvana Sabo, fil;m o hetyre ´ ´niqx evre ´jskoj ´det pokazano o ´gie drugi Vsego 'e bu ´ ´kolo sem;i i mno ´ ´e. ´ 100 fi ´l;mov iz 20 stran mi ´ra. ´dut li pokazany ote A bu ´ ´hestvennye fi ´l;my? ´hwie karti ´ Da, kone ´hno. Vpervy e zri ´teli uvi ´dqt lu ´ny ´blik za posle ´ byvwix sove ´tskix respu ´dnie 50 let. ´dut gromadnymi? No ce ´ny-to na bile ´ty, nave ´rnoe, bu ´ ´det samaq ´imost; bile V tom-to i de ´lo, hto sto ´tov bu ´ ´pnaq. A dlq pensione ´ dostu ´rov vsego 20 ruble \ ´j, ´to

Kul;turnaq 'izn; v Rossii

|

113

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´'e ´tom to pohti blagotvori ´ ´tel;nye pokazy. I v \ ´ ´vskogo otli ´hie <MOsko FESTa> ot drugi ´x festivalej. ´
´rnoj gaze Po materialam <Literatu ´ ´ty>, 2000

Vocabulary ♦
´ blagotvori ´tel;nyj pokaz vpervye ´ ´ vypuskat; vyqvit; ´ ´pnyj dostu evrejskij ´ ko ´nkurs mirovo zri ´j ´tel; otli ´hie ocenivat;, ocen]ik ´ ´ ´ owibat;sq pokolenie ´ ´ poluhi ´t; priznanie ¨ re'isser charity show for the first time to release to discover accessible Jewish competition world audience difference to judge (in a competition); judge to be mistaken generation to receive recognition producer

N.B. v tom-to i delo – that’s (just) the point; vsego – in all; -to (particle) – ´ ´ adds emphasis to what is being said. Difficult to translate into English. Depending on the context it may mean ‘at least’, ‘precisely’, or ‘just’.

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ´e ´i? Kaki kinofestivali est; v Rossi ´ Kakova ix cel;? ´ ´hie Mosko ¨ ´vskogo <Festa>? V hem otli ´e ´l;my bu ´dut pokazyvat; na festivale? Kaki fi ´ ´ ´e ´l;my mo ´det; na festivale? ´'no uvi Kaki ote ´hestvennye fi ´ Kakova cena bile ´ ´ ´tov na festivale? ´

114

|

Cultural life in Russia

Exercise 2
Examine the list of the winners of Mosko ´vskij me'dunaro ´dnyj ´ kinofestival; and answer the questions in English.

N.B. The original English title of the film Fanatic was The Believer

1 2 3 4 5

What is the top prize in the festival called? Which film won that prize? What did Russia win a prize for? Which other countries were among the prizewinners? What were the other prizewinning categories?

Kul;turnaq 'izn; v Rossii

|

115

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Text 1
´tr Dodin i rossijskij tea ´ ´
ПРОФИЛЬ

´ra ´ V rossi ´jskom teatre figu ´ ´ ´ ¨ glavnogo re'issera vsegda byla ´]ej. Vspo ´ ´mnim imena veli vedu ´kix ´ ¨ re'isserov – Stanislavskogo, ´l;da. Sredi sovreme Mejerxo ´ ´nnyx ¨ ´benno rossi ´jskix re'isserov oso ´etsq Lev Do ´ ´din, glavnyj vydelq ´ ¨ r Malogo dramati re'isse ´heskogo ´rga. |to odi iz samyx uspe ´ ´ ´ teatra Peterbu ´n ´wnyx teatrov, ´ ´ ´ ´l;ko v Rossi no i na Zapade, teatr, zavoevavwij izve ´stnyx ne to ´i, ´ ´ ´pe. Do ´din proslavilsq samye presti ´'nye pre ´mii v Evro ´ ´ ´ ´gii Abramova <Brat;q i sestry>, stavwej ¨ ´vkoj trilo postano ´ potrqse ´niem dlq Leningrada i poluhi ´vwej vyswu[ ´ ´ ´ ´ ¨ Gosudarstvennu[ pre ´mi[. Imenno s <Brat;ev i sester>, stavwix ´ ´ ´voj markoj MDT, nahali ego triumfal;nye zarube torgo ´s; ´ ´'nye ´ ´ ´li. Teatr pobyval v Qpo ´nii, SWA, pohti vo vsex gastro ´ ´ evrope ´jskix stranax. Vme ´ste s karti ´noj 'i ´zni sove ´tskoj voe ´nnoj ´ ´ ´din pokazyval mi i poslevoe ´nnoj dere ´vni Do ´ru ansambl; ´]ix akterov i svoe re'isserskoe masterstvo ¨ ¨ ¨ ´. blestq ´ppa Do ´[tsq glavnoj go ´ ´dina, ¨ ´rdost;[ MDT. Tru Aktery qvlq ´vwaq bo ´ppe to ´ ´l;wej hast;[ iz ego uheniko (v tru ´ ´v ´l;ko sostoq ´ ´ ¨ ´j 50 akterov) shitaetsq odno iz samyx si ´l;nyx v Rossi Ka'dyj ´i. ´ ´ ´ ´din repeti ´hen; do ´lgo. Byvaet, hto ot pe spektakl; Do ´ruet o ´rvyx ´ ´dit ne ´din \t[dov do prem;e ´ry proxo ´skol;ko let. Kone ´hno, Do ´et ´ ´ ´j ´s; ´ predstavlq sobo unikal;noe qvle ´nie. Emu udalo da'e v ´ ´ ´ru[ pere'ivaet Rossi kri ´zisnoj situacii, koto ´q, soxrani ´t; ´ ´ ´ ´'estvennost; i individual;nost; svoego teatra, izbe'at; ´ xudo ´ ego prevra]e ´niq v komme ´rheskij. Ved; izve ´stno, hto v ´ ¨ Rossi ´i idet proce prevra]e ´s ´niq teatrov v komme ´rheskie, ´ ´ ´gie rossi i mno ´jskie teatry predpohita[t komme ´rheskij ´ra glavnogo ´ ´ ´'estvennomu. V tako situacii figu ´j uspe xudo ´x ´etsq figu ´roj ´ ¨ ¨ ´ ´dit na zadnij plan i zamenq re'issera vse ha]e otxo ´[]ego teatrom kak komme ´ dire ´ktora-me ´ned'era, upravlq ´rheskim

116

|

Cultural life in Russia

´ ¨ ´l;we 'e ´'estvenuhre'de ´niem. Teatry vse bo ´rtvu[t svoe xudo ´j ´ nost;[ i stavqt p;e ´sy, garanti ´ru[]ie komme ´rheskij uspe i ´x ´ ´lnye zaly. po ´ ´ ´gie rossi ¨ ´dqt iz teatra v Ne sluhajno mno ´jskie re'issery uxo ´ ´ ´ ´ ´]e i po malye zaly, sozda[t svoi malen;kie teatry. |to pro ´ ´ ´ ´ organizacii, i po repertuaru. Tak leghe vy'it;. Taki teatrov´ ´x ´ ´vitsq vse bol;we, oso ¨ ´benno v Moskve Kone masterski stano ´x ´. ´hno, ´[tsq. No ´ ´gie iz nix isheza[t tak 'e bystro, kak poqvlq mno ´ ´ ´ ´ ne ´kotorye, kak <Teatr na {go-zapade>, <Masterskaq Fome ´nko>, ´'ennym uspe ´ ´l;zu[]iesq zaslu ´ ´telq, po ´xom, u'e ime svoego zri ´[t ´]ego i poluha[]ego udovo ´ ´ ´l;stvie ot spektaklq i igry cenq ´ ´ ´ ¨ ´'et byt;, so vre ´ti malen;kie akterov. Kto znaet, mo ´menem \ ´tsq v teatry, podo ´ ´ ´bnye teatru Do ´dina. masterski prevratq ´e

´gi>, 2000 Po materialam 'urnala <Ito ´ ´

Vocabulary ♦
´]ij vedu voennyj ´ vspo ´mnit; ´t;sq vydelq go ´rdost; (f ) 'ertvovat; (+ inst) ´ ´ zavoevat; premi[ ´ ´t; zamenq ´ zadnij plan zarube'nye gastro ´ ´li ´'ennyj zaslu ´ izbe'at; (+ gen) i ´menno ´ ishezat; / isheznut; ´ ´ masterskaq masterstvo ´ podo ´bnyj postano ´vka potrqsenie ´ prevrati ´t;sq v (+ acc) prevra]enie ´ leading wartime to remember to stand out pride to sacrifice to win a prize to replace background foreign tour deserved to avoid namely, actually to disappear workshop, studio skill similar to production sensation to turn into transformation

Kul;turnaq 'izn; v Rossii

|

117

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ proslavit;sq (+ inst) repeti ´rovat; rukovodi (+ inst) ´t; sovremennyj ´ ´t; iz (+ gen) sostoq soxrani ´t; ´ torgo ´vaq marka ´ppa tru ´t; upravlq (+ inst) uhre'denie ´ xudo ´'estvennyj, xudo ´'estvennost; ceni ´t; ´ \t[d qvlenie ´

to become famous to rehearse to lead modern to consist to preserve trade mark company to manage institution artistic merit, quality to appreciate sketch phenomenon

´ ´ N.B. emu udalo – he succeeded; ne sluhajno – not by chance ´s;

Exercise 3
Answer the following questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ´j ´din? Kto tako Lev Do ´din? Hem proslavilsq Do ´ ¨ ´giq <Brat;q i sestry>? ¨ O hem teatral;naq trilo ´ ´ ´ ´din – unikal;noe qvle ´zni Pohemu Do ´ ´nie v teatral;noj 'i ´ ´i? Rossi ´jskom teatre? ´j ¨ Kako proce idet sejhas v rossi ´ss ´ ´ ´ ´ra ´vitsq glavnoj v Pohemu figu dire ´ktora-me ´ned'era stano ´ teatre? ´ ´ ´ ´ ¨ ´ Pohemu re'issery sozda[t svoi malen;kie teatry? ´ ´du]ee u taki teatrov? ´x ´ Est; li bu

Exercise 4
True or false? ´ru[tsq na (wiro ´bliku, ´nkursnye festivali orienti ´ku[ pu 1 Ko ´ ´)? ´ri[, avtorite professional;nu[ audito ´ ´tnoe '[ri ´l;my oce ´teli, ´nkursnyx festivalqx fi 2 Na neko ´ ´niva[t (zri ´tiki, '[ri ´)? kinokri

118

|

Cultural life in Russia

´rga izve ´ ¨ ´dinu, 3 Malyj teatr Peterbu ´ ´ ´sten blagodarq (re'isseru Do ¨ repertuaru, akteram)? ´ ´rnoj p;e ´giq <Brat;q i sestry> stala (populq ¨ ´voj 4 Trilo ´ ´ ´soj, torgo markoj, skandal;noj p;e ´ ´ ´soj) teatra? ´ ´et (komme ´dina bo ´l;we interesu ´'estvennyj, 5 Do ´rheskij, xudo ¨ dewevyj) uspe ´x? ´jskom teatre vse ha]e glavnoj stano ´ra ¨ ´ ´vitsq figu 6 V Rossi ´ ¨ ¨ (glavnogo re'issera, dire ´ ´ktora-me ´ned'era, aktera)? ´ ´ ´e, ´ ´gie re'issery sozda[t svoi teatry-masterski potomu hto ¨ ´ 7 Mno ´t ´t; ´ ´simymi, vy 'it;)? ´ xotq (rukovodi teatrom, byt; nezavi

Language points ♦
The verb ‘to be’
You are, of course, already aware that byt; ‘to be’ has no present tense. However, several other verbs may be used as a susbstitute. These include: ´t;sq / q ´t;sq + instrumental to seem, to appear, to be ´vi qvlq ´etsq direktorom. On qvlq ´ He is the director. ´etsq prihinoj ego smerti. |to qvlq ´ ´ ´ That was the reason for his death. ´etsq rezul;tatom usi ´ ¨ Uspex qvlq ´ ´lij vsex akterov. The success is the result of all the actors’ efforts. ´t;sq cel;[ ‘to be the aim of’; qvlq ´t;sq Note also: qvlq ´ ´t;sq hast;[ ‘to be a ´ sledstviem ‘to be a consequence of’; qvlq ´ ´t; (sobo ‘to represent, to be’. part of’, predstavlq ´j) ´et ´ Do ´din predstavlq (sobo unikal;noe qvlenie ´j) ´ Dodin is / represents a unique phenomenon ´t; (sobo primer ‘to be an example’; predNote also: predstavlq ´j) ´ ´t; (sobo zadahu ‘to be / represent a task, problem’, byvat; ´ ´ stavlq ´j) ‘to be, to frequent’. ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ On vsegda byvaet v teatre pered nahalom spektaklq. ´ He is always in the theatre before the start of the performance. ´ ´ ´ kak \to hasto byvaet as often happens / is often the case

Kul;turnaq 'izn; v Rossii

|

119

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 5
´t;sq + inst and Rephrase the sentences by using first the verb qvlq ´t; (sobo + acc. then the verb predstavlq ´j)
´vskij festival; – rezul;tat mnogole ´ty. 1 Mosko ´ ´ ´tnej rabo ´din – unikal;noe qvle 2 Do ´ ´nie v rossi ´jskom teatre. 3 Pokaz ´ ´ ´kaq samyx intere ´ ´snyx fi ´l;mov – zadaha festivalq. 4 Vyso ´ ´ ´'estvennost; – otlihi ´bennost; teatra Do ´dina. xudo ´tel;naq oso ´ ´mstvo s mirovy m kinemato ´grafom – cel; festivalq. ´ 5 Znako ´ 6 Rost hisla immigrantov – blago dlq Rossi 7 |kstri – stil; ´ ´ ´ ´i. ´m ¨ 'i ´zni molode'i.

Verbs with the instrumental
There are a number of verbs in the text which are followed by the instrumental case. Verbs taking the instrumental include: Verbs indicating control – po ´l;zovat;sq (vos-) ‘to use, enjoy’; ´t; ´ rukovodi ‘to lead’; upravlq ‘to govern, manage’; torgovat; ‘to ´t; trade’; vladet; ‘to own’, ‘to have a command of (a language)’; ´ ´ ´t;sq ‘to be engaged in’; zloupotreblq ´t; ‘to zanimat;sq / zanq ´ abuse’; riskovat; ‘to risk’. Verbs indicating an attitude – gordit;sq ‘to be proud of’; ´ ´ ´ interesovat;sq (za-) ‘to be interested in’; l[bovat;sq (po-) ‘to ´ admire’; uvlekat;sq / uvleh;sq ‘to be keen on’. ´ ´ Verbs indicating state or appearance – kazat;sq ‘to seem’; ´ ´ okazyvat;sq / okazat;sq ‘to turn out to be’; stanovi ´t;sq / stat; ‘to ´ ´ ´ become’; shitat;sq ‘to be considered’; ostavat;sq / ostat;sq ‘to remain’. ´ Other examples – 'ertvovat; (po-) ‘to sacrifice’; slavit;sq ´ (pro-) ‘to be famed for’; bolet; (za-) ‘to be ill with’. ´

Exercise 6
Use the words in brackets in the correct form.
´gie no ´vye teatry (po ´l;zovat;sq) (uspe Vse Posle ´dnee vre ´mq mno ´ ´x). ´det prodol'at; (rukovodi ´din bu nade ´[tsq, hto Do ´ ´t;) (Malyj ´ ´ ´m godu Do ´din (proslavit;sq) (postano ´vka) teatr). V prowlo ´ ´ ´gii Abramova. |ta postano ´vka poluhi vy swu[ pre trilo ´ ´la ´ ´mi[ i

120

|

Cultural life in Russia

´ppa Do ´dina (shitat;sq) (stat;) (potrqse ´nie) dlq Leningrada. Tru ´ ´ ´v (odna) iz samyx si ´ ´ ´l;nyx v Rossi Do ´i. ´din ne goto ('e ´rtvovat;) ´ ´'estvennost;). On goto (riskovat;) (vse), htoby ´v ¨ (svoq xudo ´ dobi ´t;sq uspe ´xa. Malyj teatr (ostavat;sq) (odi iz samyx ´ ´ ´ ´n ´ uspe ´wnyx teatrov). ´

Language points ♦
Participles
Participles are verbal adjectives. They are formed from verbs, but have adjectival endings. There are four types of participle in Russian: present active; past active; present passive; past passive. They may all be used to replace adjectival clauses, i.e. clauses introduced by koto ´ryj: p;esy, koto ´ ´rye garanti ´ru[t kommerheskij uspex ´ ´ plays which guarantee commercial success p;esy, garantiru[]ie kommerheskij uspex ´ ´ ´ ´ plays guaranteeing commercial success Garantiru[]ie is an example of a present active participle. There ´ are numerous examples of both present and past active participles in ´ the text Dodin i rossijskij teatr. ´ ´

Active participles
Present active participles are formed by removing -t from the third person plural (oni form of the present tense and replacing it by ´) ´ ´ ´ -]ij: poluhat; ‘to receive, get’ – poluha[t – poluha[]ij ‘receiving, getting’. The participle agrees in number, gender and case with the noun it describes and declines like xoro ´wij: ´ ´ Est; nemalo zri ´telej, poluha[]ix udovo ´l;stvie ot ego ´ ´ spektaklej. There is a sizeable audience, getting pleasure from his shows. ´ (poluha[]ix is genitive plural to agree with zritelej) ´ Participles formed from verbs ending in -sq always end in -sq, regardless of the preceding letter of the ending:

Kul;turnaq 'izn; v Rossii

|

121

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ ´ Takie teatry-masterski hasto razme]a[]iesq v ´ ´e, ´ ´ ´rny v Moskve. ´ byvwix kinoteatrax, o ´hen; populq ´ Such theatre workshops, often located in former cinemas, are very popular in Moscow.

Exercise 7
Form present active participles from the following verbs.
oce ´nivat;, ponimat;, igrat;, proisxodi ´ ´ ´t;, naxodi ´t;sq, vesti ´, ´l;zovat;sq, prevra]at;sq, bleste ´t;, uhastvovat;, sozdavat;, po ´ ´ ´ ´t;. ishezat;, voznikat;, stanovi ´ ´ ´t;sq, upravlq

Although present active participles usually replace koto ´ryj + present tense of an active verb, they may substitute for koto ´ryj + active past tense, if the action of the verb in the subordinate clause is taking place at the same time as the action of the verb in the main clause: ´ ¨ ´to vremq v Rasskazali o fil;me, koto ´ ´ryj wel v \ Moskve. ´ They were talking about a film which was showing at the time in Moscow. ´]em v \ ´ ´to vremq v Moskve. Rasskazali o fil;me, idu ´ ´ ´ They were talking about a film showing at the time in Moscow.

Exercise 8
Replace the clauses with koto ´ryj by a present active participle.
´ryj proxo ´dit v Moskve vyzval mno ´go 1 Kinofestival;, koto ´ ´, ´ ´m. ´go fi ´ intere ´sa za rube'o 2 Na festivale by lo mno ´ ´l;mov, ´rye po ´l;zu[tsq uspe ¨ ´rye koto ´xom u zri ´telej. 3 Sredi akterov, koto ´ ´ppe Do ´go ´sskix. 4 V tru ´dina, koto ´raq snima[tsq v fi ´ ´l;me, mno ru ´ ´v, ´l;ko 50 helove 5 Ne mno ostalos; ´go sostoi iz ego uheniko to ´t ´k. ´ ´rye ´'estvennyj teatrov, ´ koto predpohita[t ´ xudo uspe ´x ´rye razme]a[tsq v komme ´rheskomu. 6 Hasto teatry, koto ´ ´ ´ ´hen; intere malen;kix zalax, o ´ ´ ´snye. 7 Ostalos; malo l[de ´ ´ ´j, ´. ´rye e]e po ¨ ´mnqt staru[ Moskvu koto ´

122

|

Cultural life in Russia

The past active participle is formed from either the imperfective or perfective past by replacing the -l from the masculine past tense by ´ ´ ´ -vwij: poluhat; – poluhal – poluhavwij; poluhit; – ´ poluhi – poluhi ´l ´vwij. Where there is no -l in the masculine past tense add -wij to the masculine past tense: isheznut; ‘to disap´ pear’ – ishez – ishezwij. ´ ´ Note: idti – wedwij; vesti – vedwij. ´ ´ ´ ´ Participles from verbs ending in -sq always end in -sq, never -s;.

Exercise 9
Form past active participles from the following verbs.
´t;, oceni ´ ponq ´t;, sozdat;, vy 'it;, sygrat;, provesti najti ´ ´ ´, ´, ´l;zoproizojti stat;, bleste ´, ´t;, postavit;, prevrati ´ ´t;sq, vospo vat;sq, ishe ´znut;, vozni ´knut;, ostanovi ´t;sq

The past active participle declines like xoro ´wij and agrees in number, gender and case with the noun it describes. It may be used instead of adjectival (koto ´ryj) clauses which contain the imperfective or perfective past of an active verb. The translation into English of both the clause and the participle are frequently the same: ´ ´ Do ´din proslavilsq postano ´vkoj trilo ´gii Abramova ´ ´ ¨ <Brat;q i sestry>, koto ´raq poluhila Gosudarstvennu[ ´ premi[ ´ ´ ´ Do ´din proslavilsq postano ´vkoj trilo ´gii Abramova ´ ´ ¨ <Brat;q i sestry>, poluhi ´vwej Gosudarstvennu[ premi[. ´ Dodin is famous for the production of Abramov’s trilogy Brothers and Sisters, which won a State Prize.

Exercise 10
Replace the koto ´ryj clauses by past active participles.
´rye oceni fil;m kak slabyj. 1 Q ne soglasna s kri ´ ´tikami, koto ´li ´ ´ryj poluhi pe 2 My govori ´li o fi ´l;me, koto ´l ´rvyj priz. 3 U ´raq igrala rol; Anny Kare aktri ´sy, koto ´ ´ninoj, prekrasnaq ´ ´ryj wel po televi ¨ ´l;no vne ´wnost;. 4 Fil;m, koto ´zoru vhera, dovo ´ ´raq prowla v Moskve v slabyj. 5 Teatral;naq olimpiada, koto ´ ´ ´ ´ ´

Kul;turnaq 'izn; v Rossii

|

123

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ ´mnyj uspe 6 Festival;, koto ´ryj nahalsq v i[ne, ime ´la ogro ´x. ´ ´ ´rnyj stil;, koto ´ ´nhilsq v avguste. 7 Arxitektu ´ryj i[le, zako ´ ´ren v nahale ve ´hen; populq ´go pohti ishe tepe ´ ´z ´r;, byl o ´ ´ka. 8 Mno ´las; na ´raq sostoq govori ´los; o prem;e ´re p;e ´sy He ´xova, koto ´wloj nede pro ´le.

Active participles used as adjectives and nouns
´]ij ‘brilliant’; Many active participles are used as adjectives: blestq ´]ij ‘leading’; dejstvu[]ij ‘acting’; sledu[]ij ‘next’; vedu ´ ´ ´]ij ‘current’; nastoq ´]ij ‘present, real’ (never used as a teku ´du]ij ‘future’ (also used as present active participle participle); bu ´ ´ ´ of byt;); byvwij ‘former’; rewa[]ij ‘decisive’; potrqsa[]ij ‘stunning’. ´]ij is used to mean ‘smoker’: vago ´]ix Kurq ´n dlq kurq ‘carriage for smokers’. ´'a]ij Other examples of participles used as nouns include: slu ´]ij ‘presenter’; ´[]ij ‘manager’; vedu ‘employee’; upravlq ´du]ee ‘future’; nastoq ´]ee ‘present’; uha]ijsq ‘student’; ´ bu ´]ijsq ‘worker’. trudq

Exercise 11
´ The newspaper Vaw dosug published the following ratings of films recommended for both children and parents. Read it and then answer the questions in English.

NE TOL:KO DETSKOE KINO
ocenka <VD> otlihno xorowo tak sebe otvratitel;no <MUMIQ VOZVRA}AETSQ> pro hto: prodol'enie fil;ma <MUMIQ>. Syn glavnyx geroev stanovitsq ob#ektom oxoty mumii so vsemi sledu[]imi iz \togo scenami <\kwn>.

124

|

Cultural life in Russia

kommentarii: nekotorye iz scen strawnovaty. Vesti na \tot fil;m mo'no tol;ko ne ohen; vpehatlitel;nyx detej. V pol;zu detskoj auditorii govorit i tot fakt, hto odin iz glavnyx persona'ej – mal;hiwka. Tak hto vawemu rebenku budet za kogo pere'ivat;. rekomenduetsq: sil;nym duxom podrostkam.

<102 DALMATINCA> pro hto: fil;m – prodol'enie dobroj komedii 1996 goda <101 dalmatinec>. Obstoqtel;stva i dejstvu[]ie lica pohti ne izmenilis;. Zlodejka, po-pre'nemu, Kru\lla de Vil;, i milye pqtnistye sobaki spasa[tsq ot ee vyxodok. kommentarii: pervyj fil;m, konehno 'e, luhwe. Odnako tem, kto l[bit smotret; pro 'ivotnyx, osobenno pro dalmatincev, kartina ponravitsq. rekomenduetsq l[bitelqm 'ivotnyx vsex vozrastov.

<WOKOLAD> pro hto: v dvux slovax – krasivaq romantihnaq istoriq. kommentarii: ne sovsem detskij (skoree naoborot), no esli vam ne s kem svoego rebenka ostavit;, – mo'ete pojti na \tot fil;m vse vmeste. Kartina prekrasnaq, k tomu 'e rqd \pizodov vpolne ponqtny i zabavny dlq vawego rebenka. rekomenduetsq dlq semejnogo prosmotra s det;mi l[bogo vozrasta (krome malywej do 4 let). Podrostkam fil;m mo'no smotret; i bez roditelej.

´g>, 2001 'urnal <Vaw dosu ´

´ N.B. zvezda – star; tak sebe – so-so; otvrati ´ ´tel;no – repulsive; v po ´l;zu – in ´xom – strong in spirit; favour; vpehatli ´tel;nyj – impressionable; si ´l;nyj du dejstvu[]ee lico – character; zlodejka – female villain; vyxodka – trick; ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ pqtni ´staq sobaka – spotty dog; 'ivo ´tnoe – animal; zabavnyj – amusing; naoboro – the other way round ´t

Kul;turnaq 'izn; v Rossii

|

125

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Which film received the highest (5-star) rating? Which films are recommended for families? Which film is recommended for animal lovers and why? What is the subject of the film The Mummy Returns? Would The Mummy Returns be a good film for impressionable youngsters? 6 For whom is the film Chocolat recommended?

1 2 3 4 5

Preposition corner O + prepositional
‘about, concerning’ ´mat; o sebe, o rabo du ´ ´te; lekciq o 'ivopisi ´ ´ think about yourself, about work; a lecture about art Note that o sometimes becomes ob, generally before vowels, and obo ´ before some combinations of consonants: ob \tom ‘about that’; ob ´sstve ‘about art’; ob otce ‘about father’; obo mne ‘about me’; isku ´ ´ ¨ obo vsem ‘about everything.

O + accusative
‘against, on, upon’ ´ ´ opirat;sq o stenu; udarit;sq nogo o stol; bok o bok ´ ´j ´ to lean on the wall; bang one’s leg on the table; side by side ´ ´b Note: ruka o ruku ‘hand in hand’, a rare example of ob before a consonant.

Pro + accusative
‘about, concerning’ (more colloquial than ‘o’) govorit; pro delo ´ ´ ´tot fil;m? Pro hto \ fil;m pro 'ivo ´tnyx talk about business What is this film about? a film about animals

Exercise 12
Put the words in brackets in the appropriate case.
´lsq ¨ 1 Q govori o (syn). 2 Q zna[ vse pro (ty). 3 On spotknu ´la ´ ´wka). 4 Uheniki opira[tsq o (stol). 5 Mne nravqtsq ob (igru ´ ´ ´ ´v;). fi ´l;my pro (l[bo

126

|

Cultural life in Russia

Stress
Feminine nouns
Fixed stress – stress remains on the same syllable throughout the declension, singular and plural: gosti ´nica, doro ´ga, sposo ´bnost;. This group contains a large number of nouns with three or more syllables, but also some one syllable nouns: bol; and two syllable ´rq. nouns ending in unstressed -a or -q: vera, kni ´ ´ga, bu Mobile stress – there are five types of mobile stress on feminine nouns. Type 1 – stress on the ending in the singular and stem in the plural: ´ ´ vojna (gen. sing. vojny; nom. pl. vo ´jny; gen. pl. vojn; dat. pl. ´ ´ ´ ¨ vo ´jnam, etc.); strana, glava, sestra (pl. sestry). Most of these nouns have two syllables, but there are some with three. In this case ´ ´ the stress moves back one syllable in the plural: krasota (krasoty, kraso ´ty, kraso kraso ´t, ´tam, etc.). Type 2 – stress on the stem in the singular and nominative plural (and accusative plural if it takes the same form as the nominative), ´ ´ on the ending in all other plurals: hast; (hasti, hasti, hastej), ´ o ´hered;, lo ´wad; and many other nouns ending in -;. Type 3 – stress on the ending except in the nominative / accusative ´by, gub, gubam, etc.); sveha, sleza (pl. slezy). ´ ´ ´ ´ ¨ ´ plural: guba (guby, gu Type 4 – stress on the ending except in the accusative singular and the nominative / accusative plural, which are stressed on the first ´ ´ syllable: gora (acc. sing. go ´ru; gen. sing gory; nom. / acc. pl. go ´ry; ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ gen. pl. gor; dat. pl. goram, etc.); doska, noga, reka, ruka, sreda, ´ ´ ´ ´ stena, golova, storona, boroda. Type 5 – stress on the ending in the singular, except for the accusative ´ singular, and on the stem in the plural: voda (acc. sing. vo ´du; gen. ´ ´ sing. vody; nom. pl. vo ´dy; gen. pl. vod; dat. pl. vo ´dam, etc.); zima, ´ , spina, cena, zemlq ´ ´ ´. duwa

Kul;turnaq 'izn; v Rossii

|

127

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 13
Translate into Russian. 1 A winner of the Moscow International Film Festival was the American film The Fanatic. 2 The Maly Theatre of St Petersburg is one of the most interesting theatres in Russia; it became famous thanks to the artistic skill of the director Lev Dodin. 3 The majority of the members of the jury judging the films were professional actors. 4 All newspapers wrote about the film which received the top prize at the Film Festival. 5 The actors playing the main parts clearly belonged to the Stanislavsky school. 6 There are a lot of people in Russia who appreciate the art of the theatre. 7 Theatres are becoming more and more commercial in Russia: they only put on plays guaranteeing a full house. 8 A lot of the films taking part in the competition turned out to be foreign. Only one Russian film was among them.

7 SREDSTVA MASSOVOJ INFORMACII (SMI)

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ about newspapers and television in Russia how to use hto and kto as relative pronouns about conjunctions in time and causal clauses how to choose between -to and -nibud; how to use drug druga about stress on neuter nouns

During the period of glasnost; Russia enjoyed unprecedented freedom of the press. A large number of new newspapers appeared, censorship ceased and journalists were free to publish what they wanted. New independent publications played an important role in the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the war in Chechnya, and especially after the election of President Putin, the situation has changed somewhat. The government is less ready to tolerate criticism of its policies. Conscious of the power of the media to influence public opinion, the government is re-exerting its control over press and television. The independent channel NTV, the radio station |xo Moskvy and the newspaper Novaq Gazeta were the first victims. There is now less freedom of expression in Russia than there was at the time of the fall of the Soviet Union.

Sredstva massovoj informacii (smi)

|

129

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Dialogue 1
´kty From an interview with a journalist from Argumenty i fa ´
A VTOR ´da ´ Q hasto slywu o tom, hto svobo pre ´ ´ssy v Rossi v ´i opasnosti. Gosudarstvo pytaetsq kontroli ´ ´ ´ ´rovat; vse sre ´dstva massovoj informacii. ´ ´ ´'et byt; po ´lnost;[ nezavi No pre ´ssa ne mo ´simoj. ´-to i ot kogo ´-to zavi L[baq gaze ´ ´ta ot hego ´sit: ot vlade ´l;ca gaze ´ty, ot ob]e ´stvennogo mne ´niq, ot ´ situacii na ry nke. Sam izdatel; vyra'aet intere ´ ´ ´ ´sy ´ppy. ´j-to gru kako ´ ¨ ´l;we zavi No v Rossi bol;winstvo SMI vse bo ´i ´sqt ot ¨ tex, kto daet im de ´n;gi? ´gie ´to ´rno. De v tom, hto v Rossi sejhas mno Da, \ ve ´lo ´i ´ ´ ¨ ´ gaze ´ty izda[tsq ne po ry nohnym pravilam, a za shet ´ ´rgany vlasti to ´'e oligarxov, poli ´ ´tikov. Me ´stnye o ´ ´e sode ´r'at bol;wo koli ´hestvo gaze ´t. ´et ´lee nezavi Su]estvu mne ´nie, hto naibo ´simye SMI ´ prinadle'at hastnym li ´ ´ ´cam, tem, dlq kogo media´j. bi ´znes osnovno Naprime hastnyj telekanal NTV, ´r, ´ ´ ´gi>, gaze ´dnq>, radiostanciq 'urnal <Ito ´ ´ta <Sego ´ ´ <|xo Moskvy >. Vse oni podve ´ ´rglis; kri ´tike. ´emu, ix nezavi ´ Po-mo ´simost; byla ill[ziej. Ved; vse ´ ´sam 'i stat;i 'urnali ´ ´stov po glavnym vopro ´ ´zni, vse ´]ix na NTV vsegda otra'ali vystuple ´niq televedu ´ ´ ´vwego za SMI, pozi ´ci[ vlade ´l;ca, stoq A kto stoi za Vawej gaze ´t ´ ´toj? Ona to ´ ´'e vyra'aet ´ h;i-to intere ´sy? ´'no, i est; samaq nezavi Nawa gaze ´ ´ta, vozmo ´ ´simaq. Za ´t ´ nej stoq sami 'urnali ´sty. U nas redakciq rewaet ´ ´ ¨ to, o hem pisat; i kak pisat;. Edi ´ ´ ´nstvennaq ´ru[ my priznaem, – zavi ¨ zavi ´simost;, koto ´simost; ot nawix hitatelej. ´ ´

´ @ URNALI ST

A VTOR
´ @ URNALI ST

A VTOR

´ @ URNALI ST

A VTOR
´ @ URNALI ST

Po materialam gaze ´ ´ty <Argume ´nty i fakty>, 2001 ´

130

|

The mass media

Vocabulary ♦
vladelec ´ vystuplenie ´ ´ vyra'at; zavi ´sim / ost; (f ), -yj ´ ´ izdavat; / izdatel; ´ mestnye o ´ ´rgany vlasti ´ opasnost; (f ) ´ otra'at; po ´lnost;[ nezavi ´simyj podvergnut;sq kri ´ ´tike ´ priznavat; ´ redakciq ´ rynohnoe pravilo ´ svobo ´da pressy ´ ´ soder'at; ´ stat;q ´]ij televedu ´ ´ hastnyj kanal owner speech to express dependence, dependent to publish / publisher local government danger to reflect fully independent to be subject to criticism to acknowledge editorial office rule of the market freedom of the press to keep article television presenter private channel

´et ´ ´ N.B. su]estvu mnenie – there is an opinion; delo v tom, hto – the thing is ¨ that; za shet – at the expense of

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 ´ ´i ´da Pohemu svobo pre ´ssy v Rossi v opasnosti? ´ ´simoj? ´'et li pre ´lnost;[ nezavi Mo ´ssa byt; po ´sit pre ´ ´ Ot kogo oby hno zavi ´ssa? ´i ´wkom mno gaze ´go Pravda li, hto v Rossi sejhas sli ´ ´ ´t?

Language points ♦
-to / -nibud;
-to and -nibud; can be used after hto, kto and kako ´j: hto / hto ´-to ´-nibud; kto / kto ´-to ´-nibud; kako ´j-to / kako ´j-nibud; something someone some (or other)

Sredstva massovoj informacii (smi)

|

131

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

The forms ending in -to are more specific. They relate to things / people the identity of which is uncertain but whose existence is not in doubt: ¨ On hto ´-to prines. He has brought something. Kto ´-to stuhi ´t. Someone is knocking. ´ Kakaq-to devuwka vas i ´ ´]et. Some girl (or other) is looking for you. There is an example in the dialogue: ´ L[baq gazeta ot hego ´ ´-to i kogo ´-to zavi ´sit. Any newspaper depends on someone and something. ´d; are vaguer and imply that the existence of the Forms in -nibu thing / person is in doubt. Hto ´-nibud; and kto ´-nibud; may also translate ‘anything’ or ‘anyone’: ¨ Prines li on hto ´-nibud;? Did he bring anything? ´to? Kto ´-nibud; xo ´het \ Does anyone want it? ´[-nibud; po ´ Mo ´'et byt;, nam oka'ut kaku ´mo];. Perhaps they will give us some help. Contrast: kto ´-to zvoni ´t someone is ringing (existence known) esli kto ´-nibud; pozvoni ´t if someone rings (existence hypothetical) -to / -nibud; may also be added to some adverbs, to similar effect: ´ ´ gde-to / gde-nibud; ‘somewhere’ (place); kuda-to / kuda-nibud; ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ‘somewhere’ (motion); kak-to / kak-nibud; ‘somehow’; kogda-to / ´ kogda-nibud; ‘some time (or other)’: ´ On kogda-to 'il v Rossii. ´ He lived in Russia at some time or other. ´d; vstretimsq. ´ Mo ´'et byt;, my kogda-nibu ´ Perhaps we will meet some time.

132

|

The mass media

Exercise 2
Select the appropriate word from the brackets and put it into the correct case to complete the sentence.
´-to, hto ´-nibud;) hitala ob \ ´-to, kto ´´tom. 2 Ty pisal (kto 1 Q (hto ´ ´ ´j-to, kako ´j-nibud;) de nibud;)? 3 K tebe prixodi ´ ´la (kako ´vuwka. ´-to, hto ´-nibud;). 5 On izuhaet (kako ´j-to, 4 Daj mne pohitat; (hto ´ ´ ´j-nibud;) qzy k v universite ´'ete ´ kako ´te. 6 Neu'e ´li vy ne mo ´-to, hto ´-nibud;)? 7 U vas est; (kako ´j-to, kako ´jnauhi ego (hto ´t; ´jtes;, (kak-to, kak-nibud;) my rewi ´m nibud;) gaze ´ty? 8 Ne volnu ´ ´ ´tu proble \ ´mu. 9 |to sluhi ´los; (gde ´-to, gde ´-nibud;) na Se ´vere. ´-to, kto ´-nibud;) po telefo ´nu. 10 On sejhas razgovarivaet s (kto ´ ´ ¨ ´-to, kto ´11 Pojdem (kuda-to, kuda-nibud;) ve ´ ´ ´herom. 12 Vas (kto nibud;) sprawivaet. ´

Exercise 3
Look at the result of the poll conducted by Public Opinion Foundation, shown below.

Opros fonda <Ob]estvennoe mnenie>
Kak hasto vy smotrite televizor, hitaete gazety, sluwaete radio, htoby uznat; novosti o politiheskoj, \konomiheskoj 'izni strany?
Ohen; hasto Neskol;ko raz v nedel[ Voob]e nikogda Zatrudnilis; s otvetom 65% 26% 5% 4%

Poluhaete li Vy pravdivu[, ob#ektivnu[ informaci[ o politiheskoj 'izni strany?
Ne poluha[t Poluha[t Zatrudnilis; s otvetom 56% 30% 14%

Sredstva massovoj informacii (smi)

|

133

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Somnevaetes; li Vy v ob#ektivnosti \konomiheskix novostej? Ohen; somneva[tsq Ne somneva[tsq Zatrudnilis; s otvetom Somnevaetes; li Vy v pravdivom otobra'enii <nastroenij l[dej, ob]estvennogo mneniq>? Ohen; somneva[tsq Ne somneva[tsq Zatrudnilis; s otvetom Kak televidenie, radio i pressa vliq[t na vas i vawe nastroenie? Otricatel;no Polo'itel;no Zatrudnilis; s otvetom

61% 26% 13%

46% 40% 14%

49% 32% 19%

Gaze <Argume ´ta ´nty i fakty>, 2001 ´

´ N.B. polo'i ´tel;no – positively; otricatel;no – negatively; zatrudni ´t;sq s ´ otvetom – to find it difficult to answer, do not know; somnevat;sq – to doubt ´

True or false? ´n ´[tsq novostq ´mi b) du ´ma[t, hto ´ Bol;winstvo rossiq a) ne interesu ´vna c) shita[t vliq ´nie SMI informaciq v SMI neob#ekti ´ ´ ´tel;nym d) oce ´nie pre polo'i ´niva[t vliq ´ssy otricatel;no e) ´ ´vnosti pre somneva[tsq v ob#ekti ´ ´ssy.

Text 1
Rossi ´jskoe televidenie ´
´ ´ Sredi vsex sredstv massovoj informacii televi ´ ´deni[ ´]aq rol;. Hislo telekanalov rastet s ka'dym ´ ´ ´ ¨ prinadle'i vedu ´t ´ga. ´ ´dom. Vse oni stara[tsq byt; ne poxo ´'imi drug na dru go ´m, drugi – ´ Odni otda[t predpohte ´ ´nie sporti ´vnym novostq ´e ´hno´ ´ ´ muzykal;no-razvlekatel;nym, tre ´t;i predpohita[t nau

134

|

The mass media

´ ´ poznavatel;nu[ informaci[. Tepe ´r;, e ´sli vy xoti smotre ´te ´t; ´ ´vosti, u vas est; vybor, informacio ´nnye programmy no ´ ´dnq> po NTV, <Vre <Sego ´mq> po ORT, <Ve ´sti> po RTR, vse ´ ´ ´ ´vosti pod svoi uglo i otliha[tsq ´m pyta[tsq predstavit; no ´m ´ga. K tomu 'e, u ne ´ ´]ix est; svoq ´ drug ot dru ´kotoryx vedu ´ ´ ´roj voskre ´snaq avtorskaq analiti ´heskaq programma, iz koto ´ ´'et poluhi telezri ´tel; mo ´t; dopolni ´tel;nu[ informaci[ o ´ ´ sobytiqx nede ´ ´li. Takovy programmy <Vremena> na ORT, ´ ´gi> na NTV, <Ze ´j <Ito ´rkalo> na RTR. Pe ´rvyj kanal ORT i vtoro ´ ´ ´ ´ kanal RTR – ob]enacional;nye kanaly, i informaciq na nix ´et ´ ´hku zre predstavlq oficial;nu[ to ´niq. ´ ´ ´ryj Me ´nee oficial;nye kanaly – tre ´tij kanal TVC, koto ´et Moskva, kanal ´ ´ ´ orienti ´ruetsq na tex, kogo interesu ´ra> s programmami ob isku ´sstve. |to kanal dlq tex, ´ ´ <Kul;tu ´etsq mu ´zykoj, literatu ´roj, po\ ¨ ¨ ´ziej. Vse kto ser;ezno interesu ´ ´vitsq kanal REN TV, pe bolee izve ´stnym stano ´rvym perewe ´dwij ´[ texnolo ´rnyj sredi tex, komu ´ ´gi[, i populq na cifrovu ´ ´ ´ ´ ´pery. nravqtsq zapadnye serialy i myl;nye o ´ ´ ´ ´ ¨ ´boe me Oso ´sto do nedavnego vre ´meni zanimal hetvertyj kanal ´ ´ ´ NTV, edi ´nstvennyj hastnyj kanal, nezavi ´simyj ot vlasti. ´ ´]ix NTV byl odni ´komu professionali Blagodarq vyso ´zmu vedu ´m ´rnyx, oso ´ ´benno sredi tex, kto xote uslywat; iz samyx populq ´ ´l ´ ´[, neoficial;nu[ to ´ ´ ´hku zre ´gie aktual;nye inu ´niq na mno ´kly>, ´ ´ ´sy. Satiri ´tom kanale <Ku vopro ´heskaq programma na \ ´kly: ´ ´ ´ ´rom zaseda[t ku programma o rossi ´jskom parlamente, v koto ´rna v Rossi rossi ´jskie poli ´tiki, do six por populq ´i. ´]ee vre ´ K so'ale ´ni[, v nastoq ´mq kanal NTV, kak i drugi ´e ´ ´ ¨ kanaly, vse bol;we kontroli ´ruetsq ob]enacional;nye ´et svo[ nezavi ´ ´ ´ gosudarstvom i terq ´simost;. Nedavnqq reorga´ ´ ´ ´ ´nnoj komandy govorqt o nizaciq kanala i sme ´na ego televizio ´ tom, hto pravi ´tel;stvo rewi ´lo raspravit;sq s te ´mi, kto ne ´ ´ ´ ´ soglasen s ego poli ´tikoj. Iz-za vmewatel;stva vlaste v dela ´j ´]ie poki ´ televi ´deniq ne ´kotorye vedu ´nuli kanal NTV i perewli ´ ´, ´vaq tele´ ´ na drugi me ´e ´nee oficial;nye kanaly. Voob]e no ´l;na po otnowe ´ ´ ´lee loq ´nnaq komanda NTV kuda bo vizio ´ni[ k ´ Kreml[ i prezide ´ntu.

Po materialam gaze ´ ´ty <Argume ´nty i fakty>, 2001 ´

Sredstva massovoj informacii (smi)

|

135

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Vocabulary ♦
´ ´ avtorskaq programma vesti (pl) ´ ´ vmewatel;stvo ´ voskresnaq programma ´ dopolni ´tel;nyj zerkalo ´ ´sstvo isku ito (pl) ´gi ´ komanda ´kla ku ´ ´ muzykal;no-razvlekatel;nyj myl;naq o ´ ´pera ´hno-poznavatel;nyj ´ nau ´ ´ ob]enacional;nyj kanal ´ otdavat; predpohtenie ´ poki ´nut; poxo ´'ij na (+ acc) ´ raspravit;sq s (+ inst) smena ´ to ´hka zreniq ´ cifrovo ´j personal programme news interference Sunday programme additional mirror art summing up, total; results team doll, puppet musical entertainment soap opera popular science national channel to give preference to leave similar to deal with team point of view digital

´ ´t; N.B. predstavlq / predstavit; no ´vosti pod svoi uglo – to present the ´m ´m ´ ´ ´lee loq ´l;na news from your own viewpoint; k tomu 'e – in addition; kuda bo – much more loyal; po otnoweni[ k – towards ´

Exercise 4
Answer the following questions in Russian. ´e ´nnye programmy mo ´'no smotre po 1 Kaki informacio ´ ´t; ´zoru? televi ´e ´i? 2 Kaki ob]enacional;nye kanaly est; v Rossi ´ ´ ´ru[tsq kanaly TVC, Kul;tu ´ra? ´ 3 Na kogo orienti ´ ´t 4 Hem znameni kanal REN TV? ´ ´l ´j 5 Hto predstavlq sobo kanal NTV? ´ ´kly>? 6 Hto za programma <Ku ´

136

|

The mass media

Exercise 5
True or false? ´sit ot (pravi ´tel;stva, hitatelej, vlade 1 L[baq gaze zavi ´ ´ta ´ ´l;ca gaze ´ty)? ´denie igraet (malen;ku[, vedu ´]u[, politi ´hesku[) 2 Televi ´ ´ rol;? ´]ix otra'a[t (pozi ´ci[ vlade ´ 3 Mne ´niq televedu ´ ´l;ca, svo[ ´ci[, poli ´tiku pravi ´tel;stva)? pozi ´ra> orienti ´ruetsq na tex, kto interesu ´etsq 4 Kanal <Kul;tu ´ ´sstvom, poli ´tikoj)? ´rtom, isku (spo 5 Kanal NTV byl (gosudarstvennym, hastnym, me ´ ´ ´ ´stnym) kanalom? ´ ´kly> – programma o (rossi ´jskoj nau ´ke, 6 Programma <Ku ´ ´ ´jskom parlamente, de rossi ´ ´tqx)? ´rnym, nezavi ´simym, ¨ ´vitsq (populq 7 NTV vse bol;we stano ´simym ot pravi ´tel;stva)? zavi

Language points ♦
´ga Drug dru
´ga Note the examples of drug dru ‘one another’ in the above passage: ´ga. ´ Vse oni stara[tsq byt; ne poxo ´ ´'imi drug na dru They all try not to be like one another. ´ga. ´ Oni otliha[tsq drug ot dru ´ They differ from one another. Only the second half declines – like the noun drug ‘friend’: ´gu. ´ Oni pomoga[t drug dru They help one another. ´ga. Oni nenavi ´dqt drug dru They hate one another. If the construction involves a preposition, it is inserted between the two nouns as in the examples from the text.

Sredstva massovoj informacii (smi)

|

137

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 6
Complete the following sentences with an appropriate form of drug ´ga, adding a preposition if necessary. dru
´maem . . . 3 Vy razgovarivaete 1 Oni pi ´ ´wut pi ´s;ma . . . 2 My du ´ ´t ´ ´mo]; . . . 6 Oni . . . 4 Oni 'ivu daleko . . . 5 My poluhaem po ´ ´ ´ ´[tsq . . . 7 Oni l[bqt . . . ´ ne interesu

Hto and kto used as relative pronouns
To, hto
Clauses which, in English, are linked by the word ‘what’ (or ‘that which’) are linked in Russian by to, hto: ´et. ´ ´ Q hita[ to ´l;ko to, hto menq interesu I read only what interests me. The case of to is governed by its role in the main clause (in the above ´ example it is accusative, object of the verb hita[) and the case of hto by its role in the subordinate clause (nominative, subject of verb ´et). Note the forms of to and hto in the following interesu examples: ´ ´ Q slywu o tom, hto svobo ´da pressy v opasnosti. ´ I hear that the freedom of the press is in danger. ´[s; tem, hto ty pi Q ne intersu ´wew;. I am not interested in what you write. ´ ¨ Vse ne to, hem ka'etsq. All is not what it seems. Sometimes to, hto translates ‘the fact that’ or ‘that’: ´ On gordi ´tsq tem, hto ego naznahili direktorom. ´ ´ He is proud (of the fact) that he has been appointed director. It can also translate the English construction preposition + -ing: ´ On ko ´nhil tem, hto poki ´nul kanal NTV. He finished by abandoning NTV.

138

|

The mass media

To, hto figures in the expressions delo v tom, hto ‘the thing / fact ´ ´ is that’, beda v tom, hto ‘the trouble is that’ and problema ´ ´ zakl[haetsq v tom, hto ‘the problem consists in the fact that’: ´ ´ Beda v tom, hto u nas malo deneg. ´ The trouble is that we have little money. Delo v tom, hto v Rossi sli ´ ´i ´wkom mno gazet. ´go ´ The thing is that there are too many newspapers in Russia. ´ ´ Problema zakl[haetsq v tom, hto Rossi pere'ivaet ´ ´q kri ´zis. The problem consists in the fact that Russia is undergoing a crisis. Words other than hto may follow the construction v tom: ´ ´ Delo v tom, kak dostat; den;gi. ´ The thing is how to get the money. ´ ´ Problema v tom, kuda exat;. ´ The problem is where to go.

Exercise 7
Put to, hto in the correct case.
´da 1 On govori o . . . svobo pre ´l ´ssy v Rossi v opasnosti. 2 On ´i ´ vi ´dit . . . ne vi ´dqt drugi 3 Q ve ´e. ´r[ v . . . demokratiq pobedi ´ ´t. ´nhil svoj rasskaz . . . zadal nam ne ´sov. 4 On zako ´ ´ ´skol;ko vopro 5 Ona vsegda gordi ´ ´ ´las; . . . ona ru ´ ´sskaq. 6 On ne vinovat v . . . ´ ´go ´ 'urnal byl zakry t. 7 Beda v . . . v Rossi sli ´ ´ ´i ´wkom mno ´ gaze 8 L[di somneva[tsq v . . . oni poluha[t ob#ekti ´t. ´ ´ ´ ´vnu[ informaci[, ´

Tot, kto / te, kto
Tot, kto and te, kto are used to mean ‘the one(s) who’: ´hit lu ´hwu[ ocenku. Tot, kto bo ´l;we vsex rabo ´taet polu ´ He who / the one who works hardest will receive the best mark. The case of tot / te is decided by their role in the main clause and kto from its role in the subordinate clause:

Sredstva massovoj informacii (smi)

|

139

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ ´ ´dno najti pravil;nyj otvet. ´ Q pomogu tem, komu tru ´ ´ I will help those who have difficulty in finding the right answer. ´ ´ ´dno). (tem – dative after pomogu and komu – dative before tru There are some examples in both the text and the dialogue: ´etsq mu ´zykoj. ´ |to kanal dlq tex, kto interesu It is a channel for those who are interested in music. ¨ SMI zavi ´sqt ot tex, kto daet im den;gi. ´ The media depend on the ones who give them money. After te, kto either the plural or the singular verb may occur: te, kto rabo ´taet zdes;; te, kto rabo ´ta[t zdes; those who work here Kto may be detached from tot and used to introduce a separate clause: Kto ne rabo ´taet, tot ne est. He who doesn’t work doesn’t eat.

Exercise 8
Put tot, kto and te, kto in the correct case.
´la ´dom. 2 Mne by lo ´ A 1 On obrati ´lsq (to the one who) stoq rq ´. ´mila 'al; (the one to whom) ona napisala pis;mo 3 Ona poznako ´ ´ ´ menq (with the one who) uhi ´lsq s nej. 4 (The one who) govori ´t ´pyj helove 5 Lu ´hwe otdat; kni (to the one who) ´to, ´vno glu \ q ´k. ´ ´gu ona nravitsq. ´ ´ B 1 My (with those who) otstaivaet nezavi ´ ´simost; pre ´ssy. ´pery. 3 Pre ´ 2 |tot kanal (for those who) nravqtsq my l;nye o ´ ´ ´ssa ¨ ´ vsegda zavi ´ ´sit (from those who) finansi ´ruet ee. 4 Bol;winstvo ´ (of those who) vystupal po televi ´ ´deni[, by li poli ´tikami. 5 My ´het uhastvovat; v poslali priglawe ´ ´nie (to those who) xo ´ ´trit kanal NTV mno ´go programme. 6 (Among those who) smo ´ ´ ´et ´sstvo, smo ´trqt kanal stude ´ntov. 7 (Those who) interesu isku ´ ´ra>. <Kul;tu

140

|

The mass media

Exercise 9
Study the different points of view regarding the number of channels on TV.

VLADIMIR POZNER, akademik Rossijskoj akademii i televideniq, vedu]ij programmy <Vremena> na ORT
<Mirovoj opyt pokazyvaet, hto, kogda v strane dejstvuet bol;we hetyrex ob]enacional;nyx kanalov, \to u'e perebor. Takogo nigde v mire net. A vot setevyx kanalov nu'no stol;ko, skol;ko ix mo'et <s#est;> rynok>.

MIXAIL LEONT:EV,
programmy <Odnako> na ORT

vedu]ij avtorskoj

<Stol;ko kanalov, skol;ko my imeem sejhas, nam ne to, htoby nu'no, prosto v nastoq]ij moment strana ne sposobna ix soder'at;>.

OLEG DOBRODEEV,
Teleradiokomiteta

predsedatel;

<Kanalov nu'no bol;we. Duma[, telezriteli tol;ko vyigra[t ot togo, esli v Rossii, nakonec, normal;no zarabotaet sistema cifrovoj texnologii: togda u nas budet ne west; ob]enacional;nyx kanalov, kak sejhas, a dvadcat; – dvadcat; pqt;>.

Po materialam gazety <Versiq>, 2001

´ ´ ´ N.B. \to u'e perebo – that is too much; setevo kanal – cable channel ´r ´j

1 Who are Vladimir Pozner, Mikhail Leont’ev, Oleg Dobrodeev? 2 Who is in favour of increasing the number of channels and who is against? 3 How many national channels does Russia have? What are they?

Sredstva massovoj informacii (smi)

|

141

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Language points ♦
Conjunctions
Care must be taken in Russian not to confuse conjunctions with prepositions. Unhelpfully, in English prepositions and conjunctions are often identical: ´ ´t;. Po ´sle zavtraka my powli gulq ´ After breakfast we went for a walk. ´ ´t;. Po ´sle togo kak my pozavtrakali, my powli gulq ´ ´ After we had breakfast we went for a walk. ´ In the first example, the preposition po ´sle governs the noun zavtraka and in the second the conjunction po ´sle togo kak introduces an ´ adverbial clause of time. There are other similar pairs of prepositions and conjunctions: Preposition s + genitive do + genitive pered + instrumental ´ Conjunction s tex por kak do togo kak ´ pered tem kak ´ pre'de hem ´ Meaning since before before before

Exercise 10
Insert po ´sle or po ´sle togo kak, as appropriate. ´
´rs, ´nhila ku 1 . . . konce ´rta my powli v restoran. 2 . . . ona oko ´ ´ ´ ´vosti, my ona peree ´ ´xala za grani ´cu. 3 . . . my poluhi ´li no ´. ¨ pozvoni ´li emu 4 . . . obe powel do'd;. ´da

Causal conjunctions
´, ´ The conjunction blagodarq tomu hto is used to mean ‘thanks to, owing to’ (positive reasons): ´, ´ Blagodarq tomu hto uluhwi ´los; \konomiheskoe ´ ´ polo'enie, bezrabo ´ ´tica upala. Thanks to the fact that the economic situation has improved unemployment has fallen.

142

|

The mass media

´ Contrast the preposition blagodarq + dative ‘thanks to’: ´ Blagodarq uluhweni[ \konomiheskogo polo'eniq ´ ´ ´ ´ bezrabo ´tica upala. Thanks to the improvement in the economic situation unemployment has fallen. Iz-za togo hto means ‘owing to, because of, on account of the fact ´, that’ in respect of negative circumstances: Iz-za togo hto \konomi ´, ´heskoe polo'enie v strane ´ ´ ´dwilos;, mno predpriq ´tij zakrylos;. ´ uxu ´go Because the economic situtation in the country has worsened many businesses have closed. Contrast the preposition iz-za + genitive ‘because of, on account of’ – often also relating to unfavourable circumstances: Iz-za uxudweniq \konomiheskogo polo'eniq mno ´ ´ ´ ´go ´tij zakrylos;. ´ predpriq Because of the worsening of the economic situation many businesses have closed. Note an example in the text of the use of iz-za: ´ ´ Iz-za vmewatel;stva vlastej v dela televi ´ ´deniq, ´]ie poki ´ l NTV. nekoto ´rye vedu ´nuli kana Because of the interference of the authorities in television, several presenters abandoned NTV. This could have been expressed as: ´ ´ Iz-za togo hto vlasti vmewivalis; v dela. ´, ´ Because the authorities interfered.

Exercise 11
´ A Complete the sentences using either blagodarq (+ dat) or iz-za (+ gen) and put the words in brackets into the appropriate case.
´]ee vre ´'et soder'at; tak mno ´go 1 V nastoq ´mq Rossi ne mo ´q ´ ¨ kanalov ´ (tq'eloe \konomi ´heskoe polo'e ´nie)v strane ´. ´]ix NTV stal ohen; ´) 2 (Professional;noe masterstvo vedu ´ ´rnym. 3 Mno ´gie gaze ´ro zakro ´[tsq (nedostatok populq ´ty sko ´ ´wee nastroe ´nhil ´ de ´neg) v strane 4 (Xoro ´. ´nie) on by stro zako

Sredstva massovoj informacii (smi)

|

143

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ra) na televi ´]im tepe tru ´dno ´tu. 5 (Cenzu rabo ´denii televedu ´r; ´tat;. 6 Vhera samolety ne letali (ploxaq pogo ¨ ´da). rabo ´ ´ ´

´, ´ B And now replace these phrases by clauses with blagodarq tomu hto or iz-za togo hto. ´, ¨ Example: iz-za tq'elogo \konomiheskogo polo'eniq – iz´ ´ ¨ za togo hto v strane tq'eloe \konomiheskoe ´, ´ ´ polo'enie ´

Exercise 12
Examine the programmes advertised on three Russian television channels (see page 144) and answer the questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Which feature films are on ORT? What sports programmes are on? Which channel shows the most cartoons? On which channel is there a travel programme? At what time is it possible to see the news on all channels? What programmes about animals are on?

Language points ♦
Stress Neuter nouns
Fixed stress – stress remains on the same syllable throughout the ´ ´ declension, singular and plural: 'elanie, gosudarstvo, izvestie. ´ This group contains mostly words with three or more syllables, but ´vstvo, ´ also a small number of two syllable nouns: go ´rlo, bl[do, hu kreslo, so ´ ´lnce. Mobile stress – there are three main types of mobile stress on neuter nouns. Type 1 – stress on the ending in the singular and stem in the plural: ´ lico (gen. sing. lica; nom. pl. li ´ ´ca; gen. pl. lic; dat. plu licam, ´ etc.); vino pis;mo hislo okno qjco selo Most of these nouns ´, ´, ´, ´, ´, ´. have two syllables, but there are some with three. In this case the

144

|

The mass media

Voskresen;e
15 APRELQ
KANAL ORT KANAL <ROSSIQ> KANAL NTV

7.45 Slovo pastyrq. Mitropolit Kirill. 8.00, 18.00 Novosti. 8.10 Armejskij magazin. 8.40 Disnej-klub <Hip i Dejl> 9.05 Utrennqq zvezda. 10.00, 15.00 Novosti (s surdo perevodom). 10.10 Neputevye zametki. 10.30 Poka vse doma. 11.10 <Xozqin tajgi>. Xud. fil;m. 12.45 Utrennqq pohta 13.20 Klub putewestvennikov. 14.00 |x, Semenovna. 14.35 <Talanty i poklonnica>. Specreporta'. 15.10 Umnicy i umniki. 15.40 Disnej klub: <Gufi i ego komanda>. 16.10 Koncert Kristiny Orbakajte v GCKZ <Rossiq>. 18.30 <L[bov; i golubi>. Xud. fil;m. 20.35 <Velikolepnyj>. Xud. fil;m. 22.30 Vremena. 23.45 Na futbole. 0.25 <Mal;hiki>. Xud. Fil;m.

7.30 <Dodumalsq, pozdravlq[!>. Xud. fil;m 9.00 Russkoe loto. 9.40 TV bingo-wou 10.35 Dobroe utro, strana. 11.05 Anwlag. 12.00 Gorodok. 12.30 Bol;waq strana. 13.10 Parlamentskij has 14.00 Vesti. 14.20 Dialogi o 'ivotnyx. 15.20 Vokrug sveta. 16.25 Dva roqlq. 17.20 Sam sebe re'isser. 18.00 Zerkalo. 19.00 <L[bit; porusski>. Xud. fil;m. 20.50 <L[bit; porusski-2>. Xud. fil;m. 22.35 <L[bit; porusski-3. Gubernator>. Xud. fil;m. 0.35 Hempionat mira po avtogonkam v klasse formula-1. Gran-pri SanMarino. Peredaha iz Imoly.

8.00, 10.00, 12.00, 16.00 Segodnq. 8.15 <Deti kapitana Granta>. Xud. fil;m. 10.15 <Pqtoe Evangelie>. Fil;m Sergeq Kostina iz cikla <Novejwaq istoriq>. 11.40 Professiq – reporter. Vitalij Buzuev. <L[bov; i krest>. 12.25 Depressiq. 12.50 <Vizit k minotavru>. Xud. fil;m. 14.15 <Lico kavkazskoj nacional;nosti>. Fil;m Aleksandra Tixomirova. 15.00 Tretij tajm. 16.35 Putewestviq naturalista. 17.10 Bol;wie roditeli. 17.50 <Policejskaq akademiq>. 19.00 Itogi. 20.45 Kukly. 21.00 <Ulica razbityx fonarej-3>. 22.20 Sportivnye tancy. Hempionat Evropy sredi professionalov. Bal hempionov. 0.15 Futbol;nyj klub. 0.55 <Za gran;[ vozmo'nogo>.

N.B. xud. fil;m = xudo ´'estvennyj fil;m – feature film

Sredstva massovoj informacii (smi)

|

145

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ ¨ stress moves back one syllable in the plural: koleso (kolesa, kolesa, ´ ¨ ¨ koles, kolesam). Type 2 – stress on the stem in the singular and ending in the plural: ´ ´ ´ delo (dela, dela, del, delam, etc.); leto, mesto, mo ´ ´ ´ ´ ´re, pravo, slo ´vo, telo. Most of these nouns are two syllable but there are a ´ ´ small number with three syllables: zerkalo (zerkala, zerkala, ´ ´ ´ ´ zerkal, zerkalam, etc.); o ´blako. Most neuter nouns in -mq also have stress on the stem in the singular, ending in the plural: imq (i ´ ´meni, ´ ´ ´ ¨ imena, imen, imenam, etc.); vremq, bremq, plamq, plemq, semq ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ¨ ¨ ¨ but not znamq (znameni, znamena, znamen, znamenam, etc.). Type 3 – stress moving forward one syllable in the plural: o ´zero ¨ ¨ ¨ (o ´zera, ozera, ozer, ozeram); derevo. This relates only to a small ´ number of three-syllable nouns.

Exercise 13
Translate into Russian. 1 I do not think that the press can be completely independent; a newspaper’s policy depends on who the owner of the newspaper is. 2 Most people are interested in the news and watch television to find out about the political and economic life of the country. 3 Many people doubt if they are getting accurate information from the newspapers. 4 My mother always says that television has a bad influence on her mood. 5 There are many programmes on Russian television, but my favourite is The Puppets, a satire on Russian politicians. 6 Some Russians say that they watch soap operas to forget the reality of Russian life. 7 Thanks to the professional skill of its presenters, the Culture channel has become very popular among those who are interested in art. 8 British and Russian television differ from one another in how they present the news.

8 RYNOK TRUDA

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ about the employment scene in Russia how to conduct a job interview and apply for employment about past passive participles more about the preposition za about words with the root trud

Until recently the search for a job in Russia was limited to the job advertisements displayed in public places: factory gates, lamp posts, kiosk windows being the obvious locations. Job centres were very few and concentrated mostly in large cities. Now the situation is changing; job centres are springing up all over the country. Most newspapers and magazines have a section for job vacancies. Job advertisements are quite often blatantly ageist and sexist and also express requirements in respect of physical attributes. Finding a job through the internet is becoming more common. However, some things in Russia are slow to change. Looking for a job using personal connections (blat) is still an important feature of the Russian job market.

Rynok truda

|

147

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Text 1
V po ´iskax rabo ´ty
´ ´tica v Rossi e]e ne dosti ¨ (Po zapadnym me ´rkam, bezrabo ´i ´gla ´rovnq: na sego ´dnqwnij den; zaregistri kriti ´heskogo u ´rovano 9 ´ ´nov bezrabo ´tnyx. No \konomi ´dom millio ´sty shita[t, hto s perexo ´det rasti V tako situacii o ´ ´ ´tica bu ´j ´hen; va'no k rynku bezrabo ´ ´. ´ ´ ´tu. Gaze znat;, kak nahinat; iskat; rabo ´ta <Argume ´nty i ´kty> daet sove ¨ fa ´t.) ´ ´ ´ ´ ´tu ¨ Iskat; rabo – de nelegkoe. Vakansij na rynke truda vsegda ´lo ´ ´ ´ ´ ´go, i ka'domu helove ´'et byt; najdeno me ´sto. Samym mno ´ku mo ´sobom ustro ´it;sq na rabo ´tu v Rossi po-pre ve ´rnym spo ´i, ´'nemu, ´[t ´dstven´ ´ ¨ ´jstvo <po blatu>, kogda vas rekomendu ro ostaetsq ustro ´ ´mye. Do six por \ ´sob predpohitaet ne ´tot spo niki i ´li znako ´ me ´nee 50% rossi ´jskix rabotodatelej. |to vyzvano tem, hto ´ ´ ´[t ´l;we. ´ ´tniku s rekomendaciej doverq bo <svoemu helove ´ku>, rabo ´ ´tu, soob]i ´tom samomu Tak hto e ´sli vy i ´]ete rabo ´te ob \ ´gu lic. ´komu kru wiro ´tij podbira[t sebe ´ Po stati ´stike, 80% vsex firm i predpriq ´ ´pnyx. ´ ´jstvu, oso ´benno kru kadry v age ´nstvax po trudoustro ´ ´ ´gut predlo'i 500–800 vakansij, togda Bol;wi age ´e ´ntstva mo ´t; ´ ´ ´kolo 10. No age kak me ´lkie o ´nstva, kak pravilo, zanima[tsq ´iskom diplomi ´l'nosti po ´rovannyx speciali ´stov ne ni ´'e do ´. I e ´isk rabo ´ty s po ´mo];[ age sekretarq ´sli po ´ntstv vam ne ´tel;no. Kupi kak mo ´ ´dit, nahinajte po ´isk samostoq ´'no podxo ´te ´ ´l;we gaze s ob#qvle ´te. bo ´t ´niqmi o rabo V sre ´dnem 30% kompanij ´ ´ da[t o sebe informaci[ v pre ´ ´sse. ´rnee stano ¨ ´vitsq po ´isk rabo ´ty s po ´mo];[ Interne Vse populq ´ta. ´ ´ ´ Nedavno Komite ´tom truda i zanqtosti v Moskve byl otkryt ´ ´ ´ ´gie po ´l;zu[tsq special;nyj sajt www.labor.ru, i tepe ´r; mno ´gami \ ´]estva Interne ´togo se uslu ´rvera. Preimu ´ta: vse pred´ ´ ´te lo'e ´niq o rabo zdes; aktual;nye. Na publikaci[ v Interne ´te ´ndy, a hto ´ ´dqt seku ´by opublikovat; ob#qvle uxo ´nie v gaze ´te, tre ´bu[tsq dni i nede ´li.

148

|

The labour market

´et mne ´wie do ´l'nosti l[de <s Su]estvu ´nie, hto na xoro ´j ´licy> ne beru No v dli ´t. ´ u ´nnom spi ´ske profe ´ssij est; nemalo ´ iskl[he ´nij, i wansy byt; pri ´nqtymi na vpolne prili ´ ´hnu[ ´licy> o ´rnye ´ ´tu ´hen; znahi ´dnq samye populq rabo <s u ´tel;ny. Sego ´ ¨ ¨ profe ´ssii – me ´ned'ery po proda'am. Spros na nix vse e]e ne ´ ´ ´ ¨ udovletvoren v Rossi oni nu'ny bukval;no ka'doj kompanii, ´i: ´ ´t ´ ´licy>. ´ ´ ´-libo, a ix beru hasto <s u zanqtoj proda'ami hego ´ ´rye tre ´tnika, ob]i Kahestva, koto ´bu[tsq ot rabo ´tel;nost; i ´ ´jhivost;, xorowo podve ´ ´trasli, v nasto ´wennyj qzyk, znanie o ´ ´ditsq. ´roj tru koto

Vocabulary ♦
agentstvo po trudoustro ´ ´jstvu ´ aktual;nyj bezrabo ´tica / bezrabo ´tnyj ´ bukval;no vernyj spo ´ ´sob diplomi ´rovannyj speciali ´st ´t; doverq (dat) do ´l'nost; (f ) iskl[henie ´ ´ kahestvo krug lic ´ ´ Komitet truda i zanqtosti ´ ´ mened'er po proda'am ´ nasto ´jhivost; (f ) ob]i ´tel;nost; (f ) ob#qvlenie o rabo ´ ´te o ´trasl; (f ) perexo k rynku ´d ´ ´ ´ podbirat; kadry ´]estvo preimu prili ´hnaq rabo ´ta ´ rabotodatel; ´tel;no samostoq soob]i ´t; (v) srednem ´ employment agency current unemployment / unemployed literally sure way a qualified specialist to trust post exception quality circle of people Labour and Employment committee sales manager persistence sociability job advertisement branch transition to the market to select personnel advantage decent job employer independently to inform on average

Rynok truda

|

149

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

spi ´sok ´ togda kak trudi ´t;sq udovletvori ´t; spros na (+ acc) ustro ´it;sq na rabo ´tu ustro ´jstvo na rabo ´tu

list while to work to satisfy demand on to fix oneself up with a job finding work

´ N.B. po zapadnym merkam – by Western standards; svoj helovek – one of ´ ´ ´ our own people; \to vyzvano tem – it is because; brat; na rabo ´ ´tu ´licy> – to employ somebody responding to an advertisement displayed <s u ´ in a public place; <po blatu> – using personal connections; xorowo ´ podvewennyj qzyk – a smooth tongue ´ ´

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ´i? ´j ´sob po ´iska rabo ´ty naibo ´lee rasprostranen v Rossi ¨ Kako spo ´e Hto tako <blat>? ´ ´hwe obra]at;sq v po ´pnye age ´iskax rabo v kru ´ty Pohemu lu ´ ´nstva? ´licy>? ´isk rabo ´ty <s u Kak vy ponimaete po ´ ´e ´i? ´benno tre Kaki profe ´ssii oso ´bu[tsq sejhas v Rossi ´ ´]estva po ´l;zovaniq Interne ´ Kakovy preimu ´tom?

Exercise 2
True or false? ´tel;nost;, 1 Ot me ´ned'era po proda'am tre ´ ´buetsq (ob]i ´tat; v komande)? otve ´tstvennost;, ume ´nie rabo ´ ´zi, universite ´wie svq 2 Ime ´t; blat znahit ime ´ ´t; (xoro ´tsku[ ste ´pen;, rekomendaci[)? ´ ´jskie ´tnikov 3 Rossi rabotodateli ´ predpohita[t ´ rabo (s ´licy>)? ´mom, <s u rekomendaciej, s diplo ´ ´rnye profe ´i ´tel;, me 4 Samye populq ´ ´ssii v Rossi (vrah, uhi ´ned'er po proda'am)? ´ ´]estva interne v tom, hto v Interne (predlo'e 5 Preimu ´ta ´te ´niq ´te aktual;nye, informaciq intere ´go o rabo ´ ´ ´snaq, mno informacii)? ´

150

|

The labour market

Exercise 3
Examine the ratings of the most prestigious professions on the Russian labour market.

Pейтинг престижных профессий (востребованность на рынке труда и величина заработной платы)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Менеджер по продажам, торговый представитель, менеджер по сбыту Cтраховой аreнт Mаркетолог Бухгалтер Mенеджер по рекламе, PR-менеджер Логистик Инженер-технолог, программист, системный администратор рист Kурьер в крупной фирме, официант, бармен Журналист, психолог, социолог

1 What do the five most highly rated professions have in common? 2 Are there any inclusions which would not make the list in the West? 3 Which ‘professions’ that one might expect to find in a similar list in the West are not included?

Language points ♦
Words with the root trud
The root trud means ‘labour or (hard) work’ ´'enik, tru ´'enica, trudq ´]ijsq, trudi ´t;sq, trudovo tru ´j, ´dnik, sotru ´dnihestvo sotru The suffix, or ending, generally tells you which part of speech a word is: ´ trudit;sq ´ trudovoj verbal suffix adjectival suffix to labour, work hard working

Rynok truda

|

151

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

A suffix on a noun may also tell you what kind of noun it is. Suffixes nik (m) and nica (f ) generally indicate an occupation or profession of a person or a role fulfilled by an inanimate object: ´'e ´'e tru nik / tru nica hard worker

Note that d has changed to ' in these words. ´]ijsq (active trudq participle of trudi ´t;sq used as noun) worker (Soviet officialese – more usual are rabo ´hij ‘manual worker’ / rabo ´tnik ‘worker, employee’)

Prefixes add to or qualify the meaning of the word. S- / so- / s#- means ‘with, co-’: ´dnik sotru employee, co-worker, collaborator

-stvo is a suffix indicating an action: ´dnihestvo sotru co-operation, collaboration

But note the set phrase s trudo ‘with difficulty’. ´m Trud may also be combined with other roots: ustro ´it; ‘to arrange’ – trudoustro ´it;sq ‘to fix yourself up with work’; trudoustro ´jstvo ‘finding work’ sposo ´bnyj ‘capable’ – trudosposo ´bnyj / trudosposo ´bnost; ‘fit / fitness for work’

Exercise 4
Complete the sentence by selecting an appropriate word with the root trud.
´tica, po-pre 1 Ni ´zkaq bezrabo ´'nemu, tipi ´hna dlq rossi ´jskogo ´. ´vyj . . . kod byl vveden v pro ¨ ´wlom godu 3 Nado ´ ry nka . . . 2 No ´ ´go . . . hto ´by sdat; \kzamen xorowo 4 Vse . . . tre ´. mno ´ ´bu[t ´]ego . . . 6 Sredi ´ uvelihe ´niq zarplaty. 5 U nego reputaciq nastoq ´ ´ ´ ´l;ko tri 'e . . . nawej fi ´ ´rmy to ´n]iny. 7 Fi ´rma podpisala ´ ´r ´tu sekretarwi. dogovo o . . . 8 S bol;wi . . . ona nawla rabo ´m ´ ´ ´go 9 V Moskve sejhas mno age ´ ´ ´nstv po . . . 10 Oni pomoga[t . . . ´ ´ ´gim bezrabo ´tnym. mno

152

|

The labour market

Exercise 5
An advertisement in the Russian magazine PRIGLAWAEM NA RABOTU for an interpreter-translator.

Ob#qvlenie o rabote ––––––––––––––– MOSKOVSKAQ FIRMA
priglawaet na konkursnoj osnove REFERENTA-PEREVODHIKA ANGLIJSKOGO QZYKA
Osnovnye obqzannosti Perevod pis;mennyj i ustnyj Rabota na prezentaciqx, vystavkax, konferenciqx Komandirovki v Evropu Osnovnye trebovaniq k kandidatu 'en]ina v vozraste do 25 let vyswee obrazovanie opyt raboty ne menee 2-x let xorowee znanie delovogo anglijskogo qzyka vladenie komp;[terom na urovne xorowego pol;zovatelq umenie rabotat; v komande xorowie vnewnie dannye propiska v Moskve ili v Moskovskoj oblasti Zarplata po rezul;tatam sobesedovaniq Rez[me prisylat; po faksu 263–29–84

´ N.B. vnewnie dannye – appearance; komandiro ´ ´vka – business trip; propi ´ska ´ ´zannost; – duty; vladenie komp;[terom – computer – residence registration; obq ´ ´ literacy; vodi ´tel;skie prava – driving licence; rez[me – C.V.; s otli ´ ´hiem – with ´ distinction; po ´l;zovatel; PK – computer user; umenie rabo ´ ´tat; v komande – ´ ability to work in a team, sobesedovanie – interview; akkuratnyj – neat ´

Rynok truda

|

153

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Study the advertisement for the job and decide which of the two applicants would be more suitable for the job. Kandidaty 1. PEREVODHIK-REFERENT. Makarov Aleksandr Dmitrievih, 24 goda, vyswee obrazovanie (MGU), diplom s otlihiem, opyt raboty 2 goda v inofirmax <Filips> <Samsung>, PK – opytnyj pol;zovatel;, anglijskij i francuzskij qzyki – svobodno, nemeckij i ital;qnskij qzyki – ¨ hita[ i perevo'u so slovarem, vremennaq propiska v Moskve. Voditel;skie prava, t / f. 219–66–42 (s 20.00 do 22.00). 2. PEREVODHIK-REFERENT, Serova Mariq Sergeevna, 27 let, moskvihka, vyswee obrazovanie (Moskovskij gosudarstvennyj lingvistiheskij universitet), anglijskij, francuzskij qzyki, opyt raboty po special;nosti 3 goda v inofirme <Kristmas>, texniheskie perevody. PK – pol;zovatel;, Otvetstvenna, akkuratna, xorowie vnewnie dannye. t / f. 338–04–14 (posle 19.00).

Exercise 6
Complete the application form shown on page 154.

Dialogue 1
Interview
´ D IRE KTOR

´ K ANDIDAT ´ D IRE KTOR

Zdravstvujte. Sadi ´ ´tes;, po'alujsta. Q komme ´ ´rheskij ´nov Petr Ivanovih, A \ naw ¨ ´to dire ´ktor fi ´rmy Anto ´ ´ ´v me ´ned'er po kadram Sokolo Il;q Dmi ´ ´trievih. ´tno. Sero Mari Serge ´va Ohen; priq ´q ´evna. ´tu i My izuhi ´li Vawe rez[me i zaqvle ´ ´ ´nie na rabo ´sov. Vy rabo ´taete xote by zadat; Vam ne ´li ´ ´skol;ko vopro ´l'nosti perevo ´dhika? v fi ´rme <Kri ´stmas> na do ´ ´tu? Vas ne Pohemu Vy xoti ´te peremeni ´t; rabo ´viq? ustraiva[t uslo ´

154

|

The labour market

ANKETA-REZ{ME
F.I.O. ______________________________________________________ @ELAEMAQ DOL@NOST:: _____________________________ Predpolagaemaq zarabotnaq plata (v $): _____________________ Kontaktnyj telefon i vremq svqzi: ________________________ Data i mesto ro'deniq: ___________________ Pol: mu'skoj 'enskij Bli'ajwaq stanciq metro: _________________________________ Semejnoe polo'enie: _______________________________________ Obrazovanie (gody uheby, polnoe nazvanie uhebnogo zavedeniq, special;nost;, kvalifikaciq po diplomu): _________________
_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Znanie inostrannogo qzyka anglijskij nemeckij

francuzskij

drugoj ______

Stepen; vladeniq inostrannym qzykom svobodnyj razgovornyj pis;mennyj Znanie komp;[tera na urovne: pol;zovatelq programmista

texniheskij

administratora

Znanie programm ___________________________________________ Nalihie voditel;skix prav kategorii _________ : ime[ ne ime[ Trudovaq deqtel;nost; (dva poslednix mesta raboty):
Data postupleniq i uvol;neniq Nazvanie Profil; Dol'nost; Prihina organizacii organizacii uvol;neniq

Dopolnitel;nye svedeniq: ______________________________ data zapolneniq ______________ podpis; ___________________

Rynok truda

|

155

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ K ANDIDAT

´ D IRE KTOR

´ K ANDIDAT

´ D IRE KTOR

´ K ANDIDAT ´ D IRE KTOR

´ K ANDIDAT ´ D IRE KTOR

´ ´ta[ u'e 3 go ´da. Za \ ´ti V fi ´rme <Kri ´stmas> q rabo ´dy q mno ´gomu nauhi ´hetsq go ´las;. No mne xo ´pnoj fi ´pnoj fi ´tat; v kru porabo ´rme. V kru ´rme, kak ´emu, bo ´l;we vozmo ´'nostej realizovat; Vawa, po-mo ´ ´ ´. sebq Nu hto 'e, prihi uva'i ´na ´tel;naq. Rezul;taty te ´ ´stov, ´ sde ´lannyx Vami, otli ´ ´hnye. Vse delovy e pi ´s;ma ´wem ´ perevedeny bez owi ´bok, napi ´sany na xoro angli ´jskom qzyke Tak hto prete ´. ´nzij k Vawemu ´ angli ´jskomu u nas net. A kak u Vas dela s ´ ´ terom? komp;[ ´ ´da q osvo ´ila Kopmp;[ter – ne proble ´ma! Za 3 go ´gie programmy. Mne prixodi mno ´ ´los; provodi ´t; za ´ ´go ´meni. komp;[terom mno vre ¨ ´go ´zdit;! Nu vot i prekrasno! A tepe pridetsq mno e ´ ´r; ´ Uhastie v organizacii vy stavok, konfere ´ ´ ´ncij, ´zannostej. K tomu 'e ´ prezentacij – hast; Vawix obq ´ ´ ´dete ´ ´ Vy dol'ny bu soprovo'dat; ´ menq v ´vki. Rabo intere ´ta komandiro ´snaq, no otve ´tstvennaq, I ´maete, Vy ´'et byt; dovo ´l;no stre mo ´ssovoj. Kak Vy du ´dnostqmi? spravites; s tru ´ ´ Nade ´[s;, hto spravl[s;. Q l[bl[ ime ´ ´t; de ´lo s ´dnostqmi, tak intere tru ´snej. ´emu, Vy nam podxo ´dite. My voz;mem ¨ Nu hto 'e, po-mo Vas na ispytatel;nyj srok – odi god. Esli dela ´ ´n ´ ´t ´det predlo ´nnaq ´, ´'ena postoq pojdu xorowo Vam bu ´ta. Vas \ ustraivaet? Vy mo ´'ete pristupi k ´to rabo ´ ´t; ´te ´rez me rabo he ´sqc? ´ma[, hto mogu ´. Du Togda podpi ´ ´syvajte kontrakt. ´

Vocabulary ♦
´ zadat; vopro ´s zaqvlenie na rabo ´ ´tu ´ ispytatel;nyj srok ´ mened'er po kadram ´ ´ (po personalu) to ask a question application for work probation personnel manager

156

|

The labour market

otvetstvennyj ´ ´ osvo ´it; programmu peremeni ´t; rabo ´tu ´ podpi ´syvat; kontrakt pristupi ´t; k rabo ´te ´ ´ realizovat; sebq ´ (svoj potencial) ´ soprovo'dat; ´dnostqmi ´ spravit;sq s tru uva'i ´tel;naq prihi ´na ´ uhastie

responsible to master a programme to change job to sign a contract to start work to realise one’s potential to accompany to cope with difficulties good reason participation

´ ´ ´to N.B. nu hto 'e (nu vot i) – well, well then; vas \to ustraivaet? (vam \ ´ ´ podxo ´dit) – Does that suit you? menq ne ustraiva[t (mne ne podxo ´dqt) uslo ´viq – The conditions do not suit me; u nas net pretenzij – We have no ´ ¨ complaints; pridetsq – (You) will have to; mne prixodi ´los; – I had to

Exercise 7
Answer the following questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 ´]ee vre ´taet kandidat v nastoq Gde rabo ´ ´mq? ´ ´t; ´het peremeni rabo ´tu? Pohemu ona xo ´zannosti kandidata na no ´voj rabo ´te? ´ ´dut obq Kakovy bu ´ ´ ´ta ´dhika shitaetsq stre Pohemu rabo perevo ´ ´ssovoj?

Language points ♦
Participles
Past passive participles are normally formed from the perfective verb. They are the equivalent of English participles ending in -ed (if the ¨ verb is regular!). In Russian the ending is -annyj, -ennyj, -ennyj or -tyj. Only transitive verbs (those which can take a direct object) form past passive participles.

How to form past passive participles Endings in -nnyj
1 Verbs ending in -at;, -qt; replace the -t; by -nnyj: zarabo ´tat; – zarabo ´tannyj ‘earned’.

Rynok truda

|

157

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

2 Second conjugation verbs ending in -it; or -et; and first conjugation verbs ending in -sti, -zti take -ennyj, or ¨ -ennyj if the ty form of the future perfective is stressed on the ¨ ending: rewi – rewiw; – rewennyj ‘decided’; predlo'it; ´t; ´ ´ ¨ w; – – predlo ´'iw; – predlo ´'ennyj ‘offered’; vvezti – vveze ´ ¨ vvezennyj ‘imported’. ´ ¨ But note: najti – najdew; – najdennyj ‘found’; projti – ¨ projdew; – pro ´jdennyj. Where there is a consonant change in the q form of the future perfective this will also occur in the past passive participle: ´ ¨ priglasit; – priglawu – priglasi ´ ´w; – priglawennyj ‘invited’.

Endings in -tyj
A small number of verbs of the first conjugation take the ending -tyj. These include many monosyllabic verbs and their compounds, ´tyj ‘taken’; verbs ending in -ot;, -ut;, -yt; and -eret;: vzqt; – vzq ´t; – pri ´ ´ prinq ´nqtyj ‘accepted’; zakryt; – zakrytyj ‘closed’; ´ ubit; – ubi ´ ´tyj ‘killed’; zaperet; – zapertyj ‘locked’ (note the ´ loss of -e- in this kind of verb).

Exercise 8
Form the past passive participle from the following verbs.
osnovat;, pokazat;, oplati ´ ´ ´t;, kupi ´t;, oceni ´t;, postavit;, ´ ´l;zovat;, predlo'i ispo ´t;, osu]estvi ´t;, perevesti priglasi ´, ´t;, ´t;, priobresti najti ´vit;, razvi podpisat;, prigoto ´ ´t;, prinq ´, ´, ´ vvesti zaregistri ´, ´rovat;, razrewi ´t;, otkry t;, udovletvori ´t;.

How to use past passive participles
Participles decline like adjectives and agree in number, gender and case with the noun they describe: ´ ´ ´ Ona otkazalas; ot mesta, predlo ´ ´'ennogo ej vhera. She rejected the position offered to her yesterday. ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Oni nu'ny ka'doj kompanii, zanqtoj proda'ami. ´ They are needed by every company engaged in sales.

158

|

The labour market

Past passive participle and the passive voice
A short version of the participle can be used to form the passive. It has only one -n- and endings like a short adjective: ´ ´ Mesto bylo predlo ´ ´'eno ej vhera. The position was offered to her yesterday. ´ ´ Ona byla prinqta na rabo ´ ´tu. She was accepted for the job. ´det podpi ´ ´ Kontrakt bu ´san zavtra. The contract will be signed tomorrow. Note how the stress moves to the end in participles ending in ¨ -ennyj: ´det priglawena na interv;[. ´ ´ Mari ´na ne bu Marina will not be invited to the interview. Note also that the instrumental case is used to express the agent by whom or by what an action is performed: ´sskim re'isserom. ´ ´ ¨ P;esa byla postavlena ru ´ The play was produced by a Russian director. ´weno mno zdanij. ´ ´ Zemletrqseniem bylo razru ´ ´go Many buildings were destroyed by the earthquake.

Exercise 9
Form the past passive participle of the verb in brackets. Do not forget to use the perfective verb.
´t;) ´ 1 Fi ´rma (zanimat; / zanq ´ izgotovle ´niem komp;[terov. ´pytom. ´ 2 Predpohte ´nie by lo (otdavat; / otdat;) speciali ´ ´ ´stu s o ´sle interv;[ ona byla (priglawat; / priglasi ´ ´tu. 3 Po ´ ´ ´ ´t;) na rabo ´det (proxodi / projti vam budet 4 Esli ispytatel;nyj srok bu ´ ´t; ´), ´nnaq rabo ´det ´ta. 5 Kontrakt bu (predlagat; / predlo'i ´ ´t;) postoq ´ ´ (podpi ´syvat; / podpisat;) v sre ´ ´du. 6 Dlq nego special;no ´ ´ (naxodi / najti me ´t; ´) ´sto v fi ´rme. 7 Byli (pokupat; / kupi ´ ´t;) vse ´sskom qzyke 8 Bylo (rewat; / rewi ´ gaze ´ty i 'urnaly na ru ´ ´. ´ ´t;) ´ ´tu. 9 V xarakteri ´ predlo'i ´t; emu rabo ´stike bylo (otmehat; / ´ ¨ ´tat; v komande. 10 Bile ´ otme ´tit;) ee umenie rabo ´ ´ty by li ´rta. 11 Na festivale (priobretat; / priobresti v kasse a\ropo ´ ´) ´ ´ ´dut (pokazyvat; / pokazat;) lu ´hwie fi ´da. bu ´ ´ ´l;my go

Rynok truda

|

159

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

In some examples participles are used just like adjectives: obrazo ´vannaq 'en]ina ´ ´'ennyj artist zaslu ´ diplomi ´rovannyj speciali ´st diplomi ´rovat; ¨ opredelennyj otvet ´ ´ xorowo podvewennyj qzyk ´ ´ Note in the text: ´ wansy byt; prinqtymi ´ the chances of being accepted ´t; (prinq ‘to accept’ – pri ´nqtyj – past passive participle) Prinqtymi is in the instrumental case after the verb byt; like an ´ adjective, rather than in the short form, which might be expected for a past passive participle. Contrast: ´ Mesto mo ´ ´'et byt; najdeno a job might be found ´ (najti ‘to find’ – najdennyj – past passive participle) ´ ´ Some past passive participles are used as nouns: dannye ‘data’; ¨ zakl[hennyj ‘a prisoner’. educated woman renowned actor a qualified specialist to award a diploma definite answer a smooth tongue

Exercise 10
Change the active sentences into the passive using past passive participles with instrumental case.
´wu[ rabo ´tu. 2 On rewi 1 Universite predlo'i ej xoro ´t ´l ´l ´m. proble ´mu s bol;wi trudo 3 Nakone ´m ´c, dire ´ktor podpisal ´ ´ili mno ´gie komp;[ternye programmy. 5 Ona ´ kontrakt. 4 My osvo ´ ´ ´ ´go. 6 Fi ´ la special;nyj sajt. perevela roman Tolsto ´ ´ ´rma otkry ´ ´dniki rekomendovali ee, kak otli ¨ 7 Sotru ´ ´hnogo speciali ´sta. ´tie opublikovalo ob#qvle 8 Predpriq ´ ´nie v gaze ´te. 9 Ona prislala ´ rez[me po faksu. 10 Kri ´ ´ ´tiki oceni ´li fil;m, kak slabyj. ´ ´ ´vyj zako ´n ob immigracii. 11 Pravi ´tel;stvo vvelo no ´ 12 Kitajskie sportsme ´ ´ny zavoevali samye presti ´ ´ ´'nye pri ´zy.

160

|

The labour market

Language points ♦
Preposition corner Za + accusative / instrumental
A reminder of some familiar uses of za + instrumental meaning ‘behind’ or ‘beyond’ in relation to place: za za za za za za ´ za za do ´mom ´ gorami reko ´j voro ´tami uglo ´m grani ´cej gorodom dver;[ ´ behind the house beyond the mountains over the river outside the gate round the corner abroad (over the border) out of town outside / behind the door

´ ´ ´ But remember: idti / exat; / vyjti za dom; za gory; za reku; za ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ voro ´ta; za ugol; za grani ´cu; za gorod; za dver;. Note not only ´ the use of the accusative case after verbs of motion but also that the ´ stress moves to za before certain nouns. ´ In the dialogue you will notice the phrase: za komp;[terom ‘at the computer’. Note some similar examples: ¨ za rulem za obedom ´ za stolo ´m at the wheel at lunch at the table

All the above examples relate to za used as a preposition of place. There are also examples in the dialogue of za + accusative used as a preposition of time, meaning ‘during the course of’: ´ Za \ti dva go ´da q mno ´gomu nauhi ´las;. During these two years I learnt a lot. ´ Za tri go ´da q osvo ´ila mno programm. ´go In three years I mastered a lot of programmes. Za is used with do to mean ‘before’: ´ ´ za has do nahala interv;[. an hour before the start of the interview.

Rynok truda

|

161

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Note, however, the following examples of za + instrumental: ¨ den; za dnem za iskl[heniem ´ day after day with the exception

Za + accusative may also be used to mean ‘for’ after verbs referring to payment, reward, thanks, criticism: blagodarit; (po-) za ´ xvalit; (po-) za ´ platit; (za-) za ´ ´ kritikovat; za ´ golosovat; (pro-) za to to to to to thank for praise for pay for criticise for vote for

After nouns and adjectives related to these verbs za + accusative is also used: ´ ´ blagodarnyj / blagodarnost; za grateful / gratitude for ´ plata za proezd ´ fare Note also za (+ accusative) i pro ´tiv ‘for and against’. ‘For’ in the sense of ‘to fetch’ is translated by za + instrumental: ´ ´ posylat; / poslat; za vraho ´m to send for the doctor ´gom zaxodi / zajti za dru ´t; ´ to call for a friend idti / pojti za po ´ ´ ´mo];[ to go for help Note also: ´ smotret; za det;mi ´ to look after children

162

|

The labour market

Exercise 11
Choose from the two alternatives in brackets (accusative or instrumental).
´t ´ ´dom). 2 Oni 'ivu za (gorod / 1 On napisal kni ´ ´gu za (god / go ´ ´dit za (kni gorodom). 3 Ona ves; den; provo ´ ´goj, kni ´gu). 4 My ´lgo side ´tu ´toj). 5 Le do ´li za (rabo / rabo ´tom my poe ´dem za (grani / grani ´cu ´cej). 6 Za (posle ´dnee vre / posle ´mq ´dnim vre ´menem) ´go ´dom) vse ha]e idet do'd; v ¨ ´ ¨ ona mno sde ´ ´lala. 7 God za (god / go ´mo]; / po ´mo];[). avguste. 8 Spasi za (po ´ ´bo

Exercise 12
Translate into Russian. 1 Using personal connections is still the surest way of finding a job in Russia. 2 Unfortunately the conditions in your firm do not suit me. 3 She always liked working with people. 4 Can you start work in a week’s time? 5 With great difficulty she found a job as interpreter in a small firm. 6 You have to be very sociable and persistent if you want to be a sales manager. 7 Her best quality is her ability to work in a team. 8 My main duty in my new job is translating from English into Russian.

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

9 DEMOGRAFIQ

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ about Russia’s demographic problems how to form and use numerals how to use nu'en meaning ‘to need’ about words with the roots rod, mu', 'en-, mert-, brak

According to demographers the present situation in Russia is catastrophic. The serious economic crisis of the 1990s led to a huge reduction in the birth rate while mortality was on the increase, and not only amongst the elderly. The slow increase in life expectancy which began in the 1960s halted and, for the first time in 1992, the number of deaths exceeded the number of births. According to government forecasts the population of Russia will decrease by a further eight per cent in the next decade. Russia already lags behind developed countries in life expectancy. Population decline presents Russia with a strategic problem. Large areas of the country are already under-populated and, ultimately, there may be too few Russians to retain their existing territory. It is the central regions of Russia which are declining fastest. Of the major cities, only Moscow is expanding, due to immigration. In many other major cities the number of deaths exceeds the number of births by two or three to one. The politically unstable Caucasus region is the only major area of population growth.

164

|

Demography

Text 1
Naw mu'hina <sverxsme ´ ´rten>
´ ´ Rezul;tatom demografi ´heskoj revol[cii, proiswe ´dwej v 20 ´ stole ´tii, bylo ´ gromadnoe uvelihe ´nie sre ´dnej ´ ´ ´ ´gix razvityx stranax ona prodol'i ´tel;nosti 'i ´zni. Vo mno prevysila 75 let, a v ne ´ ´kotoryx – 80 let. Do seredi ´ny 60-x ´ ´v ´b]im putem. V 1964–65 godax sre ¨ godo Rossi wla o ´q ´dnqq ´ ´ ´ ´da, odnako v 80–90 godax prodol'i ´tel;nost; 'i ´zni byla 69,6 go ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ona stala re ´zko sni'at;sq i sostavila v 1995 godu 65 let, a ´ ´ prodol'i ´tel;nost; 'i ´zni mu'hi voob]e upala do 58 let. V ´n ´'e, hem v 60 go ´ ´ ´dy. konce stole ´ ´tiq situaciq okazalas; xu ´t ´l;we mu'hi No ´ Pohti vo vsex stranax 'e ´ ´n]iny 'ivu do ´n. ´ ´go nigde net tako gromadnogo razryva me ´ ´ ´'du ni ´mi, kak v Rossi ´i ´e ´l;we, hem v bol;winstve razvityx stran. – 12-14 let. |to vdvo bo ´ ´ ´koj sme Osnovnye prihi ´ ´ny vyso ´rtnosti mu'hi – kure ´n ´nie i ´ ´lem. Soglasno stati ´go zloupotreble ´nie alkogo ´stike te, kto mno ´rit, terq ´[t 8 let po sravne ´ ku ´ni[ s te ´mi, kto nikogda ne ´rit. Te, kto p;et, e]e let 8. Ustano ¨ ¨ ´vleno to ´'e, hto povywe ku ´nie ´ ´ ´ znahi ´tel;no sni'aet sme ´rtnost;: zanqtye obrazovaniq ´]estvenno u ´mstvennym trudo ´t ´m 'ivu do ´l;we lic preimu ´ . Si fizi ´heskogo truda ´l;no prodol'i ´tel;nost; 'i ´zni zavi ´sit i ´ ´ ´ ´zraste 50 let, mo ´gut ot brahnogo statusa. @enatye mu'hi ´ny v vo ¨ ´da, razvedennye mo ¨ ´gut rasshi e]e pro'i v sre ´t; ´dnem 23 go ´tyvat; ´ppa ´l;ko na 18 let. Fakti to ´heski, tut de ´jstvuet ce ´laq gru ´rqt i p;[t, ha]e ´ ´vannye bo ´l;we ku prihi ´n, me ´nee obrazo ´ ´m, ´lee obrazo ´vannye i t.d. zanima[tsq fizi ´heskim trudo hem bo ´ ´t ´ ´braz 'i K tomu 'e, nawi mu'hi ´ny vedu malopodvi ´'nyj o ´zni, ´ ´[t e]e ne ¨ ´skol;ko let. a potomu terq ´grafy davno vi ´ ´deli, hto Sove Kone ´hno, demo ´tskij So[z dvi ´'etsq ´>. ´togo ne vi k demografi ´heskomu kri ´zisu. No \ ´deli <vverxu I ´ ´ ´j ´go polo'e odno iz prihi tako ´n ´niq byla oficial;naq dezin´ ´ryj formaciq iz Ce ´ntra statisti ´heskogo upravle ´niq, koto ´ ´zy. |ti progno ´zy byli razrabatyval demografi ´heskie progno ´ ´hnymi, a sverxoptimisti ´hnymi. K so'ale ´ni[, oni byli ne nau ´ ´

Demografiq

|

165

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´sle pe ´da ´z politi ´heskimi. Tak po ´repisi 1970 go byl sde ´lan progno ´ ´ ´da. Soglasno \ ´zu ´tomu progno ro'daemost; v strane do 2000 go ´ ´los; tem, hto v Rossi ´ ´ ´ dol'na byla povywat;sq. |to ob#qsnq ´i, ´roven; 'i ´nno ´ ´raq pribli'aetsq k kommuni koto ´zmu, u ´zni postoq ´ ´ ¨ ´'et umen;watsq. rastet. Sle ´dovatel;no, ro'daemost; ne mo ´ ´ ´nov helove Odnako <vverxu owi ´blis;> prime ´rno na 50 millio ´k! Do six por v Rossi net demografi ´i ´heskoj poli ´tiki, i ´ ´xo oso ´znana o ´b]estvom. A ved; demografi ´heskaq situaciq plo ´ ´ ´hnye racional;naq strane ´ nu'ny ´ sro me ´ry, nu'na ´ ´sle demografi ´heskaq poli ´tika, i glavnoe napravle ´nie v nej po ´ ´ ´j povywe ´niq ro'daemosti dol'no byt; sni'e ´nie mu'sko sverxsme ´rtnosti.

´rnoj gaze ´ Po materialam <Literatu ´ty>, 2001

Vocabulary ♦
´ ´ brahnyj status ´ 'enatyj zloupotreblenie alkogo ´ ´lem ¨ idti o ´ ´b]im putem kurenie, kuri ´ ´t; malopodvi ´'nyj o ´braz 'i ´zni ´hnyj nau ´ osoznat; perepis; (f ) ´ prevysit; ´ ´]estvenno preimu primerno ´ ¨ razvedennyj razryv ´ rasshi ´tyvat; na (+ acc) ´ ro'daemost; (f ) sledovatel;no ´ smertnost; (f ) ´ ´ sni'at;sq, sni'enie ´ srednqq prodol'i ´ ´tel;nost; (f ) 'i ´zni marital status married (man) alcohol abuse to follow the general trend smoking, to smoke sedentary way of life scientific to realise census to exceed chiefly approximately divorced gap to count on birthrate consequently mortality to fall; fall average life span

166

|

Demography

sro ´hnye mery ´ ´mstvennyj trud u ´ upast;

urgent measures intellectual work to fall

´ N.B. po sravneni[ s – in comparison with; i t.d. (i tak dalee) – and so on; ´ ´ <vverxu owi ´blis;> – mistakes were made at a high level; ustano ´vleno – it has been established; Centr statisti ´heskogo upravleniq – Centre for Statistical ´ Management

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions in Russian. ´heskoj revol[cii v 20 ve ´ ´ ´ 1 Kakovy byli rezul;taty demografi ´ ´ke? ´tel;nost; 'i ´zni v 60-x godax? 2 Kakova byla sre ´ ´ ´dnqq prodol'i ´ ´tel;nost;[ 'i ´zni mu'hi ´ny i 3 Kakova raznica me ´ ´ ´'du prodol'i 'e ´n]iny? ´e ´ ´[t na prodol'i ´tel;nost; 'i ´zni? 4 Kaki faktory vliq ´ ´ny vedu bo ´t ´lee malopodvi ´'nyj o ´zni? ´braz 'i 5 Pohemu mu'hi ´heskie progno v SSSR? ´zy 6 Kto razrabatyval demografi ´ ´v ´z ´sta nasele ´du? 7 Kako byl progno ro ´niq v SSSR k 2000 go ´heskaq poli ´tika? Pohemu ´? ´i 8 Nu'na li Rossi demografi ´

Exercise 2
True or false? ´ny ´n ´koj ´ 1 Osnovny e prihi vyso sme ´rtnosti mu'hi ´lem, upotreble ´tikov, tq'elyj ¨ (zloupotreble ´nie alkogo ´nie narko trud)? ´sit ot (\konomi ´heskoj situacii, statusa 2 Ro'daemost; zavi ´ ´ ´ ´b]estve, brahnogo statusa)? 'e ´n]iny v o ´ ´ ´t ´lgo te, kto (mno ´rit, mno ´go ku ´go p;et, zanimaetsq ¨ 3 @ivu do ´ ´rtom)? spo ´hnaq demografi ´heskaq poli ´tika napravlena na (povywe 4 Tipi ´ ´nie, sni'e ´nie, soxrane ´nie) ro'daemosti? ´ ´zni, ´braza 'i 5 Sme ´rtnost; sni'aetsq v rezul;tate (uluhwe ´ ´ ´niq o ´niq obrazovaniq)? ´ vstuple ´niq v brak, poluhe ´heskij kri ´zis oznahaet (rost nasele 6 Demografi ´ ´niq, pade ´nie ´tel;nosti 'i ´zni)? ro'daemosti, sokra]e ´ ´nie prodol'i

Demografiq

|

167

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Language points ♦
Numerals
When a written text, such as the one above on demography, contains a lot of numerals it can be an aid to understanding. However, producing correct Russian using numerals poses particular problems. First, there is the question of which case to put the noun into after the numeral. Second, needed particularly when using numerals in spoken Russian, there is the matter of which case the numeral itself goes into.

Cases after cardinal numerals
By now you are probably familiar with the following: ´ odi / odna / odno ‘one’ is an adjective and agrees in gender with ´n ´ ´ the following noun: odi stol; odna kni ´n ´ga; odno okno There is ´ ´. even a plural for plural only nouns: odni no ´ ´'nicy. Dva (masc. ´ and neut.) and dve (fem.) ‘two’; tri ‘three’; hetyre ‘four’ and o ´ba (masc. and neut.) and o (fem.) ‘both’ are followed by the genitive ´be singular of the noun and genitive plural (masc. and neut.) or nomi´ native plural (fem.) of the adjective: dva bol;wi stola; tri ´x interesnye kni ´ ´gi. Pqt; ‘five’ and above are followed by the genitive plural of both noun and adjective; pqt; bol;wi stolo The ´x ´v. case following compound numerals is determined by the last element: ´ dvadcat; dve interesnye kni ´ ´gi. However, these rules only apply if the numeral itself is in the nominative case, or the inanimate accusative. Numerals decline if the structure of the sentence requires it, e.g., after prepositions. After a numeral in a case other than the nom. / acc. the noun and adjective ´ ´ ´ will go into the plural of the same case: sem;q s pqt;[ malen;kimi det;mi ‘a family with five small children’. Only dva / dve, tri, ´ ´ hetyre, o / o have an animate accusative, and this is not used in ´ba ´be ´ ´ ´ compound numerals: q zna[ dvux devuwek; q zna[ dvadcat; ´ dve devuwki. All elements of a compound number decline: s ´ ¨ pqtidesqti pqti do westi ´ ´ ´desqti hetyrex ‘from fifty-five to sixty-four’; v vo ´zraste pqti ´desqti vos;mi let ‘at the age of fifty´ ´ eight’. Numerals used to tell the time similarly decline: v dva hasa ‘at two’; s dvux haso ‘since / from two o’clock’. The complete ´v declension of cardinal numerals is in the grammar summary.

168

|

Demography

Exercise 3
Write out the numerals putting the nouns and adjectives in the correct case.
´[t 53 (proce 1 @e ´n]iny sostavlq ´nt), a mu'hi ´ny 47 (proce ´nt) ´ sokra]e nasele ´niq Rossi 2 V 1992 godu ´i. ´nie nasele ´niq ´ ´ ´riq) Rossi a v 93 godu u'e v 68 iz otmehalos; na 44 (territo ´ ´i, ´n). 3 V peri ´da po 1924 god 79 (rossi ´jskij regio ´od s 1897 go ´ ´st ´lee 22 (millio helove 4 Sem;q ´n) priro nasele ´niq sostavil bo ´ ´k. ¨ s 3–5 (rebenok) bol;waq re ´ ´dkost; v Rossi 5 Bez migracii ´i. ´ ´n) hi ´slennost; nasele ´niq Rossi sokrati ´i ´las; by do 140 (millio ´ ´du. 6 Soglasno demo ´grafam hi helove u'e k 2000 go ´k ´ ´slennost; ´ ´n) nasele ´niq Rossi sni ´i ´zitsq k 2010 godu do 133 (millio helove ´k. ´ben razvivat; sko ´rost; do 200 km. v has. 7 Ne ´vskij \kspre sposo ´ss ´ ´ ´imost; aviabile v Moskvu ot 199 (do ´llar). 9 Mne o ´hen; 8 Sto ´ta nravitsq kni <Ot 2 do 5>. ´ ´ga

Collective numerals
Collective numerals dvo ‘two’; tro ‘three’; hetvero ‘four’, are ´e ´e ´ followed by the genitive plural. They can conveniently be used with plural only nouns that have no genitive singular: tro haso ‘three ´e ´v ´tok ‘four days and nights’. Collective numerals clocks’; hetvero su ´ ´ka ´ ´ cannot be used in compounds, so para or wtu is used: dvadcat; ´ tri pary haso ‘twenty-three clocks’. ´v ´tero, westero, semero, Forms also exist for five to ten: pq ´ ´ vo ´s;mero, devqtero, desqtero. Collective numerals are often found ´ ´ ´ with animate masculine nouns, with l[di, lico and deti: dvo ´ ´ ´e ´tero detej ‘five mu'hi ‘two men’; tro l[dej ‘three people’; pq ´n ´e ´ ´ children’; westero druzej ‘six friends’. ´ ´ ´ Note also the expressions: nas bylo tro ‘there were three of ´e us’; my / nas dvo ‘we two’; ko ´e ´mnata na dvoix ‘room for two’; na ´ svoi dvoix ‘on your own two feet / on foot’. ´x ´

Demografiq

|

169

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 4
Replace cardinal numerals by collective ones.
´ ¨ ´tali (dva dnq i dve no ´hi). ´ 1 V sem;e (hetyre rebenka). 2 My rabo ´slany ´ ´ 3 Sredi nas by lo (tri de ´ ´vuwki). 4 (Pqt; soldat) by li po ´ ´ v Hehn[. 5 (Sem; sportsme ´nov) poluhi ´li medali. 6 (West; ´

´rsy ru ´sskogo qzyka. stude ´ntov) zapisalis; na ku ´ ´

Quantitative nouns
These consist of edini ´ca ‘one’; dvo ´jka ‘two’; tro ´jka ‘three’; ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ hetverka ‘four’; pqterka ‘five’; westerka ‘six’; semerka ‘seven’; ´tka ‘nine’; desq ´tka ‘ten’. They are used prin¨ vos;merka ‘eight; devq ´ben, hervej, pik ‘the ´tka tref, bu cipally for playing cards: desq ´ ten of clubs, diamonds, hearts, spades’ and in the five point Russian ¨ marking scale where tro ´jka is satisfactory and pqterka is excellent. ¨ Note also how semerka is used to translate ‘the Seven (advanced industrial nations)’.

Other numerical expressions
You may find the following expressions useful: vdvo / vtro bo ´e ´e ´l;we twice / three times as much ´ ´ v dva / tri / hetyre raza bo ´l;we twice / three / four times as big ¨ Contrast the expressions vdvoem, together’: ´t ¨ oni 'ivu vdvoem ´ the two of them live together ¨ vtroem meaning ‘two / three

170

|

Demography

Exercise 5
¨ Insert the right word dvo vdvoem, vdvo ´e, ´e.
´ ´tom godu v Rossi prie 1 Oni poe ´ ´xali v Rossi . . . 2 V \ ´[ ´[ ´xalo ´ ´l;we be ´m . . . bo ´'encev, hem v prowlo godu . . . 3 sportsme ´nov zanqli pe ´ ´rvoe me ´sto. ¨ tro vtroem, vtro ´e, ´e ¨ ´la[t . . . 4 . . . druze rewi ´j ´li poe ´xat; na Kavkaz. 5 Oni vse de ´ ¨ ´l;we, hem ego ´. 6 Ee zarplata . . . bo ´

Indefinite numerals
Neskol;ko ‘several’, sko ´ ´l;ko ‘how many’ and sto ´l;ko ‘how many’ decline like plural adjectives and agree with the nouns they describe: ´ iz neskol;kix dannyx ‘from several statistics’. Mno ‘many, ´ ´go much’ and nemno ‘not many’ decline in both the singular and the ´go ´ plural; vo mno ´gom ‘in many respects’; vo mno ´gix mestax ‘in many ´ places’. Malo ‘few’ does not decline.

Exercise 6
Put mno ´go, nemno ´go, neskol;ko, sko ´ ´l;ko in the right case.
´grafov Rossi 1 Po mne ´ni[ (ne ´skol;ko) demo ´i grozi ´t ´fa. 2 Vo (mno ´go) razvityx stranax demografi ´heskaq katastro ´ ´ ´hen; vyso ´kaq. 3 Proble prodol'i ´tel;nost; 'i ´zni o ´ma byla ´ rewena v tehe ´ ´nie (ne ´skol;ko) dnej. 4 (Ne ´skol;ko) se ´m;qm my ´go) be pomogli den;gami i ode ´ ´ ´'doj. 5 U (mno ´'encev net da'e ´ ´milas; s (ne ode ´'dy. 6 Na konfere ´ncii q poznako ´skol;ko) ´sskimi. 7 So (sko ´vymi ru ´l;ko) stude no ´ntami vy razgovarivali? ´ ´ ´mq izve ´go). 9 U (nemno ´go) stude 8 Ego i ´stno (mno ´ntov est; taki ´e ´'nosti. vozmo

Helovek after numerals ´
After neskol;ko, sko ´ ´l;ko and sto ´l;ko use helovek as the genitive ´ ´ ´ plural of helovek and after malo, mno ´ ´go, nemalo, nemno ´go use l[dej. Helovek is also used after numerals where there is no ´ ´

Demografiq

|

171

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

adjective, l[dej is more common where there is an adjective: desqt; ´ ´ helovek ‘ten people’; desqt; xoro ´ ´ ´wix l[dej ‘ten good people’. ´

Exercise 7
Decide when to use helovek or l[dej. ´ ´
´go 1 Nasele ´nie Rossi 140 mln . . . 2 Mno . . . pogi ´i ´blo vo vre ´mq ´hitsq v vawem universite ´l;ko . . . u ´ vojny . 3 Sko ´ ´te? 4 V nawej ´ ´ppe 12 . . . 5 U ne gru ´kotoryx . . . net da'e samogo neobxodi ´ ´ ´mogo. ´ 6 U ne ´skol;kix . . . bylo po tri kni ´gi. 7 V Moskve q vstre ´ ´til ne ´skol;ko . . . iz Anglii.

Fractions and decimals
The feminine form of the ordinal number is used to express a frac´ ´ tion, the words hast; or do being understood: odna westaq ‘one ´lq ´tyx ‘six tenths’. Tret; ‘a third’ and hetvert; ‘a sixth’; west; desq ´ quarter’ are commonly used instead of the corresponding fractions: dve treti instead of dve tret;ix ‘two thirds’; tri hetverti ´ ´ ´ ¨ instead of tri hetvertyx ‘three quarters’. Decimals are expressed by using the fractions for tenths, ´ ´tyx ‘1.5’; hundredths and thousands: odna celaq i pqt; desq ´ nol; celyx i so ´ ´rok vo ´sem; so ´tyx ‘0.48’; west; celyx i ´ ´ ´ hetyresta vo ´sem;desqt sem; tysqhnyx ‘6.487’. Fractions and decimals are always followed by the genitive singular: 69,6 go ´da. Note that Russian uses a comma instead of a decimal point.

Exercise 8
Write down in full the fractions in the first column (from the table ¨ on page 172) (Vse naselenie) and answer the questions in Russian. ´ ´tel;nost; 'i ´zni? ´j ´kaq prodol'i 1 V kako strane samaq vyso ´ ´ ´tel;nost;[ 'i ´zni mu'hi i ´n ´j ´ 2 Kako razry v me ´'du prodol'i ´i? ´nii, v Italii, Velikobritanii, v Rossi 'e ´n]in v Qpo ´ ´ ´j ´ 3 Gde samyj bol;wo razry v? ´

172

|

Demography

TABLICA 1
Prodol'itel;nost; 'izni v Rossii v sravnenii s krupnejwimi \konomiheski razvitymi stranami ¨ (strany <semerki>)
Strany Qponiq Franciq SWA Italiq Kanada Velikobritaniq Germaniq Rossiq 1989–1990gg. 1993g. 1995 69.0 65.1 65,0 64.0 58.9 58,0 74.0 71.9 72,0 ¨ Vse naselenie 78,8 76.9 76.5 76.4 76,4 75.2 75.1 Mu'hiny 75,9 72.8 73.0 73.2 73.0 72.4 71.8 @en]iny 81.8 80.9 80.0 79,7 79.8 78,0 78.3

´ ´ Po dannym Goskomstata

´ ´ N.B. Goskomstat – Gosudarstvennyj komitet po stati ´ ´stike – State Committee of Statistics

Dialogue 1
A conversation between a sociologist and a demographer
´ S OCIOLOG

´ D EMOGRAF

´ Xorowo izve ´stno, hto demografi ´heskaq situaciq v ´ ´hen; ser;eznaq. Ro'daemost; padaet, ¨ Rossi ´i o ´ ´ nasele ´nie sokra]aetsq. No ved; Rossi ´ ´q ne ´dit v drugi iskl[he ´nie. To 'e samoe proisxo ´ ´x ´emu, \ xorowo ´. ´to stranax. Po-mo ´ ´ ´lee otve Da, kone ´hno. L[di stali bo ´ ´tstvennymi i ´t ´ ´ ´ ´ sami plani ´ ´ru[t svo[ sem;[. Molody e l[di xotq

Demografiq

|

173

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ S OCIOLOG

´ D EMOGRAF

´ S OCIOLOG

´ D EMOGRAF

´ S OCIOLOG ´ D EMOGRAF

´tel;nymi. K poluhi obrazovanie i stat; samostoq ´t; ´ so'ale ´ni[, v Rossi situaciq drugaq. V razvityx ´i ´ ´ ´ stranax sme ´ ´rtnost; umen;waetsq, a v Rossi ´ ´i ´ ´go uveli ´hivaetsq i u'e prevywaet ro'daemost;. Tako ´ ´ ran;we ne bylo. ´ ´ ´[t tq'elym \konomi ¨ ´to ob#qsnq ´ Obyhno \ ´heskim ´'no li vse ob#qsni ¨ ´l;ko polo'e ´niem. No mo ´t; to \konomi ´heskim kri ´zisom? ´l;ko sle Kone ´hno, net. Takaq situaciq ne to ´ ´ ´dstvie ´go \konomi ´heskix faktorov. Zdes; mno drugi prihi ´ ´x ´n. ´ Tut i revol[ciq, i gra'danskaq vojna, a tak'e ´ ´ ´ ´v. stalinskie ´ repre ´ssii 30-x godo Soglasno ´ ´grafam to ´l;ko v Veli demo ´koj ote ´hestvennoj vojne ´ ´la Rossi poterq pohti 27 mln. helove ´q ´ ´k. ´'et byt;, prihi ´b]estvo No mo ´na v tom, hto nawe o ´ ´ stalo urbanizi ´ ´rovannym? Bol;winstvo nasele ´niq ´e. tepe gorodsko A v gorodski se ´r; ´x ´m;qx malo dete ´ ´j, ´e ´l;we. dvo dete ne bo ´j ´hen; va'naq prihi Urbanizaciq – o ´ ´ ´na. No drugaq, ne ´ me ´nee va'naq prihi ´ ´na – povywe ´nie ob]e ´stvennogo ´ statusa 'e ´ ´n]iny. Ved; u 'e ´n]iny tepe est; vy bor. ´r; ´l;ko, kogda, s kaki intervalom Ona sama rewaet sko ´ ´ ´ ´ ´m ´ ´ i ot kogo ro'at;. ´ Znahit, po-vawemu, demografi ´ ´ ´heskaq situaciq ´ ´gix faktorov? zavi ´sit ot mno ´ Nesomne ´nno. Nado uhi ´ ´tyvat; vse faktory, e ´ ´sli vy ´t; xoti ponq demografi ´te ´hesku[ situaci[ v Rossi ´ ´i.

174

|

Demography

Vocabulary ♦
´ Veli ´kaq Otehestvennaq Vojna ´ ´ ´ gra'danskaq vojna ´ ob]estvennyj status ´ ´ padat; ´ ro'at; sledstvie ´ uhi ´tyvat; Great Patriotic War (World War 2) civil war social status to fall to give birth consequence to take into consideration

Exercise 9
Answer the following questions in English. 1 What demographic process is taking place throughout the world? 2 What is the demographic situation in Russia? 3 What are the differences and similarities between the demographic situation in Russia and Europe? 4 Why is the number of children per family falling? 5 What explains the overall reduction in the population in the 1930s, 1940s and 1980s? 6 What does the fall in the birth-rate depend on?

TABLICA 2
Ob]ie ko\fficienty ro'daemosti, smertnosti i estestvennogo prirosta v Rossii (na 1000 helovek naseleniq)
Gody Hislo rodivwixsq Hislo umerwix Estestvennyj prirost 1926 44,7 21,3 23,4 1949 33 20,6 12,4 1960 23,2 7,4 15,8 1980 15,9 10,6 5,3 1989 14,6 10,6 4 1991 12,1 10,4 1,7 1992 10,7 12,2 –1,5 1993 9,4 14,4 –5

Po dannym Goskomstata ´ ´

Demografiq

|

175

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 10
Answer the questions in Russian. ´ ´m ´j ´st 1 V kako godu nabl[dalsq samyj bol;wo priro nasele ´ ´ ´niq v ´i? Rossi ´st 2 Kogda priro nasele ´ ´niq stal otricatel;nym? ´ ´t; ´'ete ob#qsni tako qvle ´e 3 Kak vy mo ´nie?

Language points ♦
´'en Nu
´'en (m), nu'na (f), nu ´'no (n), nu'ny (pl.) is a short adjective. ´ ´ Nu Used together with the dative it translates ‘to need’: ´'no lu ´hwee zdravooxranenie. Nam nu ´ We need a better health service. ´ ´pytnye vrahi Kli ´nike nu'ny o ´. The clinic needs experienced doctors. In the past and future tense the form of the verb byt;; will vary according to the subject: ´ ´dut o Kli ´nike nu'ny bu ´pytnye vrahi. ´ The clinic will need experienced doctors. Another way of expressing the same idea is to use the verb to need ´ nu'dat;sq v (+ prep). ´ Rossii nu'na demografi ´ ´heskaq politika. ´ ´ Rossiq nu'daetsq v demografiheskoj poli ´ ´ ´tike. Russia needs a demographic policy.

Exercise 11
´'en in the right form. Decide who needs what by putting nu
´ 1 Mne . . . vre ´mq. 2 Emu . . . slovar;. 3 Nam . . . vi ´ ´za. 4 Im . . . ´dovanie. 6 Mne . . . uhe ´voe oboru 'urnaly. 5 Bol;ni . . . no ´ ´ce ´bnik ´sskogo qzyka. 7 Teatru . . . aktery. 8 Emu ne . . . gaze ´ ¨ ru ´ ´ ´ta. 9 Rossi . . . demografi ´i ´heskaq poli ´tika.

176

|

Demography

Now put these sentences first in the past and then in the future tense.

Exercise 12
From 9–16 October 2002 Russia held a national census. Fill in the questionnaire by giving information about yourself in Russian. (See page 177.)

Word building
Words with the root rod ‘birth, tribe, nature’
Note that d changes to ' or 'd in some words. Nouns: rod ‘family, tribe, type’; ro ´dy ‘childbirth’; naro ‘people’; ´d ´ poro ‘breed’; ro ´da ´dina ‘native land’; rodnq ‘relatives’. Note the use of suffixes on the following nouns, indicating a person: roditel; ´ ‘parent’; ro ´dstvennik ‘relative’. ´ Abstract nouns: rodstvo ‘relationship’; ro'daemost; ‘birthrate’. ´ Action: ro'denie ‘birth’. ´ Adjectives: rodno ‘native’; rodovo ‘ancestral’. ´j ´j ´ Verbs: rodi ‘to give birth’; rodit;sq ‘to be born’; ro'at; ‘to give ´t; ´ birth’. Note the prefixes on the following words, all of which give a clue to their meaning: vozro'denie ‘rebirth, renewal, renaissance’; ´ vozrodi ´t; ‘to regenerate’ (voz- / vos- ‘up’); zarodi ´t;sq ‘to be conceived’; zaro ´dyw ‘embryo’ (za- ‘start of an action’); pererodi ´t;sq ‘to be transformed, regenerate’ (pere- ‘trans-, re-’); bezro ´dnyj ‘without kin’ (bez- / bes- ‘without’); priro ´da ‘nature’ (pri- ‘beside, attached’); uro ‘monster’ (u- ‘away’). ´d

Rod combined with other roots
odnoro ´dnyj ‘homogeneous’; inoro ´dnyj ‘foreign (ino ‘other’); ´j ´ dvo[rodnyj brat ‘first cousin’ (dva ‘two’); detoro ´dnyj vo ´zrast (deti ‘children’) ‘childbearing age’. ´

Demografiq

|

177

FIO
familiq, imq, othestvo ............ ............ ............

Mesto ro'deniq
nazvanie derevni, goroda, oblasti, strany ...................................................................... ......................................................................

Rodnoj qzyk
a tak'e drugie qzyki, kotorymi svobodno vladeete ...................................................................... ......................................................................

Obrazovanie
nahal;noe, srednee, vyswee ...................................................................... zakonhennoe, nezakonhennoe ..................................................................... .....................................................................

Uroven; \konomiheskoj aktivnosti
zanqtye, bezrabotnye, studenty, pensionery, vedu]ie domawnee xozqjstvo .....................................................................

N.B. pol – sex; poso ´bie – benefit; isto ´hniki sredstv k 'i ´ ´zni – sources of ´]estva – renting of property ´ ¨ income; sbere'eniq – savings; sdaha v naem imu ´

НИ

Я • BCE

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

CCИЙCK

ПEPEПИ

НАCEЛ
ANKETA Voprosy perepisi dlq vsex gra'dan Rossii

PO

2002

E
Pol
mu'skoj 'enskij

Data ro'deniq
god, mesqc, hislo ........./......../.........

hislo ispolnivwixsq let vo vremq perepisi .................

Gra'danstvo
esli dvojnoe, ukazat; oba ................................ ................................

Nacional;nost; ili \tniheskaq gruppa
........................................ ........................................

Semejnoe polo'enie
sostoite ili sostoqli v brake skol;ko let imeete, ne imeete detej skol;ko

@ili]nye usloviq
qvlqetes; li sobstvennikom (doma, kvartiry, dahi), (esli neskol;kix, ukazat; vse), .............................................................................. ..............................................................................

Istohniki sredstv k 'izni
rabota, stipendiq, pensiq, posobie, sbere'eniq, doxod ot sdahi v naem imu]estva i t.d. .............................................................................. ..............................................................................

178

|

Demography

Some other roots that appear in this unit Words with the root mu' ‘man, male’
´'estvo Nouns: mu' ‘husband’; mu'hina ‘man’; mu'ik ‘peasant’ mu ´ ´ ‘courage’. ´'estvennyj Adjectives: mu'sko ‘men’s, male, masculine’; mu ´j ‘courageous’. ´ ´ Verbs: mu'at; ‘mature’; mu'at;sq ‘take heart’. ´ Combined with za-: ‘acquisition’: zamu'em ‘married’ (of a woman); ´'nqq ‘married ´ ´ vyjti zamu' za + acc. ‘to marry’ (of a woman); zamu woman’.

Words with the root 'en´ Nouns: 'ena ‘wife’; 'en]ina ‘woman’; 'eni ‘bridegroom, ´ ´x fiancé’; 'eni ´t;ba ‘marriage’. Adjectives: 'enskij ‘women’s, female’; 'enstvennyj ‘feminine’; ´ ´ ´ 'enatyj ‘married’ (of a man). Verbs: 'eni ‘to marry (off)’; 'eni ´t; ´t;sq na + prep. ‘to marry’ (of a man), ‘to get married’ (of a couple). Combined with other roots: 'enonenavi ´stnik ‘misogynist’ (nenavist; – ‘hatred’); 'enopodo ´ ´bnyj ‘effeminate’ (podo ´bnyj ‘like’).

Words with the root -mert- ‘death’
Nouns: smert; ‘death’; smertnyj ‘mortal’; smertnost; ‘mortality’. ´ ´ ¨ Adjectives: mertvyj ‘dead’; smertel;nyj ‘mortal, fatal’. ´ Verbs: umeret; ‘to die’. ´

Words with the root brak ‘marriage’
(note where k changes to h) ´ Nouns: brak ‘marriage, married state’; brakosohetanie ‘marriage service’. ´ Adjective: brahnyj ‘marriage, conjugal’.

Demografiq

|

179

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 13
Choose the right phrase or word to fill the gap in the following sentences.
´'nqq, brak) ´ ´ ´ ('eni ´t;sq(po-), vyjti zamu', 'enatyj, zamu ´ ´wlom godu on . . . na znako ´moj stude 1 V pro ´ntke. 2 Ona . . . za ´ ´sskogo. 3 Nakone oni rewi . . . 4 Govorq hto . . . ´t, ´vogo ru no ´c, ´ ´li ´t ´l;we. 5 U . . . 'e mu'hi ´ny 'ivu do ´n]in, po-pre ´'nemu, malo ´ ´rny . . . s ´tdyx. 6 V Rossi sejhas o vre ´meni na o ´i ´ ´hen; populq inostrancami. ´

Exercise 14
Translate into Russian. 1 The demographic situation in Russia is very serious: the birth rate is in decline and life expectancy is falling. 2 In many European countries the number of women is higher than the number of men. That can be explained by the fact that female life expectancy is several years greater than male. 3 According to the census conducted in the year 2001 the population of Britain constituted 70 million people. 4 In the opinion of demographers a high birthrate is characteristic of developing countries. In developed countries the situation is the opposite. 5 In order to stop the decline in population Russia needs a demographic policy. 6 Smoking and drinking are the main reasons why Russian men have such a low life expectancy. 7 We all should lead a healthy way of life. First of all, we should give up smoking and drinking. 8 I do not believe that married men live longer than divorced men.

10 OBRAZOVANIE

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ about education in Russia how to form and use the present passive participle more about the preposition po words with the root uh / uk about stress in the present and future of verbs

The Soviet Union rightly prided itself on the quality of its education system. Even now, despite declining investment in education, Russian students continue to demonstrate better mathematical and scientific skills than those in many western countries. Russia still boasts universal basic education and a literate workforce. However, reform is essential if Russian education is to respond to the demands of the market economy. There is a need to move away from a pedagogical approach which emphasises the acquisition of knowledge rather than problem-solving skills. Capital investment, which has been in serious decline since the collapse of the Soviet Union, needs to be increased to repair decrepit buildings and replace outdated equipment. Previously free for all students, about two thirds of students in higher education now pay some contribution to the cost of their education, but this has little impact on the universities’ need for greater funding to improve infrastructure and increase teachers’ lamentably low pay.

Obrazovanie

|

181

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Text 1
´niq Refo ´rma obrazova
´ ´ ´nkta v nej vyzvali ´rma obrazova niq. 2 pu V Rossi prowla refo ´i ´ ´ ´ ´go ´rov. Pe mno spo ´rvyj – tak nazyva emyj edi ´nyj gosuda rstvennyj ´ \kza men, provodi ´myj vzame ´n vypusknyx i vstupi ´ ´tel;nyx ´ ´le, v odi i tot \kza menov. Vse vypuskniki ka 'dyj v svoe wko ´, ´ ´j ´n ´ ´ 'e den; otveha [t na odi i tot 'e test. Rezul;ta ty testi ´n ´rovaniq ´ ´ ´[tsq osnova niem ne to ´l;ko dlq poluhe qvlq ´niq attesta ta ob ´ nii wko ´ly, no i dlq postuple ´ okonha ´niq v vuz. Vypuskniki sda[t ´ ´ ´ ´ ´sskij qzyk, ostal;nye dva obqza tel;nyx \kza mena: matema tiku i ru ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´simosti ot specializa cii. Vyswaq ´ tri \kza mena sda[tsq v zavi ´ ´ ´ ´tim ba llam vypuskniki prinima [tsq oce ´nka – 100 ba llov. Po \ ´ ´t. v institu ´ ´ ´gie obespoko ´eny sami ´go Odna ko mno ´m fa ktom vvede ´niq tako ´ ´ ´ ´ \kza mena. <Rossi sli ´q ´wkom bol;wa q strana dlq hego by to ni ´ ´ ´ ´ bylo edi ´nogo>, utver'da [t oni <Sli ´. ´wkom bol;wa q ra znica ´ ´loj i wko ´loj gde me ´'du stoli ´hnoj wko ´-nibud; za Ura lom>, ´t ´ ¨ govorq drugi K tomu 'e edi ´e. ´nyj test nesovmesti s 'estkim ´m ´ ´ ´tstvie otbo neizbe ´rom. A otsu ´ra ´'no sni'a et ka hestvo obraotbo ´ zova niq. ´ ´ ´j Vtoro punkt – pla ta za obuhe ´nie. Ka 'dyj vypuskni ´k, v ´ ´ ´ ´, ´l;ko ba llov on nabra l na te zavi ´simosti ot togo sko ´ste, poluha et ´ ´ ´rye nabra li ot gosuda rstva hek. Tre ´ti abiturie ´ntov, koto ´ ´ ´ ´ naivyswie ba lly, gosuda rstvom vyda[tsq de ´ ´n;gi, dosta tohnye ´ ´ ´ze. Inymi slova mi, oni u ¨ dlq opla ty vsej uheby v vu ´ ´ ´hatsq ´ ´ ´hix gosuda rstvo vno ´sit to ´l;ko hast; (70–30%). bespla tno. Za pro ´ ´e ´sitsq iz so ´bstvennogo karma na. Koro ´he, dlq dvux Ostal;no vno ´ ´ ´ ´n ´ tre ´tej rossiq vyswee obrazova nie sta lo pla tnym. ´ ´ ´ ´ Ra n;we bespla tnoe obrazova nie shita los; dosti'e ´niem v strane ´. ´ hestvu sove ´ niq zavi ´e Ka ´tskogo obrazova ´dovali. Tepe ´r; osnovno ´ napravle ´nie – brat; de ´n;gi s nasele ´niq. Po slova m mini ´stra obra´ ´ ´tomu neobxodi zova niq, <b[d'e ´tnyx sredstv ne xvata et. Po\ ´mo ´ ¨ razviva t; finansi ´rovanie za shet privlehe ´niq vneb[d'e ´tnyx ´ ´hered;, za shet raswire ¨ sredstv. V pe ´rvu[ o ´niq obrazova tel;nyx ´ ´ ´g>. A hto tako obrazova tel;nye uslu ´gi? |to – pla tnye ´e uslu

182

|

Education

´ ´rye tepe otdele ´niq v universite ´tax, na koto ´r; nabira [tsq ´hwie, a te, kto mo ´ ´gut plati daleko ne lu ´t;. |to podgotovi ´tel;nye ´ ´ ´rsy dlq postupa []ix v universite to est;, to 'e pla tnoe ku ´t, ´ ´ ´emoe prepodava telqmi i repeti ´torstvo, ra n;we osu]estvlq ´ ´ ´gi ´l;ko tepe gosuda rstvo vse uslu opla hivaemoe rodi ´telqmi. To ´r; ´. ¨ beret na sebq
´ ´ Po materialam gaze ´ty <Argume ´nty i fakty>, 2001

Vocabulary ♦
abiturient ´ ´ ´ attestat ob okonhanii wko ´ly ball ´ brat; na sebq vzamen (+ gen) ´ vneb[d'etnye sredstva ´ ´ ´ vstupi ´tel;nyj \kzamen vuz (vyswee uhebnoe zavedenie) ´ ´ ´ ´ vydavat; vyzvat; spor ´ vypuskni ´k ´ vypuskno \kzamen ´j ´ ´ edi ´nyj gosudarstvennyj \kzamen ¨ 'estkij otbo ´r zavi ´dovat; (+ dat) ¨ za shet (+ gen) ´ ´ nabirat; / nabrat; neizbe'nyj ´ nesovmesti ´myj pro ´hij ´ga ´ obrazovatel;naq uslu ´ obqzatel;nyj ´ oplahivat; ´t; osu]estvlq ´tstvie otsu ocenka ´ ´rsy podgotovi ´tel;nye ku privlehenie sredstv ´ raswirenie ´ repeti ´tor applicant (to university) school leaving certificate mark to take on instead of extra, non-budgetary funding entrance examination higher education institution (HEI) to give (out) to provoke an argument graduate final examination common state examination rigorous selection to envy by means of to collect, gain inevitable incompatible other educational service compulsory to pay to implement absence grade, mark preparatory courses attracting finance broadening tutor

Obrazovanie

|

183

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ N.B. tak nazyvaemyj – so-called; dlq hego by to ni bylo edi ´ ´ ´nogo – for ´ anything standardised; inymi (drugi ´ ´mi) slovami – in other words; iz ´ so ´bstvennogo karmana – out of one’s own pocket; v zavi ´simosti ot (+ gen) – depending on; v pervu[ o ´ ´hered; – in the first place

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ´nyj gosudarstvennyj \kzamen? Hto oznahaet edi ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´it ´gix? Pohemu ego vvede ´nie bespoko mno ´e Kaki \kzameny obqzatel;ny? ´ ´ ´e ´dut uhi ´t;sq besplatno? Kaki stude ´nty bu ´ ´t; ´l'en plati za obrazovanie? Kto do ´ ´ ´ditsq platnoe obrazovanie? Pohemu vvo ´ ´ ´g? Hto oznahaet raswire ´ ´nie obrazovatel;nyx uslu ´

Exercise 2
Study this example from the examination in Russian language. See how well you can do. Use a dictionary, if necessary.

EDINYJ |KZAMEN Test po russkomu qzyku
Prohitajte predlo'eniq:
A. Ego qzyk udivitelen. B. Q pomn[, hto kogda q v pervyj raz nahal hitat; Hexova, to snahala on pokazalsq mne kakim-to strannym, kak by neskladnym. V. Blagodarq svoej iskrennosti, Hexov sozdal novye, soverwenno novye po-moemu dlq vsego mira formy pisaniq, podobnyx kotorym q ne vstrehal nigde. G. No kak tol;ko q vhitalsq, \tot qzyk zaxvatil menq.

1. V kakom porqdke dol'ny sledovat; \ti predlo'eniq, htoby poluhilsq tekst?
1) A,B,G.V. 2) B,G,A,V. 3) V,B,A,G. 4) G,V,A,B. Uka'ite predlo'enie s punktuacionnoj owibkoj.

2. V kakom slove udarenie na 2-m sloge?
1) Obleghit;. 2) Prinql. 3) Peredannyj. 4) Baluetsq

184

|

Education

Present passive participle
As with the participles discussed in earlier units, the present passive participle is a verbal adjective.

How to form present passive participles
Add -yj to the first person plural (my form) of the present tense of ´ ´ ´ the verb: poluhat; – poluhaem – poluhaemyj ‘(being) received’. ¨ Nesti and vesti change the -e- in the first person plural ending ´ ´ ¨ to -o- in the participle: nesti – nesem – neso ´ ´myj ‘carried’. Verbs ´ ¨ ending in -avat; take the ending -avaemyj: davat; – daem – ´ davaemyj ‘(being) given’. This participle is generally only formed from transitive verbs (i.e. those taking a direct object). However, there are a small number of verbs which govern the instrumental case which have present passive participles: rukovodit; – rukovodi ´ ´myj ‘led, ´t; – upravlq ´emyj ‘managed’ ; komandovat; – ´ directed’; upravlq ´ komanduemyj ‘commanded’. A considerable number of verbs do not have a present passive participle. These include: many monosyllabic verbs, e.g. bit;, brat;, est;, znat;, klast;, lit;, myt;, pet;, pit;; ´ ´tat;; – irregular first conjugation verbs, e.g. pisat;, prq ´ – many second conjugation verbs: goto ´vit;, der'at;, platit;, ´ ´ vit;, stro smotret;, sta ´ ´it;. The problem of there being no present passive participle can frequently be overcome by forming the participle from a compound of ´ ´ the verb: platit; – oplahivat; – oplahivaemyj ‘being paid for’. ´ –

Exercise 3
Form present passive participles from the following verbs.
poluhat;, privlekat;, sozdavat;, l[bi ´ ´ ´ ´t;, uva'at;, vnosi ´ ´t;, ´t;, oplahivat;, vvozi osu]estvlq ´ ´t;, predlagat;, provodi ´ ´t;, ´l;zovat; izuhat;, finansi ´ ´rovat;, ispo

Obrazovanie

|

185

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

How to use present passive participles
They decline like adjectives and agree in number, gender and case with the noun they describe: ´ ´ ´ Zarplaty, poluhaemoj rossi ´jskim uhi ´telem, hasto ne ´ ´ xvataet da'e na pi ´]u. The wages received by a Russian teacher are often not enough even for food. Several present passive participles are now frequently used as adjectives: l[bi ´myj ´ tak nazyvaemyj ´ uva'aemyj favourite so-called respected, dear

Some adjectives (usually negative) are formed like present passive participles, but from the perfective verb: nesovmesti ´myj nepovtori ´myj nerazlihi ´myj nedopusti ´myj nesravni ´myj nezavisimyj ´ incompatible unique indistinguishable not permissible incomparable independent (formed from the imperfective)

¨ Edinyj test nesovmesti s 'estkim otbo ´ ´m ´rom. A single test is incompatible with rigorous selection. Note the use of the short form. Present passive participles themselves are rarely found in the short form. ´emyj Some present passive participles are used as nouns: obvinq ´ ‘the defendant’; slagaemoe ‘item, component’.

Exercise 4
Replace the infinitives in brackets by the appropriate forms of the present passive participle.
´ ´ ´vyj peri sove ´rii (nazyvat;) 1 V 1985 godu nahalsq no ´od ´tskoj isto ´ ´sskogo qzyka, (vozglavlq ´t;) izve ´jkoj. 2 Kafedru ru perestro ´ ´ ´stnym ´wkin (l[bi lingvi ´stom, zna[t vo vsej strane 3 Pu ´ ´. ´t;) l[d;mi ´ ´rnyj po\ v Rossi 4 Meto ´zrastov, samyj populq ´dika ´t vsex vo ´ ´i.

186

|

Education

´v, (ispo ´l;zovat;) v \ ´tom prepodavaniq inostrannyx qzyko ´ ´ ´gie tovary, (vvozi universite ´te, samaq sovreme ´ ´nnaq. 5 Mno ´ ´t;) v ´wlinoj. 6 V pehati mno govori ´go Rossi oblaga[tsq po ´[, ´ ´ ´los; o ´vyx wko ´l;nyx programmax, (finansi no ´ ´rovat;) gosudarstvom. ´ ´mmy, (vnosi 7 Su ´t;) rodi ´telqmi za obrazovanie dete ves;ma ´ ´j, ´ znahi ´tel;ny. 8 Stipe ´ndii, (poluhat;) stude ´ ´ntami, ne xvataet ´ da'e na uhe ´ ´bniki. 9 Obqzatel;nyx \kzamenov, (sdavat;) ´ ´ ´ ´sskij qzy k i matematika. ´ ´ stude ´ntami, vsego dva – ru ´

Passive voice
Note that the present passive participle may not be used to form the passive voice. Use either the reflexive verb (see unit 4) or the short form of the past passive participle (see unit 8). Note the use of the instrumental when a reflexive verb is used to convey a passive meaning. It translates ‘by’: ´ Prepodavateli pi ´wut uhebnik. ´ The lecturers are writing a textbook. ´ Uhebnik pi ´ ´wetsq prepodavatelqmi. The textbook is being written by lecturers.

Exercise 5
Replace the active construction by a passive. ´pnyx gorodax Rossi stro ´ Example: V kru ´i ´qt metro – V ´ ´pnyx gorodax Rossi stro ´ kru ´i ´itsq metro ´.
´sskij ´vosti. 2 Ru 1 Vhera po televi ´ ´zoru peredavali intere ´ ´snye no ´hwim ´ ´gix angli ´ qzyk prepoda[t vo mno ´jskix universite ´tax. 3 Lu ´ ´vqt no ´vu[ refo ´rmu stude ´ntam vyda[t stipe ´ndi[. 4 V Rossi goto ´i ´ obrazovaniq. 5 Rodi ´ ´teli oplahiva[t vy swee obrazovanie v ´ ´ ´hwix stude ´da. 6 Lu zavi ´simosti ot ix doxo ´ntov prinima[t ´ ´t ´vyx zdanij v institu bez \kzamenov. 7 Dlq stroi ´ ´tel;stva no ´ ´vskij m\r priglawaet inostrannyx speciali mosko ´ ´ ´stov.

Obrazovanie

|

187

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Transitive and intransitive pairs
Remember that reflexive verbs are intransitive and cannot be followed by a direct object: ´ Q nahina[ rabo ´tu v west;. I start work at six. ´ Rabo ´ta nahinaetsq v west;. Work starts at six.

Exercise 6
Decide which verb to use in the following sentences.
´hwu[ sto ´ronu. 2 On 1 Situaciq izmeni / izmeni ´ ´la ´las; v lu ´nhil / oko ´nhilsq universite s otli oko ´t ´hiem. 3 Sre ´dnqq zarplata ´ v strane v posle ´ ´dnee vre ´mq uveli ´hila / uveli ´hilas;. 4 |konomi ´heskoe polo'e ´nie v Rossi bu ´i ´det uluhwat; / uluhwat;sq. ´ ´ ´rma obrazovaniq prodol'aet / prodol'aetsq vyzyvat; mno ´go 5 Refo ´ ´ ´ ´ ´rov. 6 Le ´v spo ´kcii nahina[t / nahina[tsq v 9 haso utra. 7 S ´ ´ ´ ´dy ´dom gosudarstvo sokra]aet / sokra]aetsq rasxo ´ ´ ´ ka'dym go ´ ¨ na obrazovanie. 8 Zarplata uhitele vse vremq umen;waet / ´ ´ ´j ´ ´nhili / ko ´nhilis; v i[ne. 10 Edi ´ umen;waetsq. 9 |kzameny ko ´ ´ ´nyj ´ro ´det provodi / provodi \kzamen sko bu ´ ´t; ´t;sq po vsej strane ´.

Dialogue 1
An interview with the Rector of Moscow State Technical University, I.B. Fyodorov
´ @ URNALI ST

´ R E KTOR

´ V 1995 godu Vaw universite poluhi ´t ´l ´bo ´nnogo status oso ce ´ ´rnogo ob#e kul;tu ´kta Rossi ´jskoj Federacii. ´ ´to ´ Hto \ znahit dlq Vas? |to bol;waq hest; i bol;waq otve ´ ´ ´tstvennost;. Iz ´zov status oso ´vskix vu ´bo ce mosko ´ ´nnogo ob#e ´kta za

188

|

Education

´ @ URNALI ST

´ R E KTOR

´ @ URNALI ST ´ R E KTOR

´ @ URNALI ST ´ R E KTOR ´ @ URNALI ST ´ KTOR RE

´gi v o ´blasti obrazovaniq poluhi ´l;ko dva zaslu ´ ´li to ´za vu – MGU i MGTU im. Baumana. ´ ´lgoe vre Do ´mq in'ene ´rnoe obrazovanie shitalos; ´ ´ nepresti ´'nym. No v Vawem universite vsegda byli ´ ´te ´ ´ ´kie ko ´nkursy. vyso |to pravda. K nawemu universite ´ ´ ´tu vsegda byl ´ ´j bol;wo intere Vse zna[t, hto MGTU – odi iz ´s. ´ ´n ´hwix vu ´zov. My goto ´vim in'ene lu ´rov, a tak'e ´ speciali ´stov po in'ene ´rnomu bi ´znesu. Ka'dyj god ´ ´dqt samye <prodvi s[da prixo ´ ´ ´nutye> abiturie ´nty, ´ vyso ´kix tre zna[]ie o ego ´ ´bovaniqx, o neobxodi ´mosti ´go ´tat;. Dlq nix uheba zdes; – vozmo ¨ ´'nost; mno rabo poluhi ´t; otli ´hnoe obrazovanie, ´ intere ´snu[ ´, ´dy presti profe ´ssi[. Voob]e v posle ´dnie go ´' in'ene ´rnogo de v Rossi stal rasti ´la ´i ´. ´et mne Su]estvu ´nie, hto uhi ´t;sq v Vawem ´ ´dno. universite o ´te ´hen; tru ´, ´ Da, uhi ´t;sq nelegko no daleko ne tak strawno, kak ´ ´t. Nawa programma rasshi ´tom govorq ob \ ´ ´ ´tana na ´bnostqmi. Stude ´ helove ´ka s oby hnymi sposo ´ntu ´ MGTU ne obqzatel;no byt; ge ´ ´niem, xotq taki u nas ´e ´'e est;. Ot nego tre ´ ´ to ´buetsq liw; odno – pose]at; ´ ´tiq i vo ´-vremq sdavat; domawnie zadaniq. vse zanq ´ ´ ´ ´hatsq v MGTU? ´l;ko let u Sko MGTU – edi ´nstvennyj texni ´heskij vuz Rossi gde ´i, ´et srok obuhe ´niq sostavlq 6 let. ´etsq Vaw uspe Hem, po-Vawemu, ob#qsnq ´ ´x? ¨ Uspe ´x zavi ´sit ot trex slagaemyx. Sovreme ´ ´nnyj uhe ´bnyj plan, kvalifikaciq prepodavatelej i ´ ´ ´ stremle ´nie stude ´nta k znaniqm. Esli odno iz nix ´ ´tstvuet, kahestvo obrazovaniq sni'aetsq. No v otsu ´ ´ ´ nawem universite ´ ´te ime ´[tsq vse tri slagaemyx ´ uspe ´xa.

Po materialam 'urnala <Stoli ´ ´ ´hnoe obrazovanie>, 2001 ´

Vocabulary ♦
vo ´-vremq ´ga zaslu in time merit, service

Obrazovanie

|

189

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

in'enernoe delo ´ ´ otvetstvennost; (f ) ´ ´tstvovat; otsu <prodvi ´nutyj> rasshi ´tan na (+ acc) ´ slagaemoe uspexa ´ srok obuheniq ´ stremlenie ´ uhebnyj plan ´ cennyj ob#ekt ´ hest; (f )

engineering responsibility to be absent advanced aimed at component of success period of study striving curriculum valued institution honour

Exercise 7
Answer the following questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ¨ ´bo ´nnogo ob#e Za hto daetsq status oso ce ´ ´kta? ´e ´zy ´li tako status? ´j ´ Kaki vu poluhi ´ ´vit MGTU? Kogo goto ´ ´t ´t;sq v MGTU? Pohemu stude ´nty xotq uhi ´tana programma MGTU? ´ Na kogo rasshi ´ ´j Kako srok obuhe ´niq v MGTU? ´etsq uspe MGTU? Hem ob#qsnq ´x

Exercise 8
True or false? ´nyj ´l;we vsego spo ´ ´rov v refo ´rme obrazovaniq vyzyvaet (edi 1 Bo ´ ´ gosudarstvennyj \kzamen, uhe ´ ´ ´bnaq programma, vvede ´ ´nie te ´stov)? ´jskij 2 Obqzatel;nye \kzameny vkl[ha[t (matematiku, angli ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ qzyk, geografi[)? ´ ´ 3 Ran;we vy swee obrazovanie shitalos; (besplatnym, platnym, ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ kahestvennym)? ´ ´gi vkl[ha[t (podgotovi ´tel;nye ku ´rsy, 4 Obrazovatel;nye uslu ´ ´ ´gi ´torov, hastnye uro ´ki)? uslu repeti ´ ´l ´gi v ´bo ce 5 MGTU poluhi status oso ´ ´nnogo ob#e ´kta za zaslu ´ry, isku ´sstva, obrazovaniq)? ´blasti (kul;tu ´ o ´vit (biznesme 6 MGTU goto ´nov, uhitele in'ene ´j, ´rov)? ´tana na (ge ´bnyx stude 7 Programma MGTU rasshi ´ ´niev, sposo ´ntov, sre ´dnix stude ´ntov)?

190

|

Education

Exercise 9
Study this advertisement for Moscow State Technical University and answer the questions in English.

MOSKOVSKIJ GOSUDARSTVENNYJ TEXNIHESKIJ UNIVERSITET
im. N.|. BAUMANA
Segodnqwnij mir – mir professionalizma, i esli Vy xotite, htoby \to byl mir dlq Vas, my priglawaem Vas na uhebu v MGTU im. N.|. Baumana ⇒ lider rossijskix texniheskix universitetov ⇒ pervoklassnoe obrazovanie v pervoklassnom universitete, kotoromu prisvoen status osobo cennogo kul;turnogo ob#ekta RF ⇒ gotovit in'enerov po vsem osnovnym napravleniqm, a tak'e in'enernomu biznesu i mened'mentu ⇒ imeetsq vozmo'nost; poluheniq vtoroj special;nosti: in'enera-mened'era, in'enera\kologa, referenta-perevodhika, bakalavra po informatike ⇒ sistema obrazovaniq v MGTU – wirokaq \rudiciq pl[s vysokij professionalizm ⇒ dlitel;nost; osnovnogo kursa obuheniq 6 let ⇒ nawi vypuskniki pol;zu[tsq postoqnnym sprosom otehestvennyx i zarube'nyx firm

FAKUL:TETY: Informatika i sistemy upravleniq, In'enernyj biznes i mened'ment, Mawinostroitel;ye texnologii, Robotexnika i kompleksnaq avtomatizaciq, Radio\lektronika i lazernaq texnika, Biomedicinskaq texnika, Special;noe mawinostroenie, |nergetiheskoe mawinostroenie, Optiko-\lektronnoe mawinostroenie, A\rokosmiheskij, Radiotexniheskij, Raketno-kosmiheskoj texniki

Obrazovanie

|

191

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

1 Name the different faculties of the Moscow State Technical University. 2 How does the University characterise the education it offers? 3 What branches of engineering is it possible to specialise in? 4 What is the educational philosophy of the University? 5 How long do the basic courses last? 6 What are the prospects for graduates?

Language points ♦
Word building
Note the following words with the root -uh- / uk-, all of which are related to learning. ´ka ¨ Nouns: uheba ‘studies’; uhenik ‘pupil’; uhebnik ‘textbook’; nau ´ ´ ¨ nost; ‘learning’; uhitel; ‘teacher’; uhenie ‘studies’; ‘science’; uhe ´ ´ ´ uha]ijsq (participle in origin) ‘student’; uhi ´li]e ‘school, college’. ¨ Adjectives: uhenyj ‘learned’ (also used as the noun ‘scientist’); ´hnyj ‘scienuhebnyj ‘educational’; uhi ´ ´tel;skij ‘teachers’; nau tific’. Verbs: uhit; (vy-) (+ acc.) ‘to learn’; uhi ´ ´t; (na-) (+ acc., + dat.) ‘to teach’, uhi ´t;sq (na-) (+ dat.) ‘to learn’; uhi ´t;sq v (+ prep.) ‘to ´t;sq ot (+ gen.)‘to study at’; otuhit;sq ‘to finish studies’; otuhi ´ break the habit’.

Exercise 10
Select from the brackets the most appropriate word to complete each sentence.
(obuhenie, uhit;sq, nauhi ´ ´ ´la, uhebnyx, uhi otuhilsq, ´ ´l, ´ ´hatsq, uhebnogo, uhit;, uhitelej) u ´ ´ ´ ´ 1 Ne vse stude ´nty v Rossi . . . besplatno. 2 On . . . ot butylki ´i ´ ´dnosti u tex, u kogo ´v;q. 3 Plata za . . . vyzyvaet tru ´ radi zdoro ´ ´ ´ ´hen; ni ´ net sredstv. 4 Zarplaty . . . o ´ ´zkie. 5 Nelegko . . . v ´ze, ´ ´tomu. 7 MGTU presti ´'nom vu kak MGTU. 6 @izn; . . . menq \ ´hwix vy swix . . . zavede ´ ´ odno ia samyx lu ´ ´nij v Moskve 8 Bez ´. ´t sovreme ´nnogo . . . plana institu ne privlekaet stude ´ ´ ´ntov. 9 Mne

192

|

Education

´ nravitsq . . . angli ´ ´jskij qzy k. 10 20 let on . . . dete ru ´j ´sskomu ´. qzyku

Preposition corner Po + dative
along, through, around ´licam po doro ´ge, po strane, po po ´ ´lu, po u along the road, through the country, around the floor, around the streets down vniz po reke, po lestnice ´ ´ down the river, the staircase by (means of) po po ´hte, po telefo ´nu by post, by telephone by, through ´ po pravu, po proisxo'deni[ ´ by right, by origin ´posti, po owibke, po ego vine po glu ´ ´ ´ through stupidity, by mistake, through his fault po priglaweni[, po professii ´ ´ by invitation, by profession according to, in, for ´ ´ po moi hasam, po moemu mneni[ ´m ´ according to my watch, in my opinion po Tolsto ´mu, po kako prihine? ´j ´ according to Tolstoy, for what reason? at ´ po krajnej mere, po kako cene? ´ ´j ´ at least, at what price?

Obrazovanie

|

193

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

in, on the subject of ´ uhebnik po geografii ´ textbook on geography hempio po tennisu ´n ´ tennis champion ´sskomu qzyku ´ specialist po ru ´ Russian language specialist at, in, on, for (with the plural of the noun) ´ ´ po utram, po vyxodnym dnqm in the mornings, at weekends ´ po prazdnikam, po ponedel;nikam ´ on holidays, on Mondays ´ po celym hasam ´ for hours on end Note also: ´ po adresu po po ´vodu sudi ´t; po ´ skuhat; po ´ toskovat; po concerning, directed towards on the subject of to judge by to miss to long for

Po + accusative
up to (place) po po ´qs up to the waist up to and including (time) ´ po pervoe maq ´ up to and including 1st May each with numerals, especially 2, 3, 4 ´ po dva stola two tables each

194

|

Education

po + dative is used with nouns ´. My poluhi ´li po pis;mu We received a letter each. numerals above five take accusative or dative with the noun in the genitive plural: po pqt; / po pqti haso ´ ´v five hours each

Po + prepositional
on, at the time of, after po smerti, po priezde, po vozvra]enii ´ ´ ´ on the death of, on arrival, on return ´rsa, po poluhenii vi ´ po okonhanii ku ´ ´zy on finishing the course, on receipt of visa

Exercise 11
Put the nouns in the appropriate case after po.
´ ´v ¨ ´ 1 U'e west; haso po (moi hasy). 2 My plyvem vniz po (reka). ´ ´ ´qs) v vode 4 Ka'dyj poluhi po 3 Oni side ´ ´li po (po ´. ´ ´l (podarok). 5 Po (poluhe ´ ´nie) pasporta on peree ´ ´xal v Ame ´riku. ´. 6 Konfere ´nciq sostoi ´tsq s pe ´rvogo po (tre ´t;e) fevralq

Exercise 12
Study the chart (on page 195) showing the growth of higher educational institutions in Russia. What changes have occurred since 1993?

Obrazovanie

|

195

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Kоличество высших учебных заведений 244 193 в Pоссии 157
494 78 548 553 569 573

302

334

578

580

150 72
годы 1914 1917 1980/81 По данным Г оскомстата
<Argumenty i fakty> No 16, 2001.

государственные негосударственные
93/94 94/95 95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99 Подготовил Сергей MAKCИМОBИЧ

´ ´ N.B. po dannym Goskomstata – according to the data of the State Committee of statistics

Language points ♦
Stress Present and future perfective of verbs
Fixed stress: where the infinitive is stressed on the stem the present or future perfective is stressed throughout on the same syllable: ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ stavit; – stavl[, staviw;, stavit, stavim, stavite, ´ stavqt exat; ´ – edu, edew;, edet, edem, edete, edut ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Generally verbs with monosyllabic infinitives have fixed stress, but this may be on the ending or the stem: byt; vzqt; ´du, bu ´dew;, bu ´det, bu ´dem, bu ´dete, bu ´dut – bu ´, ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ – voz;mu vozmew;, voz;met, voz;mem, voz;mete, ´t voz;mu

The exception is moh; – see below. Where the infinitive is stressed on the ending the first person singular will be stressed on the ending. In some verbs the stress then remains throughout on the ending. This includes all regular and some irregular first conjugation verbs:

196

|

Education

´ hitat; idti ´

´ ´ ´ ´ ´ – hita[, hitaew;, hitaet, hitaem, hitaete, ´ hita[t – ´, ´t ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ idu idew;, idet, idem, idete, idu

Mobile stress: generally this conforms to one pattern. Many second conjugation and some irregular first conjugation verbs, stressed on the ending in the infinitive, are stressed on the ending in the first person singular but on the stem for the rest of the conjugation: ´ pisat; ´ iskat; prosi ´t; ´, ´wew;, piwet, pi – piwu pi ´ ´wem, piwete, ´ piwut ´
´ ´ ´]et, i]em, i ´ ´]ete, i]ut ´ – i]u, i]ew;, i

´, – prowu pro ´siw;, pro ´sit, pro ´sim, pro ´site, pro ´sqt

´ smotret; – smotr[, smo ´ ´triw;, smo ´trit, smo ´trim, smo ´trite, smo ´trqt Note also: moh; ´, ´'ew;, mo – mogu mo ´'et, mo ´'em, mo ´'ete, mo ´gut

The verb xotet; is an exception to the above patterns: ´ ´, ´hew;, xo ´t xohu xo ´het, xoti xotite, xotq ´m, ´ Where a perfective verb has the prefix vy- it is always stressed: ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ vypisat; – vypiwu, vypiwew;, vypiwet, vypiwem, ´ ´ vypiwete, vypiwut

Exercise 13
Translate into Russian. 1 The introduction of a nation-wide Common State Examination worries many Russians. In their view the standard of education will inevitably fall. 2 Only those students who gained the highest marks in this exam will receive a grant and thus free education. 3 Russian parents now have a choice of which school to send their children to, of which textbooks to use, of which curriculum to follow.

Obrazovanie

|

197

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

4 Not all private schools are better than state schools. But they do have one advantage: the number of children in each class is much smaller. 5 The biggest change in the Russian educational system in the 90s was the appearance and growth of fee-paying private educational institutions. 6 Engineering education is becoming popular again. Competition for places at some technical universities is very high, up to 20 students per place. 7 In my opinion education should be free and accessible to all. I am against private universities and private schools.

11 ROSSIJSKOE OB}ESTVO

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ about the structure of Russian society how to form and use the subjunctive how to create conditional clauses about stress on the past tense of verbs

One of the big debates about post-Soviet society is whether Russia now has a middle class. Certainly, it does not as yet have a middle class which resembles that of Western society. The collapse of the Soviet Union caused great poverty for many members of society: pensioners, unemployed, those in low-paid state employment, many of them highly qualified and educated. Many of these people now live below the poverty line. But one glance at the streets of Moscow and St Petersburg with their designer shops and expensive restaurants, will tell you that Russia most certainly has a rich elite. There is also a group between the two extremes which can only be thought of as Russia’s emergent middle class: highly qualified specialists in information technology, finance or the law, who can command better than average salaries. This group suffered badly at the time of the economic crisis of 1998, but is fighting its way back.

Rossijskoe obwestvo

|

199

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Text 1
Sre ´dnij klass
´[t, ime v vidu ´ Te ´rmin sre ´dnij klass obyhno upotreblq ´ ´q ´ ´ ´ ´togo, nynewnij sre ´ ´dnij klass v stra nax Za pada. Isxodq iz \ ´ ´ ´ ´[t, hto v Rossi net tako kla ssa. No tak ne byva et. ´go ha sto zaqvlq ´i ´ tye i be ´ hit est; i sre Esli v Rossi est; boga ´i ´dnye, zna ´dnie ´j, sloi Kone ´. ´hno, rossi ´jskij sre ´dnij klass ne tako kak na ´ ´ ´l;ku v Rossi ne taka q \kono ´mika, ne tako ´j Za pade, posko ´i ´roven; blagosostoq ´niq. u ´ ´ Oficia l;no pri ´znano, hto pri ´znaki sre ´dnego kla ssa – nali ´hie ´ ´bstvennosti, doxo ´dy, obrazova nie, professionali ´sli so ´zm. No e ´ ´ ´bstvennost; gla vnym pri by my prizna li so ´znakom, to k ´ ´ ´ sre ´dnemu kla ssu na do bylo by otnesti pohti vsex goro'a n, ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ potomu hto oni privatizi ´ ´rovali kvarti ´ry, na do bylo by ´

200

|

Russian society

´n, potomu hto oni vlade ´ vkl[hi ´t; vsex selq ´ ´[t zeme ´l;nymi ´ ´li uha stkami. Esli by my opredelq prinadle ´'nost; k sre ´dnemu ´ ´ ´ ´dam, to v sre kla ssu po doxo ´dnem kla sse okaza los; by 30–50% ´jstv. A e domoxozq ´sli by my klassifici ´rovali sre ´dnij klass ´ ´ ´s; by otnesti k nemu po pri ´znaku obrazova niq, nam priwlo ´ ´ ´'no otnesti k sre 35–55% nasele ´niq. No nevozmo ´ ´dnemu kla ssu ´ ´ ´l;ku doxo ´dy \ ´tix vsex, u kogo est; vyswee obrazova nie, posko ´ ´ ´ l[de ha sto ne dostiga [t da 'e pro'i ´j ´ ´tohnogo mi ´nimuma. ´ ´ Rossi ´jskij sre ´dnij klass sformirova lsq v ba nkovskoj sfe ´re, v ´ ´ ´ ´rye si fina nsovom i rekla mnom se ´ktorax, koto ´l;no postrada li ´da. Kone vo vre ´mq kri ´zisa 1998 go ´hno, e ´sli by ne bylo kri ´ ´zisa, ´hix mest v \ ´tix to ne sokrati ´los; by re ´zko koli ´hestvo rabo ´ ´ se ´ktorax, i sre ´dnij klass byl by sejha s gora zdo mnogohi ´slennee. ´ ´]ee vre ´n ´logam, 20–25% rossiq ime V nastoq ´mq, sogla sno socio ´[t ´ ´vogo sre ´ neobxodi ´mye pri ´znaki no ´dnego kla ssa. |to l[di, ´ ´rye ne 'dut, kogda kto ´-to ustro ´it im xoro ´wu[ 'izn;. koto ´ ´[ ´vanny, vysoko ´ ´ Taku 'izn; oni ustra iva[t sebe sa mi. Oni obrazo ´ ´ ´ ´ ´et ´ ´j ´tu, professiona l;ny, hto pozvolq im ime poro ne odnu rabo ´t; ´ ´tel;ny, potomu ´ ´l;we. Oni \konomi a dve i da 'e bo ´ ´heski samostoq ´ ´ ´dam oni mo ´sto vy'iva t;, hto blagodarq svoi doxo ´m ´ ´gut ne pro ´ ´rno de ´pki i sbere'e no regulq ´lat; poku ´niq, a to i vkla dyvat; ´ ´[t qdro rossi ´ de ´n;gi v ce ´nnye buma gi. Oni ´-to i sostavlq ´jskogo ´ sre ´dnego kla ssa. ´ ¨ No est; e]e 40–45% nasele ´niq: potencia l;nyx predstavi ´telej ´ ´tix l[de sre ´dnego kla ssa. U \ ´j est; \konomi ´heskie i ´ ´ ´mika ne daet im ¨ socia l;nye pri ´znaki sre ´dnego kla ssa, no \kono ´ ´ ´. ´e gara ntij pereme]e ´niq v qdro Oni ime ´ ´[t neploxo obrazova nie, ´ ´gut najti dosto ´jnu[ rabo ´tu s xoro ´wim za rabotkom. no ne mo ´ ´mika zarabo ´tala, u \ ´tix l[de Esli by rossi ´jskaq \kono ´j ´'nost; uveli ´dy, i oni mogli poqvi ´las; by vozmo ´hit; svoi doxo ´ ´ ´ by perejti v sre ´ ´dnij klass. No dver; v sre ´dnij klass dlq nix ´ poka zakryta. ´

´ ´vostej>, 2001 Po materialam gaze ´ty <Vre ´mq no

Rossijskoe obwestvo

|

201

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Vocabulary ♦
´nie blagosostoq ´ vkladyvat; v (+ acc) ´jstvo domoxozq dosto ´jnyj ´ zarabotok ´ zemel;nyj uhastok ´ nali ´hie nynewnij ´ otnesti k (+ dat) pereme]enie ´ posko ´l;ku poro ´j predstavi ´tel; pri ´znak pro'i ´tohnyj mi ´nimum ´ reklamnyj sektor ´ sbere'eniq (pl) ´ ´nin selq ´ ustraivat; ´ cennye bumagi (pl) ´ qdro ´ wellbeing, prosperity to invest household worthy, repectable salary, earnings plot of land presence present to relate to moving as at times representative indication living wage advertising sector savings villager to arrange, fix up securities nucleus

´ ´ ´togo – on this N.B. imeq v vidu – meaning, having in mind; isxodq iz \ ´ basis

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ´ ´jskij sre ´j, Pohemu rossi ´dnij klass ne tako kak na Zapade? ´ ´hnye pri ´znaki sre ´ Kakovy tipi ´dnego klassa? ´ ´jskij sre Gde sformirovalsq rossi ´ ´dnij klass? ´n ´znaki no ´j ´vogo sre Kako proce rossiq ime pri ´nt ´[t ´dnego klassa? ´ ´x ´'no oxarakterizovat; taki l[de Kak mo ´ ´j? ´et ´jskogo sre ´ Kto sostavlq qdro rossi ´dnego klassa? ´ ´[t sobo potencial;nye predstavi ´teli sre ´j Hto predstavlq ´ ´dnego klassa? ´ ´ ´ 8 Pohemu dver; v sre ´dnij klass dlq nix zakry ta?

202

|

Russian society

Dialogue 1
Conversation between a journalist and a sociologist
´ @ URNALI ST

´ S OCIOLOG

´ @ URNALI ST ´ S OCIOLOG

´ @ URNALI ST

´ S OCIOLOG

´ @ URNALI ST ´ S OCIOLOG

´ @ URNALI ST

´go ´wut o rossi V gaze ´tax mno pi ´jskix be ´dnyx, o herte ´ be ´dnosti, no malo pi ´ ´wut o bogatyx. Kto taki ´ ´e rossi ´jskie bogatye? ´ ´tie bogatstva otnosi ´]emu Ponq ´ ´tel;no. Po-nastoq ´dno klassifici bogatyx l[de ´ ´j tru ´rovat;. Po rossi ´jskim me ´rkam, helove shitaetsq bogatym, a po ´k ´ ´ ´givaet do sre zapadnym, on edva dotq ´ ´ ´dnego klassa. K ´ ´ tomu 'e, est; predstavle ´nie be ´dnyx o bogatyx i ´ bogatyx o sebe ´ ´. ´ ´ Hto 'e nado ime ´ ´t;, htoby tebq otnesli k bogatym? ´ ´ ´logam, rossi Soglasno socio ´ ´jskie bogatye na pe ´ ´rvoe ´m ¨ me ´sto stavqt zagorodnyj dom, poto idet presti ´ ´ ´'naq kvarti ´ra. Dal;we – li ´ ´hnaq oxrana, presti ´'nyj avtomobi ´l; i na posle ´dnem me ´ste – wikarnyj ´ vne ´wnij vid. ´[t sebe ´ ´ No tak oby hno be ´dnye l[di predstavlq ´ bogatyx, samoe glavnoe – presti ´ ´ ´ ´'naq kvarti ´ra i dorogaq mawi ´ ´na! ´ma[t o sebe inahe. Dlq nix samye Da, sami bogatye du ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´zi. glavnye pri ´ ´znaki bogatstva – oxrana i svq ´ ´ ´ ´l'en, Bol;winstvo shita[t, ´ hto bogatyj ´ do ´rganov nepreme ´nno, ime si ´t; ´l;nyx pokrovi ´telej iz o gosudarstvennoj vlasti. ´ ´ ´ Znahit, vse nawi bogatye razbogate blagodarq svoi ´ ´ ´ ´li ´m ´zqm? svq ´ ´to Bo[s;, hto tak. Vo-pe ´rvyx, rossi ´jskie bogatye – \ ´ te, kto ime vlast; i v sove ´l ´tskoe vre ´mq. |to ´l;skie rabo ´tniki. Vo-vtoryx, \ ´to ´ parti ´jnye, komsomo ¨ <biznesme ´ny> sove ´tskix vremen, te, kto ran;we byl ´ ´zan s <tenevo ´j> \kono ´mikoj. svq ´rye stali bogatymi Neu'e ´li net l[de ´j, koto ´ ´ ´ ´bnostqm? blagodarq svoi sposo ´m

Rossijskoe obwestvo

|

203

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ S OCIOLOG

Kone ´hno, est;, no malo. V Rossi ´ ´i, po mne ´ni[ ´logov, proce socio ´ntov 5 sredi predprinimatelej ´ ´ ´'no otnesti k \ ´rii. ´toj katego mo ´

Po materialam gaze ´ ´ty <Argume ´nty i fakty>, 2001 ´

Vocabulary ♦
´givat; do (+ gen) dotq ´ zagorodnyj dom komsomo ´l ´ li ´hnaq oxrana nepremenno ´ ´ ´ o ´rgan gosudarstvennoj vlasti otnosi ´tel;nyj pokrovi ´tel; ´tie ponq ´ predprinimatel; razbogatet; ´ ´zi svq (pl) ´ tenevaq \kono ´mika ´ ´ herta bednosti ´ wikarnyj vid to extend as far as house in the country young communist league personal bodyguard obviously, definitely organ of state power, the authorities relative patron idea, concept entrepreneur to become rich connections shadow economy poverty line smart appearance

´ N.B. po rossi ´jskim / zapadnym merkam – by Russian / Western standards; vo´ pervyx – firstly; vo-vtoryx – secondly ´ ´

Exercise 2
Answer the following questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 ´wut rossi ´jskie gaze ¨ O hem pi ´ty? ´ma[t rossi ´jskie bogatye o sebe Hto du ´ ´? ´ Kakovo predstavle ´nie be ´dnyx o bogatstve? ´ ´jskie bogatye? Kak razbogate ´li rossi ´

Exercise 3
True or false? ´znaki sre ´e ´bstvennost;, bol;wi 1 Pri ´dnego klassa (obrazovanie, so ´ ´ ´dy)? doxo

204

|

Russian society

´i ´ 2 Sre ´dnij klass Rossi sformirovalsq v (promy wlennosti, ´ ´jstve, finansovom se se ´l;skom xozq ´ ´ktore)? ´jskaq \kono ´mika zarabo ´taet, hislo l[de sre ´ 3 Esli rossi ´j ´dnego ´hitsq, ume klassa (uveli ´ ´n;witsq, ne izme ´nitsq)? ´ty ´jskogo bogatstva (presti ´'naq 4 Po mne ´ni[ be ´dnyx, atribu rossi ´ ´ra, dorogaq mawi ´na, de kvarti ´ ´n;gi v banke, wikarnyj vid)? ´ ´ ´ty ´teli v o ´rganax 5 Po mne ´ni[ bogatyx, attribu bogatstva (pokrovi ´ ´ ´hie so ´bstvennosti)? vlasti, svoj dom, nali ´ ´jskie bogatye – \ (byvwie parti ´to ´ ´jnye rabo ´tniki, l[di ´ 6 Rossi ´ ´nty)? ´ ´ s vyswim obrazovaniem, by vwie spekulq ´

Exercise 4
How the Russian rich spend their holidays.

´l;skaq pravda>, 2001 Gaze <Komsomo ´ta ´

Answer the questions in English. 1 Describe the wedding in Venice the rich aspire to. 2 What kind of fishing and hunting trips are described? 3 Which two trips to mountains are mentioned?
´ ´ ´ N.B. svad;ba – wedding; svq]ennye mesta – holy places; ubla'at; to ´ indulge

Rossijskoe obwestvo

|

205

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Language points ♦
Subjunctive
The subjunctive in Russian is formed by putting the particle by with the past tense: ´ ´ on napisal by / pisal by he would have written / he would write It is possible for the by to precede the verb: ´mal q by podu I should think The subjunctive can be used to express desirability: mne xotelos; by ´ I would like / I would have liked ´ vy by mne skazali you should have told me ¨ q powel by I would like to go / I would have gone ´ ´ \to bylo by otli ´hno that would be excellent

Conditional clauses
Clauses introduced by esli ‘if’ fall into two types: ´ 1. If the condition is capable of being fulfilled the subjunctive is not used. Where the verb in the main clause is in the future then the verb in the clause introduced by esli will also be in the future, unlike in ´ English, where it would be in the present: ¨ ¨ My ne pojdem, esli pojdet do'd;. ´ We won’t go if it rains. It is, of course, possible to find tenses other than the future after esli: ´ ´ Esli tebe ne nravitsq [bka, kupi no ´ ´ ´vu[. If you don’t like the skirt buy a new one.

206

|

Russian society

2. Where a condition is hypothetical the subjunctive mood is used in both the main clause and in the conditional clause. In this case the conditional clause is introduced by esli by followed by the past ´ tense. Remember that by is used only with the past tense: Esli by ne bylo kri ´ ´zisa, to ne sokratilos; by ´ koli ´hestvo rabo ´hix mest. If there had been no crisis, then the number of jobs would not have declined. The use of to, ‘then’, to introduce the main clause in this kind of sentence is quite common. It is possible for the main clause to precede the esli clause: Koli ´hestvo rabo ´hix mest ne sokrati ´los; by, esli by ne ´ ´ bylo kri ´zisa.

Exercise 5
Create single sentences out of two simple sentences using the future tense. ´ ´ Example: U menq den;gi. Q edu za granicu. – Esli u ´ ´ ´ ´dut den;gi, (to) q poedu za grani menq bu ´ ´ ´cu. ¨ Le 'arkoe. My 'ivem na dahe. ´to ´ ´ ´heskij universite ´ Q sda[ matematiku. Q postupa[ v texni ´ ´ ´t. ´jskie doro uluhwa[tsq. V Rossi e ´[ ´zdit mno turi ´stov. ´gi ´go Rossi ´ ´ru ´ ´waq zarplata. On pokupaet kvarti v ce U nego xoro ´ ´ ´ntre. ´ ¨ U menq est; shet v banke. Q vkladyva[ kapital v ce ´ ´ ´ ´nnye bumagi. ´ ´t;, Ee zdoro ´hwe. ¨ ´v;e lu Ona brosaet kuri ´ ´jskie gaze ´simye. Oni publiku ´ ´[t vs[ Rossi ´ty nezavi informaci[. ´ ´jskie fi ´l;my. Zri ´teli zna[t, kak 8 Na festivale pokazany rossi ´ ´ ´ ´i. ´ razvivaetsq kino v Rossi ´ ´ ´z ´lge. 9 U menq est; vre ´mq. Q e ´du v krui po Vo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Rossijskoe obwestvo

|

207

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 6
Replace the future tense in the following sentences with the subjunctive. ´ ´ ´det vremq, (to) q pojdu Example: Esli u menq bu ´ ´ ´ v kino – Esli by u menq bylo vremq, (to) ´. ´ ´ ¨ q powel by (powla by) v kino. ´
´mika zarabo ´taet, to sre 1 Esli \kono ´dnij klass obqzatel;no ´ ´nhit universite u nego bu ´ ´det xoro ´waq uveli ´hitsq. 2 Esli on oko ´t, ´det defo ´, ´ta. 3 Esli ne bu ´lta v \ ´tom godu rossi rabo ´jskij rubl; ´det provedena refo ´rma obrazovaniq, stanet si ´ ´l;nym. 4 Esli ne bu ´ ´ ´roven; obrazovaniq upadet. 5 Esli bu ´det vvedena plata za ¨ u ´ ´ ´ ´gie l[di. 6 Esli gosudarstvo xo ´ ´het obrazovanie, postrada[t mno ´ ´ ´ ´roven; obrazovaniq, ono soxrani hastnye wko ´ ´ly. 7 Esli ´ povysit; u ´ ´t ´ ´det presti ´det bol;wo ko ¨ ´j ´nkurs. 8 Esli ´tot vuz bu \ ´'nym, v nem bu ´nhit universite s u stude ´nta est; stremle ´nie uhi ´t;sq, on zako ´t otli ´hiem.

Exercise 7
Examine the survey, shown on page 208 conducted by Russia’s Institute of Social and Economic Problems and answer the questions in English.
´ ´ N.B. otaplivat; – to heat; vyrezka – fillet; nedoedat; – not to have enough ´ ´ food; sladosti – sweet things; ne mo ´'et pozvo ´lit; – can’t afford; po ´xorony – funeral

1 How do English and Russian concepts of poverty differ in respect of food? 2 Contrast English and Russian views on leisure and poverty. 3 How do expectations in regard to purchase of clothing differ between the Russian and the English? 4 What household appliances do each consider necessary? 5 Name two areas of life which Russians refer to but are not mentioned in the English list at all.

208

|

Russian society

Anglijskaq sem;q shitaet sebq bednoj, esli: • Ne mo'et otaplivat; 'il;e. • Net v dome tualeta, duwa. • Net krovati dlq ka'dogo. • Net dvux par obuvi dlq ka'dogo sezona. • Net otdel;noj spal;ni dlq ka'dogo rebenka. • Net kovrov dlq pola. • Net vozmo'nosti prazdnihno organizovat; Ro'destvo. • Net stiral;noj mawiny. • Ne mo'et pokupat; novu[ ode'du dlq vsex hlenov sem;i. • Ne mo'et pokupat; vyrezku, est mqso ili rybu tol;ko herez den;. • Ne mo'et pozvolit; nedel;nyj otdyx vne doma ka'dyj god. • Ne mo'et pozvolit; rasxody, svqzannye s otdyxom ili xobbi. • Ne mo'et kupit; neobxodimyj sportinventar; dlq detej. • Net sada pered domom.
´ Gaze <Argume ´ta ´nty i fakty>, 2001

Rossijskaq sem;q shitaet sebq bednoj, esli: • V sem;e nedoeda[t. • Edqt mqso ili rybu re'e dvux raz v nedel[. • Ne mo'et priobretat; v neobxodimom kolihestve predmety gigieny. • Net deneg dlq obnovleniq i remonta ode'dy, obuvi. • Net i ne mo'et priobresti xolodil;nik, samu[ prostu[ mebel;, da'e herno-belyj televizor. • Net deneg na 'iznenno va'nye lekarstva i medicinskie pribory. • Ne mo'et obra]at;sq k platnym vraham. • Ne mo'et organizovat; poxorony. • Ne mo'et pokupat; frukty, sladosti detqm da'e izredka. • Ne mo'et davat; detqm den;gi na pitanie v wkole, oplahivat; detsad i qsli. • Ne mo'et pokupat; detqm novu[ ode'du i obuv; po mere ix rosta.

Rossijskoe obwestvo

|

209

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Language points ♦
Hto ´by
Hto ´by is followed either by the infinitive or the past tense. Hto ´by may not be followed by any other tense.

Hto ´by + infinitive
This construction is used to translate ‘in order to, so as to’: ´ Q pozvoni ´la, hto ´by rasskazat; tebe no ´ ´vosti. I rang (in order) to tell you the news. ‘In order’ is often omitted in English. In Russian hto ´by is sometimes omitted after verbs of motion: ´ ´ Q priwla rasskazat; tebe no ´ ´vosti. I came to tell you the news.

Hto ´by + past tense
It can be seen from the above example that hto ´by can only be used with the infinitive where both clauses have the same subject. Where the subject of each verb is different, hto ´by + past tense is used and translates ‘so that, in order that’: ´ Q pozvoni ´la, hto ´by ty rasskazal mne no ´vosti. I rang so that you could tell me the news.

Hto ´by + past tense after xotet; ´
Note the difference between the two examples: ´ Q xohu rabo ´tat;. I want to work. ´, Q xohu hto ´by ty rabo ´tal. I want you to work. In the first example the subject of the two verbs is the same and xotet; is followed by the infinitive. Where the subject of the verbs ´ is different, as in the second example, xotet; is followed by hto ´ ´by + past tense. Other verbs expressing desirability are similarly followed by hto ´by + past tense when the subject of the two verbs is different. These include: trebovat; / potrebovat; ‘demand’; 'dat; ‘to wait for’; ´ ´ ´ predlagat; / predlo'i ‘to suggest’: ´t;

210

|

Russian society

On potreboval, hto ´ ´by my uwli ´. He demanded that we leave. ´ ´t; Note the construction after nastaivat; / nastoq ‘to insist’: ´l On nastoq na tom, hto ´by my uwli. ´ He insisted that we leave. ´ ´ After prikazyvat; / prikazat; ‘to order’ and sovetovat; / ´ posovetovat; ‘to advise’ it is possible to use either hto ´ ´by + past tense or dative + infinitive: ´ On prikazal, hto ´by my uwli ´. He ordered that we leave. ´ On prikazal nam ujti. ´ He ordered us to leave. Similarly, after prosi / poprosi ´t; ´t; ‘to ask, request’, either the construction with hto ´by or accusative + infinitive may be used: On poprosil, hto ´ ´by my uwli ´. He asked that we leave. On poprosil nas ujti ´ ´. He asked us to leave. ´ N.B.: do not confuse prosi / poprosi ´t; ´t; with sprawivat; / sprosi ‘to ask a question’: ´t; ´ ´ ´ On sprosi menq, zna[ li q Petra. ´l He asked me if I know Peter.

Exercise 8
Change the sentences using xotet;, hto ´ ´by. Make the noun in brackets the subject of the second verb. ´ ´, Example: Q xohu poexat; v Rossi (moj drug) – Q xohu ´ ´[ hto ´by moj drug poexal v Rossi ´ ´[.
´ ´het postupi v 1 Q xohu kupi mawi ´t; ´nu (moj mu'). 2 On xo ´t; ´ ´het priobresti putevku v dom ¨ universite (ego doh;). 3 Ona xo ´t ´ ´tdyxa (ee rodi ¨ ´het prinadle'at; k sre o ´teli). 4 On xo ´ ´dnemu ´). klassu (vse uhitelq 5 My xoti kupi ´ ´m ´t; dahu (naw sose ´ ´d). ´t ´hie). 7 On 6 Oni xotq vkladyvat; de ´ ´ ´n;gi v ce ´nnye bumagi (rabo ´ ´het poluhi xoro ´wee obrazovanie (vse de xo ´t; ´ ´ti).

Rossijskoe obwestvo

|

211

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Hto ´by + past tense after verbs of doubting or fearing and negative verbs of thinking and believing
´mat; ´ When somnevat;sq ‘to doubt’; ne verit; ‘not to believe’; ne du ´ ´ ‘not to think’; ne o'idat; ‘not to expect’ refer to the past or present they are followed by hto ´by + past tense: ¨ Q ne veril, hto ´ ´by on priwel. I didn’t believe that he would come. For the future use the indicative: ¨ Q ne ver[, hto on pridet. ´ I don’t believe he will come. ´t;sq ‘to fear’ may be followed by either the indicative or htoby Boq + ne + past tense: ´ ¨ Q bo[s;, hto on pridet. I’m afraid he will come. ´ Q bo[s;, hto ´by on ne prixodil. ´ I’m afraid he will not come. ´ ¨ Q bo[s;, hto on ne pridet. I’m afraid he will not come.

Exercise 9
Put the following sentences into the subjunctive using hto ´by + past tense.
¨ ´to 1 Q somneva[s;, hto \ pravda. 2 Q ne ve ´ ´ ´r[, hto on pridet. ´ma[, hto ona sdast \kzamen. 4 Q sove ´mat; 3 Q ne du ´ ´ ´tu[ vam podu ´sil menq pogovori s nej. 6 On prikazal mne ´tom. 5 On pro ob \ ´t; ´ ´ndon. poe ´xat; v Lo

Hto ´by + past tense after impersonal expressions denoting desirablity and undesirability
´ ´ Expressions such as 'elatel;no ‘it is desirable’; va'no ‘it is ´hwe ‘it is better’; nevozmo important’; lu ´'no ‘it is impossible’; ´tno ‘it is inconceivable’; ne mo ´ neveroq ´'et byt; ‘it cannot be’; nado,

212

|

Russian society

´'no ‘it is necessary’; glavnoe ‘the main thing is’ are also followed ´ nu by hto ´by + past tense: ´ ¨ @elatel;no, hto ´by on ne priwel. It is desirable that he should not come. ´tno, hto ¨ Neveroq ´by on priwel. It is inconceivable that he should come. ´ ´ ´ Glavnoe, hto ´by emu nravilas; rabo ´ta. The main thing is that he should like the job.

Exercise 10
Complete the sentences using the phrase in brackets with hto ´by + past tense.
´vannyj helove 1 Ohen; va'no (uhi ´ ´tel; obrazo ´k). 2 Ohen; va'no ´ ´'nosti na obrazovanie). 3 Ohen; va'no (u dete ravnye vozmo ´j ´ ´ ´ ´nie l[de (stude ´ntam nravitsq uhi ´ ´t;sq). 4 Nado (blagosostoq ´ ´j ´ ´tu). 6 Nado (u l[de ´ povysitsq). 5 Nado (vse l[di ime ´ ´[t rabo ´ ´j ´gi). 8 Nevozmo ´'no sbere'e ´niq). 7 Nado (vse bogatye platqt nalo ´ ´ ´ ´wix doro ´g). 9 Nevozmo ´'no (on opozdaet na (v Rossi net xoro ´i ´ ´tno (ona ´tno (ona napi ´ezd. 10 Neveroq ´ ´ po ´ ´wet roman). 11 Neveroq ´sit kuri ´'et byt; (u nego 'ena). 13 Ne mo ´ ´'et bro ´t;). 12 Ne mo ´ ´'a). ¨ byt; (u nee net mu

Whoever, whatever etc.
´ Kto, hto, gde, kuda, kak, kako combine with by + ni + past ´j tense to translate ‘whoever, whatever, wherever (place), wherever (motion), however, whichever’: ´s;. ´ Hto by ty ni skazal, q ne soglawu Whatever you said I wouldn’t agree. ´ ¨ ´l;we nravitsq naw Gde by my ni 'i ´li, nam vse bo rodno go ´j ´rod. Wherever we have lived we still like our home town best. Such sentences may also be rendered using the appropriate form of the indicative: ´s;. ´ Hto ty ni ska'ew;, q ne soglawu Whatever you say I won’t agree.

Rossijskoe obwestvo

|

213

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 11
Translate the phrases in brackets into Russian.
¨ ¨ ´'nim. 1 (Whatever you say), vse ostaetsq pre

2 (Wherever they worked), oni vsegda byli shastlivy. ´ ´ ´ ´ 3 (Whenever she thinks about him), ona vsegda nahinaet plakat;. ´ ´ ´
´ 4 (Wherever my husband goes), on vsegda posylaet mne otkry tki. ´ ´ ´. ´ ´ 5 (However difficult it was), my dol'ny najti ego ´de. 6 (Whenever I saw her), ona vsegda byla ode po posle ´ ´ ´ta ´dnej mo

Exercise 12
To which class in your opinion do these people belong? Why?

´l;skaq pravda> maj, 2001 Gaze <Komsomo ´ta ´

´s; po po ´ N.B. ottqnu ´lnoj programme – I’ll chill out good and proper; ´la by k skupi ´t;sq na (+ acc) – skimp on; ogoro – vegetable garden; rvanu ´d ¨ hertu na kuli ´hki – I’d get the hell out of here! Berezo ´vskij – Russian tycoon

214

|

Russian society

Stress
Past tense of verbs
Fixed stress – the majority of verbs formed from a root verb with two or more syllables have stress fixed in the past tense on the same ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ syllable as the infinitive: pisat; (pisal, pisala, pisalo, pisali); rabo ´tat; (rabo ´tal, rabo ´tala, rabo ´talo, rabo ´tali). Some monosyllabic verbs have the stress on the stem throughout: ´ ´ pet; (pel, pela, pelo, peli); klast; (klal, klala, klalo, ´ ´ ´ ´ klali); det;, est;, kryt;, myt;, sest;, stat;. Mobile stress on feminine endings – some monosyllabic verbs are stressed on the feminine ending but on the stem in all other forms: ´ ´ ´ pit; (pil, pila, pi ´lo, pili); brat; (bral, brala, bralo, ´ ´ brali); byt;, vzqt;, dat;, 'it;, lit;, spat;. ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Note also nahat; (nahal, nahala, nahalo, nahali). Stress on the ending – verbs ending in -ti and -h; are stressed ´ ¨ throughout on the ending: vesti (vel, vela, velo veli moh; ´, ´); ´ (mog, mogla, moglo mogli vezti nesti, teh;. ´, ´), ´, ´ Stressed on the prefix – all perfectives with the prefix vy- are stressed ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ on the prefix: vypit; (vypil, vypila, vypilo, vypili). Prefixed verbs are otherwise generally stressed in the same way as ´ ´ ´ the root verb. But note these exceptions: zabyt; (zabyl, zabyla, ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ zabylo, zabyli); zadat; (zadal, zadala, zadalo, zadali).

Exercise 13
Translate into Russian. 1 Sociologists are still arguing over whether a middle class exists in Russia. 2 There is a big difference between the Russian and British middle classes. 3 If the economic situation gets worse in Russia, many people will lose their jobs. 4 If only people knew how dangerous it is to walk at night. 5 If only I had money I would travel all over the world.

Rossijskoe obwestvo

|

215

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

6 The majority of so-called new Russians became rich thanks to their connections with the Soviet government. 7 I want my son to study at Moscow university; I want him to study English. 8 He asked me to buy a Russian newspaper for him. 9 A Russian family considers itself poor if it cannot afford to buy fruit and sweets for its children.

12 ZDRAVOOXRANENIE

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ about health care in Russia about a variety of impersonal expressions when to use the buffer vowel -o in prepositions about stress in short form adjectives

The Soviet Union provided universal and free health care for all its citizens. The health service had both its strengths and its weaknesses. There were a very large number of doctors per head of population (43 per 10,000), about three times as many as in Britain. However, doctors were extremely badly paid. This resulted in the profession being female-dominated and in the expectation that patients would reward doctors with ‘gifts’. There were some centres of excellence, but, in general, hospitals were poorly equipped and the primary care delivered by polyclinics was impersonal. The collapse of the Soviet Union and subsequent economic crises had a devastating effect on the health service. However, it also opened the way to a burgeoning private health sector, delivering high quality care. Inevitably, these private clinics are located in major population centres.

Zdravooxranenie

|

217

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Text 1
Glavnoe – zdoro ´ ´v;e helove ´ka
´ ´ ´ Ha stnye kli ´niki sta li v Rossi absol[tnoj neobxodi ´i ´most;[. ´ ´j ´lee izve Odno iz naibo ´stnyx i pe ´rvyx ha stnyx kli ´nik v ´etsq C|LT (Centr \ndoxirurgi i litotripsi Rossi qvlq ´i ´i ´i). ´ ´ ndr Semenovih ´ genera l;nyj dire ¨ Ego ´ktor profe ´ssor Aleksa ´ ´ Bronwte ´jn s mome ´nta sozda niq Ce ´ntra stara etsq osu]estvi ´t; ´ ´ ´pnost; vysokoprofessiona l;nogo medici ´ svo[ mehtu – dostu ´n´ ´ ´'ivaniq dlq vsex rossi skogo obslu ´jskix gra 'dan. I shita et, ´ hto v nynewnej situa cii v zdravooxrane ´ ´nii sre ´dstvom dlq ´ ´l;ko sozda nie se ha stnyx ´toj ce mo ´ti ´ dosti'e ´niq \ ´li ´'et byt; to ´ ´et ´j ´ pla tnyx kli ´nik. Hto 'e predstavlq sobo ha stnaq kli ´nika v Rossi ´i? ´l;we, hem komme V Rossi ha stnye bol;ni ´i ´ ´cy – bo ´rciq. Oni – ´ ´ ´re. Pri kri al;ternati ´va gosuda rstvennoj struktu ´zisnom ´nii zdravooxrane ´'no razrewi va 'nye dlq sostoq ´niq zdes; mo ´t; ´ ´gami vysokokvali´v;q proble ´'no po ´l;zovat;sq uslu zdoro ´my, mo ´hwie ´l;ko ispo ´l;zu[t lu fici ´rovannyx vrahe ´j. Zdes; ne to ´ ´dnoj medici dosti'e ´niq me'dunaro ´ny, no i razraba tyva[t ´ ´ ´bstvennye, unika l;nye texnolo ´gii. Zdes; de so ´la[t opera cii, ´l;we nigde v mi ´rye ne de ´la[tsq bo ´ ´re. I nove ´jwie koto ´[t xiru ´rgam v bol;winstve slu ´haev ´gii pozvolq texnolo ´ ´ obxodi ´t;sq bez no'a . ´dqt v kli ´bo Pacie ´nty provo ´nike dva-tri dnq. Za iskl[he ´niem oso ´haev diagno ´'nyx slu ´stika provo ´ditsq v tehe ´ slo ´nie odnogo dnq, ´ ¨ ´gix bol;ni ´to a ne trex nede ´l;, kak \ byva et vo mno ´cax. No uvy, ´ ´ ´ ´ ´g cena uslu al;ternati ´vnoj medici ´ny vysoka . Da 'e v tom ´ ´ ´hae, kogda ha stnye kli ´[t gi ´[ slu ´niki osu]estvlq ´bku[ cenovu ´hem, v kli ¨ ´'noe, hto ´by poli ´tiku. Vpro ´nike de ´la[t vse vozmo ´ ´ ´pnym dlq vsex 'ela []ix. Prihem reh; ¨ lehe ´nie ostava los; dostu ´ ´ ´[t ¨ ´ ´ty idet ne o boga tyx l[dqx. Zdes; predostavlq l;go vetera nam ´ ´ ´ ´byl;skoj ava rii, vo ´inam-afga ncam, vojny, likvida toram herno ´ ´ ´ mnogode ´tnym se ´m;qm. Za odnu nede ´l[ kli ´niku pose]a [t prime ´rno 1200 helove v god – 60 tysqh. ´k, ´

218

|

The health service

´ ´ ´da Sejha s prakti ´heski vse 'a lu[tsq na razli ´hnogo ro proble ´my. ´ ´ ´et, hto proble ¨ ´l;ko odna – No Aleksa ndr Semenovih uverq ´ma to ´ ´ ´ryj prixo ´dit v kli emu 'al; ka 'dogo helove ´ka, koto ´niku, ´, ´l'en plati ´togo potomu hto on do ´t;. K so'ale ´ni[, bez \ ´ ´ ´'no, posko ´l;ku zatra ty kolossa l;ny. Ta 'e are nevozmo ´nda ´ rstva ´, ´mo]; gosuda ´it o ´hen; do ´rogo. Voob]e po pome]e ´niq sto ´ neobxodi ´ma bol;ni ´cam, v tom hisle i ha stnym. Kone ´ ´hno, u ´ ´nsory, no se C|LTa est; spo ´jhas ix fina nsovye vlo'e ´niq ´ ´ ´dnq o ´pyt ´r'it sebq sama . Sego sokrati ´lis;, tak hto kli ´nika sode ´ ´ ´s; kli ´niki Bronwte ´jna shita etsq unika l;nym. Ce ´ntru udalo ´ ´ ´viqx o ´b]ego kri vy'it; da 'e v uslo ´ ´zisa v strane I potomu ´. ´ ´gie uhre'de mno ´niq ha stnoj medici ´ny orienti ´ru[tsq i ´menno ´pyt C|LTa. na o

´ ´ Po materialam 'urnala <Delovye l[di>, 2001 ´ ´

Vocabulary ♦
´ avariq arenda ´ vlo'eniq (pl) ´ ´ vo ´in-afganec vpro ´hem gi ´bkij ´ 'alovat;sq na (+ acc) 'al; ´ zatraty (pl) zdravooxranenie ´ lehenie ´ ´ ´ likvidator avarii ´ mehta ´ mnogodetnaq sem;q ´ ´tel;stvo obstoq ´ obxodi ´t;sq bez no'a orienti ´rovat;sq na (+ acc) ´t; osu]estvlq / osu]estvi ´t; ´gami po ´l;zovat;sq uslu accident rent investments veteran of the war in Afghanistan but then again flexible to complain about sorry expenses health service, healthcare treatment relief worker dream large family circumstance to do without the knife to be based on to realise; implement to use the services

Zdravooxranenie

|

219

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´t; l;go predostavlq ´ty ¨ prihem ´ set; hastnyx kli ´nik ´haj slo ´'nyj slu ´ ´ soder'at; sebq sredstvo dlq dosti'eniq ´ ´ celi ´ ´t; uverq uvy ´ ´rg xiru ´ cenovaq poli ´tika N.B. v tom hisle – including ´

to provide benefits moreover network of private clinics complicated case to support itself means to achieve a goal to assure alas surgeon pricing policy

Exercise 1
Answer the questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ´e Hto tako C|LT? ´et Kto vozglavlq C|LT? ¨ O hem mehtaet profe ´ ´ssor Bronwte ´jn? ´e ´t; ´nik? ´'no rewi s po ´mo];[ hastnyx kli Kaki proble ´my mo ´ ´e ´rgi C|LTa? Kaki operacii de ´ ´la[t xiru ´ ´[tsq l;go ´ty? Komu predostavlq ´ ´zit; ce ´'et sni Pohemu C|LT ne mo ´ny? ´ruetsq sejhas na o ´pyt C|LTa? Kto orienti ´

Exercise 2
Examine this advertisement for C|LT and answer the questions in English. 1 What specialist surgeons are employed by C|LT? 2 How is it possible for operations to take place without using a scalpel? 3 For what conditions do they offer traditional surgery?

220

|

The health service

CENTR |NDOXIRURGII I LITOTRIPSII XIRURGIHESKOE OTDELENIE

\ndoxirurgiheskie operacii bez razrezov (herez 3-4 prokola s pomo];[ optiheskoj sistemy i special;nyx instrumentov) \ndoskopiheskie i tradicionnye (otkrytye) operacii pri ostrom i xroniheskom appendicite v C|LTe rabota[t tak'e opytnejwie xirurgi - xirurg \ndrokrinolog (zabolevanie ]itovidnoj 'elezy) - xirurg-proktolog (gemorroj, anal;nye tre]iny, polipy) - nejroxirurg (opuxli spinnogo mozga, gry'i pozvonohnyx diskov) - xirurg-travmotolog (artroskopiq, operativnaq artroskopiq)

Dialogue 1
From an interview with Yurii Leonidovich Shevchenko, Minister of Health
´ K ORRESPONDE NT ´ W EVHE NKO

´rym Zdravooxrane ´nie, koto Vy rukovodi ´te, ´dnosti. pere'ivaet sejhas bol;wi tru ´ ´ ´e ´dnosti v Rossi No ´trasli pere'iva[t tru Vse o ´ ´i. ´boe me ´, zdravooxrane ´nie zanimaet oso ´ ´sto. Ot togo v ´nii zdoro ´m sostoq ´v;e naro ´da, zavi kako ´sit ´v;q ne nu'ny ni ´ polo'e ´nie gosudarstva. Bez zdoro ´ ´ bogatstvo, ni vlast;. Vot pohemu zdravooxrane ´ ´nie ´etsq va'ne qvlq ´jwim priorite ´tom.

Zdravooxranenie

|

221

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ K ORRESPONDE NT ´ W EVHE NKO

´ K ORRESPONDE NT ´ W EVHE NKO

´ K ORRESPONDE NT ´ W EVHE NKO

´ K ORRESPONDE NT

´ W EVHE NKO

´ K ORRESPONDE NT

´ W EVHE NKO

´ Obyhno zdravooxrane ´nie nazyva[t medici ´ ´nskim ´'ivaniem nasele obslu ´niq. ´'ivaniq. A e]e k ´sqt k sfe obslu ¨ Da, ego otno ´re ´'ivaniq otno ´sqt parikmaxerskie, sfe ´re obslu ´ restorany, gosti ´ ´nicy. Zdravooxrane ´nie – ne sfe ´ra ´'ivaniq, a sfe 'izneobespehe obslu ´ra ´niq. Esli by ´silis;, kak k sfe k zdravooxrane ´ni[ otno ´re ¨ 'izneobespehe ´niq, v nem ne slo'i ´las; by takaq ´ situaciq. ´ Kakova 'e situaciq v rossi ´ ´ ´jskom zdravooxrane ´nii? ´hen; trevo ´'naq. Ob]aq sme Situaciq o ´ ´rtnost; v ´kaq. Rastet o ¨ ´b]aq zabolevaemost;. Vnov; strane vyso ´ ´ ¨ poqvi ´lis; infe ´kcii, kak tuberkulez. Vozni ´kli ´ ´vye infe no ´kcii, kak SPID, xotq v Rossi \ ´[ ´ta <huma 20 ve ´ ´ka> priwla po ´ ´z'e, hem v drugi strany. ´e ´ ´ete Pehal;naq karti ´ ´na. No kak Vy sami ob#qsnq ´ ´[ situaci[? taku ´ ´goe mo ´'no ob#qsni Mno ´t; tem, hto v strane ´ ´mnye izmene ´gie ne mo ´gut proizowli ogro ´ ´niq. Mno ´bit;sq k 'i ´vyx uslo ´viqx. Ots[da ´ prisposo ´zni v no ´zannyx so stre rost zabolevanij, svq ´ ´ssom. Mne ka'etsq, pre ´ ´ssa i televi ´denie otricatel;no ´ ´[t na psixi ´nie o ´b]estva. Oni vliq ´heskoe sostoq ´ ´ ´l;ko negati da[t to ´vnu[ karti ´nu 'i ´zni v Rossi ´i. ¨ ´ |to pravda. Vse vre ´ ´mq slywiw; po televi ´zoru zaqvle ´niq o vymiranii nacii, o kaki ´ ´ ´x-to zlode ´qx ´'asax. A \ zastavlq naro 'it; v ´et ´hix u ´d ´to i pro ´nie stre ´fy. Sostoq ´'et o'idanii katastro ´ ´ssa ne mo ´v;e. ne skazat;sq na zdoro ´ ´etsq platnaq medici ¨ ´l;we raswirq Sejhas vse bo ´ ´ ´na, ´pnyx gorodax. Kak Vy otno ´benno v kru ´sites; k oso ´ ´tomu? \ ´ ´'no Besplatnoj medici ´ ´ny dol'no byt; kak mo ´gi dol'ny ´l;we. Platnye medici ´ bo ´ ´nskie uslu ´det vybor, no za ´ razvivat;sq. Pust; u helove ´ ´ka bu ´gi ´ ´, ´ dopolni ´tel;nye uslu nado plati Voob]e nado ´t;. ´mnit;, hto platnaq medici ´mo]; ne po ´ ´nskaq po vsegda lu ´ ´hwe besplatnoj. ´

Po materialam <Nezavi ´ ´simoj gaze ´ty>, 2001

222

|

The health service

Vocabulary ♦
´ vymiranie 'izneobespehenie ´ ´ zabolevaemost; (f ) / ´ zabolevanie zaqvlenie ´ zlodej ´ o ´trasl; (f ) ´ parikmaxerskaq prisposo ´bit;sq k (+ dat) ´ skazat;sq na (+ acc) slo'i ´t;sq ´nie sostoq SPID trevo ´'nyj ´ huma dying out, extinction vital necessity incidence of disease / disease statement villain branch hairdresser’s to adjust to to tell on, affect to be formed state AIDS alarming plague

´ N.B. Kak Vy otno ´sites; k \tomu? – What do you think about this? Pust; ´det vybor – Let people have the choice u heloveka bu ´ ´

Exercise 3
Answer the questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ´dovih Wevhe ´j Kto tako {rij Leoni ´nko? ´ ´boe me Pohemu zdravooxrane ´nie zanimaet oso ´ ´sto? ´j ´sit Wevhe K kako sfe otno ´re ´nko zdravooxrane ´nie? ´jskom zdravooxrane Kakova situaciq v rossi ´ ´ ´nii? ´et Kak Wevhe ´nko ob#qsnq situaci[? ´ ´[t SMI v Rossii na sostoq ´nie o ´b]estva? Kak vliq ´maet Wevhe ´ne? Hto du ´nko o platnoj i besplatnoj medici ´ ´

Exercise 4
True or false? ´niki v Rossii qvlq ´[tsq (besplatnymi, platnymi, 1 Hastnye kli ´ ´ ´ ´pnymi dlq vsex)? dostu

Zdravooxranenie

|

223

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´[tsq (vsem l[dqm, voe ´ty v C|LTe predostavlq ´ 2 L;go ´nnym, mnogode ´tnym se ´m;qm)? ´t; k sfe ´'ivaniq, 3 Zdravooxrane ´nie nado otnosi ´ ´re (obslu 'izneobespehe ´niq, obrazovaniq)? ´ ´t; (negati ´vnym ´'no ob#qsni 4 Situaci[ v zdravooxrane ´ ´nii mo ´niem SMI, raspadom SSSR, psixi ´heskim sostoq ´niem vliq ´ ´b]estva)? o

Language points ♦
Impersonal expressions
There are a large number of impersonal constructions in Russian which involve the use of the dative and / or the infinitive.

Expressions of possibility Mo ´'no / vozmo ´'no ‘it is possible’
´gami Mo ´'no (vozmo ´'no) po ´l;zovat;sq uslu vysokokvalifici ´rovannyx vrahej. ´ It is possible to utilise the services of highly-qualified doctors. Mo ´'no (but not vozmo ´'no) may also be used in the sense of ‘it is permitted’: Mo ´'no zdes; kuri ´t;? May one smoke here?

´ Nel;zq / nevozmo ´'no ‘it is impossible’
´ Nel;zq + perfective and nevozmo ´'no mean ‘it is impossible’: ´ ´ Nel;zq / nevozmo ´'no razrewi ´t; vse va'nye dlq zdoro ´v;q problemy. ´ It is impossible to resolve all important health problems. ´ Nel;zq + imperfective means ‘it is forbidden, not permitted’: ´ ´ Nel;zq povywat; ceny. ´ It is forbidden to raise prices.

224

|

The health service

Exercise 5
´: Decide whether to use mo ´'no or nel;zq
´mko v bibliote 1 . . . govori ´t; gro ´ke. 2 . . . sozdavat; hastnye ´ ´ ´l;zovat;sq kli ´niki. 3 . . . vvodi platnoe obrazovanie. 4 . . . po ´t; ´ ´ ´gami hastnyx vrahe 5 . . . kuri vo vre ¨ uslu ´ ´j. ´t; ´mq poleta. 6 . . . zakazat; bile he ´ ´t ´rez interne 7 . . . e ´t. ´zdit; bez bile ´ta.

Expressions of necessity ´'no ‘it is necessary’ ´ Nado / nu
´'no ulu ´hwit; zdravooxranenie. ´ Nam nado / nu ´ We need to improve healthcare. ´det: ´ Note the use of bylo / bu ´det ulu ´hwit; zdravooxranenie. ´ ´ Nam nado bylo / bu ´ We had to / will have to improve healthcare. ´'no have differentiated meanings: ´ In the negative nado and nu ´ ´ ´ Ne nado otkryvat; hastnu[ kli ´niku. One should not (it is necessary not to) open a private clinic. ´'no otkryvat; hastnu[ kliniku. ´ ´ Ne nu ´ It is not necessary to open a private clinic.

Prixodi ´t;sq / prijti ‘to be obliged to, to have to’ ´s;
The third person singular neuter (ono form) is used impersonally with ´ the dative: ´ ´ Direktoru prixo ´ ´ditsq zanimat;sq finansami kli ´niki. The director has to deal with the finances of the clinic. ´ ¨ Im pridetsq najti platnu[ kli ´ ´niku. They will have to find a fee-paying clinic. ´ ´ Gosudarstvu priwlo ´s; otmeni ´t; finansovu[ po ´mo]; ´ hastnym kli ´nikam. The government was obliged to abolish help to private clinics.

Zdravooxranenie

|

225

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Sleduet, sledovalo ‘ought to, should, it is fitting’ ´ ´
Similarly, the third person singular neuter (ono form) of sledovat; ´ ´ (‘to follow’) is used impersonally with the dative: Vam ne sleduet tak govorit;. ´ ´ You should not talk like that. ´ |togo sledovalo o'idat;. ´ It was to be expected. Mne sledovalo by sdelat; \to nemedlenno. ´ ´ ´ I should have done it straight away. ´zan ‘obliged’ and vynu'den ‘forced’ ´ In contrast do ´l'en ‘must’, obq are not used impersonally, but agree in number and gender with the subject: ´ ´ ´ ´det) rabo ´ Ona dol'na (byla / bu ´tat; v gosudarstvennoj bol;nice. ´ She must (had to / will have to) work in a state hospital. ´ ´ Vy dol'ny byli by nas predupredit;. ´ You ought to have warned us. ´zany vam pomo Oni obq ´ ´h;. They are obliged to help you. ´ Vrah byl vynu'den operi ´rovat;. The doctor was forced to operate.

Exercise 6
Replace do ´l'en by using the word in brackets in the right form and tense.
´l'en e 1 Q do ´xat; v Rossi (prixodi ´[ ´t;sq). 2 Ote do ´c ´l'en byl ¨ kupi bile na samolet (prijti ´t; ´t ´s;). 3 Mat; dol'na bu ´ ´det idti ´ ´m (prijti ´zdno pewko ´s;). 4 Ty ne dol'na vozvra]at;sq po ´ ´ ´zan). 6 Profe ´ (sle ´dovat;). 5 Vy dol'ny sdat; \kzamen (obq ´ ´ssor ´l'en otkry t; hastnu[ kli ´ do ´ ´niku (prixodi ´t;sq). 7 On ne ´l'en byl soglawat;sq so mnoj (sle ´l'en do ´ ´dovat;). 8 Vrah do ´zan). 9 Vy ne dol'ny prixodi s[da ´mo]; (obq ´ okazat; pe ´ ´rvu[ po ´t; ´ ´ ´dovat;). 10 Ty ne dol'na byla vstrehat; ego (sle ´ ´ ´ ´dovat;). (sle

226

|

The health service

Expressions of success and luck
Certain of these expressions also use the third person of verbs impersonally with the dative.

´ ´ Udavat;sq / udat;sq ‘to be successful’
Nam udalo ´s; najti xoro ´ ´wu[ kli ´niku. We succeeded in finding a good clinic. ´ ´ Nade[s;, hto tebe udastsq rewit; \tu problemu. ´ ´ ´ ´ I hope that you will be successful in resolving this problem. ´ ´ Note that udavat;sq / udat;sq can also be used with a third person subject: ´ra ne vsegda udaetsq emu ´. ´ ¨ |ta procedu He does not always have success with this procedure. (lit. This procedure is not always successful for him.)

¨ Vezet / povezlo ‘in luck, lucky’ ´
The third person singular neuter (ono form) of vezti / povezti is also ´ ´ ´ used with the dative to denote luck: ´ Emu povezlo ´. He was in luck. ¨ Tebe vezet v 'i ´ ´zni. You are lucky in life.

Exercise 7
´ Replace the existing verb moh; / smoh; with the verb udavat;sq / ´ udat;sq in the appropriate form. ´ ´ ´ Example: Ona smogla dostat; bilet na o ´ ´peru. – Ej ´ udalo ´s; dostat; bilet na o ´ ´peru.
´ma[, hto profe 1 Q smog kupi ´t; massu knig. 2 Q du ´ ´ssor ´nwtejn smo ´'et vy 'it; v uslo ´viqx kri ´'em ´ Bro ´zisa. 3 My mo ´ma. 4 On mo ´'et sxodi v magazi 5 Vy smogli dobe'at; do do ´ ´t; ´n. ´ pozavtrakat;? 6 Ona nikogda ne mogla pisat; bez owi ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´bok.

Zdravooxranenie

|

227

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Expressions denoting feelings
You are already familiar with the use of short form neuter adjectives used with the dative to express certain feelings: nam veselo (from ´ ¨ veselyj) ‘we are cheerful’; im xo ´lodno (from xolo ´dnyj) ‘they are ´ ´ cold; mne stydno (from stydnyj) ‘I am ashamed’; studentam ´ ´hno (from sku ´hnyj) ‘the students are bored’; emu bo ´ ´l;no (from sku bol;no ‘sore’) ‘it hurts him’. ´j In addition there are a number of other impersonal predicates similarly used.

´ @al; / 'alko ‘sorry for’
´ Emu 'al; bol;nyx, devuwku. ´ He is sorry for the patients, the girl. Note the use of the accusative for the person he is sorry for. ´. Mne 'al; smotret; na tebq ´ It grieves me to look at you.

Len; ‘too lazy’
Mne len; idti ´. I am too lazy / can’t be bothered to go.

´ Pora ‘it is time’
´ Nam pora idti ´. It is time for us to go. Note that any of these expressions can be made past or future by ´det: emu bylo bo ´ ´ ´det 'al; ´ using bylo / bu ´l;no ‘it hurt him’; nam bu ‘we will be sorry’. There are also impersonal expressions denoting feelings formed from the third person singular neuter (ono form) of verbs. ´

Nadoest; (perf.) ´
Mne nadoelo rabo ´ ´tat;. I’m sick of working.

´ Ne xvatat; / xvati ´t;
´ Nam (or u nas) ne xvataet vremeni. ´ We are short of time. ´ ¨ |togo nam e]e ne xvatalo! That’s all we needed!

228

|

The health service

´ ´ Nedostavat; / nedostat;
¨ Emu nedostaet deneg. ´ He is short of / lacks money. ´ ´ Note the use of the genitive after ne xvatat; and nedostavat;. In addition, several reflexive verbs can be used impersonally with the dative: Mne xotelos; spat;. ´ I wanted to sleep. ´ ´dke. ¨ Nam ka'etsq, hto vse v porq It seems to us that every thing is in order. ´ Emu ostalos; to ´l;ko soglasit;sq. ´ All that was left to him was to agree. Ej ispo ´lnilos; 50 let. She is fifty.

Exercise 8
Use the most appropriate word from those given below to complete the sentences.
´ ´ (ostalos;, ispo ´lnitsq, nadoelo, xo ´ ´hetsq, len;, 'al;, pora, ´ xvataet) ´ ´tat;. 2 U'e west; haso . . . idti ´v: ´ ´ 1 Iz-za 'ary mne by lo . . . rabo ´. ´l;ko otkazat;sq ot \ ´togo plana. 4 Turi ´ 3 Nam . . . to ´ ´ ´stam bylo ´n. ´ ´pyta dlq tako rabo ´j ´ty. 6 Vo . . . be ´dnyx krest;q 5 Emu ne . . . o ´rnik mne . . . 21 god. 7 Mne o ´hen; . . . uvi ´tot fi vto ´det; \ ´l;m. ´ ´hnu[ rabo ´tat; tam i de ´tu. 8 Emu . . . rabo ´lat; sku

Exercise 9
Study the advertisement for the Marina Mashenskaya dental clinic. 1 Give four reasons for choosing the Marina Mashenskaya clinic. 2 What is the advantage of taking the whole family along to the clinic? 3 What special programmes does the clinic offer?

Zdravooxranenie

|

229

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

4 Which group in society is it targeting? 5 What resistance to dental treatment is the advertisement trying to overcome?

Language points ♦
Nekogo, nehego ´ ´
These expressions meaning respectively ‘there is no one’ and ‘there is nothing’ are used with the infinitive and may also be used with the dative: Nekogo sprosi ´ ´t;. There is no one to ask.

230

|

The health service

Nehego delat;. ´ ´ There is nothing to do. ´ ´ Emu nekogo sprosi ´t;. He has no one to ask. Nam nehego delat;. ´ ´ We have nothing to do. Nekogo / nehego decline like kto and hto and their case depends on ´ ´ the verb governing them: ´ Ej nekomu pomogat;. ´ She has no one to help. ´ Nam nehem zanimat;sq. ´ We have nothing to occupy us. When nekogo / nehego are used with a preposition it comes between ´ ´ ne and the rest of the word: ´ ´ ´ Emu ne s kem razgovarivat;. He has no one to talk to. ´mat;. Im ne o hem du ´ They have nothing to think about. Note that the form nehto is used with prepositions taking the ´ accusative, otherwise the accusative form is nehego: ´ Nam ne na hto smotret;. ´ ´ We have nothing to look at. Nam nehego est;. ´ We have nothing to eat. The word nekto means ‘someone’: ´ ¨ Nekto priwel. ´ Someone has arrived.

Negde, nekuda, nekogda ´ ´ ´
These adverbs, meaning respectively ‘there is nowhere’ (place); ‘there is nowhere’ (motion); ‘there is no time’, are used in the same way as nekogo / nehego: ´ ´ Nam negde 'it;. ´ We have nowhere to live.

Zdravooxranenie

|

231

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Im nekuda idti ´ ´. They have nowhere to go. ´ Nam nekogda otdyxat;. ´ We have no time to relax. Note that nekogda also means ‘once upon a time’: ´ On nekogda 'il v Moskve. ´ ´ He once lived in Moscow. ´ All the above expressions can be made past or future by using bylo ´det: or bu ´det razgovarivat;. ´ Nam ne s kem bu ´ We will have no one to talk to. ´ Im nekuda bylo idti. ´ They had nowhere to go.

Exercise 10
Choose an appropriate word from the list and then put the sentences in the past and future tense.
(nekuda, nehego, negde, nekogo, nekogda, nehem, ne o hem, ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ne na kogo, ne s kem, ne k komu) ´ ´ ´ ´ 1 Mne . . . xodi ´t;. 2 Emu . . . 'it;. 3 Ej . . . de ´lat;. 4 Materi ´ ´ ´ ´j. . . . smotre televi ´t; ´zor. 5 Mne . . . govori s tobo 6 Emu da'e ´t; ´[. ´. ¨ . . . pojti v pivnu 7 Mne . . . priglasi v kino 8 Rebenku . . . ´ ´t; ´ge ´j. est; sup. 9 Mne . . . nade ´qt;sq. 10 Ej . . . zajti po doro domo ´

The buffer vowel -o in prepositions
You will have noticed that the preposition v changes to vo, k to ko and s to so before some words beginning with more than one consonant. Sometimes this happens when the beginning of the word repeats the same or a similar sound to the preposition: ´ so sredy but v sredu ´ since Wednesday on Wednesday

232

|

The health service

´ vo Francii ´ but k Francii so stadio ´na but k stadio ´nu

in France towards France from the stadium towards the stadium

There are some combinations of consonants which result in -o being added to all of these prepositions. These include: vr-, vs-, vt-, dn-, mn- : vo vremq, ko vremeni, ´ ´ so vremeni, vo vsex, ko vsem, so vsemi, vo vtoro ko vtoro ´ ´ ´m, ´mu, ´ so vtorym, vo mno ´gix, ko mno ´gim, so mno ´gix.

Exercise 11
Choose the correct form of the prepositions from the brackets to complete the sentence.
´rnik. 2 Ona uwla (v / vo) sre 1 On prie ´xal (v / vo) vto ´ ´du. 3 (S / so) ´ ´meni vse izmeni ¨ ´gom zavi togo vre ´los;. 4 |to (v / vo) mno ´sit ot Vas. ´t ´nu. 5 Oni zajdu (k / ko) mne. 6 Ona podowla (k / ko) stadio ´ ´

Stress
Short form of adjectives
Fixed stress on the stem: krasi krasi ´v, ´va, krasi ´vo, krasivy; ´ ¨ ¨ interesen, interesna; ser;ezen, ser;ezna. This group includes ´ ´ most adjectives of four or more syllables. There are three main types of mobile stress: – Stress on the ending in the feminine and otherwise on the stem: ´sty; dobr, dobra; krepok, krepka; glup, ´ ´sto, gu ´ ´ gust, gusta, gu ´ ´ ; 'iv, 'iva; cel, cela; mil, mila. ´ ´ ´ glupa Stress on the ending in the feminine, neuter and plural: xoro ´w, ´ ´ ´ ¨ ¨ xorowa, xorowo xorowi bo ´, ´; ´len, bol;na; legok, legka; umen, ´ umna. Stress on the end in the feminine and plural and otherwise on the ´ ´ stem: viden, vidna, vidno, vidny. ´ ´

Zdravooxranenie

|

233

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 12
Translate into Russian. 1 At present the Russian health system is experiencing many difficulties. There are not enough doctors and nurses and conditions in hospitals are appalling. 2 The cost of treatment in private clinics is very high but I do not think we can do without private medicine in the present situation. 3 State help is essential for all hospitals, both state and private. 4 I think medical treatment should remain accessible to all people. But I do agree that people should have a choice. 5 I am so sorry for old age pensioners in Russia; they worked hard all their lives and now they cannot afford even basic medicines. 6 I think Professor Bronstein succeeded in creating his famous clinic thanks to his enormous energy and practical experience. 7 I am so fed up with everything; I have nothing to do, nowhere to go, nobody to talk to. 8 I hope the Russian government will succeed in getting out of its present crisis.

13 VYBORY V DUMU

In this unit you will learn: ◗ about the Russian electoral and party system ◗ how to form and to use perfective and imperfective gerunds ◗ how to write sentences in the negative

The fall of the Soviet Union also ended the role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) as the sole political party. However, it would be inaccurate to say that Russia has now moved to a properly functioning multi-party system. With the exception of the successor to the CPSU, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF), other political groups are rather ill-defined movements, with no real party structure, economic programme or ideological position. Alliances between these groups are constantly changing. For example, prior to the elections to the State Duma, (lower house of the Russian parliament) of December 1999, hundreds of small parties formed into 26 alliances. The real surprise of the election was that ‘Unity’, an alliance formed only a short while before the election, should come second to the communists in the popular vote and, because of other support it could call upon in the Duma, become, in effect, the dominant party.

Vybory v Dumu

|

235

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Text 1
Neo'i ´dannaq pobe ´da

´ ´ ´da byli odni iz Parla mentskie vybory 19 dekabrq 1999 go ´ ´ ´m ´ ´ ´t;ego tysqhele ´gi gla vnyx sobytij v Rossi na rube'e tre ´ ´i ´tiq. Ito ´ ´ ´ ¨ ¨ vyborov vse e]e obsu'da [tsq v pre ´ ´sse, podverga qs; ra znym ´ ´ ´du]em rossi ´ry o bu oce ´nkam i vyzyva q spo ´jskoj demokra tii. ´ ´ ´ Sa mym neo'i ´dannym rezul;ta tom vyborov byla pobe no ´ ´da ´vogo ´ politi ´heskogo dvi'e ´niq <Edi ´nstvo> (<Medve ´dq>). Ono ´ ´ ´m ´ste po ´sle kommuni ´ okaza los; na vtoro me ´stov. Nikto nikogda ´ ´ ´ ´ta ´jtingom, ne predpolaga l, hto \ fra kciq s minima l;nym re ´ ´brannaq za nede ´'et pobedi so ´l[ do registra cii, mo ´t;. Ved; v ´ ´ ´jting <Edi konce oktqbrq re ´ ´nstva>, po da nnym VCIOM, byl ´ ´ ´l;ko 4%. A hto uha stvovat; v vyborax na do preodole 5%´by to ´ ´t; ´ ko naha v s tako ´ ´rovnq, re ´go ni nyj bar;e Odna ´r. ´zkogo u ´jting

236

|

Elections to the Duma

´ ´ <Edi ´nstva> postepe ´nno povywa lsq i za me ´sqc do golosova niq ´ ´ ´ ¨ ´by uha stvovat; v podowel k 9%, hto bylo u'e dosta tohno, hto ´ ´ ´ ´, ´nkax. K koncu 'e noqbrq za 8–9 dnej do izbira tel;nyx go ´ ´ ´ ´k golosova niq on u'e dostiga l 18%. Ryvo <Medve ´dq> byl sde ´lan ´ ´ ´ ¨ na sa mom fi ´niwe izbira tel;noj kampa nii i prevzowel vse ´ ´ ´v, ´dannyx izbira telqmi. Za o'ida niq, dosti ´gnuv 23,2% goloso po ´ ´ dvi'e ´nie <Edi ´nstvo> progolosova la pohti he ´ ´tvert; izbira telej, priwe ´dwix na vybory. ´ ´ Kone ´hno, KPRF, po-pre ´'nemu, lidi ´rovala v vyborax, nabra v ´ ´ ´v. ´dannyj uspex 27,7% goloso I nesmotrq na to hto neo'i ¨ <Edi ´nstva> ser;ezno izmeni ´l sootnowe ´nie sil, pobe ´da ´las;. No sensacio ´nnaq pobe kommuni ´stov, v ce ´lom, sostoq ´da ´ ´m me <Edi ´nstva>, kaza los;, vyrosla na pusto ´ ´ste. Ved; ´j <Edi ´nstvo>, v otli ´hie ot KPRF, ne ime ´lo nikako opre´ ¨ ´j ¨ delennoj progra mmy, nikako hetkoj idealogi ´heskoj pozi ´cii. ´ ´pytnyx li ´nnoj U nego ne bylo ni o ´ ´derov, ni organizacio ´ ´ry. Kone ´go rezul;ta ta byli struktu ´hno, dlq dosti'e ´niq tako ´ ´ ´vany kolossa l;nye administrati mobilizo ´vnye, materia l;no´ ´hae ´rsy. No \ ni v ko slu ´nnye resu ´em ´to fina nsovye i informacio ´ ´ ´'et ob#qsni rezul;ta t tako maswta ba za stol; koro ´go ´tkoe ne mo ´t; ´go vre ´mq. Kakovy 'e prihi ´ ´ny tako uspe ´xa? ´etsq tem, hto ´logov, uspe <Edi Po mne ´ni[ polito ´x ´nstva> ob#qsnq ´ los; po porq ´ niq no ´ ´dku, i obe]a ´b]estvo istoskova ´voj pa rtii o ´ ´dok i poko ´pciej okaza lis; sozvu ´hny ´nhit; s korru navesti porq ´ ´n. A li nastroe ´ni[ rossiq ´der dvi'e ´niq, <Medve ´d;> Serge ´j ´, ´g, ´ryj ne ime nikaki politi Wojgu koto ´l ´x ´heskix zaslu no pro ´rogo xorowo bylo izve ´ ´ koto ´stno, hto on helove de ´k ´la, ne vor i ´ ´ ´zi, okaza lsq taki bli ne mafio ´m ´zkim bol;winstvu l[de No ´j. ´ kone ´hno, gla vnaq prihi ´na pobe ´dy <Edi ´nstva> – podde ´r'ka ´ ´ ´ ´ ´tina. Ona okaza las; dlq blo rewa []ej. |to Pu ´tin s \kra na ´ka Pu ´ telqm golosova t; za <medve ´ televi ´zora sove ´toval izbira ´dej>, hto ´ ´lilo no ´vomu blo ´ku dogna t; kommuni i pozvo ´stov.

´ Po materialam <Nezavi ´simoj gaze ´ty>, 1999–2001

Vybory v Dumu

|

237

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Vocabulary ♦
vor ´ go ´los / golosovanie ´ dognat; ´ izbiratel; ´ ´ izbiratel;naq kampaniq ´ ´dku istoskovat;sq po porq ´ maswtab medved; (m) ´ ´ ´ nabrat; golosa ´dok navesti porq ´ ´ obe]anie ´ podvergat;sq ocenkam ´ ´ prevzojti o'idaniq ´ ´ predpolagat; preodolet; bar;er ´ ´ ´ progolosovat; ryvo ´k ´hnyj nastroeni[ sozvu ´ sootnowenie sil ´ ¨ hetkij thief vote / voting to catch up voter election campaign to pine for, miss order scale bear to pick up, win votes to bring order promise to subject to assessment to exceed expectations to suppose to get through the barrier, over the hurdle to vote spurt in keeping with the mood correlation of forces clear

´ ´ ´em N.B. na rube'e tysqheletiq – on the brink of the millennium; ni v ko ´hae – on no account; v celom – on the whole; VCIOM – slu ´ Vserossi ´jskij centr po izuheni[ ob]estvennogo mneniq ´ ´ ´

Exercise 1
Answer the questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ´x ´ ¨ O kaki vyborax idet reh;? ´dannyj rezul;tat vyborov? ´v ´ Kako byl neo'i ´ ´mo dlq uhastiq v vy borax? ´ Hto neobxodi ´ ´nstva> do i po ´v ´sle vyborov? ´ Kako byl re ´jting <Edi ´nstvo>? ´l;ko izbiratelej progolosovali za <Edi Sko ´ ´ ´l;ko goloso nabrala KPRF? ´v Sko ´ ´ ´nstva>? ´ ´ Pohemu vse by li udivleny pobe <Edi ´de ´ny uspe <Edi ´nstva>? ´ Kakovy prihi ´xa ´? ´j Kto tako Serge Wojgu ´j ´na ´ka? Kakova glavnaq prihi pobe ´ ´ ´dy blo

238

|

Elections to the Duma

Exercise 2
Examine the results of the poll for the period 29 October – 2 November 1999 a month and a half before the election on 19 December 1999 and then answer the questions in Russian.

Esli by vybory v Gosdumu sostoqlis; v bli'ajwee voskresen;e, za kogo by vy progolosovali? 28% KPRF 4% So[z pravyx sil

14% Otehestvo – Vsq Rossiq 3% @en]iny Rossii 11% Qbloko 4% Edinstvo 4% Blok @irinovskogo 2% Naw dom – Rossiq

3% Protiv vsex 21% Zatrudnilis; otvetit;

1 2 3 4 5 6

´v ´su? Kako byl re ´jting KPRF soglasno opro ´ ´nstva> soglasno opro ´v ´su? Kako byl re ´jting <Edi ´ ´l;ko goloso nabrala KPRF v vy borax? ´v ´ Sko ´ ´nstvo> v vy borax? ´l;ko goloso nabralo <Edi ´v ´ Sko ´ ´zilsq? ´ Hej re ´jting povy silsq? Hej re ´jting poni H;q izbiratel;naq kampaniq byla bo ´ ´ ´ ´lee uspe ´wnoj?

Dialogue 1
A conversation between a journalist and political commentator
´ @ URNALI ST

´ P OLITOLOG

´dq po koli ´v, samaq Su ´hestvu nabrannyx goloso ´ ´ ´rnaq partiq v Rossi – partiq kommuni populq ´ ´i ´ ´stov. ´pnaq frakciq v Du kommunisti ´me I samaq kru ´ ´ ´heskaq. ´to tak. KPRF – edi K so'ale ´ni[, \ ´nstvennaq partiq, ´ ´ru[ mo ´'no nazvat; partiej. U nee est; svoj ¨ koto ´ ´ ´ \lektorat. Sredi ee \lektorata preoblada[t po'ily e ´ ´ ¨ ´ ´ ´ ´ l[di, pensione ´ry, veterany vojny , be ´ ´dnye sloi ´ ´rye s nostal;gi nasele ´niq, koto ´ej vspomina[t ´ ´wloe. Oni e]e ve ¨ ´rqt, hto pri kommuni ´ pro ´ ´stax bylo

Vybory v Dumu

|

239

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ @ URNALI ST ´ P OLITOLOG

´ @ URNALI ST

´ P OLITOLOG

´ @ URNALI ST

´ P OLITOLOG ´ @ URNALI ST

´ P OLITOLOG

´hwe. KPRF populq ´rna v rossi lu ´jskoj provi ´ncii, gde ¨ \konomi ´heskoe polo'e ´nie tq'eloe. ´rny v Rossi Mogut A kaki drugi partii populq ´e ´e ´ ´i? li oni konkuri ´ ´rovat; s KPRF? ´d ´dit slo ´vo <partiq>. |to Navrq li, k nim podxo ´ ´rym ´ skore predvy bornye ob#edine ´e ´niq, dvi'e ´niq, koto ¨ nado ofo ´rmit;sq v parti[. Takovy dvi'e ´ e]e ´ ´ ´nie <Edi ´nstvo>, OVR (<Ote ´hestvo – Vsq Rossi ´q>), SPS ´ra ´hen; razmy taq. ´ ´ (<So[z pravyx sil>). Ix struktu o ´ ´[t ne Oni kak pravilo, ob#edinq ´, ´ ´skol;ko frakcij, ´ ´q ´j predstavlq sobo koali ´cii. Tem ne me ´nee dvi'e ´nie <Edi ´nstvo> oder'alo pobe ´ ´du, ´l;ko 'e goloso sko ´v, ´l;ko nabrali nabrav pohti sto ´ ´ ´ ´ kommuni ´sty. Kak \to moglo proizojti ´? ´ ´to ´ Dlq menq \ takaq 'e zagadka, kak dlq vsex. Nikto ´ ´ ´'et ´ta <partiq> mo ne mog predpolo'i ´t;, hto \ ´ ´j rasshi ´tyvat; na pobe ´du. Ved; ona ne zaqvi ni odno ´ ´la ´pnoj ide u nee ne bylo nikaki programmnyx ¨ ´ kru ´i, ´x ´ pri ´ncipov. I vdrug ona okazalas; pobedi ´ ´ ´telem. ´'et byt;, vse de ¨ ´j Mo ´lo v sre ´dstvax massovo ´s; organizovat; informacii. Televi ´ ´deni[ udalo ´ ´nnu[ informacio kampani[, ´ sozdat; ´ ve ´rsi[ ´rnosti blo ´tina. A \ ´ka i podde ´to populq ´r'ki Pu ´ privleklo izbiratelej. ´ ´mnaq si ´ Kone ´hno, televi ´denie – ogro ´la. I ono sygralo ´ ´ svo[ rol;. ´j ´ S drugo storony, ni odna partiq ne smogla oder'at; ´ ´ ´ ´ ´]ej pobe ´ nastoq ´dy v vy borax. Ni KPRF, ni ´gut byt; pravq]ej partiej. Ne <Edi ´nstvo> ne mo ´ ´ ´ ´by udivi ´tel;no, hto oni i ´ ´]ut so[znikov, hto ob#edini ´t;sq? ´tin zaqvi hto nado ´. ´to i proizowlo Pu Imenno \ ´l, ´ ´ ´ ume ´n;wit; hislo partij. <Edi ´nstvo> i <Ote ´hestvo> u'e ob#edini ´lis;. Ob#edini ´vwis; v edi ´nu[ parti[. ´ ´ma[, oni nade ´ ´[tsq stat; partiej vlasti. Q du ´ ´ ¨ ´to pe \ ´rvyj wag na puti k trexpartijnoj siste ´ ´me. ¨ ´emu, A trexpartijnaq siste ´ma, po-mo ideal ´ ´jstva. ob]e ´stvennogo ustro

Po materialam <Nezavi ´ ´simoj gaze ´ty>, 2001

240

|

Elections to the Duma

Vocabulary ♦
´ zagadka konkuri ´rovat; s (+ inst) ´d navrq li ob]estvennoe ustro ´ ´jstvo ´t; ob#edinenie / ob#edinq ´ Otehestvo ´ ´ ´ pravq]aq partiq ´ predvybornaq kampaniq ´ ´ preobladat; privleh; ´ razmytyj ´ rasshi ´tyvat; na pobedu ´ ´ so[znik ´dq po (+ dat) su puzzle to compete hardly social structure unification, union / to unite Fatherland ruling party election campaign to predominate, prevail to attract blurred to count on victory ally judging by

´ N.B. pri kommuni ´stax – under the Communists; but pod vlast;[ kommuni ´stov – under the power of the Communists

Exercise 3
Answer the questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Which is the most popular party in Russia? Who makes up its electorate? What alliances are there in Russian politics? Why was everyone surprised at the victory of ‘Unity’? What role did the media play in this victory? What was the principal reason for the victory? Is there a ruling party in the Duma? Why did the ‘Unity’ and ‘Fatherland’ movements decide to join forces?

Exercise 4
True or false? ´i ´da v Rossi oder'ali pobe ´ 1 V vyborax 1999 go ´ ´du (KPRF, ´nstvo>, <Ote <Edi ´hestvo>)?

Vybory v Dumu

|

241

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

MEЖP

ИO

HA

П Ь HOE

ДB
ИЖ
ЕНИ

ЧECTBO OTE

E

“EДИНCTBO”

BC

Я PОCCИ

“EДИНCTBO И OTEЧECTBO”

BCEPOCCИЙCKAЯ ПAPTИЯ

´by uhastvovat; v vyborax, nado preodole ¨ ´ 2 Hto ´ ´ ´t; (trex-, pqti-, desqti-) proce ´ntnyj bar;e ´r? ´nstvo> i <Ote ´lis;, potomu hto oni xotq ´ ´ ´t 3 <Edi ´hestvo> ob#edini ´nstvennoj, demokrati ´heskoj) partiej? byt; (pravq]ej, edi ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ 4 Sredi \lektorata KPRF preoblada[t (po'ilye l[di, ´ ´ ¨ molode';, intellige ´nciq)? ´jnaq, ´jstva 5 Ideal ´ ob]e ´stvennogo ustro (mnogoparti ´jnaq, trexparti ´jnaq) siste ¨ odnoparti ´ma?

Language points ♦
Gerunds
Gerunds are verbal adverbs that can be substituted for adverbial clauses beginning with ‘when’, ‘while’, ‘since’, ‘after’, etc. Like some participles, they may be used to translate the English -ing form. Unlike participles, they are indeclinable. ´ Rabo ´taq v Moskve, q zainteresovalas; poli ´ ´tikoj. Working in Moscow, I became interested in politics. The gerund rabo ´taq, ‘working’, substitutes for the adverbial clause ´ kogda q rabo ´tala ‘when I was working’.

242

|

Elections to the Duma

The imperfective gerund
You will also find the imperfective gerund referred to as the present gerund.

How to form the imperfective gerund
Take the third person plural (oni form) of the present tense and ´ replace the last two letters by -q: rabo ´tat; – rabo ´ta[t – rabo ´taq working ´t ´ govori ´t; – govorq – govorq talking The imperfective gerund of verbs ending in -avat; ends in -avaq: ´ ´ ´ davat; – da[t – davaq ‘giving’. The imperfective gerund of reflexive verbs ends in -qs;: po ´l;zovat;sq – po ´l;zu[tsq – po ´l;zuqs; ‘using, enjoying’. As a result of the spelling rule the ending is -a after ', h, w, ]: ´ ´ der'at; – der'at – der'a ‘holding’. ´ ´duhi. The imperfective gerund of byt; is bu The imperfective gerund is generally stressed on the same syllable ´maq ‘thinking’. ´ma[ – du as the first person singular (q form): du ´ – si ´ ´dq ‘thinking’; sto[ – There are, however, exceptions: si'u ´ – le'a ‘lying’. ¨ sto ‘standing’; le'u ´q A considerable number of common verbs have no imperfective gerund. These include many verbs with monosyllabic infinitives: ´ bit;, brat; (berq exists but is rarely used), est;, 'dat;, pet;, ´ ´ pit; and irregular verbs: be'at;, exat;, pisat;, xotet;. ´ ´ Where a verb does not have an imperfective gerund, it may be possible to form the gerund from one of its compounds without altering ´ ´ the meaning too much: (pit;) vypivat; – vypivaq ‘drinking up’; ´ ´ ('dat;) o'idat; – o'idaq ‘waiting for, expecting’.

How to use imperfective gerunds
An imperfective gerund is used to express an action performed at the same time and by the same subject as the main verb of the sentence: ´sskimi ka'dyj den;, on mno ´ ´ Razgovarivaq s ru ´go ¨ uznaet o 'i ´zni v Rossi ´i. Talking to Russians every day he learns a lot about life in Russia. The alternative construction, using an adverbial clause instead of a gerund would read:

Vybory v Dumu

|

243

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´sskimi ka'dyj den;, on ´ ´ Tak kak on razgovarivaet s ru ¨ mno uznaet o 'i ´go ´zni v Rossii. ´ Since he talks to Russians every day, he learns a lot about life in Russia. It would also be possible to express the same idea using two main clauses: ´sskimi ka'dyj den; i mno ´ ´ On razgovarivaet s ru ´go ¨ uznaet o 'izni v Rossii. ´ ´ He talks to Russians every day and learns a lot about life in Russia. Provided the action of the gerund takes place at the same time as the action of the main verb, an imperfective gerund may be used in a sentence referring to events in the past and future, as well as the present: ´sskimi ka'dyj den;, on mno uznaval ´ ´ ´ Razgovarivaq s ru ´go o 'izni v Rossi ´ ´i. Talking to Russians every day he was learning a lot about life in Russia. ´sskimi ka'dyj den;, on mno bu ´ ´ Razgovarivaq s ru ´go ´det ´ t; o 'izni v Rossi uznava ´ ´i. Talking to Russians every day he will be learning a lot about life in Russia. ´ ´ There are some further examples in the text Neo'idannaq pobeda of imperfective gerunds: ´ ´ ´ Ito ´gi vyborov obsu'da[tsq v presse, podvergaqs; ´ ´ ´ raznym ocenkam i vyzyvaq spo ´ ´ry. The results of the elections are being discussed in the press, subjected to (subjecting themselves to) varied assessment and giving rise to arguments. The above example shows that a Russian gerund will not always be neatly translated by the English -ing form. Note the use of the negative gerund to translate ‘without . . . ing’: ´ ´ ¨ Oni sozdali parti[, ne imeq nikako opredelennoj ´ ´ ´j ´ programmy. They created a party without having any set programme. ´ ´ ´ Ona vywla iz ko ´mnaty, ne govorq ni slo ´va. She left the room without saying a word.

244

|

Elections to the Duma

Exercise 5
Form the imperfective gerund from the following verbs.
´vstvovat;, blagodari vspominat;, rasshi ´ ´tyvat;, sozdavat;, hu ´ ´t;, idti prixodi ´, ´t;, nesti vozvra]at;sq, putewe ´, ´ ´stvovat;, oka´ zyvat;sq, l[bovat;sq, stanovi ´ ´t;sq, golosovat;, nabirat;, byt;, ´ ´ naxodi ´t;sq,

Exercise 6
Replace the adverbial clauses with imperfective gerunds.
´s; v Rossi ´[ po 1 Kogda q naxo'u ´ ´i, q vsegda putewestvu ´ ´>. ´ ´mu kol;cu 2 Xotq on 'il vs[ 'izn; v Ame <Zoloto ´rike, on ´sskim pisatelem. 3 Kogda oni sozdavali no ´vu[ ostavalsq ru ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´tali no ´vu[ programmu. 4 Kogda dire parti[, oni razrabo ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ktor ´go ´tat;. razgovarivaet so stude ´ ´ntami, on vsegda sove ´ ´tuet mno rabo ´mnil, hto on zaby l ´ ´ 5 Kogda on vozvra]alsq iz Moskvy , on vspo ´ ´ ´waet mu ´zyku, ona zabyvaet obo vsem. ¨ pasport. 6 Poka ona slu ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´tal za grani 7 Tak kak on uhi ´lsq i rabo ´cej, on ne znal rossi ´jskix ´, proble 8 Tak kak on nenavi ´m. ´del vojnu on otkazalsq uhastvovat; ´ ´ ´ ¨ ´fe v nej. 9 Xotq ona l[bit sladkoe, ona p;et ko bez saxara. ´ ´ ´ ´ ´

The perfective gerund
You will also find the perfective gerund referred to as the past gerund.

How to form the perfective gerund
The perfective gerund is formed by replacing the -l from the masculine singular form of the perfective past tense by -v: ko ´nhit; – ko ´nhil – ko ´nhiv ‘having finished’. Reflexive verbs take the ending -vwis;: podvergnut;sq – ´ podvergnulsq – podvergnuvwis; ‘having been subjected to’. ´ ´ Verbs ending in -ti, including prefixed forms of vesti vezti ´, ´, idti and nesti have a perfective gerund ending in -q. Form it in ´ ´ the same way as the imperfective gerund, but using a perfective verb: ´t ´ ´ podojti – podojdu – podojdq ‘having approached’; vyvezti – ´ ´ ´ vyvezut – vyvezq ‘having exported’.

Vybory v Dumu

|

245

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 7
Form the perfective gerund from the following verbs.
sozdat;, nabrat;, progolosovat;, stat;, skazat;, pojti prinesti ´ ´ ´ ´ ´, ´, ´t;sq, vvezti s#est;, najti 'eni ue ´xat;, okazat;sq, vernu ´ ´, ´, ´t;sq, nazvat; ´

How to use the perfective gerund
A perfective gerund is used to express an action performed by the same subject as the main verb of the sentence prior to the action of the main verb: ´sskimi, on mno uznal o 'izni v ´ Vstretivwis; s ru ´ ´go ´ Rossii. ´ Having met Russians he had learnt a lot about life in Russia. The alternative construction using an adverbial clause would read: ´sskimi, on Po ´sle togo kak (tak kak) on vstretilsq s ru ´ ´ ´ mno uznal o 'i ´go ´zni v Rossii. ´ After (because) he had met Russians he knew a lot about life in Russia. Provided the action in the gerund takes place before the action of the main verb, a perfective gerund may be used, whatever the tense of the main verb: ´sskimi, on mno uznaet o 'izni v ´ Vstretivwis; s ru ´ ´go ´ Rossii. ´ Having met Russians he will have learnt a lot about life in Russia. There are some further examples of perfective gerunds in the text Neo'idannaq pobeda: ´ ´ ´rovnq, rejting postepenno ´ ´ Odnako nahav s ni ´zkogo u ´ ´ ´ povywalsq. However, having started from a low level, the ratings were gradually climbing. ´ ´ KPRF lidirovala v vyborax, nabrav 27.7% goloso ´ ´v. The CPRF was leading in the elections, having picked up 27.7% of the votes.

246

|

Elections to the Duma

Note that for a gerund to be used, it is essential that the subject of the gerund be identical to the subject of the main verb. It is impossible to use a gerund to translate the following sentence into Russian: The CPRF having picked up only 28.7% of the votes, the ‘Unity’ movement came second. ´ ´l;ko 27.7% goloso Tak kak KPRF nabrala to ´v, ´ <Edinstvo> zanqlo vtoro mesto. ´ ´e ´

Exercise 8
Replace the adverbial clauses with perfective gerunds.
´, ´roda. 2 Po ´sle togo ´ 1 Esli vy prie ´dete v Moskvu vy ne uznaete go ´ ´lsq iz poe ´'nik napisal kak on vernu ´zdki po Rossi ´i, xudo ´ ´ prekrasnye karti ´ ´ny. 3 Tak kak on rodi ´lsq v Rossi on xorowo ´i, ´ssku[ kul;tu ´ru. 4 Kogda on poznako ´milsq s nej, on byl znal ru ´ ¨ ¨ ´ ´sle togo kak ona vywla zamu' za nego ´ ´, pora'en ee znaniqmi. 5 Po ´ ´ ´ ´sila svo[ rabo ´ ´tu. 6 To ´l;ko kogda vy prohitaete tekst, vy ona bro ´ ´ ´'ete otve ´sy. 7 Esli ty sdaw; \kzameny, ty smo ´tit; na vopro ´ ´piw; v universite 8 Tak kak oni otkazalis; uhastvovat; ´ ´ ´ postu ´t. ´j. ´ v sorevnovaniqx, oni byli vynu'deny ue ´ ´ ´ ´xat; domo 9 Tak kak ´vstvovala sebq plo ´ ´xo, ona legla na krovat;. ona pohu ´ ´ ´ ´

Exercise 9
Replace the underlined verbs with suitable gerunds (imperfective or perfective).
´ ´ 1 Vybory obsu'da[tsq v pre ´ ´sse i podverga[tsq raznym oce ´ ´nkam. ´ ´m ´ste. 3 Re ´jting 2 <Edi ´nstvo> pobedi i okazalos; na vtoro me ´lo ¨ ´sqc do golosovaniq k 9%. ´ <Edi ´nstva> povywalsq i podowel za me ´ ´vu[ parti[. ´ ´ ´ ´ 4 Izbirateli priwli na vybory i progolosovali za no ´ ¨ ´'et byt; 5 <Edi ´nstvo> ne imeet opredelennoj programmy i ne mo ´ ´ ´'e i ´dit vse kani pravq ´ ´]ej partiej. 6 Ona provo ´ ´ ´kuly na plq ´lsq. 8 On ne ´ ´ ´ ´ nihego ne delaet. 7 On prohital pis;mo i zasmeq ´ ´va ´mnaty. 9 Frakcii ob#edini ´ skazal ni slo i vy wel iz ko ´ ´lis; ´ ´ ´du i stala ´ i pobedi ´li na vy borax. 10 Partiq oder'ala pobe ´ ´vu[ poli ´gie dvi'e provodi ´t; no ´tiku. 11 Mno ´niq sejhas ´ ´[tsq i nade[tsq sozdat; si ´ ´ ´l;nu[ parti[. 12 Turi ´ ´sty ob#edinq ´de ´doj. 13 Nabo ´kov ´ ´ ´voj priro plyli na teploxo i l[bovalis; krasi ´sskim po ro'de ´ni[ i nikogda ne zabyval Rossi 14 On ´ ´ ´[. byl ru ´ ´ ´lodost;. hital kni o l[bvi i vspominal svo[ mo ´gi ´ ´

Vybory v Dumu

|

247

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Gerunds as prepositions
´dq po + Some gerunds are used as prepositions. These include su ´); dative ‘judging by’ (note the different stress on the gerund – sudq ´ ´ blagodarq + dative ‘thanks to’ (note blagodarq + accusative – gerund ´ ´ ‘thanking’); nesmotrq na + accusative ‘despite’; iskl[haq + ´ accusative ‘including’; ne iskl[haq + genitive ‘excluding’; ne ´ ´ shitaq + genitive ‘not counting’; shitaq s / ot + genitive ‘starting with’: ´dq po koli ´rnaq partiq – ´ Su ´hestvu goloso samaq populq ´v ´ ´ partiq kommuni ´stov. Judging by the number of votes the most popular party is the Communist Party. ´tina <Edinstvo> pobedi ´ Blagodarq podder'ke Pu ´ ´ ´lo. Thanks to Putin’s support, ‘Unity’ won.

Exercise 10
Examine the composition of the third State Duma as a result of elections on 19 December 1999 and answer the questions in Russian.
Дума 1999 года
29 76 CПC Eдинство 22 111

ЯБЛОКО

KПРФ

ин

62
ок

ов

ск ог о

OBP

Независимые кандидаты

17 105 KPRF Kommunistiheskaq partiq Rossijskoj Federacii OVR Otehestvo - Vsq Rossiq SPS So[z pravyx sil

Бл

Ж ир

248

|

Elections to the Duma

1 2 3 4

´hestvo mest v Du ´me? ´ ´ ´e U kogo samoe bol;wo koli ´e ´sto? Kto zanimaet vtoro me ´ Kto zanimaet posle ´ ´dnee me ´sto? ´me u <Edi ´nstva>, <Ote ´l;ko mest v Du ´ Sko ´hestva>, <So[za pravyx sil>? ´ ´nstva>, e ´tsq s ´l;ko mest budet u <Edi ´ 5 Sko ´sli ono ob#edini <Ote ´hestvom>?

The negative
Examine the following sentence taken from the text Neo'idannaq ´ pobeda: ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ta frakciq mo Nikto nikogda ne predpolagal, hto \ ´ ´'et pobedi ´t;. No one ever imagined that this faction could win. What the sentence literally says in Russian is: No one never did not imagine . . . In a Russian negative sentence not only is the verb negated by the presence of ne, but all words such as anyone, anything, ever, anywhere, any, either . . . or are translated as nikto ‘no one’, nihto ´ ´ ´ ´ ‘nothing’, nikogda ‘never’ nigde / nikuda ‘nowhere’, nikako ‘no / ´ ´j not any’, ni . . . ni ‘neither . . . nor’. Look at these other examples from the same text: ´ ¨ <Edinstvo> ne imeet nikako opredelennoj programmy. ´ ´ ´j ‘Unity’ has no set programme. Note the use of the genitive after the negative verb. U nego net ni o ´ ´pytnyx liderov, ni organizacio ´ ´nnoj ´ry. struktu It has neither experienced leaders nor an organisational structure. The genitive also follows net meaning ‘there is not’. When nikto nihto and nikako are used with a preposition ´, ´ ´j the preposition comes between the first syllable and the rest of the word: ´ma[. Q ni o kom ne du I am not thinking about anyone.

Vybory v Dumu

|

249

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 11
Answer these questions in the negative.
´ 1 Gde vy by li vhera? 2 Ty kuda-nibud; xodi ve ´ ´ ´l ´herom? 3 Za ´trom? 5 U ´ ´ kogo vy golosovali na vy borax? 4 Hto vy de ´ ´lali u ´ <Edi ´nstva> est; kakaq-nibud; programma? 6 U tebq est; brat, ´ ´ sestra? 7 Vy kogda-nibud; he ´ ´ ´m-nibud; i ´li ke ´m-nibud; ´maete? 9 K kako partii vy ¨ ´j uvlekalis;? 8 O hem vy du ´ ´ ´ ´? prinadle'i ´te? 10 S kem vy xodi ´li v kino 11 Hemu ona ´etsq? 12 Na kom on 'eni udivlq ´lsq?

Exercise 12
Translate into Russian. 1 You cannot have a democratic society under a one-party system. Fortunately this system belongs to the past. 2 The new movement ‘Unity’ would like to be the ruling party in Russia, but it is unlikely to achieve this goal without allies. 3 Having won a quarter of the votes in the parliamentary election, the Communist Party began to work out a new programme of action. 4 Despite the fact that ‘Unity’ enjoyed enormous success during the election, the Communist Party still came first. 5 Unfortunately ‘Unity’ does not have any economic programme. 6 The success of ‘Unity’ is explained by the fact that President Putin gave his support to the movement. He actually advised the electorate to vote for them. 7 Being the only party with its own electorate, the Communist Party hopes to widen its influence. 8 The mass media played a decisive role in the last election. Television succeeded in creating the myth of the popularity of the ‘Unity’ movement and many people believed it. 9 Judging by the methods used during the election campaign, Russia is still a long way from democracy.

14 INTERNET

In this unit you will learn: ◗ ◗ ◗ ◗ about the internet in Russia some more information on word building verbs with prefixes how to differentiate between certain verbs

The Russian language net, popularly called Runet because its addresses typically end ‘.ru’, underwent massive expansion in 2000. Only in the following year did legislation giving protection for intellectual property rights and providing the framework for e-commerce catch up with this boom. The web also occupies a role in the political life of Russia. Vladimir Putin had a sophisticated campaign website during his presidential campaign. Sites were also used in the Duma elections to wage negative campaigns against rivals, notably ex-Prime Minister Primakov and Moscow Mayor Luzhkov. The Russian Government has a regularly updated official web page at www.pravitelstvo.gov.ru. There are also a number of news sites including: strana.ru; vesti.ru; smi.ru; gazeta.ru and lenta.ru.

Internet

|

251

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Text 1
Rossi ´jskomu Interne ´tu (Rune ´tu) 10 let
´dnq bo ´lee 4 mln. akti ´l;zovatelej V Rossi ´i sego ´vnyx po ´nno. ´dit> v Set; postoq Interne ´ta, to est; tex, kto <xo ´[t pq ´tu[ hast; (o ´vskie po ´l;zovateli sostavlq ´kolo 0,9 Mosko ´ ´ ´na). Po da nnym G\lla pa, Interne millio ´tom v Moskve ´ ´l;zu[tsq 935 tysqh helove Vsemi e'eme ´sqhno po ´ ´k. ´rnaq Pauti ´na ´ ´rna sredi molode'i. Sa moj znahi ´benno populq ¨ oso ´ ´tel;noj ´etsq audito ´riq v vo ´zraste ot 25 do 34 let (25%). Rastet i ¨ qvlq ´ ´ ´da ´ hislo interne ´thikov sta rwe 55 let: za posle ´dnie dva go ono ´ ´vogo ´ilos;. @i ´to peredova q hast; no udvo ´teli Interne ´ta – \ ´ ´ ´ ´vyj o ´braz 'i sre ´dnego kla ssa. Bol;winstvo osva ivaet no ´zni za ´ telq: bo ¨ ´l;we polovi ´l;zovatelej <xo ´dqt> shet rabotoda ´ny vsex po ´ ´ ´fisa. Da 'e e ´l;zovatel; v Interne ne vyxodq iz o ´t, ´sli po ´ ´lik, u nego vse ravno na rabo oka zyvaetsq mno pa uz, ´ ¨ ´ ´te ´go ´ trudogo ´ ´[tsq Interne ´rye zapolnq koto ´tom. Za doma wnij Interne na do ´t ´ ´ na plati ´ tit konto No hislo ´ ´te ´ra. ´ iz svoego karma ´t;, a na rabo pla ´ ´l;zovatelej to ´'e rastet. ¨ doma wnix po ´ ´nta nasele ´niq Rossi ´i Po da nnym monitoring.ru, 24 proce ´niq Interne ´dqtsq v zo ´ne vliq ´lee akti naxo ´ta. Naibo ´vno ´ ´l;zu[tsq Interne ´taet v sre po ´tom te, kto rabo ´dstvax ma ssovoj ´ ´ ´ ´ informa cii, rekla me, bi ´znese i fina nsovom se ´ktore. Sa mye ´ ´ ´rnye razde populq ´ly – sre ´dstva ma ssovoj informa cii i ´ ´hie dni poseti razvlehe ´niq. V rabo ´telej virtua l;nyx gaze i ´t ´ ´l;we, liw; v uik-e novostnyx lent vsegda bo ´ ´nd intere k SMI ´s ´ ´ ´t, ´l;zovatelej pa daet, a k razvlehe ´niqm, naoboro vozrasta et. Po ´et sve ´benno interesu Interne ´ta oso ´'aq politi ´heskaq i ´ ´ ´ ´l;we ne nu'na gaze ´raq socia l;naq informa ciq. Im bo ´ta, koto ´et ´vosti. Oni poluhi ´stup k novostnym le sortiru no ´ ´li do ´ ´ntam, ´ ´gut proizvodi otbo Vozmo ´r. ´'nosti dlq pre i sa mi mo ´t; ´ssy v Seti ´ ´ poi ´stine bezgrani ´hny. E'edne ´vnaq pose]a emost; ne ´kotoryx ´ ´ Interne ´t-SMI prevywa et tira'i ob]enaciona l;nyx gaze ´ ´t. ´l;ko za posle ´j To ´dnij me ´sqc novostno sajt www.lenta.ru poseti ´li

252

|

The Internet

´lee 1 millio ´na helove bo ´k. |to sopostavi ´mo s e'edne ´vnym ´rov. ´m ´lee 300 tysqh \kzemplq tira'o bo ´ ´et ´d ´l;zovatelq sostavlq 200 do ´llarov Sre ´dnij doxo rossi ´jskogo po ´b]ego koli na hle ´na sem;i he ´, ´tvert; ot o ´hestva potrebi ´telej ´ ´[t ´dqt v Seti interne ´t-informa cii sostavlq stude ´nty. Oni provo ´ ´ ´ ´t ´l;no mno ´go vremeni – 337 minu e'enede dovo ´l;no, pose]a q, ´ ´ ´ ´zyka, ´brazom, razvleka tel;nye sa jty (anekdo ´ty, mu gla vnym o ´ ty, i ha ´gry). ´ ´j ´znes – sa myj progressi ¨ Setevo bi ´ru[]ij v strane On sozdaet ´. ¨ ´l;wee koli ´hix mest. Interne ´vlq rastet. ¨ vse bo ´hestvo rabo ´t-torgo ´ ´ ´vyj vid proda ' – he ´dqt Razviva etsq no ´rez Interne V Set; prixo ´t. ´ ¨ ´vye i no ´vye l[di, no ´ ´vye kompa nii. Mnogomillio ´nnye vse no ´ ´ sde ´lki i investi ´cii, sde ´lannye he ´rez Interne u'e nikogo ne ´t, ´[t. udivlq

´voe vre Po materialam 'urnala <No ´ ´ ´mq>, 2000

Vocabulary ♦
bezgrani ´hnyj Vsemi ´rnaq Pauti ´na do ´stup znahi ´tel;nyj ´niq zo ´na vliq konto ´ra ´ novostnaq lenta / novostno ´ ´j sajt ´ osvaivat; peredovo ´j poi ´stine po ´l;zovatel; Interneta ´ potrebi ´tel; proizvodi ´t; otbo ´r ´ razvlekatel;nyj sajt sdelka ´ Set; (f ) sopostavi ´myj ´ tira' limitless world-wide-web, www access significant sphere of influence office news site to master progressive indeed Internet-user consumer to make a selection entertainment site deal Network comparable circulation

Internet

|

253

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

trudogo ´lik udvo ´it;sq ´r \kzemplq

workaholic to double copy

¨ N.B. vse ravno – all the same; naoboro – the other way round; ´ ´t ´ ´ po dannym G\llapa – according to Gallup agency data

Exercise 1
Answer the questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ´vnyj po ´e ´l;zovatel; Interne Hto tako akti ´ta? ´dqt> v Interne bol;winstvo po ´ ´l;zovatelej? Kak <xo ´t ´e ´rny v Interne ´benno populq Kaki razde ´ly oso ´te? ´]estva po ´l;zovaniq novostny mi sajtami? ´ ´ Kakovy preimu ´ ´jskogo po ´v ´dnij doxo rossi ´d ´l;zovatelq? Kako sre ´e ´ ´l;we vsego ´? Kaki sajty pose]a[t stude ´ ´nty bo

Dialogue 1
A conversation between a journalist and a sociologist
´ @ URNALI ST

´ S OCIOLOG

´ @ URNALI ST

´ S OCIOLOG

´ @ URNALI ST

´[tsq soob]e ¨ ´l;ko o Vse ha]e v pre ´sse poqvlq ´niq ne to ´hwe li nam ´l;ze, no i o vrede komp;[terov. Ne lu ´ po ´ ´ ´ ´ voob]e otkazat;sq ot komp;[terov i zaby t; pro ´ Interne ´t? ´'no. Komp;[ter stal hast;[ nawej ´ ´to nevozmo No \ ´ ´ ´l;zovatelej otobrat; 'i ´zni. Esli sejhas u vsex po ´ ´ ´ ter, to oni ostanutsq <bez ruk>. komp;[ ´ ´ ´ ´ta[]ie s Ne ´kotorye utver'da[t, hto l[di, rabo ´ ´ ´l;we podve ´ komp;[terom bo ´r'eny stre ´ssam, hem l[di, ´ta[]ie s komp;[terom. ´ ne rabo ´emu, stre Po-mo ´ssam podve ´r'eny vse. I utver'dat;, ´ ´. ´ ´ ´tom vinovaty komp;[tery, nel;zq L[di vse hto v \ ´ ´v, ´'et vozni raznye. V konce konco stress mo ´ ´ ´knut; i ´ iz-za oby hnogo pereutomle ´niq. ´dnym> no ´voe zaboV posle ´dnee vre ´mq stalo <mo ´ levanie – Interne ´ ´t-zavi ´simost;. Q ime ´[ v vidu

254

|

The Internet

´ S OCIOLOG

´ @ URNALI ST ´ S OCIOLOG

´ @ URNALI ST

´ S OCIOLOG

patologi ´heskoe vlehe ´nie k prebyvani[ v Seti Ne ´ ´. ´et ´v;[ ´to ka'etsq li Vam, hto \ prihinq u]e zdoro ´ ´rb kak fizi ´heskomu, tak i psixi ´heskomu. ´t; Da, interne mo ´t ´'et zatqnu v svoi se ´ ´ti. |to kak ´ew;, tem sil;ne ´tik: hem bo ´l;we upotreblq narko ´e ´hetsq. xo ´'no li vy lehit;sq ot tako <narko ´go ´tika>? ´ I mo Kone ´hno, I kuda le ´ ´ghe, hem ot narkomanii. Ot ´ ´, ´'no vy lehit;sq samomu bez ´ Internet-zavi ´simosti mo ´et ´mo]i vrahe ´me Interne po ´j. Ved; kro ´ta su]estvu ´tij: l[bi ´ta, l[bi massa drugi zanq ´ ´x ´maq rabo ´myj ´, ´sto, vo helove a tak'e teatry, kino konce ´k, ´ ´ ´rty. Pro ¨ vsem nado znat; me ´ ´ru i vre ´mq ot vre ´meni perekl[hat;sq na drugi ve ´ ´e ´]i. ´ ´et No mne ka'etsq, hto u nas v strane u'e su]estvu ´ ´ ´nnaq ugro ´za. I my dol'ny ograni ´ informacio ´hit; ´stup k ne do ´kotorym sajtam. ´ ´'en zako nu'ny ´n, ´ Zdes; q s Vami soglasen. Nam nu ´ ´ me za]i ´ry ´ty. Nado kontroli ´ ´rovat; social;no opasnye ´ ´ ´rye propagandi ´tiki, nasi sajty, te koto ´ ´ru[t narko ´lie, terrori ´zm.

´rnoj gaze Po materialam <Literatu ´ ´ty>, 2000

Vocabulary ♦
vlehenie ´ vred vylehit;sq ot (+ gen) ´ ´t; v set; zatqnu znat; meru ´ Internet-zavi ´ ´simost; mery za]i ´ ´ty nasi ´lie ograni ´hit; ´ otobrat; ´ perekl[hat;sq na (+ acc) pereutomlenie ´ podver'ennyj stressu ´ ´ poi ´stine attraction harm to be cured of to draw into, trap in the net to know one’s limit Internet dependence protection measures violence to restrict to take away to switch to exhaustion, overwork subject to stress indeed

Internet

|

255

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

po ´l;za ´ prebyvanie ´ privlekatel;nyj ´t; u]erb (+ dat) prihinq ´ ´ social;no-opasnyj sajt ugro ´za

use, benefit stay attractive to cause damage socially dangerous site threat

Exercise 2
Answer the questions in Russian. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ´'no li otkazat;sq ot komp;[terov? ´ Mo ´ ´et ´ Pravda li, hto komp;[ter poo]rq stress? ´ Kak voznikaet stress? ´ ´simost;? ´e Hto tako Interne ´t-zavi ´simosti? ´'no vy lehit;sq ot Interne ´ Kak mo ´t-zavi ´m ´ ´hit; do ´stup? K kaki sajtam nado ograni ´

Exercise 3
True or false? ´vnye po ´l;zovateli Interne ´ ´ 1 Samye akti ´ ´ta (po'ily e l[di, ´l;niki, molody e l[di)? ´ ´ wko ´ ´ma, na ´ ´l;zovatelej <xo ´dit> v Set; (u sebq do 2 Bol;winstvo po ´te, v Interne rabo ´t-kafe ´)? ´rnye sajty (razvlehe 3 Samye populq ´ ´ ´niq, SMI, haty, ´ antikvariat)? ´ ´znes-sajty, ´l;we pose]a[t (novostnye sajty, bi ´ 4 Stude ´nty bo ´ ´ ´ razvlekatel;nye sajty)? ´ ´ ´ ´ta[]ie s komp;[terom, (nikogda ne bole ´ ´go 5 L[di, rabo ´ ´[t, mno ´ t, podve usta[ ´r'eny stre ´ssu)? ´simost; (psixi ´heskoe zabolevanie, bole 6 Interne ´t-zavi ´ ´zn; se ´rdca, ´)? vlehe ´nie k prebyvani[ v Seti ´ ´simosti ´by ´ 7 Hto vy lehit;sq ot Interne ´t-zavi nado ´ ´t;sq na drugi zanq ´e ´tiq, vl[bi ´t;sq, uvle (perekl[hi ´h;sq teatrom)? ´ ´ru[t (seks, ´rye propagandi 8 Samye opasnye sajty – te, koto ´ ´ ´ ´zm)? kure ´nie, terrori

256

|

The Internet

Exercise 4
Study the results of a poll conducted in Russia (shown opposite page) and answer the questions in English. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 What was considered the third most dangerous kind of site? What was considered next most dangerous after terrorist sites? Why should some sites dealing with Russian history be controlled? What kinds of intolerance might be propagated on web sites according to this list? How might NATO figure in web sites? What is the principal indication of Internet dependence? What was considered a rather more significant indication than a tendency to stress and depression? What was the least significant indication of Internet dependence?

Language points ♦
Word building
In previous units we have looked at common roots which connect words with similar meanings and at how these roots combine with prefixes to add to or qualify the meaning and suffixes which determine the part of speech. Many people learning Russian have difficulty in memorising vocabulary. It is often worthwhile breaking down a Russian word into its constituent parts as a way of making it more memorable or helping to decipher its meaning. The aim of this section is to give you some more tips about the way Russian words are put together to help you to continue to build your vocabulary.

Alternation of consonants
Sometimes it may be more difficult to recognise a familiar root in a word because the consonant is different. There are some common alternations of consonants in Russian: ´ d / ' / 'd: vodi ‘to lead’; vo'ak ‘leader’; vo'd; ‘leader’ ´t; ´ ´ t / h: dobyt; ‘to obtain’; dobyha ‘booty, extraction’ ´ t / ]: pitat; ‘feed’; pi ´]a ‘food’

Internet

|

257

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

I <Kakie samye informacionno <opasnye> web-sajty?> (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Propagandiru[]ie narkotiki. Propagandiru[]ie nasilie i \kstremizm. Posvq]ennye texnologii izgotovleniq oru'iq. Prestupnyx i terroristiheskix organizacij. Totalitarnyx sekt. Pornografiheskie.

II <Kakie sajty v Internete sledovalo by kontrolirovat;?> (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Reklama antiob]estvennyx sajtov. Iska'a[]ie istori[ Rossii. Manipuliru[]ie lihnost;[, naruwa[]ie ee nravstvennye osnovy. Propagandiru[]ie bombe'ki stranami NATO <nepokornyx> gosudarstv. Soder'a]ie dokumental;nye kadry smertej. Propagandiru[]ie vra'du, nenavist;, nacional;nu[ i klassovu[ neterpimost;.

III <Kakovy osnovnye proqvleniq Internet-zavisimosti?> (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) <Otvykanie> ot real;noj 'izni, <uxod> v virtual;nyj mir. Formirovanie potrebnosti <narkotiheskogo> xaraktera. Poterq radosti ot 'ivogo ob]eniq. Uvelihenie sklonnosti (do boleznennosti) k komp;[ternym igram. Povywennaq sklonnost; k stressovym i depressivnym sostoqniqm. O]u]enie trudnostej v izlo'enii myslej na bumage ili v razgovore.

´vskie no ´vosti>, 2001 Gaze <Mosko ´ta

´t; – to distort; naruwa ´t; – violate; bombe'ka – bombing; ¨ N.B. iska'a nepoko ´rnyj – unruly; neterpi ´most; – intolerance; potre ´bnost; – need; 'ivo ´e ´ ob]e ´nie – live contact; izlo'e ´nie myslej – setting out thoughts; sklo ´nnost; – tendency to

258

|

The Internet

s / w: z / ': st / ]: c / h: k / h: x / w: g / ':

´ vyso ´kij ‘high’; vywe ‘higher’ ´z francu ‘Frenchman’; ´'enka ‘Frenchwoman’ francu ´]e ‘thicker’ gusto ‘thick’; gu ´j grani ‘border’ (noun); grani ´ca ´hit; ‘border’ (verb) ´ reka ‘river’ (noun); rehno ‘river’ (adjective) ´j ´xa mu ‘fly’ (noun); muwi ´nyj ‘fly’ (adjective) ´ [g ‘south’ (noun); ['nyj ‘south’ (adjective)

Noun suffixes
The suffixes which identify adjectives and verbs are easily recognisable. There are a whole variety of suffixes which indicate different kinds of nouns.

Profession, occupation
-tel;, -ik, -nik, -nica (f ), -ak, -qk, -ar;, -arwa (f ), -qr, -hik, -hica (f ), -]ik, -]ica (f ), -ec, -tor ´ ´ pisatel; / pisatel;nica isto ´rik bezdel;nik ´ uhi ´tel;nica ´ rybak ´k morq bibliotekar; ´ ´ sekretarwa ´r stolq perevo ´dhik / perevo ´dhica ´b]ik / gardero ´b]ica gardero prodavec / prodav]ica ´ ´ ´ redaktor ´ avtor writer historian idler woman teacher fisherman sailor librarian secretary joiner interpreter, translator cloakroom attendant sales assistant editor author

Nationality, religion, citizenship
-anin, -anka (f ), -qnin, -qnka (f ), -ec, -ka (f ), -ih, -ihka (f ) ´ anglihanin ´ anglihanka ´ ´ xristianin / xristianka ´nin / krest;q ´nka krest;q ´ ´ amerikanec / amerikanka moskvi / moskvi ´h ´hka Englishman Englishwoman Christian peasant American Muscovite

Internet

|

259

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Actions
-anie, -enie, -;ba, -nq, -ka ´ pisanie povywenie ´ ´ xod;ba ´ begotnq writing increase walking running

Qualities
-ost;, -est;, -ota, -stvo mo ´lodost; sve'est; ´ ´ temnota ´'estvo mu ´ besstydstvo youth freshness darkness bravery shamelessness

Note that a large range of abstract nouns, not just denoting qualities, end in -stvo: otehestvo ´ ´sstvo isku mno ´'estvo fatherland art multitude

Diminutives
¨ -ik, -ok, -ek, -hik -ka, -ohka, -uwka do ´mik gorodo ´k ¨ ogonek ´ stakanhik rehka ´ devohka ´ ´wka derevu little house small town small light little glass little river little girl small village

Small animals
¨ -enok, -onok ¨ kotenok medve'o ´nok ¨ rebenok kitten bear cub child

´ta, medve'ata, deti / rebqta (more com´ Note their plurals: kotq monly used in the sense of ‘lads, guys’).

260

|

The Internet

Exercise 5
What do you call a man who . . . ´sskomu qzyku – uhi ´ ´sskogo Example: uhit; ru ´ ´tel; ru ´ qzyka
´ pokupat; televi ´ ´zory, prodavat; komp;[tery, perevodi ´ ´t; s ´dom, po ´l;zovat;sq komp;[´ inostrannogo qzyka, rukovodi zavo ´ ´ ´t; terom, 'it; v Moskve redakti ´, ´rovat; gaze ´tu, izdavat; 'urnal, ´ ´ ´tat; na zavo ´de, prepodavat; angli ´ rabo ´ ´jskij qzyk.

Exercise 6
Choose between the two words (note -ost; generally denotes the state and -enie the action). ´pnost; ‘crime, criminality’ Example: prestu prestuplenie ‘crime, criminal offence’ ´ ´pnost;) Koli ´hestvo . . . rastet s ¨ 1 (prestuplenie i ´ ´li prestu ´'no poko ´nhit; s . . . v sovreme ka'dym godom. Kak mo ´ ´nnom ´b]estve? o ´stra ´ ´ 2 (zabolevanie ili zabolevaemost;) Po mne ´ ´ni[ mini ´i, ´b]aq . . . v Rossi po-pre ´kaq. zdravooxrane ´niq, o ´'nemu, vyso ´los; no ´simost;. ´voe . . . Internet-zavi Poqvi ´ ´emost;) Po-mo ´emu, u tebq 3 (pereutomlenie ili pereutomlq ´ ´ ´hnoe . . . tebe nado otdoxnu ´t;. Po-mne tipi ´ ´ ´ni[ vrahe . . . ´j, ´ ¨ sredi dete rastet. ´j ´ 4 (pose]enie i ´ ´li pose]aemost;) V posle ´dnee vre ´mq re ´zko ´hwit; ´'et ulu vozrosla . . . Interne SMI. . . . teatrov pomo ´ ´t ´ ´sskij qzyk. ´ vaw ru ´tno tvoe ¨ 5 (razdra'enie ili razdra'i ´ ´ ´tel;nost;) Mne ponq ´t; ´ ´emu, on bo ´len, ego . . . u'e ´ . . . : ved; on opq opozdal. Po-mo ´ ´cy. ´dit vse grani prevosxo

Verbs with prefixes
Prefixes are often added to imperfective verbs to make them perfec´ ´ tive: pisat; (imperfective) / napisat; (perfective). Other prefixes can

Internet

|

261

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

be added which, as well as making verbs perfective, modify their meaning: v- ‘in’ ´ vpisat; to insert, include

The imperfective is formed by inserting -yv-: ´ vpisyvat;sq / vpisat;sq ´ vy- ‘out of’ ´ vypisyvat; / vypisat; ´ do- ‘finish’ ´ dopi ´syvat; / dopisat; za- ‘for, begin’ ´ zapi ´syvat; / zapisat; nad- ‘over, above, super-’ ´ nadpi ´syvat; / nadpisat; o- ‘about, around’ ´ opisyvat; / opisat; ´ pere- ‘re-, over, across’ ´ perepisyvat; / perepisat; ´ perepisyvat;sq ´ pri- near ´ pripi ´syvat; / pripisat; pod- ‘under, sub-’ ´ podpi ´syvat; / podpisat; podpi ´syvat;sq / ´ podpisat;sq na to sign (write under) to subscribe to (newspapers) to add to rewrite to correspond to describe (write about) to superscribe, inscribe to note to finish (writing) to copy out, extract, prescribe to fit in well

In the verb rabo ´tat; the ‘o’ changes to an ‘a’ when -yv- is inserted: ´ zarabatyvat; / zarabo ´tat; ´ pererabatyvat; / pererabo ´tat; to earn to process, rework

262

|

The Internet

Second conjugation verbs add -iv- rather than -yv-: do- ‘finish, complete’ ´ dostraivat; / dostro ´it; ´ perestraivat; / perestro ´it; pri- ‘near, adjoining’ ´ pristraivat; / pristro ´it; u- ‘impart a quality, away’ ´ ustraivat; / ustro ´it; to organise, arrange (impart stroj ‘system, structure’) to build onto to finish building to rebuild

Exercise 7
See if you can figure out the meaning of these verbs.
´it;; dopi perede ´lyvat; / perede ´lat;; nadstraivat; / nadstro ´ ´syvat; / dopisat;; osmatrivat; / osmotre ´ ´ ´t;; predvi ´det; (perfective only); ´myvat; / peredu ´mat;; vydu ´myvat; / vydumat;; predskazyvat; ´ peredu ´ / predskazat;; nadsmatrivat; (imperfective only); dohi ´ ´ ´tyvat; / dohitat;. ´

Exercise 8
Examine some Russian web-sites (see some examples, shown opposite page). ´ ¨ Molode'nyj portal OM.Ru 1 2 3 4 What What What What is the site devoted to? is the significance of its name? are the interactive features of the site? additional services does this site provide?

´ Informacio ´nno-spravohnyj centr 1 Give three kinds of information supplied by the site. 2 Give three advantages of the way the site operates.

Internet

|

263

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ Portal Moda.Ru & Fashion.Ru 1 2 3 4 How often is the site updated? Who can post information on the site? What level of expertise does it need to access the site? What additional service does the site provide?

264

|

The Internet

Language points ♦
Some commonly confused verbs ‘To use’
ispo ´l;zovat; (impf., only) (+ acc.) is a good general verb meaning ‘to use’: Nado ispo ´l;zovat; vse sredstva v bor;be pro ´ ´ ´tiv terrorizma. ´ It is necessary to use all means in the struggle against terrorism. ´hwie dosti'eniq ´ Nawa klinika ispo ´ ´l;zuet lu ´ mediciny. ´ Our clinic uses the best medical advances. ´ ¨ On vse vremq ispo ´ ´l;zuet menq v svoi celqx. ´x ´ He always uses me for his own ends. po ´l;zovat;sq / vospo ´l;zovat;sq (+ inst.) means ‘to make use of’ as well as ‘to enjoy’ and ‘take advantage of’ and is commonly used with the nouns in the examples below: ´ ´l;zu[s; slovarem. ¨ Q vsegda po I always use (make use of ) a dictionary. ´ma[, vam nado vospo ´gami agentstva. ´ Q du ´l;zovat;sq uslu ´ I think that you should use / make use of the services of an agency. On po ´l;zuetsq bol;wi avtoritetom sredi svoix kolleg. ´m ´ ´ ´ He enjoys great authority among his colleagues. Note also: pol;zovat;sq uspexom ‘to enjoy success’: ´ ´ ´haem, q xotel by vyrazit; svo[ ´ ´ ´ Pol;zuqs; slu ´ ´ blagodarnost;. Taking advantage of the occasion, I should like to express my gratitude. Note also: pol;zovat;sq vozmo ´ ´'nost;[ ‘to take advantage of the opportunity’. ´t; Upotreblq / upotrebit; (+ acc) translates ‘to use’ in certain ´ specific contexts: ´[t narko ´ ´ Mno ´gie molodye l[di upotreblq ´tiki. Many young people use drugs.

Internet

|

265

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´hwe ne upotreblq ´t; \to slo ´ Lu ´vo, ono pohti ne ´ ´sskom qzyke. ´etsq v ru upotreblq ´ It is better not to use that word; it is almost never used in Russian. ´t; Primenq / primeni (+ acc.) means ‘to apply, employ, use’: ´t; ´tu texnolo V pervyj raz my primenili \ ´ ´ ´gi[ 10 let ´ nazad. We first employed / used this technology 10 years ago. ¨ Metod, primenennyj in'enerami pri stroi ´ ´ ´tel;stve ´ ´ mosta, ves;ma \ffektivnyj. ´ The method employed / used by engineers in the construction of the bridge is highly effective. ´t; sankcii. ´ Po-mo ´emu, pravi ´tel;stvo dol'no primenq ´ In my opinion the government should apply sanctions.

Exercise 9
Choose the appropriate verb from those in brackets.
´et, (po ´l;zovalas;, upotreblq po ´l;zovat;sq, ´t;, vospo upotreblq ´l;zovalis;, po ´l;zu[tsq) ´t;, primenq

´tu 1 Ona hasto . . . \ frazu, k so'ale ´ ´ ´ ´ni[, hasto ne k me ´ ´stu. 2 Po´pnikam bolee stro ´emu, my dol'ny . . . k prestu ´gie me ´ mo ´ry. 3 On ´ ´ ¨ ne razrewaet ej . . . ego komp;[terom, u nee est; svoj. 4 My . . . ´ ´'nost;[ i polete A\roflo ´tom. 5 Bol;winstvo stude ´ vozmo ´li ´ntov ´tiki – vre . . . Interne ´tom. 6 Vse zna[t, hto . . . narko ´ ´dno dlq ´v;q. 7 V mo ´lodosti ona . . . ogro ´mnym uspe zdoro ´ ´xom u mu'hi ´n.

‘To stop’
´ Ostanavlivat; / ostanovi is the transitive verb ‘to stop, halt’: ´t; ´ Iz-za avarii na 'eleznoj doro priwlo ´ ´ge ´s; ostanovi ´t; po ´ezd. Because of an accident on the railway line they had to stop the train. ´ ´ ´ Ostanovi ego po'alujsta, on zabyl svoj pasport. ´te ´, Stop him, please, he has forgotten his passport.

266

|

The Internet

´ Ostanavlivat;sq / ostanovi ´t;sq is the intransitive partner of ´ ostanavlivat;: Taksi ostanovilos; u do ´ ´ ´ma s kolo ´nnami. The taxi stopped by the house with the columns. My ostanovi ´lis; v gostinice. ´ We stopped in a hotel. ´ ´ Perestavat; / perestat; means ‘to cease / stop’ doing something and is generally followed by an infinitive: ´ ´ ´ ´ Ona perestala pisat; romany. She stopped writing novels. ´ ´ Perestan; razgovarivat;! Stop talking! ´ Do'd; perestal. The rain has stopped. ´ Prekra]at; / prekrati means ‘to terminate / stop’: ´t; Obe sto ´rony rewili prekratit; peregovo ´ ´ ´ry. Both sides decided to stop the talks. ´ Oni prekrati ´ ´li svo[ perepi ´sku (perepi ´syvat;sq). They stopped writing to each other. ´ ´ Mewat; / pomewat; is ‘to stop’ in the sense of ‘to hinder’: ´ Ty mewaew; mne spat;. You are stopping me from sleeping. ´ Brosat; / bro ´sit; means ‘to stop’ in the sense of ‘to give up’: On bro ´sil kurit; i pit;. ´ He gave up smoking and drinking.

Exercise 10
Choose the appropriate verb from the brackets.
´ ´ (perestanew;, ostanovilas;, prekrati, ostanavliva[s;, ´ ´ ´ ´ perestal, ostanovi ´lsq, bro ´sil, mewaet) ´ti 1 Kogda ty . . . vme ´ ´wivat;sq v moi dela? 2 . . . , po'alujsta, \ ´ ´ ´ ´posti! 3 Tramvaj . . . na perekrestke. 4 Nakone ¨ glu ´ ´c-to, sneg . . . ,

Internet

|

267

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ta i my smogli e ´ ´xat; dal;we. 5 Iz-za bole ´ ´zni dire ´ktora rabo . . . ´toj gosti 6 Q vsegda . . . v \ ´ ´nice. 7 On . . . mne smotre televi ´t; ´zor. 8 Q tak rada, hto on . . . pit;. ´

Similar-sounding verbs
´t; ´ Sostavlq / sostavit; ‘to compile, draw up’: ´la bibliografi[ proizvedenij ´ Celyj god ona sostavlq ´ ´ Di ´kkensa. All year long she was compiling a bibliography of works by Dickens. ´tstvu[]ix. ´ ´ Nado sostavit; spi ´sok vsex prisu It is necessary to draw up a list of all those present. ´t; ´ Sostavlq / sostavit; also means ‘to constitute, make up’: Hetvert; po ´ ´l;zovatelej Internetom sostavlq[t ´ studenty. ´ Students make up a quarter of Internet users. ´ ´ Soglasno demo ´grafam naselenie mi ´ ´ra sko ´ro sostavit 10 ´ milliardov helovek. ´ According to demographers the population of the world will soon constitute a billion people. ´-nibud; ‘to keep someone ´t; kompani[ komu ´ Note also sostavlq company’. ´t; iz (+ gen.) ‘to consist of, comprise’: Sostoq Fil;m sostoi iz dvux serij. ´t ´ The film consists of two parts. ´la v osnovno iz studentov. Audito ´riq sostoq ´m ´ The audience consisted basically of students. ´t; v (+ prep.) ‘to be, to be a member of’: Sostoq Problema sostoit v tom, hto v Rossi do six por net ´ ´ ´i ´ zako ´na ob \migracii. The problem is that up till now there was no law on emigration in Russia. ´l ´ V mo ´lodosti on sostoq v Kompartii. In his youth he was a member of the Communist Party.

268

|

The Internet

´t; v brake ‘to be married’: ´ Sostoq ´li v brake. ´ To ´l;ko 5% studentov sostoq ´ Only 5% of the students were married. ´t; Sostoq (+ instr.) or na do ´l'nosti (+ gen.) ‘employed as’: ´l Pohti 10 let on sostoq na do ´ ´l'nosti direktora ´ ´l (sostoq direktorom) zavo ´ ´da. For almost 10 years he was a director of the factory. ´t;sq means ‘to take place’: Sostoq ´las; v konce marta. Konferenciq sostoq ´ ´ ´ The conference took place at the end of March. Prem;era fi ´ ´l;ma sostoi ´tsq v no ´vom kinoteatre. ´ The premiere of the film will take place in the new cinema.

Exercise 11
Decide which verb to use.
1 @e ´n]iny . . . 53 proce ´nta nasele ´niq Rossi 2 Proble ´i. ´ma . . . ´t; ´het prinq rewe ´ryj v tom, hto ni ´kto ne xo ´nie. 3 Slovar;, koto ´ ´ren. 4 Nawa kvarti . . . iz 3 ¨ ¨ on . . . 7 let nazad, vse e]e populq ´ ´ ´ra ´mnat. 5 Vs[ 'izn; on . . . sekretarem pri re ¨ ko ´ktore universite ´ta. ´du]em godu v Mo ´ ´skve . . . teatral;naq Olimpiada. 6 V bu ´ ´

Exercise 12
Translate into Russian. 1 The number of Internet-users is increasing all the time. Ecommerce is the fastest developing sector of the Russian economy. 2 Most people in a recent poll felt that there should be control over socially dangerous sites. 3 In Russia, even in Moscow, use of the Internet lags behind that of Western countries. Nonetheless, the problem of Internet addiction already exists. 4 The Internet is still very expensive for many Russians; you have to pay 50 dollars a month for unlimited access.

Internet

|

269

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

5 A businessman friend of mine uses the Internet daily in his work. He says that he cannot survive without it. 6 Working at my computer I often get so carried away that I forget about everything, even about food. 7 There is a lot of varied information on the Net, but I am mostly interested in the mass media. 8 During the next election it will probably be possible to vote through the Internet. 9 I never thought that I would become an Internet addict but I automatically switch the computer on as soon as I come home. 10 The most popular web-sites with students are entertainment and games.

Grammar reference

Nouns
Masculine
sing. nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. stol stol ´ stola ´ stolu ´m stolo stole ´ pl. stoly ´ stoly ´ ´v stolo ´ stolam ´ stolami ´ stolax sing. ´ tramvaj ´ tramvaj ´ tramvaq ´ tramva[ ´ tramvaem ´ tramvae pl. ´ tramvai ´ tramvai ´ tramvaev ´ tramvaqm ´ tramvaqmi ´ tramvaqx sing. ´l; roq ´l; roq ´lq roq ´l[ roq ´lem roq ´le roq pl. ´li roq ´li roq ´lej roq ´lqm roq ´lqmi roq ´lqx roq

Feminine
sing. nom. ryba ´ acc. rybu ´ gen. ryby ´ dat. rybe ´ pl. ryby ´ ryby ´ ryb ´ rybam ´ rybax ´ sing. ´lq vo ´l[ vo ´li vo ´le vo ´le vo pl. ´li vo ´li vo ´l; vo ´lqm vo ´lqx vo sing. ´ partiq ´ parti[ ´ partii ´ partii ´ partii pl. ´ partii ´ partii ´ partij ´ partiqm ´ partiqmi ´ partiqx sing. ´l; ro ´l; ro ´li ro ´li ro ´li ro pl. ´li ro ´li ro role ´j ´m rolq ´x rolq

´lej instr. ryboj rybami vo ´ ´ prep. rybe ´

´ ´lqmi partiej vo

´mi ´l;[ rolq ro

Grammar reference

|

271

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Neuter
sing. ´ nom. vino ´ acc. vino ´ gen. vina dat. ´ vinu ´m instr. vino prep. vine ´ pl. vi ´na vi ´na vin vi ´nam vi ´nax sing. ´re mo ´re mo ´rq mo ´r[ mo ´re mo pl. ´ morq ´ morq sing. ´ zdanie ´ zdanie pl. ´ zdaniq ´ zdaniq ´ zdanij ´ zdaniqm ´ zdaniqmi ´ zdaniqx sing. i ´mq i ´mq i ´meni i ´meni i ´meni pl. ´ imena ´ imena ¨ imen ´ imenam ´ imenax

´ more ´j zdaniq ´m ´ morq zdani[ ´mi zdaniem ´ morq ´x ´ morq zdanii

´rem vi ´nami mo

´ i ´menem imenami

Notes
1 The accusative singular of masculine animate nouns and the accusative plural of both masculine and feminine animate nouns is the same as the genitive. Some nouns have the fleeting vowel o or e in the nominative ¨ ¨ which disappears when an ending is added: rebenok – rebenka; ´ konec – konca. ´ Some nouns ending in -a, -o, -q have a fill vowel -o- or -einserted in the genitive plural: studentka – studentok; okno – ´ ´ ´ o ´kon; derevnq – dereven;. ´ Spelling rules affect several endings: ● the genitive singular of some feminine nouns: kniga – kni ´ ´gi; ● the instrumental singular of some masculine and feminine ´ nouns: math – mathem; gosti ´nica – gosti ´nicej; ● the nominative / accusative plural of masculine and feminine ´ nouns: qzyk – qzyki kni ´; ´ga – knigi; ´ ● the genitive plural of some masculine nouns: mesqc – mesqcev. ´ ´ ¨ Stressed e becomes e in: ¨ ● the instrumental singular of some nouns: rubl; – rublem; ¨ ● the genitive plural of some nouns: sloj – sloev. ´ Some masculine nouns take the prepositional ending -u after v ´. and na: v sadu Some masculine nouns have an irregular nominative (accusative) ´: ´. ´ ´ plural in -a or -q dom – doma; uhitel; – uhitelq Some masculine and neuter nouns have an irregular nominative ´l;q; drug – druz;q ´; (accusative) plural in -;q: stul – stu

2

3

4

5

6 7 8

272

|

Grammar reference

derevo – derev;q. The genitive (accusative) plural of these nouns ´ ´ ends in -ej where it is stressed and -;ev where unstressed: ´l;ev, druzej, derev;ev. stu ´ ´ 9 The genitive plural of nouns ending in -', -h, -w, -] ends in -ej: moskvih – moskvihej. ´ ´ 10 The instrumental plural of some nouns ends in -;mi: deti – ´ det;mi l[di – l[d;mi. ´; ´ ´ In all the following tables where a second alternative form is given for the accusative this is for use with animate nouns.

Adjectives
Hard
masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. intere ´snyj intere ´snyj / ogo intere ´snogo intere ´snomu intere ´snym intere ´snom feminine intere ´snaq intere ´snu[ intere ´snoj intere ´snoj intere ´snoj intere ´snoj neuter intere ´snoe intere ´snoe intere ´snogo intere ´snomu intere ´snym intere ´snom plural intere ´snye intere ´snye / yx intere ´snyx intere ´snym intere ´snymi intere ´snyx

masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. ´j kruto ´j ´go kruto / o ´go kruto ´mu kruto krutym ´ ´m kruto

feminine ´ krutaq ´[ krutu ´j kruto ´j kruto ´j kruto ´j kruto

neuter ´e kruto ´e kruto ´go kruto ´mu kruto krutym ´ ´m kruto

plural krutye ´ krutye / yx ´ ´ krutyx ´ krutym ´ krutymi ´ krutyx ´

Grammar reference

|

273

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Soft
masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. dre ´vnij dre ´vnij / ego dre ´vnego dre ´vnemu dre ´vnim dre ´vnem feminine dre ´vnqq dre ´vn[[ dre ´vnej dre ´vnej dre ´vnej dre ´vnej neuter dre ´vnee dre ´vnee dre ´vnego dre ´vnemu dre ´vnim dre ´vnem plural dre ´vnie dre ´vnie / ix dre ´vnix dre ´vnim dre ´vnimi dre ´vnix

masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. tre ´tij tre ´tij / ;ego tre ´t;ego tre ´t;emu tre ´t;im tre ´t;em

feminine tre ´t;q tre ´t;[ tre ´t;ej tre ´t;ej tre ´t;ej tre ´t;ej

neuter tre ´t;e tre ´t;e tre ´t;ego tre ´t;emu tre ´t;im tre ´t;em

plural tre ´t;i tre ´t;i / ;ix tre ´t;ix tre ´t;im tre ´t;imi tre ´t;ix

Mixed (affected by the spelling rules)
masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. ´sskij ru ´sskij / ogo ru ´sskogo ru ´sskomu ru ´sskim ru ´sskom ru feminine ´sskaq ru ´ssku[ ru ´sskoj ru ´sskoj ru ´sskoj ru ´sskoj ru neuter ´sskoe ru ´sskoe ru ´sskogo ru ´sskomu ru ´sskim ru ´sskom ru plural ´sskie ru ´sskie / ix ru ´sskix ru ´sskim ru ´sskimi ru ´sskix ru

274

|

Grammar reference

masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. ´j kako ´j ´go kako / o ´go kako ´mu kako kaki ´m ´m kako

feminine ´ kakaq ´[ kaku ´j kako ´j kako ´j kako ´j kako

neuter ´e kako ´e kako ´go kako ´mu kako kaki ´m ´m kako

plural kaki ´e kaki / i ´e ´x kaki ´x kaki ´m kaki ´mi kaki ´x

masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. ´j bol;wo ´j ´go bol;wo / o ´go bol;wo ´mu bol;wo bol;wi ´m ´m bol;wo

feminine ´ bol;waq ´[ bol;wu ´j bol;wo ´j bol;wo ´j bol;wo ´j bol;wo

neuter ´e bol;wo ´e bol;wo ´go bol;wo ´mu bol;wo bol;wi ´m ´m bol;wo

plural bol;wi ´e bol;wi / i ´e ´x bol;wi ´x bol;wi ´m bol;wi ´mi bol;wi ´x

masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. ´wij xoro ´wij / ego xoro ´wego xoro ´wemu xoro ´wim xoro ´wem xoro

feminine ´waq xoro ´wu[ xoro ´wej xoro ´wej xoro ´wej xoro ´wej xoro

neuter ´wee xoro ´wee xoro ´wego xoro ´wemu xoro ´wim xoro ´wem xoro

plural ´wie xoro ´wie / ix xoro ´wix xoro ´wim xoro ´wimi xoro ´wix xoro

Grammar reference

|

275

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Possessives
masculine nom. acc. gen. da. instr. prep. moj ´ moj / moego ´ moego ´ moemu moi ´m ¨ moem feminine ´ moq ´ mo[ moe ´j moe ´j moe ´j moe ´j neuter ¨ moe ¨ moe ´ moego ´ moemu moi ´m ¨ moem plural moi ´ moi / moi ´ ´x moi ´x moi ´m moi ´mi moi ´x

Note: tvoj and svoj also decline like moj

masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. naw ´ naw / nawego ´ nawego ´ nawemu ´ nawim ´ nawem

feminine ´ nawa ´ nawu ´ nawej ´ nawej ´ nawej ´ nawej

neuter ´ nawe ´ nawe ´ nawego ´ nawemu ´ nawim ´ nawem

plural ´ nawi ´ ´ nawi / nawix ´ nawix ´ nawim ´ nawimi ´ nawix

Note: vaw also declines like naw.

Hej
masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. hej ´ hej / h;ego ´ h;ego ´ h;emu h;im ¨ h;em feminine h;q h;[ h;ej h;ej h;ej h;ej neuter ¨ h;e ¨ h;e ´ h;ego ´ h;emu h;im ¨ h;em plural h;i h;i / h;ix h;ix h;im h;i ´mi h;ix

276

|

Grammar reference

Demonstratives
masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. ´tot \ ´tot / \ ´togo \ ´togo \ ´tomu \ ´tim \ ´tom \ feminine ´ta \ ´tu \ ´toj \ ´toj \ ´toj \ ´toj \ neuter ´to \ ´to \ ´togo \ ´tomu \ ´tim \ ´tom \ plural ´ti \ ´ti ´tix \ /\ ´tix \ ´tim \ ´timi \ ´tix \

masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. tot ´ tot / togo ´ togo ´ tomu tem tom

feminine ta tu toj toj toj toj

neuter to to ´ togo ´ tomu tem tom

plural te te / tex tex tem te ´mi tex

Ves;
masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. ves; ´ ves; / vsego ´ vsego ´ vsemu vsem ¨ vsem feminine vsq vs[ vsej vsej vsej vsej neuter ¨ vse ¨ vse ´ vsego ´ vsemu vsem ¨ vsem plural vse vse / vsex vsex vsem vsemi vsex

Grammar reference

|

277

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Sam
masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. sam ´ sam / samogo ´ samogo ´ samomu sami ´m ´m samo feminine ´ sama ´ samu ´j samo ´j samo ´j samo ´j samo neuter ´ samo ´ samo ´ samogo ´ samomu sami ´m ´m samo plural ´ sami ´ sami / sami ´x sami ´x sami ´m sami ´mi sami ´x

Personal pronouns
nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. q ´ menq ´ menq mne mnoj / ´[ mno mne ty ´ tebq ´ tebq tebe ´ ´j tobo / ´[ tobo tebe ´ ´ on / ono ´ ego ´ ego ´ emu im ¨ nem ´ ona ¨ ee ¨ ee ej ej / ´[ e nej my nas nas nam ´ nami nas vy vas vas vam ´ vami vas oni ´ ix ix im i ´mi nix

´ ´ Note: Sebq declines like tebq from the accusative onwards.

Interrogative pronouns
nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. kto ´ kogo ´ kogo ´ komu kem kom hto hto ´ hego ´ hemu hem ¨ hem

278

|

Grammar reference

Surnames
masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. ´tin Pu ´tina Pu ´tina Pu ´tinu Pu ´tinym Pu ´tine Pu feminine ´tina Pu ´tinu Pu ´tinoj Pu ´tinoj Pu ´tinoj Pu ´tinoj Pu plural ´tiny Pu ´tinyx Pu ´tinyx Pu ´tinym Pu ´tinymi Pu ´tinyx Pu

Note: Surnames ending in -ev, -in, -yn follow this pattern. Surnames which have adjective endings, e.g. Dostoevskij, decline like adjectives. ´

Cardinal numerals
masculine nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. odi ´n ´ odi / odnogo ´n ´ odnogo ´ odnomu odni ´m ´m odno feminine ´ odna ´ odnu ´j odno ´j odno ´j odno ´j odno neuter ´ odno ´ odno ´ odnogo ´ odnomu odni ´m ´m odno plural odni ´ odni / odni ´ ´x odni ´x odni ´m odni ´mi odni ´x

m/n nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. dva dva / dvux dvux dvum ´ dvumq dvux

f dve dve / dvux

m/f/n m/f/n tri tri / ¨ trex ¨ trex ¨ trem tre ´mq ¨ trex hetyre hetyre / ¨ hetyrex ¨ hetyrex ¨ hetyrem ´ hetyr;mq ¨ hetyrex

m/f/n pqt; pqt; pqti ´ pqti ´ ´ pqt;[ pqti ´

m/f/n ´rok so ´rok so ´ soroka ´ soroka ´ soroka ´ soroka

m/f/n ´t pqt;desq ´t pqt;desq pqti ´desqti pqti ´desqti ´ pqt;[desqt;[ pqti ´desqti

Grammar reference

|

279

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Notes
´ 1 Numbers from west; to desqt;, dvadcat; and tri ´ ´dcat; decline like pqt;, with the stress on the endings. Odi ´nnadcat; ´ – devqtnadcat; take the same endings, but are stressed on the stem. 2 Sto declines like so ´rok, with the stress on the endings and devqno ´sto takes the same endings, but with the stress on the stem. ´t ´t. 3 west;desq – vo ´sem;desqt decline like pqt;desq

m/f/n nom. acc. gen. dat. instr. prep. dve ´sti dve ´sti ´t dvuxso ´ dvumstam ´ dvumqstami ´ dvuxstax

m/f/n tri ´sta tri ´sta ¨ ´t trexso ´ ¨ tremstam ´ tremqstami ´ ¨ trexstax

m/f/n hetyresta ´ hetyresta ´ ¨ ´t hetyrexso ´ ¨ hetyremstam ´ hetyr;rmqstami ´ ¨ hetyrexstax

m/f/n ´t pqt;so ´t pqt;so ´t pqtiso ´ pqtistam ´ pqtistami ´ pqtistax

Notes
1 West;so ´t, sem;so ´t, vosem;so ´t, devqt;so decline like ´t pqt;so ´t. ´ 2 Tysqha declines like a feminine noun, but has an alternative ´ instrumental tysqh;[.

280

|

Grammar reference

Verbs
First conjugation regular verbs
Imperfective Infinitive Present de ´lat; ‘to do, make’ q de ´la[ ty de ´laew; ´ ´ ´laet on / ona / ono de my de ´laem vy de ´laete oni de ´ ´la[t Future ´du de q bu ´lat; ´dew; de ty bu ´lat; ´ ´ ´det de on / ona / ono bu ´lat; ´dem de my bu ´lat; ´dete de vy bu ´lat; oni bu ´ ´dut de ´lat; Past q de ´lal / de ´lala ty de ´lal / de ´lala on de ´lal ´ ´lala ona de ´ ´lalo ono de my de ´lali vy de ´lali oni de ´ ´lali Subjunctive q de ´lal by / de ´lala by ty de ´lal by / de ´lala by on de ´lal by ´ ´lala by ona de ´ ´lalo by ono de my de ´lali by vy de ´lali by oni de ´ ´lali by q sde ´la[ ty sde ´laew; ´ ´ on / ona / ono sde ´laet my sde ´laem vy sde ´laete oni sde ´ ´la[t q sde ´lal / sde ´lala ty sde ´lal / sde ´lala on sde ´lal ´ ona sde ´lala ´ ono sde ´lalo my sde ´lali vy sde ´lali oni sde ´ ´lali q sde ´lal by / sde ´lala by ty sde ´lal by / sde ´lala by on sde ´lal by ´ ona sde ´lala by ´ ono sde ´lalo by my sde ´lali by vy sde ´lali by oni sde ´ ´lali by Perfective sde ´lat; ‘to do, make’

Grammar reference

|

281

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Imperative Gerund Participles: pres. act. past act. pres. pass. past pass.

de ´laj / de ´lajte de ´laq de ´la[]ij / aq / ee / ie de ´lavwij / aq / ee / ie de ´laemyj / aq / oe / ye

sde ´laj / sde ´lajte sde ´lav

sde ´lavwij / aq / ee / ie sde ´lannyj / aq / oe / ye

First conjugation – verbs with an irregular stem ending in a vowel
Imperfective Infinitive Present myt; ‘to wash’ ´[ q mo ´ew; ty mo ´ ´ ´et on / ona / ono mo ´em my mo ´ete vy mo oni mo ´ ´[t Future ´du myt; q bu ´dew; myt; ty bu ´ ´ ´det myt; on / ona / ono bu ´dem myt; my bu ´dete myt; vy bu oni bu ´ ´dut myt; Past Subjunctive Imperative Gerund myl, myla, mylo, myli ´ ´ ´ myl by, myla by, mylo by, ´ ´ myli by ´ ´jte moj / mo q vymo[ ´ ty vymoew; ´ ´ ´ ´ on / ona / ono vymoet my vymoem ´ vy vymoete ´ oni vymo[t ´ ´ vymyl, vymyla, vymylo, ´ ´ ´ vymyli ´ vymyl by, vymyla by, ´ ´ vymylo by, vymyli by ´ ´ vymoj / vymojte ´ ´ vymyv ´ Perfective vymyt; ‘to wash’ ´ (also pomyt;) ´

282

|

Grammar reference

Participles: pres.act. past act. past pass. ´[]ij / aq / ee / ie mo myvwij / aq / ee / ie ´ vymyvwij / aq / ee / ie ´ vymytyj / aq / oe / ye ´

Note: Where the ending is stressed on irregular 1st conjugation verbs of this type -e- will change ´ ¨ to -e. See davat; below.

First conjugation – verbs with an irregular stem ending in a consonant
Imperfective Infinitive Present ´ pisat; ‘to write’ ´ q piwu ty pi ´wew; ´ ´ ´wet on / ona / ono pi my pi ´wem vy pi ´wete oni pi ´ ´wut Future ´du pisat; ´ q bu ´dew; pisat; ´ ty bu ´ ´ ´ ´det pisat; on / ona / ono bu ´dem pisat; ´ my bu ´dete pisat; ´ vy bu ´ oni bu ´ ´dut pisat; Past Subjunctive Imperative Gerund Participles: pres. act. past act. past pass. pi ´wu]ij / aq / ee / ie ´ pisavwij / aq / ee / ie ´ napisavwij / aq / ee / ie napi ´sannyj / aq / oe / yj ´ ´ ´ pisal, pisala, pisalo, ´ pisali ´ ´ pisal by, pisala by, ´ ´ pisalo by, pisali by piwi / piwi ´ ´te ´ q napiwu ty napi ´wew; ´ ´ on / ona / ono napi ´wet my napi ´wem vy napi ´wete oni napi ´wut ´ ´ napisal, napisala, ´ ´ napisalo, napisali ´ ´ napisal by, napisala by, ´ ´ napisalo by, napisali by napiwi / napiwi ´ ´te ´ napisav Perfective ´ napisat; ‘to write’

Note: Where the ending is stressed on irregular 1st conjugation verbs of this type -e- will change ¨ to -e.

Grammar reference

|

283

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Second conjugation
Imperfective Infinitive Present smotre ‘to watch, ´t; look at’ ´ q smotr[ ´triw; ty smo ´ ´ ´trit on / ona / ono smo ´trim my smo ´trite vy smo ´trqt oni smo ´ Future ´du smotre q bu ´t; ´dew; smotre ty bu ´t; ´ ´ ´det smotre on / ona / ono bu ´t; ´dem smotre my bu ´t; ´dete smotre vy bu ´t; oni bu ´ ´dut smotre ´t; Past Subjunctive smotre smotre ´l, ´la, smotre ´lo, smotre ´li smotre by, smotre by, ´l ´la smotre by, smotre ´lo ´li by smotri / smotri ´ ´te ´ smotrq ´]ij / aq / ee / ie smotrq smotre ´vwij / aq / ee / ie posmotre ´vwij / aq / ee / ie ´ q posmotr[ ´triw; ty posmo ´ ´ ´trit on / ona / ono posmo ´trim my posmo ´trite vy posmo ´trqt oni posmo ´ posmotre posmotre ´l, ´la. posmotre ´lo, posmotre ´li posmotre by, posmotre ´l ´la by, posmotre by, ´lo posmotre ´li by posmotri / posmotri ´ ´te posmotre ´v Perfective posmotre ‘to watch, ´t; look at’

Imperative Gerund Participles: pres. act. past act.

Notes
1 Some second conjugation verbs are also affected by the spelling ´ ´ ´ ´ rules: der'at; – der'u, der'iw; . . . der'at. 2 If the stem of a second conjugation verb ends in the consonants -d, -t, -s, -z, -st that consonant will change in the first person ´ singular (q form) only. Other forms are regular: vodi – vo'u, ´t; ´, ´, ´ vo ´diw;; plati ´t; – plahu platiw;; prosi ´t; – prowu

284

|

Grammar reference

´ pro ´siw;; vozi ´t; – vo'u, vo ´ziw;; svistet; ‘to whistle’ – ´ ´ ´ svi]u, svistiw;. If the stem ends in -b, -v, -p, -f and -m, an -l- is inserted between the stem and ending in the first person ´ ´ ´ ´ singular only: l[bi – l[bl[, l[biw;; stavit; – stavl[, ´t; ´ staviw;.

Reflexive verbs
Imperfective – regular 1st conjugation with stem ending in a consonant Infinitive Present ´ odevat;sq ‘to dress oneself’ ´ q odeva[s; ´ ty odevaewsq ´ ´ ´ on / ona / ono odevaetsq ´ my odevaemsq ´ vy odevaetes; ´ oni odeva[tsq ´ Future ´du odevat;sq ´ q bu ´dew; odevat;sq ´ ty bu ´ ´ ´det on / ona / ono bu ´ odevat;sq ´dem odevat;sq ´ my bu ´dete odevat;sq ´ vy bu ´ oni bu ´ ´dut odevat;sq Past Subjunctive Imperative Gerund Participles: pres. act. past act. ´ odeva[]ijsq / aqsq / eesq / iesq ´ odevavwijsq / aqsq / eesq / iesq ode ´vwijsq / aqsq / eesq / iesq ´ ´ odevalsq, odevalas;, ´ ´ odevalos;, odevalis; ´ ´ odevalsq by, odevalas; by, ´ ´ odevalos; by, odevalis; by ´ ´ odevajsq / odevajtes; ´ odevaqs; q ode ´nus; ty ode ´new;sq ´ ´ on / ona / ono ode ´netsq my ode ´nemsq vy ode ´netes; oni ode ´ ´nutsq ode ´lsq, ode ´las;, ode ´los;, ode ´lis; ode ´lsq by, ode ´las; by, ode ´los; by, ode ´lis; by ode ´n;sq / ode ´n;tes; ode ´vwis; Perfective – irregular ode ´t;sq ‘to dress oneself’

Grammar reference

|

285

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Irregular verbs
Imperfective – irregular 1st conjugation with stem ending in a vowel Infinitive Present ´ davat; ‘to give’ ´ q da[ ¨ ty daew; ´ ´ ¨ on / ona / ono daet ¨ my daem ¨ vy daete ´ oni da[t ´ Future ´du davat; ´ q bu ´dew; davat; ´ ty bu ´ ´ ´ ´det davat; on / ona / ono bu ´dem davat; ´ my bu ´dete davat; ´ vy bu ´ oni bu ´ ´dut davat; Past Subjunctive Imperative Gerund Participles: pres. act. past act. pres. pass. past pass. ´ da[]ij / aq / ee / ie ´ davavwij / aq / ee / ie ´ davaemyj / aq / oe / ye ´ dannyj / aq / oe / ye ´ davwij / aq / ee / ie ´ ´ ´ daval, davala, davalo, ´ davali ´ ´ daval by, davala by, ´ ´ davalo by, davali by ´ ´ davaj / davajte ´ davaq q dam ty daw; ´ ´ on / ona / ono dast my dadi ´m vy dadi ´te ´t oni dadu ´ ´ ´ ´ dal, dala, dalo, dali ´ ´ dal by, dala by, dalo by, ´ dali by ´ daj / dajte dav Perfective – irregular dat; ‘to give’

286

|

Grammar reference

Imperfective Infinitive Present est; ‘to eat’ q em ty ew; ´ ´ on / ona / ono est my edi ´m vy edi ´te ´t oni edq ´ Future ´du est; q bu ´dew; est; ty bu ´ ´ ´det est; on / ona / ono bu ´dem est; my bu ´dete est; vy bu oni bu ´ ´dut est; Past Subjunctive Imperative Gerund Participles: pres. act. past act. past pass. e ´vwij / aq / ee / ie el, e ´la, e ´lo, e ´li el by, e by, e by, ´la ´lo e ´li by ew; / e ´w;te

Perfective s#est; ‘to eat’

q s#em ty s#ew; ´ ´ on / ona / ono s#est my s#edi ´m vy s#edi ´te ´t oni s#edq ´ s#el, s#e ´la, s#e ´lo, s#e ´li s#el by, s#e by, s#e ´la ´lo by, s#e ´li by s#ew; / s#e ´w;te s#ev

s#e ´vwij / aq / ee / ie s#e ´dennyj / aq / oe / ye

Grammar reference

|

287

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Imperfective – perfective (s-) Infinitive Present moh; ‘to be able’ ´ q mogu ´'ew; ty mo ´ ´ ´'et on / ona / ono mo ´'em my mo ´'ete vy mo oni mo ´ ´gut Future ´du moh; q bu ´dew; moh; ty bu ´ ´ ´det on / ona / ono bu moh; ´dem moh; my bu ´dete moh; vy bu oni bu ´ ´dut moh; Past ´ mog, mogla, ´, moglo mogli ´

Imperfective – perfective (po-) ´ be'at; ‘to run’ ´ q begu ty be'i ´w; ´ ´ on / ona / ono be'i ´t my be'i ´m vy be'i ´te ´t oni begu ´ ´du be'at; ´ q bu ´dew; be'at; ty bu ´ ´ ´det on / ona / ono bu ´ be'at; ´dem be'at; ´ my bu ´dete be'at; ´ vy bu ´ oni bu ´ ´dut be'at; ´ ´ be'al, be'ala, ´ ´ be'alo, be'ali ´ be'al by, ´ be'ala by, ´ be'alo by, ´ be'ali by begi / begi ´ ´te

Imperfective – perfective (za-) xote ‘to wish, ´t; to want’ ´ q xohu ´hew; ty xo ´ ´ on / ona / ono ´het xo my xoti ´m vy xoti ´te ´t oni xotq ´ ´du xote q bu ´t; ´dew; ty bu xote ´t; ´ ´ on / ona / ono ´det xote bu ´t; ´dem my bu xote ´t; ´dete xote vy bu ´t; oni bu ´ ´dut xote ´t; xote xote ´l, ´la, xote ´lo, xote ´li xote by, ´l xote by, ´la xote by, ´lo xote ´li by (xoti – colloquial) ´

Subjunctive mog by, ´ mogla by, ´ moglo by, mogli by ´ Imperative Participles: pres. act. past act. ´]ij / aq / ee / ie mogu ´gwij / aq / ee / ie mo

´]ij / aq / ee / ie begu ´ be'avwij / aq / ee / ie xote ´vwij / aq / ee / ie

Key to exercises

Unit 1
Exercise 1
Pervoe letopisnoe upominanie o Moskve otnositsq k 1147 godu. Osnovatel; Moskvy byl suzdal;skij knqz; {rij Vladimirovih Dolgorukij. |to on vybral mesto dlq stroitel;stva goroda. Gorod ros bystro, i u'e v 14-om veke stal centrom russkix zemel;. Moskva ostavalas; stolicej vplot; do 1713 goda ¨ ¨ kogda Petr Pervyj perenes stolicu v novyj gorod – Peterburg. Tol;ko v 1918 godu u'e posle Revol[cii Moskva snova stala stolicej, snahala Sovetskogo So[za, a potom Rossii.

Exercise 3
Interesnye moskovskie muzei; drevnie russkie kremli; strawnye istoriheskie sobytiq; slo'nye \konomiheskie problemy; nawi znamenitye istoriki.

Exercise 4
1 3 5 9 \tu molodu[ russku[ 'en]inu 2 malen;ku[ primorsku[ derevn[ sovremennu[ anglijsku[ p;esu, klassihesku[ russku[ operu 4 vs[ nedel[ Franci[, mesqc 6 vawu sestru, teatr 7 russku[ stolicu, Moskvu 8 kogo ego.

Exercise 5
Zamehanij, perevorota, hlenov, byvwego Politb[ro, novoj demokratii i ¨ ¨ ¨ Gorbaheva, Gorbaheva, zagovora, svoix dejstvij, Gorbaheva, bol;woj politiheskoj vlasti, podder'ki naroda, sobytij, gosudarstvennogo perevorota, gazovoj i neftqnoj promywlennosti, vnutrennix cen, perevorota, El;cina i ego

Key to exercises

|

289

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

soratnikov, aresta organizatorov putha, kogo, somnenij, perevorota, prihin raspada Sovetskogo So[za.

Exercise 7
Sadovomu kol;cu, Belomu domu, radio, televideni[, poslednim soob]eniqm, radio, soldatam, tolpe, puthistam, demokratam i El;cinu, prikazam, puthistam, Gorbahevu, emu, vsem demokratam i El;cinu, nam, zdani[, nam, narodu, emu i ego soratnikam, obedu, vsem.

Exercise 9
Utrom, qsnoj, simvolom, ego rukovodstvom, kommunistiheskoj nomenklaturoj, ¨ glavnoj prihinoj, takim obrazom, ego xarizmatiheskim avtoritetom i tverdoj uverennost;[, glavnoj politiheskoj siloj.

Exercise 10
1 centre, Krasnopresnenskoj nabere'noj 2 Krymu, beregu 3 zdanii 4 \tix sobytiqx, vawej strane 5 plo]adi 6 kom, liderax, nix 7 Belom dome, Kremle.

Exercise 12
Su]estvuet, qvlq[tsq, vxodqt, nazyvaetsq, sostoit, piwut, interesu[tsq, doverq[t shita[, dumaete, mo'em, podder'ivaem, soglawaemsq.

Exercise 13
Sluhilsq, nahalsq, voznikat;, ponimalo, prineslo, nahalis;, vyzval, voznikla, privela, podpisali.

Unit 2
Exercise 2
1 ostanovite 2 zaka'ite 3 porekomendujte 4 kupite 5 zakrojte 6 postrojte 7 poez'ajte 8 oplatite 9 provodite 10 prigotov;tes;.

Exercise 6
¨ 1 bolee interesnye 2 bolee nade'nym 3 na bolee bystryx, v bolee starom ´l;waq 5 po bolee nizkim 6 vyswee 7 s men;wim 8 bolee bogatye 9 bolee 4 bo udobnym 10 mladwij, starwie.

290

|

Key to exercises

Exercise 7
1 molo'e 2 dlinnee 3 medlennee 4 xu'e 5 leghe 6 hi]e 7 ni'e 8 re'e 9 pozdnee (poz'e) 10 men;we 11 doro'e.

Exercise 8
1 tq'elee sumki 2 staree Peterburga 3 starwe materi 4 molo'e brata ¨ 5 wire Temzy 6 korohe marta 7 dewevle samoleta 8 glub'e ozera Ness 9 hi]e londonskogo metro.

Exercise 9
1 Hem medlennee avtobus, tem on dewevle. 2 Hem staree sobor, tem on interesnee. 3 Hem glub'e ozero, tem ono opasnee. 4 Hem starwe helovek, tem on umnee. ¨ 5 Hem dal;we doroga, tem trudnee ee stroit;. 6 Hem hi]e vozdux, tem luhwe dlq zdorov;q. 7 Hem pro]e marwrut, tem on leghe. 8 Hem bystree poezd, tem korohe putewestvie. 9 Hem mqghe kreslo, tem ono udobnee. 10 Hem bogahe helovek, tem on xu'e.

Exercise 10
1 na ulicu 2 na lekcii 3 na budu]ej nedele 4 na poezde 5 na drugoj den; 6 na severe 7 na russkom qzyke 8 na roqle 9 na francuzskij qzyk 10 na russkoj 11 na vse voprosy 12 na mat;, na otca 13 na poezd.

Exercise 11
1 Vy mo'ete platit; za bilet nalihnymi ili kreditnoj kartoj. Q predpohita[ platit; nalihnymi. 2 Pomogite mne, po'alujsta, najti stoqnku taksi. U menq mnogo baga'a. 3 Bilet na poezd v tri raza dewevle bileta na ¨ ¨ samolet (hem bilet na samolet). 4 Samoe glavnoe – skorost;. Skorostnye poezda gorazdo (namnogo) bystree teper;, i vremq v puti korohe. 5 |kologiheski ¨ ¨ 'eleznodoro'nyj transport vse e]e hi]e drugix vidov transporta (hem drugie vidy transporta). 6 Hem bystree poezda, tem luhwe budet dlq vsex passa'irov (putewestvennikov). 7 Ezdit; (putewestvovat;) na bolee bystrom i bolee udobnom poezde – udovol;stvie.

Unit 3
Exercise 5
¨ 1 xodit; 2 idut 3 edet / poexala 4 ezdila 5 edew; 6 wel.

Key to exercises

|

291

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 6
Vxod v metro; perexod herez ulicu; v xode peregovorov; doro'nye rasxody; pewexodnaq zona; vxodnoj bilet; tur na teploxode; v vyxodnye dni.

Exercise 7
¨ 1 prixodqt v MGU 2 vyjti iz doma 3 pojdem na koncert 4 zajti v biblioteku ¨ ¨ 5 ujti ot Vas 6 zaxodit; za mnoj, q pojdu odna 7 zawel k drugu, on u'e uwel ¨ 8 podowel k kasse 9 dowli do lesa 10 prowli mimo 11 perexodit; herez reku ¨ ¨ 12 obowel vokrug doma 13 prines mne slovar;.

Exercise 8
a Vybe'al iz komnaty, pribe'al na ostanovku, probegal, dobe'al do universiteta, zabe'al v biblioteku, u'e ube'al, pribe'al ko mne, perebegat; dorogu, vbe'al v zal. b Vyletaet iz Londona i priletaet v Moskvu, doletel do a\roporta, obletel vokrug sveta, u'e uletel, pereletet; herez Atlantiheskij okean.

Exercise 9
Otplyl s rehnogo vokzala, priplyli v Tver;, doplyl do berega, pereplyl Gol;fstrim, proplyl neskol;ko kilometrov, podplyla k beregu, uplyl daleko v more.

Exercise 10
¨ 1 vyjti iz \togo krizisa 2 poxodit na svoego otca 3 vvel novyj zakon 4 nanesla Rossii 5 bystro proletelo 6 nado ix zavesti 7 sowla s uma ot gorq ¨ 8 ohen; podxodit 9 naxoditsq na beregu 10 perevel vsego Dikkensa.

Exercise 11
1 q to'e govor[ 2 a tak'e park 3 to'e soglasilis; 4 to'e ne prixodil 5 a tak'e ohen; strannyj.

Exercise 13
1 V prowlom godu q (poexala) ezdila v kruiz vokrug sveta (v krugosvetnoe putewestvie) i posetila mnogo interesnyx stran (mnogie interesnye strany). 2 Nawa ka[ta naxodilas; (razme]alas;) na verxnej palube, vid byl potrqsa[]ij. 3 Vy dol'ny prijti (pribyt;) na rehnoj vokzal za has do otplytiq teploxoda. 4 Po-moemu, luhwe vsego putewestvovat; po Zolotomu kol;cu na avtobuse ili na teploxode. Vy ne uvidite mnogo, esli vy poedete

292

|

Key to exercises

¨ na poezde. 5 Vse v Rossii interesuet menq, no osobenno drevnie istoriheskie goroda, kak Novgorod i Pskov. 6 Kak tol;ko teploxod nahal otplyvat;, my vse vywli na palubu.

Unit 4
Exercise 2
1 Ne kasaetsq li problema \migrantov Rossii? 2 Ne dumaete li Vy, hto on prav? 3 Ne uez'a[t li l[di po \konomiheskim motivam? 4 Ne edet li ona s Vami? 5 Su]estvuet li problema trudoustrojstva be'encev? 6 Rasskazal li on Vam o svoej poezdke v Rossi[? 7 Vse li studenty edut v Rossi[?

Exercise 5
1 nahali 2 otkrylas; 3 opravdalsq 4 konhaetsq 5 uluhwil 6 uvelihivaetsq 7 ukrepilas; 8 sokratilo 9 povysilsq 10 prodol'aetsq 11 sobira[tsq 12 konhil.

Exercise 7
1 Segodnq pervoe maq, sed;moe noqbrq, dvadcat; pqtoe dekabrq, dvadcat; tret;e ¨ fevralq, tridcatoe oktqbrq, hetvertoe avgusta. 2 proizowla v tysqha devqt;sot semnadcatom godu, nahalas; v tysqha devqt;sot vosem;desqt pqtom godu, raspalsq v tysqha devqtsot devqnosto pervom godu, v dvuxtysqhnom godu prazdnovali, sluhitsq v dve tysqhi desqtom godu, umer v tysqha devqt;sot pqt;desqt tret;em godu. 3 Velikaq otehestvennaq vojna nahalas; dvadcat; vtorogo i[nq tysqha devqt;sot sorok pervogo goda, Devqtnadcatogo avgusta ¨ tysqha devqt;sot devqnosto pervogo goda v Rossii proizowel puth. Puwkin rodilsq pervogo i[nq tysqha sem;sot devqnosto devqtogo goda. Pervyj sputnik byl zapu]en dvenadcatogo aprelq tysqha devqt;sot west;desqt pervogo goda.

Exercise 9
1 v sredu 2 v noqbre 3 v ploxu[ pogodu 4 v nahale vojny 5 v devqtnadcatom veke 6 v poslednij god vojny 7 v prowlom godu 8 v pervu[ nedel[ marta 9 v den; 10 v srednie veka 11 v dvadcatyx godax.

Exercise 10
1 na vostok 2 na dvoix 3 v pervyj den; poezdki 4 na drugoj den; 5 na ulicu 6 na 10 dnej 7 na vokzale 8 v q]ik 9 na ostrove Mal;ta.

Key to exercises

|

293

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 11
1 igra[t v volejbol 2 uhastvu[t v sorevnovanii 3 postuhal v dver; ¨ 4 somneva[s; v ee iskrennosti 5 postupil v universitet 6 ne ver[ v kommunizm 7 nu'daemsq v den;gax 8 obvinili v korrupcii 9 smotrit v zerkalo 10 vstupil v parti[.

Exercise 12
1 Sovetskij So[z perestal su]estvovat; dvadcat; pqtogo dekabrq tysqha devqt;sot devqnosto pervogo goda. 2 Tysqhi be'encev iz byvwix respublik SSSR prodol'a[t perexodit; (herez) rossijskie granicy. Mnogie begut ot nacional;nyx konfliktov. 3 V devqnostyx godax (v devqnostye gody) nelegal;naq immigraciq v Rossi[, osobenno iz Kitaq, uvelihilas; pohti v dva raza (vdvoe). 4 |migraciq nanosit ogromnyj u]erb rossijskoj \konomike, tak kak iz strany uez'a[t, v osnovnom, vysokokvalificirovannye specialisty. 5 Skol;ko migrantov priexalo v Rossi[ posle raspada SSSR? 6 Ne luhwe li zakryt; vse rossijskie granicy?

Unit 5
Exercise 5
1 kotorye 2 kotorogo 3 kotoryx 4 kotorye 5 na kotoryx 6 v kotoryx 7 s kotorymi 8 o kotorom 9 kotoromu.

Exercise 6
1 s samoj novoj sportivnoj texnikoj 2 v samom zamehatel;nom bassejne 3 samyx sportivnyx l[dej 4 samyj luhwij sposob snqt; stress 5 samyj bol;woj kajf.

Exercise 7
Odno iz starejwix zdanij; odna iz novejwix texnologij; odno iz glubohajwix ¨ ozer; odin iz prostejwix voprosov; odna iz wirohajwix rek; odno iz ¨ krasivejwix imen; odna iz va'nejwix zadah; odin iz histejwix vidov ¨ transporta; odin iz ser;eznejwix sluhaev; odna iz slo'nejwix problem; odna iz opasnejwix boleznej; odin iz velihajwix pisatelej.

294

|

Key to exercises

Exercise 9
1 s [ga 2 s velosipedov 3 iz dereva 4 s ulicy 5 ot direktora 6 odna iz vas 7 s desqtogo po dvadcatoe 8 iz Francii 9 s kakoj storony 10 s vokzala.

Exercise 10
¨ 1 ne verqt gorodskim vlastqm 2 rejs ne podxodit nam 3 ohen; idet moemu otcu 4 sovetuet bol;nomu 5 ne razrewaet svoim detqm 6 doverqt; takomu heloveku 7 raduetsq vozmo'nosti 8 udivlq[s; tvoemu vyboru 9 pomogaet materi 10 sohuvstvu[ be'encam 11 Rossii ne grozit 12 q zavidu[ sovremennoj ¨ molode'i: budu]ee prinadle'it im 13 vsegda sleduem sovetam instruktora.

Exercise 11
1 Moj vrah posovetoval mne zanqt;sq sportom i vstupit; v sportivnyj klub. On govorit, hto \to pomo'et mne snqt; stress. 2 Vy mo'ete porekomendovat; mne sportivnye klassy, kotorye podxodqt mne (dlq menq). 3 Kogda vy molody, vy gotovy idti na risk (riskovat; vsem). Vy ne dumaete ob opasnosti. 4 On ¨ ¨ ¨ stal kaskaderom, kogda emu bylo 20 let, i da'e v vozraste 40 let on vse e]e vypolnqet opasnejwie tr[ki. 5 Vokrug Moskvy net vysokix gor, s kotoryx mo'no prygat; s paraw[tom. 6 U gorodskix vlastej mnogo problem s moskovskimi bajkerami, kotorye portqt grunt v gorodskix parkax.

Unit 6
Exercise 5
1 qvlqetsq rezul;tatom (predstavlqet rezul;tat) 2 qvlqetsq unikal;nym qvleniem (predstavlqet unikal;noe qvlenie) 3 qvlqetsq zadahej festivalq (predstavlqet zadahu festivalq) 4 qvlqetsq otlihitel;noj osobennost;[ (predstavlqet otlihitel;nu[ osobennost;) 5 qvlqetsq cel;[ festivalq (predstavlqet cel; festivalq) 6 qvlqetsq blagom dlq Rossii (predstavlqet blago dlq Rossii) 7 qvlqetsq stilem 'izni (predstavlqet stil; 'izni).

Exercise 6
Pol;zu[tsq uspexom, prodol'at; rukovodit; Malym teatrom, proslavilsq postanovkoj, stala potrqseniem, shitaetsq odnoj iz samyx sil;nyx v Rossii, 'ertvovat; svoej xudo'estvennost;[, riskovat; vsem, ostaetsq odnim iz samyx uspewnyx teatrov.

Key to exercises

|

295

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 7
Oceniva[]ij, ponima[]ij, igra[]ij, proisxodq]ij, naxodq]ijsq, vedu]ij, blestq]ij, uhastvu[]ij, sozda[]ij, pol;zu[]ijsq, prevra]a[]ijsq, isheza[]ij, voznika[]ij, stanovq]ijsq, upravlq[]ij,

Exercise 8
1 kinofestival;, proxodq]ij v Moskve 2 mnogo fil;mov, pol;zu[]ixsq ¨ uspexom 3 sredi akterov, snima[]ixsq v fil;me 4 v truppe Dodina, sostoq]e j iz ego uhenikov 5 predpohita[]ix xudo'estvennyj uspex 6 teatry, razme]a[]iesq v malen;kix zalax 7 malo l[dej, pomnq]ix staru[ Moskvu.

Exercise 9
Ponqvwij, ocenivwij, sozdavwij, vy'ivwij, sygravwij, provedwij, nawedwij, proiswedwij, stavwij, blestevwij, postavivwij, prevrativwijsq, vospol;zovavwijsq, ishezwij, voznikwij, ostanovivwijsq.

Exercise 10
1 s kritikami, ocenivwimi fil;m 2 o fil;me, poluhivwem pervyj priz 3 u aktrisy, igravwej rol; Anny Kareninoj 4 fil;m, wedwij po televizoru 5 teatral;naq olimpiada, prowedwaq v Moskve; 6 festival;, nahavwijsq v i[le 7 arxitekturnyj stil;, ishezwij teper; 8 o prem;ere p;esy Hexova, sostoqvwejsq na prowloj nedele.

Exercise 12
1 o syne 2 pro tebq 3 ob igruwku 4 o stol 5 pro l[bov;.

Exercise 13
1 Pobeditelem Moskovskogo me'dunarodnogo kinofestivalq byl amerikanskij fil;m <Fanatik>. 2 Malyj teatr v Sankt-Peterburge qvlqetsq odnim iz samyx interesnyx teatrov v Rossii, stavwim znamenitym (on stal znamenitym) ¨ blagodarq xudo'estvennomu masterstvu re'issera L;va Dodina. 3 Bol;winstvo ¨ hlenov '[ri, oceniva[]ix fil;my, byli professional;nye aktery ¨ (professional;nymi akterami). 4 Vse gazety pisali o fil;me, poluhivwem ¨ vyswij priz na kinofestivale. 5 Aktery, igravwie (igra[]ie) glavnye roli, qvno, prinadle'ali k wkole Stanislavskogo. 6 V Rossii mnogo l[dej, cenq]ix teatral;noe iskusstvo (iskusstvo teatra). 7 Rossijskie teatry ¨ stanovqtsq vse bolee kommerheskimi: stavqtsq (oni stavqt) tol;ko p;esy, garantiru[]ie polnyj zal. 8 Mnogie fil;my, uhastvu[]ie v konkurse, okazalis; inostrannymi. Sredi nix byl tol;ko odin rossijskij fil;m.

296

|

Key to exercises

Unit 7
Exercise 2
1 hto-to hitala 2 pisal komu-nibud; 3 kakaq-to devuwka 4 pohitat; hto-nibud; 5 kakoj-to qzyk 6 nauhit; ego hemu-nibud; 7 kakie-nibud; gazety 8 kak-nibud; ¨ my rewim 9 gde-to na Severe 10 s kem-to po telefonu 11 pojdem kuda-nibud; 12 kto-to sprawivaet.

Exercise 6
1 drug drugu 2 drug o druge 3 drug s drugom 4 daleko drug ot druga 5 pomo]; drug ot druga 6 drug drugom 7 drug druga.

Exercise 7
1 govoril o tom, hto 2 vidit to, hego 3 ver[ v to, hto 4 zakonhil rasskaz tem, hto 5 gordilas; tem, hto 6 ne vinovat v tom, hto 7 beda v tom, hto 8 somneva[tsq v tom, hto.

Exercise 8
A 1 obratilsq k toj, kto 2 'al; togo, komu 3 poznakomila s tem, kto 4 tot, kto govorit 5 otdat; knigu tomu, komu. B 1 my s temi, kto 2 kanal dlq tex, komu 3 zavisit ot tex, kto 4 bol;winstvo tex, kto 5 priglawenie tem, kto 6 sredi tex, kto smotrit 7 te, kogo interesuet.

Exercise 10
1 posle koncerta 2 posle togo kak ona okonhila kurs 3 posle togo kak my poluhili novosti 4 posle obeda.

Exercise 11
¨ A 1 Iz-za tq'elogo \konomiheskogo polo'eniq 2 blagodarq professional;nomu masterstvu vedu]ix 3 iz-za nedostatka deneg 4 blagodarq xorowemu nastroeni[, 5 iz-za cenzury 6 iz-za ploxoj pogody. B 1 Iz-za togo, ¨ hto v strane tq'eloe \konomiheskoe polo'enie 2 blagodarq tomu, hto u vedu]ix professional;noe masterstvo 3 iz-za togo, hto v strane nedostatok deneg 4 blagodarq tomu, hto u nego bylo xorowee nastroenie 5 iz-za togo, hto na televidenii teper; cenzura 6 iz-za togo, hto byla ploxaq pogoda.

Key to exercises

|

297

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 13
1 Q ne duma[, hto pressa mo'et byt; polnost;[ nezavisimoj: politika gazety zavisit ot togo, kto vladelec gazety (zavisit ot vladel;ca gazety). 2 Bol;winstvo l[dej interesu[tsq novostqmi i smotrqt televizor, htoby uznat; o politiheskoj i \konomiheskoj 'izni strany. 3 Mnogie l[di somneva[tsq v tom, hto oni poluha[t tohnu[ informaci[ iz gazet. ¨ 4 Moq mat; vsegda govorit, hto televizor ploxo vliqet na ee nastroenie. 5 Na rossijskom televidenii mnogo programm, no moq l[bimaq programma <Kukly>, satira na rossijskix politikov. 6 Nekotorye rossiqne govorqt, hto oni smotrqt myl;nye opery, htoby zabyt; o real;noj 'izni v Rossii. 7 Blagodarq professional;nomu masterstvu vedu]ix kanal <Kul;tura> stal ohen; populqrnym sredi tex, kogo interesuet iskusstvo (kto interesuetsq iskusstvom). 8 Britanskoe i rossijskoe televidenie otliha[tsq drug ot druga v tom, kak oni predstavlq[t novosti.

Unit 8
Exercise 4
1 dlq rossijskogo rynka truda 2 novyj trudovoj kod 3 nado mnogo trudit;sq 4 vse trudq]iesq 5 reputaciq nastoq]ego tru'enika 6 sredi sotrudnikov 7 dogovor o sotrudnihestve 8 s bol;wim trudom 9 mnogo agenstv po trudoustrojstvu 10 pomoga[t trudoustroit;sq.

Exercise 8
¨ Osnovannyj, pokazannyj, oplahennyj, kuplennyj, ocenennyj, postavlennyj, ¨ ¨ ¨ ispol;zovannyj, predlo'ennyj, osu]estvlennyj, perevedennyj, priglawennyj, ¨ podpisannyj, prigotovlennyj, razvityj, prinqtyj, priobretennyj, najdennyj, ¨ ¨ ¨ vvedennyj, zaregistrirovannyj, razrewennyj, otkrytyj, udovletvorennyj.

Exercise 9
1 firma zanqta 2 bylo otdano 3 byla priglawena 4 budet projden; budet predlo'ena 5 budet podpisan 6 najdeno mesto 7 byli kupleny vse gazety 8 bylo reweno 9 bylo otmeheno 10 byli priobreteny 11 budut pokazany.

Exercise 10
1 Universitetom ej (byla) predlo'ena xorowaq rabota. 2 Problema (byla) rewena im s bol;wim trudom. 3 Nakonec, direktorom (byl) podpisan kontrakt. ¨ 4 Nami (byli) osvoeny mnogie komp;[ternye programmy. 5 E[ (byl) pereveden

298

|

Key to exercises

roman Tolstogo. 6 Special;nyj sajt (byl) otkryt firmoj. 7 Ona (byla) rekomendovana sotrudnikami, kak otlihnyj specialist. 8 Predpriqtiem (bylo) opublikovano ob#qvlenie v gazete. 9 Rez[me (bylo) prislano e[ po faksu. ¨ ¨ 10 Fil;m (byl) ocenen kritikami kak slabyj. 11 Pravitel;stvom (byl) vveden ¨ novyj zakon ob immigracii. 12 Samye presti'nye prizy (byli) zavoevany kitajskimi sportsmenami.

Exercise 11
1 za god 2 za gorodom 3 za knigoj 4 za rabotoj 5 za granicu 6 za poslednee vremq 7 god za godom 8 za pomo];.

Exercise 12
¨ ¨ 1 Ustrojstvo <po blatu> – vse e]e samyj vernyj sposob ustroit;sq na rabotu v Rossii. 2 K so'aleni[, usloviq v Vawej firme ne podxodqt mne (ne ustraiva[t menq). 3 Ej vsegda nravilos; rabotat; s l[d;mi. 4 Vy mo'ete pristupit; k rabote herez nedel[? 5 S bol;wim trudom ona nawla rabotu perevodhika v malen;koj firme. 6 Vy dol'ny byt; ob]itel;nym i ¨ nastojhivym, esli Vy xotite byt; mened'erom po proda'am. 7 Ee luhwee kahestvo – umenie rabotat; v komande. 8 Moq osnovnaq obqzannost; na novoj rabote – perevod s anglijskogo na russkij qzyk.

Unit 9
Exercise 3
1 pqt;desqt tri procenta, a mu'hiny sorok sem; procentov 2 v tysqha devqtsot ¨ devqnosto vtorom godu otmehalos; na soroka hetyrex territoriqx Rossii a v devqnosto tret;em godu u'e v westidesqti vos;mi iz semidesqti devqti rossijskix regionov 3 v period s tysqha vosem;sot devqnosto sed;mogo goda ¨ po tysqha devqt;sot dvadcat; hetvertyj god 4 bolee dvadcati dvux millionov helovek 5 sem;q s tremq-pqt;[ det;mi sokratilas 6 by do sta soroka millionov helovek u'e k dvuxtysqhnomu godu 7 snizitsq k dve tysqhi desqtomu godu ¨ do sta tridcati trex millionov helovek 8 skorost; do dvuxsot kilometrov v has 9 ot sta devqnosta devqti dollarov 10 ot dvux do pqti.

Exercise 4
1 hetvero detej 2 dvoe sutok 3 troe devuwek 4 pqtero soldat 5 semero sportsmenov 6 westero studentov.

Key to exercises

|

299

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 5
¨ 1 poexali v Rossi[ vdvoem 2 priexalo vdvoe bol;we be'encev 3 dvoe ¨ ¨ sportsmenov 4 troe druzej 5 vse dela[t vtroem 6 zarplata vtroe bol;we, hem ego.

Exercise 6
1 po mneni[ neskol;kix demografov 2 vo mnogix razvityx stranax 3 v tehenie neskol;kix dnej 4 neskol;kim se ´m;qm 5 u mnogix be'encev 6 s neskol;kimi novymi russkimi 7 so skol;kimi studentami 8 izvestno mnogim 9 u nemnogix studentov.

Exercise 7
1 140 millionov helovek 2 mnogo l[dej 3 skol;ko helovek uhitsq 4 12 helovek 5 u nekotoryx l[dej 6 u neskol;kix helovek 7 neskol;ko helovek.

Exercise 8
Sem;desqt vosem; i vosem; desqtyx, sem;desqt west; i devqt; desqtyx, sem;desqt west; i pqt; desqtyx, sem;desqt west; i hetyre desqtyx, sem;desqt west; i hetyre desqtyx, sem;desqt pqt; i dve desqtyx, sem;desqt pqt; i odna desqtaq, west;desqt devqt;, west;desqt pqt; i odna desqtaq, west;desqt pqt;.

Exercise 11
1 nu'no (bylo, budet) vremq 2 nu'en (byl, budet) slovar; 3 nu'na (byla, budet) viza 4 nu'ny (byli, budut) 'urnaly 5 nu'no (bylo, budet) novoe oborudovanie 6 nu'en (byl, budet) uhebnik russkogo qzyka 7 nu'ny (byli, ¨ budut) aktery 8 ne nu'na (byla, budet) gazeta 9 nu'na (byla, budet) demografiheskaq politika.

Exercise 13
1 on 'enilsq 2 ona vywla zamu' 3 oni rewili po'enit;sq 4 'enatye mu'hiny 5 u zamu'nix 'en]in 6 braki s inostrancami.

Exercise 14
¨ 1 Demografiheskq situaciq v Rossii ohen; ser;eznaq: ro'daemost; umen;waetsq i prodol'itel;nost; 'izni padaet. 2 Vo mnogix evropejskix stranax hislo 'en]in vywe, hem mu'hin. |to mo'no ob#qsnit; tem, hto prodol'itel;nost; 'izni sredi 'en]in na neskol;ko let vywe, hem sredi

300

|

Key to exercises

¨ mu'hin. 3 Soglasno perepisi, provedennoj v 2001 godu, naselenie Velikobritanii sostavlqlo 70 mln. helovek. 4 Po mneni[ demografov, vysokaq ro'daemost; xarakterna dlq razviva[]ixsq stran. V razvityx stranax – protivopolo'naq situaciq. 5 Htoby ostanovit; sokra]enie naseleniq, Rossii nu'na demografiheskaq politika (Rossiq nu'daetsq v demografiheskoj politike). 6 Kurenie i zloupotreblenie alkogolem – glavnye prihiny nizkoj prodol'itel;nosti 'izni sredi mu'hin v Rossii (glavnye prihiny togo, pohemu v Rossii takaq nizkaq prodol'itel;nost; 'izni sredi mu'hin). 7 My vse dol'ny vesti zdorovyj obraz 'izni. Pre'de vsego, my dol'ny brosit; kurit; i pit;. 8 Q ne ver[, hto 'enatye mu'hiny 'ivut dol;we, ¨ hem razvedennye.

Unit 10
Exercise 2
1 BGAV, V 2 obleghit;.

Exercise 3
Poluhaemyj, privlekaemyj, sozdavaemyj, l[bimyj, uva'aemyj, vnosimyj, osu]estvlqemyj, oplahivaemyj, vvozimyj, predlagaemyj, provodimyj, izuhaemyj, finansiruemyj, ispol;zuemyj.

Exercise 4
1 nazyvaemyj perestrojkoj 2 vozglavlqemu[ izvestnym lingvistom 3 l[bimyj l[d;mi 4 ispol;zuemaq v \tom universitete 5 vvozimye v Rossi[ 6 finansiruemyx gosudarstvom 7 vnosimye roditelqmi 8 poluhaemoj studentami 9 sdavaemyx studentami.

Exercise 5
¨ ¨ 1 peredavalis; interesnye novosti 2 russkij qzyk prepodaetsq 3 vydaetsq stipendiq 4 gotovitsq novaq reforma 5 vyswee obrazovanie oplahivaetsq roditelqmi 6 luhwie studenty prinima[tsq v institut 7 m\rom priglawa[tsq inostrannye specialisty.

Exercise 6
1 izmenilas; 2 okonhil 3 uvelihilas; 4 budet uluhwat;sq 5 prodol'aet 6 nahina[tsq 7 sokra]aet 8 umen;waetsq 9 konhilis; 10 budet provodit;sq.

Key to exercises

|

301

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 10
1 uhatsq besplatno 2 otuhilsq ot butylki 3 plata za obuhenie 4 zarplaty uhitelej 5 uhit;sq v presti'nom vuze 6 nauhila menq 7 luhwix vyswix uhebnyx zavedenij 8 sovremennogo uhebnogo plana 9 uhit; anglijskij qzyk 10 uhil detej russkomu qzyku.

Exercise 11
1 po moim hasam 2 vniz po reke 3 po poqs v vode 4 po podarku 5 po poluhenii pasporta 6 po tret;e fevralq.

Exercise 13
1 Vvedenie edinogo gosudarstvennogo \kzamena bespokoit mnogix rossiqn. Po ¨ ix mneni[, uroven; obrazovaniq, neizbe'no, snizitsq (upadet). 2 Tol;ko te studenty, kotorye nabrali (tol;ko studenty, nabravwie) naivyswie bally poluha[t stipendi[ i takim obrazom, besplatnoe obrazovanie. 3 U roditelej v Rossii teper; est; vybor, v kakie wkoly otpravlqt; svoix detej, kakimi uhebnikami pol;zovat;sq, kakoj uhebnoj programme sledovat;. 4 Ne vse hastnye wkoly luhwe, hem gosudarstvennye (luhwe gosudarstvennyx). No u nix est; odno preimu]estvo: hislo detej v ka'dom klasse namnogo (gorazdo) men;we. 5 Samoe bol;woe izmenenie v sisteme obrazovaniq Rossii v devqnostyx godax (v devqnostye gody) bylo poqvlenie i rost platnyx hastnyx uhebnyx zavedenij. 6 In'enernoe obrazovanie stanovitsq snova populqrnym. Konkurs v nekotoryx texniheskix universitetax ohen; vysokij: do dvadcati studentov na mesto. 7 Po-moemu, obrazovanie dol'no byt; besplatnym i dostupnym vsem. Q protiv hastnyx universitetov i hastnyx wkol.

Unit 11
Exercise 5
1 Esli leto budet 'arkoe, (to) my budem 'it; na dahe. 2 Esli q sdam matematiku, q postupl[ v texniheskij universitet. 3 Esli rossijskie dorogi uluhwatsq, (to) v Rossi[ budet ezdit; mnogo turistov. 4 Esli u nego budet ¨ xorowaq zarplata, (to) on kupit kvartiru v centre. 5 Esli u menq budet shet v banke, (to) q vlo'u kapital v cennye bumagi. 6 Esli ona brosit kurit;, ¨ (to) ee zdorov;e stanet (budet) luhwe. 7 Esli rossijskie gazety budut nezavisimymi, (to) oni opubliku[t vs[ informaci[. 8 Esli na festivale budut pokazany rossijskie fil;my, (to) zriteli uzna[t, kak razvivaetsq kino v Rossii. 9 Esli u menq budet vremq, (to) q poedu v kruiz po Volge.

302

|

Key to exercises

Exercise 6
1 Esli by \konomika zarabotala, (to) srednij klass obqzatel;no by uvelihilsq. 2 Esli by on okonhil universitet, (to) u nego byla by xorowaq rabota. 3 Esli by ne bylo defolta v \tom godu, (to) rossijskij rubl; stal by sil;nym. 4 Esli by ne byla provedena reforma obrazovaniq, (to) uroven; obrazovaniq upal by. 5 Esli by byla vvedena plata za obrazovanie, (to) postradali by mnogie l[di. 6 Esli by gosudarstvo xotelo povysit; uroven; obrazovaniq, (to) ono ¨ soxranilo by hastnye wkoly. 7 Esli by \tot vuz byl presti'nym, to v nem byl by bol;woj konkurs. 8 Esli by u studenta bylo stremlenie uhit;sq, (to) on zakonhil by universitet s otlihiem.

Exercise 8
1 htoby moj mu' kupil mawinu 2 htoby ego doh; postupila v universitet ¨ ¨ 3 htoby ee roditeli priobreli putevku 4 htoby vse uhitelq prinadle'ali k srednemu klassu 5 htoby naw sosed kupil dahu 6 htoby rabohie vkladyvali den;gi v cennye bumagi 7 htoby vse deti poluhili xorowee obrazovanie.

Exercise 9
¨ 1 Q somneva[s;, htoby \to byla pravda. 2 Q ne ver[, htoby on priwel. 3 Q ne duma[, htoby ona sdala \kzamen. 4 Q sovetu[, htoby Vy podumali ob \tom. 5 On prosil, htoby q pogovoril(a) s nej. 6 On prikazal, htoby q poexal(a) v London.

Exercise 10
1 htoby uhitel; byl obrazovannyj helovek 2 htoby u detej byli ravnye vozmo'nosti 3 htoby studentam nravilos; uhit;sq 4 htoby blagosostoqnie l[dej povysilos; 5 htoby vse l[di imeli rabotu 6 htoby u l[dej byli sbere'eniq 7 htoby vse bogatye platili nalogi 8 htoby v Rossii ne bylo xorowix dorog 9 htoby on opozdal na poezd 10 htoby ona napisala roman ¨ 11 htoby ona brosila kurit; 12 htoby u nego byla 'ena 13 htoby u nee ne bylo mu'a.

Exercise 11
1 hto by ty ni govoril 2 gde by oni ni rabotali 3 kogda by ona ni dumala ¨ o nem 4 kuda by moj mu' ni ezdil 5 kak by trudno \to ni bylo 6 kogda by ¨ q ni videl ee.

Key to exercises

|

303

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 13
¨ ¨ 1 Sociologi vse e]e sporqt o tom, su]estvuet li srednij klass v Rossii. 2 Su]estvuet bol;waq raznica me'du rossijskim i britanskim srednim klassom. 3 Esli \konomiheskaq situaciq v Rossii uxudwitsq (stanet xu'e), (to) mnogie l[di poterq[t rabotu. 4 Esli by tol;ko l[di znali, kak opasno xodit; noh;[. 5 Esli by tol;ko u menq byli den;gi,(to) q by putewestvovala po vsemu miru (vokrug sveta). 6 Bol;winstvo tak nazyvaemyx novyx russkix razbogateli blagodarq svoim svqzqm s sovetskim pravitel;stvom. 7 Q xohu, htoby moj syn uhilsq v Moskovskom universitete; q xohu, htoby on izuhal anglijskij qzyk. 8 On poprosil menq kupit; russku[ gazetu dlq nego (poprosil, htoby q kupila russku[ gazetu dlq nego). 9 Rossijskaq sem;q shitaet sebq bednoj, esli ona ne mo'et pozvolit; sebe pokupat; frukty i sladosti dlq detej.

Unit 12
Exercise 5
1 nel;zq govorit; 2 mo'no sozdavat; 3 mo'no vvodit; 4 mo'no pol;zovat;sq 5 nel;zq kurit; 6 mo'no zakazat; 7 nel;zq ezdit; bez bileta.

Exercise 6
¨ 1 Mne prixoditsq exat; v Rossi[. 2 Emu priwlos; kupit; bilet na samolet. ¨ 3 Materi pridetsq idti pewkom. 4 Tebe ne sleduet vozvra]at;sq pozdno. 5 Vy obqzany sdat; \kzamen. 6 Professoru prixoditsq otkryt; hastnu[ kliniku. 7 Emu ne sledovalo soglawat;sq so mnoj. 8 Vrah obqzan okazat; pervu[ pomo];. 9 Vam ne sleduet prixodit; s[da. 10 Tebe ne sledovalo vstrehat; ego.

Exercise 7
¨ 1 mne udalos; kupit; 2 professoru Bronwtejnu udastsq vy'it; 3 nam udaetsq ¨ dobe'at; 4 emu udaetsq sxodit; v magazin 5 vam udalos; pozavtrakat; 6 ej nikogda ne udavalos; pisat; bez owibok.

Exercise 8
1 Iz-za 'ary mne bylo len; rabotat;. 2 U'e west; hasov: pora idti. 3 Nam ostalos; tol;ko otkazat;sq ot \togo plana. 4 Turistam bylo 'al; bednyx krest;qn. 5 Emu ne xvataet opyta dlq takoj raboty. 6 Vo vtornik mne ispolnitsq 21 god. 7 Mne ohen; xohetsq uvidet; \tot fil;m. 8 Emu nadoelo rabotat; tam i de ´lat; sku ´hnu[ rabo ´tu.

304

|

Key to exercises

Exercise 10
1 Mne nekuda xodit;. 2 Emu negde 'it;. 3 Ej nehego delat;. 4 Materi nekogda smotret; televizor. 5 Mne ne o hem govorit; s toboj. 6 Emu da'e ne s kem ¨ pojti v pivnu[. 7 Mne nekogo priglasit; v kino. 8 Rebenku nehem est; sup. 9 Mne ne na kogo nadeqt;sq. 10 Ej ne k komu zajti po doroge domo ´j.

Exercise 11
1 vo vtornik 2 v sredu 3 s togo vremeni 4 vo mnogom 5 ko mne 6 k stadionu.

Exercise 12
1 V nastoq]ee vremq sistema zdravooxraneniq v Rossii pere'ivaet (ispytyvaet) ¨ bol;wie trudnosti: ne xvataet vrahej i medsester, i usloviq v bol;nicax u'asnye. 2 Stoimost; leheniq v hastnyx klinikax ohen; vysokaq, no q ne duma[, hto my mo'em obojtis; bez hastnoj mediciny v nynewnej situacii. 3 Pomo]; gosudarstva nu'na (neobxodima) vsem bol;nicam, kak gosudarstvennym, tak i hastnym. 4 Q shita[, hto medicinskoe obslu'ivanie dol'no ostavat;sq dostupnym dlq vsex l[dej. No q soglasen (soglasna), hto u l[dej dol'en byt; vybor. 5 Mne tak 'al; staryx pensionerov v Rossii: oni mnogo rabotali vs[ svo[ 'izn;, a teper; ne v sostoqnii priobresti da'e lekarstva. 6 Q duma[, hto professoru Bronwtejnu udalos; sozdat; svo[ znamenitu[ kliniku blagodarq ogromnoj \nergii i praktiheskomu opytu. ¨ 7 Mne vse nadoelo: mne nehego delat;, nekuda idti, ne s kem govorit;. 8 Q nade[s;, hto rossijskomu pravitel;stvu udastsq vyjti iz nastoq]ego krizisa.

Unit 13
Exercise 5
Vspominaq, rasshityvaq, sozdavaq, huvstvuq, blagodarq, idq, prixodq, nesq, vozvra]aqs;, putewestvuq, okazyvaqs;, l[buqs;, stanovqs;, golosuq, nabiraq, buduhi, naxodqs;.

Exercise 6
1 naxodqs; v Rossii 2 'ivq vs[ 'izn; v Amerike 3 sozdavaq novu[ parti[ 4 razgovarivaq so studentami 5 vozvra]aqs; iz Moskvy 6 sluwaq muzyku 7 uhas; i rabotaq za granicej 8 nenavidq vojnu 9 l[bq sladkoe.

Key to exercises

|

305

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Exercise 7
Sozdav, nabrav, progolosovav, stav, skazav, pojdq, prinesq, uexav, okazavwis;, vernuvwis;, vvezq, s#ev, najdq, 'enivwis;, nazvav.

Exercise 8
1 priexav v Moskvu 2 vernuvwis; iz poezdki 3 rodivwis; v Rossii 4 poznakomivwis; s nej 5 vyjdq zamu' 6 prohitav tekst 7 sdav \kzamen 8 otkazavwis; uhastvovat; 9 pohuvstvovav sebq ploxo.

Exercise 9
1 podvergaqs; raznym ocenkam 2 okazavwis; na vtorom meste 3 podojdq za ¨ mesqc do golosovaniq 4 pridq na vybory 5 ne imeq opredelennoj programmy 6 nihego ne delaq 7 prohitav pis;mo 8 ob#edinivwis; 9 frakcii pobedili 10 oder'av pobedu 11 nadeqs; sozdat; sil;nu[ parti[ 12 plyvq na teploxode 13 buduhi russkim po ro'deni[ 14 hitaq knigi o l[bvi.

Exercise 11
1 Q nigde ne byl(a) vhera. 2 Q nikuda ne xodil(a) veherom. 3 Q ni za kogo ne golosoval(a) na vyborax. 4 Q nihego ne delal(a) utrom. 5 U <Edinstva> net nikakoj programmy. 6 U menq net ni brata, ni sestry. 7 Q nikogda, nihem i ¨ nikem ne uvlekalsq (uvlekalas;). 8 Q ni o hem ne duma[. 9 Q ne prinadle'u ni k kakoj partii. 10 Q ni s kem ne xodil(a) v kino. 11 Ona nihemu ne udivlqetsq. 12 On ni na kom ne 'enilsq.

Exercise 12
1 Nel;zq imet; demokratiheskoe ob]estvo pri odnopartijnoj sisteme. K shast;[ \ta sistema prinadle'it prowlomu. 2 Novoe dvi'enie <Edinstvo> xotelo by byt; pravq]ej partiej v Rossii, no navrqd li emu udastsq dostignut; (dostih;) \toj celi bez so[znikov. 3 Zavoevav hetvert; golosov na vyborax v Dumu, Kommunistiheskaq partiq nahala razrabatyvat; novu[ programmu dejstvij. 4 Nesmotrq na to, hto <Edinstvo>. pol;zovalos; ¨ ogromnym uspexom vo vremq vyborov, Kommunistiheskaq partiq vse-taki zanqla pervoe mesto. 5 K so'aleni[, u <Edinstva> net nikakoj \konomiheskoj programmy. 6 Uspex <Edinstva> ob#qsnqetsq podder'koj prezidenta Putina (tem, hto prezident Putin podder'al dvi'enie / okazal podder'ku dvi'eni[). On v (na) samom dele sovetoval \lektoratu golosovat; za nix. 7 Buduhi edinstvennoj partiej so svoim \lektoratom, Kommunistiheskaq ¨ partiq nadeetsq raswirit; svoe vliqnie. 8 Sredstva massovoj informacii igrali rewa[]u[ rol; na (v) poslednix vyborax. Televideni[ udalos; sozdat;

306

|

Key to exercises

mif populqrnosti dvi'eniq <Edinstvo>, i mnogie poverili v \to (\tomu). 9 Sudq po metodam, ispol;zovannym vo vremq izbiratel;noj (predvybornoj) ¨ kompanii, Rossii e]e daleko ot demokratii.

Unit 14
Exercise 5
Pokupatel; televizorov, prodavec komp;[terov, perevodhik s inostrannogo qzyka, rukovoditel; zavoda, pol;zovatel; komp;[tera, 'itel; Moskvy (moskvih), redaktor gazety, izdatel; 'urnala, rabohij zavoda, prepodavatel; anglijskogo qzyka.

Exercise 6
1 Kolihestvo prestuplenij, pokonhit; s prestupnost;[. 2 Ob]aq zabolevaemost;, novoe zabolevanie Internet-zavisimost;. 3 Tipihnoe pereutomlenie, pereutomlqemost; sredi detej. 4 Pose]aemost; Internet SMI, ¨ pose]enie teatrov. 5 Tvoe razdra'enie, ego razdra'itel;nost;.

Exercise 9
1 Upotreblqet \tu frazu 2 primenqt; k prestupnikam bolee strogie mery 3 pol;zovat;sq ego komp;[terom 4 vospol;zovalis; vozmo'nost;[ 5 pol;zuetsq Internetom 6 upotreblqt; narkotiki 7 pol;zovalas; ogromnym uspexom.

Exercise 10
1 perestanew; vmewivat;sq v moi dela 2 prekrati, po'alujsta 3 tramvaj ostanovilsq 4 sneg perestal 5 rabota ostanovilas; 6 ostanavliva[s; v \toj gostinice 7 mewaet mne smotret; televizor 8 on brosil pit;.

Exercise 11
1 sostavlq[t 53% 2 problema sostoit v tom 3 sostavil 7 let nazad 4 sostoit ¨ iz 3 komnat 5 sostoql sekretarem 6 sostoitsq teatral;naq Olimpiada.

Exercise 12
¨ ¨ 1 Hislo pol;zovatelej Interneta vse vremq uvelihivaetsq (rastet). Internettorgovlq – samyj razviva[]ijsq (progressiru[]ij) sektor rossijskoj \konomiki. 2 Bol;winstvo l[dej v nedavnem oprose duma[t, hto sleduet kontrolirovat; social;no-opasnye sajty. 3 V Rossii, da'e v Moskve ¨ pol;zovanie Internetom otstaet ot zapadnyx stran. Tem ne menee problema

Key to exercises

|

307

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

¨ ¨ Internet-zavisimosti u'e su]estvuet. 4 Internet vse e]e sliwkom dorogoj dlq mnogix rossiqn: nado platit; 50 dollarov v mesqc za bezlimitnyj (bezgranihnyj) dostup v Set;. 5 Moj drug- biznesmen pol;zuetsq Internetom e'ednevno (ka'dyj den;) v svoej rabote. On govorit, hto on ne vy'ivet bez ¨ nego. 6 Rabotaq za komp;[terom, q hasto tak uvleka[s;, hto zabyva[ obo vsem, da'e o ede. 7 V Seti mnogo raznoj informacii, no menq bol;we vsego interesu[t sredstva massovoj informacii. 8 V sledu[]ie vybory, veroqtno, budet vozmo'no golosovat; herez Internet. 9 Q nikogda ne dumal(a), hto q stanu Internet-addiktom, No q avtomatiheski vkl[ha[ komp;[ter, kak tol;ko q prixo'u domoj. 10 Samye populqrnye web-sajty sredi studentov – razvleheniq i igry.

English–Russian vocabulary

The English–Russian vocabulary includes the words required for the English–Russian translations.
ability access accessible to according to action actually accurate achieve a goal addict addiction advantage advise afford after again against age, at the ~ agree with air ticket all ally almost always among appearance appalling appreciate argue arrive around art artistic umenie, sposo ´ ´bnost; (f ) do ´stup ´pnyj (+ dat) dostu ´ soglasno (+ dat) dejstvie ´ ´ na samom dele ´ to ´hnyj ´ dostigat; / dosti ´gnut; celi ´ addi ´kt, poklo ´nnik addi ´kciq ´]estvo preimu sovetovat; (po-) ´ ´t; pozvolq / pozvoli ´t; sebe ´ po ´sle (+ gen) sno ´va pro ´tiv (+ gen) vo ´zrast, v vo ´zraste (+ gen) ´ soglasnyj s (+ inst) ¨ bilet na samolet ´ vse ´ so[znik pohti ´ ´ vsegda sredi (+ gen) ´ poqvlenie ´ ´ u'asnyj ceni ´t; spo ´rit; ´ pribyvat; / pribyt;, prixodi / prijti ´ ´t; ´ ´g vokru (+ gen) ´sstvo isku xudo ´'estvennyj

English–Russian vocabulary

|

309

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

ask ~ a question as soon as authorities automatically begin basic become being believe belong (to) better best way biker birth rate boat border buy cabin carried away (get) cash cease census change channel characteristic cheap, ~er children choice city class clean, ~er clearly clinic close collapse come first comfortable commercial Common State Examination

prosi / po- (+ inf) or (+ gen) ´t; ´ sprawivat; / sprosi ´t; kak to ´l;ko ´ vlasti (pl) avtomati ´heski ´ ´ nahinat; / nahat; prosto ´j stanovi ´t;sq / stat; (+ inst) ´duhi (+ inst) bu verit; ´ ´ prinadle'at; (+ dat), k (+ dat) ´hwe lu ´hwij spo lu ´sob ´ bajker ´ ro'daemost; (f ) teploxo ´d grani ´ca ´ pokupat; / kupi ´t; ´ ka[ta ´ uvlekat;sq / uvleh;sq (+ inst) ´ nali ´hnye ´ ´ perestavat; / perestat; perepis; (f ) ´ izmenenie ´ ´ kanal xarakternyj ´ ¨ dewevyj, dewevle ´ deti ´ vybor ´ go ´rod, gorodsko ´j klass hi ´styj, hi ´]e ´vno q kli ´nika ´ zakryvat; / zakryt; ´ ´ raspad ´t; pervoe mesto zanq ´ ´ udo ´bnyj kommerheskij ´ ´ ´ edi ´nyj gosudarstvennyj \kzamen

310

|

English–Russian vocabulary

common way competition completely condition conduct connections consider consist of constitute continue control create credit card crisis cross cruise cost country curriculum daily damage danger dangerous deck decisive decline democracy demographer depart departure depend on despite the fact developed, ~ing country differ difference difficult, ~y; with ~ director divorced do without

vernyj spo ´ ´sob ´ ko ´nkurs, sorevnovanie (sport) po ´lnost;[ uslo ´vie provodi / provesti ´t; ´ ´zi svq ´ shitat; ´t; iz (+ gen) sostoq ´t; ´ sostavlq / sostavit; ´ ´ prodol'at;, prodol'at;sq kontro (m); kontroli ´l; ´rovat; ´ ´ sozdavat; / sozdat; ´ kredi ´tnaq karta kri ´zis perexodi / perejti (herez + acc) ´t; ´ ´ krui ´z sto ´imost; (f ) ´ strana ´ programma e'ednevno ´ po ´rtit; (is-) ´ opasnost; (f ) ´ opasnyj ´ paluba ´ rewa[]ij ´ umen;wat;sq / umen;wit;sq, umen;wenie ´ ´ ´ sokra]at; / sokrati ´t;, sokra]enie ´ ´ demokratiq demo ´graf ´t;sq / otpravit;sq ´ otpravlq ´ otplyvat; / otplyt; (boat) ´ otpravlenie, otplytie ´ ´ zavi ´set; ot (+ gen) ´ nesmotrq na to, hto ´ zvitaq, razviva[]aqsq strana ´ ´ ra ´ otlihat;sq ot (+ gen) ´ raznica ´dn tru / yj, -ost; (f ), s trudo ´m ¨ re'isser (theatre) ¨ razvedennyj obxodi ´t;sq / obojti ´s; bez (+ gen)

English–Russian vocabulary

|

311

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

doubt duty each ecologically economy education educational institution energy engineering ~ education enjoy success enough (not) ~ entertainment election election campaign electorate enormous especially essential ethnic conflict European everything exist experience; to ~ explain express train fall family famous fast fed up feel fee-paying female film festival find ~ a job find out first of all

´ somnevat;sq v (+ prep) ´zannost; (f ) obq ´ ka'dyj \kologi ´heski \kono ´mika ´ obrazovanie uhebnoe zavedenie ´ ´ \nergiq ´ in'enernoe delo ´ ´ ´ in'enernoe obrazovanie ´ po ´l;zovat;sq uspexom ´ ´ dostatohno ´ ne xvatat; (+ gen) razvlehenie ´ vybory (pl) ´ ´ predvybornaq kampaniq ´ ´ \lektorat ogro ´mnyj oso ´benno neobxodi ´myj ´ \tni ´heskij (nacional;nyj) konfli ´kt evropejskij ´ ¨ vse ´ su]estvovat; ´ o ´pyt, pere'ivat; / pere'i ´t; ´t; ob#qsnq / ob#qsni ´t; skorostno po ´j ´ezd ´ ´ padat; / upast; ´ sem;q znameni ´tyj bystryj ´ nadoelo (+ dat) ´ ´vstvovat; hu ´ platnyj 'en]ina, 'enskij ´ ´ ´ kinofestival; (m) ´ naxodi / najti ´t; ´ ustraivat;sq / ustro ´it;sq na rabo ´tu ´ ´ uznavat; / uznat; pre'de vsego ´ ´

312

|

English–Russian vocabulary

flee follow food for foreign forget former fortunately free ~ education full house gain marks game get get out give up go Golden Ring goal government grant growth guarantee harm, do ~ health system healthy help higher education highest highly trained hope hospital illegal important the most ~ increase independent inevitably influence

´ ´ ubegat; / ube'at; ot (+ gen) sledovat; (+ dat) ´ ´ eda dlq (+ gen), za (+ acc) ´ inostrannyj ´ zabyvat; / zabyt; ´ byvwij ´ ´ k shast;[ svobo ´dnyj ´ ´ besplatnoe obrazovanie po ´lnyj zal ´ ´ ´ nabirat; / nabrat; bally ´ igra ´ poluhat; / poluhi ´t; vyxodi / vyjti iz (+ gen) ´t; ´ ´ ´sit; brosat; / bro xodi ´t;, idti ezdit;, exat; ´; ´ ´ Zoloto kol;co ´e ´ cel; (f ) pravi ´tel;stvo stipendiq ´ rost garanti ´rovat; vred, nanosi / nanesti vred (+ dat) ´t; ´ zdravooxranenie ´ zdoro ´vyj ´ pomogat; / pomo ´h;, po ´mo]; ´ vyswee obrazovanie ´ vyswij ´ vysokokvalifici ´rovannyj nadeqt;sq na (+ acc) ´ bol;ni ´ca ´ nelegal;nyj ´ ´ va'nyj, glavnyj ´ ´ samoe glavnoe uveli ´hivat;sq / uveli ´hit;sq nezavi ´simyj neizbe'no ´ ´t; na (+ acc); vliq ´nie vliq

English–Russian vocabulary

|

313

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

information interest, be ~ed international Internet-user interpreter introduction join a club judge (a film) judging by jury kind lag behind last last year lead a way of life leave life life expectancy like long, ~er long way lose job low lucky luggage magnificent main part majority man married mass media medical treatment medicine member middle class migrant money

´ informaciq ´ ´ interesovat;, interesovat;sq (+ inst) me'dunaro ´dnyj po ´l;zovatel; Interneta ´ perevo ´dhik vvedenie ´ ´ba, vstupi ´b stat; hlenom klu ´ ´t; v klu ocenivat; / oceni ´ ´t; (fil;m) ´dq po (+ dat) su '[ri (n) ´ vid, rod ´ ´ otstavat; / otstat; ot (+ gen) poslednij ´ ´ v pro ´wlom godu vesti o ´ ´braz 'i ´zni ´ ´ pokidat; / poki ´nut;, uez'at; / uexat; ´ iz (+ gen) 'izn; (f ) prodol'i ´tel;nost; 'i ´zni ´ nravit;sq (+ dat) do ´lgo, do ´l;we daleko ´ ´t; (po-) rabo terq ´tu ni ´zkij ¨ vezet, povezlo (+ dat) ´ ´ baga' ´ ´ zamehatel;nyj, potrqsa[]ij ´ glavnaq rol; bol;winstvo ´ mu'hi ´na ´ 'enatyj ´ ´ sredstva massovoj informacii ´ ´'ivanie medici ´nskoe obslu ´ medici ´na, lekarstvo hlen srednij klass ´ ´ migrant den;gi (pl) ´

314

|

English–Russian vocabulary

monthly mood mostly mountain movement much (+ comparative) myth need Net news night, at ~ nonetheless number nurse old one-party only (the) opinion, in the ~ opposite order (in) own owner parachute jump parents parliamentary election past pay for pensioner people perform stunts persistent personal connections place pleasure policy politician poll

e'emesqhno ´ nastroenie ´ bo ´l;we vsego ´ ´ gora dvi'enie ´ mno ´go ´ namno ´go, gorazdo mif ´'en, nu'na, (etc. + dat) ´ nu ´ nu'dat;sq v (+ prep) Set; (f ) no ´vosti (pl) noh; (f ), no ´h;[ tem ne menee ´ hislo ´ ´ medsestra ´ staryj, drevnij ´ odnoparti ´jnyj edi ´nstvennyj mnenie, po -[ ´ protivopolo ´'nyj hto ´by svoj, so ´bstvennyj vladelec ´ ´ prygat; / prygnut; s paraw[tom ´ ´ rodi ´teli ´mu vybory v Du ´ pro ´wloe plati ´t; (za-) za (+ acc) pensioner ´ ´ l[di ´t; tr[ki ´ vypolnq nasto ´jhivyj <blat> mesto ´ udovo ´l;stvie poli ´tika poli ´tik opro ´s

English–Russian vocabulary

|

315

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

poor possible practical prefer present, at ~ presenter present the news private probably professional puppet put on (play) quality quarter rail ready reality reason receive recent recommend refugee relieve stress remain rich, become ~ risk river station round the world ruling party Russian man, woman sales manager satire on send serious set sail several short, ~er site situation

bednyj ´ vozmo ´'no prakti ´heskij ´ predpohitat; / predpohest; ´ ´]ij, v nastoq ´]ee vremq nastoq ´ ´]ij vedu ´t; no predstavlq ´vosti ´ hastnyj ´tno veroq ´ professional;nyj ´kla ku ´ stavit; (po-) p;esu ´ ´ kahestvo hetvert; (f ) ´ 'eleznodoro ´'nyj goto ´vyj ´ real;nost; (f ) prihi ´na ´ poluhat; / poluhi ´t; ´ nedavnij ´ rekomendovat; (po-) be'enec ´ ´ snimat; / snqt; stress ´ ´ ostavat;sq / ostat;sq (+ inst) ´ bogatyj, razbogatet; ´ ´ riskovat; (+ inst) ´ rehno vokzal ´j ´g vokru sveta ´ ´ ´ pravq]aq partiq ´n rossiq / in, -ka ´ mened'er po proda'am ´ sati (+ acc) ´ra ´t; ´ ´ ´ otpravlq / otpravit;, posylat; / poslat; ¨ ser;eznyj ´ ´ nahat; otplyvat; neskol;ko ´ koro ´tkij, koro ´he sajt ´ situaciq, polo'enie ´

316

|

English–Russian vocabulary

skill smok / e, ~ing soap opera sociable socially dangerous society so-called sociologist soil sorry speed standard start ~ work state still stop study (at) ~ a subject stunt stuntman succeed success suit support give ~ sure way survive sweets switch on take part take up sport taxi rank team television textbook than thanks to thousand thus time

masterstvo ´ kuri ´t;, kurenie ´ myl;naq o ´ ´pera ob]i ´tel;nyj ´ ´ social;no-opasnyj o ´b]estvo ´ tak nazyvaemyj socio ´log grunt, po ´hva 'al; (+ dat) sko ´rost; (f ) ´roven; (m) u ´ ´ nahinat; / nahat; pristupi ´t; k rabo ´te ´ ´ gosudarstvo, gosudarstvennyj ¨ ¨ (vse) e]e ´ ostanavlivat; / ostanovi (+ acc) ´t; uhi ´t;sq v (+ prep) ´ izuhat; (+ acc) tr[k ¨ kaskader ´ ´ udavat;sq / udat;sq (+ dat) uspex ´ podxodi / podojti (+ dat), dlq (+ gen) ´t; ´ ´ podder'ivat; / podder'at;, podder'ka ´ ´ ´ ´ okazyvat; / okazat; podder'ku ´ vernyj spo ´ ´sob vy'it; ´ ´ sladosti (pl) ´ vkl[hat; / vkl[hi ´t; ´ uhastvovat; ´t;sq spo zanq ´rtom ´nka taksi stoq ´ ´ komanda televi ´denie uhebnik ´ hem ´ blagodarq (+ dat) tysqha ´ taki o ´m ´brazom vremq (neut) ´

English–Russian vocabulary

|

317

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

three ~s top prize train ticket translate from / into translation travel around travel time traveller treatment turn out twofold under unfortunately unlikely unlimited upper up to use use of the Internet varied view visit vote way of life web-site widen win votes winner without woman work at work out world, all over the ~, round the ~ worry worsen, get worse yesterday yet, not ~ young

´ tri raza vyswij priz ´ bilet na po ´ ´ezd perevodi / perevesti s (+ gen), na (+ acc) ´t; ´ perevo ´d ´g putewestvovat; vokru (+ gen), po (+ dat) ´ vremq v puti ´ ´ putewestvennik ´ lehenie ´ ´ ´ okazyvat;sq / okazat;sq (+ inst) ´ v dva raza pri (+ prep) k so'aleni[ ´ ´d navrq li bezlimi ´tnyj verxnij ´ vplot; do (+ gen) ispo ´l;zovat; (+ acc), po ´l;zovat;sq (+ inst) po ´l;zovanie Internetom ´ ´ raznyj vid ´ pose]at; / poseti ´t; ´ go ´los, golosovat; za (+ acc) o ´braz 'i ´zni web-sajt ´t; raswirq / raswi ´rit; ´ ´ ´ zavoevat; (nabrat;) golosa pobedi ´tel; bez (+ gen) 'en]ina ´ rabo ´tat; za (+ inst) ´ razrabatyvat; / razrabo ´tat; ´g ´ ´ru ´ mir, svet; po vsemu mi / vokru sveta bespoko ´it; (o-) ´dwit;sq ´ uxudwat;sq / uxu ´ vhera ¨ ¨ e]e, e]e ne molodo ´j

Russian–English vocabulary

The Russian–English vocabulary includes all the key words found in the book, including those from the texts, dialogues and exercises, but not every word from the examples of realia.
abiturient ´ ´ avariq ´ aktual;nyj anketa ´ arenda ´ ´ ´ attestat ob okonhanii wko ´ly audito ´riq ball ´ balovat;sq bednost; (f ), bednyj ´ ´ bedstvie ´ be'en / ec, ~stvo ´ ´ bezvozvratnyj bezgrani ´hnyj bezrabo / ica, ~nyj ´t ´ besplatnyj bespoko ´it; / o´ blago ´nie blagosostoq blagotvori ´tel;nyj blat ´]ij blestq bli ´'nee zarube';e ´ bli ´zkij bogatet; / raz´ ´ bogat / stvo, ~yj bolezn; (f ) ´ bolet; / za- (+ inst) ´ ¨ bombe'ka ´t;sq (+ gen) boq applicant (to university) accident topical questionnaire, form rent school-leaving certificate audience mark to fool around poverty; poor disaster refugee; refugee problem permanent limitless unemployment; unemployed free to worry good, benefit wellbeing, prosperity charity, charitable personal connections brilliant near abroad near to get rich wealth; rich illness to be ill (with) bombing to be afraid

Russian–English vocabulary

|

319

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

brak brat; / vzqt; na sebq broni ´rovat; / za´ brosat; / bro ´sit; ´duhi (+ inst) bu ´du]ee bu ´ bukval;no ´ byvat; byvwij ´ vvedenie ´ vdrug ´]ij vedu ved; vek veli ´kij verit; / po- (+ dat); v (+ acc) ´ verno ´ vernyj spo ´ ´sob ´ ves;ma ´ ve]anie vzamen (+ gen) ´ vid ´ vinovatyj v (+ prep) ´ vkladyvat; / vlo'i ´t;; vlo'enie ´ ´ vkl[hat; / vkl[hi ´t; vladelec ´ vladet; (+ inst) ´ ´ vlasti (pl); vlast; (f ) vlehenie ´ ´nie vliq ´t; vliq / po- na (+ acc) ´ vmewatel;stvo ´ vnewnie dannye, vnewnost; (f ) ´ ´ vnov; vnosi / vnesti ´t; ´ ´trennij rejs vnu vo ´-vremq ´ vodi ´tel;skie prava ´ voennyj ´t;sq ´ vozvra]at;sq / vernu ´t; ´ vozglavlq / vozglavit;

marriage to take on to book to throw; stop being the future literally to happen former introduction suddenly leading; presenter you see, after all century great to believe true sure way quite broadcasting instead view, appearance; type guilty of to invest; investment to include owner to own authorities; power attraction influence to influence interference appearance again to put in; bring in domestic flight in time driving licence wartime; serviceman to come back, return to head

320

|

Russian–English vocabulary

vo ´zdux vozmo ´'nost; (f ) ´ voznikat; / vozni ´knut; ´ vozrastat; / vozrasti ´ ´ vojna ´ volna ´ volnovat; ´ voob]e vo-pervyx ´ vor voskresnyj ´ ´t; vser;ez ´ ¨ vosprinimat; / vosprinq vosto ´rg vosto ´hnyj vpervye ´ vpolne ´ vpro ´hem vred vremennyj ´ vremq (neut) ´ vsego ´ vsemi ´rnyj ¨ vse ravno ´ ´ vspominat; / vspo ´mnit; ´ vstupi ´tel;nyj \kzamen vuz (vyswee uhebnoe zavedenie) ´ ´ ´ ´ vybirat; / vybrat; ´ vybor; vybory (pl) ´ ´ ´ vybrasyvat; / vybrosit; ´ ´t;sq / vydelit;sq vydelq ´ vyezd ´ ´ vy'ivat; / vy'it; ´ ´ vyzyvat; / vyzvat; ´ vyi ´gryvat; / vyigrat; ´ vylehivat; / vylehit; ´ ´ vynu'dennyj ´ vylet ´ ´ vyletat; / vyletet; ´ ´ vymiranie ´t; vypolnq / vypolnit; ´ ´ vypuskat; / vypustit; ´ vypuskni ´k

air possibility; opportunity to arise to grow war wave to worry on the whole, in general firstly thief Sunday to take seriously delight Eastern for the first time fully, quite however, though harm temporary time in all world wide all the same to remember entrance examination institution of higher education to choose, select, elect choice; election to emit to stand out departure to survive to provoke, cause to win to cure forced departure by air to fly out dying out, extinction to carry out, fulfil to release; produce graduate

Russian–English vocabulary

|

321

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ vypuskno \kzamen ´j ´ vyra'at; / vyrazit; ´ ´ vyrubat; / vyrubit; ´ vystuplenie ´ ´ vyswij; vyswee obrazovanie ´ ´ vyxod ´ vyxodec iz (+ gen) ´ ´ vyxodi / vyjti zamu' za (+ acc) ´t; ´ vyxodnye dni ´ ´t; vyqvlq / vyqvit; ´ v#ezd gastro ´li (pl) genij ´ gi ´bkij ´ glavnoe ´ glavn / yj, -ym o ´brazom ´ go ´los; golosovanie ´ golosovat; / progo ´nki (pl) ´ gora ´ gorazdo gord / i ´t;sq (+ inst); go ´rdost; (f ) gornoly'nyj sklon ´ gosteprii ´mnyj ´ gosudarstv / ennyj; ~o gra'dan / i -ka ´n, ´ gra'danstvo ´ gra'danskij grani ´ca ´ gromadnyj grozi ´t; (+ dat) ´znyj grq davno ´ ´ dal;we ´ dannye (pl) dvi ´gat;sq / dvi ´nut;sq dvi'enie ´ dvuxmestnyj ´ dejstvovat; ´ dejstvu[]ee lico ´ ´

final examination to express to cut down speech, performance highest; higher education way out, exit of . . . origin to marry (for a woman) weekend to reveal entry tour genius flexible the main thing main; chiefly voice; vote; voting to vote race mountain much to be proud of; pride ski slope hospitable state citizen citizenship civil border huge to threaten dirty long time ago further data to move movement, traffic double; two-seater to operate character (in film, play)

322

|

Russian–English vocabulary

´ detsad ¨ dewevyj, dewevle ´ ´ ´ dobirat;sq / dobrat;sq do (+ gen) ´t; doverq / doverit; (+ dat) ´ ´t; ´ dogonq / dognat; do ´l'nost; (f ) do ´lq ´ ´ domawnee zadanie ´jka domoxozq ´jstvo domoxozq dopolni ´tel;nyj ´ dostigat; / dosti ´gnut; (+ gen) dosti'enie ´ dosto ´jnyj do ´stup ´pn dostu / ost;; ~yj ´t; do (+ gen) ´givat; / dotqnu dotq doxo ´d drevnij ´ ´'nyj dru evrejskij ´ edi ´nyj edi ´nstvo edi ´nstvennyj e'ednevn / o, ~yj ´ e'emesqhn / o, ~yj ´ estestvennyj ´ ´ 'alovat;sq / po- na (+ acc) 'al; 'dat; / podo'e ´ 'elat; / po'eleznaq doro ´ ´ga; 'eleznodoro ´'nyj ´ 'enatyj 'eni ´t;sq na (+ prep) 'ertvovat; / po- (+ inst) ´ ¨ 'estkij 'ivo ´j 'ivopi ´snyj 'ivo ´tnoe

kindergarten cheap; cheaper to get to to trust to catch up post share homework housewife household additional to achieve achievement worthy, respectable access accessibility; accessible to extend as far as income ancient friendly Jewish single, unified unity (the) only daily monthly natural to complain of sorry to wait (emphatic particle) exactly to wish railway married to marry (of man) to sacrifice vigorous alive picturesque animal

Russian–English vocabulary

|

323

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

'izneobespehenie ´ ¨ 'il;e 'i ´tel;stvo ´ zabolevaemost; (f ) ´ zabolevanie ´ zabyvat; / zabyt; ´ zavi ´dovat; / po- (+ dat) zavi ´set; ot (+ gen) zavi ´sim / ost; (f ), ~yj ´ ¨ zavoevyvat; / zavoevat; premi[ ´ ´ zagadka ´ zagorat; / zagoret; ´ ´ zagorodnyj dom ´ ´ zadavat; / zadat; vopro ´s ´ zadaha ´ zadnij plan ´ ´ zakazyvat; / zakazat; zako ´n zakusi ´t; ´t; zamenq / zameni ´t; zametnyj ´ ´'nqq ´ zamu'em, zamu ´t;sq(+ inst) ´ zanimat;sq / zanq ´tie zanq ´ ´ zanqt / yj; zanqtost; (f ) ´t; zapolnq / zapo ´lnit; ´ zarabotok ´ zaranee ´ zarplata zarube'nyj ´ ´ zasedat; ´ga zaslu ´'ennyj uspex zaslu ´ ´t; ´ zastavlq / zastavit; ´ zatraty (pl) ´givat; / zatqnu ´t; v (+ acc) zatq zaxvati ´t; za]i ´ta zaqvlenie; ~ na rabo ´ ´tu ´t; zaqvlq / zaqvi ´t; zdravooxranenie ´

vital necessity accommodation, housing residence incidence of disease disease to forget to envy to depend on dependence, dependent to win a prize puzzle to sunbathe country house to ask a question task background to order law to have a bite to replace noticeable married (for a woman) to be engaged in, study occupation; lesson occupied, employed; employment to fill salary, earnings in advance wage foreign to sit, confer merit, service deserved success to make somebody do something expenses to draw, trap into to captivate protection statement; job application to declare health system

324

|

Russian–English vocabulary

´ zemel;nyj uhastok ´ ´ zemlq zerkalo ´ zlodej, ~ka ´ zloupotreblenie ´ znako ´mit;sq / po- s (+ inst) znako ´myj znameni ´tyj znahi ´tel;nyj ´ znahit; zri ´tel; ´ ´ izbegat; / izbe'at; (+ gen) ´ ´ izbiratel;; ~naq kampaniq ´ ´ ´ izdavat; / izdat;; izdatel; iz-za (+ gen) i ´menno ´ imet; v vidu ´ imet;sq ´ ´ inostran / ec, ~nyj ´ iska'at; / iskazi ´t; ´ iskat; iskl[henie ´ i ´skrennost; (f ) ´sstvennyj isku ´sstvo isku ispo ´l;zova / nie; ~t; ´ ispytatel;nyj srok ´ ispytyvat; / ispytat; ´ ´ istoskovat;sq po (+ dat) ´ isxodq iz (+ gen) ´ ishezat; / isheznut; ´ ito (pl) ´gi kadr ´ kadry (pl) ´ kazax kajf ´ kardinal;nyj ´ karman ´ kasat;sq (+ gen) ¨ kaskader

plot of land land mirror villain abuse to acquaint oneself with familiar; acquaintance famous significant to mean (member of) the audience to avoid voter; election campaign to publish; publisher because of namely, actually to mean to be available foreigner; foreign to distort to look for exception sincerity artificial art use; to use probation to experience; test to pine away, miss on the basis of to disappear summing up, total; results shot (film) personnel Kazakh kicks, high cardinal pocket to concern stuntman

Russian–English vocabulary

|

325

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ kahestvennyj ´ kahestvo ´ ka[ta ´ ´ kitaec; Kitaj ´ klassnyj kl[h ¨ kover koleso ´ koli ´hestvo konec ´ konto ´ra koro ´he ´ komanda konehnyj ´ konkuri ´rovat; s (+ inst) ko ´nkurs korzi ´na krepkij ´ kreslo ´ kro (+ gen) ´me krug ´glyj, ~ god kru kruto ´j ´kla ku ´ kupat;sq / iskurenie; kuri ´ ´t; kuro ´rt kursi ´rovat; ´ lekarstvo ´ letat;; letet; ´ lehenie ´ lehi / vy´t; ´ li ´hnyj lico ´ l;go ´ta ly'nik ´ l[bo ´j malopodvi ´'nyj ´ masterskaq masterstvo ´ ´ maswtab

high-quality quality cabin Chinese man; China great key carpet wheel quantity end office shorter team final to compete competition basket strong armchair except, besides circle round; all the year round steep; cool doll, puppet to bathe smoking; to smoke spa to run medicine to fly treatment to treat personal face; person benefit skier any sedentary workshop skill scale

326

|

Russian–English vocabulary

medved; (m) ´ me'dunaro ´dnyj ´t;sq / pomenq mera; po mere (+ gen) ´ ´ mery za]i ´ ´ty ´ merka (po zapadnym merkam) ´ ´ mestnyj ´ ´ mehta mi ´lyj mir mirovo ´j mnenie ´ ´ mnogodetnaq sem;q ´ mnogohi ´slennyj mo ´dnyj mul;tfi ´l;m ´sor mu myl;naq o ´ ´pera ´gkij mq ´ nabere'naq ´ ´ ´ ´ nabirat; / nabrat; bally, golosa ´ nabl[dat; ´dok navodi / navesti porq ´t; ´ ´d navrq li nade'da ´ ¨ nade'nyj nadeqt;sq na (+ acc) ´ nali ´hie nali ´hnye (pl) nalo ´g nanosi / nanesti u]erb (+ dat) ´t; ´ ´ naoboro ´t ´ napominat; / napo ´mnit; napravlenie ´ naselenie ´ nasi ´lie nasto ´jhivost; (f ) ´]ij ´]ee; nastoq nastoq nastroenie ´ ´ka; nau ´hnyj nau ´hno-poznavatel;nyj ´ nau

bear international to change measure; with protection measures by Western standards local dream nice world; peace world opinion large family numerous fashionable cartoon rubbish soap opera soft embankment to collect, gain marks; win votes to observe to bring order unlikely hope reliable to hope presence cash tax to cause damage on the contrary to remind direction population violence persistence the present; real, present mood science; scientific popular science

Russian–English vocabulary

|

327

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ ´ nedavnij, nedavno ´ nedostatok nezavi ´simyj neizbe'nyj ´ nenavi ´det; nenavist; (f ) ´ neobxodi / ost; (f ); ~yj ´m neo'i ´dannyj nepoko ´rnyj nepremenno ´ neredko ´ nesovmesti ´myj ´ neskladnyj (qzyk) ´ nesomnenno ´ neu'eli ´ ni ´zkij no' nos (teploxo ´da) nosi ´l;]ik nynewnij ´ ´ ´ obe]anie; obe]at; / poo ´blast; (f ) ´ obleghat; / obleghit; ´ ´dovanie oboru o ´braz 'i ´zni ´ga ´ obrazovatel;naq uslu ´ obra]at;sq / obrati ´t;sq v (+ acc) ´'ivanie obslu ´'ivat; / obslu'i obslu ´t; ´tel;stvo obstoq obuhenie ´ obxodi ´t;sq / obojti ´s; bez (+ gen) o ´b]ee hislo ´ ´ ob]enacional;nyj ob]enie ´ ob]estvennyj ´ ob]estvennoe ustro ´ ´jstvo o ´b]estvo o ´b]ij ob]i ´tel;nost; (f ) ob#edinenie ´

recent; recently shortage independent inevitable to hate hatred necessity; essential, necessary unexpected unruly obviously, definitely often incompatible disjointed (language) without a doubt really? is it possible? low knife bow (of a ship) porter present promise; to promise region, area; field to make easier equipment way of life education service to turn to service to serve circumstance training to do without total number national communication public, social social structure society general, common sociability association, union

328

|

Russian–English vocabulary

´t;sq / ob#edini ob#edinq ´t;sq ob#ekti ´vnyj ob#qvlenie ´ ´t; ob#qsnq / ob#qsni ´t; obyhno, obyhnyj ´ ´ ´zannost; (f ) obq ´ (ne)obqzatel;no ´ obqzatel;nyj ograni ´hivat; / ograni ´hit; ´ oder'ivat; / oder'at; pobedu ´ ´ ´ odnako ´ o'idanie o ´zero ´ ´ okazyvat;sq / okazat;sq (+ inst) ´ ´ opazdyvat; / opozdat; na (+ acc) ´ opasn / ost; (f ); ~yj ´ oplahivat; / oplati ´t; ´ ´ opravdyvat;sq / opravdat;sq ¨ opredelennyj ´t; opredelq / opredeli ´t; opro ´s ´ opubliko ´vyvat; / opublikovat; o ´pyt, ~nyj orienti ´rovat;sq na (+ acc) ´'ie oru ´ osvaivat; / osvo ´it; ´ osnovanie (v) osnovno ´m oso ´bennost; (f ) oso ´byj ´ ´ osoznavat; / osoznat; ´ ´ ostavat;sq / ostat;sq (+ inst) ostal;no ´j ´t; osu]estvlq / osu]estvi ´t; ´t;sq / osu]estvi osu]estvlq ´t;sq ´ ´ otbirat; / otobrat; otbo ´r otvetstvenn / ost; (f ); ~yj ´ ´ ´ otdavat; / otdat; otdelenie ´ ´ otehestvennyj; Veli ´ ´kaq ~aq vojna

to unite objective announcement, advertisement to explain usually; usual, normal duty (not) necessarily compulsory to restrict to score a victory however expectation lake to turn out to be to be late for danger; dangerous to pay (for) to be justified definite, certain to define survey, poll to publish experience; experienced to be oriented towards weapon to learn, master foundation; reason mainly peculiarity special, particular to realise to remain, stay the rest to implement to come true to take away; select selection responsibility; responsible to give department domestic; national, Great patriotic war (Second World War)

Russian–English vocabulary

|

329

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

Otehestvo ´ ´ ´ otkazyvat;sq / otkazat;sq ot (+ gen) ´ otlihat;sq ot (+ gen) ´ otlihat;sq / otlihi ´t;sq (+ inst) otli ´hie, s ~m otlihi ´tel;nyj otnosi ´tel;nyj otnosi / otnesti k (+ dat) ´t; ´ otnosi ´t;sq / otnesti ´s; k (+ dat) otplytie ´ ´t;sq / otpravit;sq ´ otpravlq ´ otra'at; / otrazi ´t; o ´trasl; (f ) ´ otricatel;nyj ´t; ´ otstaivat; / otstoq ´tstv / ie; -ovat; otsu ´ ´ othalivat; / othalit; ot#ezd ´ ´ oficiant ocenivat; / oceni ´ ´t; ocenka ´ ocen]ik ´ o ´hered; (f ) v pervu[ ~ ´ oxo ´ta ´ oxrana ´t;sq oxranq ´ owibat;sq / owibi ´t;sq owi ´bka ´ ´ padat; / upast; padenie ´ ´ paluba ´ pamqtnik ´ parikmaxerskaq pauti ´na ´ pejza' perevo ´d perevodi / perevesti na (+ acc) ´t; ´ perevo ´dhik peregovo ´ry (f ) peredovo ´j ´ pere'ivat; / pere'i ´t;

fatherland to refuse to differ to be distinguished by difference; with distinction distinguishing relative to relate to treat, regard departure (by boat) to set off, depart to reflect branch negative to defend absence; to be absent to set sail departure waiter to assess; judge (in competition) assessment; mark, grade judge turn; in the first instance hunt guard, bodyguard to be guarded to be mistaken mistake to fall fall deck monument hairdresser’s web landscape translation to translate, interpret into translator, interpreter talks progressive to experience

330

|

Russian–English vocabulary

´ pere'ivat; za (+ acc) ´ perekl[hat;sq / perekl[hi ´t;sq na (+ acc) peremeni ´t; pereme]enie ´ perepis; (f ) ´ ´ peresadka pereutomlenie ´ perexo k rynku ´d ´ perexodi / perejti ´t; ´ pesnq ´ pet; / s´ pehal;nyj ´rsiq pewexo ´dnaq \ksku plani ´rovat; ´ platnyj pobeda ´ pobedi ´tel; ´ pobe'dat; / pobedi ´t; pobli ´zosti ´t; ´ povorahivat; / povernu ´ povywat;(sq) / povysit;(sq) ´ povywenie ´ ´ pogibat; / pogi ´bnut; ´ ´ podbirat; / podobrat; ´ podvergat;sq / podvergnut;sq (+ dat) ´ podver'ennyj stressu ´ ´ podgotovi ´tel;nyj ´ podder'ivat; / podder'at; ´ podder'ka ´ podo ´bnyj (+ dat) ´ podpi ´syvat; / podpisat; podro ´stok podxodi / podojti (+ dat); k (+ dat) ´t; ´ ´]ij podxodq poezdka ´ ´ po'aluj po'ilo ´j ´t; pozvolq / pozvo ´lit; (+ dat) pozdnee, po ´ ´z'e po ´isk poi ´stine

to worry about to switch over to to change moving census change (train) exhaustion, overwork transition to the market to move, cross song to sing sad excursion on foot to plan fee-paying, private victory winner to win nearby to turn to increase increase, rise to perish to select to be subjected to subjected to stress preparatory to support support similar to to sign teenager to suit; approach suitable trip perhaps elderly to allow later search indeed

Russian–English vocabulary

|

331

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ poka ´ pokaz ´ pokidat; / poki ´nut; pokolenie ´ pokrovi ´tel; po ´lnost;[ polovi ´na polo'enie ´ polo'i ´tel;nyj po ´l;za po ´l;zovatel; po ´l;zovat;sq, vos- (+ inst) pome]enie ´ pomi (+ gen) ´mo ´tie ponq ´t; poo]rq / poo]ri ´t; po-pre'nemu ´ ´ pora'at; / porazi ´t; po ´rtit; / isporo ´j ¨ poselok pose]enie ´ posko ´l;ku postano ´vka postepenno ´ ´ potomu poso ´bie ´nnyj postoq ´ postupat; / postupi ´t; v (+ acc) postuplenie ´ poterq ´ potrebi ´tel; potrebnost; (f ) ´ ´ potrqsa[]ij potrqsenie ´ poxodi ´t; na (+ acc) poxo ´'ij na (+ acc) ´t;sq / poqvi poqvlq ´t;sq ´ pravilo pravi ´tel;stvo ´ pravo ´ pravil;no

for a while showing to leave generation patron fully half situation positive use, benefit user to use premises besides idea, concept to encourage as before to astonish to ruin at times village visit as production gradually therefore benefit permanent to enter entrance loss consumer demand; need amazing, stunning sensation to look like similar to, like to appear rule government right correct

332

|

Russian–English vocabulary

´ ´ pravq]aq partiq ´ prazdnovat; / ot´ prebyvanie ´tie predpriq pre'nij ´ prevosxodi / prevzojti ´t; ´ ´ prevra]at;sq / prevrati ´t;sq v (+ acc) prevra]enie ´ ´ prevywat; / prevysit; ´ ´ predvybornaq kampaniq ´ ´ predlagat; / predlo'i ´t; predlo'enie ´ predmet ´ ´ preobladat; ´ preodolevat; / preodolet; ´ ´t; ´ predostavlq / predostavit; ´ ´t; predpolagat; / predpolo'i ´ predpohitat; / predpohest; ´ predpohtenie ´ ´ predprinimatel; predstavi ´tel; ´t; ´ predstavlq / predstavit; ´]estvenno preimu ´]estvo preimu ´ prekra]at; / prekrati ´t; prestuplenie ´ ´pn prestu / ost;, ~yj pretenziq ´ ´ pribli'at;sq / priblizi ´t;sq k (+ dat) ´ pribyvat; / pribyt; ´ privetlivyj ´ ´ privlekatel;nyj ´ privlekat; / privleh; ´ privlehenie ´ privodi / privesti k (+ dat) ´t; ´ ´ ´ priznavat; / priznat; pri ´znak ´ priznanie prikl[henie ´ ¨ prilet prili ´hnyj primer ´

ruling party to celebrate stay enterprise former to exceed turn into transformation to exceed election campaign to offer, suggest offer, suggestion; sentence subject to predominate, prevail to overcome to offer to suppose to prefer preference entrepreneur representative to represent; present chiefly advantage to stop crime rate of crime; criminal complaint to approach to arrive friendly attractive to attract attraction lead to to acknowledge indication recognition adventure arrival (by plane) decent example

Russian–English vocabulary

|

333

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

primerno ´ prinadle'nost; (f ) ´ ´ prinadle'at; (+ dat); k (+ dat) ´t; zako ´ prinimat; / prinq ´n ´ priobretat; / priobresti ´ prioritet ´ priro ´da priro ´st ´ prisvaivat; / prisvo ´it; prisposo ´bit;sq k (+ dat) ´ pristupat; / pristupi ´t; k rabo ´te prito ´k prixodi ´t;sq / prijti ´s; ´ ´ prihalivat; / prihalit; ¨ prihem prihi ´na ´t; prihinq / prihini ´t; provodni ´k ´ proda'a prodvi ´nutyj ´ prodol'at;(sq) / prodo ´l'it;(sq) prodol'i ´tel;nost; (f ) 'i ´zni proezd ´ pro'i ´tohnyj mi ´nimum proizvodi / proizvesti ´t; ´ proisxodi / proizojti ´t; ´ promywlennost; (f ) ´ propagandi ´rovat; propi ´ska pro ´tiv (+ gen) protivopolo ´'nyj proxodi / projti ´t; ´ pro ´hij pro ´wloe pro ´]e prygat; / prygnut; ´ ´ ´ pugat; / is´ puskat; / pusti ´t; pusto ´j pust; ¨ putevka putewestvie ´

approximately belonging, membership to belong to pass a law to acquire priority nature, countryside growth to confer to adjust to to start work surge to have to to moor moreover reason to cause train attendant sale advanced to continue life span journey living wage to produce to happen, take place industry to popularise registration against opposite to go through other the past simpler to jump to frighten to let in empty let; so be it holiday voucher trip

334

|

Russian–English vocabulary

putewestvennik ´ putewestvovat; ´ put; (m) ´ pytat;sq / po´ rabotodatel; rabo ´hij ´ radius ¨ razvedennyj ´ razvivat; / razvi ´t; ´ razvityj ´ razvlekatel;nyj, razvlehenie ´ razdel ´ ´ razme]at;sq / razmesti ´t;sq ´ raznica ´ raznyj ´ razrabatyvat; / razrabo ´tat; razrez ´ razryv ´ ´ raspad ´ ´ raspadat;sq / raspast;sq ´t;sq / raspravit;sq s (+ inst) ´ raspravlq ¨ rasprostranennyj ´ rassmatrivat; / rassmotret; ´ ´nie rasstoq ´ rasshi ´tyvat; / rasshitat; na (+ acc) rasterqnnyj ´ rasti / vy´ rasxo ´dy (pl) raswirenie ´ ´t;sq / raswiri raswirq ´t;sq ´ reali ´zovat; sebq ´ta rebq registri ´rovat; / za´ redaktor ´ redakciq redko ´ ¨ re'isser rezko ´ rejs ´ reklama ´ reklamnyj sektor ´

traveller to travel way to try employer worker radius divorced to develop developed entertainment section to be accommodated difference different to work out cut gap collapse to collapse to deal with spread to examine; consider, regard as distance to count on; aim at confused to grow expenditure widening to widen to realise, fulfil oneself guys to register editor editorial office rarely producer sharply flight; voyage advertising; advertisement advertising sector

Russian–English vocabulary

|

335

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´ rekomendovat; / porepeti ´rovat; repeti ´tor repressiq ´ ´ rehno vokzal ´j ´ rewat; / rewi ´t; ´ rewat;sq / rewi ´t;sq ´ rewa[]ij ro ´dstvennik ´ ro'at; / rodi ´t; ´ ro'daemost; (f ) ´ ro'dat;sq / rodi ´t;sq ro'denie ´ ´n rossiq / in, -ka rost rube' ´ ´ ruka rukovodi / tel;, ~t; (+ inst) ´ ryvo ´k rynok, rynohnyj ´ ´ ´tel;nyj samostoq sbere'eniq (pl) ´ sve'ij ´ ´g svet, vokru sveta ´ svobo / a, -nyj ´d ´zi svq (pl) ´zyvat; / svqzat; ´ svq sdelka ´ sego ´dnqwnij ´n selq / in, -ka ´jstvo sel;skoe xozq ´ serdce ´ seredi ´na set;, Set; (f ) si ´la ´ ´ skazyvat;sq / skazat;sq na (+ acc) sklo ´nnost; (f ) skorost / no ~; (f ) ´j, ´hnyj sku ´ slavit;sq / pro´ slagaemoe

to recommend to rehearse coach repression river station to decide to make up one’s mind decisive relative to give birth birth rate to be born birth citizen of Russia growth border arm leader; to lead spurt market independent savings fresh light; world, round the world freedom; free connections to connect, link deal today’s; present-day villager agriculture heart middle network force to tell on, affect disposition speed boring to become famous component

336

|

Russian–English vocabulary

sledovatel;no ´ sledovat;, po- (+ dat) ´ sledstvie ´ sledu[]ij ´ ´ slezat; / slezt; s (+ gen) slog slo'i ´t;sq sloj ´haj slu smena ´ smertn / ost; (f ); ~yj ´ smert; (f ) smysl ´ sni'at;sq / sni ´zit;sq sni'enie ´ ´ snimat; / snqt; stress sobesedovanie ´ ´ ´ sobirat; / sobrat; so ´bstvennik so ´bstvennost; (f ) so ´bstvennyj sobytie ´ ´ soverwat; / soverwi ´t; rejs soverwenno ´ sovremennyj ´ ´ soglasno (+ dat) ´ soglasnyj s (+ inst) ´ ´ soder'at; sebq so'alenie, k ~[ ´ ´hnyj (+ dat) sozvu ´ ´ sozdavat; / sozdat; ´ sozdanie ´ sokra]at;(sq) / sokrati ´t;(sq) sokra]enie ´ ´ somnevat;sq v (+ prep) ´ t; / soob]i soob]a ´t; sootnowenie sil ´ sopostavi ´myj s (+ inst) ´ soprovo'dat; / soprovodi ´t; ´ sorevnovanie ´ sortirovat; ´t; ´ sostavlq / sostavit;

consequently to follow consequence following to get (climb) down syllable to be formed layer case change mortality rate; mortal death sense to fall fall, reduction to remove stress interview to gather owner, proprietor property own event to fly (of plane), sail (boat) absolutely modern according to agree with to keep oneself regret; unfortunately in keeping with to create creation to reduce; be reduced reduction to doubt in to inform correlation of forces comparable to accompany competition (sport) to sort to constitute

Russian–English vocabulary

|

337

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

´nie sostoq ´t; iz (+ gen) sostoq ´t; v (+ prep) ~ v brake ´ sostoq ´t;sq sostoq ´dnik sotru ´dnihat; sotru ´t; soxranq / soxrani ´t; ´vstvovat; (+ dat) sohu ´ so[znik spasenie ´ ´ spasat;sq / spasti ´s; SPID spi ´sok spor spo ´sob sposo ´bnost; (f ) ´t;sq / spravit;sq s (+ inst) ´ spravlq spros na (+ acc) sravnenie ´ sredi (+ gen) ´ srednij, (v) srednem ´ ´ ´ sredstva massovo informacii ´ ´j sredstvo ´ sro ´dni (+ dat) srok sro ´hnyj stanovi ´t;sq / stat; (+ inst) ´ starat;sq / po´ stat;q stepen; (f ) ´ ´ stiral;naq mawi ´na stil; (f ) 'i ´zni sto ´imost; (f ) stoletie ´ stoli ´hnyj, stoli ´ca ´ stradat; / po´ strawnyj stroi ´tel;stvo stremlenie k (+ dat) ´ stol; sto ´l;ko ´nka stoq

state to consist of to be; to be married to take place employee to cooperate to preserve to sympathise ally salvation to escape AIDS list argument way ability to cope with demand for comparison among average, (on) ~ mass media means akin to period, time urgent to become to try article degree washing machine life style cost century capital to suffer frightening building striving for so so much, so many rank (taxi), stand

338

|

Russian–English vocabulary

´mka su ´wa su ´ su]estvovat; / prosxo ´dstvo ¨ shet ¨ za shet (+ gen) s#ezd ´]ij televedu ´ tenevaq \kono ´mika teploxo ´d ´t; terq / potesti ´rovanie ´ tira' (v) tehenie (+ gen) ´ -to to est; to ´l;ko hto ´ torgo ´vaq marka to ´hka; ~ zreniq ´ ´ trebovanie trevo ´'nyj tret; (f ) ¨ trena'er treniro ´vka trud, s ~om trudi ´t;sq trudogo ´lik trudoustro ´jstvo ´ppa tru tr[k ¨ tuberkulez tur tuso ´vka tysqheletie ´ ¨ tq'elyj ´ ube'dat;sq / ubedi ´t;sq v (+ prep) uva'i ´tel;naq prihi ´na uvelihenie ´ uveli ´hivat;(sq) / uveli ´hit;(sq) ´t; uverq / uverit; ´ ´ uvlekat;sq / uvleh;sq (+ inst) ´

bag land to exist affinity account at the expense of, by means of congress television presenter shadow economy boat to loose testing circulation during emphatic particle that is just trade mark point; point of view demand alarming third training equipment training labour; with difficulty to work workaholic placement in work company (theatre) stunt tubercolosis tour get-together millennium hard to be convinced of good reason increase to increase to assure to be carried away with

Russian–English vocabulary

|

339

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

uvol;nenie ´ uvy ´ ugro ´za ´ ´ udavat;sq / udat;sq (+ dat) ´ udvaivat; / udvo ´it; udarenie ´ ´t; ´ udelq / udeli ´t; vnimanie (+ dat) ´t; udivlq / udivi ´t; ´t; udovletvorq / udovletvori ´t; udovo ´l;stvie ´'as, u'asnyj ´ u ´t;(sq) / ukrepi ukreplq ´t;(sq) ´hwit;(sq) ´ uluhwat;(sq) / ulu umenie ´ ´ umen;wat; / umen;wit; ´ ´ umirat; / umeret; ´ ´mstvennyj u ´ unihto'at; / unihto ´'it; upravlenie ´ ´t; upravlq (+ inst) urbanizi ´rovannyj ´ urbanizaciq ´roven; (m); ~ 'izni u usi ´livat;sq / usili ´t;sq ´t; uskorq / usko ´rit; uslo ´vie ´ga uslu ´ uspevat; / uspet; na (+ acc) ´ uspex, uspewnyj ´ ´ ´ ustanavlivat; / ustanovi ´t; ´ ´it; ustraivat; / ustro ´ ustraivat;sq / ustro ´it;sq na rabo ´tu ustro ´jstvo na rabo ´tu ´ utver'dat; utehka mozgo ´ ´v ´ uhastie ´ uhastok ¨ uheba uhebnyj plan ´ uhi ´tyvat; / uhest; ´ uhre'denie ´ u]erb ´

dismissed, resignation alas threat to succeed to double stress to give attention to to surprise to satisfy pleasure horror; horrible to strengthen to improve ability, skill to decrease to die mental to destroy management to govern, manage urbanised urbanisation level; standard of living to get stronger to speed up condition service to manage, be in time success; successful to establish to arrange, hold to get a job finding work to maintain brain drain participation plot studies curriculum to take into consideration institution damage

340

|

Russian–English vocabulary

´rg xiru xudo ´'nik xudo ´'estvennyj cel; (f ) celyj; v ~om ´ ´ cena ceni ´t; ´ cennye bumagi (pl) ´ cennyj ´ ´ cenovaq poli ´tika ci ´fra ´ cifrovaq texnolo ´giq ´ hastnoe lico ´ ´ hastnyj hast; (f ) ´ hemodan ´ ´ herta bednosti hest; (f ) hetvert; (f ) ´ ¨ hetkij hi ´slennost; (f ) hislo ´ hi ´styj hi ´]e hlen ´vstvovat; / pohu ´ huma wans wawlyk ´ ´ wikarnyj vid ´r \kzemplq ´ \kran \kskursovo ´d ´ \lektorat \lektri ´hka ´ \t[d [g ´ ['nyj ´ [nowa

surgeon artist artistic aim, goal whole; as a whole price to value securities valuable pricing policy number digital technology private individual private part suitcase poverty line honour quarter clear numbers number, date clean cleaner member to feel plague chance kebab smart appearance copy screen guide electorate electric train sketch south southern youth

Russian–English vocabulary

|

341

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

qvlenie ´ ´t;sq / qvi qvlq ´t;sq (+ inst) ´vnyj q qdro ´ ´sli (pl) q ´snyj q ´]ik q

phenomenon to be; appear obvious nuclear crèche clear box, drawer

Grammar index

accusative case 7–10, 270–9; prepositions with 8, 53–4, 87–90, 160–1, 193 adjectives: long 4, 9, 15, 20, 24, 26; short 28–9; stress 232; comparative 47–52; superlative 100–2 adjectival clauses 99 adverbs 29; comparative 53; superlative 100–2 aspects 33–7 cases 2 clauses: adjectival 99; adverbial 141–3; conditional 205–6; noun 136–8 comparative: adjectives 47–52; adverbs 53 conjugation: first 29–31; second 31–2 conjunctions 141–2 conditional 205–6 dates 85 dative case 17–20, 270–9; impersonal expressions with 223–5; prepositions with 18, 192–3; verbs with 19, 107–8 decimals 171 fractions 171 future tense: imperfective 33; perfective 34 gender: of nouns 3; of pronouns 5 genitive case: partitive 10–15, 270–9; prepositions with 10–11, 107–110; verbs with 13

gerunds 241; imperfective 241–3, 281–5; perfective 244–6, 281–6 imperative 37, 41–2, 280–7; with davajte 37 imperfective aspect 33–7; imperfective future 33, 280–7; imperfective gerund 242–3, 281–5; imperfective past 34–5, 280–7; impersonal expressions 223–8 indeclinable nouns 4 indirect speech 32 instrumental case 22–4, 270–9; prepositions with 22, 104–5, 160–1; verbs with 22, 119; with the passive 164, 194 interrogative sentences 79–80 irregular verbs 31–2 names 24 negatives 229–31, 248 nominative case 2–5 nouns 3–4, 8–14, 19, 23, 270–2; gender 3; indeclinable 4; stress 108–9, 126, 143, 145; suffixes on 258–9 numerals: cardinal 98, 167, 278–9; collective 168; fractions and decimals 171; indefinite 170; ordinal 84 partitive genitive 12 participles: past active 120–2, 123, 281–7; past passive 156–9, 281–2, 285–6; present active 120–2, 123, 281–7; present passive 184–5, 281, 285

Grammar index

|

343

1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8111 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 421111

past tense: imperfective 34–5, 280–7 perfective aspect 33–7; perfective future 34, 280–7; perfective gerund 244–6, 281–6; perfective past 34–5, 280–7 plural: adjectives 4, 9, 15, 20, 24, 26, 271–2; nouns 3–4, 8, 14, 19, 23, 272–4; pronouns 5, 9, 15, 20, 24, 26–7 prefixed verbs 260–2; of motion 67–8 prepositions 7–8, 10–11, 18, 22, 25, 53–6, 87–90, 102, 104–7, 160–1, 192–4; buffer vowel in 231–2 prepositional case 25–7, 54–6, 270–9; prepositions with 25, 54–6, 87–90, 194 present tense 29–32 pronouns: demonstrative 5, 9, 15, 20, 24, 26–7, 276; interrogative 5, 9, 15, 20, 24, 27, 277; personal 5, 9, 15, 20, 24, 26–7, 277; possessive 5, 9, 15, 20, 24, 26–7; reflexive 28; relative 99, 137–8

questions with li 77–8 reflexive verbs 81–3 short adjectives 28–9; stress 232 spelling rules 2 stress 112–13, 130, 148, 150, 204–5, 223–4, 241–2 subjunctive mood 37, 205–6, 280–7 superlative: of adjectives 100–2; of adverbs 100–2 verbs: future tense 33–4, 280–7; irregular 31–4, 285–7; of motion 67–72; passive voice 157–9, 186; past tense 34–5, 280–7; present tense 29–2, 280–7; prefixes on 67–8, 260–2; reflexive 81–3, 284; stress 195–6, 214; transitive and intransitive 187; to be 118; to stop 265–6; to use 264–5 word building 67, 155–6, 183, 185–6, 200, 266, 268–9

Russian index

brak 178 brosat; 266 byvat; 118 byt; 22, 118 v/vo 87–90, 231–2 vezet/povezlo 226 ¨ ves; 5, 9, 15, 20, 24, 26, 276 dol'en 225 'al; 227 drug druga 136 'en- 178 za 160–1 iz 106–7 ispol;zovat; 264 k/ko 231–2 kotoryj 99 kto by ni/hto by ni 209–12 len; 227 kto as a relative pronoun 137–8 li 77–8 mert- 178 mo'no/vozmo'no 223 mu' 178 mewat; (po) 266 nado 224 nadoest; 227 ne xvatat; 227 nedostavat; 228 nel;zq 223 nekogo/nehego 229–30 nu'en 175 nu'no 224 -nibud; and -to 130–1 o/ob/obo 125

ostanavlivat;(sq)/ostanovit;(sq) 266 ot 105–6 perestavat;/perestat; 266 po 192–4 pol;zovat;sq/vospol;zovat;sq 264 pora 227 predstavlqt; (soboj) 118 prekra]at;/prekratit; 266 primenqt;/primenit; 265 prixodit;sq 224 pro 125 rod 176 s/so 102–5, 231–2 sam 28, 277 svoj 28, 275 sebq 28, 277 sleduet 227 sostavlqt;/sostavit; 267 sostoqt;(sq) 267–8 tak'e 72–3 -to and -nibud; 130–1 to'e 72–3 tot 5, 9, 15, 20, 24, 26, 276 trud 150–1 udavat;sq 226 upotreblqt;/upotrebit; 264–5 -uh-/uk- 191 xod 66 hej 5, 9, 15, 20, 24, 26, 275 hto as a relative pronoun 137–8 htoby 209–12 \tot 5, 9, 15, 20, 24, 26, 276 qvlqt;sq/qvit;sq 118

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful