Interdependent World

:
The Global Unity of Traditions and Defenses
Triple Social Structure Triple Worldview Structure
(individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent) (divisive, cooperative, and interdependent)

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Evolution of Societies

Evolution of Worldviews

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Interdependent World: The Global Unity of Traditions and Defenses
Contents Abstract Diagrams and Tables The Evolution of Three-Level Selection Three-Level Selection in Evolution Personality The Evolution of the Worldviews The Two Incompatible Worldviews The Cultural Traditions The Human History of the Worldview-Social Structures The Economic Systems Maladaptive GDP-Inequality Curve The Optimization Fourfold Path The Universal Trinity Creed The Natural Harmonious Platform Mutual Annihilation and Existence in the Interdependent World Introduction 1. The Triple Social-Worldview Structures 1.1. The Social Structure: the triple social structure 1.2. The Worldview: triple worldview structure 1.3. The Worldview-Social History in Human Society 1.4. The Cultural Tradition Part 1: Human Social-Worldview History 2. The Prehistoric Period 2.1. The Prehistoric Interdependent Society 2.2. The Prehistoric Religious Interdependent Society 2.3. The Exit from the Interdependent Society 3. The Early Period 3.1. The Collectivistic Society 3.2. The Individualistic Society 3.3. The Revival of the Interdependent Society 4. The Modernization of the West 4.1. The Modern Individualistic Society 4.2. The Modern Collectivistic Society 4.3. The Modern Christian Church 5. The Modern Economy 5.1. Divisive Economy 5.2. Cooperative Economy 6. The Modern Politics 6.1. Democracy 6.2. Meritocracy 7. The Modern Religion and Environment 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 12 12 20 25 28 32 33 33 34 35 39 40 45 48 57 57 59 59 65 67 75 79 79 81 84

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7.1. The Modernization of Religions in the West 7.2. The Modern Environment Part 2: The Postmodern Period 8. The Postmodern Economy 8.1 Divisive individualistic Economy 8.2. Cooperative Global Economy 8.3 Globalization of Economy 9. The Postmodern Politics 9.1. The Postmodern Democracy 9.2. The Postmodern Meritocracy 10. The Postmodern Global Interconnection Part 3: The Interdependent World 11. The Optimal Systems 11.1. The Optimal Religion 11.2. The Optimal Economy 11.3. The Optimal Politics 11.4. The Optimal Environment 12. The World Defense Organization 12.1. Mutual Annihilation 12.2. Interdependent Realism: the World Defense Organization 13. Summary Reference Email address: Website (download all books): Books list: einsnewt@yahoo.com http://sites.google.com/site/einsnewt/ http://www.scribd.com/einsnewt/documents

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Abstract
In the increasingly interdependent world, no nations and social groups can survive alone as separated entities, resulting in existential interdependence. The interdependent world is maintained by the global unity of traditions and defenses to prevent destructive extremism and mutual annihilation from offensive military, respectively. The global unity of traditions is achieved by establishing the optimal systems as the middle ways between the opposite traditions in religion, economy, politics, and environment. The global unity of defenses is achieved by establishing the World Defense Organization based on interdependent realism. The global unity leads to world peace without destructive extremism and mutual annihilation. The traditions are derived from the triple social-worldview structures. Originated from natural selection for the evolution of society, the triple social structure consists of individualistic (yang) society, collectivistic society (yin), and interdependent (harmonious) society. Originated from territorial instinct and civilization, the triple worldview structure consists of the divisive worldview of the West based on divisive morality for dealing with the world as out-group (outworld), the cooperative worldview of the East based on cooperative morality for dealing with the world as in-group (in-world), and the interdependent worldview of the interdependent world based on the interdependent morality. In divisive worldview, freedom and supremacy are moral, and restriction and inferiority are immoral. In cooperative worldview, reciprocity and cohesive relationship are moral, and egotism and divisive bigotry are immoral. In the interdependent worldview, the morality is global unity, and the immorality is global disunity. The various traditions in religion, economy, politics, and environment are derived from the various combinations of the worldviews and the societies. In religion, the divisive religions are Judaism, Islam, and Greek individualism, the cooperative religions are Hinduism and Confucianism, and the interdependent religions are Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism. In economy, divisive individualistic economy is capitalism, divisive collectivistic economy is socialism, cooperative individualistic economy is reciprocal economy, and cooperative collectivistic economy is cohesive economy. In politics, divisive politics is democracy, and cooperative politics is meritocracy. In environment, divisive environment is anthropocentrism, and cooperative environment is environmentalism. The optimal religion is based on the universal trinity creed consisting of the transcendental civilized platform for the unknowable transcendental supernatural, the immanent civilized platform for the knowable immanent supernatural, and the harmonious natural platform for the experiential conscience, corresponding roughly to the Father, the Son, and the Spirit in Christianity. The optimal economy is based on the optimal equality economy between capitalism and socialism to avoid excessive equality and inequality, and the optimal dual economy between divisive economy and cooperative economy to adapt to different cultures and situations. The optimal politics is based on the optimal dual politics between democracy and meritocracy to allow democracy to have meritocracy in national government and to allow meritocracy to have democracy in local government. The optimal environment is based on the optimal ecological footprint between anthropocentricism and environmentalism to avoid excess anthropocentricism and environmentalism. In the interdependent world, offensive military brings about mutual annihilations including the economic, nuclear, arms race, nuclear, and asymmetrical warfare mutual annihilations which can be prevented by the World Defense Organization in terms of free trade without military interference and the minimizations of nuclear weapons, military expenditure, and hegemony, respectively.

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Diagrams and Tables
The Evolution of Three-Level Selection unconditional reciprocity in individual selection caring relation as the turning point beneficial relatedness in relational selection handicapped individuals as the turning point existential division of labor in group selection interdependent society collectivistic society individualistic society

Three-Level Selection in Evolution
selection evolution time earliest middle caring relation handicapped individuals turning point social unit principal basis for cooperation unconditional reciprocity beneficial cohesive relationship existential division of labor social interaction and society individualistic (yang) collectivistic (yin) interdependent (harmony) social life (interaction) systemization domination bond attraction hyper-bond hyperdetection prevail in male female

individual relational

independent individuals related individuals groups of interdependent individuals

group

last

both

Personality
dynamic (tell) attraction (expressive) domination (driver) hyper detection passive (ask) bond (amiable) systemization (analytical) hyper bond

yin (emote) yang (control) harmony (versatility)

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The Triple worldview Structure
Cooperative Worldview World Morality Society view the world as ingroup (in-world) cooperative morality sedentary agricultural society the East reciprocity egotism cohesive relationship divisive bigotry Divisive Worldview view the world as outgroup (out-world) divisive morality mobile nomadic society the West freedom restriction supremacy inferiority global unity global disunity The Evolution of the Triple Worldview territory instinct in-group out-group Interdependent Worldview view the world as interdependent world interdependent morality the global interdependent society

Individualistic Society. Collectivistic Society Interdependent World

morality immorality morality immorality morality immorality

cooperative divisive morality morality civilization in-world out-world cooperative divisive worldview worldview The East The West interdependent worldview Interdependent World

The Cultural Traditions
worldviewsociety morality immorality religion divisive individualistic freedom restriction Islam and Greek individualism capitalism election by vote divisive collectivistic supremacy inferiority Judaism and Islam socialism cooperative individualistic reciprocity egotism Hinduism and Confucianism reciprocal economy selection by merit cooperative collectivistic cohesive relationship divisive bigotry Hinduism and Confucianism no worldview interdependent

Daoism, Buddhism, Christianity

economy politics

environment

partisan majority politics democracy free environment submissive environment anthropocentrism

cohesive economy nonpartisan consensus politics meritocracy reciprocal cohesive environment environment environmentalism

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The Human History of the Worldview-Social Structures
Period PreHistoric Early Modern Divisive Individualistic Divisive Collectivistic Cooperative Individualistic Cooperative Collectivistic Interdependent prehistoric huntergatherer society Buddhism, Daoism Christianity

Islam and Greek individualism capitalism free election by vote

Judaism and Islam socialism partisan politics

Hinduism and Confucianism reciprocal economy merit selection

Hinduism and Confucianism cohesive economy nonpartisan politics

Economic Systems
Economy Divisive Individualistic Divisive Collectivistic Divisive Mixed Basic Unit divisive individuals divisive groups divisive individualsgroups cooperative individuals cooperative groups Economic Model classical theory Marxist theory Keynesian theory Economic System capitalism socialism mixed Morality freedom supremacy (classless society) limited freedomsupremacy reciprocity cohesive relationship Immorality restriction inferiority extreme freedomsupremacy egotism divisive bigotry

Cooperative Individualistic Cooperative Collectivistic

Confucian reciprocal theory Confucian extended family theory

reciprocal economy cohesive economy

Maladaptive GDP-Inequality Curves
collapse unstable growth collapse socialistic stable growth optimal equality

GDP stable growth

capitalistic

Economic Inequality

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The Optimization Fourfold Path
Optimal Religion Economy Politics Environment Optimal System universal trinity creed optimal equality economy optimal dual economy optimal dual politics optimal ecological footprint Between the Opposite Traditions divisive religions, cooperative religions, and interdependent religions capitalism and socialism divisive economy and cooperative economy democracy and meritocracy anthropocentricism and environmentalism

The Universal Trinity Creed
Transcendental Civilized Platform divisive Father transcendental supernatural unknowable large unverifiable Immanent Civilized Platform cooperative Son immanent supernatural knowable large verifiable, universal, and cooperative Harmonious Platform no Holy Spirit conscience experiential small harmonious society, harmonious mind, and harmonious adaptation Natural

Worldview Christian Terminology Supernatural Knowledge Social Group Components

The Harmonious Natural Platform
Foundations Harmonious Society Harmonious Mind Model Christianity Buddhism factors small group structure existential interdependence based on division of labor hyper bond = compassion hyper detection = concentration, mindfulness, and realization of harmonious mind non-confrontational and flexible like water

Harmonious Adaptation

Daoism

The Mutual Annihilation and Existence in the Interdependent World
Mutual Annihilation economic mutual annihilation nuclear mutual annihilation arms race mutual annihilation asymmetrical warfare mutual annihilation Mutual Existence free trade without military interference the minimization of nuclear weapons the minimization of military expenditure the minimization of hegemony

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Introduction
In the increasingly interdependent world, no nations and social groups can survive alone as separated entities, resulting in existential interdependence. The interdependent world is maintained by the global unity of traditions and defenses to prevent destructive extremism and mutual annihilation economically and militarily from offensive military, respectively. The global unity of traditions is achieved by establishing the optimal systems as the middle ways between the opposite traditions in religion, economy, politics, and environment. The global unity of defenses is achieved by establishing the World Defense Organization based on interdependent realism. The global unity leads to world peace without destructive extremism and mutual annihilation. Chapter 1 deals with triple social-worldview structures. The triple social structure is derived from natural selection for the evolution of society. Natural selection is three-level selection in the chronological order of individual, relational (kin), and group selection. The principal bases for cooperation in individual, relational, and group selections are unconditional reciprocity with no pre-condition for individuals, beneficial relatedness derived from caring relation as the turning point, and existential division of labor derived from handicapped individuals as the turning point, respectively. In group selection, all individuals are handicapped, and the existence of all individuals is dependent on existential division of labor that overcomes individual handicaps. Group fitness becomes much more important than individual fitness, including the fitness by reciprocity and relatedness. Only few insects (bees, wasps, termites and ants) and humans are in group selection, but they dominate the earth. Individual, relational, and group selections correspond to individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent social interactions and societies, respectively. Societies include individualistic society, collectivistic society, and interdependent society derived from evolution. Human social history involves all three of the societies. As society, social life (interaction) consists of individualistic (yang), collectivistic (yin), and interdependent (harmonious) social lives. The social life can be passive or dynamic (active). The results of the combinations for yin and yang social lives and passivedynamic) are bond (yin passive), expressive (yin dynamic), systemization (yang passive), domination (yang dynamic) corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. Originated from territorial instinct and civilization, the two opposite worldviews are the divisive worldview of the West based on divisive morality for dealing with the world as out-group (out-world) and the cooperative worldview of the East based on cooperative morality for dealing the world with in-group (in-world). In divisive worldview, individualistic freedom and collectivistic supremacy are moral, and individualistic restriction and collectivistic inferiority are immoral. In cooperative worldview, individualistic reciprocity and collectivistic cohesive relationship are moral, and individualistic egotism and collectivistic divisive bigotry are immoral. What consider moral in one worldview is immoral in another worldview. The various cultural traditions in religion, economy, politics, and environment consist of the various combinations of the worldviews and the societies. The additional worldview is the interdependent worldview for the interdependent world. The morality is global unity, and the immorality is global disunity. The divisive, cooperative, and interdependent worldviews constitute the triple worldview. In Part 1, human social-worldview history includes the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, and the Modern Period. In Chapter 2, the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the interdependent society. The interdependent social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In Chapter 3, in the Early Period

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starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomadic society destroyed the prehistoric interdependent small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the divisive collectivistic society of the West, the state has the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, and Islam) based on collectivistic supremacy. In the divisive individualistic society of the West, the state has the state individualism (Islam and Greek individualism) based on individualistic freedom. For the East, the cooperative religions are Hinduism and Confucianism based on reciprocity and cohesive relationship. Later, the interdependent society without the state of a large social group was formed as the interdependent religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek existential interdependence among people in small social groups. In Chapter 4, in the Modernization of the West starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the examples of the collectivistic and individualistic materialistic societies were the socialistic society and the capitalistic society, respectively. The Christian church became mostly separated from the state. Chapter 5 deals with the modern economy. The modern economy can be divided into divisive economy of the West and the cooperative economy of the East. Divisive economy of the West can be divided into divisive individualistic capitalism based on individualistic freedom promoted by the classical theory, divisive collectivistic socialism based on collectivistic supreme classless equality society promoted by the Marxist theory, and, and divisive mixed economy based on limited freedom-equality promoted by the Keynesian theory. Cooperative economy of the East can be divided into cooperative individualistic reciprocal economy based on individualistic reciprocity as keiretsu in Japan and cooperative collectivistic cohesive economy based on collectivistic cohesive relationship as zaibatsu in Japan. Chapter 6 deals with the modern politics. Politics can be divided into divisive democracy of the West and cooperative meritocracy of the East. Divisive democracy consists of free election by vote based on individualistic freedom and partisan politics based on the competition for supremacy in election. Cooperative meritocracy consists of merit selection based on individualistic reciprocity between officials and citizens and nonpartisan politics based on nonpartisan collectivistic consensus. Chapter 7 deals with the modern religion and environment. The dominance of the major religions has been greatly diminished by modernization consisting of individualism, pluralism, and industrialization. The major religions are forced to undergo modernization to form the modernized religion to accommodate modernity, the dominating religion to dominate modernity, and the complementary religion to be complementary to modernity, representing the progressive religions, the conservative religions, and the harmonious religions. Environment has become an important issue since industrialization. The two opposite cultures with respect to environment are anthropocentrism based on individualistic human freedom and supreme human race and environmentalism based on reciprocity and cohesive relationship between human and environment. Part 2 deals with the Postmodern Period. The present period is the Postmodern Period starting the information-telecommunication revolution in 1970s. The Postmodern Period is a paradoxical period consisting of increasing interdependent and increasing polarization. Chapter 8 deals with the postmodern economy. The postmodern economy is dominated by divisive individualistic capitalism due the fall of European communism and the rise of capitalism by the information-telecommunication revolution for automation and globalization. The excessive risky debt derived from excessive income inequality led to the financial crisis in 2008 and the Great Recession afterward. At the same time, China uses global cooperative economy to achieve rapid

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economic growth. Chapter 9 deals with postmodern politics. The postmodern politics is marked by rapid spread of democracy, while the society is dominated by capitalism that controls democratic governments. Chapter 10 deals with postmodern global interconnection. The Postmodern Period is characterized by the marked decrease in severe armed conflicts due to the global interconnection through globalization of trade and communication. Part 3 deals with the interdependent world. The current Postmodern Period is followed by the Unity period. The global unity is derived from the interdependent world. In the interdependent world, no nations and social groups can survive alone as separated entities. The interdependent world is maintained by the global unity with the interdependent worldview that views the world as interdependent world. The morality in the interdependent worldview is global unity, and the immorality is global disunity. The most severe threats to destroy the interdependent world are destructive extremism and offensive military. The destruction of extremism is evidenced in the current Postmodern Period. Extremism that promotes ideological supremacy and purity abhors interdependence in the interdependent world. One way to minimize extremism is to advocate the middle way to connect various opposite traditions to benefit and unite all traditions in the interdependent world. To minimize extremism, the global unity of traditions is achieved by establishing the optimal systems as the middle ways between opposite traditions. In the interdependent world, major wars among major nations lead to mutual annihilation. In the interdependent world, all major nations are dependent on one another economically and militarily, resulting in interdependent realism for international relations. Offensive military leads to mutual annihilation economically and militarily. To minimize such mutual annihilation, the global unity of defenses is achieved by establishing the WDO (World Defense Organization). Chapter 11 deals with the optimal systems as the middle ways between the opposite traditions. The optimal religion is based on the universal trinity creed consisting of the transcendental civilized platform for the unknowable transcendental supernatural, the immanent civilized platform for the knowable immanent supernatural, and the harmonious natural platform for the experiential conscience, corresponding roughly to the Father, the Son, and the Spirit in Christianity. The optimal economy is based on the optimal equality economy between capitalism and socialism to avoid excessive equality and inequality, and the optimal dual economy between divisive economy and cooperative economy to adapt to different cultures and situations. The optimal politics is based on the optimal dual politics between democracy and meritocracy to add meritocracy in democratic national government and to add democracy in meritocratic local government. The optimal environment is based on the optimal ecological footprint between anthropocentricism and environmentalism to avoid excess anthropocentricism and environmentalism. Chapter 12 deals with the WDO. In the interdependent world, offensive military is self-destructive because of mutual annihilation, including the economic, the nuclear, the arms race, and the asymmetrical warfare mutual annihilations. To prevent such mutual annihilation resulted from offensive military, the global unity of defenses is achieved by the WDO that promotes free trade without military interference, the minimizations of nuclear weapons, military expenditure, and hegemony, and the international court to settle international military disputes.

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1. The Triple Social-Worldview Structures
Chapter 1 deals with triple social-worldview structures. The triple social structure is derived from natural selection for the evolution of society. Natural selection is three-level selection in the chronological order of individual, relational (kin), and group selection. The principal bases for cooperation in individual, relational, and group selections are unconditional reciprocity with no pre-condition for individuals, beneficial relatedness derived from caring relation as the turning point, and existential division of labor derived from handicapped individuals as the turning point, respectively. In group selection, all individuals are handicapped, and the existence of all individuals is dependent on existential division of labor that overcomes individual handicaps. Group fitness becomes much more important than individual fitness, including the fitness by reciprocity and relatedness. Only few insects (bees, wasps, termites and ants) and humans are in group selection, but they dominate the earth. Individual, relational, and group selections correspond to individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent social interactions and societies, respectively. Societies include individualistic society, collectivistic society, and interdependent society derived from evolution. Human social history involves all three of the societies. As society, social life (interaction) consists of individualistic (yang), collectivistic (yin), and interdependent (harmonious) social lives. The social life can be passive or dynamic (active). The results of the combinations for yin and yang social lives and passivedynamic) are bond (yin passive), expressive (yin dynamic), systemization (yang passive), domination (yang dynamic) corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. Originated from territorial instinct and civilization, the two opposite worldviews are the divisive worldview of the West based on divisive morality for dealing with the world as out-group (out-world) and the cooperative worldview of the East based on cooperative morality for dealing the world with in-group (in-world). In divisive worldview, individualistic freedom and collectivistic supremacy are moral, and individualistic restriction and collectivistic inferiority are immoral. In cooperative worldview, individualistic reciprocity and collectivistic cohesive relationship are moral, and individualistic egotism and collectivistic divisive bigotry are immoral. What consider moral in one worldview is immoral in another worldview. The various cultural traditions in religion, economy, politics, and environment consist of the various combinations of the worldviews and the societies. The additional worldview is the interdependent worldview for the interdependent world. The morality is global unity, and the immorality is global disunity. The divisive, cooperative, and interdependent worldviews constitute the triple worldview. 1.1.The Social Structure: the triple social structure The social structure is the triple social structure of individualistic (yang), collectivistic (yin), and interdependent (harmonious) societies based on the human evolution of civilized society. The Evolution of Three-Level Selection Evolution needs populations of reproducing individuals. Evolutionary change occurs by mutation and selection. The most fundamental unit of evolution is gene. Fitness is a relative measure of reproductive success of an organism in passing its genes to the next generation.

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Natural selection is the process in nature by which only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characters in increasing numbers to succeeding generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminated. In multilevel selection theory by David Sloan Wilson and Elliott Sober1, there are many layers of competition and cooperation for evolution. The different levels function cohesively to maximize fitness in terms of reproductive success. The conventional levels are individual selection for individuals against individuals, relational (kin) selection for kin against kin, and group selection for group against group. Another theory of selection contains only one level that is individual selection. Relational selection is merely an extension of individual selection to include inclusive fitness that contains relatives. Group selection is same as relational selection. Multilevel selection can be viewed as chronological levels. Natural selection is threelevel selection in the chronological order of individual selection, relational (kin) selection, and group selection. Natural selection can be viewed from the perspective cooperation2 that benefits fitness. Individual Selection for Individualistic Society Natural selection started with individual selection. The principal basis of cooperation for individual selection is unconditional reciprocity with no pre-condition for individuals. All individuals are equal in cooperation and competition. Reciprocity can be direct, indirection, or spatial. In direct reciprocity, I help you, but expect we will meet again, and then, you help me. It is common in a small social group where the chance to meet again is high. In indirect reciprocity, if I help you, I get the reputation of helping other, so someone else will help me. A rule for indirect reciprocity is qb > c, where q = probability to know someone’s reputation, c = cost of cooperation, and b = benefit of cooperation. In spatial reciprocity, individuals who live in protected areas where they are immune from attack by predators are likely to survive, and to have more children, which then grow the population faster. By staying and working together for the greater good, each individual has a better chance of survival. This becomes even truer when there is conflict between social groups as the larger social groups have a greater chance of winning. In individual selection, the social unit is independent individuals, the competition is among all independent individuals, and each individual has to form its own cooperation based on unconditional reciprocity. Each individual can be a cooperator or a cheater. The social interaction in individual selection is individualistic social interaction, and the society for such individualistic social interaction is individualistic society related to yang in the dualism of yinyang. Social interaction in a society is denoted as “social life” that is parallel to physical life as the living interaction with physical world. Social life consists of passive social life dealing with the subgroup of immediate family and dynamic social life dealing with social group outside of the subgroup of immediate family. Passive social life is shown in infant. For human, dynamic social life starts about 3 year old, when a child is old enough to deal with extended family and friends outside of immediate family. In individualistic society, the passive individualistic social life within a subgroup such as family is to establish self in terms of systemization for non-social information, such as systematic procurement of food. The dynamic individualistic social life in a social group outside of subgroup is domination by partisan competition to find the right place in competitive social hierarchy. Such individualistic social life prevails in males.

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An example of individualistic society with individual selection is the society of male chimpanzees. Chimpanzees have the patriarch individualistic society. The male chimpanzees fight to be the number one. To maintain social hierarchy, some male cooperate to form alliance based on unconditional reciprocity. A leader is under constant challenge. A leader is deposed after the other male chimpanzees have formed alliance and ganged up against the leader. The internal conflict is high. In the wild, male chimpanzees are extraordinarily hostile to males from outside of the social group. Male patrolling chimpanzees attack and often kill the neighboring male chimpanzee outsider who might be traveling alone. In animals, individualistic society with individual selection is common among males. The consequences of individual selection are males with competitive hierarchy, partisan competition, large size bodies, large fighting horns, sharp canine teeth, beautiful feathers, fancy dances and songs, and elaborate nest building skill, contrary to relatively small and plain females. In summary, for individual selection, the society is individualistic (yang) society, the individualistic cooperative behavior is reciprocity, and the individualistic social life (interaction) consists of passive systemization and dynamic domination. Relational Selection for Collectivistic Society Natural selection started with individual selection followed by relational (kin) selection. The turning point from individual selection to relational selection is caring relation in which a giver of caring relation takes effort to improve the fitness of specific related individuals as the recipients of caring relation. The most fundamental caring relation is between mother and her offspring in terms of the improvements of gene and environment of her offspring. The improvement of gene of offspring comes from sexual selection in which a female chooses a mate with the best possible gene for fitness and the best possible provider for her offspring. After the birth, maternal instinct brings about maternal care to her offspring. This maternal caring relation improves the quality of the fitness of her children at the expense of the quantity of her children, while without caring relation, a typical animal father concerns about the quantity of his children. This caring relation may or may not expand to siblings and other relatives. Caring relation can also apply to individuals in close proximity with or without kin relation. A rule for relational selection is Hamilton’s rule3, rb > c where c is the reproductive (fitness) cost to the giver of caring relation, b is the additional reproductive (fitness) benefit gained by the recipient of caring relation, and r is their degree of relatedness. In relational selection, all individuals are not equal, unlike in individual selection. The social unit is related individuals, and the competition and cooperation among individuals are dependent on various degrees of relatedness. The fitness becomes inclusive fitness to include to all individuals with various degrees of relatedness. The cooperative behavior is beneficial cohesive relationship. The social interaction in relational selection is collectivistic social interaction, and the society for such collectivistic social interaction is collectivistic society related to yin in the dualism of yin-yang. The collectivistic passive social life (interaction) inside a subgroup such as family is bond to connect with the members of subgroup. The collectivistic dynamic social life in a social group outside of subgroup is attraction to attract the individuals outside of subgroup to form a cohesive group. Such collectivistic social behavior prevails in females. An example of relational selection with collectivistic society is female bonobo. Bonobos have the matriarch collectivistic society. Female bonobo is smaller than male bonobo, but female bonobos bond together to dominate the society. Bond is important for bonobos, and is expressed

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in sexual activities that can be between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. Bonobos in collectivistic society are much more moral and have a greater degree of bond than chimpanzees in individualistic society. In summary, for relational selection, the turning point to form relational selection is care, the society is collectivistic (yin) society, the collectivistic cooperative behavior is beneficial cohesive relationship, and the collectivistic social life (interaction) consists of passive bond and dynamic attraction. Group Selection for Interdependent Society Group selection was evolved from relational selection is group selection. Group selection cannot be evolved directly from individual selection. The turning point from relational selection to group selection is handicapped individuals. All individuals in group selection are handicapped in terms of long term survival and reproduction. The existence of individuals is dependent on the existential division of labor that overcomes individual handicaps. Group fitness becomes much more important than individual fitness, including the individual fitness by reciprocity and relatedness. In group selection, competition becomes competition among groups instead of individuals who are handicapped. Edward O. Wilson suggests4 that for group selection, Hamilton's rule is modified to include group, (rbk + be) > c, where bk is the benefit to related individual such as kin (b in the original equation) and be is the benefit accruing to the group as a whole. He further suggests that for social insects, be > rbk. In group selection, within a group, there is no competition among individuals, and all individuals cooperate harmoniously by existential division of labor. The social unit is the group of interdependent individuals, and the competition is among the groups of interdependent individuals. The social interaction in group selection is interdependent social interaction, and the society is interdependent society related to harmony in the dualism of yin-yang. Interdependent society is same as Edward O. Wilson’s eusociality5. Interdependent society is like multicellular organism, and individuals are like cells cooperating by existential division of labor. The interdependent passive social life (interaction) for immediate family is hyper bond derived from communication and existential division of labor, and the independent dynamic social life for social group outside of immediate family is hyper detection to detect invaders and cheaters. For eusocial insects, hyper detection is a specific pheromone for each social group. For human, hyper detection is theory of mind to detect what the minds of other people think. Theory of mind does not exist in other animals. Such interdependent social interaction can prevail in both males and females. With minimum internal conflict and existential division of labor, the interdependent societies of eusocial insects (bees, wasps, termites and ants) and humans dominate the earth as described by Edward O. Wilson in “The Social Conquest of Earth”6. Interdependent society (eusociality) with group selection was evolved from highly collectivistic society with relational selection. To evolve from a highly cooperative collectivistic society to an interdependent society with group selection is activated by handicapped individuals. Because there are many layers of evolution from individual selection to group selection, it is not possible to remove many layers of evolution to reverse group selection to purely individual selection. An example of group selection with interdependent society is ant. Ants were evolved from a highly cooperative collectivistic society with relational selection. To evolve from a highly cooperative collectivistic society to an interdependent society with group selection was activated by handicapped individuals. Ants started with a disable highly productive mother ant

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that produced almost all able sterile worker daughter ants, and produced rarely productive daughter and son ants. Individually, they were handicapped, and did not have long term survival and reproduction. By communication and existential division of labor as well as by following the pre-interdependent social cooperative behaviors, they survived and reproduced as a group. Gradually, the group fitness became better than the group fitness of non-handicapped individuals. The final stage in the evolution of interdependent society was hyper detection as specific pheromone for each social group to detect and eliminate cheaters and invaders. Another example is human. As described later, Ardi was evolved from highly cooperative bonobo-like ape. To evolve from a highly cooperative collectivistic society to an interdependent society was activated by the individual handicap that was awkward bipedalism. Ardi (Ardipithecus ramidus)7, the oldest human ancestor (4.4 million year old) discovered, lived on woodland. Around 5 millions of years ago, a major climate change reduced some part of forested area in Africa to woodland where Ardi was evolved. Woodland allowed increasingly amount of food from bushes and low branches, which could be seen and reached from the ground. Chimpanzees today move on two legs most often when feeding on the ground from bushes and low branches. It suggests that the same might have occurred among the early hominids. Comparing to forest area, woodland area had scarcer food resources. According to the observation8 in Africa, when food resources are scarce or unpredictable, chimpanzees use upright locomotion to improve food carrying efficiency. It suggests that the same might have occurred among the early hominids. For reaching food from bushes and low branches on woodland and carrying food, the original human ancestors came down to the ground from living among trees, and adopted bipedalism as the way to move on the ground. However, Ardi’s foot was primitive with an opposable big toe that could not provide a push needed for efficient bipedal walking. Ardi had a more primitive walking ability than later hominids, and Ardi had a somewhat awkward gait when on the ground. Ardi could not walk or run for long distances. (For apes, the quadrupedal knuckle-walking like gorillas, bonobos, and chimpanzees was faster and better way than Ardi’s primitive awkward bipedalism to move on the ground.) Without many big trees to escape to as in forest, woodland was a dangerous place, especially, for very young, very old, pregnant, and child-rearing individuals. Individually, they could not survive on the ground with such awkward bipedalism. The only way to survive with awkward bipedalism was through existential division of labor by means of the free hands from bipedalism. The free hands allowed them to carry food to a safe gathering place, such as few big trees on woodland, where they could share food together safely with very young, very old, pregnant, and child-rearing individuals. When chimpanzees today are under duress from a poor fruit season, they break up into smaller foraging units that scour the environment more thoroughly. In the same way, Ardi and the members of her social group fanned out to find food. The free hands from bipedalism also allowed Ardi to have the continuous hand gestural communication for group communication that directed continuous existential division of labor to find food and watch for predators during group forage on the ground. (Human verbal language was developed much later. Human verbal language and gestural language are in the area of the brain.) With continuous hand gestural communication, individuals in the group during group forage knew precisely all the time about the locations of food sources, predators, and the safe places to escape from predators and about the plan of division of labor as a group. Carrying food to a safe gathering place and continuous hand gestural communication during group forage strengthened existential division of labor without which individuals could not survive.

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Ardi’s awkward bipedalism created handicap for individuals, and improved group fitness for a cohesive social group. By communication and existential division of labor as well as by following the pre-interdependent social cooperative behaviors, the original human ancestors survived and reproduced as a group. Early human ancestors were basically bipedal bonobos whose habitat changed from forest to woodland. They lived in a society that from each according to one's ability, to each according to one's need. Otherwise, the whole hominid society would have been extinct without existential division of labor of handicapped individuals. Interdependence in the original human ancestors was manifested by the absence of large sharp canine teeth for aggression and fighting, unlike any other apes. The two important traits of Ardi to distinguish Ardi from other apes are bipedalism and small canine teeth. The final stage of the evolution of human interdependent society was hyper detection as theory of mind to detect what the minds of other people think. Hyper detection is to detect cheaters and to self-examine (guilty feeling and shame). Two million years ago, human ancestors started to have elaborate tool and fire. Humans started to evolve with the usage of tool and fire by decreasing physical strength as the weakest ape and decreasing ability to eat tough raw food. (Fire was for both cooking and the protection of group at home base.) Individuals became handicapped without tool and fire that involved the cooperation of individuals in the interdependent society. Group selection became increasingly important. The most interdependent society survived from the competition of groups in group selection. The optimal size in the human interdependent society as shown in the size of the prehistoric huntergatherer society is about 30-50 people for a typical size for a cohesive hunter-gatherer band, and is about 150 (Dunbar's number9) for the size of cultural lineage of related bands. The human brain is not capable process hyper bond and hyper detection well beyond the optimal social group size, so human interdependent society cannot exist well in a large social group. In summary, for group selection, the turning point to form group selection is handicapped individuals, the society is interdependent (harmonious) society, the interdependent cooperative behavior is existential interdependence, and the interdependent social life (interaction) consists of passive hyper bond and dynamic hyper detection. The evolution of three-level selection is as follows. The Evolution of Three-Level Selection unconditional reciprocity in individual selection caring relation as the turning point beneficial relatedness in relational selection handicapped individuals as the turning point existential division of labor in group selection interdependent society collectivistic society individualistic society

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The three human social interactions (lives) are the collectivistic (yin), the individualistic (yang), and the interdependent (harmonious) social interactions as the three-branch social interaction. The collectivistic social life (interaction) represents collectivistic relationship for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The interdependent social life that was derived from the unique human evolution to lower conflicts in social interactions represents existential interdependence. The human society with the interdependent social interaction is a highly efficient low-conflict small-group society. All people have the three social lives in different proportions. The three social interactions will be described in details later. In summary, natural selection is three-level selection in the chronological order of individual, relational (kin), and group selection. The principal bases for cooperation in individual, relational, and group selections are unconditional reciprocity with no pre-condition for individuals, beneficial relatedness derived from caring relation as the turning point deviated from reciprocity, and existential division of labor derived from handicapped individuals as the turning point deviated from relatedness, respectively. In group selection, all individuals are handicapped, and the existence of all individuals is dependent on existential division of labor that overcomes individual handicaps. Group fitness becomes much more important than individual fitness, including the fitness by reciprocity and relatedness. Only few insects (bees, wasps, termites and ants) and humans are in group selection, but they dominate the earth. Individual, relational, and group selections correspond to individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent social interactions and societies, respectively. The three human social interactions (lives), individualistic (yang), collectivistic (yin), and interdependent social interactions, form the three societies, individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent societies, respectively as the three-branch society. The social structure is derived from the gender instincts (male for individualistic society and female for collectivistic society) and survival instinct for existential interdependence in interdependent society. For advanced social animals, such as apes, social structure is dependent on resource in environment. For abundant resource, individualistic society without the need for group cooperation is preferred as in the case of solidary orangutan. For modest resource, collectivistic society with the need for group cooperation is preferred as in the cases of bonobo and gorilla. For poor resource, individualistic society with each one for oneself is preferred as in the case of chimpanzee. Interdependent society with existential interdependence is independent of resource as in the case of human. The dependence of resource in environment also applies to human civilized society. Abundant resource favors individualistic wealthy society such as in the case of capitalism. Modest resource favors collectivistic society as in the case of socialism. Poor resource favors individualistic society as in the case of individualistic strongman society where a strongman takes control of a poor society. For individual selection, the society is individualistic (yang) society, the individualistic cooperative behavior is reciprocity, and the individualistic social life (interaction) consists of passive systemization for immediate family and dynamic domination for extended family and friends. For relational selection, the turning point to form relational selection is care, the society is collectivistic (yin) society, the collectivistic cooperative behavior is beneficial cohesive relationship, and the collectivistic social life (interaction) consists of passive bond and dynamic attraction. For group selection, the turning point to form group selection is handicapped individuals, the society is interdependent (harmonious) society, the interdependent cooperative

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behavior is existential interdependence, and the interdependent social life (interaction) consists of passive hyper bond and dynamic hyper detection. Three-Level Selection in Evolution
Selection Evolution Time earliest middle caring relation handicapped individuals Turning Point Social Unit Principal Basis For Cooperation unconditional reciprocity beneficial cohesive relationship existential division of labor Social Interaction And Society individualistic (yang) collectivistic (yin) interdependent (harmony) Social Life Prevail In male female

Individual Relational

independent individuals related individuals groups of interdependent individuals

systemization domination bond attraction

Group

last

hyper-bond hyperdetection

both

Personality Different people have different propensities for different social lives and for different degrees of passivity and dynamicity, resulting in different personalities. The social life system for yin and yang is similar to the Merrill-Reid social style theory10. The two factors (axes) in the social life system are yin-yang and passive-dynamic. Yin and yang correspond to emote and control in the responsiveness axis, respectively. Passive and dynamic corresponds to ask and tell in assertiveness axis, respectively. In the Merrill-Reid social style theory, responsiveness measures a person’s influence or stimulation with a display of feelings. Assertiveness measures the effort a person to influence the thinking and actions of others in the way that whether a person appears to ask or tell in interactions with others. The Merrill-Reid social style theory consists of amiable (emote-ask), expressive (emotetell), analytical (control-ask), and driver (control-tell) social styles, corresponding to Bond (yinpassive), Attraction (yin-dynamic), Systemization (yang-passive), and Domination (yangdynamic) in the social lives. Merrill-Reid Social Styles emote expressiv e driver amiable ask analytical control yin dynamic attraction dynamic yang dynamic domination The Yin Yang Social life yin yin passive bond passive yang passive systemization yang

tell

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The Personality
yin (emote) yang (control) harmony (versatility) dynamic (tell) attraction (expressive) domination (driver) hyper detection passive (ask) bond (amiable) systemization (analytical) hyper bond

• • •

According to the Merrill-Reid theory, the four social lives are described below. Amiable: Place a high priority on friendships, close relationships, and cooperative behavior. They appear to get involved in feelings and relations between people. Expressive: Appear communicative, warm approachable and competitive. They involve other people with their feelings and thoughts. Analytical: Live life according to facts, principles, logic and consistency. Often viewed as cold and detached but appear to be cooperative in their actions as long as they can have some freedom to organize their own efforts. Driver: Give the impression that they know what they want, where they are going, and how to get there quickly.

Amiable and Expressive have yin (female type) characteristic for collectivistic relationship, while Analytical and Driver have yang (male type) characteristic for individualistic achievement. Expressive and Driver are more active in interpersonal relations than Amiable and Driver. The amiable in the Merrill-Rein theory corresponds to the yin passive social life (bond) that involves and is keenly interested in the close relationship with people for collectivistic relationship. The expressive corresponds to the yin dynamic social life (attraction) that involves in both close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group wellbeing in addition to basic collectivistic relationship. The analytical corresponds to the yang passive social life (systemization) that involves and is keenly interested in only systemizing task for individualistic achievement. The driver corresponds to the yang dynamic social life (domination) that involves both the close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group hierarchy in addition to basic individualistic achievement. The third axis in the Merrill-Reid social style theory is versatility axis to measure the extent to which others see the individual as competent, adaptable, and behaving appropriately. Versatility measures the extent to which a person appears to be working to make relationships mutually productive. In the social life, the third axis is the harmony axis based on passive hyper bond and dynamic hyper detection to be responsible for compassion and adaptableness. The versatility axis in the Merrill-Reid social style theory corresponds to the harmony axis in the social life. 1.2. The Worldview Structure: the triple worldview structure Social structure is derived from gender instincts (male for individualistic society and female for collectivistic society) and survival instinct for existential interdependent society. The social behaviors in social structure are behavior propensities. There is no social behavior standard to determine right and wrong of behaviors. Social animals typically have clear territory boundaries, resulting in territorial instinct. In-group is inside a territory boundary and out-group is outside of a territory boundary. Territory

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instinct allows social animals to behave differently toward in-group and out-group, resulting in behavior standard toward in-group and out-group. Such behavior standard is morality. Morality is instinctive, because to survive in a society, one has to know how to behave properly even as an infant. The moral structure is dual morality to deal with in-group and out-group. To deal with in-group, morality is cooperative morality to be a part of in-group. To deal with out-group, morality is divisive morality not to be a part of out-group. Cooperative morality regards cooperation as moral, and division as immoral. Divisive morality regards division as moral, and cooperation as immoral. To survive, one has to know when to be cooperative and when to be divisive in this dual moral structure. Social structure is about behavior propensity, and moral structure is about behavior standard. Cooperation and Division In Axelrod and Hamilton's evolution of cooperation, the prisoner's dilemma11 refers to an imaginary situation in which two individuals are imprisoned and are accused of having cooperated to perform some crime. The two prisoners are held separately, and attempts are made to induce each one to implicate the other. If neither one does, both are set free. This is the cooperative strategy available to both prisoners. In order to tempt one or both to defect, each is told that a confession implicating the other will lead to his or her release and, as an added incentive, to a small reward. If both confess, each one is imprisoned. But if one individual implicated the other and not vice versa, then the implicated partner receives a harsher sentence than if each had implicated the other. Among all strategies, TIT FOR TAT is the best strategy. On the first move cooperate. On each succeeding move do what your opponent did the previous move. Thus, TIT FOR TAT was a strategy of cooperation . From the further analysis of TIT FOR TAT, four features of TIT FOR TAT emerged: 1. Never be the first to defect: indicate eager cooperate 2. Retaliate only after your partner has defected: important to detect defection 3. Be prepared to forgive after carrying out just one act of retaliation: indicate eager cooperate again 4. Adopt this strategy only if the probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3: indicate the need for high interconnection The strategy of tit-for-tat in prisoner’s dilemma illustrates cooperation and division. Defection is equivalent to division where one wins and one loses. In cooperation, both win. The probability of meeting the same player again is equivalent to in-group. Therefore, in ingroup, cooperation as in TIT FOR TAT is a better strategy than division for an individual player. In out-group, cooperation is no longer better than division, and often division is required for individuals to survive. In-Group: Cooperative Morality As described before, TIT FOR TAT as the strategy for cooperation works for in-group. Therefore, to deal with in-group, morality as the set of rules for social behaviors of individuals is cooperation, and immorality is division the opposite of cooperation. terms to describe

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cooperation are highly favorable terms, while the terms to describe division are highly unfavorable. The three human societies are individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent societies. In in-group, cooperative morality is moral described in highly favorable terms, and divisive morality is immoral described in highly unfavorable terms. Morality and Immorality to deal with In-group
Society Individualistic. Collectivistic Interdependent . Definition morality immorality morality immorality morality immorality Purpose cooperation division cooperation division cooperation division Behavior reciprocity egotism cohesive relationship divisive bigotry interdependence schism

For in-group, morality is cooperation, and immorality is division. Humans were born with the instincts of cooperation as morality and division as immorality. Morality is preferred and encouraged, and immorality is looked down and punished. As shown in the Infant Cognition Center at Yale University12, babies (three to five month-old) prefer cooperative (helpful) behavior, dislike divisive (bully) behavior, and like to be friendly with ones who are cooperative and to punish ones who are divisive. For individualistic society, to deal with in-group, the moral individualistic behavior is reciprocity where both individuals cooperate with each other. To deal with in-group, the immoral individualistic behavior is egotism where one individual divides oneself from other individuals. For collectivistic society, to deal with inside group in in-group, the moral collectivistic behavior is cohesive relationship to keep the whole inside group cohesive. The immoral collectivistic behavior is divisive bigotry to look down certain people in in-group. For interdependent society, to deal with individuals in in-group, the moral interdependent behavior is interdependent among all individuals. The immoral interdependent behavior is schism to divide individuals. Out-Group: Divisive Morality As described before, TIT FOR TAT as the strategy for cooperation works for individuals does not work in out-group. Therefore, to deal with out-group, morality as the set of rules for social behaviors of individuals is division, and immorality is cooperation. To highly disconnected relationship, division as morality leads to strength and victory for individuals and society, while cooperation as immorality leads to weakness and defeat. The terms to describe division are highly favorable terms, while the terms to describe cooperation are highly unfavorable. The exception is interdependent society where the morality for out-group is still passive cooperative instead of division. The three human societies are individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent societies. For highly disconnected relationship as in out-group, of individualistic and collectivistic societies, divisive morality is moral described in highly favorable terms, and cooperative morality is immoral described in highly unfavorable terms. For the out-group in interdependent society, morality is passive cooperation instead of active cooperation and division. /

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Morality and Immorality to deal with Out-group
Society Individualistic. Collectivistic Interdependent Definition morality immorality morality immorality morality immorality Purpose division cooperation division cooperation cooperation division Principle freedom restriction supremacy inferiority adaptation inflexibility

To deal with out-group, morality is division, and immorality is cooperation. Humans were born with the instincts of division as morality and cooperation as immorality. Morality is preferred and encouraged, and immorality is looked down and punished. In the Infant Cognition Center at Yale University mentioned earlier, babies identify the objects (such as dolls) that do not have similarities with the babies as out-group. To out-group, babies prefer divisive behavior, in the way that a baby prefers doll that punishes another doll that is not like the baby. The switch of behavior from cooperation to division for the switch from in-group to out-group is instinctive. For individualistic society, to a person, everyone else is an outsider. There are boundaries among all individuals, and there is no restrictive connection among all individuals. As a result, the moral individualistic behavior to deal with outsider is freedom. The immoral individualistic behavior is restriction. For collectivistic society, to a social group, the social group outside of the boundary is out-group. For collectivistic society, to deal with outside group in out-group, the moral collectivistic society is supremacy over outside group. The immoral collectivistic behavior is inferiority below outside group. For the interdependent society, to deal with individuals in outgroup, the moral interdependent behavior is passive cooperation in term of adaptation. To outgroup as individualist society that demands freedom, interdependent society does not interfere the freedom of individualistic society. To out-group as collectivistic society that demands supremacy, interdependent society exists in low profile to accept the supremacy of collectivistic society. The immoral interdependent behavior is inflexibility that fails to adapt to the needs of different societies. The Two Opposite Civilized Worldviews For social animals normally, a clear territorial boundary exists between in-group and outgroup, so there is clear separation between cooperative morality and divisive morality. In the prehistoric human society, there was a clear territorial boundary existed between in-group and outgroup for the hunter-gatherer society as interdependent society. About 10,000 years ago, the agricultural-nomadic revolution (the Neolithic Revolution) occurred to replace the hunter-gatherer society with the agricultural-nomadic society. About 5,000 years ago, urban societies developed, resulting in the first civilizations in agricultural society with city states as the basic political units. Meanwhile, large clans were developed in nomadic society with clans as the basic political units. Agricultural society started from large rivers, such as Mesopotamia between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Egypt along Nile River, China along Yellow River, and India along Indus River. Nomadic society started from arid land and grassland outside of the river valleys. There were clear borders between in-group and out-group among the basic political units. People were clearly loyal to their city states or clans. People were clearly loyal to their city states or clans.

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There were two ways to unify different basic political units. One way was to unify basic political units to fight against defensively or offensively a common adversary enemy as outgroup. The focus of this unification method is out-group. Such focus becomes the divisive worldview to view the world as out-group (out-world), and the morality is divisive morality. The divisive worldview concentrates in ''individual distinctiveness'' or ''independence''. Another method to unify different basic political units was to build a common beneficial common infrastructure that benefited the basic political units. The focus of this unification method is ingroup for the unified basic political units. Such focus becomes the cooperative worldview to view the world as in-group (in-world), and the morality is cooperative worldview. Initially, agricultural society was developed along a large river as the source of water and nutrient for agricultural products, while nomadic society was developed in arid land and grassland area that was suitable to raise domesticated animals that require seasonal migrate from place to place. For river based agricultural society, to build common river water infrastructure such as irrigation, flood control, and transportation was more beneficial economically than fighting. An important source of the major economic growth came from the increase in agricultural harvester through improved infrastructure. The ruling class was good in engineering and applied science for the building of infrastructure. For nomadic society, fighting that resulted in plundering was more beneficial economically than any kind of infrastructure building. An important source of the economic growth came from plundering. The ruling class was good in military and martial art for fighting. As a result, typically nomadic society developed divisive worldview, while agricultural society developed cooperative worldview. Initially, nomadic society was herd-nomadic society that migrated with herd. Later, another nomadic society emerged as trade-nomadic society that migrated with long-distance trade. The transportation for long-distance trade was by camels on desert and ships on water. Both herd-nomads and trade-nomads developed divisive worldview. Typically, the unification of basic political units started for very practical economic purpose. The basic political units were unified informally and loosely with a nominal leader to lead such alliance of political units. Gradually, it was necessary to invent a political ideology informally to justify the centralized political power. Eventually, a formal unifying religion was established to unify morality based on divisive worldview or cooperative worldview. A robust unifying religion outlasts the political changes of the unified political units. The great unifying religions that outlast the political changes include Judaism for collectivistic divisive worldview to unify herd-nomadic clans, Greek individualism based on individualistic worldview to unify trade-nomadic city states, Islam based on the mixture of both collectivistic and individualistic worldviews to unify both herd-nomadic and trade-nomadic clans, and Confucianism and Hinduism based on cooperative worldview to unify agricultural city states. Meanwhile, some religions were developed to oppose the unifying religions and even civilization. They are interdependent religions to return to interdependent society. Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity opposed Confucianism, Hinduism, and Judaism, respectively. Christianity also opposed Greek individualism. Sufism arisen from the Islamic world is also an interdependent religion. The interdependent religions have no worldview as the pre-historic interdependent hunter and gatherer society. They are separated from the large societies politically and economically. Their basic social structures are based on small social group structure with distinctive boundary between in-group (small social group) and out-group (large social group as civilized group).

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The Two Opposite Traditional Worldviews
World Morality Society Individualistic Society. Collectivistic Society morality immorality morality immorality Cooperative Worldview view the world as in-group cooperative morality sedentary agricultural society the East Reciprocity Egotism cohesive relationship divisive bigotry Divisive Worldview view the world as out-group divisive morality mobile nomadic society the West Freedom Restriction Supremacy Inferiority

The Evolution of the Traditional Worldviews territory instinct in-group out-group

cooperative divisive morality morality civilization in-world out-world cooperative divisive worldview worldview The East The West

The cooperative worldview and the divisive worldview are opposite to each other in terms of morality. What consider as moral in one worldview is immoral in another worldview. The preferred behavior in one worldview is the forbidden behavior in another worldview. The divisive worldview considers moral reciprocity in cooperative worldview as immoral restriction to interfere individualistic freedom, and considers moral cohesive relationship in the cooperative worldview as immoral inferiority to accommodate outside group. The cooperative worldview considers moral freedom in the divisive worldview as immoral egotism to be inconsiderate of other people, and considers moral supremacy in the divisive worldview as immoral divisive bigotry. In terms of expression, in the divisive worldview, the expression of self-identity (individual or group) is normal, and in the cooperative worldview, the expression of mutual-identity in terms of reciprocity and cohesive relationship is normal. In terms of laws, in the divisive worldview, laws are normal and necessary to bind divisive individuals or groups together, and in the cooperative worldview, laws are abnormal and unnecessary to bind cooperative individuals or groups together. In the divisive worldview, freedom and equality are needed to provide the behavior standards for divisive individuals or groups. In the cooperative worldview, freedom and equality are not needed to provide the behavior standards for cooperative individuals or groups. The Interdependent Worldview for the Interdependent World The world is increasingly interdependent. In the interdependent world, no nations, social groups, and individuals can survive alone as separated entities, resulting in existential interdependence. The interdependent society of the triple social structure is maintained by instinctive conscience, consisting of hyper bond and hyper detection. Conscience works well in a

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small social group, but does not work well in a large social group such as the interdependent world. The interdependent world can be maintained by organization instead of instinct. The interdependent world is maintained by global unity, and destroyed by global disunity. In the interdependent world, global unity leads to existence, and global disunity brings about extinction. The worldview in the interdependent world is the interdependent worldview. The divisive, cooperative, and interdependent worldviews constitute the triple worldview. The morality for the interdependent worldview is global unity, and the immorality is global disunity. The Triple Worldview Structure
Cooperative Worldview view the world as ingroup (in-world) cooperative morality sedentary agricultural society the East reciprocity egotism cohesive relationship divisive bigotry Divisive Worldview view the world as outgroup (out-world) divisive morality mobile nomadic society the West freedom restriction supremacy inferiority global unity global disunity The Evolution of the Triple Worldview territory instinct in-group out-group Interdependent Worldview view the world as interdependent world interdependent morality the global interdependent society

World Morality Society

Individualistic Society Collectivistic Society Interdependent World

morality immorality morality immorality morality immorality

cooperative divisive morality morality civilization in-world out-world cooperative divisive worldview worldview The East The West interdependent worldview Interdependent World

1.3. The Worldview-Social History in Human Society Human history can be divided into the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period and the Modern Period. The current period is the Postmodern Period, while the next period is the Unity Period. The interdependent society prevailed in the Prehistoric Period. The Early Period is characterized as the emergence of civilization and the formation of the three separate societies (individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent societies). The modernization of the three societies occurred in the Modern Period. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the interdependent society. The interdependent social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the

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prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the interdependent society with distinctive cooperative morality for in-group and divisive morality for out-group, because in-group and out-group were distinctively different in terms of the geographic separation with a clear boundary between in-group and out-group. Consequently, there was no worldview for prehistoric hunter-gatherer to categorize the world as in-group or outgroup. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomadic society destroyed the prehistoric interdependent small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed. The religions are collectivistic religions and individualistic religions. Some religions contain both collectivistic religions and individualistic religions. The collectivistic religions are Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism. The individualistic religions are Greek individualism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism. In the Early Period, the unification of city states in agricultural society or clans in nomadic society geographic separation resulted in cooperative worldview or divisive worldview, respectively. The history of worldview is the history of the West and the East. Nomadic society by itself did not have enough people and natural resource to establish great civilization, but in the West, the nomadic society conquered the agricultural society, and established divisive worldview in the conquered agricultural society. The two groups of nomads in the West were the Semitic nomads and the Eurasian nomads. In the West, the agricultural Middle Kingdom (2120-1780 BC) of Egypt was conquered by a Semitic nomad, Hyksos. The agricultural Sumer was conquered by Akkad related to Semitic nomad outside of Sumer. After the conquests by nomads, both Egypt (the New Kingdom 1550-1069 BC) and Mesopotamia (the Akkadian Empire 2350–2150 BC) turned into aggressive imperialistic empires with divisive worldview. (The Middle Kingdom and Sumer were not imperialistic.) Afterward, divisive worldview has been firmly established in the West. In Indus Valley and Yellow River Valley, the cooperative worldview reversed or resisted the divisive worldview of invading nomads. The East has not developed aggressive imperialistic empires with divisive worldview and neither China nor India has reached beyond Asia. The three most important unifying religions in the West are Judaism from Israel, Greek individualism from Greece, and Islam from Arab. The Israel tribe was herd-nomadic tribe, Greece with the strong influence from Athenian culture was trade-nomadic society, and Arab was both herd- and trade-nomadic tribe. Herd-nomadic society required strong collectivistic government to protect a tribe, so herd-nomadic society developed collectivistic divisive worldview. The morality for collectivistic divisive worldview is supremacy. Judaism unified herd-nomadic clans. Tradenomadic society developed trading cities to trade goods from different places. In a trading city of trade-nomadic society, a high degree of freedom was required among individual traders from many different cultural and political backgrounds to trade and to exchange information, so trade-nomadic society developed individualistic divisive worldview. The morality for individualistic divisive worldview is freedom. An important consequence of freedom is diversity, so the perspective of a trade-nomadic society is diverse perspective. Greek individualism unified trading city states. Arab was the mixture of both herd-nomadic society and trade-nomadic society, so the worldview of Islam originated from Arab is the combination individualistic divisive worldview for diversity and collectivistic worldview for supremacy. Islam unified both herd-nomadic and trade-nomadic clans. In China, India, and the Far East for the East, the worldview is cooperative worldview with cooperative morality. The rulers in China and India were mostly agricultural people or nomads converted into agricultural people. Cooperative morality based on reciprocal relationship and

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cohesive relationship was suitable to a sedentary and peaceful agricultural society. In the Modern Period, the different worldviews in the West and the East continued. Meanwhile, the interdependent society without the state of a large social group was formed as the interdependent religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek existential interdependence among people in small social groups. The interdependent religions (Buddhism, Daoism, and Christianity) basically had no worldview as the pre-historic interdependent hunter and gatherer society. They were separated from the large societies politically and economically. Their basic social structures were based on small social group structure with distinctive boundary between in-group (small social group) and out-group (large social group). The Modern Period of the West starts from the Renaissance with Greek individualism. Greek individualism assisted not only in the development of new science after the Renaissance but also the development of new technology and new commerce, resulting in the industrial revolution in the areas where individualism was strong. The Industrial Revolution started in the mid-18th century and early 19th century in Britain and spread throughout the world. The Modern Period modernized economy and politics for the West with divisive economy and politics and the East with cooperative economy and politics. The divisive modern economy in the West consists of divisive individualistic capitalism and divisive collectivistic socialism. The key of divisive individualistic capitalism is free market based on freedom in divisive individualistic worldview. The key of divisive collectivistic socialism is the supremacy of collectivistic classless society based on supremacy in divisive collectivistic worldview. In the East, the cooperative economy consists of cooperative individualistic reciprocal economy and cooperative collectivistic cohesive economy. Reciprocal economy establishes strong reciprocal economic commitments among individual related companies, such as between buyer and supplier and between bank and borrower company. Such reciprocal economy is derived from reciprocity in individualistic cooperative worldview. Cohesive economy links different groups, such as to link state and private sector and to link managements and workers. Such cohesive economy is derived from cohesive relationship in collectivistic cooperative worldview. In the West, the divisive political system is democracy consisting of divisive individualistic free election by vote based on freedom in individualistic divisive worldview and divisive collectivistic partisan politics based on the supremacy of one party over another party in collectivistic divisive worldview. In America, the modernization of the three-branch society was established. The interdependent society as Christianity was separated from the state. The democratic government was quickly transformed into a partisan system with one political for more collectivistic socialism and another political party for more individualistic capitalism. In the East, particularly, in China, the political system was meritocracy, a cooperative political system. The two major elements in meritocracy are individualistic cooperative merit selection and collectivistic cooperative nonpartisan politics. Merit selection is based on the election from individual merit based on education, service performance to people, and ethics. In reciprocity, government officials serve people, and people cooperate with government officials. Nonpartisan politics based on consensus politics is from cohesive relationship in collectivistic cooperative worldview.

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The Human History of Social-Worldview Structures
Period PreHistoric Early Modern Individualistic Divisive Collectivistic Divisive Individualistic Cooperative Collectivistic Cooperative Interdependent prehistoric huntergatherer society Buddhism, Daoism Christianity

Islam and Greek individualism capitalism free election by vote

Judaism and Islam socialism partisan politics

Hinduism and Confucianism reciprocal economy merit selection

Hinduism and Confucianism cohesive economy nonpartisan politics

The current period is the Postmodern Period starting from the informationtelecommunication revolution since 1970.s. The Postmodern Period is the transition from the division among various cultural traditions in religion, economy, politics, and environment to the unity of the traditions in the Unity Period. The global unity of traditions through the optimization of human society unifies the traditions in the world to establish the optimal systems (middle ways) between the opposite traditions in religion, economy, politics, and environment. by the optimization of human society 1.4. The Cultural Tradition As in personality for different types of individuals, cultural tradition consists of different types of cultures. The two factors (axes) in personality are yin-yang and passive-dynamic. The two factors (axes) in cultural tradition are the social structure axis and the worldview axis. The interdependent society has no worldview. The moralities in the five different cultural traditions are divisive collectivistic type based on collectivistic supremacy, divisive individualistic type based on individualistic freedom, cooperative collectivistic type based on collectivistic cohesive relationship, cooperative individualistic type based on individualistic reciprocity, and interdependent type based on existential interdependence as below. The Cultural Traditions
collectivistic individualistic interdependent divisive worldview collectivistic supremacy individualistic freedom cooperative worldview collectivistic cohesive relationship individualistic reciprocity no worldview

existential interdependence

The cultural traditions include religious, economic, political, and environmental cultural traditions. In religion, divisive individualistic religion is Greek individualism, divisive collectivistic religion includes Judaism, and Islam has both individualistic and collectivistic divisive worldviews. Cooperative individualistic religion includes individualistic aspects of Hinduism and Confucianism, and cooperative collectivistic religion includes collectivistic aspects of Hinduism and Confucianism.
Religion collectivistic Judaism and Islam Hinduism and Confucianism cooperative Hinduism and Confucianism

divisive
Islam and Greek Individualism

individualistic

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collectivistic individualistic

divisive worldview Judaism and Islam Islam and Greek individualism

cooperative worldview Hinduism and Confucianism Hinduism and Confucianism

In economy, divisive individualistic economy is capitalism, divisive collectivistic economy is socialism, cooperative individualistic economy is reciprocal economy represented by keiretsu in Japan, and cooperative collectivistic economy is cohesive economy represented by zaibatsu in Japan.
Economy collectivistic socialism cohesive economy reciprocal economy

divisive
capitalism

cooperative

individualistic

collectivistic individualistic

divisive worldview socialism capitalism

cooperative worldview cohesive economy reciprocal economy

In politics, divisive individualistic politics is free election by vote based on individualistic freedom to vote, divisive collectivistic politics is partisan majority politics based on the competition for supremacy, cooperative individualistic politics is election by merit based on the reciprocity between officials and citizens, and cooperative collectivistic politics is nonpartisan consensus politics based on cohesive relationship. The combination of free election by vote and partisan majority politics is democracy, and the combination of free election by merit and nonpartisan consensus politics is meritocracy.
Politics collectivistic partisan nonpartisan majority consensus politics politics

divisive
election by vote election by merit

cooperative

individualisti divisive worldview partisan majority politics election by vote cooperative worldview nonpartisan consensus politics election by merit

collectivistic individualistic

In divisive environment that view environment as an out-group, divisive individualistic environment is free environment where individuals can use environment freely, and divisive collectivistic environment is submissive environment where people have dominion over

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environment. In cooperative environment that view environment as an in-group, cooperative individualistic environment is reciprocal environment where individuals and environment have reciprocal relationship, and cooperative collectivistic environment is cohesive environment where people and environment are one. Divisive environment is anthropocentrism, while cooperative environment is environmentalism. .
Environment collectivistic submissive cohesive environment environment divisive free environment cooperative reciprocal environment

individualistic divisive worldview submissive environment free environment cooperative worldview cohesive environment reciprocal environment

collectivistic individualistic

The Cultural traditions
WorldviewSociety Morality Immorality Religion Divisive Individualistic freedom restriction Islam and Greek individualism capitalism election vote by Divisive Collectivistic supremacy inferiority Judaism and Islam socialism Cooperative Individualistic reciprocity egotism Hinduism and Confucianism reciprocal economy election by merit Cooperative Collectivistic cohesive relationship divisive bigotry Hinduism and Confucianism No Worldview Interdependent

Daoism, Buddhism, Christianity

Economy Politics

Environment

partisan majority politics democracy free submissive environment environment anthropocentrism

cohesive economy nonpartisan consensus politics meritocracy reciprocal cohesive environment environment environmentalism

Interdependent society does not have a worldview, so it is not included in the cultural tradition with worldview. Individualistic and collectivistic societies involve large social groups, while interdependent society involves small social group as in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society.

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Part 1: Human Social-Worldview History
In Part 1, human social-worldview history includes the Prehistoric Period, the Early Period, and the Modern Period. In Chapter 2, the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society in the Prehistoric Period was the interdependent society. The interdependent social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period in Chapter 3 starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomadic society destroyed the prehistoric interdependent small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the divisive collectivistic society of the West, the state has the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, and Islam) based on collectivistic supremacy. In the divisive individualistic society of the West, the state has the state individualism (Greek individualism) based on individualistic freedom. For the East, the cooperative religions are Hinduism and Confucianism based on reciprocity and cohesive relationship. Later, the interdependent society without the state of a large social group was formed as the interdependent religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) to seek existential interdependence among people in small social groups. In Chapter 4, in the Modernization of the West starting from the Renaissance for the Modern Revolution, the examples of the collectivistic and individualistic materialistic societies were the socialistic society and the capitalistic society, respectively. The Christian church became mostly separated from the state. Chapter 5 deals with the modern economy. The modern economy can be divided into divisive economy of the West and the cooperative economy of the East. Divisive economy of the West can be divided into divisive individualistic capitalism based on individualistic freedom promoted by the classical theory, divisive collectivistic socialism based on collectivistic supreme classless equality society promoted by the Marxist theory, and, and divisive mixed economy based on limited freedom-equality promoted by the Keynesian theory. Cooperative economy of the East can be divided into cooperative individualistic reciprocal economy based on individualistic reciprocity as keiretsu in Japan and cooperative collectivistic cohesive economy based on collectivistic cohesive relationship as zaibatsu in Japan. Chapter 6 deals with the modern politics. Politics can be divided into divisive democracy of the West and cooperative meritocracy of the East. Divisive democracy consists of free election by vote based on individualistic freedom and partisan politics based on the competition for supremacy in election. Cooperative meritocracy consists of merit selection based on individualistic reciprocity between officials and citizens and nonpartisan politics based on nonpartisan collectivistic consensus. Chapter 7 deals with the modern religion and environment. The dominance of the major religions has been greatly diminished by modernization consisting of individualism, pluralism, and industrialization. The major religions are forced to undergo modernization to form the modernized religion to accommodate modernity, the dominating religion to dominate modernity, and the complementary religion to be complementary to modernity, representing the progressive religions, the conservative religions, and the harmonious religions. Environment has become an important issue since industrialization. The two opposite cultures with respect to environment are anthropocentrism based on individualistic freedom and supreme human race and environmentalism based on reciprocity and cohesive relationship between human and environment.

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2. The Prehistoric Period
2.1. The Prehistoric Interdependent Society The interdependent hunter-gatherer society was egalitarian, democratic, and peaceful. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago. Each person lived adequately. Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The prehistoric hunter-gatherer society may be similar to the modern Bushman in African’s Kalahari Desert as described by Marshall Sahlins’ “The Original Affluent Society”13. The hunter-gatherer society in small groups (about 20-35 people) adjusts its daily needs and desires with what is available to them. The period between childbirths is four to five years by the long prolonged lactation, so the population growth is very slow. Available food is actually fairly adequate for their modest need without population pressure. Without material accumulation, they work only for daily needs, so only the able-bodied work no more than 19 hours only a week, and 40% of people do not need to work. Without clear property lines, they welcome all visitors. They do not have to permanently stay in one social group. A great deal of evidence suggests that the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society was much less war-like than later peoples. Archaeological studies throughout the world have found hardly any evidence of warfare the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. Many of the world’s cultures have myths that refer to an earlier time when life was the balance way of social life. In classical Greece and Rome this was known as the Golden Age; in China it was the Age of Perfect Virtue, in India it was the Krita Yuga (Perfect Age), while the Judeo-Christian tradition has the story of the Garden of Eden14. For Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, the interdependent social life is the human original life created by God in the image of God. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1:27) The interdependent social life is based on conscience for all people as described by Paul in the Bible. Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law, since they show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them. (Romans 2:14-15) The goal of this command is love, which comes from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith. (1 Timothy 1:5) For Zen Buddhism, the interdependent social life as the original human social life is the Buddha nature that all people have in them. Everyone can achieve the Buddha nature. As mentioned before, Mencius, a great Confucian teacher, described the human innate goodness. He believed everyone could be Yao and Yu (the Chinese ancient mystic saint-emperors).

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2.2. The Prehistoric Religious Interdependent Society For about 160,000 years, the lifestyle as the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society society remained mostly unchanged until the Upper Paleolithic Revolution about 40,000 years ago. The major human social life during this period was the interdependent social life. The natural biological instincts were adequate for the human survival. Similarly to the Industrial and Neolithic Revolutions, the Upper Paleolithic Revolution represents a short time span when numerous inventions appeared and cultural changes occurred. The revolution comprised new religions, technologies, hunting techniques, human burials, and artistic work. The Upper Paleolithic period extended from about 40,000 to between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago. The reasons for these changes in human behavior have been attributed to the changes in climate during the period that encompasses a number of sudden global temperature drops, meaning a worsening of the already bitter climate of the last ice age. A number of sudden temperature drops reduced significantly the area for forest in Europe and Asia. The reduction of forest reduced the food supply, usable timber, and other non-food materials. The same climate change caused the extinction of Neanderthals, who had survived since 200,000 years ago, and had similar intelligence as Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens faced the same fate of extinction as Neanderthals. One distinct difference between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals during the Upper Paleolithic Revolution is the appearance of the new Homo sapiens’ religion, which saved Homo sapiens from extinction. At the time of the Upper Paleolithic Period, the supernatural was immanent supernatural that appeared everywhere as a part of all objects in the world. Anything unexplained or unusual was attributed to the supernatural. The society was democratic and egalitarian, so there was no authoritative transcendental gods to be worshiped. Everyone and everything was equally an avatar, the incarnation of the supernatural. Such concept of immanent supernatural was prevalent before the Upper Paleolithic Revolution. The symbols for the immanent supernatural were typically the exaggerated and distorted representation of the real natural objects to represent the unexplained and unusual characteristics of the immanent supernatural, so the symbols represented partly the natural and partly the supernatural. (Symbol is the result of the exaggeration of a specific feature of a real object.) Such symbols brought the immanent supernatural to help people. They did not worship such symbols, because there was no concept of worshipping anything authoritative. During the harsh time in the Upper Paleolithic Period, the social group that was preoccupied with fertility and vitality for women and men, respectively, and had strong faith in the immanent supernatural had better chance to survive the harsh environment. The common symbols of the immanent supernatural for fertility were the exaggerated and distorted female figurines. In most cases, the female figurines are miniature sculptures of well-rounded female nudes with an overemphasis of the fleshy parts of the body (buttocks, stomach and chest). The sexual accent on the female breasts and the posterior are assumed by many to connote signs of fertility. The head and arms are mostly absent with the stress on the middle of the torso. Thighs tend to be exaggerated tapering into smaller legs. The head has no face. These distorted and exaggerate form of female body represents the immanent supernatural in a natural female body. These religious female figurines were valuable bringing the immanent supernatural to help fertility in the sense of bringing good luck to child birth.

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Another group of religious symbols is the cave paints for the immanent supernatural to achieve vitality. During the Upper Paleolithic Revolution, the harsh environment prompted people to find alternate mental states to revitalize. The alternate mental states involved hallucinatory or trance states by drugs or repetitive rhyme. The belief in the immanent supernatural within a person made the entrance into the alternate state easy and inevitable. The whole process was manifested in the Paleolithic cave paintings as described by David LewisWilliams15. In the cave paints, the animals were mystic large strong animals or mystic animals with horns that symbolized maturation and strength. The mystic animal pictures were conceived during the trance states. The mystic powerful animal cave paintings were presented as evidence of spirit journeys previously undertaken. The difference in the religious practice during the Upper Paleolithic Revolution is the increasingly shared religious symbols for the immanent supernatural among different social groups. The enormous distribution of these female figurines implied a ritualistic exchange system with the figurines playing a central role in inter-group relations16. Practicing alternate states of the mind also became community rituals among different social groups, often led by shaman inside or outside of caves. The practicing of the alternate state of mind together promoted unity among different social groups. The sharing of the religious symbols brought about the sharing of survival information and resource among different social groups. The sharing could actually improve the fertility and vitality of the groups involved, resulting in the validation of the power of the religious symbols. The result was the rise of the female figurine and cave painting religion. People spent much more energy and time to develop and make such religious symbols for the immanent supernatural, resulting in rapid development and spread in religious art and the involved skills. In terms of theology, when human faced the possibility of extinction in the harsh environment, the supernatural initiated the supernatural miracle by using the religious symbols for fertility and vitality in the forms of female figurines and cave paintings, respectively. Through sharing religious symbols among different social groups by the hyper bond instinct, the religious symbols were blessed by the supernatural with the supernatural miracles. The religious symbols really worked miraculously. Different social groups identified with the common religious symbols, forming the social bond. The religious symbols become the abstract bond outside of the natural mind that relies on actual concrete human interaction. In other words, the religious symbols instantly evoke social bond without actual concrete human interaction. This abstract bond is revealed through the supernatural miracle. Bounded by the blessed religious symbols, different social groups worked together to overcome the harsh environment, avoiding extinction. After providing the way for the abstract bond among different social groups to avoid extinction, the supernatural miracle became increasingly unnecessary. Neanderthals never conceived of an "alternate reality”. From the perspective of Neanderthals, Homo sapiens were delusional to believe in the religious symbols of the immanent supernatural. Without bonding different social groups to overcome the harsh environment, Neanderthals became extinct in about 20,000 BC when female figurines and cave painting were popular. The society with the abstract bond is the unified prehistoric interdependent society. 2.3. The Exit from the Interdependent Society The Neolithic Revolution as the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to the cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence was first adopted by various

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independent prehistoric human societies about 10,000 years ago. The Neolithic Revolution may be caused by climatic change from the retreat of the glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age at about 12,000 BC. These climatic shifts prompted the migration of many big game animals to new pasturelands in northern areas. They left a dwindling supply of game for human hunters in areas such as the Middle East. Climatic shifts also led to changes in the distribution and growing patterns of wild grains and other crops on which hunters and gatherers depended. These changes forced people to systematic cultivation of plants and domestication of animals as the supplement for the undependable source of food by gathering and hunting. As cultivated crops and domesticated animals improved, people depended on cultivated crops and domesticated animals as the main food source. The first society resulted from the Neolithic Revolution is the horticultural-pastoral society17. Horticulture is agriculture before the invention of the plow. In simple horticultural societies, the gardeners used their hands assisted by digging sticks. Advanced horticultural societies used the hoe. They grew enough to support their families and local group but not enough to produce surpluses to sell to non-agricultural peoples. Because horticulture required more labor, to have more children became necessity. Women therefore had more children with shorter lactation period, and became less available in production. In horticulture, women were still able to farm and be productive while maintaining their reproductive roles. Gender inequality was not severe. The main source of food supply in pastoral societies was by domestication of animals. These societies were typically found in mountainous regions and in areas with insufficient rainfall to support horticultural societies. In desert areas they travel from water hole to water hole. In mountain areas they move up and down the terrain as the weather changes. The increase in population in the horticultural society forced people to use more productive method for the cultivation of crops. The method involved plow and draft animals, resulting in the agricultural-nomadic society. Plowing maintained the fertility of the soil by turning topsoil. Agriculture could support population increases by more intensive use of the same piece of land. Agriculture could support a much larger population than horticulture. Farmers grew crops for sale rather than crops grown only for household use. Market became an important part of society. Surplus food production brought about non-food-producing professionals, such as religious or ruling elites. Large cities emerged. It is the start of civilization whose original meaning relates to being a citizen, who is governed by the law of one’s city, town or community. Plowing by draft animals allowed large farm far away from home. Plow technology, which required more upper body strength and allowed large farm far away from home, did not allowed women to participate in plowing the fields and rearing children at the same time. They still did much of the processing and preserving of food, but their contribution to the household was not as valued as the work that men did because they did not contribute economically by selling products. Gender inequality was severe in the agricultural society. Civilization was an irreversible process, because the social group of large population caused by civilization had to be supported by agriculture. The reverse to the pre-agriculturalnomadic society would have led to mass starvation. The agricultural society required to stay in the same place, so it was more prone to the periodic local natural disaster, unlike the huntergatherer society that was free to move away from local natural disaster. The constant population pressure and the periodic natural disasters caused the deficient resource and security. The hunter-gatherers were averaged 6 inches taller than agricultural peoples up to 100 years ago.

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Today, we are now as tall as we once were. The life expectancy in the agricultural-nomadic society was actually shorter than in the hunter-gatherer society. The interdependent society is essentially a strategy for a small social group, like the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. The agricultural society with large size social group and deficient resource and security forced the society moving away from the original interdependent society that had small social group and adequate resource and security. A sign of immorality in the agricultural-nomadic society is warfare. Cultural anthropologist, Raymond C. Kelly 18 believes that warfare originated very late in human evolution. Archaeological evidence points to a commencement of warfare that postdates the development of agriculture. This strongly implies that earlier hunter-gatherer societies were warless and that the Paleolithic was a time of universal peace. One example is Japan where the agricultural society was established very late. In Japan, intensive agriculture came in with migrants from the mainland about 2,300 years ago. Archaeologists have excavated some 5,000 skeletons that predate the intrusion, and of those only ten show signs of violent death. In contrast, out of about 1,000 post-migration excavated skeletons, more than a hundred show such signs. The result was the immoral yin-yang civilized society, deviated greatly from the interdependent society. Consequently, humans moved out of the Garden of Eden. The deviation from the human innate goodness of the prehistoric interdependent society has been described by various religions. In the Bible, the deviation represents the exit from the Garden of Eden. In the Bible, the Garden of Eden symbolizes the interdependent society. The forbidden fruit symbolizes civilization. The eating of the forbidden fruit by Adam and Eve resulted in the death, as commanded by God, “…but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat of it you will surely die (Genesis 2:7). “For as in Adam, all die.” (1 Corinthians 15:22)”. “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23).” The deviation represents the spiritual death after civilization. For Daoism, the emergence of the civilized society is the deviation from the Great Way in the interdependent society in the prehistoric time. Therefore, when the Great Way is rejected, it is then that we have the virtues of humanity and righteousness. When knowledge and wisdom appear, it is then that there is great hypocrisy. When the six relations are not in harmony, it is then that we have filial piety and compassion. When the country is in chaos and confusion, it is then that there are virtuous officials. (Chapter 18, Dao Te Jing) Daoism considers humans were corrupted by culture and civilization. Zhuangzi, a founder of Daoism, stated, The humans of old dwelt in the midst of crudity and chaos; side by side with the rest of the world, they attained simplicity and silence there. At that time the yin and yang were harmonious and still, ghosts and spirits worked no mischief, the four seasons kept to their proper order, the ten thousand things knew no injury, and living creatures were free from premature death. Although humans had knowledge, they did not use it. This was called the Perfect Unity. At this time, no one made a move to do anything, and there was unvarying spontaneity.19

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In prehistoric past, all was in existential interdependence and all were happy, living in a simple state of nature. Nothing and nobody died prematurely. Zhuangzi explained how and why humans went downhill since those ancient, pristine times: The time came, however, when natural potency began to dwindle and decline, and then Suiren and Fuxi stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result there was compliance, but no longer any unity. Natural potency continued to dwindle and decline, and then Shennong and the Yellow Emperor stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result, there was security, but no longer any compliance. Virtue continued to dwindle and decline, and then Yao and Shun stepped forward to take charge of the world. They set about in various fashions to order and transform the world, and in doing so defiled purity and shattered simplicity. The Way was pulled apart for the sake of goodness; natural potency was imperiled for the sake of conduct. After this, inborn nature was abandoned and minds were set free to roam, mind joining mind in understanding; there was knowledge, but it could not bring stability to the world. After this, 'culture' was added on, and 'breadth' drowned the mind, and after this the people began to be confused and disrupted. They had no way to revert to the true form of their inborn nature or to return once more to the Beginning.20 It was culture that ultimately came to stand between humans and their true nature. For the Daoism, the primitive state of nature was the high point of human development. It was a time when humans lived in accordance with the Way and their own inborn natures. Human development went steadily downhill since then. Zen Buddhism, particularly the Sixth Patriarch who was illiterate, believes in human original nature much more than in symbols and rules as in civilization. To Zen Buddhism, the reliance in symbols and rules rather than human original nature is a deviation. To Zen Buddhism, even the symbol of Buddha can be a deviation.

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3. The Early Period
The interdependent society was evolved to adapt to small social group. The prehistoric society whose basic social unit was small social group was the interdependent society. The Neolithic Revolution as the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to the cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence was first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies about 10,000 years ago, resulting in agricultural-nomadic society. Agricultural-nomadic society required large social group, transforming interdependent society into collectivistic society or individualistic society. About 5,000 years ago, urban societies developed, resulting in the first civilizations in agricultural society with city states as the basic political units. Meanwhile, large clans were developed in nomadic society with clans as the basic political units. Agricultural society started from large rivers, such as Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Nile River, Yellow River, and Indus River. Nomadic society started from arid land and grassland outside of the river valleys. There were clear borders between in-group and out-group among the basic political units. People were clearly loyal to their city states or clans. Gradually, loose alliances were formed among the basic political units with nominal leaders for such alliances. The initial purposes of such alliances were for practical economic growth. The initial purpose of the alliance in agricultural society was to build common river water infrastructure such as irrigation and flood control. In China, the first king of the first dynasty, Xia Dynasty (21st -16th century BC), was Yu the great who became the king because of his work in flood control. The focus of this alliance was to convert all city states into in-group in order to build the common beneficial infrastructure. Such focus becomes the cooperative worldview to view the world as in-group, and the morality is cooperative worldview. The ruling class was good in engineering and applied science for the building of infrastructure. An important source of economic growth came from the increase in agricultural harvester by building infrastructure. The initial purpose of the alliance in nomadic society was to fight against defensively or offensively a common adversary enemy as out-group. The focus of such alliance is out-group. Such focus becomes the divisive worldview to view the world as out-group, and the morality is divisive morality. The divisive worldview concentrates in ''individual distinctiveness'' or ''independence''. For nomadic society, fighting that resulted in plundering was more beneficial economically than any kind of infrastructure building. An important source of the economic growth came from plundering. The ruling class was good in military and martial art for fighting. Initially, nomadic society was herd-nomadic society that migrated with herd. Later, another nomadic society emerged as trade-nomadic society that migrated with long-distance trade. Both of them developed divisive worldview. When the leader of such alliance gained more power, the leader had to invent a political ideology to justify the centralized political power, and had to have military power to settle conflict. Two earlier political ideologies for centralized political power were theocracy and meritocracy. In theocracy, the centralized political power of the leader came from gods. In Egypt and Mesopotamia of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, theocracy prevailed. The kings were gods or from the city of gods. In meritocracy, the centralized political power of the leader was justified by merit (accomplishment). In China and the Indus River Valley, meritocracy prevailed. The kings were not gods. The founder of Zhou Dynasty (1046–256 BC) declared that the Mandate of Heaven (天命) was given to an emperor of China based on whether he was sufficiently virtuous to rule. The previous emperor of Shang Dynasty did not fulfill his

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obligations as emperor, so he lost the mandate and the right to be emperor. In the caste system that was developed later in India, when people in a specific caste fulfilled their duty to serve in the specific caste, they would move up to a better caste in the next life, otherwise, they would move down to a worse caste in the next life. Apparently, meritocracy is much more durable than theocracy. The Chinese meritocratic political system based on the mandate of heaven and the Indian meritocratic political system based on the caste system lasted longer than the theocratic political systems in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Democracy was developed later to give the centralized power through the election by individual citizens. Today, the two viable political ideologies for centralized political power are meritocracy and democracy. In the agricultural society, the military power of a leader for the centralization of power was for unification. In the nomadic society, the military power was for both unification and invasion. For nomads, riding horses and hunting were needed for living, while they were not needed for living in the agricultural society. The nomadic military based on riding horses and hunting skill was much better than the agricultural military based on infantry only. The superiority of the nomadic military over the agricultural military is like the superiority of the Spanish invaders’ military over the Native American military that had no horses in the 16th century AD. Eventually, the agricultural society had to adopt the nomadic military in terms military strategy, equipment, and training. In the West, after the conquests by Hyksos and Akkad, agricultural Egypt and Mesopotamia adopted not only nomadic military but also divisive worldview from nomads, resulting in powerful militaristic empires in the West. The political ideology for centralized political power related directly with the ruling class, not common people. After the establishment of political ideology, the unifying religions emerged to unify common people in terms of morality based on divisive worldview or cooperative worldview. The three most important unifying religions in the West are Judaism to unify herd-nomadic clans based on collectivistic divisive worldview, Greek individualism to unify trade-nomadic city states based on individualistic divisive worldview, and Islam to unify both herd-nomadic and trade-nomadic clans based on both collectivistic divisive worldview and individualistic divisive worldview. The most important unifying religions in the East are Hinduism and Confucianism to unify agricultural city states based on cooperative worldview. In the theology based on divisive worldview, the supernatural and the natural are separated, resulting in the transcendental supernatural. Judaism, Greek individualism, and Islam adopt the mostly transcendental supernatural. In the theology based on cooperative worldview, the supernatural is an extension of the natural, resulting in immanent supernatural. Hinduism and Confucianism adopt the mostly immanent supernatural. Meanwhile, various backlash religions against civilization in general and the unifying religions in particular emerged to return the society to interdependent society as in the prehistorical interdependent society. They are interdependent religions. Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity opposed Confucianism, Hinduism, and Judaism, respectively. Christianity also opposed Greek individualism. Sufism arisen from the Islamic world is also an interdependent religion. The interdependent religions have no worldview as the pre-historic interdependent hunter and gatherer society. They are separated from the large societies politically and economically. Their basic social structures are based on small social group structure with distinctive boundary between in-group (small social group) and out-group (large social group as civilized group). 3.1. Divisive Worldview Judaism

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Before the conquest of Canaan, Israel was a herd-nomadic tribe that developed Judaism. The mentality of Israelites as shown in the Hebrew (Old) Bible is that Israelites were nomadic outsiders who entered the Promised Land, Canaan. Being a religion of mobile herd-nomads, Judaism has the collectivistic divisive worldview. Israelites collectively viewed the world as out-group by separating Israel from the surrounding tribes. Such collectivistic divisive worldview is expressed in the Hebrew Bible as holiness, qadosh. Qadosh literally means "to be set apart for a special purpose". Israel was qadosh because they were separated by the other nations as the chosen people of God. The holiness was enhanced by adopting the aggressive divisive worldview from the New Kingdom in Egypt in the 13th century BC as described in Exodus of the Hebrew Bible. The initial revelation from God was to Moses, an Israelite from Egypt. Yahweh, the fearsome tribal God of Israel, appeared in the burning bush. Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro, his father-in-law, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the back of the wilderness, and came to God’s mountain, to Horeb. Yahweh’s angel appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the middle of a bush. He looked, and behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. Moses said, “I will turn aside now, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.” When Yahweh saw that he turned aside to see, God called to him out of the middle of the bush, and said, “Moses! Moses!” He said, “Here I am.” He said, “Don’t come close. Take your sandals off of your feet, for the place you are standing on is holy ground.” Moreover he said, “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look at God. …. God said moreover to Moses, “You shall tell the children of Israel this, ‘Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is my name forever, and this is my memorial to all generations. (Exodus 3:115 World English Bible) Early Israelites were scattered in the highland of Canaan without a strong central power. Holiness provided the identity separating Israelites from Canaanites. The identity allowed the solidification of scattering Israelites, resulting in the supremacy of Israel. In other words, holiness led to the supremacy of early Israel. Supremacy is the morality of collectivistic divisive worldview for Israel. The holiness of Israel consists of the dietary distinction, theological distinction, and social distinction, separating Israel from the surrounding tribes as shown in both the Hebrew Bible and archeological evidences. The dietary distinction in the Hebrew Bible is a set of dietary regulations to regulate what can be eaten, how to prepare food, and how to eat. Archeology shows an indication of the dietary distinction as the complete absence of pig bones in the highland of Israel and the presence of pig bones in the lowland. In the theological distinction, Yahweh, the god of Israel does not have a specific form, unlike other gods that have specific forms as idols or as specific natural phenomena. By the commandments, Israelites can worship only Yahweh. Yahweh among other gods was the god of Israelites, Jacob's descendants as described in Deuteronomy.

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When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the children of men, he set the bounds of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel. For Yahweh’s portion is his people. Jacob is the lot of his inheritance. (Deuteronomy 32:8-9 World English Bible) By the first and the second commandments of the Ten Commandments, Israelites worshipped only Yahweh excluding other gods and without physical form as described in Exodus. God spoke all these words, saying, “I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourselves an idol, nor any image of anything that is in the heavens above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: (Exodus 20:1-4 World English Bible) Distinctive Yahweh separated Israel from other tribes. Archeology shows that for hundreds of years Israelites believed in and practiced polytheism or henotheism, and worshiped idols representing other gods. However, idol representing Yahweh has not been found. Another theological distinction is the observation of Sabbath. One day in a week is reserved for rest and worshiping God. A turning point to achieve a stricter holiness for Israelites occurred during the fall of the northern kingdom (Israel) and the rapid rise of the southern kingdom (Judah). The Hebrew Bible and archeology show that Hezekiah and Josiah, the kings of Judah, demolished officially the worship of idols, and strengthened Judah greatly. Many oral historical stories and rules were edited and written down officially during the time of Josiah in the 7th century BC21. In the Hebrew Bible, a written holy book of the Law was discovered during the time of Josiah (2 Kings 22:8-11). The earliest fragment (the silver scroll-Numbers 6:24-26) of the Hebrew Bible discovered by archeology was written in the 7th century BC. The purpose of such written history and rules is to teach Israelites the strict holiness for Israelites. However, the Hebrew Bible and archeology show that common Israelites continued to worship idols. Another turning point for higher Holiness occurred during the fall of Judah and the exile of Israelites to Babylon. The defeat of Israelites transformed Yahweh from the tribal god of Israel into transcendental God transcending the whole universe. Yahweh becomes the creator transcending the whole universe. Israelites could be defeated, but transcendental Yahweh can never be defeated. Transcendental God is the ultimate holiness, separating God from the whole universe. All other gods simply cannot exist. During the exile, many scriptures of the Hebrew Bible were edited and written down to show transcendental Yahweh and the faith in transcendental Yahweh. Archeology shows that after the return of Israelites from the exile to Judah, all idols disappeared. The third distinction is the social distinction that is egalitarianism separating Israel from the sounding tribes. Both archeology evidences and the Hebrew Bible show such egalitarianism. For archeology, Avraham Faust found that the early Israel in the 12th century BC was an egalitarian society based on equality and simplicity without burials phenomenon, tombs, decorated pottery, and elaborate house22. The simplicity and equality of Israel was markedly different from surrounding cultures. The Mosaic Law in the Hebrew Bible also shows egalitarianism as described by Clive Beed and Cara Beed in Economic Egalitarianism in Premonarchical Israel23. God owns the land, and there is no permanent private ownership according to the Mosaic Law.

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The land must not be sold permanently, because the land is mine and you reside in my land as foreigners and strangers. (Leviticus 25:23) According to the Mosaic Law, the land is distributed according to the need of people. To a larger group give a larger inheritance, and to a smaller group a smaller one; each is to receive its inheritance according to the number of those listed. (Numbers 26:54} According to the Mosaic Law, no Israelite and debt can be owned permanently. If any of your people—Hebrew men or women—sell themselves to you and serve you six years, in the seventh year you must let them go free. (Deuteronomy 15:12) At the end of every seven years you must cancel debts. (Deuteronomy 15:1)

Greek Individualism The pre-Greek Greece was an agricultural society. It was conquered gradually by Greekspeaking Mycenaean (about 2000-1100 BC) that was Eurasian nomad. Since then, Greece adopted divisive worldview promoted by warrior aristocracy. The Greek mythology is the glorification of heroic warriors. Greece was divided into many small isolated city states, separated by the sea or mountain ranges. To increase economic growth, the city states on the coast turned to trade. One of such city states was Athens. The main agricultural product was olive for export. Athens was a trading city to export olive. In a trading city, a high degree of freedom was required among individual traders from many different cultural and political backgrounds to trade and to exchange information, so Athens developed individualistic divisive worldview based on freedom as morality. The most suitable political system for individualistic divisive worldview based on freedom is democracy where individual citizens are free to elect their officials. In Athens in 507 BC, Cleisthenes established democracy as a new form of political system. Athenians were proud of democracy. The pride gave Athenians energy to develop their city, and provided a stable political system. Athens became prosperous. After defeating the Persian army in 480 BC, Athens became a dominant trade city that formed an alliance with other city states on the coast. Athens produced Greek individualism as the religion based on individualistic divisive worldview. Greek individualism consists of political freedom, religious freedom, economic freedom, and intellectual freedom. Political freedom was expressed as democracy. Religious freedom allowed the tolerance of all religions. Economic freedom provided the freedom to trade. Intellectual freedom provided free pursuit to all intellectual issues without fear. All these freedoms allowed great political, religious, economic, and intellectual diversities. The great philosophers of Greek individualism were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Athens was defeated by Spartan in 404 BC, but Greek individualism survived. The Hellenistic Empire build by Alexander, a student of Aristotle, expanded Greek individualism in Europe and Asia. After the defeat of the Hellenistic Empire, the Roman Empire continued the Hellenistic culture based on Greek individualism until the dominance of Christianity. The

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Hellenistic culture allowed religious freedom, economic freedom, and intellectual freedom for most citizens. Today, democracy is the dominant political system. In Greek individualism, the creation is through the Logos (principle of order and knowledge). Logos is used in the New Testament written in Greek. Logos is translated as Word. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. (John 1:1-3) Such abstract Logos is transcendent. Abstract principles are important for the development of abstract science. Logo is based on divisive worldview. Islam Islam was found by Arab. The pre-Islam Arab represented various desert-dwelling Semitic tribes in the Syrian Desert and Arabia. The entire group of Semitic languages probably started from Arab. Initially, Arab was an alliance of herd-nomad society. When the commercial interactions among various nations became frequent, Arabia was an important part of the trade route among nations. The transportation for the long-distance trade on desert was by camels. Various empires fought to get the control of this trade route. Arab was the mixture of both herd-nomadic society and trade-nomadic society, so the worldview was the combination individualistic divisive worldview for freedom (diversity) and collectivistic worldview for supremacy. Islam found by Muhammad (a trader by profession) consolidated the alliance of Arabic clans based on individualistic divisive worldview and collectivistic divisive worldview. Islam was found in Mecca, the most important trading city in Arabia. Muhammad in Mecca was exposed to Arab own religions, Judaism, and Christianity. (Greek individualism lost power under the dominancy of Christianity.) Muhammad took control of Mecca in 634 AD. Under the solidified alliance of Arab clans, Islam expanded quickly. The Muslim Empires were the super powers from the 7th century to the 19th century. The combination of supremacy from collectivistic divisive worldview and freedom (diversity) from individualistic divisive worldview is shown in the Quran, In Islam, the prophets in the Quran include many prophets from the Bible to show the diversity of Allah’s revelations. And that was Our [conclusive] argument which We gave Abraham against his people. We raise by degrees whom We will. Indeed, your Lord is Wise and Knowing. And We gave to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob - all [of them] We guided. And Noah, We guided before; and among his descendants, David and Solomon and Job and Joseph and Moses and Aaron. Thus do We reward the doers of good. And Zechariah and John and Jesus and Elias - and all were of the righteous. And Ishmael and Elisha and Jonah and Lot - and all [of them] We preferred over the worlds. And [some] among their fathers and their descendants and their brothers - and We chose them and We guided them to a straight path. That is the guidance of Allah by which He guides whomever He wills of His servants. But if they had associated others with Allah , then worthless for them would be whatever they were doing. Those are the ones to whom We gave the Scripture and authority and prophethood. But if the disbelievers deny it, then We have entrusted it to a people who are not therein disbelievers. (Quran 6:83-89)

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The supremacy belongs to Muhammad who is the final prophet. Allah is transcendent and diverse. A large part of intellectual freedom in the Muslin Empires came from Greed individualism in terms of the Greek philosophy and science. Arabs translated Greek philosophy and science into Arab. Under the Muslim Empires, religious, economic, and intellectual freedoms were better than under the Christian kingdoms. While the restriction of freedom kept Christian kingdoms in the Dark Age before the Renaissance starting from the 14th century. Religious, economic, and intellectual freedoms allowed the Muslim Empires to prosperous and to make tremendous progress in science, mathematics, technology, and philosophy. The Renaissance in the Christian kingdoms started essentially by learning the Muslim culture. 3.2. Cooperative Worldview Confucianism China maintains the longest continuous civilization in the world. The same system of language has been used continuously for more than four thousand years. The languages of all other three agricultural societies (The Nile Valley, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley) were replaced by the languages of the nomads (Semites and Eurasians). In other words, the Chinese agricultural society dominated the nomadic society, while the nomadic societies dominated the other three agricultural societies. The first four dynasties in China were Xia (the 17th to 12th century BC), (the 17th to 12th century BC) and Zhou Dynasty (the 12th to 3rd century BC), and Qin (221-207 BC). The first two dynasties were agricultural. The Zhou and the Qin had nomadic origins. After defeating the Shang, the Zhou immediately declared that the highest god of the Zhou was identical to the highest god of the Shang, and the Zhou continued the religious rituals of the Shang. The Zhou also declared the Mandate of Heaven (天命) was transferred from the Shang to the Zhou because of the virtuous Zhou and the corrupt Shang, not because of the strong Zhou and the weak Shang. The Zhou established the virtuous government based on cooperative worldview instead of the hegemonic government based on divisive worldview. The Zhou basically continued the agricultural society of the Shang. After unifying China, the Qin adopted the divisive worldview reinforced by the legal system and the hegemonic government, and established the centralized meritocratic bureaucracy instead of warrior aristocracy to rule China. The Qin Dynasty did not last long. Shortly after the death of the first emperor, Chinese people revolted, and overthrew the Qin. Without the Qin, China did not become a strong aggressive militaristic empire based on divisive worldview, like the Roman Empire. The agricultural Han Dynastic (206 BC–220 AD) that replaced the Qin Dynasty used Confucianism to combine the virtuous government of the Zhou and the centralized meritocratic bureaucracy of the Qin into the Confucian centralized meritocracy based on cooperative worldview. All subsequent invading nomads adopted the Confucian meritocracy with some minor modifications, so the agricultural culture continued to dominate the nomadic culture. In the West, hegemonic government with warrior aristocracy prevailed. In China, the emperors, except the founders, did not involve directly in military campaigns. In the West, many emperors involved directly in major military campaigns. The agricultural political system in China is the longest political system in the world. The long continuation of the agricultural political system in China is derived from Confucianism

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based on cooperative worldview that provides the cooperation between government and people. In the West based on divisive worldview, the disunity between government and people disrupted the continuation of political system. The morality in individualistic divisive worldview is reciprocity, and the morality of collectivistic worldview is cohesive relationship. For Confucianism, the five reciprocal human relationships are ruler (government) and subject (people), parents and children, elder sibling and younger sibling, husband and wife, and friend and friend. All relationships are reciprocal. A person has to response to what other person does in a relationship. For an example, parents assume to role to bring up children, while children response with filial piety. The higher position people have loving responsibility to lower position people who have respect and obedience to higher position people. The morality is reciprocity, and the immorality is egotism. Everyone is somehow related to everyone else in these five reciprocal relationships, so no one can be alone and egotistic. In Confucianism, reciprocity relates to Yi (義), which can be translated as righteousness to avoid egotistic behaviors. Yi is reinforced by propriety (li. 禮), ritualistic behaviors to manifest reciprocal relationships. For Confucianism, collectivistic cohesion is derived from the extension of family model to a nation and then to the whole world. When the family is harmonized, the country is well governed. When the country is well governed, there will be peace throughout the world. 家齊而后國治, 國治而後天下 平.(The Great Learning) The agricultural society based on the cooperative worldview that views the world as in-group such as family allowed the extension from family to the world. The nomadic society based on divisive worldview that views the world as out-group did not allow the extension from family to the world. The immorality in collectivistic cooperative worldview is divisive bigotry. In Confucianism, cohesive relationship relates to rén (仁) consisting of seriousness, generosity, sincerity, diligence and kindness Confucius (551–479 BC) was born when Zhou Dynasty was in decline. The founders of Zhou basically established cooperative worldview for ruling class. The reciprocal relationship was between the heaven and ruling class in the Mandate of Heaven. Meritocracy was for ruling class. Confucius transformed cooperative worldview for ruling class to cooperative worldview for all people. The Mandate of Heaven was transformed into the Mandate of People. People gave the right for an emperor to rule. If an emperor did not fulfill his duty to rule with virtue and diligence, an emperor could no long be an emperor to people, and he could be replaced by another person who could rule with virtue and diligence. According to Confucius, all high education, virtue, ritual, ancestor worship, and diligence that were required for ruling class in Zhou were required for common people. Therefore, according to Confucius, a person of virtue is called literally lord's son. Confucianism produced the scholar-gentry that became the backbone of society and government. The Confucian scholar-gentry maintained the reciprocity between government and people, resulting in the cooperation between government and people. As long as the society was stable and prosperous, ordinary people were not interested in politics. Living in the same community for generations, people were mostly self-governed through extended family and local community. Under famine and severe governmental oppression, the cooperation between government and people was ruptured, resulting in peasant revolt and the change of government. However, the Confucian scholar-gentry continued to serve as the backbone of society and

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government officials to maintain the continuation of the Confucian political system. In China, Viet Nam, Korea, and Japan, the informal four occupations from the highest to the lowest were scholar-gentry (士), farmer (农), artisan (工), and merchant (商). In divisive worldview, God transcends and separates from the universe. In Confucianism, there is no personal god that transcends the world. In cooperative worldview, the supernatural is basically an extension of this world. To the people who practice Confucianism, the supernatural world where ancestors live is an extension of the natural world, so the reciprocity between ancestor and descendent is same as the reciprocity between parent and child. Descendants respect their ancestors, and ancestors take care of their descendants. The impersonal Heaven takes care of the social harmony like the head of a clan. To Confucianism, ancestor is not a god in terms of transcendence and supremacy. As a result, the supernatural is mostly immanent instead of transcendent. Hinduism Indian civilization started with the agricultural Indus Valley Civilization, consisting of the city states. Each city state was ruled by priests as indicated by the presence of temples and the absence of palaces. There was no unification of city states. The highly developed Indus Valley civilization thrived during the Mature Harappan Period from about 2600 to 1900 BC. Due to partly the climate change, the agricultural Indus Valley Civilization gradually declined. The agricultural society was replaced gradually by the pastoral Indo-Aryan society from nomadic Eurasian. The pastoral Aryans mixed racially with the original agriculturalists (Dravidians) from the study of Reich, 2009 24. This period is the Vedic period from about 1700 to 500 BC, related to the Hindu sacred texts of Vedas written in Aryan Sanskrit. During the Vedic Period, the Indian society gradually changed from the pastoral society to the agricultural society, resulting in city states centered in the Ganges plain, east of the Indus Valley. Society became divided into the caste system consisting of the Brahmana (priests and scholars), the Kshatriya (the warriors), the Vaishya (farmers and merchants), and the Shudra (laborers). The caste system reflected the agricultural hierarchical social structure. The caste system became a rigid social code segregating different castes in India in terms of the segregation of population about 2000 years ago as indicated by the study of Reich in 201325. During the Epic Era (1000-600 BC), the Upanishads was written with the introduction of the gods different from the gods of the Vedas. The cooperative worldview started to gain influence as reincarnation and karma. Reincarnation allows person to move to different castes based on karma (cause-effect) of individual behaviors in a series of reincarnation. The cooperative worldview is based on the previous life, this life, and the future life. In individualistic cooperative worldview, the morality is reciprocity. For Hinduism, reciprocity is defined by the fulfillment of the duty of a person in each caste. The consequence of reciprocity among individuals is karma. In collectivistic cooperative worldview, the morality is cohesive relationship, which is shown in the segregated but cohesive caste system based on reincarnation. Meritocracy was introduced. Each person was judged by how well each person fulfilled the duty of each caste. For an example, a warrior in the warrior class has to fight, even if he does not like to destroy life as described in the story, the Bhagavad Gita. The backlash against the violence and oppression of the warrior class and the complex rituals of the priest class based on the divisive worldview produced nonviolent pacifism and caste-less social system such as Jainism and Buddhism based on the no-worldview. They

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rejected the Vedas and the Upanishads as sacred texts. Buddhism is an interdependent religion without worldview will be described later. In Hinduism, all living beings including gods undergo reincarnation, so everything is the extension of this world. The Hindu theology is based on cooperative worldview. The supernatural is mostly immanent instead of transcendent. In the West including Judaism, Greek individualism, and Islam, the mostly transcendent supernatural is based on divisive worldview. The supernatural is mostly separated from this world. In the East including Confucianism and Hinduism, the mostly immanent supernatural is based on cooperative worldview. The supernatural is mostly an extension of this world. 3.3. The Revival of the Interdependent Society For about ten thousand years after the Neolithic Revolution, the two-branch civilized society consisting of the collectivistic society and the individualistic society dominated the civilized society without interdependent society. The civilized world was also dominated by divisive worldview or collectivistic worldview. The interdependent religions including Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity were found by Laozi, Buddha, and Jesus, respectively, to oppose Confucianism, Hinduism, and Judaism, respectively. Without worldview, the interdependent religions themselves have not intended to be unifying religions to unify politically civilized city states, clans, or nations. They build the interdependent society outside of and complementary to the civilized individualistic society and collectivistic society with divisive worldview and cooperative worldview. Daoism, Buddhism, and Christianity are complementary to Confucianism, Hinduism, and Judaism, respectively. Sufism arisen from the Islamic world is also an interdependent religion. Christianity The Christian sanctuary in the civilized world attracts the people who want to live in the interdependent society and have the harmonious mind. In evolution of society, the turning point for the formation of interdependent society is handicapped individuals, and handicapped individuals could survive by existential interdependence. The basic Christian teaching is about sin. In Christianity, everyone is handicapped by sins that can be forgiven only through the common savior, Jesus. This righteousness is given through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference between Jew and Gentile, for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. (Romans 3:19-24) Through the salvation, Christians enter the society of existential interdependence based on the existential division of labor. The existential division of labor from group selection in the interdependent society is described clearly in the New Testament (Christianity) of the Bible. But in fact God has placed the parts in the body, every one of them, just as he wanted them to be. If they were all one part, where would the body be? As it is, there are many parts, but one body. (1 Corinthians 12:18-20)

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The idealized Christian sanctuary is the kingdom of God, and the actual Christian sanctuary is Christian church. To enter into the kingdom of God requires the rebirth. In reply Jesus declared, "I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again." "How can a man be born when he is old?" Nicodemus asked. "Surely he cannot enter a second time into his mother's womb to be born!" Jesus answered, "I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born again.' (John 3:3-7) To Jesus, the kingdom is not of this civilized world. Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews. But now my kingdom is from another place." (John 18:36) The particular strength of Christianity is harmonious relationship. The kingdom of God represents the kingdom of the harmonious relationship based on love. A Jesus’ last command to his disciples is love. A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another. (John 13:34-35) The kingdom of God is within a person as the interdependent social life. Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, "The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation, nor will people say, 'Here it is,' or 'There it is,' because the kingdom of God is within you." (Luke 17:20-21) Buddhism The Buddhist sanctuary in the civilized world attracts the people who want to live in the interdependent society and have the harmonious mind. The contrast between the Buddhist sanctuary and the civilized world shows them that they are sufferers outside of the Buddhist sanctuary. Everyone is handicapped by suffering that can be released through the interdependent society and the harmonious mind. Interdependent social life comes from the human mind that is free of individualistic achievement as greed and collectivistic relationship as impermanent relationship, so the standard to be free of suffering is much higher than that of the civilized world. By recognizing what they are outside of the Buddhist sanctuary, they repent and enter the Buddhist sanctuary established by Buddha, and become Buddhists. Suffering is the basic Buddha’s teaching in The Four Noble Truths 1. Life means suffering. 2. The origin of suffering is attachment. 3. The cessation of suffering is attainable.

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4. The path to the cessation of suffering is the Eightfold Path. The Buddhist sanctuary is Buddhist monastery established initially by Buddha. The particular strength of Buddhism in the interdependent religion is the harmonious mind. To release from suffering requires the fourfold harmonious mind (the calm mind, the clear mind, the loving-kindness mind and the no-self mind). They correspond to faith, wisdom, love, and perishable flesh, respectively, in Christianity, and right concentration, right mindfulness, lovingkindness, and emptiness, respectively, in Buddhism. For neuroscience, the calm mind and the clear mind relate to the prefrontal cortex to control non-conscience instincts, and the loving-kindness and the no-self relate to the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, respectively, in the conscience instinct.
Fourfold harmonious mind Christianity Buddhism Neuroscience Purposes Calm mind Clear mind loving-kindness mind no-self

Faith Wisdom right concentration right mindfulness prefrontal cortex control non-conscience instincts stress reduction anxiety reduction relaxation and emotional stability and integrity objectivity

Love perishable flesh Loving-kindness Emptiness Hyper friendly instinct detective instinct enhance conscience instinct hyper friendly = love detection of the and kindness no-self

The evolution of the conscience instinct required the expansion of the prefrontal cortex to control the old instincts from the non-interdependent social life. As the brain had tripled in size during human evolution, the prefrontal cortex had increased in size six fold. The prefrontal cortex in humans occupies a far larger percentage of the brain than any other animal. Thus, the prefrontal cortex serves as executive function for the transformation from the non-interdependent social life into the interdependent social life. The prefrontal cortex has a high number of interconnections between both drives and instincts in the brainstem's Reticular Activating System and emotion in the limbic system. As a result, the prefrontal cortex can control pleasure, pain, anger, rage, panic, aggression, fight-flight-freeze responses, and basic sexual responses. A neurological principle in releasing suffering is to strengthen the neural connection between the prefrontal cortex and drive, instinct, emotion, and cognition in the brain. One indication of the importance of the prefrontal cortex is the increased thickness of areas in prefrontal regions of the cerebral cortex associated with the long-term meditation practice of Buddhist monks26. the calm mind: right concentration The calm mind is mainly for stress reduction. The calm mind is based on the prefrontal cortex and the existential interdependence among senses, feelings, and thoughts in the mind of person. A calm focus that is produced in the prefrontal cortex cooperates harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In other words, the calm mind is through the prefrontal cortex that concentrates non-judgmentally at one point or task. Distractive emotion is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the calm mind trains the mind to focus calmly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the calm mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to stress. The calm mind is faith from Christianity and right concentration from the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path (right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right concentration, and right mindfulness).

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The calm mind is strengthened by meditation and prayer. The meditation for the calm mind is the concentrative meditation. In terms of meditation, the non-verbal method includes concentrating on the breath, movement (walking, Sufi dancing, yoga, Qi Gong, and Tai Chi), and mantra. The verbal method involves prayer. In prayer, the close relation with God as a close friend establishes the personal existential interdependence within the mind of the person who prays. The personal existential interdependence within the mind establishes the calm mind. One of the prayer methods for the calm mind is the centering prayer27 to center at a sacred word. The faith in existential interdependence with God during prayer allows calm and objective perception. During meditation, the brain’s activity alters significantly, as mapped by a device called an electroencephalograph (EEG). The most well-known brain waves evident during many kinds of meditation are called alpha waves. When the brain moves into an alpha wave state, many physiological changes occur, such as the parasympathetic half of the autonomic nervous system. This results in lowered blood pressure and heart rate, a reduction in stress hormones and slowed metabolism. If meditation is practiced regularly, these beneficial changes become relatively permanent. The opposition to the calm mind is ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). The common symptom is a persistent pattern of impulsiveness and inattention, with a component of hyperactivity. Typically, ADHD is a developmental disorder. In one study, the region with the greatest average delay is the middle of the prefrontal cortex28, lagged a full five years in development occurred in elementary school aged ADHD patients. The drug, Ritalin, for ADHD stimulates activity in the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is important for the calm mind that requires concentration through the prefrontal cortex. One of the symptoms for ADHD is the failure to follow instruction because of the deficiency in the prefrontal cortex. For adult, following instruction is important part of morality, so the calm mind as concentration is important to resist temptation as distraction from the right moral path. Alcohol is forbidden because alcohol also depresses the activity of the sophisticated prefrontal cortex, resulting in lowering the resistance against temptation. Therefore, the calm mind is for both relaxation and integrity through the prefrontal cortex. the clear mind: right mindfulness The clear mind is mainly for anxiety reduction. The clear mind is based on the prefrontal cortex and the existential interdependence among senses, feelings, and thoughts in the mind of person. A clear awareness that is produced in the prefrontal cortex cooperates harmoniously with senses, feeling, and thoughts in the mind of a person. In other words, the clear mind is through the prefrontal cortex that is aware clearly and non-judgmentally of specific sense, feeling, or thought. Distractive awareness is pushed gently aside. Through the prefrontal cortex, the clear mind trains the mind to aware clearly and objectively. Objectivity relates to the perception without distortion by personal emotion and instinct. Eventually, the clear mind disperses and reduces the persistently high emotion due to anxiety. The clear mind is right mindfulness from the Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path and wisdom from Christianity. The meditation for the clear mind is called mindfulness or insight meditation. The meditators pay close attention to sensations and thoughts as they come and go each passing moment but refraining from judging or acting on those objects, thoughts and feelings. The basic principle is labeling information. When the scan of self becomes difficult, it is necessary to return to the calm mind step.

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The prayer for labeling emotion is the mindfulness prayer to talk to God freely because of the personal existential interdependence with the Spirit. Guided by the spontaneous Spirit, the prayer is a free association private talk with God. The scan of self is through confession, thanksgiving, and supplication for thoughts and feelings of guilt, happiness, and stress-anxiety, respectively. Basically, it is a free association private talk to God about self, as Paul states. In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express. And he who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints in accordance with God's will. (Romans 8:26-27) The clear harmonious communication with God during prayer allows clear and objective perception. The study by Matthew D. Lieberman29 showed that while the emotion part (amygdala) of the brain was less active when an individual labeled the negative feeling, the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was more active. The individuals trained in the scan of self by the mindfulness meditation have higher activity in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and lower activity in the emotional part of the brain than the individual without the training in the mindfulness meditation. Unlabeled emotional information can lead to stress-anxiety, so labeling information reduces stress-anxiety. Labeling information corresponds to the mindfulness prayer or meditation. A person experienced in the clear mind meditation or prayer can experience all things objectively, particularly during meditation or prayer, because the perception of all things involves the prefrontal cortex. It can overcome instinctive reflexes, such as startle and habituation. Paul Eckman observed and measured the ability of a seasoned meditation practitioner to suppress the startle reflex while meditating. Loud sounds went off out of view and failed to startle this individual while doing his mindfulness (open) meditation, but not during his concentrative (fixed point) meditation. He has found that in general meditators don't get as shocked as nonmeditators to such unpredictable loud sounds30. Similarly, the people with clear mind can handle shocking, unpleasant, and difficult social encounters objectively, because they are experienced in the control of emotion by the prefrontal cortex. In this way, they are able to stay in the middle-way, not psychological extreme. Therefore, the clear mind is for both emotional stability and objectivity through the prefrontal cortex. the loving-kindness mind: Loving-kindness toward all people is derived from the activation of the hyper friendly instinct of the conscience instinct. The loving-kindness is the foundation of morality. The loving-kindness mind can be practice during meditation (the Buddhist non-referential compassion meditation31) or prayer. Typical sacred verses for the loving-kindness mind from Christianity are For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. (John 3:16) Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. (1 Corinthians 13:4-8)

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For Buddhism, typical verses are from the Karaniya Metta Sutta (Hymn of Universal Love). Let none deceive or decry his fellow anywhere; let none wish others harm in resentment or in hate. Just as with her own life, a mother shields from hurt her own son, her only child, let all-embracing thoughts for all beings be yours. Cultivate an all-embracing mind of love for all throughout the universe in all its height, depth and breadth — Love that is untroubled and beyond hatred or enmity. As you stand, walk, sit or lie, so as long as you are awake, pursue this awareness with your might: It is deemed the Divine State here and now. the no-self mind: The no-self as no non-harmonious self is basically derived from the non-existence of non-harmonious self with respect to the interdependent social life that was the normal social life in the prehistoric time before the civilization. The realization of the no-self as no nonharmonious self is derived from the activation of the detective instinct of the conscience instinct. The non-harmonious self becomes questionable. The no non-harmonious self along with the questionable non-harmonious self is in the right brain. The prefrontal cortex chooses the no nonharmonious self to represent the self. For Christians, the abstract no-self is the perishable sinful self. For Christianity, “all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23), and “the wages of sin is death. (Romans 6:23a)” The self-ending is equivalent to the complete surrendering self to God for the salvation. For Buddhism, the abstract no-self is impermanent and imperfect illusive-self absent of reality and independence. The illusive civilized life is source of disconnection and suffering. For Buddhism, the self-ending is to extinct the illusive no-self. The result of the no-self mind is the self-ending as nirvana in Buddhism. For Christianity, the no-self is the perishable sinful self (flesh), the self-ending is to die on the cross with Christ, and the rebirth is to resurrect with Christ into the kingdom of God. For Buddhism, the no-self is the impermanent and imperfect illusive- self and the self-ending is Nirvana that extinguishes the flame of life. Rebirth in the Buddhist context relates to reincarnation. For Buddhism, the rebirth into the harmonious mind corresponds to the way of Bodhisattva that is a person who has achieved enlightenment has chosen to remain in this world to help those who are suffering, instead of going on to Nirvana. Therefore, for Buddhism, the harmonious mind is the Bodhisattva Way rather than reincarnation. For Zen Buddhism, Nirvana and the Bodhisattva Way correspond to the Insight (dun wu) into the futility of the civilized nature and one’s own original nature (Buddha nature), the harmonious social life. To reach the Insight as the transformation from the non-harmonious social life into the harmonious social life, it is necessary to have all four minds in the fourfold harmonious mind involving the conscience instinct and the prefrontal cortex. When the combined fourfold harmonious mind reaches certain critical point unconsciously, the Insight occurs suddenly. The critical point is how a person feels comfortable enough unconsciously to change the social life. The Insight consists of the sudden realization of the non-existence (self-ending) of the nonharmonious self and the reappearance (rebirth) of the original human nature with the innate goodness. The Insight is sudden because the mind is mostly unconscious. Since the nonharmonious social life and the harmonious social life always appear and disappear, the Insight is a process rather a fixed point.

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For Christianity, the Insight is the spiritual Insight into the ultimate relationship between Christ and the perishable flesh from the civilized world. In the Insight for Paul in the Bible, all things are rubbish. What is more, I consider everything a loss compared to the surpassing greatness of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whose sake I have lost all things. I consider them rubbish, that I may gain Christ. (Philippians 3:8) For Buddha, all things are perishable. The last advice and words from Buddha is All things are perishable. Strive with earnestness. (vayadhamma sankhdra appamddena sampadetha) To prehistoric hunters and gatherers who had very little material accumulation, it was not difficult to regard all things as rubbish and perishable. More important than all things, the harmonious social life was the best prehistoric survival strategy, the TIT FOR TAT with maximum eager cooperation without lie. The Insight consists of the self-ending and the rebirth. The self-ending is through the extinguishment of the abstract no-self. The self-ending is Nirvana in Buddhism and the death of self on the cross in Christianity. In the meditation or prayer practice, the self-ending comes from the combination of the no-self mind with any one of the three minds, the calm mind, the clear mind, and the loving-kindness mind. During such practice, self disappears. Occasionally, the self-ending comes suddenly outside of meditation and prayer. After experiential self-ending, there is a sense of letting go of self. The emotion, due to self, loses its emotional impact as if the emotional memory of the self-identity fades away. Neurologically, the self-ending is the deliberate inhibition of biological self that determines the boundary of biological self in space and time. The self-ending is observed by the brain activity in meditation and prayer examined by neurologist, Andrew Newberg32. When the meditation by the Tibetan Buddhist monks and the prayer by Franciscan nuns reached to the “peak”, he found increase in activity in the prefrontal lobe and marked decrease in activity in the parietal lobes. The prefrontal lobe is for mental concentration. The parietal lobe is for the orientation of self in space, determining where the self ends and where the external space begins. The decrease in activity in the parietal lobes means the loss of self. At the peak, people have a loss of the sense of self and frequently experience a sense of no space and time. Therefore, the brain activity observed by Newberg corresponds to the self-ending of the biological self, which for a meditator is the self-ending of self. Thus, the self-ending of self has a real brain experience of self-ending, allowing the brain to end or minimize the non-harmonious self. The result of the self-ending is the rebirth as the Bodhisattva Way in Buddhism. Without self, one can feel oneness with the universe in the sense of completely harmonious cooperation with the universe without self. The self-ending leads to the rebirth into the harmonious social life, the human original social life. The harmonious social life is friendlier toward all people, calmer, more contented, more attentive, and more moral than the non-harmonious social lives. Daoism The Daoist sanctuary in the civilized world attracts the people who want to live in the interdependent society and have the harmonious mind. The contrast between the Daoist sanctuary and the civilized world shows them that they are sufferers outside of the Daoist

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sanctuary. Interdependent social life comes from the human mind that is free of individualistic achievement as unnecessary strength and collectivistic relationship as intrusive rules, so the standard to be free of alienation is much higher than that of the civilized world. By recognizing what they are outside of the Daoist sanctuary, they repent and enter the Daoist sanctuary established by Laozi, and become Daoists. Daoists feel like outsiders in the civilized world. Daoism considers humans were corrupted by culture and civilization. Zhuangzi, a founder of Daoism, stated, The humans of old dwelt in the midst of crudity and chaos; side by side with the rest of the world, they attained simplicity and silence there. At that time the yin and yang were harmonious and still, ghosts and spirits worked no mischief, the four seasons kept to their proper order, the ten thousand things knew no injury, and living creatures were free from premature death. Although humans had knowledge, they did not use it. This was called the Perfect Unity. At this time, no one made a move to do anything, and there was unvarying spontaneity.33 In prehistoric past, all was in existential interdependence and all were happy, living in a simple state of nature. Nothing and nobody died prematurely. Zhuangzi explained how and why humans went downhill since those ancient, pristine times: The time came, however, when natural potency began to dwindle and decline, and then Suiren and Fuxi stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result there was compliance, but no longer any unity. Natural potency continued to dwindle and decline, and then Shennong and the Yellow Emperor stepped forward to take charge of the world. As a result, there was security, but no longer any compliance. Virtue continued to dwindle and decline, and then Yao and Shun stepped forward to take charge of the world. They set about in various fashions to order and transform the world, and in doing so defiled purity and shattered simplicity. The Way was pulled apart for the sake of goodness; natural potency was imperiled for the sake of conduct. After this, inborn nature was abandoned and minds were set free to roam, mind joining mind in understanding; there was knowledge, but it could not bring stability to the world. After this, 'culture' was added on, and 'breadth' drowned the mind, and after this the people began to be confused and disrupted. They had no way to revert to the true form of their inborn nature or to return once more to the Beginning.34 It was culture that ultimately came to stand between humans and their true nature. For the Daoism, the primitive state of nature was the high point of human development. It was a time when humans lived in accordance with the Way and their own inborn natures. Human development went steadily downhill since then. The idealized Daoist sanctuary is the small state as described by Laozi, a founder of Daoism. Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for their records) and using them. They

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will relish their food, regard their clothing as beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs. Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80) The particular strength of Daoism in the interdependent religion is harmonious adaptation. To Laozi, the adaptation of the interdependent social life to the world (nonharmonious civilization) is like the adaptation of water to its environment. Water does not compete with its environment in terms of what form to exist. The interdependent social life simply survives whatever form that the world allows it to exist as long as there is a place for the interdependent social life that is different from the social lives of the world. Therefore, the interdependent social life does not mind to exist in the place that the world dislikes. The motivation for the interdependent society to exist is mutual empathy and empowerment, instead of winning. It is like water that benefits the world. Water is close to the Way. The ways to benefit the world is to have down-to-earth living place, thoughtful mind, loving relationship, trustworthy words, orderly government, capable business, and timely action. In the long run, the world appreciates the non-competing interdependent society. Without competing with the world, the interdependent society as Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism actually survives and thrives in the world. Laozi further described the leadership in the social life. It is also like water, soft and yielding. Nothing in the world is as soft and yielding as water, yet nothing can better overcome the hard and strong, for they can neither control nor do away with it. The soft overcomes the hard. The yielding overcomes the strong. Every person knows this, but no one can practice it. Therefore the sage declares: One who accepts the humiliation of the nation may be the priest at the altar. One who accepts the misfortunes of the nation is the Empire's Sovereign. True words are often paradoxical. (Dao De Jing Chapter 78) The summary of interdependent religion is as follows.
Handicapped individuals in the Civilized World Sinners Sufferers Outsiders Sanctuary the kingdom of God monastery small state Particular Strength harmonious relationship harmonious mind harmonious adaptation

Christianity Buddhism Daoism

The particular strength of each interdependent religion allows the division of labor among Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism. The sum of all three religions is much stronger than individual ones.

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4. The Modernization of the West
The Modern Period in the West starts from the Renaissance which added individualism to the essentially collectivistic society. The mass printing and increased literacy allowed individualism to spread in the West. Such individualistic innovation and motivation particularly favored the start and the spread of the Industrial Revolution that required individualistic innovation and motivated entrepreneur. As a result, the modern individualistic society as capitalism emerged. At the same time, the counter movement as socialism for the modern collectivistic society also emerged. The modern individualistic society and the modern collectivistic society formed the modern two-party society. The Christian church changed from the original interdependent society into the state collectivistic religion as the Roman Empire selected it as the state religion. In the Modern Period, the church gradually moved back to the interdependent society, particularly in America. 4.1. The Modern Individualistic Society The Renaissance The Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence with the strong influence from Greek individualism. Greek individualism gave people self-reliance to change traditions and authorities. The Renaissance expresses the changes in art, religion, philosophy, science, and politics. The highly spiritual art in the Middle Ages was transformed into worldly and secular art. The religion that depended on the church authority and tradition in the Middle Ages was transformed into the personal rational reading of the original scripture. People again were interested the rational system of the nature. Politics was understood in more realistic power struggle among individuals. The change in the society as a whole was more gradual than the change in ideas. The broad power of the church was replaced by small national powers. The society as a whole continued to be the collectivistic society. In some areas, the exclusive democratic society appeared. The exclusive democratic society was controlled by small wealthy males. Within this small group, there was democracy, while the whole society was still the collectivistic society with rigid social code and hierarchy. The situation was changed by the industrial revolution. The Industrial Revolution Greek individualism assisted not only in the development of new science after the Renaissance but also the development of new technology and new commerce, resulting in the industrial revolution in the areas where individualism was strong. Such areas were mostly occupied the protestants whose belief relied on distinctively individual connection with God. The food shortage by the climate change forced gatherer-hunters to change the way to produce food. The Neolithic Revolution worked temporally to minimize the food shortage. The food shortage again appeared in the agricultural-nomadic society by the high population and periodic natural disasters and wars. By the standard today, people in the agricultural-nomadic society were in poverty, not much different from the people living today in the poor agricultural societies.

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About 10,000 years after the Neolithic Revolution, the Industrial Revolution occurred to change the civilized society (agricultural-nomadic society) with material poverty into the affluent society with material affluence. The Industrial Revolution replaced an economy based on manual labor by one dominated by machinery. The dramatic increase in productivity lifted most people from the poverty in the agricultural-nomadic society. The Industrial Revolution started in the mid-18th century and early 19th century in Britain and spread throughout the world. The success of the Industrial Revolution in Britain is due to the simultaneous combination of financial capital, labor, technology, and free market with economic growth, all of which Britain had in the mid-18th century. At that time, none of other locations had all elements for the successful start of the Industrial Revolution. The financial capital came mostly from the successful agricultural improvement imported from Holland during the early 18th century. The agricultural improvement involved new crop rotation, the usages of horse plowing, the increased usage of manure, and the improved breeding techniques for animals. By 1870, Britain produced 300% agriculturally more than in 1700, but only 14% of population works on land. Many successful landowners used the wealth accumulated from the land to invest in the Industrial Revolution. Some of financial capital came from the colonization of Britain. The excess labors free from the farm work due to the agricultural improvement became the low cost labors for the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution started with the mechanized textile industries powered by steam engine. The improved steam engine invented by James Watt, and patented in 1769. Steam engine enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated textile and other factories at any locations. The factory system started to form industrial cities to attract labors and investors. With strong scientific establishment, technology advancement was sustainable. As an island nation, Britain had broad international market. The lack of the interferences from domestic feudal system allowed competitive free domestic market. People could choose to buy goods and service in market without interference. The competitive free market allowed the existence of large industrial production. The simultaneous combination of financial capital, labor, technology, and free market with economic growth in Britain made the Industrial Revolution successful in the mid-18th century. The same combination spread to other regions. Britain and her former colonies remain the top free market industrial nations in all continents of the world. There are two different kinds of capital systems: material capital and expertise capital. The material capital system relates to tangible properties, such as monetary investment, building, and machine. The expertise capital system relates to intangible properties, such as technical skill and innovation. The core of entrepreneur free market structure is the legal capital system. Free market requires stable, mobile, and large investment in terms of capital. This kind of large-scale capital needs standardization of each business transaction in order to avoid misunderstanding and repetitive reexamination. This standardization and the enforcement of the standardization are the legal capital systems35. The legal capital system provides a legal system for the free and large collections of investment for sustainable free market. Without the legal capital system in free market, capital is too fragmentary to sustain a robust free market. The most important aspect of the legal capital system is ownership. The free market society is the individualistic society with minimum code and hierarchy. Individual property right is strongly protected. The individualistic society requires abundant resource and security. For the free market society, the abundant resource comes from the

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continuous economic growth from new technology, additional natural resource and labors, and additional trade. Security comes from the protection by laws. The continuous success of the free market society carries the individualistic society into the extreme individualistic society as the affluent society. In the affluent society, the combination of consumerism, globalization, and productive technology fuels the economy. Productive technology improves the productivity that increases the living standard for all people. It produces attractive and low-cost goods and services for consumerism. The volume of consumption increases rapidly, stimulating increasing production. New productive technology continues to appear to maintain continuously the increase in productivity. When productivity slows down at a specific location, the globalization of production and consumption takes over to move production to a different location where high productivity can be maintained. The everincreasing economic growth in production and consumption allows ever-increasing numbers of people to consume low-cost goods and services. The material affluence and consumerism are spreading to the whole global society. 4.2. The Modern Collectivistic Economy By the mid-nineteenth century, many reformers from Europe and America realized the need to transform capitalist industrial society into a much more egalitarian system in which collectivistic relationship is above individualistic achievement. The system is socialism. The word was first used in the early 1830s by the followers of Owen in Britain and those of SaintSimon in France. They criticized the excessive poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution. They advocated reform via the egalitarian distribution of wealth without private property. The principle of socialism is collectivistic relationship. There are different ways to carry out collectivistic relationship. Socialism can be cooperative socialism, total state ownership socialism, partial state ownership socialism, and regulatory socialism. In cooperation socialism, without private ownership, people cooperate with freedom and equality. It is possible only in a relatively small simple community. The large complicate industrial society requires a centralized government that plans and controls the economy in order to achieve collectivistic relationship. Therefore, for large socialistic society, collectivistic relationship is carried out by systems of social organization in which the means of producing and distributing goods is owned or regulated by a centralized government that often plans and controls the economy. Total state ownership socialism, such as Communism, does not allow free market. The means of producing and distributing goods is owned totally by a centralized state that plans and controls the economy. Partial state ownership socialism allows both free market for private ownership and state ownership. Regulatory socialism demands private own business to be as transparent as possible, so state can monitor and regulate private own business to follow a certain degree of collectivistic relationship. Most socialism systems today consist of partial state ownership socialism and regulatory socialism. 4.3. The Modern Christian Church In the Modern Three-Branch Unified Society, Christian church and America played critical roles. The Christian church changed from the original interdependent society into the state collectivistic religion as the Roman Empire selected it as the state religion. The Modern

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Revolution gradually moved the church back to the interdependent society, particularly in America. In the Modern Unified Society, such as America, political parties replace states, partisan socialism replaces state religion, partisan capitalism replaces state individualism, and religions become interdependent religions without political state of large social group. The Unified Society is the system of separation and balance of powers in the three-branch society, consisting of the collectivistic society, the individualistic society, and the interdependent society. The Early Church as the Interdependent society The early church from 30 to 312 AD represented the interdependent society established by Jesus Christ. It is the interdependent society, small and ubiquitous like the prehistoric interdependent society. Since human society was the interdependent society in the prehistoric time, and human was evolved to adapt to the interdependent society, humans have propensity for existential interdependence in the interdependent society. Such propensity for existential interdependence in the interdependent society is the basic reason for the growth of the early church from the obscure, marginal Jesus Movement to become the religious force in the Western World in a few centuries as described by sociologist Rodney Stark36. E. R. Dodds has put this as well as anyone: A Christian congregation was from the first a community in a much fuller sense than any corresponding group of Isiac or Mithraist devotees. Its members were bound together not only by common rites but by a common way of life.... Love of one's neighbor is not an exclusively Christian virtue, but in [this] period Christians appear to have practiced it much more effectively than any other group. The Church provided the essentials of social security.... But even more important, I suspect, than these material benefits was the sense of belonging which the Christian community could give. Christianity did not grow because of miracle working in the marketplaces (although there may have been much of that going on), or because Constantine said it should, or even because the martyrs gave it such credibility. It grew because Christians constituted an intense community, able to generate the "invincible obstinacy" that so offended the younger Pliny but yielded immense religious rewards. And the primary means of its growth was through the united and motivated efforts of the growing numbers of Christian believers, who invited their friends, relatives, and neighbors to share the "good news." The early church spread in the urban area, the center of civilization. The center of civilization was also the place farthest away from existential interdependence in the interdependent society. Most people in the urban area suffered from endless conflicts, diseases, and loneliness. The church as the community with existential interdependence attracted a lot of people in the urban area. They loved each other and took care of each other. During the time of plague and conflict, the people in the interdependent society survived much better than the people outside. In the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society, men and women were equal. The rise of civilization lowered the status of women. The early church had much better equality between men and women than the Roman Empire. Many leaders in the early church were women. The equality attracted women, contributing to the growth of the early church.

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The Roman Empire required people to worship the emperor as a divine being. When Christians refused to worship the emperor as a divine being, the unity of the Roman state appeared to be threatened. Some Christians refused to serve in the army and opposed the use of violence. Numerous persecutions ensued. Such persecutions forced the early church to gather in small groups for regular worship. In the urban area, many Christians came from the middle and upper classes, which prepared their houses for worship, resulting in the house church. The small social group in the house church actually worked very well for existential interdependence in the interdependent society whose ideal size of social group is small. In this way, the persecution actually helped rather than weakened the growth of the early church. The contemporary pagan religions were essentially civilized religions that concentrated in the building of grandiose temples and the presentation of magnificent festivals, like what civilized institutions wanted to do. They relied on the support of government and wealthy class rather than community. The loss of such support doomed the pagan religions. From the perspective of the human propensity for existential interdependence in the interdependent society, the rise of the early church in Europe was unstoppable and almost a certainty. The Church as the State Religion in the Collectivistic Society The decline of the interdependent society as the church resulted from the rise of the state religion as the persecution ended in 313 AD when Edict of Milan gave Christians equal rights. It was issued by Constantine in the West and Licinius in the East. The church started to rely on the state. Eventually, the church became the state religion of the Roman Empire. The society became the collectivistic society, consisting of the collectivistic state and the state religion. Facing the rise of the church, Constantine decided to use the church for the unity of the Roman Empire. The church started to have a similar hierarchical structure as the Roman Empire. People started to compete to obtain the positions of bishops. After that, the church was no longer a person-to-person movement. The weakening of the Roman Empire near the end of the Roman Empire also forced the church to assume the role of maintaining social and political order. The church became powerful socially and politically. After the end of the West Roman Empire, the spread of Christianity beyond the empire was almost entirely by political means such as treaty and baptizing kings and queens. The state religion was a large social group activity instead of small group activity as the interdependent society. At its peak, the state religion excommunicated a king, and sold people the right to go to the heaven. The state religion became an intermediary between people and the head of the collectivistic state, and also an intermediary between people and God The human propensity for existential interdependence in the interdependent society as the tradition of the interdependent society was maintained by devoted monks and nuns who gave up the accumulation of wealth and devoted entirely to God and the Christian community. The Reformation: the breakdown of the intermediary In period from 500-336 BC, classical Greece was divided into small city states, each of which consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside. In this period Athens reached its greatest political and cultural heights: the full development of the democratic system of

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government under the Athenian statesman Pericles, and the founding of the philosophical schools of Socrates and Plato. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern largely dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges. This Greek culture generated individualism and the individualistic society. The Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence, Italy. Italy was divided into smaller city states and territories, similar to the classical Greece. Italy was one of the most urbanized areas in Europe. They were in the Roman Empire that inherited Greek culture. Italy at this time was notable for its merchant Republics. The wealthy merchants constituted the affluent upper class, resulting in the individualistic society, similar to the individualistic society in the classical Greece. Greek individualism gave people self-reliance to change traditions and authorities. The Renaissance expresses the changes in art, religion, philosophy, science, and politics. The highly spiritual art in the Middle Ages was transformed into worldly and secular art. The religion that depended on the church authority and tradition in the Middle Ages was transformed into the personal rational reading of the original scripture. People again were interested the rational system of the nature. Politics was understood in more realistic power struggle among individuals. Individualism from Renaissance changed the dual society consisting of the collectivistic state and the state religion. For the collectivistic state, individualism led to the breakdown of the state religion (the church) as the intermediary between people and the head of the collectivistic state, resulting in nationalism without the interference of the church. For the state religion, the religious individualism brought about the breakdown of the state religion (the church) as the intermediary between human and God, resulting in the Reformation with direct relation between human and God and the Bible as the sole authority without an intermediary. The Reformation was started by Martin Luther. The breakdown of the intermediary is manifested in his speech to defend his faith in front of the representative of Pope before the Diet of Worms in 1520 AD. Since your most serene majesty and your high mightiness require of me a simple, clear and direct answer, I will give one, and it is this: I cannot submit my faith either to the pope or to the council, because it is as clear as noonday that they have fallen into error and even into glaring inconsistency with themselves. If, then, I am not convinced by proof from Holy Scripture, or by cogent reasons, if I am not satisfied by the very text I have cited, and if my judgment is not in this way brought into subjection to God’s word, I neither can nor will retract anything; for it cannot be right for a Christian to speak against his country. I stand here and can say no more. God help me. Amen. . Without the intermediary, the dual society, however, continued to exist. The national state and the state religion continued to support each other. The national state as the collectivistic state recognized the state religion as the exclusive religion within a nation, while the state religion recognized the national state as the exclusive state with the divine right. Each one concentrated in its domain of authority. The state religion continued to be a large social group activity, unlike the interdependent society. The Puritan Movement: the breakdown of the collectivistic society

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The further development of individualism resulted in the Enlightenment. Individualism from the Enlightenment brought about further change in the collectivistic society consisting of the national collectivistic state and the state religion. Individualism from the Enlightenment forced the national collectivistic state to accept the individualistic society coexisting with the original collectivistic society, resulting in the constitutional democracy to allow individualistic expression in the collectivistic society. The religious individualism from the Enlightenment objected the conformity imposed by the state religion (the Church of England), resulting in the Puritan movement. The Puritans objected to ornaments and ritual in the churches for the state religion. They also objected to ecclesiastical courts. They refused to endorse completely all of the standardized ritual directions and formulas of the state religion. The state religion could not exist well as a large group collectivistic society with all the individualistic religious expressions. The non-conformable denominations had to be silent or expelled. The Decline of the State Religion The return of the interdependent society resulted from the decline of the state religion. The religious individualism and pluralism brought about the decline of the state religion. The religious individualism led to the migration of the persecuted nonconformable Puritan and other denominations to America. The most famous and well-known emigration to America was the migration of the Puritan separatists from the Anglican Church of England, who fled first to Holland, and then later to America, to establish the English colonies of New England, which later became the United States. These Puritan separatists were also known as "the pilgrims". The original intent of the colonists was to establish spiritual Puritanism, which had been denied to them in England and the rest of Europe to engage in peaceful commerce with England and the Native American Indians and to Christianize the peoples of the America. The collectivistic society consisting of the collectivistic state and the state religion, initially, continued to exist in America. Each state sanctioned but one official church that was supported by taxes and received privileges granted to no other denomination in almost every colony founded in the western hemisphere before the mid-seventeenth century. The religious pluralism37 in America changed such collectivistic society consisting of the collectivistic state and the state religion. Historians conventionally note that early New England’s religious character was shaped primarily by English Puritans, and the religious character of the South by English Anglicans. The Middle Colonies—comprised of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware—became a stage for the western world’s most complex experience with religious pluralism. The mid-Atlantic region, unlike either New England or the South, drew many of its initial settlers from European states that had been deeply disrupted by the Protestant Reformation and the religious wars that followed in its wake. Early American churchmen and churchwomen soon discovered that if they wanted to practice their beliefs unmolested in a diverse society, they had to grant the same right to others. No single state religion could be imposed on such a mixed population. Instead, a new form of religious practice emerged in the middle region: the voluntary church—an institution supported by the free choice and personal commitment of its adherents. As a result, there was the separation between state and religion. Religion actually flourished under this system. As Thomas Jefferson wrote, “Pennsylvania and New York…have long subsisted without any establishment. … They flourish infinitely. Religion is well supported.” James Madison

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concurred: “The example of the Colonies…which rejected religious establishments altogether, proved that all Sects might be safely & advantageously put on a footing of equal & entire freedom.” The religious individualism allows a non-conformable person to follow what one believes, while the religious pluralism disallows the existence of a single religion as the state religion. The collapse of the state religion without destroying the religion itself led to the return of the interdependent society as a small group activity for existential interdependence. The Separation of Religion and State In America, the initial distinction between the secular society and the harmonious religious society is an amiable difference as described in the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, which reads, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ". It means that Congress as state is different from religion, so Congress does not establish or prohibit religion. The phrase "separation of church and state" is derived from a letter written by Thomas Jefferson in 1802 to a group identifying themselves as the Danbury Baptists. In that letter, referencing the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Jefferson writes: Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man & his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legitimate powers of government reach actions only, & not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should "make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," thus building a wall of separation between Church & State. Jefferson moved the amiable difference in the Constitution to the amiable separation. The wall between Church and State was quite permeable. State freely used broad religious symbols and rituals without establishing a specific religion. As American society has become more pluralistic, there is no broad religious symbol and ritual that applies to all religious beliefs and non-belief. The amiable separation gradually evolves into the clear separation to accommodate the pluralistic society. The separation is natural for Christianity as described by Pope Benedict. In October 2008 Pope Benedict XVI said in a Papal address to a visiting ambassador, with reference to the Church, that: She carries out this mission fully aware of the respective autonomy and competence of Church and State. Indeed, we may say that the distinction between religion and politics is a specific achievement of Christianity and one of its fundamental historical and cultural contributions.

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5. The Modern Economy
The Industrial Revolution replaced an economy based on manual labor by one dominated by machinery. The dramatic increase in productivity lifted most people from the poverty in the agricultural-nomadic society. The development of industrial economy is dependent of the economic policies of a society. Suitable economic policies for industrial economy acquire industrial technology and capital to build the industrial physical and financial infrastructures and the education system for industrialization. With suitable economic policies, industry brings about rapid economic growth, and transforms agricultural society into industrial society, and mostly rural society into mostly urban society. In Europe and America, the rapid economic growth from industrialization started in 1850’s. Modern economy can be divided into divisive economy based on the divisive worldview with divisive morality and cooperative economy based on the cooperative worldview with cooperative morality. Divisive economy that is mostly for the West can be divided into divisive individualistic economy as capitalism divisive collectivistic economy as socialism, and divisive mixed economy as adaptive economic system as the mixture of capitalism and socialism. The basic economic unit for capitalism, socialism, and mixed economy are divisive individualistic, groups, and individuals-groups, respectively. The economic model that promotes divisive individuals as the best economic unit is the classical theory whose basic premise is self-interest of divisive individuals as the best way for the good of whole society. Morality is freedom as in free market without the interference of government. Immorality is restriction with the interference of government. The economic model that promotes divisive groups as the best basic economic unit is the Marxist theory whose basic premise is the self-interest of capitalist group to exploit worker group as the best way to describe economy. Morality is the supremacy of classless society. Immorality is the inferiority of classless society. The economic model that promotes divisive individuals-groups as the best basic economic unit is the Keynesian theory whose basic premise is the participation of the public group (government) to stop recession and inflation in free market by individuals as the best way to solve the short-term economic downturns. Morality is limited freedom of divisive individuals and limited struggle for group supremacy. Immorality is extreme freedom of divisive individuals and extreme struggle for group supremacy. All the three models are for the promotions of certain economic units instead of economic reality itself which is the mixture of all the three models. Only reality in all the three models is the divisive worldview of the West. Cooperative economy that is mostly for the East can be divided into cooperative individualistic reciprocal economy and cooperative collectivistic cohesive economy. The economic model that promotes cooperative individuals as the best economic unit is the Confucian reciprocal theory whose basic premise is all relationships of individuals are reciprocal. Morality is reciprocity in reciprocal business relationship. Immorality is egotism without considering business partners. The economic model that promotes cooperative groups as the best basic economic unit is the Confucian extended family theory whose basic premise is the ideal world is a cooperative extended family among different groups. Morality is the cohesive relationship among groups. Immorality is divisive bigotry. Both models are for the promotions of certain economic units instead of economic reality itself which is the mixture of all both models. Only reality in both models is the cooperative worldview of the East.

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Economic Systems
Economy Divisive Individualistic Divisive Collectivistic Divisive Mixed Basic Unit divisive individuals divisive groups divisive individualsgroups cooperative individuals cooperative groups Economic Model classical theory Marxist theory Keynesian theory Economic System capitalism socialism mixed Morality freedom supremacy (classless society) limited freedomsupremacy reciprocity cohesive relationship Immorality restriction inferiority extreme freedomsupremacy egotism divisive bigotry

Cooperative Individualistic Cooperative Collectivistic

Confucian reciprocal theory Confucian extended family theory

reciprocal economy cohesive economy

5.1. Divisive Economy Divisive economy that prevails in the West has divisive worldview that views the world as out-group. It consists of divisive individualistic economy, divisive collectivistic economy, and divisive mixed economy. Divisive Individualistic Economy Divisive individualistic economy is capitalism. The basic economic unit in divisive individualistic economy is divisive individuals. Each divisive individual makes one’s economic decision according to one’s own interest without considering other people’s interests. The economic model to promote divisive individuals as the best basic economic unit for the good of public is the classical theory found by Adams Smith in the book 'The Wealth of Nations” (1776). The basic premise is self-interest of divisive individuals as the best way for the good of whole society. Morality is freedom as in free market without the interference of government. Immorality is restriction with the interference of government. The model for the classical theory is basically for rational individual consumers-workers and small business owners. All prices, wages, bank interests are completely flexible according to supply and demand. All economic decisions are rational. In such ideal model of the classical theory, economic disequilibrium, such as recession and inflation, can be quickly returned to economic equilibrium by self-regulating mechanism according to supply and demand free of any human intervention. During recession, business can simply lower the prices to attract consumers, and banks can simply reduce interest rate to attract business to borrow for investment and attract consumers to spend. Reduced price and reduced interest rate stimulate recessive economy to return quickly to equilibrium. During high unemployment, business can offer lower wages for unemployed workers who are willing to work at reduced wages, resulting in minimizing unemployment. During inflation, business can simply lower wages to reduce cost, and banks can simply increase interest rate to account for inflation. Reduced wage and increased interest rate cool inflationary economic to return quickly to equilibrium. According the classical theory, without any human intervention and any long-lasting economic disequilibrium, such as recession

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and inflation, the economic system based on divisive individuals is the best economic system for the good of public. The model by the classical theory works well for rational individual consumers-workers and small business owners where price, wage, and interest rate are flexible. In real economy, small business owners want to become large business owners, individual consumers, such as environmentalists, want to organize into large consumer activist groups, and individual workers want to unionize into large labor unions. In real economy, people have irrational exuberance and fear of uncertainty. The model by the classical theory does not work for the economic system with irrational individuals, large consumer activist group, large labor unions, and large business owners. During recession, large business owners simply lay off workers instead of lower price to keep business going. Small business owners may not even have workers, so they have to lower price to keep business going. The layoff of workers during recession deepens recession. The irrational fear of uncertainty during recession makes individuals to save instead of spending, causes banks to restrict loan, and makes companies to restrict investment, deepening recession. During inflation, large labor unions demand increased wages to account for inflation, so high wage deepens inflation. Individual workers without much power have to accept any wages. Irrational exuberance in price increase of assets during the initial phase of inflation accelerates inflation by increasing purchase and investment. In a very long term without human interference of free market, economic disequilibrium returns to equilibrium after a long time. After a long time, even large business owners have to lower price during recession, and even large labor unions have to lower the expectation of high wage during inflation. In short term, society suffers during recession and inflation. In the ideal economy of rational individuals and small business owners, the classical economy theory benefits all people and the public. In real economy of irrational individuals and large business owners, the classical theory benefits large business owners because they have enough capital to outlast any real economic downturns such as recession and inflation, while small business owners and common individuals may bankrupt during economic downturns. During economic downturns, large companies are likely to merge to become even larger companies to outlast even larger economic downturns. As a result, with such economic power, large business owners like the classical theory that promotes the freedom from the interference of government that diffuses the economic power of large business owners. Under capitalism based on divisive individualistic economy and promoted by the classical theory, large business owners become the dominant economic force in the pursuit of freedom in free market economy. Under capitalism, large business owners have to be highly competitive and highly proficient in the management of their business, otherwise, they lose their business under competitive free market. Economy of scale in large companies improves productivity, and reduces cost. As a result, economy grows under the good management of large business owners and economy of scale under large companies. On the other hand, large business owners maximize their profit at the expense of individual consumers and workers. They maximize freedom at the expense of equality. Inequality increases along with the increase in economic growth in terms of GDP. Economic growth benefits all people, but the most benefits go to large business owners. After the optimal equality (inequality), the concentration of wealth in the high income group decreases significantly the ability of low income group to purchase goods and service, while high income group can only buy limited amount of goods and service, resulting in insufficient aggregate demand. The inequality also decreases the ability of low income group to

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education for keeping up with the changing technology in the growing economy, resulting in the insufficient human capital. The overall insufficient aggregate demand and human capital force the slowdown of economic growth. The economic growth after the optimal equality continues because of the inertia from expectation. The economic growth, however, becomes the unsustainable economic growth based on debt, speculation, and greed. In the society of high economic inequality, poor people who struggle to make a living and middle-class people who have difficult to keep up with the perceived living standard of middle-class borrow money, and rich people who have so much money are willing to take the risk to loan them money with high interest. In the fast economic growth environment, rich people who want to make fast profit in the future borrow money to invest. The investment to make profit in the future is often based on pure speculation. Some unscrupulous investors take advantage of people’s desire to make fast money mislead people to invest in unsustainable or nonexistent ventures. Eventually, high debt and inability to repay debt leads to financial crisis. The economic growth based on debt, speculation, and greed is unsustainable, resulting in economic corruption. A sudden unexpected economic setback can quickly cause the collapse of the unsustainable economic growth. Economic growth can be expressed in terms of GDP (gross domestic product). The individualistic economy that leads to economic collapse in a maladaptive economy expressed below as maladaptive individualistic GDP-inequality curve. Maladaptive Individualistic GDP-Inequality Curves
unsustainable growth stable growth collapse

GDP

optimal equality

economic inequality A good example of individualistic economy is the economy in America between the end of the World War I and the stock market crash of 1929. The relaxation of the governmental control of the wealth and the weakening of the labor movement led to increasing economic inequality and fast economic growth. During this period, income inequality increased, and was peaked on 1928. In 1928, the year before the stock market crash, the top 1% people had 23% of the national income. Inevitably, individualistic economy with economic inequality and fast economic growth led to the economic corruption with debt, speculation, and greed. In the society of high economic inequality, poor people in the rural area had to borrow money to make a living. The middle-class people and rich people wanted to make fast profit in the future borrowed money to invest in the stock market. The investment to make profit in the future was based on pure speculation. Some unscrupulous investors took advantage of people’s desire to make fast money manipulated the stock market. Eventually, high debt and inability to repay debt led to the financial crisis of 1929. Besides the financial crisis, the environmental crisis as the Dust Bowl by drought and over-farming and the crisis social occurred. The Dust Bowl was severe dust storms causing

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major ecological and agricultural damage, and caused the migration of many farmers out of the damaged areas. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without conservation to prevent erosion. The social crisis was the great deal of human suffering and dislocation in the Great Depression Divisive Collectivistic Economy Divisive collectivistic economy is socialism. The basic economic unit in divisive collectivistic economy is divisive groups. Each divisive group makes one’s economic decision according to one’s own interest without considering other group’s interests. The economic model to promote divisive groups as the best basic economic unit to describe economy is the Marxist theory found by Karl Marx in the book “Das Kapital” (1867). The basic premise is the self-interest of capitalist group to exploit worker group as the best way to describe economy. Morality is the supremacy of classless society. Immorality is the inferiority of classless society. The model for the Marxist theory is basically for divisive capitalist group and worker group. The description of capitalists by Marx does not apply to small business owners. Many small business owners, such as family farms and shops, are usually struggling only providing their owners low incomes. These people do not invest in enterprises in which they have no stake. They are more like independent workers who own their business. The description of capitalist by Marx applies to large business owners with a great economic power and very few people perhaps as few as only 1% of population. According to Marx, the most important aspect of society is material production. Human history is the history of conflicts between divisive production groups consisting of the owners and the workers of production in various societies, such as primitive, slave, feudal and capitalist societies. In feudal society the feudal lords owned and controlled land as the crucial productive factor, and peasants are workers. In a capitalist society, capitalists own and control the productive resources (capital), and workers own only their labor and work for capitalists, who then own the product and sell it at a profit. Marx recognized the great increase in human welfare that economic growth under capitalism that allows much freer trade than in feudal society and brings about technology revolution. However as time goes on the situation becomes less and less beneficial. With increasing economic power, capitalists make the profits from exploiting workers by underpaying workers who make products and services. For this reason, Marx could not accept the existence of a profit-oriented organization. The ultimate goal Marxists aim at is the transformation of divisive groups of capitalists and workers into one classless society, i.e., a society in which all enjoy more or less equal wealth and power. A classless society is the end of divisive groups. Morality is the supremacy of classless society. According to Marx, capitalism is doomed to self-destructive because of internal contradiction by over production and insufficient aggregate demand. Savage market competition forces capitalists to improve productivity by replacing workers by efficient machines. As a result, capitalists over produce by highly productive process, and workers without jobs cannot buy the products, resulting in the loss of profit and self-destruction of capitalists. The Marxist theory does not account for new products and services that can absorb unemployed workers. (Many new products and services are mostly for rich capitalists who have extra money to spend, so the wealth of capitalists can trickle down to common people.) The selfdestruction can still happen, because the ability to absorb of unemployed workers by new

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products and services is limited. There is always a tipping point for the self-destruction to happen. The supremacy of classless society requires the maximization of equality at the expense of freedom. The model by the Marxist theory benefits authoritarian government that determines how to enforce equality at the expense of freedom. Under socialism based on divisive collectivistic economy and promoted by the Marxist theory, authoritarian government becomes the dominant economic force in the pursuit of equality in classless society. Under socialism, authoritarian government combines all capitals and organizations for production of goods and services into a huge state enterprise with economy of scale, improving productivity and reducing cost. It is particularly good in building large infrastructure and heavy industry that are benefited by economy of scale. As a result, economy grows under the huge state enterprise with economy of scale. On the other hand, authoritarian government maximizes equality at the expense of individual freedom. Inequality decreases along with the increase in economic growth in terms of GDP. After the initial phase of industrialization, the difficulty for authoritarian government to manage the complexity of economy slows down economic growth. The equality above the optimal equality decreases individual innovation to deal with complexity. The consequences without free market are the mismatching of supply-demand and insufficient individual innovation. The society faces economic stagnation and social discontent. The economic growth after the optimal equality continues because of the inertia from expectation. The economic growth, however, becomes the unsustainable economic growth based on waste, exaggeration, and apathy. The mismatching of supply-demand brings about a lot of waste. The exaggeration of economic report hides the real slow economic growth. People become apathy. The economic growth based on waste, exaggeration, and apathy is unsustainable, resulting in economic mismanagement. If the country of collectivistic economy is isolated economically from outside, a sudden outburst of social unrest from discontent brings about the political collapse. The collectivistic economy that leads to political collapse in a maladaptive economy expressed below as maladaptive collectivistic GDP-inequality curve. Maladaptive Collectivistic GDP-Inequality
unsustainable growth collapse

GDP

stable growth

optimal equality

economic inequality A good example of the political collapse is the downfall of European communist countries after many years of economic mismanagement.

Divisive Mixed Economy

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Divisive mixed economy is mixed economy. The basic economic unit in divisive mixed economy is divisive individuals-groups. Divisive individuals limit their economic decisions occasionally for the interest of group. The economic model to promote divisive individualsgroups as the best basic economic unit for the good of public is the Keynesian theory found by John Keynes in the book “General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money” (1936). The basic premise is limited self-interest of divisive individuals occasionally for the interest of group as the best way for the good of whole society. Morality is limited freedom-equality. Immorality is extreme freedom-equality. In “General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money”, Keynes posited that the classical theory was a "special case" for the particular conditions in the 19th century, his own theory is the general one. In the 19th century, the problem of high unemployment could be solved from supply side that was to decrease wage in order for more people to be employed. In the 20th century, with strong labor union, workers often refused to lower their wage demands. The problem of high unemployment can be solved from demand side that is to increase aggregated demand consisting of consumption and investment. During recession, private sector is not able to and not willing to increase consumption and investment. Public sector is the only source for the increase in aggregate demand by deficit spending. The Keynesian theory suggested that active government policy could be effective in managing the economy by countercyclical fiscal policies. When an economy suffers from recession, the right fiscal policy by government is deficit spending to increase aggregate demand, and when an economy suffers from inflation, the right policy is either increasing taxes or cutting back on government outlays to reduce aggregate demand. Governments should solve short-term problems rather than waiting for market forces to do it. Keynesian ideas became almost official in social-democratic Europe after the war and in the U.S. The involvement of government by Keynes economics compromised individualistic economy, resulting in the mixed economy based on the Keynesian theory. The mixed economy system benefits technocrats who determine the input of government to maintain the health of economy in terms of unemployment and inflation. Technocrats become the dominant economic force in the mixed economy. In America, technocrats are in both monetary institute as the Federal Reserve and the fiscal institute for both executive branch and legislature branch. The fiscal institute now becomes highly polarized and ineffective. Only effective technocrats are in the monetary institute. Technocrat basically takes adaptive approach to adjust aggregate demand. Since the problem of inadequate aggregate demand basically comes from excessive inequality in divisive individualistic economy. The effective increase in aggregate demand by government decrease excessive inequality. Excessive aggregate demand, on the other hand, can lead to excessive equality and waste. As a result, government becomes the source to cool excessive aggregate demand by decreasing consumption and investment, resulting in increasing inequality. Therefore, the increase in aggregate demand to increase equality is equivalent to divisive collectivistic economy, and the decrease in aggregate demand to decrease equality is equivalent to divisive individualistic economy. In terms of equality for divisive individualistic and collectivistic economies, the combination of the maladaptive individualistic and collectivistic GDP-Inequality curves is as follows.

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Maladaptive GDP-Inequality Curves
collapse unstable growth collapse stable growth

GDP

stable growth

optimal equality

economic inequality In division mixed economy, it is important to find and keep the optimal equality, and to prevent unstable economic growth and economic collapse. When such maladaptive economic collapses, it is important to rescue the collapse by the opposite economy in such way that collectivistic economy by increasing aggregate demand rescues individualistic economic collapse, and individualistic economy by decreasing aggregate demand rescues collectivistic economic collapse. A good example of mixed economy is the American economy between 1930’s and late 1970’s, when people from both individualistic economy and collectivistic economy worked together to come out with adaptive economic corrections, and considered the people with rigid positions in individualistic economy or collectivistic economy as extremists. In 1930’s, President Franklin Roosevelt in America corrected the extreme economic inequality. The economic correction included the financial reform, the tax reform, the income reform, the environmental reform, and the social reform. • the financial reform: Under Roosevelt, various financial innovations, such as high leverage investment, were regulated. Banks became localized to prevent systemic risk. Speculative investment banks were disconnected from deposit banks. The unethical manipulations of stocks became illegal. • the income reform: To rescue people from unemployment, the governmental spending in various infrastructure projects allowed people to have jobs. Unemployment fell dramatically in Roosevelt's first term, from 25% when he took office to 14.3% in 1937. The National Labor Relations Act legalized collectivistic bargaining. Collectivistic bargaining allowed workers to earn enough income to become the middle class. Social security allowed elders to have decent living standard. • the environmental reform: Under Roosevelt, governmental programs designed to conserve soil and restore the ecological balance of the nation were implemented. The environmental reform allowed sustainable economic growth. • the social reform: The National Labor Relations Act established the federal rights of workers to organize unions, to engage in collectivistic bargaining, and to take part in strikes. It provided worker rights. Social security provided elder rights. Divisive mixed economy based on Keynesian economics continued after Roosevelt. During the mid-1940s and the early 1960s both parties essentially expressed a more centrist approach to politics on the national level and had their liberal, moderate, and conservative wings

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equally influential within both parties. After the 1964 presidential election, the conservative wing became more dominant in the Republican Party, and the liberal wing became more dominant in the Democratic Party. However, both parties continued to work together. There was no big controversy in Republican Eisenhower-era 90% top tax rates. Under Eisenhower, the national highway system was build, benefiting economic growth in all areas in America. Education expanded stimulated by the scientific and technological competition with the Soviet Union. The increase in public education allowed increasing number of people to receive higher education to increase their incomes. Medicare was passed to benefit older Americans. All of these public programs further decreased the income inequality. Since 1928 when the top 1% people had 23% of the national income, the income inequality decreased until late 1970’s when the top 1% people had 9% of the national income. In late 1970’s, most Americans felt and were actually prosperous. When economy started to be stagnant, American government moved back to individualistic economy by reducing tax to stimulate economy, such as during the presidency of J.F. Kennedy. In America, it was a period of unprecedented middle class expansion, broad business growth, increased home ownership, rising consumer spending, and the shared expectation that a college education was within the reach of everyone and that the lives of their children would be better than their own. The United States federal government has enacted a series of clean air acts, starting with the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955. In 1970, under conservative Nixon, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established to protect human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress. The environmental reform allowed sustainable economic growth. Many progresses in social coherence were made starting from Roosevelt to 1980. The progresses in social coherence include worker rights, minority rights, elder rights, and woman rights. During the Cold War, the competition with the communist countries in science and technology motivated America to establish the world top universities and federal agencies in research and development of science and technology. They provided the major technological infrastructures for telecommunication and information technology. The best way to have mixed economy is to adopt adaptive preventive change to correct the course of economy before it reaches economic collapse by adjusting aggregate demand as follows. Adaptive GDP-Inequality Curve
optimal GDP

GDP

optimal equality

economic inequality

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After few adjustments to move toward optimal equality, the state with proper population control and conservation, GDP reaches the optimal GDP. With the optimal equality and the optimal GDP, the economy becomes sustainable economy. According divisive individualistic economy, the manipulation of aggregate demand by government in mixed economy distorts naturally competitive free market that allows strong companies and individuals to survive and weak companies and individuals to extinct during economic downturn. During economic downturn in divisive individualistic economy, weak companies go bankrupt or merge with strong companies. Weak individuals are motivated to become more productive and employable. Weak individuals include the people who pursuit their own interest at the expense of employable work and the people who have limited opportunity to be trained for employable work. To divisive individualistic economy, weak companies and individuals are waste and burden. The manipulation of aggregate demand by government in mixed economy allows weak companies and individuals to survive economic downturn. Surviving weak companies and weak individuals slow down economy. Weak companies cannot produce goods and service at low cost, and weak individuals are not employable. The result is stagflation as the combination of inflation and high unemployment. Economic collapse led to the demise of divisive individualistic economy during the Great Depression, and political collapse led to the demise of divisive collectivistic economy during the collapse of European communism. Economic stagflation, not economic collapse, during 1970s led to demise of divisive mixed economy and the return of divisive individualistic economy that again focus in aggregate supply in private sector and trickle down economy for aggregate demand in private sector. 5.2. Cooperative Economy Divisive economy prevails in the West, while cooperative economy prevails in the East. The difference in the preference is derived from the difference in the worldview instead of business strategy. Being derived from sedentary agricultural society with the cooperative worldview, cooperative economy wants steady and cooperative business relationships. Being derived from mobile nomadic society with the divisive worldview, divisive economy wants dynamic and combative business relationships. Cooperative economy that prevails in the East has cooperative worldview that views the world as in-group. It consists of cooperative collectivistic economy and individualistic economy. Cooperative Collectivistic Economy Cooperative collectivistic economy is cohesive economy. The basic economic unit in cooperative collectivistic economy is cooperative groups. Individual group makes economic decision in cooperation with other groups. The economic model to promote cooperative groups as the best basic economic unit for the good of public is the Confucian extended family theory found by Confucius (551–479 BC) in the book “Analects”. The basic premise is the ideal world is a cooperative extension of family among different groups. Morality is the cohesive relationship among groups. Immorality is divisive bigotry. In the Confucian extended family theory, Confucius viewed the family as the basic unit of society. Confucius placed great importance on the family. Family life is seen as a training ground for life in society. It is at home in the family that the child learns to deal with problems

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that one will face later in the world. The family is responsible for educating the child to be a good member of society. The government is regarded as an extension of the family. Government officials are referred to as the parents of the people. Subjects owe the same loyalty to their rulers that they owed to the senior members of their family. Extended family is extended to economy. Companies are family-own. Business owners assume the roles of benevolent parents to all workers in the companies. The two important type of cooperation are the cooperation between management and worker and the cooperation between government and private sector. Management assumes the role of benevolent parent to all workers who work hard for the company in return. The cooperation between management and workers creates relatively peaceful work environment. The cooperation between government and private sector results in very large companies in private sector. Government and huge private companies help each other. In divisive individualistic economy, private sector dominates government. In divisive collectivistic economy, government completely dominates private sector. The big issue is freedom enforced by private sector at the expense of equality and equality enforced by authoritarian government at the expense of freedom. In cooperative collectivistic economy, government and private conglomerates have distinct and separate roles. Freedom and equality are not big issues. Typically, pay and freedom increase with seniority. Confucius said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning, at thirty, I stood firm, at forty, I had no doubts, at fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven, at sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth, and at seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right." (Analects Chapter 4) Everyone has one’s turn. The competition among large private companies forced the management to be proficient in management, so management in cooperative collectivistic economy is better than the management in authoritarian government of divisive collectivistic economy. There is still a free market for supply and demand, so cooperative collectivistic economy is better than divisive collectivistic economy in supply and demand of goods and services. An example of cooperative collectivistic cohesive economy is zaibatsu in Japan. In Japan, the official guiding philosophy of the Endo (Tokugawa) period (1603-1867) was NeoConfucianism. Samurai ethics of ruling and educated class was strongly influenced by Confucianism and Zen Buddhism. During the Edo period, Confucianism was against commerce and for agriculture, resulting in a period of isolation favoring samurai and common agricultural people. One indication of the influence of Confucianism is propriety in terms of manner and language. Confucius placed a great emphasis in propriety that separates agricultural (civilized) people from nomadic (barbarian) people. Japanese are serious about propriety, and Japanese use different manners and languages to communicate with different groups of people according to gender, rank, and age (seniority). Propriety is very important for cooperation, because propriety is the constant reminder of cooperation. It is why military is serious about propriety in terms of manner and language to cultivate necessary cooperation in a battle. The cooperative collectivistic cohesive zaibatsu is a group of diversified business owned exclusively by a single family or an extended family. It was established in the second half of the 19th century during Meiji government after the Endo period. Zaibatsu was started by mostly educated and ruling samurai class who had close connection with government. Zaibatsu continued to work closely with government. The large size of zaibatsu was possible by the cooperation with government. Zaibatsu companies started to develop themselves very quickly because they obtained a lot of subsidies and contracts from government. In 1930, approximately

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75% of Japan’s Gross Domestic Product was directly or indirectly controlled by the largest zaibatsu, including Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Mitsui, Fuyo, Sanwa, and Daiichi-Kangin. The downfall of cooperative collectivistic economy in Japan was due to the close cooperation of zaibatsu and government. The downfall of Japanese government after the Second World War led to the downfall of zaibatsu. Cooperative cohesive economy is also important part of economy in current Russian and Chinese economy where government and private large companies cooperate closely. The West calls cooperative cohesive economy “state capitalism”. The term “capitalism” is not proper to describe cooperative cohesive economy, because capitalism is divisive. State capitalism is really a contradiction. From cooperative worldview, cooperative cohesive economy for the cooperation between government and private sector is quite natural. However, excessive cooperative cohesive economy becomes problematic in the globalization of economy, while normal cooperation between the state and private sector happens all the time in all economic systems. Cooperative Individualistic Economy Cooperative individualistic economy is reciprocal economy. The basic economic unit in cooperative individualistic economy is cooperative individuals. Each cooperative individual makes one’s economic decision according to reciprocal relation with the related people. The economic model to promote cooperative individuals as the best basic economic unit for the good of public is the Confucian reciprocity theory found by Confucius (551–479 BC) in the book Analects”. The basic premise is all business relationships of individuals are reciprocal. . Morality is reciprocity in reciprocal business relationship. Immorality is egotism without considering business partners. In the Confucian reciprocal theory, all relationships are reciprocal. Higher rank people show benevolence and lower rank people show obedience. The five relationships are between ruler and subjects, husband and wife, father and son, elder brother and younger brother, and friends. A specific hierarchy is observed that places highest importance on rank and age in all interactions. Such reciprocal relationship is extended to business relationship to form cooperative individuals. Unlike divisive economy, cooperative economy considers economic classes and business units interconnected. For cooperative individualistic economy, companies cooperate by reciprocal relationship, resulting in cooperative individualistic reciprocal economy. For examples, a buyer provides a long-term generous contract to a supplier, and the supplier provides high quality products to the buyer. A bank provides a long-term generous loan to a borrower company to expand, and the borrower company expands to borrow more loans from the bank. Inevitably, a large buyer becomes the center of a manufacture reciprocal network, and a large bank becomes the center of an investment reciprocal network. In divisive economy, a buyer gets its supplier through competitive bidding from suppliers, and provides a short-term contract to a supplier. A bank and a borrower company do not have a long-term relationship. All companies are relatively independent from each other in divisive free market. . An example of cooperative individualistic economy is keiretsu in Japan. After the Second World War, the American occupied force in Japan wanted to dismantle and transform the cooperative collectivistic cohesive zaibatsu into America type divisive individualistic economy in terms of divisive free market. The American occupied force removed the controlling powers

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of the families in zaibatsu. Instead of becoming divisive companies as in America, Japanese companies moved to the horizontal reciprocal groups with large banks at the centers and the vertical reciprocal groups with large manufacturing companies at the centers. The economy system became cooperative individualistic reciprocal keiretsu without holding companies in conglomerates. Japanese simply did not have the divisive worldview with divisive economy as Americans. The rise of the Cold War forced America to give up the transformation of Japanese economy into divisive economy that was foreign to Japanese economic mentality. The six commonly recognized horizontal keiretsu are Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Sumitomo, Fuji, Sanwa, and Dai Ichi Kangyo. The largest vertical keiretsu is Toyota. Each small company can belong to more than one keiretsu. Reciprocal companies invest in each other’s stock as reciprocal shareholdings. In 1990, reciprocal shareholdings among Japanese firms were 18 percent of total outstanding shares in Japan. As a result, more than 40 percent of the stocks in the Japanese market were shared by banks, nearly 30 percent by other companies and only a little more than 20 percent by individuals. Keiretsu companies comprised 75 percent of the value of shares at the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Reciprocal keiretsu prevented foreign ownership. In 1990, foreign ownership in Japanese companies was five percent. The relationship between managements and workers were also steady and cooperative. These three principles in the management-worker relationship were lifetime employment, seniority wages, and enterprise unionism in which each company had its own labor union adapted to individual company. Cooperative economy in Japan worked well for Japan to catch up the economy in the West during Meiji government, and worked well to recover from the Second World War. Under the guidance of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, average growth rates are 10% in the 1960s, 5% in the 1970s, and 4% in the 1980s, Japan became the world's second largest economy in 1978. By 1990, income per capita in Japan was comparable to most countries in the West. In cooperative economy, business relationships are more important than business profit. A company can shift the excess work force to an allied company, and weak companies are sustained by allied banks and allied companies. As long as economy and market share are expanding, companies in cooperative economy ignore such uneconomical and unsustainable practices for the sake of maintaining business relationships. Consequently, Japanese economy in 1980’s appeared to be much bigger than its actual size. In the second half of the 1980s, rising stock and real estate prices reached unsustainable levels to form asset price bubble. The Tokyo Stock Exchange crashed in 1990–92 and real estate prices peaked in 1991. Growth in Japan throughout the 1990s as the Lost Decade, growth in Japan was at 1.5% slower than growth in other major developed economies. The stock has not returned to its peak. Unlike the Great Recession in America where common people suffered much more than large business companies, the Lost Decade affected large business companies much more than common people. The economic stagnation led to the partial downfall of cooperative individualistic keiretsu. The consequence of the Lost Decade is that weak banks and companies in keiretsu could not survive within keiretsu system where weak banks and companies were kept alive by allied banks and companies. Significant regulatory changes aim at dismantling the keiretsu, such as smaller board of directors and an increased role of independent outside directors, As a result, some banks and companies were forced to merge or disappear, resulting in significant changes in compositions of keiretsu. Some companies discarded keiretsu as cooperative economy completely, and adopted divisive economy. Foreign companies with divisive economy increased the investment and ownership in Japan. From 1990 to 2002, reciprocal shareholdings among Japanese firms declined from 18% of total outstanding shares in Japan to 7.4%. Foreign

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ownership in listed Japanese firms in Japanese Stock Exchanges increased from less than 5% in 1990 to about 18% in 2002. However, the resistance to the change to divisive economy is strong. Many companies in the horizontal keiretsu continue to adhere to keiretsu during the economic downturn when the credit crunch hinders companies to borrow money outside of keiretsu. Strong vertical keiretsu, such as Toyota, continue to preserve keiretsu, while weak vertical keiretsu, such as Nissan, abandoned keiretsu under the direction of France's Renault SA. When some Japanese global companies start to manufacture outside of Japan, they are forced to buy some parts from local suppliers outside of traditional keiretsu. Japanese economy has become a mixed economy of cooperative economy and divisive economy. Divisive individualistic economy (capitalism), divisive collectivistic economy (socialism), divisive mixed economy (mixed economy), cooperative individualistic economy (reciprocal economy), and cooperative collectivistic economy (cohesive economy) had their rises and falls in the Modern Period for different reasons.

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6. The Modern Politics
Modern politics can be divided into divisive politics based on the divisive worldview prevailed mostly in the West and cooperative politics based on the cooperative worldview prevailed mostly in the East. Divisive politics corresponds to democracy, and cooperative politics corresponds to meritocracy. Each politics has individualistic component and collectivistic component. For divisive politics, the divisive individualistic politics is free voting election based on freedom of individuals as in divisive individualistic morality where freedom is moral. Restrictive voting election is immoral. The divisive collectivistic politics is partisan politics based on the supremacy of a democratic party as in divisive collectivistic morality where supremacy is moral. For cooperative politics, cooperative individualistic politics is merit selection to determine election of government officials. Merit is based on individual effort (merit), typically in education, service performance to people, and ethics. The merit selection system in meritocracy is like any other professional merit selection systems for military officers, doctors, lawyers, scientists, engineers, accountants, and business administrators. Morality for merit selection is cooperative reciprocity between government officials and people. For reciprocity, government officials serve people, and people cooperate with government officials. Immorality for merit selection is divisive egotism. Cooperative collectivistic politics is nonpartisan politics based on political consensus. The nonpartisan consensus in meritocracy is like the nonpartisan consensus in a typical large cooperation that typically is free of partisan competition. Morality in nonpartisan consensus is cohesion relationship, and immorality is divisive bigotry. Democracy works well in government, not in large corporation. Meritocracy works well in both government and large corporation. Excessive division in divisive democracy leads to polarization and even civil war. Excessive cooperation in cooperative meritocracy hides the defects in government. 6.1. Democracy In ancient democratic Athens government (508-507 BCE), the population was about 300,000, and about 15% of population could vote. During and after the American Revolution in 1776, the people who could vote included only white Protestant males who owned property, and excluded women, poor people, indentured servants, Catholics, Jews, slaves from Africa, and Native Americans. Only about 6 percent of the population of the brand-new United States chose George Washington to be the country's first president in 1789. After the Civil War (late 1860s) the newly freed slaves became citizens with (in the case of men) a nominal right to vote. Women could not vote until 1920. Full enfranchisement of citizens was not secured until after the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968) gained passage by the United States Congress of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. It took about two hundred years of growth and change in the United States for full democracy to happen. Democratic partisan politics is the main model of political system in the West. It was developed in the Modern Period. One example is the democratic partisan politics in America. Modern American Democratic Partisan Politics

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The United States Constitution is silent on the subject of political parties, mainly because most of the founding fathers disliked them. They wanted individual citizens to vote for individual candidates, without the interference of organized groups. Yet, major and minor political parties and groups soon arose. By the 1790s, the followers of Alexander Hamilton, the Hamiltonian faction, took up the name "Federalist"; they favored a strong central government that would support the interests of commerce and industry. The followers of Thomas Jefferson as Anti-Federalists took up the name "Democratic-Republicans" They preferred a decentralized agrarian republic in which the federal government had limited power. Immediately, the predecessors of the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed. Since the 1790s the country has been run by two major parties The three-branch society of America is the system of separation and balance among the three social powers as describe below. The Three-branch Modern society of America
Branch Basic group unit Social activity Political party Collectivistic Large group Politics Democratic Party Individualistic Large group Politics Republican Party Interdependent Small group Religion None

The basic social group unit for collectivistic and individualistic parties is large, while the basic social group unit for interdependent religion (Christianity) is small. The main social activity for collectivistic and individualistic is politics, while the main social activity for harmony is religion, which is mostly Christianity, an interdependent religion as the interdependent society. The political parties for collectivistic and individualistic are typically the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, respectively. The Democratic Partisan Politics A typical modern government structure is the three-branched government, consisting of executive, legislative, and judiciary. The goal of people in executive branch is the cohesiveness of the administrative network. The goal of people in legislative branch is the dominance in the competitive hierarchy. The goal of people in judiciary is the maintenance of the constitution of legal system. They share political power in such way that they are each subjected to reciprocal checks, so each of them does not have a threatening structure to other branches. People with propensity to work with other people closely go to the executive branch. The people with propensity to compete go to legislative branch. The people with the propensity to comprehend objectively go to the judiciary branch. The two basic models for democratic government are presidentialism and parliamentarism. In presidentialism, both presidents and representatives are elected directly by people, so there are two legitimate sets of majority rule. Both presidents and representatives serve certain periods of time except in extraordinary circumstances. During their terms, severe persistent confrontation can occur between president and representative, resulting in instability that leads to collapse or stalemate of democratic governments. Therefore, there are few democratic governments with presidentialism model.

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The parliamentarism model, on the other hand, has one legitimate set of majority rule. Any democratic party or coalition of political parties can form the cabinet as the executive branch of government. All members of the cabinet are the representatives elected by people. When the cabinet loses the confidence from the parliament, it has to call for new election to form new cabinet. There is no severely persistent confrontation between the executive branch and the legislature branch. Because of the possible short live of the cabinet, the governmental service depends on professional governmental civil and military service that carries out the policies determined by the cabinet. Because of specific period of terms in presidentialism, presidentialism has much more political appointments in governmental service than parliamentalism. The professional governmental service allows much less corruption, incompetence, and inefficiency than the political appointment governmental service. Therefore, parliamentalism, cabinet, and professional governmental service minimize instability and inefficiency in constitutional democracy. The Different Constituents The core group for the collectivistic party consists of poor people and women, while the core group for the individualistic party consists of rich people and men. Poor people want equality to reach higher level, while rich people want freedom for individual pursuit. Women have social life for collectivistic welfare, while men have social life for individual achievement. However, the overlapping among groups is significant. The middle income group can identify with either poor people or rich people. Poor people may have aspiration to be like rich people, or rich people may have aspiration to be poor people. There are significant overlapping in the social lives of women and men. Intellectuals who have broad knowledge can switch back and fro between two parties depending what they see as more adaptable direction. Economic condition also shifts the preferences of people’s choice of parties. A democratic party also shifts its direction. A collectivistic party of the present may actually be considered as an individualistic party of the past, and vice versa. 6.2. Meritocracy The History of Meritocracy The Confucian meritocratic political system was in effect in China for about two thousand years under the emperors from different dynasties and even different ethnic groups until the early part of the 20th century. It is the longest continuous political system in the world. The common name for Confucianism in Chinese does not contain the word of Confucius. The common name is 儒家 (ru jia), the school of 儒. 儒 was originally the profession that was knowledgeable in local customs, culture, etiquette, and funeral rites to govern social behaviors, equivalent to the modern lawyer profession that is knowledgeable in laws governing social behaviors. The educated 儒 who learned how to govern government involved in government affair. Confucius himself was a highly educated 君子儒 (equivalent to Doctor of Law) by profession, and he was a top government official for a short time. As a result, the school of Confucius is the school of 儒. Eventually, 儒 became the profession for government officials, like many modern government officials come from the profession of lawyers.

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The first meritocracy was implemented in the second century BC, by the Han Dynasty, which introduced the world's first civil service exams evaluating the "merit" of officials. The government maintained an extensive network of professional officials chosen from the civil service examinations on the Confucian doctrines. Everyone was free and equal according to merit instead of nobility of blood. The system allowed anyone who passed an examination to become a government officer to bring wealth and honor to the whole family. Under Confucian meritocracy, cooperative individualistic politics was merit selection to determine election of government officials. Merit was based on individual merit in education in Confucianism teaching, service performance to people, and ethics. Morality for merit selection was cooperative reciprocity between government officials and people. For reciprocity, government officials served people, and people cooperated with government officials. According to Mencius, 民为贵,社稷次之,君为轻。是故得乎丘民而为天子。The people are to be valued most, the altars of the grain and the land [traditional symbols of the vitality of the state] next, the ruler least. Hence winning the favor of the common people you become Emperor. (Mengzi 7B14) Emperor represents the leader of government officials that are to win the favor of the common people. Immorality for merit selection was divisive egotism. Cooperative collectivistic politics was nonpartisan politics based on political consensus The economic system for Confucian meritocracy was cooperative economy between the state and farmers with minimum commerce. It was before the Modern Period, so it was not a modern economic system. Under the pressure of the West and the Modern Period, the Confucian meritocracy based on the old agricultural economy collapsed in China. Modern Meritocracy In the Modern Period, the Japanese government is an example of the meritocratic political system. Regardless what political party is in power, the Japanese government is dominated by the powerful meritocratic bureaucracy that comes from the best universities. The Japanese bureaucracy comes from the tradition of the moral educated administrative samurai class under the influence of the Confucian system. Another example is meritocracy for capitalism in Singapore. Singapore practices democratic partisan politics. However, only one political party has dominated politics since Singapore became independent in 1965. The actual politics is meritocratic nonpartisan politics. Meritocracy in Singapore was found by the Founding Father Lee Kuan Yew who is in a family of high achievers. He and his brothers, sisters, and children are top students in top universities and top professionals in top positions. They are in the English-speaking elite group with English as the mother tongue unlike most other people. To high achiever Lee Kuan Yew, it is natural to rely on the high achiever minority to serve people and the adopted economic system that is capitalism in Singapore. Lee Kuan Yew is a staunch believer in talent and the need to identify and encourage it. He supports meritocracy particularly at the highest level for political leaders. Selection of high achievers to serve people is based on merit (education, service performance to people, and ethics) only without considering race, gender and class. The responsibility of initial selection is by the ruling People's Action Party Through competitive scholarships, stringent selection criteria

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for party candidacy, and high ministerial salaries, the ruling People's Action Party has been able to co-opt high achievers to form a talent technocratic” government to serve people and the adopted capitalistic economic system. The government officials have been basically free of corruption. They are very low key. There is no person-glorification. They are like low key executives in a large cooperation. The meritocracy has served people well. It has transformed Singapore from a relatively underdeveloped colonial outpost with no natural resources into a "First World" Asian Tiger with the GDP per capital equivalent to that of the developed countries. The meritocracy has served the capitalistic system well. Singapore has been ranked as a best place in the world to do business for many years. Meritocracy actually is suitable to a small political unit such as city like Singapore. In a city, social groups live close together, affect each other in real practical ways daily, and share similar broad political view. As a result, one political party usually dominates politics in a city that practices democracy, resulting in nonpartisan politics. People in a city concern more about how a city political leader handles daily city life than how a city leader views political or economic ideology. In other words, people want a city leader based on merit (education, service performance to people, and ethics) rather on ideology. A city can establish a meritocratic party to cultivate, select, and qualify high achievers to become candidates for government officials in city. Another example is China as described in “The East Asian Challenge for Democracy Political Meritocracy in Comparative Perspective” edited by Daniel A. Bell and Chenyang Li38. In recent China, the officials are selected mostly by merits. Chinese communist party has established a sophisticated and comprehensive system for selecting and promoting political officials that involves decades of training and a battery of exams for officials at various stages of their careers. The selection process is similar to the selection process in large corporations. The top leaders have many years of experiences in governing large political units. Majority of Chinese prefer such orderly meritocracy over chaotic liberal democracy. In some local political units, the officials are elected by votes. Therefore, there are both meritocratic selection and democratic election. Meritocracy is neutral to economic systems, and can serve any economic system. In meritocracy, there is no ideological or ethnic political party as in democracy. The so-called political party in meritocracy is really the meritocratic party that is non-ideological and nonethnic. Other than the country and people, the only loyalty of the meritocratic party is to the meritocratic system based on education, service performance to people, and ethics. The loyalty of the meritocratic party to the meritocratic process is not different from the loyalty of the democratic political parties to the democratic process of free election and partisan politics.

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7. Modern Religion and Environment
7.1. The Modernization of the Western Religions The modernization of the Western religions including Judaism, Islam, and Christianity is the response to the increasing secular world. In the past fifty years in traditionally Christian countries, the church attendance has greatly decreased, and the percentage of non-religious has increased significantly, particularly among young people. Non-religious people do not have any affiliation with established religion. They derive their worldview and value system primarily from alternative, secular, cultural or otherwise non-revealed systems rather than traditional religious systems. Non-religious includes all kinds of atheists, agnostics, and theists. The percentage of non-religious in the world is about 16% as the third largest group behind Christianity (33%) and Islam (21%). In the USA, the percentage of non-religious is about the same as in the world. Europe has a much greater percentage of non-religious. In the West, the rapid increase in non-religious indicates the diminishing dominance of religion. The diminishing dominance of religion coincides with modernization starting from the Renaissance. Modernity includes individualism, industrialization, urbanization, and science. The divisive collectivistic religions that seek religious supremacy cannot incorporate modernity easily. The responses to modernity produce the three different modern Western religions: the modernized religion to accommodate modernity, the dominating religion to dominate modernity, and the complementary religion to be complementary to modernity. The modernized religion includes so-called progressive religions. It accepts and accommodates modernity and the diminishing dominance of religion. The dominating religion includes socalled conservative religions. It dominates modernity by the selective alliance with some parts of modernity. The complementary religion includes the interdependent religions. It involves the complementary domains for religion and modernity in such way that they are in different domains, but they need each other to have the whole society and whole person. The Modernization of Religion
Modernized Religion Dominating Religion Complementary Religion with respect to modernity to accommodate modernity to dominate modernity to be complementary to modernity correspond to progressive religions conservative religions interdependent (harmonious) religion

7.2.The Modern Environment Environment has become an important issue since industrialization that has a very significant impact in environment for the material benefit of humans. The two opposite cultures with respect to environment are anthropocentrism and environmentalism. Anthropocentrism regards humans as the central or most significant species on the planet, In terms of worldview, anthropocentrism has the divisive worldview that views environment as an outsider in out-group. Humans have the dominion over environment. People with anthropocentric leanings tend to see humanity as separate from nature or as part of nature but at the apex of a hierarchy of species. Either way they cherish humanity as the most important being in that only humans have moral status and human practical concerns always take priority over other creatures. Environmentalism

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regards humans as a part of species on the planet. In terms of worldview, environmentalism has the cooperative worldview that views environment as an insider in in-group. Humans cooperate with environment. The two opposite environmental views have opposite moralities as below. The Two Opposite Environmental Views
Worldview Environment Morality Individualistic Society. Collectivistic Society Anthropocentrism divisive worldview view environment as an outsider in out-group divisive morality freedom restriction supremacy inferiority Environmentalism cooperative worldview view environment as an insider in in-group cooperative morality reciprocity egotism cohesive relationship divisive bigotry

morality immorality morality immorality

In divisive individualistic (capitalistic) anthropocentrism, humans have the freedom to manipulate environment for the benefit of human materially and emotionally. Any restriction over the freedom is immoral. In divisive collectivistic (religious) anthropocentrism, humans have the dominion over environment. Any inferiority of humans under environment is immoral. In cooperative individualistic (reciprocal) environmentalism, environment benefits humans materially and emotionally, while humans benefit environment reciprocally by minimizing the human impact on environment, and maintain sustainable relationship between humans and environment. Any egotist attitude toward environment is immoral. In cooperative collectivistic environmentalism, humans and environment are considered as one entity with cohesive relationship. Any divisive bigotry toward environment is immoral. Cooperative individualistic (reciprocal) environmentalism is shown in the life of Henry David Thoreau as described in his book Walden. He lived closed to nature in a simple life with minimum impact to nature. John Muir spent time hiking in Yosemite Valley, and was benefited emotionally by Yosemite Valley. Reciprocally, he wanted to minimize the human impact, so he successfully lobbied congress to form Yosemite National Park. In America, the Endangered Species Act in 1973 is to minimize human impact in other species. One example of cooperative collectivistic environmentalism is the Gaia Hypothesis by James Lovelock in his book “Gaia: A new look at life on Earth”39. He proposes that life on Earth can be understood as a selfcorrecting living organism. The Catholic saint of ecology is St. Francis of Assisi who believed in the equality of all living creatures: man, cattle, birds, fish, and reptiles. Many religions join in the environmentalism movement. Initiated by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) in the Italian town of Assisi chosen for its association with St Francis of Assisi, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Jewish and Islamic leaders declared the Assisi Declarations40 to their own faithful about their spiritual relationship with nature and sacred duty to care for it. More religions produced declarations later. To divisive individualistic anthropocentrism, the restriction of human freedom by the reciprocal relationship between humans and environment is immoral. To divisive collectivistic anthropocentrism, the supreme moral value of individual human life and human well-being on earth cannot be compromised by the lowering of value of humans in the cohesive relationship between humans and environment. The practical aspects of environment are the scientific and economic evidences for the benefit and harm in anthropocentrism and environmentalism. The scientific evidences involve

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the severity of the long-term impact to environment by specific human activity, and the benefit and harm of such impact. Anthropocentrism typically chooses the scientific evidences to minimize the severity and harm of the impact, while environmentalism typically chooses the scientific evidences to exaggerate the severity and harm of the impact. Sometimes, based on scientific evidences, anthropocentrism and environmentalism both agree at the severity but disagree at the harm. In terms of economic consequence, to anthropocentrism, the impediment of environmentalism to the human further development of the earth and its resources enormously increases financial burdens on humans even to the deaths of thousands of men, women, and children worldwide. To environmentalism, the absence of sustainable development leads to the economic disasters of material shortages and irreversible harmful pollution and climate change. Anthropocentricism and environmentalism are far apart in worldview, science, and economy. In the 1970s, environmentalism progressed rapidly in the U.S. and around the world. The United States Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970. Earth Day was first observed on March 21, 1970, the first day of Spring. The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held on June 5–16, 1972. The Endangered Species Act, the Clean Air Act, and Clean Water Act were signed in America. In the 1980s, global warming and climate changes became important issues. Religions stated to participate in environmentalism. The resistance to environmentalism has remained strong for the sake of economic growth, especially during economic downturn,

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Part 2: The Postmodern Period
Part 2 deals with the Postmodern Period. The present period is the Postmodern Period starting the information-telecommunication revolution in 1970s. The Postmodern Period is a paradoxical period consisting of increasing interdependent and increasing polarization. Chapter 8 deals with the postmodern economy. The postmodern economy is dominated by divisive individualistic capitalism due the fall of European communism and the rise of capitalism by the information-telecommunication revolution for automation and globalization. The excessive risky debt derived from excessive income inequality led to the financial crisis in 2008 and the Great Recession afterward. At the same time, China uses global cooperative economy to achieve rapid economic growth. Chapter 9 deals with postmodern politics. The postmodern politics is marked by rapid spread of democracy, while the society is dominated by capitalism that controls democratic governments. Chapter 10 deals with postmodern global interconnection. The Postmodern Period is characterized by the marked decrease in severe armed conflicts due to the global interconnection through globalization of trade and communication.

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8. Postmodern Economy
8.1. Divisive Individualistic Economy Divisive mixed economy based on Keynesian economics started by Roosevelt expanded the middle class especially after the Second War. The equality since Roosevelt reached the peak during early 1970s. On the other hand, the manipulation of aggregate demand by government in mixed economy distorts naturally competitive free market that allows strong companies and individuals to survive and weak companies and individuals to extinct during economic downturn. Consequently, weak companies and individuals survived economic downturn. Surviving weak companies and weak individuals slowed down economy. Weak companies could not produce goods and service at low cost, and weak individuals were not employable. The result was stagflation as the combination of inflation and high unemployment. Economic stagflation during 1970s led to demise of divisive mixed economy and the return of divisive individualistic economy that again focus in aggregate supply in private sector and trickle down economy for aggregate demand in private sector. The shift to divisive individualistic economy accelerated the beginning of the information-telecommunication revolution in 1970s to start the present period as the Postmodern Period. The basic development of information telecommunication had been developed by mostly defense-space industry supported by America government before 1970s, so there was no need for large costly development from the private sector. Individualistic innovation in individualistic economy is the ideal way to commercialize such technology developed by public sector. Many important companies in the information telecommunication came from innovative individuals of humble background. The commercialization of the information-telecommunication brought about unprecedented automation and globalization. Such automation replaces or assists human physical movement and thinking process in great power, speed, precision, and complexity. Such automation in information and telecommunication minimizes most of the difficulties in connecting different places in the world, resulting in extraordinary globalization. The postmodern technology increasingly involves all areas of human endeavors. The Postmodern Period is the golden period for divisive individualistic economy as capitalism. The costly development of information-telecommunication technology had been done by public sector, so there is no need to cooperate with public sector. Automation and globalization can be used easily to replace workers, so there is no need for cooperation from workers. Capitalists have vastly upper hands over public sector and workers. As a result, during the Postmodern Period, public sector and workers suffer tremendously. In divisive individualistic capitalism, freedom is moral, restriction is immoral. Divisive individualistic capitalism gradually became excessive from excessive freedom, resulting in the Great Recession. The shift to divisive individualistic economy was started by Margaret Thatcher (Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990) and Ronald Reagan (the President of the United States from 1981 to 1989). When European communism reached to its end in 1989, collectivistic economy was discredited, and there is no significant collectivistic economy in the postmodern economy. In America, after 1980, the shift to individualistic economy was brought by Ronald Reagan. The slogan was small government and low tax. The shift included the financial reform, the tax reform, the income reform, the environmental reform, and the social reform.

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the financial reform: Reagan and the subsequent presidents deregulated financial institutions. Banks were allowed to expand nationally and globally. Speculative investment banks were connected to deposit banks. The enforcement of the financial regulations was not strict. the tax reform: Reduce tax rate, particularly the top tax rate and corporation tax the income reform: Under Reagan and subsequent presidents, labor unions were weakened, resulting in weak collectivistic bargaining and increased income inequality. There was little progress in public education, physical infrastructure, and health care to equalize income. the environmental reform: Under Reagan and subsequent presidents, many environmental regulations were reversed or were not strictly enforced. the social reform: Under Reagan and subsequent presidents, many minority rights were reversed or were not strictly enforced.

Under divisive individualistic capitalism, the commercialization of informationtelecommunication technology has been has been carried out successfully, resulting in economic boom globally from 1982 to 2007. Productivity has increased rapidly by automation and globalization. Since capitalists have vastly upper hands over public sector and workers, public sector and workers do not share the economic benefit from the rapid increase of productivity. Capitalists keep almost all economic benefit. Public education, public health care, and public physical infrastructure are stagnant or weakened. The result is the three decades of increasing income inequality. Under divisive individualistic capitalism, automation and global competition destroy the middle class, and turn economy into the servant economy41. A study from Michael Greenstone and Adam Looney42 reveals that the median earnings of men ages 25 to 64 declined 28 percent between 1969 and 2009.

Within this age group, the median earnings of men who completed high school but didn’t go on to college fell 47 percent, while the median earnings of male college graduates also declined, only 12 percent. (The calculation of earnings included zero income for the people without jobs.) To keep up with the normal living standard, women had to work. The two-income family allowed the household earning to increase.

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In the report43 by the Congressional Budget Office a nonpartisan budget and tax analysis arm of Congress, in the last three decades, the United States has become a far more unequal nation. For the 1 percent of the population with the highest income, average real after-tax household income grew by 275 percent between 1979 and 2007. The next-highest 19 percent of earners saw their income grow by 65 percent over the same period. Income grew by just under 40 percent for the 60 percent of the population in the middle, while the 20 percent at the bottom of the scale saw income growth of only about 18 percent.

In America, the income inequality44 as expressed by the share of total Income going to the top 10% before the financial crisis of 2008 is at about the same level as the economic inequality before the financial crisis of 1929.

In America, the income inequality as expressed by the share of total Income going to the top 1% before the financial crisis of 2008 is also at about the same level as the economic inequality before the financial crisis of 1929.

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In postmodern capitalism, to stimulate fast economic growth, governmental regulation was at little as possible as shown in unregulated financial innovation. Technology innovation invented new technological products and methods that improve productivity and living standard. Financial innovation invented new financial instruments and institutions that improve financial investment from investors to invest in businesses or properties. The telecommunication and information revolution provided the means to create new financial instruments, such assetbacked security derived from and backed by a specified pool of underlying assets and credit default swaps (CDS) to insure asset-backed security. New technology also allowed the expansion of financial institutions and the interconnections among different financial instruments. Financial innovations outran the regulators’ ability to regulate them. As a result, many financial instruments were not transparent, financial institutions became too big to fail, and financial instruments and institutions became too interconnected to fail. Meanwhile, financial innovation also created giant financial institutions too big to fail and myriad financial interconnections too interconnected to fail, resulting in systemic risk where widespread failure is possible under economic stress. The business expansion with too big to fail and too interconnected to fail provided political and economic clout to encourage gigantic financial institutions to undergo excessive risk-taking with little fear of failure, resulting in the economic corruption by financial institutes. "Financial engineering" that invented new financial instruments replaced "real engineering" that invented new technology to improve productivity for real economic growth. In the US, financial services’ share of total corporate profits increased from 10% in the early 1980s to 40% in 2007. The stock market value of financial services firms increased from 6% in the early 1980s to 23% in 2007. Financial services absorb many highly talented people who could have otherwise worked for real economic growth. The inevitable of capitalism with economic inequality and fast growth without proper regulation is the economic corruption with debt and greed. In many developed countries, the year of 2000 started the decade of the economic corruption with debt and greed. Greed is excessive or rapacious desire, especially for wealth or possessions. The sources of greed come from irrational exuberance and loose ethics. Financial irrational exuberance is the belief in infinite and eternal profitable investment opportunities. Loose ethics takes advantage of other people deliberately for the financial gain of oneself. For example, a financial institution deliberately sold an unsustainable investment for the profit of the financial institution. The unsustainable investment had a short-term profit, and definitely was unsustainable in long term such as in Ponzi scheme. In the transition period of technology when there were a lot of confusion and irrational exuberance from economic growth, greed prevailed.

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The economic corruption was also shown in subprime mortgage. In the consumerism society, the middle-low income people in America went into credit card debt to keep up with the social consumption standard. There was virtually no saving for any investment. Meanwhile, the high income people had plenty of liquidity to invest. To bridge the shortage of liquidity to invest from the middle-low income people and the surplus of liquidity from the high income people, subprime mortgage and new financial instruments were invented by financial institutions. Subprime mortgage with very little initial payment and very low standard of qualification was a good way to invest in housing for the middle-low income people who were high in debt and low in asset. Financial institutions invented financial instruments to support such highly risky mortgage. Financial institutions issued mortgage-backed securities (MBS), which derived their value from mortgage payments and housing prices. Some securities contained such highly risky subprime mortgage. To protect such unsustainable securities, unsustainable credit default swaps (CDS) were issued. These innovative financial instruments were beyond the ability of the financial regulators to regulate. They were not transparent. The popularity of subprime mortgage created housing bubble that encouraged more subprime mortgage by the belief that the return from the rising housing price could cover the repayment of mortgage. The economic decline triggered by the rapid increase in oil price put stress in housing bubble. The collapse of the housing bubble led to collapse of subprime mortgage that depended on rising housing price. The collapse of subprime mortgage brought about the collapse of MBS and CDS that caused some large financial institutions to bankrupt or to be rescued by governments. The result from the combination of income inequality, unregulated financial innovation, and greed is the financial crisis in 2008. The combination of income inequality, financial innovation, and greed also caused the financial crisis in 1929. The levels of income inequality are the same for the years before both financial crises. For the financial crisis in 1929, the financial innovation was the high leverage investment in the stock market for the middle-low income people, and greed was the unethical manipulation of stock market. The depressed housing market led to the loss of purchasing power of many middle-low income people, resulting in the excess of consumer goods and service. The excess brought about the close of consumer production plants and stores, resulting in high unemployment. The result was the Great Recession, the repetition of the Great Depression resulted from gross inequality. The immediate response to the Great Recession was the massive federal economic stimulus. However, inequality continues to increase, because with continuing expansion in automation and globalization, individualistic economy continues to dominate in economy, and the gain from economic recovery goes to mostly rich people. . In America, the gulf between the richest 1 percent and the rest of America in 2012 is the widest it's been since the 1928 before the stock market crash. Without sufficient aggregate demand from common people, the economic recovery is slow. The very wealthiest 1% Americans earned more than 19 percent of the country's household income, and the top 10 percent captured a record 48.2 percent of total earnings. (The top 1 percent's share of income bottomed out at 7.7 percent in 1973.) The top 1 percent of American households had pretax income above $394,000 in 2012. The top 10 percent had income exceeding $114,000. Common people continue to suffer. The gross inequality between rich people and common people destroys social cohesion, and splits the society in America. Rich people are afraid that their wealth will be taken away in the name of equality by federal income redistribution and increasing voting right, and common people are afraid that their wealth continues to decrease in the name of freedom by cutting the federal protection of common people. The polarization between individualistic economy based on classical

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economics and the adaptable economy based on Keynesian economics prevails, resulting in the paralyzed polarized federal government. 8.2. Global Cooperative Economy As described before, Japanese economy is cooperative economy. The cooperation is basically local cooperation from allied companies in Japan. Foreign involvement in the cooperation is not significant. Another type of cooperative economy is global cooperative economy that involves significantly reciprocal business relationships globally between developed and developing economies. In divisive economy, there is no explicit cooperation between developed and developing economies or between resource-rich and resource-poor economies. China practices global cooperative economy with developed economy. China started the economic reform that moved away from Western divisive socialism with divisive morality base on supremacy from purity in 1978 by Deng Xiaoping. The new economy was the old Chinese cooperative economy. Ideological purity was no longer necessary as in the Deng’s famous quotation: it doesn't matter if a cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice. In the economic reform, the government and the private farmers formed economic reciprocal relationships. The abolishment of collectivistic farm started from the private citizens who secretly returned to the family farming. The government responded to it by the policy of the abolishment of collectivistic farm, increasing the farm output significantly. The private-owned farm led to the private-owned farm business, which in turn spread to city. Later China opened the labor force and market to the developed world, and formed reciprocal business relationships globally, resulting in global cooperative economy. Cooperative economy worked well in China before. Before the nineteenth century, Chinese villages adopted the most advanced planting technology, and reached the highest yield per hectare in the world. Chinese craftsmen used the most advanced production tools and technology. The output of the Chinese manufacturing industry in 1750 amounted to about one third that of the entire world. In 1820, the GDP of China’s largely agricultural economy was six times that of industrialized England. The turning point was the defeat of China in the AngloChinese Opium War (1839 to 1842) resulted in the unequal Treaty of Nanking in 1842, turning China into a weak country dominated by the strong industrial countries. Confucianism provided both the favorable private sector and public sector for the strong economy in China as pointed out by Shi Zhonglian from Harvard-Yenching Institute45. In the private sector, the basic unit of cooperative economy in China was family. Confucianism strengthens family as the basic spiritual, economic, and political unit. To Confucian Chinese, family has a strong spiritual value for the past, the present, and the future. Ancestor is the center of family worship. Ancestor provides protection and moral standard. Anyone who commits a crime or becomes a useless person is to defame one’s ancestor and family. An individual’s success and shame belongs to the whole family. All family members are obligated to take care of one another. One works hard and accumulates wealth not only to benefit the present generation but also the future generation. The result is that the economic unit is extended family that allows the collectivistic effort to establish strong familial economic power. For personal ethics, Confucianism advocates work ethics in terms of the jingye 敬业 spirit: to work cautiously, conscientiously, seriously, assiduously, and diligently. Confucianism also promotes business ethics as sincerity, honesty and trustworthiness. Confucianism attached the greatest importance to education.

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For public sector, Confucianism promotes cooperation in terms of unified state, benevolent government for the enrichment of people, effective administration and management, and the minimization of dependent relationship of the peasant upon the landlord. Confucius (552-479BC) lived in the period of divided China. He longed for the unified China before the period. To him, the ideal state was a unified state before the period of divided China. To Confucius, the ideal ruler was a benevolent rule that enriched people as the rulers before. He advocated low taxes. The Confucian government was an effective government controlled by educated administers chosen through the written examination on Confucian doctrine. The government minimized dependent relationship of the peasant upon the landlord in terms of great disparity of wealth between the rich and the poor. At the same time, the strong economic power in family allowed common people to have strong economic power to minimize the dependence upon very wealthy individuals. The population of owner-peasants, small farmers, and freemen in China was larger than that of Europe in ancient times and the Middle Ages. The dependent relationship of the Chinese peasant upon the landlord was looser than that of the European serf in the Middle Ages, resulting in the freer and more equitable private sector than in the ancient West. The Confucian favorable conditions in the private sector and the public sector for strong economy allowed China to become the wealthiest country in the world before the nineteenth century. The three major shortcomings of Confucianism from the perspective of the modern industrial economy are the depreciations of commerce (merchant), the knowledge of nature, and the enjoyment of material interests and wealth. The Confucian China needed to import industrial commerce, science-technology, and consumerism to match the Western economic power. With the cooperative worldview, the East is culturally challenged to commerce, science, and consumerism which are the products of the Western divisive worldview that favors mobile commerce, abstract science, and consumerism for personal supremacy. In 1980s, China began to open to globalization for almost every sector of business. Such openness for a large country is unprecedented. In global cooperative economy between developed and developing economies, Companies from developed economy form joint venture companies with Chinese companies, or exist as wholly-own companies, and the state provides special economic zone for foreign-invested enterprises. China provides work force, market, and modern infrastructure-education. Companies from developed economy provide investment and technology to China. The source of the investment from developed economy comes from mostly Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the dominant global corporations. The information telecommunication revolution allows rapid globalization. Since 1980’s, the world economy has undergone technology-driven global economic integration. The world economy has been transformed into a limited number of dominant businesses controlled by the dominant global corporations almost entirely in advanced countries in the West. To compete, the dominant global corporations need to invest globally across borders. They lose national characteristics and loyalties. The dominant global corporations simply cannot neglect China with large work force, market, and modern infrastructure-education. The dominant global manufacture and service corporations converge in China. Foreign-invested enterprises today produce about half of China's exports, benefiting both China and foreign companies. Very significant portion of the profit in the dominant global manufacture and service corporations come from China. With this global cooperative economy, China has taken unprecedented more than four hundred million people out of poverty. Absolute poverty declined from 41% of the population to 5% from 1978 to 2001.

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One weakness of global cooperative economy in China is lack of competitiveness globally in Chinese corporations. The dominant global corporations are in China, but Chinese corporations are not competitive globally. The reason is that successful global cooperative economy in China does not give China the incentive to build strong foundation for advanced technology and business. Without such strong foundation, Chinese corporations are not competitive globally. 8.3. The Globalization of Economy The reduced cost for transportation and information telecommunication and the framework of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and World Trade Organization accelerate the globalization of economy to integrate developed economy and developing economy globally. A major consequence of the recent globalization of economy is to shift labor-intensive industry from developed countries to developing countries where labor cost is low. The shift of work force allows developing countries to grow economically, and developed countries to lower the cost of common goods and service. The saving in labor cost allows developed countries to develop advanced industry to create new high paying jobs to replace the jobs lost to developing countries. In developed countries, the two different ways to create new high paying jobs are the technological advancement in new technology and the technological improvement in old technology from the old industrial technology. The technological advancement in new technology involves the technologies such as information telecommunication technology and biotechnology. It is highly profitable, because it is a new territory with few competitors. The technological improvement in old technology (with some information technology) involves the improvement in productivity, conservation of energy-material, pollution reduction, and various specific usages. The profit in the technological improvement in old technology is low due to numerous competitors, the complexity of technology, and many custom-made products. However, the technological improvement in old technology creates more jobs than the technological advancement in new technology, because old industrial technology produces more products than new technology. America represents the technological advancement in new technology. America has the best research institutions and the most innovative people in the world, so Americans are capable of and good at the technological advancement in new technology. American manufacture sector prefers high profited technology advancement in new technology, and often abandons, sells, or outsources the low profited technological improvement in old technology. The advancement in new technology is highly profitable, but creates few high paying jobs. Consequently, the work force in the manufacture sector decreases significantly, and the total value of the manufacture sector remains relatively constant during the globalization of economy. Few people in the high tech sector receive good pay, and most other people are in low paying service jobs to serve the high paying people. Germany represents the technological improvement in old technology. German education system provides sufficient number of highly qualified workers to work on the technological improvement in old technology involving many medium size industrial companies that constitute the backbone of large trade surplus from Germany. As a result, the work force in manufacture sector remains high, and the pay is good resulting in low inequality. Two different ways to create new high paying jobs produce two different societies.

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The international trade in the globalization of economy is basically capitalistic based on freedom rather than equality as in socialism. In the capitalistic international trade, the investment from developed countries in developing countries demands low cost and high quality products produced in the developing countries. The working condition and the environmental protection in developing countries are not important concerns in the capitalistic international trade. As a result, the working condition and the environmental protection in developing countries do not have the same standard as in developed countries, even though they may be better than other manufactures in developing countries. Both developed countries and developing countries now move away from the purely capitalistic international trade, and add the equality of working condition and environmental protection in the international trade.

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9. Postmodern Politics
The most important political event in the Postmodern Period is the fall of European communism authoritarianism which wanted to transform the whole world into communism authoritarianism. The most important consequences of the fall of European communism authoritarianism are the end of the Cold War, the end of the socialism threat, and the rise of democracy. The end of socialism threat accelerated the transformation of the Western democracy from mostly mixed-economy democracy (social democracy) into mostly capitalism democracy. The developing countries have been transformed from mostly authoritarianism to mostly democracy. Capitalism democracy has become the model in the world. In 1992 in published “The End of History," published in 1992, Francis Fukuyama asserted that the end of the Cold War led to the everlasting dominance of Western democracy. History, as Fukuyama declared, had ended, as the evolutionary struggle between ideologies was over, and market democracy had emerged as the final form of human government. 9.1. The Postmodern Democracy A democratic government is elected by people through free election and partisan politics. The drastic rise of democracy after the Cold War was parallel to the drastic decrease of authoritarian autocrat. Some autocratic governments failed to reach democracy, resulting in anocracy where power is spread amongst conflicting elite ethnic or religious groups such as the warlords of Somalia and religious groups in Iraq. Anocracies are relatively vulnerable and volatile states that often lack effective institutions and/or the capacities to establish and maintain social order. There is a sharp increase in anocracy as shown below46.

Some of the anocratic states as the failed states became centers of atrocities. The political and economic uncertainty during the transition to democracy in the anocratic states promotes violent religious fundamentalism and ethnic group that greatly increase sectarian violence, resulting in intrastate armed conflicts. Life in these anocratic states is worse than in the autocratic states before the anocratic states. The expansion of globalization in terms of the

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power of the media shapes world perception to deal with such intrastate conflicts. Many outside countries are involved in the conflicts for the humanitarian responsibility to protect the people in the intrastate conflicts and the sectarian responsibility to support allied sectors. The resulting international attention shifts from interstate conflicts to intrastate conflicts in anocratic states. One of the examples of anocratic state is Iraq. About 160,000 to half million Iraqis died from the conflict, 4.5 million displaced, and 5 million orphans - in one way or another, affecting nearly one in two Iraqis47. The sectarian conflict continues. The human rights of the Christian minority in Iraq are much worst under the democratic government than under the authoritarian government, and to most people in Iraq, life was much better under the authoritarian government48. Most of democratic countries in post-Cold War are capitalism democracy. If no democratic government in a society can change the social-economic trend that is controlled by unelected organizations and elites, the society is an autocratic society with a weak democratic government. The postmodern democracy in world is mostly the weak democratic government in capitalistic autocratic society based on uncompromising pure economic freedom. With the power source of automation and globalization, the capitalists have tremendous upper hands over common people and government. They can easily replace workers through automation and globalization. Common workers and labor unions lose the bargaining power. The capital and asset of wealthy capitalists and global corporations can be easily moved to the place to offer the lowest tax, and they have enough money to control politics, so they have upper hands over their native governments. In America, the control of Congress by the wealthy capitalists is described by Harvard Law School professor Lawrence Lessig in “Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress-and a Plan to Stop It” 49. In America, politicians need money to run election, so the members of the Congress spend anywhere from 25 percent up to 50 percent (and sometimes more) of their time fundraising, especially as an election approaches. Consequently, the corruptive influences of wealthy interest groups are strong. After the Supreme Court ruling citizens united v FEC, instead of one person, one vote, it is one dollar, one vote, resulting in dollar democracy instead of people democracy50. Another way to control government is to reduce tax. The authoritarian capitalist elite has successfully reduced federal, state, and local income taxes to the lowest rate since 195051. The United States actually has the lowest actual corporate tax as the percent of GDP of any of the member developed nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 200852. In 2009, the corporate taxes as % GDP, the second lowest in the developed nations, had fallen to only 1.3 percent of GDP from 4 percent in 1965, while the total taxes as % GDP was the third lowest in the developed nations53. Meanwhile, the Commerce Department estimated that corporate profits accounted for 14 percent of the total national income in 2010, the highest proportion ever recorded54. The result is the capitalistic autocratic society with weak democratic government and common people. The economic consequence is the excessive income inequality. The economic adjustment to the excessive income inequality is excessive public and private debt. Hundreds year ago, the economic adjustment to excessive income inequality was high risk peasant rebellion to get wealth from the rich. Now to get money from the rich is through high risk debt. Excessive public or private debt can lead to economic collapse. The economic detriment of excessive income equality is low aggregate demand due to low income for common people. Low aggregate demand retards economic growth.

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The Postmodern capitalistic autocratic society in the West is a reverse from the socialistic autocratic society in 1960s and 1970s. The fear of communism forced capitalists to compromise to avoid possible takeover by communism. The Cold War forced the democratic West to dismantle the borders between social classes in order to strength the borders between free nations and communist nations. The outcome was the mixed economy as the Keynesian economy with the powerful national labor union as the power source. National labor union had money and people to control capitalists and governments. The result was socialistic autocratic society based on uncompromising pure equality such as full employment and economic equality. The economic consequence is excessive income equality in 1960s and 1970s. In 1973, the top 1 percent's share of income bottomed out at 7.7 percent of the country's household income, comparing to 19 percent in 2012. The economic adjustment to excessive income equality was inflation by the demand of high wages from labor union and the public policy of full employment that could be in the form of issuing new money. Inflation would be bad for the economy because of the uncertainty it created. This uncertainty could limit spending and also limit the level of investment. Higher inflation may also damage the international competitiveness by high prices of goods. Capitalists lost the incentive or capability to produce. The economic detriment of excessive equality is low aggregate supply due to low incentive for capitalists to produce. Low aggregate supply results in high unemployment. The combination of high unemployment and high inflation result in stagflation. The democratic crisis of stagflation from socialistic autocratic society in 1960s led to drastic shift toward capitalism in 1980s. As the Cold War ended, the loss of the threat from communism accelerated the shift. The strength of national labor union has decreased rapidly since then. In America, the percentage of American workers represented by unions has dropped from 23.3 percent in 1983 to 12.5 percent in 2012 year, In the post-Cold War, many democratic states strength the borders between social classes, and dismantle the economic borders among nations. Divisive Authoritarian Economic Societies
principle power source economic consequence economic adjustment economic detriment Capitalistic Autocratic society uncompromising pure freedom automation and globalization excessive income inequality debt low aggregate demand Socialistic Autocratic society uncompromising pure equality national labor union excessive income equality inflation low aggregate supply

The problem with autocratic society is its inability to avoid economic detriment regardless of the change in democratic government. Excessive inequality increases in America even after the failure of capitalists in the financial crisis that led to the Great Recession and the change of political party. Low aggregate demand continues to slow economic recovery. 9.2. The Postmodern Meritocracy Democracy is the political model of the world in the Postmodern Period after the fall of European communism authoritarianism. Before the fall, one way to achieve robust economy was through meritocracy as manifested in the Four Asian Tigers or Asian Dragons including Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan that maintained exceptionally high growth rates and rapid industrializations between the early 1960s and 1990s. They started as Confucian meritocracy that had high respect for highly educated people and high priority in education. The

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highly educated technocrats, consisting of economists, bankers, scientists, and engineers, built education, infrastructure, and technology for economic growth that took advantage of export. Without meritocracy, the economic growth could have been slow as some other countries without Confucian meritocracy. The economic growth led to the expansion of the middle class that could form the backbone of democracy as shown in South Korea and Taiwan. The transition from autocracy to democracy through meritocracy avoids the trap of anocracy. In meritocracy, there is no ideological or ethnic partisan political party as in democracy. The so-called political party in meritocracy is really the meritocratic nonpartisan meritocratic party that is non-ideological and non-ethnic. Other than the country and people, the only loyalty of the meritocratic party is to the meritocratic system based on education, service performance to people, and ethics. The loyalty of the meritocratic party to the meritocratic process is not different from the loyalty of the democratic political parties to the democratic process of free election and partisan politics. In Singapore, the meritocratic party is the ruling People's Action Party. In China, the meritocratic party is the ruling Chinese Communist Party. In robust meritocratic government, the government officials are selected based on merit (education, service performance to people, and ethics) only without considering race, gender and class. Meritocracy does not adhere to capitalism or socialism. It chooses the best system for people and country. Robust meritocratic government provides capitalistic free market system, sustainable social welfare, optimal income equality and social mobility, and viable infrastructure. Meritocratic government can execute such programs more effective than democratic government, because meritocracy can enforce short-term unpopular policy for long-term benefit. Meritocracy can be anarchic, democratic, or authoritarian meritocracy. Anarchic meritocracy cannot control anarchic society. Democratic meritocracy adds the performance in free election as a part of merit as in Singapore. Even though the free election is still controlled by the meritocratic party, free election provides legitimacy and the direct connection with people. Authoritarian meritocracy does not have extensive free election, even though it monitors public opinions as in China. A common problem of meritocracy is the limited source of important government officials that come from similar background, typically, as the background of the original founders of the ruling political party. Even though those people have great loyalty to the meritocratic party, it is necessary to broaden the source for diversity of talents and backgrounds. Political patronage should be minimized to attract large pool of talents and to establish legitimacy as the representative government. In the world dominated by the divisive Western culture, divisive democracy is the political model, and cooperative meritocracy is not the political model. However, in some democratic countries, the democratic governments were replaced by de facto meritocracy in terms of technocrat governments. In Italy, the democratic government was replaced by the technocrat government headed by Prime Minister Mario Monti. His cabinet of the technocrat government did not include any elected politicians. He was able to get Italy through difficult time, even though he was not popular. In some countries, anocratic state should be replaced by meritocracy to avoid the acceleration of severe sectarian conflict by democracy.

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10. The Postmodern Global Interconnection
The globalization of trade and communication increases the interconnection among nations. Culturally, all nations become interconnected through education, communication, and tour. It is difficult to wage a war against the people that are culturally connected. The global interconnection through trade is permanent. It is difficult to wage a war against major trading partners. Many intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) enhance global interconnection. IGOs include the United Nations, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the World Bank, the Universal Postal Union, Interpol, the World Customs Organization, World Nature Organization, and the International Monetary Fund. INGOs include Amnesty International, Oxfam International, CARE, World Vision International, Doctors Without Borders, International Committee of the Red Cross, Save the Children International, World Organization of the Scout Movement, International Union for Conservation of Nature, and World Wide Fund for Nature. The global interconnection among nations is permanent. In the same way, the interconnection among people in a nation also increases. No person can be completely isolated. The interconnection involves economic interconnection and cultural interconnection. Now it is not possible for a nation to be isolated completely. The morality for an isolated nation can no longer be moral in the highly interconnected postmodern society. For major powers in the world, the postmodern society is interconnected. Major wars among nations, massive killing, and massive extreme punishment become much less common in the highly interconnected postmodern society. In some senses, nations and people become more moral than before as described by Steven Pinker in “The Better Angels of our Nature: Why Was Violence Declined.55” One way to reflect the increasing prevalent interconnection is how to deal with interstate and intrastate severe conflicts. In the interconnected world, the response to severe conflict is much more measured and deliberate than the disconnected world. The postmodern world learns that the overreacted response is costly, and there is no winner resulted from the overreacted response in the interconnected world. Often, the loss to all sides in the conflict is proportional to the degree of an overreacted response. The postmodern world learns to respond severe interstate and intrastate conflict with measured response to minimize the impact of severe conflict. In the interconnected postmodern world, severe conflicts still exist, but the impact of such severe conflicts is much lower than before. Many conflicts are settled through nonviolent method rather than violent method. The end of the Cold War, marked by the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, had an equally dramatic effect on the general level of armed conflict in the world as described by Center for Systemic Peace56. The levels of both interstate and societal warfare declined dramatically through the 1990s and this trend continues in the early 2000s, falling over 60% from their peak levels.

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The level of warfare is much lower in the rich upper quintiles than in the poor quintiles. The upper quintile has little or no serious political violence, and their involvement in armed conflicts are mainly in the role of "police action" in foreign wars, such as "internationalized civil wars." The rich states are involved in the globalization of trade and communication much more than the poor states. As time progresses, even poor states are involved in the globalization of trade and communication.

The three distinct types of warfare are ethnic, revolutionary, and inter-state. All three types of war have decreased significantly in the post-Cold War. Now the most significant type of warfare is ethnic warfare that decreased in the 1990s, and has leveled off afterward.

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International terrorism has received significant attention. The average number of deaths in the sixteen years prior to the peak in 2001 (1985-2000) is 341; the average for the seven years following 2001 is 582, nearly sixty percent greater than the average for the earlier period. Still, these annual totals are extremely low when compared to other forms of political or criminal violence. Less than ten percent of global terrorism since 1990 is international terrorism, and the vast majority of global terrorism is national terrorism.

The interconnection in the framework of the globalization of trade and communication reduces armed conflicts in the world. The measured response to severe conflict minimizes the severity of conflict. The postmodern world is much more peaceful than before.

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Part 3: The Interdependent World
Part 3 deals with the interdependent world. The current Postmodern Period is followed by the Unity period for the interdependent world. The Postmodern Period is a paradoxical period consisting of increasing interdependent and increasing polarization. The Postmodern Period is the period of interdependent and polarization. The information telecommunication revolution induces great globalization to connect religions, economies, and politics in different places in the world. Since the end of the Cold War at the end of 1980’s, all major powers in the world have become increasingly interdependent in trades, goals, and many parts of life through increasingly ubiquitous global communication. In terms of trade, all major nations now do not make all goods and services, and they depend on each other for goods and services. When one major nation suffers, all nations suffer in various degrees. Environmentally, all nations share the same atmospheres, and global warming occurs globally. Increasingly ubiquitous global communication makes isolation increasingly difficult. Before the postmodern period, it was possible for a nation to be isolated from other nations. Now it is not possible for a nation to be isolated. The morality for an isolated nation can no longer be moral in the highly interconnected postmodern society. For major powers in the world, the postmodern society is interconnected. Major wars among nations, massive killing, and massive extreme punishment become much less common in the highly interconnected postmodern society. At the same time, the information telecommunication revolution induces great changes in various societies. People feel uncertain about the future, so people hold on what they have, resulting in many different types of polarization. The Postmodern Period is the period of polarization among different traditions as listed in the table below.
individualistic religion Greek individualism and Islam Hinduism, Confucianism collectivistic religion Judaism and Islam Hinduism, Confucianism individualistic economy capitalism collectivistic economy socialism individualistic politics free election by vote merit selection collectivistic politics partisan politics consensus politics Christianity, Buddhism, Daoism interdependent religions

divisive (divisive worldview) cooperative (cooperative worldview) no worldview

reciprocal economy

cohesive economy

The transition from the Postmodern Period to the Unity Period requires the change of the worldview to the interdependent worldview. In the interdependent world, all major nations are dependent on one another economically and militarily. The morality of the interdependent worldview is global unity, and the immorality is global disunity. The global unity includes the global unity of traditions for the minimization of polarization to prevent destructive extremism. The destruction of extremism is evidenced in the current Postmodern Period. Extremism that promotes ideological supremacy and purity abhors interdependence in the interdependent world. One way to prevent extremism is to advocate the middle way to connect various opposite traditions to benefit and unite all traditions in the interdependent world. To prevent extremism, the global unity of traditions is achieved by establishing the optimal systems as the middle ways between opposite traditions. The global unity also includes the global unity of defenses to prevent mutual annihilation economically and militarily caused by offensive military. In the interdependent world, any major wars among major nations lead to mutual annihilation, resulting in interdependent realism for international relations. To prevent such mutual annihilation, the global unity of defenses is

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achieved by establishing the WDO (World Defense Organization) based on interdependent realism. Chapter 11 deals with the optimal systems as the middle ways between the opposite traditions. The optimal religion is based on the universal trinity creed consisting of the transcendental civilized platform for the unknowable transcendental supernatural, the immanent civilized platform for the knowable immanent supernatural, and the harmonious natural platform for the experiential conscience, corresponding roughly to the Father, the Son, and the Spirit in Christianity. The optimal economy is based on the optimal equality economy between capitalism and socialism to avoid excessive equality and inequality, and the optimal dual economy between divisive economy and cooperative economy to adapt to different cultures and situations. The optimal politics is based on the optimal dual politics between democracy and meritocracy to add meritocracy in democratic national government and to add democracy in meritocratic local government. The optimal environment is based on the optimal ecological footprint between anthropocentricism and environmentalism to avoid excess anthropocentricism and environmentalism. Chapter 12 deals with the WDO. In the interdependent world, offensive military is selfdestructive because of mutual annihilation, including the economic, the nuclear, the arms race, and the asymmetrical warfare mutual annihilations. To prevent such mutual annihilation resulted from offensive military, the global unity of defenses is achieved by the WDO that promotes free trade without military interference, the minimizations of nuclear weapons, military expenditure, and hegemony, and the international court to settle international military disputes.

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11. The Optimal Systems
The interdependent world is threatened by extremism that promotes ideological supremacy and purity, and abhors interdependence. To prevent extremism, the global unity of traditions is achieved by establishing the optimal systems as the middle ways between opposite traditions. 1. The interdependent world is in crisis. 2. The crises are caused by extremism excessively deviated from the optimal systems in religion, economy, politics, and environment. 3. Crises can be ended if extremism can be minimized. 4. The minimization of extremism can be achieved through the optimal systems as the middle ways between the opposite traditions in religion, economy, politics, and environment in the optimization fourfold path. • optimal religion: the universal trinity creed among divisive religions, cooperative religions, and interdependent religions • optimal economy: the optimal equality economy between capitalism and socialism and the optimal dual economy between divisive economy and cooperative economy • optimal politics: the optimal dual politics between democracy and meritocracy • optimal environment: the optimal ecological footprint between anthropocentricism and environmentalism The mechanism to maintain the optimal systems is through the feedback loops between opposite traditions, resulting in the optimization fourfold path to bring the new global unity in the Unity Period. The Optimization Fourfold Path
optimal religion economy politics environment optimal system universal trinity creed optimal equality economy optimal dual economy optimal dual politics optimal ecological footprint between the opposite traditions divisive religions, cooperative religions, and interdependent religions capitalism and socialism divisive economy and cooperative economy democracy and meritocracy anthropocentricism and environmentalism

In organism, the maintenance of optimal conditions necessary for survival is called homeostasis. The deviation of the optimal value of the controlled parameter can result from the changes in internal and external environments. The deviation is affected by feedback loop that is the complete causal path that leads from the initial detection of the deviation to the subsequent modification of the deviation. The feedback loop can be beneficial feedback loop to narrow the deviation or adverse feedback loop to widen the deviation. For example, the deviation from the optimal body temperature can be narrowed by the beneficial feedback loop or widened by the adverse feedback loop. The adverse feedback can lead to a runaway process that can end in death if not stopped. In religion, economy, politics, and environment, the deviations of the optimal systems can result from the change of environments. For example, the environment of automation and globalization can lead to excessive inequality deviated from the optimal equality. The feedback loop from capitalism brings about the adverse feedback loop to widen the deviation, while the

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feedback loop from socialism brings about the beneficial feedback loop to narrow the deviation. The adverse feedback can lead to a runaway process that can end in economic crisis if not stopped. The maintenance of the optimal systems requires the unity of the opposite traditions in religion, economy, politics, and environment. The reason for such unity is that a person or a human society originally possesses all these opposite traditions as that the biological systems of a person consists of all opposite feedbacks. Different societies, segments in a society, and people develop different cultures and personalities with the different compositions of the traditions. The optimal systems are inclusive to include all cultures and personalities. For example, a society includes both capitalists and workers. In the classical theory of economy for capitalism developed in the 18th century, capitalists were more or less same as workers, because most business people were small business people and workers themselves at the same time. After the full development of the industrial revolution, capitalists and workers are vastly different, and capitalists are much richer and more powerful than workers. Capitalism derived from freedom favors capitalists, and socialism derived from equality favors workers. A complete society consists of both capitalists and workers. The optimal equality maintained by the feedback loops of capitalism and socialism is inclusive for both capitalists and workers which cannot exist alone. Various traditions are derived from the social structure and the worldview based on the moral structure. The human social structure consists of individualistic society, collectivistic society, and interdependent society. The worldview consists of the divisive worldview to view the world as an outsider in out-group and the cooperative worldview to view the world as an insider in in-group. The divisive worldview is based on the divisive morality with freedom and supremacy as moral values, while the cooperative worldview is based on the cooperative morality with reciprocity and cohesive relationship as moral values. 11.1. The Optimal Religion . The optimal religion is based on the optimal platforms among divisive religions (Judaism, Greek individualism, and Islam), cooperative religions (Hinduism and Confucianism), and interdependent religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism). The optimal platforms constitute the universal trinity creed. The universal trinity creed is one creed in three platforms which are the transcendental civilized platform, the immanent civilized platform, and the harmonious natural platform, for the unknowable transcendental supernatural, the knowable immanent supernatural, and experiential conscience, respectively, corresponding roughly to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, respectively, in the Christianity. As the Christian trinity where one God is in three persons, the universal trinity creed is one creed in three platforms. Like the Father, the transcendental supernatural based on the divisive worldview is unknowable, transcending the universe. The unknowable transcendental supernatural is described by Paul in the Bible. Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable his judgments, and his paths beyond tracing out! “Who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor?” “Who has ever given to God, that God should repay them?” (Romans 11:33-35)

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Like the Son, the immanent supernatural based on the cooperative worldview is knowable through the overlapping of the supernatural and civilization. The knowable immanent supernatural is described by John in the Bible. No one has ever seen God, but the one and only Son, who is himself God and is in closest relationship with the Father, has made him known. (John 1:18) Like the Spirit, conscience based on no worldview is experiential as the internal moral guide. Conscience is described by Paul in the Bible. The Spirit from God is within us. They show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts sometimes accusing them and at other times even defending them. (Romans 2:15) And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another advocate to help you and be with you forever—the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you. (John 1416-17) Basically, the civilized platforms are about civilized large social groups with moral codes, laws, hierarchy, and rituals, while the natural platform is about harmonious small social groups with harmonious mind. In the universal trinity creed, there is the unknowable and unverifiable transcendental supernatural transcending the space-time of the universe, there is the knowable, verifiable, universal, and cooperative immanent supernatural overlapping with the civilized mind, there is the experiential natural conscience for harmonious society, mind, and adaptation, and there is one universal creed in three platforms which are the unknowable transcendental civilized platform, the knowable immanent civilized platform, and the experiential harmonious natural platform. The Universal Trinity Creed
Worldview Christian Terminology Supernatural Knowledge Social Group Components Transcendental Platform divisive Father Civilized Immanent Civilized Platform cooperative Son immanent supernatural knowable large verifiable, universal, and cooperative Harmonious Natural Platform no Holy Spirit conscience experiential small harmonious society, mind, and adaptation

transcendental supernatural unknowable large unverifiable

The major religions or the combinations of the major religions contain the universal trinity creed. Different religions or the combinations of religions can replace the supernatural, the civilized mind, and conscience with the suitable names for the religions. For examples, for Judaism, the transcendental supernatural can be replaced by God (Elohim), the immanent supernatural can be replaced by Yahweh, and conscience can be replaced by the laws in heart. For Islam, the transcendental supernatural can be replaced by Allah, the immanent supernatural can be replaced by the Quran, and conscience can be replaced by the Holy Spirit or Sufi spiritualism. For Daoism and Confucianism, the transcendental supernatural can be replaced by

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the impersonal Heaven, the immanent supernatural can be replaced by ancestors and the civilized Way (Dao) as in Confucianism, and conscience can be replaced by the natural Way as in Daoism. For Hinduism and Buddhism, the transcendental supernatural can be replaced by Brahma (the creator), the immanent supernatural can be replaced by Vishnu (the preserver) and Shiva (the transformer), and conscience can be replaced by Yoga or the Noble Eightfold Path. The Transcendental Civilized Platform In the transcendental civilized platform, the transcendent supernatural that transcends idolatry and the space-time of the observable universe is unknowable. Since our scientific knowledge is possible only in the space-time in the observable universe, the transcendental supernatural is unknowable, especially if the observable universe is not the only one universe (multiverse), has no definite beginning (cyclic universe), and something (positive energy and negative energy) can come from nothing (zero energy) as described by Stephen Hawking in A Brief History of Time 57: “The positive energy of the matter is exactly balanced by the negative energy of the gravitational field. So the universe can start off with zero energy and still create matter.” The transcendental supernatural transcends idols, material universe, and science. Outside of the space-time of the observable universe, the transcendental supernatural is unverifiable. The Immanent Civilized Platform In the immanent civilized platform, the immanent supernatural is the overlapping of the supernatural and the civilized mind. The immanent supernatural is knowable, universal, and cooperative. The transcendental supernatural is unknowable. The supernatural can be known only through overlapping with the civilized mind. The immanent supernatural is knowable, because the history and the principles of our civilization are knowable. The duality between the transcendental supernatural and the immanent supernatural is the duality between the unknowable and the knowable. All civilized religions that claim to be the revelation of the supernatural are knowable, so the supernatural in the knowable religions are the immanent supernatural, not the transcendental supernatural. In terms of science, the knowable is verifiable. Accordingly, the immanent supernatural is verifiable. The verified is truth. The universe is predestinated to produce simple organisms that are evolved into the organisms capable to have civilizations that overlap with the supernatural. The predestination is parallel to the anthropic principle58 of astrophysics and cosmology that predestinates the conscious life that is capable to observe the physical universe. The predestination is contrary to the pointless universe described by Steve Weinberg, a Nobel laureate in physics. He wrote, “The more the universe seems comprehensible, the more it seems pointless”59. The immanent religion of the civilization is predestinated to evolve from the superstitious, provincial, and uncooperative immanent platform into verifiable, universal, and cooperative immanent civilized platform. The transformation involves the three-step transformation, consisting of the verifiable, universal, and cooperative transformations. 1. verifiable The first step in the transformation is the verifiable transformation. The purpose of the ancient sacred texts is to teach instead of recording history. The ancient sacred texts use both metaphor and true history as teaching tools. Metaphor, like parable, is not verifiable, while true

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history is verifiable by historical, archeological, and scientific evidences. For examples, the creation story in the Bible is an unverifiable metaphor that teaches the transcendence of God. To consider metaphor as true history is superstitious. To consider metaphor as true history is like to consider idol as true God. Both metaphor and true history are important. The verifiable immanent civilized platform distinguishes metaphor from true history. The distinction between metaphor and true history allows the immanent civilized platform to move on toward the core of religion without trying to verify unverifiable metaphor. The transformation from the superstitious immanent civilized platform to the verifiable immanent civilized platform is to separate unverifiable metaphor and verifiable history. 2. universal The second step in the transformation is the universal transformation. The universal immanent civilized platform allows a person to fulfill the need of rising above the provincial perspective to the universal perspective. After all, the immanent supernatural is universal, so the immanent civilized platform is universal. There is much more than a specific sacred name, a specific period of time, a specific sacred text, and a specific location. There must be meaningful connections among sacred names, periods of time, sacred texts, and locations. The connections are based on the universal verifiable principles of civilization applicable to any civilized societies in the universe. Any high civilization is the product of very large social group (more than million) of highly cooperative beings. The verifiable principles of civilization must account for large social group and highly cooperative beings. The worldview can account for very large social group, and the interdependent society can account for highly cooperative beings. On the earth, only human society and human beings with the worldview and the interdependent society can achieve such civilization. The triple worldview and the triple social structure are the universal verifiable principles of civilization. All individual civilized religions are the manifestations of the universal verifiable principles of civilized society. The transformation from the provincial immanent civilized platform to the universal immanent civilized platform is to connect the provincial civilized platforms with the verifiable principles of civilized society applicable to any civilized societies in the universe. 3. cooperative The third step in the transformation is the cooperative transformation. The immanent supernatural is formed by the overlapping between the supernatural and the civilized mind. Such overlapping is based on the cooperative worldview, so the immanent civilized platform is cooperative. In the reciprocity of the cooperative worldview, the universal immanent supernatural guides the provincial civilized mind, and the provincial civilized mind is open to the universal immanent supernatural. The cohesive relationship involves the cohesion between the immanent supernatural and humans. In the divisive worldview, there is continuous battle with the out-group until the end time when there is no more out-group. In the cooperative worldview, there is no such continuous battle with the out-group. Inevitably, all civilized religions (Judaism, Islam, and a part of Christianity) based on the divisive worldview have the prophecies about the end time, while all civilized religions (Hinduism and Confucianism) based on the cooperative worldview do not have the prophecies about the end time. Therefore, the transformation from the divisive immanent civilized platform to the cooperative immanent civilized platform is simply by fast-tracking the end time when there is no more out-group, resulting in the cooperative worldview. The prophecies about the end time are the metaphors to teach the conversion from the divisive worldview to the cooperative worldview.

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In the Bible, the cooperative worldview was described by Prophet Isaiah (in the 8th century BC) as the peaceful society without the fighting for survival after the end time. “See, I will create new heavens and a new earth. The former things will not be remembered, nor will they come to mind…The wolf and the lamb will feed together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox, and dust will be the serpent’s food. They will neither harm nor destroy on my entire holy mountain,” says the LORD. (Isaiah 65: 17-25) They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore. (Isaiah 2:4) Prophet John (in the first century AD) described the cooperative worldview as the new earth where all nations co-exist peacefully without separation. Then I saw “a new heaven and a new earth,” for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea. I saw the Holy City… The city does not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gives it light, and the Lamb is its lamp. The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their splendor into it. On no day will its gates ever be shut, for there will be no night there. The glory and honor of the nations will be brought into it. (Revelation 21:1-26) The Quran clearly states that Jews and Christians, and others, will be accepted by God as long as they believe in his existence, his judgment, and perform good deeds. Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans [before Prophet Muhammad] - those [among them] who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness - will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve. (Quran 2:62) Since the end of the Cold War, all major powers in the world have become increasingly interdependent in trades, goals, and many parts of life through increasingly ubiquitous global communication. As the human society moves increasingly toward the cooperative worldview, the immanent civilized platforms inevitably move toward the cooperative immanent civilized platforms. The transformation from the divisive immanent civilized platform to the cooperative immanent civilized platform is to convert the divisive worldview into the cooperative worldview. The Harmonious Natural Platform The harmonious natural platform is derived from the human natural society existed in the pre-civilized society. The society was the interdependent society for existential interdependence based on division of labor. The interdependent society includes human, ant, and bee. Existential interdependence means that the society exists only through cooperation based on division of labor. In division of labor, everyone one is gifted and handicapped at the same time. The two important factors in human interdependent society are hyper bond and hyper detection (theory of mind). Hyper bond and hyper detection constitute conscience. The human brain is not capable process hyper bond and hyper detection well beyond the optimal social group size, so human interdependent society cannot exist well in a large social group. The original human society was

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the prehistoric hunter-gatherer small group society. The group size was about 30-50 people for a typical size for a cohesive hunter-gatherer band, and is about 150 for the size of cultural lineage of related bands. The Neolithic Revolution changed the small group hunter-gather society into the large group agricultural-nomadic civilized society. The change was irreversible. The reverse of civilized society to hunter-gatherer natural society would have faced massive starvation. In the human heart, there is yearning to return from the civilized society to the interdependent society. The imitation of the pre-civilized interdependent society was described by Laozi, a founder of Daoism, as a small state with few people. Let the states be small and people few. Have all kinds of tools, yet let no one use them. Have the people regard death gravely and do not migrate far. Though they might have boats and carriages, no one will ride them; through they might have weapons, no one will display them. Have the people return to knotting cords (for their records) and using them. They will relish their food, regard their clothing as beautiful. Feel safe and secure in their homes. Delight in their customs. Neighboring states might overlook one another and the sounds of chickens and dogs might be overheard; yet the people will arrive at old age and death with no comings and going between them. (Dao De Jing: Chapter 80) Such yearning led to the emergence of the harmonious natural platform practiced by natural Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism complementary to civilized Judaism, Hinduism, and Confucianism, respectively. It is the return to the origin interdependent society existed before civilization, when the society was dependent on conscience (hyper bond and hyper detection) instead of civilized moral code and laws. The return requires some kind of transformation from the civilized society to the pre-civilized natural interdependent society based on conscience. For Christianity, the return is the repentance of sins against conscience. For Buddhism, the return is the cessation of the desire to move away from conscience. For Daoism, the return is the return to the nature based on conscience away from civilization. The formation of the harmonious natural platform involves the harmonious society formation, the harmonious mind formation, and the harmonious adaptation formation. As discussed in Chapter 3, the models of the harmonious society, the harmonious mind, and the harmonious adaptation are Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism, respectively. 1. harmonious society For the harmonious society formation, the harmonious natural platform based on the interdependent society can be practiced only within a small social group structure. The basic small unit should be smaller than 35 people, and equal to 4 to 8 families. Within the basic small unit, people get to know one another very well, and meet together frequently to discuss religious matter. Four to five of such basic small units form the basic medium unit for the activity for slightly larger group. People in the basic medium unit do not need to know one another very well. The basic small unit and the basic medium unit constitute the organization of the small harmonious group, particularly suitable to mobile urban environment where people do not normally have relatives, intimate friends, and social supports as in sedentary rural environment. The organization of the early Christian church was based on such small social group structure as the “house church” where Christians met at individual residential houses. Now many Christian churches are divided into many small groups as the basic social units. On Sunday, there is a large Sunday Service for all people.

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Within such small social group structure, the existential interdependence can be practiced. Everyone is gifted and handicapped at the same time. Everyone contributes his or her gift, and help other members and accepts help from other members. No one is perfect. Some people are gifted in teaching but handicapped in people to people relationships. Some people are gifted in empathy with people but handicapped in understanding religious doctrine. Some people are gifted in handling physical properties. Some people are gifted in relating to children. Everyone contributes her or his gift, and does not judge other people easily. Everyone is humble to recognize one’s own shortcoming and is willing to accept help from other members. Everyone is humble to accept other people’s shortcoming and is willing to help other members. No one can boast one can do all works without depending on other members as described by Paul in the Bible. Even so the body is not made up of one part but of many. Now if the foot should say, “Because I am not a hand, I do not belong to the body,” it would not for that reason stop being part of the body. And if the ear should say, “Because I am not an eye, I do not belong to the body,” it would not for that reason stop being part of the body. 17 If the whole body were an eye, where would the sense of hearing be? If the whole body were an ear, where would the sense of smell be? …. so that there should be no division in the body, but that its parts should have equal concern for each other. If one part suffers, every part suffers with it; if one part is honored, every part rejoices with it. (1 Corinthians 12:14-26) 2. harmonious mind For the harmonious mind formation, the base of the harmonious mind is conscience consisting of hyper bond and hyper detection. Hyper bond is derived from existential interdependence as the base of the interdependent society where one cannot survive without the cooperation with other people. The survival of an individual is dependent on cooperation, so existential interdependence connects people close together, resulting in hyper bond. The positive reinforcement of hyper bond is the happiness to be with other people. The negative reinforcement of hyper bond is the terrible feeling of loneness. Psychologist John Cacippo60 finds that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to health as smoking or obesity. Another part of conscience is hyper detection. Hyper detection is necessary to distinguish true cooperation and cooperation with lie. Hyper detection is theory of mind in that a person believes that the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. For the hyper detection in conscience, the automatic emergence of shame and uneasiness in lying is the negative bad feeling in violating conscience. Such bad feeling of lying moves people toward honesty. The combination of hyper bond and hyper detection brings about the conscience that is the instinct for maximum eager cooperation without lie that takes advantage of cooperation for selfish reason. People feel guilty about cooperation with lie, and feel other people should feel guilty about cooperation with lie. Conscience as the self-regulation of cooperation results in maximum eager cooperation without lie. External moral codes appear when internal self-regulating conscience is lost as described in Dao Te Jing. Therefore, when the Great Way is rejected, it is then that we have the virtues of humanity and righteousness. When knowledge and wisdom appear, it is then that there is great

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hypocrisy. When the six relations are not in harmony, it is then that we have filial piety and compassion. When the country is in chaos and confusion, it is then that there are virtuous officials. (Chapter 18, Dao Te Jing) Hyper bond leads to compassion. Human is the most compassionate animal. Hyper detection leads to the detection and control of one’s own mind, resulting in concentration, mindfulness, and realization of harmonious mind. Concentrate allows the mind in the beneficial state of mind away from the harmful state of mind. Mindfulness converts harmful unconscious thought and emotion into neutral mindfulness that one can deal with rationally. The realization of the harmonious mind recognizes that the through compassion, concentration, and mindfulness, one can enter the state of the harmonious mind different from typical non-harmonious mind in the world. The realization of the harmonious mind allows a person to enter in the state of harmonious mind to gain strength and peace of mind. 3. harmonious adaptation The harmonious adaptation is the way for the harmonious society to live in the non-harmonious world. The harmonious adaptation is non-confrontational and flexible like water. Water is soft, and can be fitted to any shape. At the same time, water is beneficial. The harmonious religion does not intend to control other religions, economy, and politics. The harmonious religion can be fitted to any religions, economy, and politics. The harmonious religion with harmonious society and mind is beneficial to other religions, economy, and politics. The Harmonious Natural Platform
Foundations harmonious society harmonious mind Model Christianity Buddhism factors small group structure existential interdependence based on division of labor hyper bond = compassion hyper detection = concentration, mindfulness, and realization of harmonious mind non-confrontational and flexible like water

harmonious adaptation

Daoism

The harmonious natural platform is based on harmonious society, mind, and adaptation from Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism, respectively. 11.2. The Optimal Economy The optimal economy has the optimal equality economy between divisive capitalism and divisive socialism and the optimal dual economy between divisive economy and cooperative economy. Optimal Equality Economy Capitalism is derived from divisive individualistic society, while socialism is derived from divisive collectivistic society. To capitalism, freedom is moral, and restriction is immoral. To socialism, supremacy of classless society with equality is moral, and inferiority of classless society with equality is immoral. Freedom generates inequality. The optimal economy has the optimal equality (freedom) between freedom in capitalism and equality in socialism. Different environments produce different excessive deviations from the optimal equality. Any

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technological revolutions typically cause economic and social upheaval, resulting in excessive economic inequality deviated from the optimal equality. Any revolutions from the oppressed people typically cause excessive economic equality deviated from the optimal equality. After the rise of communism, in the democratic countries in the West, the threat of socialism from communism led to the excessive equality deviated from the optimal equality. The sign of the excessive equality was excessive inflation resulted from the high demand of workers for high wages and full employment. Under high wages and excessive inflation, capitalists had little incentive to produce, resulting in low aggregate supply as the economic detriment. Without the beneficial feedback from capitalism to narrow the deviation, the excessive equality brought about stagflation, the combination of inflation and stagnation. In the Postmodern Period, the telecommunication information revolution brought about excessive inequality deviated from the optimal equality. The sign of the excessive inequality is excessive high risk debt from the poor common people and states. With low income for common people and states, common people and states could not spend, resulting in low aggregate demand as the economic detriment. Without the beneficial feedback from socialism to narrow the deviation, the excessive inequality brought about the financial crisis resulting in the Great Recession. The optimal economy provides freedom in viable free market system, equality in strong labor market and sustainable welfare system, social mobility in low cost education system, and broad development in robust infrastructure. Such optimal economy democratic society is achievable as in some of the Northern European countries that rank high in capitalistic free market system, sustainable social welfare, optimal income equality and social mobility, and viable infrastructure. The optimal economy has the optimal equality economy , and brings capitalism and socialism together in the Unity Period. Optimal Dual Economy The optimal economy has the optimal dual economy between divisive economy and cooperative economy. In divisive economy, freedom and supremacy are moral, and restriction and inferiority are immoral. In cooperative economy, reciprocity and cohesive relationship are moral, and egotism and divisive bigotry are immoral. Cooperation can be cultural and situational. Cultural cooperation is derived from the nomad with the divisive worldview or agricultural culture with cooperative worldview. Situational cooperation is derived from global corporations where the degrees of cooperation are different under different situations. In terms of cultural traditions, divisive economy and cooperative economy disdain each other. To divisive worldview of divisive economy, reciprocity and cohesive relationship in cooperative economy are economic stagnation by keeping business relationships too long and too close. To cooperative worldview of cooperative economy, freedom and supremacy in divisive economy are disharmony in a constant state of economic conflict. Divisive economy considers cooperative economy as stagnated economy, while cooperative economy considers divisive economy as disharmonious economy. Such contempt exists between mobile nomadic society and sedentary agricultural society. Nomadic society considers agricultural society as stagnated society staying in one place too long. Agricultural society considers nomadic society as disharmonious society in a constant state of plundering. In the Bible written by nomad Hebrew tribe, God favored shepherd Abel over farmer Cain. In large competitive global corporations, both strategies of cooperation and division are used. For buyer-supplier, different products are dealt with different strategies61. Products can be

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core products or peripheral products. For automobile manufacturers, the core products relate to essential products for the movement of a car, such as engine, transmission, and brake. Any other products are peripheral products. Core products require the highest degree of cooperation between buyer and supplier with long term relationship and frequent contacts. Different degrees of cooperation are for different peripheral products. In new complex peripheral products, the technology involved is complex, new, and continuously shifting, the degree of cooperation between buyer and supplier with short term relationship and infrequent contact. In old simple peripheral products, the technology involved is simple and well-established; the degree of cooperation is the second lowest. In old complex peripheral products, the technology is complex and well-established; the degree of cooperation is the highest for peripheral products. As a result, the degree of cooperation between buyer and supplier varies with different types of products. For competitors, the cooperation through cross licensing are common, so both strategies of division and cooperation are used even among competitors. Sometimes, a competitor is also a supplier. The optimal dual economy is different in differ cultures and situations. The optimal dual economy provides the best cooperation to avoid over-cooperation or under-cooperation in different cultures and situations. The optimal economy has the optimal dual economy, and brings divisive economy and cooperative economy together in the Unity Period. 11.3. The Optimal Politics The optimal politics has the optimal dual politics between democracy and meritocracy. In general, meritocracy based on reciprocity and cohesive relationship is more orderly than democracy based on freedom and supremacy. Order can be affected by culture and size. Cultural cooperation is derived from the nomad with the divisive worldview or agricultural culture with cooperative worldview. Scalar order is is derived from the sizes of political domains that can be small local domain or large national domain. In terms of cultural traditions, democracy as divisive politics and meritocracy as cooperative politics disdain each other. Democracy considers meritocracy as stagnated politics allowing an elite group to serve people without direct and total participation of all people all the time. Democracy has a hard time to believe the cooperation of people with such elite group without enormous pressure in meritocracy, and to believe the legitimacy of the elite group in meritocracy without the approval of all people all the time. To the divisive worldview of democracy, people do not cooperate easily unless it is under the pressure of rulers or the majority of people. Democracy keeps reminding people how oppressive meritocracy is. To the cooperative world of meritocracy, people cooperate easily because all people in one political system are in the in-group where people cooperate easily such as in a family. People are willing to cooperate with the people who are elected by merit. To sedentary cooperative worldview as in sedentary agricultural society that likes to stay in one place, political change is dangerous. Meritocracy breaks down when government officials are no longer being considered as in-group, and government officials are not elected by merit. Meritocracy considers democracy as disharmonious politics in a constant state of political conflict. Meritocracy has a hard time to believe the durability of government with such political conflict in democracy, and to believe the capability of government in democracy. To cooperative worldview of meritocracy, conflicts lead to political chaos, and only people elected by merit are capable people. Meritocracy keeps reminding people how chaotic and incompetent

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democracy is. To divisive worldview of democracy, conflicts are easily settled by legal system such as constitution, and the wisdom of all people elects the government with the best capability. To mobile divisive worldview of democracy as in mobile nomadic society, political change is normal. Democracy breaks down when people do not observe the laws, the laws do not exist or become obsolete, and information is distorted to prevent people to choose a good government. Basically, the primary goal of democracy is political freedom, while the primary goal of meritocracy is political cohesion. The way for democracy to reach political cohesion is through political centre-ground to counter extreme polarization. Without political centre-ground, violent polarization leads to political and social chaos. The way for meritocracy to reach political cohesion is through political flexibility to accommodate diversity. Without political flexibility, unyielding rigidity leads to dictatorship and coup. Therefore, to preserve democracy, the power of divisive polarized ideologies must be structurally limited, and to preserve meritocracy, the power of rigidity must be structurally limited. While different cultures favor different political systems, different sizes of political domain also favor different political systems. Small local political domain favors democracy, and large regional and national political domain consisting of different political units favors meritocracy. The politics in a small local political domain, such as city and village, is practical and direct. Ideology is not important in local politics. Practical solutions to practical issues are important. The interests of people are connected directly. Political order is not difficult to reach as long as the politics is local without linking to national politics. Democracy provides the legitimacy of local government. Typically, local political domain is dominated by one political party anyway in a democratic country, so partisan politics or nonpartisan politics is not an issue. The politics in large national political domain, on the other hand, is abstract and divided. Ideology and ethnic group are important. Different local domains have different interests. Without common goal, political order is difficult to reach. In democracy, national politicians must represent the interests of local domains to be able to be reelected, resulting in severe political division in national political domain. In meritocracy, national officials selected by merit based on education, service performance to people, and ethics are able to consider the national interest as a whole, resulting in rational decisions for the interest of whole nation. For the optimal dual politics in terms of political domain size, democracy needs the feedback from meritocracy for national politics, while meritocracy needs the feedback from democracy for local politics. The feedback from meritocracy to democracy allows the meritocracy-like politics in national politics, and the feedback from democracy to meritocracy provides democracy-like politics in local politics. To make national democratic government more like meritocratic government is to shift the attention of elected national officials more toward national interest and less toward local interest. In this way, elected national officials focus their attention to find solutions to the issues of a nation as a whole. One way to do it is to increase the service time of elected national officials and to limit the term to a single term without immediate reelection. For example, in America, the service times of representative, senator, and president are increased to four, eight, and eight year single term, respectively. It is still possible to have intermittent reelection and election to different political positions. The elected national officials will think in terms of longterm and broad perspectives, and think about legacy instead of reelection. Without the need for money to reelection, elected national officials will be less influenced by political contribution, and will more concentrate in work. Nonpartisan national bureaucrats will be increased to

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compensate the absence of very long experiences of some elected national officials by continuous reelection. Partisan political appointments will be decreased. The structure of meritocratic nonpartisan politics is same as the three-branched government in democratic partisan unified politics. The difference is that the nonpartisan politics has the meritocratic “Political Service Society” as a meritocratic professional society to administer politics. As the core of democracy is divisive democratic political party, the core of meritocracy is cooperative Political Service Society. Without divisive democratic political party, democracy cannot exist. Without cooperative Political Service Society, meritocracy cannot exist. Divisive political political parties are loyal to democracy, while cooperative Political Service Society is loyal to meritocracy. In the optimal dual politics, the Political Service Society allows democratic election in local government, while keeps meritocratic selection in national government. The Political Service Society is functioned as the professional organization to provide professional government officials through education, local democratic election, and large regional and national meritocratic selection. It operates like a professional association where all top elected and selected government officials are the members of the Political Service Society. The Political Service Society recruits the people who are interested in public affair to become the members starting from young age from all different groups. It instills honor, duty, and service in the members of the Political Service Society. The Political Service Society establishes a comprehensive system for selecting and promoting political officials that involves training and exams for officials at various stages of their careers. Like the military organization, the Political Service Society operates the schools for government service to train future government officials. The Political Service Society establishes scholastic institutes for the advanced training of officials and the analysis of politics for local and national governments. The Political Service Society allows politics to be professional, intellectualized, and rational. People want the military organization to provide military professionals to protect nation, and the medical association to provide medical professionals to heal people. In the same way, people want the Political Service Society to provide professional government officials to do governmental serves. In the optimal dual politics, the Political Service Society administers the democratic election for local government, including all legislators below national level and top executive officials for small and medium villages and cities. The democratic election does not involve the voters in very large area, such as very large city, and in an area consisting of consisting of geographically disconnected political units, such as in province and nation, so the democratic election involves only the voters in relatively homogenous political units. The Political Service Society certifies and selects candidates for the election of local governmental officials, finances the campaign process, organizes election process, and determines the election result. Local politics is practical concerning about small details in daily life. Local political election is not emotional and divisive. National politics, on the other hand, concerns about long term direction and manages many vastly different areas. National politics is more emotional and divisive. Therefore, national selection should be different from local election. The Political Service Society administers the meritocratic selection for large governmental units, including the national legislators and top executive officials in provinces (states), large regions, large cities, and nation. The meritocratic selection involves the people in very large area and in the area consisting of geographically disconnected political units. The Political Service Society administers the meritocratic selection for all top officials in judiciary

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branch. All meritocratic selection is based on education, service performance to people, and ethics. Both local and national governments must have robust checks and balances among the three branches of government. The top executive and judiciary officials selected by the Political Service Society must be approved by the legislators. All top officials can be in the same positions for on more than two terms. The number of the years in each term is longer in meritocratic selected governmental officials than in democratic elected governmental officials. The optimal politics is based on the optimal dual politics that allows democracy to add meritocracy in national government, and allows meritocracy to add democracy in local government. The optimal politics brings divisive politics and cooperative politics together in the Unity Period. 11.4. The Optimal Environment Divisive anthropocentrism based on human freedom and supremacy is directly opposite to cooperative environmentalism based on human-environment reciprocity and cohesive relationship. For anthropocentrism, human restriction and inferiority are immoral. For environmentalism, human-environment egotism and divisive bigotry are immoral. In practical terms, anthropocentrism means human reckless consumption of natural resource, and environmentalism means ecological stability. The optimal environment has the optimal ecological footprint between anthropocentrism and environmentalism. The optimal ecological footprint can be described as the HPI (Happy Planet Index)62 that measures the environmental efficiency of supporting well-being in a given country. .
Happy Planet Index ≈ Experienced wellbeing X Life exp ec tan cy Eco log ical footpr int

Experienced wellbeing is derived from the responses of the question about the quality of life by the Gallop poll. Life expectancy is derived from the life expectancy data from the 2011 UNDP Human Development Report. Ecological Footprint is a measure of resource consumption as a per capita measure of the amount of land required to sustain a country’s consumption patterns, measured in terms of global hectares (g ha) which represent a hectare of land with average productive biocapacity. The best HPI country is Costa Rica with a medium environmental impact (25% of the impact in the USA) and very high well-being as the happiest country by the Gallop poll and high life expectance higher than the USA. The second best country is Vietnam with only mediocre well-being, but very low environmental impact. Nine out of the ten top countries are located in the Caribbean Basin, despite high levels of poverty. The HPI puts current and future well-being at the heart of measurement. It frames the development of each country in the context of real environmental limits. The HPI ranking is different from the World Happiness Report63 by United Nations. The six most important factors in the World Happiness Report are real GDP per capita, social support, healthy life expectancy, perceived freedom to make life choices, freedom from corruption, and generosity. The World Happiness Report measures the economic, social, and political wellbeing of the current generation without considering the future generations. The happiest countries are mostly located in the Northern Europe, such as Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, and Sweden, which have sufficient wealth by high GDP per capital, the optimal

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equality by social support and freedom to make life choice, the optimal political order by freedom from corruption, and good social value by generosity. Among the top 40 countries by overall HPI score, only four countries have a GDP per capita of over US$15,000. The goal is to move the HPI’s of even wealthy nations toward the HPI like Costa Rica. To improve HPI is to increase experienced wellbeing and life expectancy and to decrease ecological footprint. Experienced wellbeing and life expectancy do not depend on wealth (GDP per capital) alone which leaves high ecological footprint. One important way to increase experienced wellbeing and life expectancy is to increase cultural, religious, and family activities that do not have high ecological footprint. The identity with culture, religion, and family decreases the desire to find identity by consumerism that leave high ecological footprint. Ecological footprint relates to sustainability that requires living within the regenerative and absorptive capacity of the planet. Humanity's collective ecological footprint breached the sustainability mark in the late 1970s. The main culprit in the US's oversized ecological Footprint is energy consumption. fossil fuels used for electricity and transportation make up the largest segment of America's ecological footprint while use of crop and pasture land are the largest contributors to the footprints of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The minimization of ecological footprint requires the minimization of material usage and the increase in renewable energy. The minimization of material usage needs to reduce the material usage, to reuse material, and to recycle material. The initial design of materials has to incorporate the needs to reduce, to reuse, and to recycle. Tax structure should also encourage reduction, reuse, and recycling of materials. Renewable energy involves renewable natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides, river, plant growth, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy can be particularly suitable for developing countries without extensive energy transporting infrastructure. All existing energy supply arrangements can be replaced by renewable energy by 2050. The optimal environment provides sustainability that meets human needs not only in the present but also for generations to come. It has the optimal ecological footprint equivalent to the high HPI, and brings unity between anthropocentrism and environmentalism together in the Unity Period. The immediate threat from the environmental degradation is the world food shortage. The increasing human population and human affluence start to stretch the postmodern earth to the tipping points beyond which change becomes irreversible. In the world, it is increasingly hard to expand the world’s grain supply fast enough to keep up with demand, and the price surges become permanent, as described by Lester Brown in “Could Food Shortages Bring down Civilization?"64. The trends of increasing demand include the ongoing addition of more than 70 million people a year; a growing number of people wanting to move up the food chain to consume highly grain-intensive livestock products, and the massive diversion of U.S. grain to ethanol-fuel distilleries. World population growth was about 1.2 percent per year in 2010. People in low-income countries, such as India, consume a about a pound of grain a day. In affluent countries such as the U.S. and Canada, grain consumption per person is nearly four times mostly indirectly as meat, milk and eggs from grain-fed animals... As some parts of the world become increasingly affluent, the consumption of grain increases. A huge jump of grain consumption is attributable to the orgy of investment in ethanol distilleries in the United States in 2006-2008. The diversion of U.S. grain to ethanol-fuel distilleries reduces the grain to food supply.

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The trends of decreasing supply include the shortage of freshwater, the loss of topsoil and the rising temperatures of global warming. The shortage of freshwater is partly from aquifer depletion due to the large-scale use of mechanical pumps to exploit underground water. Such aquifer depletion affects half the world's people. Once an aquifer is depleted, pumping is necessarily reduced to the rate of recharge. With the shortage of water, the grain yield starts to decrease. The conversion of agricultural land to other usages and the poor conservation of topsoil cause the loss of topsoil. Two huge dust bowls, one across northwest China, western Mongolia, and central Asia and the other in central Africa are forming. A study published by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences has confirmed a rule of thumb among crop ecologists: for every rise of one degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) above the norm, wheat, rice and corn yields fall by 10 percent. This relationship was borne out all too dramatically during the 2010 heat wave in Russia, which reduced the country's grain harvest by nearly 40 percent. The rising temperatures of global warming decreases grain yields. Meanwhile, the modern plant-breeding techniques have already tapped most of the potential for raising crop yields. In some countries the yields appear to be near their practical limits. Until recently, sudden price surges just didn't matter as much, as they were quickly followed by a return to the relatively low food prices that helped shape the political stability of the late 20th century across much of the globe. Now it is increasingly hard to expand the world’s grain supply fast enough to keep up with demand, and the price surges become permanent. The doubling of world grain prices since early 2007 has affected affluent and poor countries differently. Less than 10% of the income in America is spent in food, so the food price surge does not affect Americans significantly. However, for the poorest 2 billion people, who spend 50 to 70 percent of their income on food, these soaring prices means severe hardship, contributing revolutions and upheaval. It has already happened in Haiti and some poor countries in the Arab Middle East and the North Africa. Some of them can turn into failing states. Failing states are of international concern because they are a source of terrorists, drugs, weapons and refugees, threatening political stability everywhere. The continuation of the unsustainable earth generates more failing states that endanger world peace. For the wealthy food importing countries, as world food security deteriorates, a dangerous geopolitics of food scarcity is emerging. Land grabbing, water grabbing, and buying grain directly from farmers in exporting countries are now integral parts of a global power struggle for food security65. To keep national security and political stability, the world seems to be moving away from the international cooperation to an every-country-for-itself philosophy. Such food nationalism endangers world peace. The basic cause for the food failing states and food nationalism is the unsustainable postmodern earth. The unsustainable postmodern earth causes many problems, and food failing states and food nationalism are the immediate problems that threaten world peace. Lester Brown proposes Plan B66 to develop the sustainable earth for agriculture. Similar in scale and urgency to the U.S. mobilization for World War II, Plan B has four components: a massive effort to cut carbon emissions by 80 percent from their 2006 levels by 2020, the stabilization of the world’s population at eight billion by 2040, the eradication of poverty; and the restoration of forests, soils and aquifers. The challenge is not only to implement Plan B but also to do it quickly to save the Greenland ice sheet and the mountain glaciers of Asia and to prevent the breakdown of civilization. Plan B requires major commitment of resources. The projected cost for saving

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civilization would amount to less than $200 billion a year, an eighth of current global military spending. In effect, Plan B is the new security budget. Net carbon dioxide emissions can be cut by the increase in energy efficiency and investing massively in renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, and geothermal energies. It is necessary to ban deforestation worldwide and plant billions of trees to sequester carbon. The transition from fossil fuels to renewable forms of energy can be driven by imposing a tax on carbon, while offsetting it with a reduction in income taxes. Stabilizing population and eradicating poverty go hand in hand. In fact, the key to accelerating the shift to smaller families is eradicating poverty—and vice versa. One way is to ensure at least a primary school education for all children, girls as well as boys. Another is to provide rudimentary, village-level health care, so that people can be confident that their children will survive to adulthood. Women everywhere need access to reproductive health care and family-planning services. The fourth component, restoring the earth’s natural systems and resources, incorporates a worldwide initiative to arrest the fall in water tables by raising water productivity: the useful activity that can be wrung from each drop. That implies shifting to more efficient irrigation systems and to more water-efficient crops. In some countries, it implies growing more wheat and less rice, a water-intensive crop. And for industries and cities, it implies doing what some are doing already, namely, continuously recycling water. The conservation of soil is done by terracing the ground, planting trees as shelterbelts against windblown soil erosion, and practicing minimum tillage. The focus and the mobilization in the development of the sustainable earth can bring people in the world together. The conversion from the military spending that is basically an economically dead end spending into the sustainable earth spending is an economically beneficial spending in short term and in long term can stimulate economic growth in this slow growth period. Many jobs can be created directly and indirectly to solve the unemployment problems. World peace is on a firm ground with the sustainable earth.

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12. The World Defense Organization
12.1. Mutual Annihilation National Grand Strategy A national grand strategy is its foreign policy theory about how to produce national security. Security has traditionally encompassed the preservation of a nation’s physical safety, the country’s sovereignty and its territorial integrity, and its power position. The four different grand strategies are passive offensive military, active offensive military, passive defensive military, and active defensive military. The goal of offensive military is winning battle and war by occupying its enemy’s territory, while the goal of defensive military is winning peace by antioccupying its territory (land, air, and sea) by its enemy without necessarily winning battle and war. Grand Strategy
Grand Strategy Offensive Military Defensive Military Goal winning battle and war by occupying winning peace by anti-occupying Type passive offensive active offensive passive defensive active defensive Method primacy selective offense fortification selective defense

Passive offensive military reacts passively and indiscriminately to any troublesome areas by occupying the troublesome areas (land, air, and sea). The method is primacy. After the Cold War, the US grand strategy is primacy. Primacy holds that only a preponderance of U.S. power ensures peace. As a result, it advocates that the United States’ pursue ultimate hegemony and dominate the international system economically, politically and militarily. Therefore, its proponents argue that U.S. foreign policy should focus on maintaining U.S. power and preventing any other power from becoming a serious challenger to the United States. It is very costly to maintain passive offensive military. Active offensive military reacts actively and selectively to troublesome areas by selectively occupying troublesome areas (land, air, and sea). The method of active offensive is selective offense. Recently, the US grand strategy starts to shift from passive offensive military to active offensive military. Selective engagement advocates that the United States should intervene in regions of the world only if they directly affect its security and prosperity. Most proponents of this strategy believe Europe, Asia and the Middle East matter most to the United States. The most important area is Asia that will dominate the global economy. The planned active offensive military will be able to selectively occupy one nation, but will be responsible to deter an opportunistic aggressor in a second region. It is less costly to maintain active offensive military than passive military. Passive defensive military reacts to occupation from offensive military passively. The method is fortification waiting for the attack from offensive military. The examples of fortification are the Great Wall of China, the French Maginot Line in the World War II, and the deterrence through nuclear weapon response during the Cold War. Such passive defensive military is successful if the military strength of its enemy is not overwhelmingly stronger. The cost of passive defensive military is not much lower than offensive military. If the military strength of the enemy is overwhelmingly stronger, defensive military has to be active defensive

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military that uses selective and active anti-occupation (anti-access) method to attack the weak points of its overwhelmingly strong enemy. Four Mutual Annihilations In the interdependent world, offensive military is self-destructive because of mutual annihilation, including the economic mutual annihilation, the nuclear mutual annihilation, the arms race mutual annihilation, and the asymmetrical warfare mutual annihilation. 1. The Economic Mutual Annihilation The global trade interconnection has evolved into the supply-demand existential interdependence. All nations cannot be isolated from trade without severe economic consequence. No major nation generates all goods and service within the nation. All major nations import supply from other countries and export good and service to fill the demand from other countries. It is not difficult to simulate the devastating economic effect of the wars among major economic powers with so much mutual trades and investments. About half of the profit from top American corporations comes from overseas mainly Asia. America cannot produce a lot of goods and industrial parts, while America has overabundant agricultural products, telecommunication service, airplane production, weapons, high tech products, entertainment production, and national debt to other major economic powers. A war that disrupts such economic interdependence among major nations will produce economic disasters globally, resulting in mutually assured economic destruction and annihilation. 2. The Nuclear Mutual Annihilation The world peace during the Cold War was maintained by the awareness of mutually assured annihilation by nuclear weapons. This threat of mutual annihilation prevents any direct full-scale conflicts among the countries with nuclear weapons. 3. The Arms Race Mutual Annihilation Overextending military power caused the fall of the Roman Empire, and similarly, can cause the fall of American economy as described by Yale University historian Paul Michael Kennedy 67. A recent example is the fall of the Soviet Union. A major reason for the fall of the Soviet Union is the high cost of the arms race with the United States at the expense of the living standard of common people. At the same time, in the United States, Reagan increased $1.7 trillion in peace time defense spending for the period 1982-1987, resulting in the high federal deficit. The United States continues to engage in an arms race with some imaginary rivalries to increase continuously the federal deficit. It is very costly to maintain global offensive military. Global offensive military that can occupy its enemy’s territory anywhere in the world requires offshore military bases, large bombers, guided missiles, and aircraft carriers. The US has more than 700 overseas military bases, and the thirty-eight large and medium-sized American bases are for missiles, bombers, and fleets68. The US has 11 most advanced nuclear-powered aircraft carriers (cost about $10 billion each) out of 22 aircraft carriers in the world. .The maintenance of such global offensive military is costly. After the end of the cold war, world military expenditure fell significantly. Spending reached its lowest in the mid-to-late 1990s and then started to rise gradually. The attacks on the United States of 11 September 2001 prompted 8 years of rapidly increasing spending. The increase was led by the USA, fuelled by the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, but it was shared by most other countries, especially rising powers such as China, India and Russia. In 2012, the total military expenditure in the world is $1.753 trillion a year and 2.5% of GDP. The US military

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spending (about $682 billion a year and 4.4% of GDP) is about 39% of total military spending in the world, and is bigger than that of the next 10 countries combined69.

The USA’s military expenditure in 2012 was 69 per cent higher than in 2001. In the US, the military spending was more than all non-defense discretionary spending in 2010. To maintain the global offensive military, the US has to borrow money from the other major economic powers. The huge national debt will eventually lead to economic collapse as the debt nations in the EU. Adm. Michael Mullen, then the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, told CNN in 2010: "The most significant threat to our national security is our debt. 70" It is much less costly to maintain defensive military than global offensive military. The saving from the defense spending can be used in strengthening national economy by paying off the national debt. On July 14, 2010, Congressman Ron Paul from Texas, GOP conservative presidential contender and Congressman Barney Frank from Massachusetts, a no-apologies liberal Democrat, proposed a trillion-dollar cut over the next decade in defense spending71. We can’t afford our own security policy, say Frank and Paul. And it’s not making us secure. Zbigniew Brzezinski, Jimmy Carter's national security advisor, points out in 2012 in his book, Strategic Vision: America and the Crisis of Global Power72,

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Indeed, there are several alarming similarities between the Soviet Union in the years just prior to its fall and the America of the early twenty-first century. The Soviet Union, with an increasingly gridlocked governmental system incapable of enacting serious policy revisions, in effect bankrupted itself by committing an inordinate percentage of its GNP to a decades-long military rivalry with the United States and exacerbated this problem by taking on the additional costs of a decade long attempt to conquer Afghanistan. Not surprisingly, it could not afford to sustain its competition with America in cutting-edge technological sectors and thus fell further behind; its economy stumbled and the society's quality of life further deteriorated in comparison to the West; its ruling Communist class became cynically insensitive to widening social disparities while hypocritically masking its own privileged life-style. The high expense of arms race brings about economic mutual annihilation in terms of national economy. 4. The Asymmetrical Warfare Mutual Annihilation The asymmetrical warfare is between a strong military offensive force and a weak nationalistic military defensive force. When the military strength of the enemy is overwhelmingly stronger, defensive military has to be active defensive military that uses selective and active anti-occupation (anti-access) method to attack the weak points of its overwhelmingly strong enemy. Active defensive military avoids direct confrontation of the main force of offensive military. The anti-occupation weapons can be high tech or low tech. For the high tech antioccupation weapons, aircraft carriers and offshore bases are incapacitated by the missile waves from land, aircrafts, ships, and submarines and the telecommunication- information disruptions from land, aircrafts, ships, submarine, and space. Information-telecommunication is critically important in the high tech Post-Cold War warfare. The missile waves and informationtelecommunication disruptions are much cheaper than $billon aircraft carriers and military bases. The goal of the missile waves and the information-telecommunication disruptions is to incapacitate instead of destroy totally aircraft carriers and military bases. The seven principles of Chinese active defensive military are avoiding direct confrontation, seizing the initiative early, surprise, preemption, key point strikes against critical nodes, concentrated attack, and information superiority. The low tech anti-occupation weapons include small weapons, rocket launcher, shoulder-fired missile, and improvised explosive device (IED). Both high tech and low tech anti-occupation weapons become highly sophisticate, so offensive military has to build antianti-occupation weapons resulting in increasing the cost of offensive military. Politically, active defensive military has to avoid and strongly denounce terrorism that kills deliberately innocent civilians. The overwhelmingly strong offensive military with overwhelmingly strong propaganda apparatus can easily brand the weak active defensive military of being bandits, pillagers or terrorists to justify its occupation. Therefore, active defensive military must not help the propaganda apparatus of the occupation force by terrorist acts. The correct focus of war for the world opinion is occupation. Psychologically, active defensive military has to prepare the mentality of losing battle. It is not possible defeat the overwhelmingly strong occupation force in battle. Active defensive military minimizes the loss in battle, and protracts the war as long as possible to cause the selfdefeat of offensive military that finally realizes the high cost and futility of occupation against active defensive military. When the land is actually occupied by offensive military, the most

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effective weapon of active defensive military is the reaction toward the ill-fitted and repulsive social and political system imposed by the occupation force in comparison with the social and political system before the occupation. Offensive military actually has an abysmal record of winning. Since the World War II, offensive military has not defeated active defensive military in interstate wars, and active defensive military has defeated democratic or authoritarian offensive military many times in poor Africa and Asia. History clearly shows the vulnerability of offensive military against active defensive military. The American military strategists recognize the vulnerability of offensive military against active defensive military. In his February 2011 West Point speech, then defense secretary Robert Gates declared that “any future defense secretary who advises the president to again send a big American land army into Asia or into the Middle East or Africa should ‘have his head examined73.” One example of military and political mutual annihilation is the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The overwhelming advantages of Israel weapons have been eroded. Hezbollah with active defensive military weapons as sophisticated anti-tank rockets and other RPG's produced a great damage to Israeli tanks and Israeli infantry in 2006. Hamas has Russian-made laser-guided anti-tank missiles. Now Israel is well prepared with a new expensive defense system, Iron Doom that can shoot down incoming rockets. At $40,000 a shot is expensive to shoot down one rocket that often does not cause more than $400 in damage. Hamas is testing the Iron Doom to find the weakness of Iron Dome. As the weapons by Hamas and its supporters get more accurate, more powerful, more miniature, and longer range, Israel is developing a defense infrastructure, "David's Sling" for the mid-range missiles and Arrow missile interceptor for the ballistic missile defense in an endless and expensive arms race with Hamas and its supporters, and can no longer guarantee a military victory. The continuation of the military occupation eventually will lead to one state with Arabs as the majority. In spite of the strong Israeli policy of Jewish immigration from abroad, the Jewish population and the Arab population now are about the same (6 million each) for the onestate of Israel and Palestine. However, due to their substantially higher rates of population growth, the Arabs in this one-state would soon outnumber the Jews, and by 2050 Arabs would account for nearly two-thirds of the one-state population. Under the democratic system in the one state, Israel will have to grant the citizenship to the Arabs in Palestine, resulting in the loss of the Jewish state. In democratic Israel, Israel loses the Jewish identity. Otherwise, as described by committed Zionist, Peter Beinart, the senior political writer for The Daily Beast, If … Israel occupies the West Bank in perpetuity without granting citizenship to its Palestinian inhabitants, it will remain a Jewish state, but become an apartheid one.74 Apartheid Israel is the political mutual annihilation for Jews and Arabs. In apartheid Israel, Israel loses the identity of democracy and the Jewish identity of justice and egalitarianism, and the Arabs lose citizenship. 12.2. Interdependent Realism: The World Defense Organization

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A most important theory about international relations is John J. Mearsheimer’s offensive realism in his book The Tragedy of Great Power Politics75. The five “bedrock assumptions” of John Mearsheimer’s offensive realism are as follows. 1) The international system of great powers is anarchic. 2) Great powers possess the means to physically harm and possibly destroy other powers. 3) A state can never be certain about the intentions of other states in the system and can therefore never be certain that other states will not attack. 4) The primary goal of great powers is survival. 5) Great powers are rational actors, capable of coming up with sound strategies that maximize their prospects for survival. The result of offensive realism is the formation of regional or global hegemons by great powers to maximize offensive military for survival. For the interdependent world, the theory about international relations is interdependent realism similar to John J. Mearsheimer’s offensive realism. The five bedrock assumptions are as follows. 1. The international system of great powers is interdependent existentially in terms of economy and military. 2. Great powers possess the means to destroy one another, leading to mutual annihilation. 3. A state can never be certain about the intentions of other states in the system and can therefore never be certain that other states will not attack. 4. The primary goal of great powers is mutual existence in terms physical, political, and economic wellbeing to avoid mutual annihilation. 5. Great powers are rational actors, capable of coming up with sound strategies that maximize their prospects for mutual existence to avoid mutual annihilation. Today, great powers, particularly the United States, continue to pursuit offensive realism, but they all realize to the real possibility of mutual annihilation economically and militarily. In reality, there is considerable military cooperation among opposing great powers to reduce the tension. The reality of the world today is the interdependent world, but the great powers continue to play the game of unrealistic offensive realism. It is time to get real to accept interdependent realism maximizing the prospects for mutual existence avoiding mutual annihilation for the good of all nations. In trade, one way to maximize trade is to form the World Trade Organization (the WTO an intergovernmental organization). In defenses, one way to maximize mutual existence is to form the World Defense Organization (the WDO an intergovernmental organization). The way for the WTO to maximize trade is to minimize trade barrier and to settle trade dispute. The way for the WDO to maximize mutual existence is to minimize offensive military and to settle military dispute. The minimization of offensive military in terms of the prevention of economic, nuclear, arms race, and asymmetrical warfare mutual annihilations is by free trade without military interference, the minimization of nuclear weapons, the minimization of military expenditure, and the minimization of hegemony for mutual existence. Mutual Existence The four mutual existences are as follows. 1. Free Trade without Military Interference

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Trade is an important part of economy. It is necessary to have free trade without military interference. Any military interference of free trade without the approval of the United Nations demands a strong response such as coordinated economic sanction against the violator. 2. The Minimization of Nuclear Weapons It involves the continuous reduction of nuclear weapons from the countries with nuclear weapons, and the non-Proliferation of nuclear weapons for the countries without nuclear weapon. 3. The Minimization of Military Expenditure The current average military expenditure for all nations is 2.5% of GDP. The first step in the minimization of military expenditure is the moratorium on the increase of military expenditure. In a certain period of time, the military expenditure will be reduced to 1% of GDP. No military expenditure is spent in new weapon development. 4. The Minimization of Hegemony The interdependent world is like one country where no one local power or a group of local powers is able to intimidate other local powers militarily. In the interdependent world, hegemony cannot exist. Hegemony is established by huge military power, military occupation, overseas military bases, aircraft carriers, and mutual defense treaty with other countries. Huge military power can be minimized by the minimization of military expenditure. Military occupation and overseas military bases are possible only with the approval of the United Nations. Any military military occupation and overseas military based without the approval of the United Nations demands a strong response such as coordinated economic sanction against the violator. Aircraft carrier is basically an offensive military weapon. Without aircraft carriers, Japan could have never attacked Pearl Harbor. Aircraft carriers should be converted into civilian use such as disaster relief ships. Mutual defense treaty is used mainly for hegemony, and is not very useful when the national interest changes. In 1793, President George Washington did not defend the French in their war with England in spite of the treaty of alliance of 1778 with France. In the interdependent world, mutual defense treaty should be converted into nonaggression pact. The WDO should encourage bilateral and multilateral nonaggression pacts along with bilateral and multilateral trade treaties among all nations. No peace; no trade. The WDO also settle military dispute to avert the expansion of military dispute. The Mutual Annihilation and Existence in the Interdependent World
Mutual Annihilation economic mutual annihilation nuclear mutual annihilation arms race mutual annihilation asymmetrical warfare mutual annihilation Mutual Existence free trade without military interference the minimization of nuclear weapons the minimization of military expenditure the minimization of hegemony

The predecessor of the WTO is General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The military expenditure in the WDO is equivalent to tariff in the WDO. For the formation of the WDO, all nations are involved in the negotiation for the minimization of military expenditure. It took time to negotiate the minimization of tariff. It will also take time to negotiate the minimization of military expenditure. It will also take time to negotiate free trade without military interference the minimizations of nuclear weapons and hegemony, and the international court to settle international military disputes. The successful formation and the implementation of the WDO allow the nations in the interdependent world to focus in and reallocate the source in global environmental, health, educational, and economic problems for the good of all nations. World peace can be achieved by establishing the global unity of traditions and defenses.

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13. Summary
In the increasingly interdependent world, no nations and social groups can survive alone as separated entities, resulting in existential interdependence. The interdependent world is maintained by the global unity of traditions and defenses to prevent destructive extremism and mutual annihilation economically and militarily from offensive military, respectively. The global unity of traditions is achieved by establishing the optimal systems as the middle ways between the opposite traditions in religion, economy, politics, and environment. The global unity of defenses is achieved by establishing the World Defense Organization based on interdependent realism. The global unity leads to world peace without destructive extremism and mutual annihilation. The traditions are derived from the triple social-worldview structures. Originated from natural selection for the evolution of society, the triple social structure consists of individualistic (yang) society, collectivistic society (yin), and interdependent (harmonious) society. Originated from territorial instinct and civilization, the triple worldview structure consists of the divisive worldview of the West based on divisive morality for dealing with the world as out-group (outworld), the cooperative worldview of the East based on cooperative morality for dealing with the world as in-group (in-world), and the interdependent worldview of the interdependent world based on the interdependent morality. In divisive worldview, freedom and supremacy are moral, and restriction and inferiority are immoral. In cooperative worldview, reciprocity and cohesive relationship are moral, and egotism and divisive bigotry are immoral. In the interdependent worldview, the morality is global unity, and the immorality is global disunity. The various traditions in religion, economy, politics, and environment are derived from the various combinations of the worldviews and the societies. In religion, the divisive religions are Judaism, Islam, and Greek individualism, the cooperative religions are Hinduism and Confucianism, and the interdependent religions are Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism. In economy, divisive individualistic economy is capitalism, divisive collectivistic economy is socialism, cooperative individualistic economy is reciprocal economy, and cooperative collectivistic economy is cohesive economy. In politics, divisive politics is democracy, and cooperative politics is meritocracy. In environment, divisive environment is anthropocentrism, and cooperative environment is environmentalism. The optimal religion is based on the universal trinity creed consisting of the transcendental civilized platform for the unknowable transcendental supernatural, the immanent civilized platform for the knowable immanent supernatural, and the harmonious natural platform for the experiential conscience, corresponding roughly to the Father, the Son, and the Spirit in Christianity. The optimal economy is based on the optimal equality economy between capitalism and socialism to avoid excessive equality and inequality, and the optimal dual economy between divisive economy and cooperative economy to adapt to different cultures and situations. The optimal politics is based on the optimal dual politics between democracy and meritocracy to allow democracy to have meritocracy in national government and to allow meritocracy to have democracy in local government. The optimal environment is based on the optimal ecological footprint between anthropocentricism and environmentalism to avoid excess anthropocentricism and environmentalism. In the interdependent world, offensive military brings about mutual annihilations including the economic, nuclear, arms race, nuclear, and asymmetrical warfare mutual annihilations which can be prevented by the World Defense Organization in terms of free trade without military interference and the minimizations of nuclear weapons, military expenditure, and hegemony, respectively.

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