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Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop
3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM
Drones out of human loop controversy.
Notes by Alister William Macintyre Some people are in denial that drones are being developed, which decide what to do, refuel themselves, repair themselves, communicate thru networks, without human direct controls. Think like NASA robots on Mars, autonomous from human control, feeding back info, occasionally accepting software updates. For those people who think autonomous drones are some kind of science fiction fantasy which won’t exist until distant future, I cite examples of how such robots do exist today. Using robots in warfare is controversial, given apparent lack of accountability, when under human control. There is a policy debate whether we need upgrades to laws and treaties. Last updated 2013 Mar 09
Table of Contents Drone Robots Introduction (2 Dec 03) ............................................................................... 2 Autonomous Drones Debate (2 Dec 02) ............................................................................. 3 Autonomous Drones Exist (3 Mar 08) ! ..................................................................... 5 Relevant Terms Defined (3 Mar 09) ............................................................................... 6 Burglar Alarm involving drones + (3 Jan 07) ............................................................. 7 CIA+ definitions (3 Feb 08)........................................................................................ 8 Drone+ definitions (2 Dec 01) .................................................................................... 9 Future+ (2 Dec 02).................................................................................................... 10 Geneva+ (2 Dec 01) .................................................................................................. 10 GPS+ (2 Dec 02)....................................................................................................... 11 Latency+ definitions (3 Feb 28) ! ............................................................................. 12 SAWS+ fire and forget? (2 Nov 29) !....................................................................... 13 Sky Net+ and Parallels (3 Jan 10)............................................................................. 14 Semi-Autonomous Peru Drone Archeologist (3 Jan 10) .............................................. 16 USN Robot Guns (2 Nov 29)........................................................................................ 16 Israeli Iron Dome (2 Nov 29)........................................................................................ 16 Sky Net X47B lands on USN Aircraft Carrier (3 Mar 04) ! ......................................... 17 US Space Plane Drone X-37B (2 Dec 11) .................................................................... 17 US Military Drone future plans (2 Nov 28).................................................................. 17 Other sources (2 Nov 29) .............................................................................................. 18 HRW = Human Rights Watch (2 Nov 28) ! ..................................................................... 19 Lawfare on HRW (3 Feb 28) .................................................................................... 19 Allenby and Mattick (2 Dec 12) ................................................................................... 20 Anderson, Ken (2 Dec 25) ............................................................................................ 20 ASIL Autonomous Weapons Backgrounder (3 Jan 23) ............................................... 20 Bolton, Matthew IRAC Overview (2 Dec 12) .............................................................. 21
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Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop
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Center for New American Security (2 Dec 12) ............................................................ 23 Accountability Myth (2 Dec 12) ............................................................................... 24 CETMONS (2 Dec 12) ................................................................................................. 25 DoD (2 Dec 12)............................................................................................................. 26 Lawfare (2 Dec 03) ....................................................................................................... 26 Lawfare Matt & Ken (2 Dec 10)............................................................................... 26 Lawfare Concepts (2 Dec 12) ................................................................................... 28 Lawfare Reading List (2 Dec 12).............................................................................. 29 Lawfare Wittes and Malinowski (2 Dec 11)............................................................. 29 Harvard National Security Journal (3 Feb 18) .............................................................. 31 Red Cross, ICRC (2 Dec 12)......................................................................................... 31 Robinson, Paul U of Ottawa (2 Nov 29)....................................................................... 32 Accountability Complexity (2 Nov 29) .................................................................... 32 Singer, Peter on Robotics Revolution (2 Dec 12)......................................................... 33 Slate (2 Dec 12) ............................................................................................................ 34 SSRN = Social Science Research Network (2 Dec 03) ................................................ 34 USAF General Counsel Blog (2 Nov 28) !................................................................... 36 Drones and Accountability (2 Dec 12) ..................................................................... 36 Killer Robots Part 1 (2 Dec 12) ................................................................................ 36 Killer Robots Part 2 (2 Nov 29) ................................................................................ 37 Killer Robots Part 3 (2 Nov 29) ................................................................................ 37 Killer Robots Part 4 (2 Nov 29) ................................................................................ 38 Zenko, Micah (2 Dec 12) .............................................................................................. 38 Similar Treaties (2 Dec 12)............................................................................................... 40 Cluster Monition Treaty (2 Dec 12).......................................................................... 40 IHL in armed conflicts treaty (2 Dec 12).................................................................. 40 Land Mine Treaty (2 Dec 12) ................................................................................... 40 Civilized Human Principles (2 Dec 01) ............................................................................ 40 Laws of Robotics (2 Dec 03) .................................................................................... 40 Disaster Recovery (2 Dec 01) ....................................................................................... 41 Human Control Principle (2 Dec 01) ............................................................................ 41 Human Responsibility Principle (2 Dec 01) ................................................................. 42 Humanity Principle (2 Dec 01) ..................................................................................... 42 Killers Trade Ban (2 Dec 01)........................................................................................ 43 Killing with Non-Lethal Weapons (2 Dec 01).............................................................. 43
Drone Robots Introduction (2 Dec 03)
We are now moving towards killer robots, which will do their thing, without a human being in the decision loop. This raises many serious implications, which is the focus of these research notes. The first I have known of drones used in warfare was during WW II, when they were designed for weapons target practice, and German delivery of bombs to British cities, without pilots flying the delivery vehicles. Other people claim drones in warfare were not developed until many decades later. It is a matter of definition, whether various
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Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop
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rockets, aircraft which shoot other weapons, which do not have a pilot on board, should come under the same labeling, as the latest in a line of technological improvements. It is like saying the Wright Brothers did not have a airplane, because it was a technological toy, compared to the aircraft today, or that the first computers, which used punched cards and paper tape, are not really computers because they cannot compare to the digital computers of today. In Drone Issues, see chapter = Military Debates, for some issues associated with the development of killer robots, which can do their thing, without a human being in the loop. My drone documents have a version # in their naming, which I increment as I replace with re-writes. In parentheses after each heading is date in format (Year Month Day) when I last updated the contents of that chapter. So people with an earlier edition can see what has been updated since they last got a copy. Some chapter headings end in an exclamation point. These indicate either identification of a controversy, and-or links to what the facts may be. Other symbols may be added later. This helps correlation of conflicting info sources, in my further research. As I make significant additions and improvements to these research notes, I will upload revised editions various places on the Internet, for convenient access by other people who share some of my interests.1
Autonomous Drones Debate (2 Dec 02)
There is a debate raging about several related topics. 1. Persons with different professional and personal experience backgrounds can see different facets of areas of concern, while others are out of their imagination. 2. What is the status of autonomous and semi-autonomous drones, or killer robots without a human in the loop? There are conflicting stories about military plans, and I have seen video of autonomous drones, so I know they exist, even though many news stories and bloggers are in denial. I think some react to concepts saying this is science fiction, thus it is ludicrous to be even be debating this. Some of this comes from some people seeing early steps, military plans, realize possibilities, and speculate in a way, that others see as science fiction. 3. I have worked in midrange computing my entire career, and followed artificial intelligence (AI) intermittently. It seems to me that the state of art of software is heavily contaminated by mandates from non-technical managers, and leaders who believe computers are vastly superior in capabilities to reality. There is an astronomical risk here, not of Sky Net, but of mindless robots killing for no explicable reason. There have been incidents in the history of transportation and industrial automation, of robots killing humans, which sometimes took a while to
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figure out and solve.2 Fortunately in those past incidents, it was easy to divorce the machinery from the victims, while the diagnostics were conducted to figure out how to fix the problem. With killer robot drones, that might not be so easy. a. There are precedents of man made creations getting loose and doing serious damage, allegedly not intended by their creators. b. Consider what would happen if a civil engineer was modifying how a city’s sewage system worked, and made mistakes leading to every toilet in the city backing up, with fountain of recent human waste filling bathroom, spilling over into adjacent rooms of homes and offices. The responsible engineer would spend the rest of his life in prison, while his employer would go bankrupt, paying off the law suits. c. That is exactly what has happened with our Economic System. A group of financial engineers, working on Wall Street, and other places, made some modifications in how mortgages are tracked and invested in, encouraging a multi-year bubble in home prices, and mortgage securities, which ultimately led to a world wide Great Recession, an epidemic of foreclosures, massive unemployment, growth in homeless people, lost pensions, and the damage is continuing, such as in Europe. Their damage to the economic well being of the world, was just like my hypothetical engineer story. Yet instead of being held accountable, they earned multi million $ bonuses. They have created a mess so bad, that it is impossible for government regulators to put humpty dumpty back together again, to make their victims whole. 4. There are legal and ethical implications. Many people have written about them. In these notes, I identify some of those people, linking to their posts, and comment on some of what they have to say. There are huge questions about accountability. Who is to be held responsible when innocent people are killed or maimed, by one of these autonomous killer robot drones? a. Killer Bees are a plague on Central America, and spreading, with Global Warming. They are a man made disaster, with no one accountable. b. Mad Cow disease is now in many farm animals, wild animals, pets. It is a man made disaster, with no one accountable. c. Autonomous drones sounds like another man made disaster, with no one accountable. I wanted to split these notes into sections: Definitions of terminology, and popular expressions where there is some dispute what things really should be called. Artificial Intelligence capabilities for autonomous and semi-autonomous robots. State of Art, which has become unclassified, or we can find in media reports.
A common problem has been a lack of proper shielding for computer signals within devices, hearing signals from unrelated devices, which also lacked proper shielding. Thus: an industrial robot suddenly moves a heavy arm and kills people nearby; a high speed bullet train’s doors open, sucking many passengers out, when it passes apartment buildings with many children with hand held toys; an amusement park ride takes passengers to an unexpected location, at excessive speed, then crash; airport radar gets false signals, leading to a near miss of airliners.
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feeding. into a drone smuggled into · an Iranian nuclear power plant. · The possibilities are endless.mit. or other moving objects if it got into an elevator shaft for example. and links to other people discussing it.edu/newsoffice/2012/autonomous-robotic-plane-flies-indoors-0810. on behalf of USA or Israel. pointers to where I put notes if I digested the download. less money for recruiting.com/8423-autonomous-drones-not-just-military-tech-anymore-video.5 It is yet another example of future spy technology able to get into some place that could be cut off from human direct controls. they do not have an instinct for self-preservation.6 due to: political funding cut-backs. Legal and Ethical implications. 4 Here we see an impressive video of a robot plane navigating indoor obstacles at approx 22 mph. so they won’t lash out in fear. so it is not really practical to organize my notes that way. but that day is in the distant future. · Gitmo on behalf of some group planning a prison break. which are relevant. Military Robotics are on the rise. See my Drone Reports for: a directory of official documents.com/2012/12/19/killer-robots-are-coming-ai-experts-to-determine-their-threattoward-humanity/ 4 http://www. They are not yet Sky Net killing machines. It is unclear to me how this plane might cope with moving air of outdoors. anger. all the news stories. insurance.technewsdaily.html 6 http://icrac.com/2012/08/drones-keep-getting-better-and-better/ http://web. housing.com/contributed-news/5223454-the-ethical-and-moral-concerns-of-autonomousrobotic-systems 5 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder .5 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Laws and Treaties which exist so far. I can imagine this technology being made ever smaller.allvoices. The next development needed for this little guy is stealth of vision and sound.html 5 http://www. But the reality is that most all the reports out there. training. recklessness.lawfareblog. or moving air of internal heating cooling conduits. Autonomous Drones Exist (3 Mar 08) ! There are people who believe that some day. but important technological advances are being made. They are also not exclusively in the realm of the military. 3 http://singularityhub. intermingle allegations and denials regarding a whole spectrum of such concepts. all the blogs. using on-board sensors. they really do exist. the world will have what these notes are about. less staffing needed for complex missions. not yet satisfactorily addressed. which I have located on drones. what I called my copy if I downloaded it. 3 Thus I have multiple examples in these notes showing that theoretical some day is really today.net/2011/12/allvoices-the-ethical-and-moral-concerns-of-autonomous-robotic-systems/ http://www. without GPS or a human pilot involved.
org On [drone-list] https://mailman.smithsonianmag.000 concepts.edu/mailman/listinfo/drone-list 6 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . land in a battle zone.com/index.wired. 7 o UNQUOTE o See: Artificial Intelligence.net/2013/03/moral-machines-guru-takes-moral-high-ground-on-autonomousweapons/ The IRAC article is a summary of a longer article here: http://scienceprogress. and harm to humans in our military). and acronyms defined.uk/magazine/archive/2012/12/start/autonomous-flight 10 http://aviationintel.S. AI = Artificial Intelligence o According to an article in IRAC = International Committee for Robot Arms Control. with possible cross-pointer. places us all at risk. From my Drone Terms:7 3d printed autonomous drones.aspcr. QUOTE:11 “Research on artificial intelligence over the past 50 years has arguably been a contemporary Tower of Babel. however. speculation. and promises that cannot be fulfilled. Relevant Terms Defined (3 Mar 09) This topic will have concepts in need of some new definitions. which are related to Drones. Needle in Haystack. 8 http://www.stanford. and they have wasted countless billions of dollars in the process.wired. much of its edifice is built upon hype. While AI continues to be a rich field of study and innovation.8 911 for a Medical Drone: Here is an article about the development of a UAV which can be summoned by a smart phone.com/2012/10/10/unmanned-game-changer-autonomous-aerial-refueling-is-a-reality/ 11 http://icrac.com/smartnews/2013/02/mistreated-robot-nowhave-a-advocacy-group/ Been around since 1999: http://www. National Security. Buying into hype and promises that cannot be fulfilled is wasteful. drones need the same kinds of services as manned flight. I should put them first in Drone Terms then here.com/design/2012/11/3d-printed-autonomous-airplane/ 9 http://www. terms. American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Robots12 Drone Terms is my document with approx 1.org/2013/01/terminating-the-terminator-what-to-do-about-autonomousweapons/ 12 Smithsonian Smart News (2013 Feb 13) . military and other government agencies have been the leaders in bankrolling new computer innovations and the AI tower of babble.6 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM belief they can fulfill the mission at lower cost (both financial. Failure to adequately assess the dangers posed by new weapons systems.9 10 AHAR = Autonomous High Altitude Refueling Basically. o See Autonomous Drone.co. alleged misconduct by various government police agencies. The U. pick up an injured soldier and fly them back to base."Mistreated Robots Now Have a Advocacy Group": http://blogs.html -Gregory Foster || gfoster at entersection. Autonomous Drone.
20 http://www. can sel ect and engage targets without further intervention by a human operator. AUSV. not yet achieve all of them in one craft. refuel it. decide who it is to shoot at.com/2013/01/readings-bryant-walker-smith-automated-vehicles-are-probablylegal-in-the-united-states/ 7 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . are an example of autonomous robots. decide where it is to go.org/news/2012-12-japan-firm-private-drone. what I have on it.” The ability of the system to select and engage targets autonomously makes it an AWS even if it is human-supervised with a possible human override.mil/dsb/reports/AutonomyReport. 15 o See: AHAR. update its programming.pdf 2012 Nov 28 I started a Drone Robots doc.osd. out of range of the crooks trying to cause it to crash. AWS. o See: Autonomous Drone.html 20 http://www. o UNQUOTE o See: Autonomous Drone. 18 http://afgeneralcounsel.7 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Artificial Intelligence (AI): Are Robots and Computers programmed.19 13 14 Cars which drive themselves. without a human in the loop.net/2012/11/dod-directive-on-autonomy-in-weapon-systems/ 17 I have downloaded this.acq.cfr.redorbit. Autonomous Drone = A drone which does not require human involvement to pilot it.18 The drone needs to be able to remain aloft.14 Some stories have alleged that some drones.com/2012/12/john-dehn-on-autonomous-robots-and-targeting/ 16 http://icrac. Burglar Alarm involving drones + (3 Jan 07) Consider this scenario.lawfareblog. once activated.0917 “for the development and use of autonomous and semi-autonomous functions in weapon systems” defining an AWS as “A weapon system that. o QUOTING International Committee for Robot Arms Control (IRAC):16 o Department of Defense Directive 3000. in time may diverge from references in Drone Terms. maintain it. The burglar alarm causes a drone to take off and photograph the crooks. naming it DOD Autonomous Weapon Policies 2012 Nov. This is an example of an autonomous drone. 15 http://www. on Autonomous Killer Robot Drones. in testing. without human input?13 AUSV = Autonomous Unmanned Surface Vehicle. thus “human on the loop” is assigned the same status as “human out of the loop.dodlive. AWS = Autonomous Weapon Systems.mil/2013/01/04/we-reap-what-we-drone/ 19 http://phys.com/news/technology/1112787439/robot-icub-learns-a-new-language-022013/ Autonomous Drones http://blogs.org/zenko/2012/09/04/the-coming-future-of-autonomous-drones/ http://www.” a conservative (good) policy. being taught to do new things. what they are doing. and it is a scenario being made possible by the Japanese firm Secom.lawfareblog. telling it what to do. go part way towards these goals. or can they learn by experience. perhaps follow them until the police arrive. SAWS. A home is being burglarized. Other people think this definition is not clear enough.
_Federal_Election_Commission http://afgeneralcounsel.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Defense https://en.23 o In Drone Terms.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW). some Intelligence agencies.html I downloaded.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing. Space Command.com/articles/2013/02/04/doomsday_preppers_cambridge_existential_risks 26 http://www. but in recent years it has also become a paramilitary force. Army.au/technology/technology-news/cia-seeks-expansion-of-drone-fleet-2012101927w0k. See footnotes.smh.22 o Stephen W.html 22 http://livingunderdrones.defense.cfr. Citizens United = A US Supreme Court Case which elevated corporations to have many of the same constitutional rights as human citizens.com.fas.wikipedia. Marine Corps.25 DoD = US Dept of Defense26 HQ at the Pentagon. General Counsel of the Central Intelligence Agency. 21 o Allegedly all US drone attacks are carried out by either CIA or JSOC.wikipedia. and more stuff. under guidance by the President of the USA. see: DIA. Special units associated with WMD. in an April 2012 speech at Harvard Law School on “CIA and the Rule of Law. NSA. CIA is an exception. calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. It reports to the DNI. It is believed to have approx 30-40 drones. Navy. Procurement of Weapons.dodlive. JSOC. 21 http://www.foreignpolicy. National Guard and Reserve. DoD. It is not in any Dept of US Government.” listed many applicable laws and procedures.wikipedia. CSER = A think tank–Centre for the Study of Existential Risk proposed by Cambridge University. Cyber Warfare. It is composed of the various different types of military: Air Force. A small amount of this has been transferred to DHS. we have Branches of Government. Special Forces.8 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM CIA+ definitions (3 Feb 08) CIA = US Central Intelligence Agency. o While in general.org/wiki/Citizens_United_v. Army Corps of Engineers. broken down into Agencies and Offices. It is an agency independent of all the departments. and is seeking to increase the size of its drone fleet.gov/ https://en. Regional Unified Commands. AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September.mil/2013/02/07/stopping-killer-robots-and-other-threats-to-hjumansurvival/ http://www. Missile Defense. o DoD is one of the largest US Departments. 2012) 23 CIA and the Rule of Law Synopsis https://www. broken into Departments. INJURY. DNI. LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH. Full speech http://www. Civilian Contractors.org/rule-of-law/cia-general-counsel-stephen-prestons-remarks-rule-law-april 2012/p27912 24 25 https://en.24 o See: Sky Net. Preston. Drones. Weapons Research.org/wiki/List_of_Department_of_Defense_agencies 8 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . o The CIA was originally a foreign intelligence service.
and also Civil violations. in 2012. Interpol in USA. OIG. OLC. FBI. EOUSA. BI. but may be remotely piloted. I have seen news media reports.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Justice 9 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . JAG. 2012 in LAWFARE Blog. There are people who think model aircraft and other toys are not drones. but the problem is. may be weaponized. NSA. any vehicle which is: Unmanned on board.9 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM o Here is 2009 Dod Drone Roadmap. Criminal prosecutions. based on their internal programming. USAO. LIONS.gov/ https://en. Drone+ definitions (2 Dec 01) There is a dispute about the proper use and application of some terminology. DEA.com/politics/archive/2012/07/the-pentagons-vision-pervasive-drones-on-land-airand-sea/259541/ 30 http://www. I’d like to say that kites and balloons are not drones. For the record. OIG. DIA. Attorney General. ISE. don’t consider drones to be un -piloted vehicles which travel in the sea or on land. Prisons and Paroles. instead of a human operator. DEA. (4 Meg)27 Raffaela Wakeman writes July 10. Departments of US Government. ISE. DSS. 27 28 http://www. or other modern technology which would qualify it as a drone. PM-ISE. see: CBP Suggestions. 31 http://www.osd. DHS. USMS.pdf http://www.acq. DSB. Departments of US Government.lawfareblog. GC Armas.lawfareblog. There are people who say Predators are not drones. DNI. ATF Scandals.28 QUOTE Conor Friedersdorf at The Atlantic29 looks closely at the 2009 Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap. under water. I consider a drone. but fail to define what they consider to be a drone. and wonders whether we may get to a point when drones are completely autonomous. FBI. USMS o Some stuff which used to be in DoJ has been transferred to DHS. DoJ = US Dept of (civilian) Justice.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009. and what to do. Anti Trust.com/2012/07/todays-headlines-and-commentary-222/ 29 http://www.30 o UNQUOTE o In Drone Terms.wikipedia. Those reports shared in my Drone Notes. Has the ability to spy on people. the Pentagon’s plan for the use of drones from 2009 through 2034. Missy Cummings of MIT says not in her lifetime. you cannot tell if that thing in the sky has spy capability. for the people on the ground.31 Its mandate includes: ATF. JAG. of DoD testing drones which decide where to go. There are people who think drones are only those un-piloted vehicles which fly in the sky. on land. o In Drone Terms. in buildings. This includes in the skies.justice. see: AECA. DSCA. DoJ (more info than is here in Drone Robots).com/2012/03/lawfare-podcast-episode-5-missy-cummings-on-drones-dronesdrones/ However.theatlantic. PM-ISE. on water.
the German Blitzkrieg used tactics and weapons which were not new. 2005.fas. One possible explanation was future shock preventing wise planning of complex industry. but on the day of the attack.org/wiki/Future_Shock 35 https://en. People experiencing or witnessing too much change. FOIA = Freedom of Information Act32 o A Citizen's Guide on Using the Freedom of Information Act and the Privacy Act of 1974 to Request Government Records.” A documentary film based on the Future Shock book was released in 1972 with Orson Welles as on-screen narrator. functions. In WW II.wikipedia. Fire and Forget o See: SAWS. because they failed to grasp technological change or new tactics fast enough. I think we may need alternative terms for various combinations of size. who had predicted exactly what risk was being taken at Fukushima and other nuclear power plants.org/sgp/foia/citizen. Toffler popularized the concept “information overload. The military has an army of acronyms.fas. o While this terminology arrived in the mid 20th century. just used in a different mixture. House Committee on Government Reform. o I am seeing many people suffering from future shock today. of war and armed conflicts (military and https://www.html 34 https://en. in too short a period. Geneva+ (2 Dec 01) 32 33 Geneva Convention(s). o The 9/11 commission found over a dozen prior instances of terrorists flying hijacked planes into national monuments. many of which had previously been reported to national security leaders.pdf https://www.org/sgp/foia/foia2007.org/wiki/Geneva_Conventions 10 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . They can become overwhelmed and disoriented. Future+ (2 Dec 02) Future Shock = a psychological condition described in a 1970 book 34 by the futurist Alvin Toffler.35 usually refers to international law treaties regarding humanitarian treatment of: prisoners. can have difficulty grasping enough of it to deal effectively with it. the concept has existed all through history.wikipedia. o We see it in nations at risk of losing wars. unable to have a rational conversation about national security legislation. with great surprise and shock for other nations whose leadership was not expecting this. then in the aftermath stated that the event was beyond their imagination. o The 2011 Japanese tsunami was no surprise to tsunami experts. or attempting to do so. whose management and government regulators had chosen to ignore the risks.10 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Other people have other definitions. 99% of US leaders described the event as totally unexpected. House Report 109-226 (PDF)33. Sept 20.
11 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . there’s the problem of nations which have not signed the agreements. other than the USA.38 36 If the circling drones are used to terrify the citizens below into providing intelligence. Like Monopoly money. or spoofed. time etc. see: Hague Conventions. speed. civil GPS signals have a detailed structure but no built-in protection against counterfeiting. o In Drone Terms.org/?view&did=719102 See Feb 2012 in Drone Dates for description of their spoofing demonstration. This is a USA system. Targeted Killing. a place the USA has been housing detainees captured in the war on terror. they think the torturers want to hear. International Law.guardian. the wounded. o Several nations. LOAC. Sovereignty. civilians in a military conflict. o As with any international law. Humphreys. GPS+ (2 Dec 02) GPS = Global Positioning System. which provide position and other data given by the GPS receiver. is in violation of the Geneva Conventions. sick. such as the notion of WMD in Iraq. Todd E. o The Geneva Conventions generally focus on treatment of people who are no longer combatants. altitude. etc.com/doc/69421118/Drone-Mid-Year-Presentation-1 38 Congress House Transcript Drones in USA Skies 2012 July Panel I testimony by Mr.11 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM civilian). that could be a violation of the Geneva Convention. Unlawful Combatant. freelyaccessible to all. prohibitions against the use of torture. These virtues have made civil GPS enormously popular. are saying that what the USA is doing with drones. Ph. o Civil GPS signals were designed as an open standard. o GPS receivers receive almanac data from satellites. International Law. or never were legal combatants.D Abstract Summary = http://www. includes info like position (latitude and longitude). prohibitions against certain types of weapons. War Crime. http://www.37 o Military Global Positioning System (GPS) signals have long been encrypted to prevent counterfeiting and unauthorized use. and also calculate position by calculating distance from visible satellites and using triangulation method to calculate its position. and nations which choose not to comply with them.uk/commentisfree/2012/oct/23/truth-uk-drones-policy 37 http://www. and should be labeled as War Crimes.hsdl. o GPS receivers also work on NMEA Standards.scribd.org/?abstract&did=719102 Full 865k Transcript = https://www. in a military conflict.hsdl. and ship-wrecked. Most of the computer programs and devices. Torture can lead to people giving out info.co. but the transparency and predictability of its signals give rise to a dangerous weakness: they can be easily counterfeited. Gitmo = Short for Guantanamo Bay Cuba.36 o The Hague Conventions focus on the conduct of the war.
39 http://icrac. or used in certain ways.com/robotics/2009/09/new-group-aims-to-curb-military-use-of-robots. Sovereignty. Sometimes the target hears the drone and can get to safety faster than the drone operator can do accurate shooting. o Small.popsci. making it difficult to hit a moving target. SCADA. o See section on their Nov 2012 report on autonomous killing machines. while manned combat could use a few bullets. banking and ﬁnance institutions. an NGO.tmcnet. o Satellite navigation systems other than GPS include: the Russian GLONASS system (fully operational). NMEA. see: Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station. For example: o Article 25 of the 1907 Hague IV Convention prohibits aerial bombardment “by whatever means” of undefended towns.html 40 https://www. maritime craft.com/2012/07/08/magazine/the-dronezone. see: Bird Dog.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1&ref=magazine 12 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . inexpensive GPS + GLONASS receivers are now available oﬀ-the-shelf. and the Chinese Compass system (global system in preliminary test phase). communications systems. the European Galileo system (undergoing in-orbit validation of early spacecraft. Geneva Convention. o In Drone Terms. HRW = Human Rights Watch. low power. villages. AWS. These appear to be an excellent option for immediately improving navigation security in existing systems.” has long bedeviled drone pilots. The Hague Convention(s) focus on the conduct of the war. prohibitions against certain types of weapons. Latency+ definitions (3 Feb 28) ! Latency = movement shown on a drone pilot’s video screen has over the years been seconds behind what the drone sees — a delay caused by the time it takes to bounce a signal off a satellite in space. Besides UAVs. 39 IRAC = International Committee for Robot Arms Control o See: Autonomous Drone.nytimes. o In Drone Terms. This problem. or dwellings. and national power grid. civil GPS spooﬁng also presents a danger to manned aircraft. UAV. called “latency.net/2012/11/dod-directive-on-autonomy-in-weapon-systems/ http://icrac. may be operational by 2019). Some drone strikes are in violation of this. since wide dispersal bombs are needed to get at the escaping enemy.net/2011/12/new-scientist-campaign-asks-for-international-treaty-to-limit-war-robots/ http://www.12 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM o Hacking a UAV by GPS spooﬁng is but one expression of a larger problem: insecure civil GPS technology has over the last two decades been absorbed deeply into our national critical infrastructure.com/military-aviation-amp-space/article/2009-09/no-nuke-or-space-military-botspleads-arms-control-committee http://blog. and high cost of drone shooting.40 This may explain some of the high proportion of collateral damage.
using artificial intelligence.hrw.com/2013/02/issues-to-put-on-your-intellectual-radar-screens-cyborg-rights/ http://www. see: AI.cyborgfoundation. to give drones ethics desired by DoD and the rules of war.com/contributed-news/5223454-the-ethical-and-moral-concerns-of-autonomousrobotic-systems 48 http://www.org/blog/how-international-law-adapts-new-weapons-and-technologies-warfare 45 http://www.aspx?msource=SKR20130220 http://www.44 although the weapons involved evolve over time. on the battlefield. 43 many of them answered before. as if a lethal weapon was used. coming up again and again. NGO = Non-Government Organization. Robot Rights: when are they intelligent enough that we should grant them civil rights? How about half man half machine?48 SAWS+ fire and forget? (2 Nov 29) ! SAWS = Semi-autonomous weapon system 41 42 http://www. including SCADA critical infrastructure and national security hacker activities. Petitions: several groups have petitions appealing for an end to some developments.lawfareblog.com/compass 43 http://www.h tml 46 http://secure.com/2013/02/human-rights-watch-campaign-on-killer-robots-and-tommalinowskis-response/ 47 http://www.icrc. OS. LOAC. It needs to be able to do the many things required of humans. see: DoD. SCADA.unbeatenpath.com/ 13 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . this concept is needed on other kinds of computer platforms for all kinds of breaches and threats. Non-Lethal weapons is a frequent controversy.79D9/US_Stop_KIller_Robots/siteapps/advocacy/Actio nItem. FIG-LEAF.47 o In Drone Terms. typically a not-for-profit humanitarian charity organization.allvoices.org/c. Geneva Convention. Every such weapon can be abused.slate.pdf http://unbeatenpath. DBS. o The software teaches itself what is normal or anticipated via statistical analysis.lawfareblog. 45 There is no such thing as a non-lethal weapon. then when something unusual occurs.13 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Needle in Haystack41 from UPI42 is Anomaly Detection in universal data bases on IBM midrange platforms. to the point that the target people either get killed. it does an alert. o In my opinion.lawfareblog.com/software/needle/in-a-haystack.46 Robot Governor – Still being designed. with different people trotting out arguments we have heard many times before.5571001/k.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/11/nonlethal_weapons_and_the_law_of_war. to distinguish between real enemies and innocent bystanders.com/2012/12/the-icrc-and-slate-an-exchange-on-weapons/ 44 http://intercrossblog. or as seriously maimed.nlIWIgN2JwE/b. Management can set thresholds for alerts. o In Drone Terms. UPI.
net/2012/11/dod-directive-on-autonomy-in-weapon-systems/ See discussion of implications within “Center for New American Security” such as a school in Texas mandating that students wear RFID chips. auditors. “fire and forget” in the SAWS definition raises an issue of audit ability in my mind. Sometimes the name of a manager who approved their request. We can look in the software source code and find a change log: A brief summary of what the change was intended to accomplish. and audit trails. Identification of names of personnel whose testing determined the software changes satisfactorily achieved what they had wanted. In the capitalist world. customers. to help faculty keep track of the kids. Identification of any people. We make changes to how software functions. then some time later a question is raised regarding the authority to do so. vendors.g. “provided that human control is retained over the decision to select individual targets and specific target groups for engagement. track. who initiated this change request. AWS. we have annual auditors who show up. Pointers at where in the source code updates were made to implement this change. ” It also includes weapons with terminal homing guidance. identify and prioritize potential targets or cue humans to their presence. is intended to only engage individual targets or specific target groups that have been selected by a human operator. valuable targets. o UNQUOTE o See: Autonomous Drone. and when exactly it got changed. 49 50 http://icrac.. there is change management control. but which also help kidnappers identify. is later questioned regarding how come this or that target got fired upon. e. We can access history of activity to answer their questions. where we can search for the precise code lines involved. Identification of the names of company personnel who requested this change. DoD. Likewise. new government regulations. 14 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder .50 Sky Net+ and Parallels (3 Jan 10) There is lots of dispute about the proper use and application of some terminology. and ask questions about transactions which have occurred during the year.14 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM o The International Committee for Robot Arms Control (IRAC)49 says the DoD defines SAWS. law-suit. and locate. outside of our company. once activated. if the military organization responsible for some drone. using unique naming. RFID = Radio Frequency Identification. as QUOTE: o “A weapon system that. “fire and forget” sounds to me like any such audit trail could be lacking. that I am familiar with. and “fire and forget” weapons where the target has been human -selected.” The category includes systems that automatically acquire.
from clay tablets to search engines.org/wiki/Citizens_United_v. the artificial intelligence that declared war on humanity in The Terminator. but Sky Net Parallels are already here in human organizations. in my opinion.net/ 55 http://icrac. We like to think that this augmentation increases our effective intelligence. 51 Sky Net was popularized by the Terminator Science Fiction Movie series. they often knee jerk react with Sky Net. which includes antiwar.net/2012/11/the-principle-of-humanity-in-conflict/ 15 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder .52 and the rise of the Lobbyists. the military supercomputer that took control of the world in a brutal coup in order to fulfill its mission of ensuring peace? The scorn that “serious” people direct against these tropes from science fiction betrays their own nervousness. These machines are made of people. as portrayed in the Terminator stories.net/author/gubrud/ 54 http://icrac. but as soon as words are written down. A lot of people are opposed to our government’s drone practices. and projected them before us in gaudy masks and cartoonish story lines that beg to be decoded._Federal_Election_Commission 53 http://icrac. Sky Net Parallels are described well by Mark Gubrud53 in International Committee for Robot Arms Control (IRAC)54 Analysis55 Nov 19.wikipedia. enabled by technology. It is that tether which the military complex. Artists have mined our apprehensions about the world we’re creating. However. to be on the path to the coming of Sky Net. just as states.skynet. due to the huge volume of people in the public who equate military movement towards autonomous weapons. Yet one essential fact remains: each human mind. but is not that exclusively. now threatens to break. as depicted in the Terminator movies. Sky Net. when someone mentions autonomous robots. There is a transportation delivery company which calls itself Sky Net. remains tethered intimately and existentially to a human heart.net/category/analysis/ 56 http://icrac. 2012:56 QUOTE Do I mean to invoke here the specter of Skynet. or just some of them. and their minds are the minds of people – increasingly augmented by information technology. in technological development. thinking rigidifies. it is a useful reference point. pursuing its own agenda.net/ https://en. reputedly because it feared we’d turn it off? Or Colossus. is not even close. of law and the machinery of institutions. UNQUOTE 51 52 http://www. corporations and institutions of all kinds are.15 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM There is a military drone which calls itself Sky Net. The military system is already a kind of machine. and within those political ideologies. Sky Net. and the rise of the Machines. thanks to Citizens United. either overall. and it is now a TV serial. dazzled and lost in the maze of knowledge. will not be here for decades.
UNQUOTE Semi-Autonomous Peru Drone Archeologist (3 Jan 10) A drone.” “Yes.single.slate. such as my Google Drive Disaster Avoidance Collection.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/11/lethal_autonomous_robots_drones_tms_an d_other_military_technologies_raise.60 Israeli Iron Dome (2 Nov 29) I suspect. shoot that down.” To infinity. flew high in the Andes in Peru. contrary to that of the common man. in large numbers. shoot that down. with anti-rocket missiles which cost 150 times as much as the incoming missiles.navy.html 16 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . shoot that down. Wall Street got bailouts. shoot that down.asp?cid=2100&tid=200&ct=2 60 http://www.16 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM It is not just the corporations. Iron Dome radars detect them.” “Yes. that the Iron Dome system is like USN Aegis. Rockets come flying into Israel. 2012 QUOTE57 In recent decades.62 57 http://www.” “Yes. which can fit into a back pack.mil/navydata/fact_display. for starters -.61 Given the speed of decision making needed.scientificamerican. I don’t see that having a human in the loop is essential for the perfect defense system.have succeeded spectacularly at insulating themselves from responsibility for their failures. see my Israel Gaza 2010 Nov Conflict notes.google.” “Yes. with secret agendas. CEOs who preside over shrinking companies still depart with "golden parachute" severance packages. “Yes.com/20121231_more-hermes-900-drones-for-idf.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4bZMTA0YTM0YzktNTI0YS00NjVhLTg5NTItY2RiZjhiM2MzODkw/edit 62 http://defense-update. for 3-D mapping of archaeological sites. if not intercepted. America's elite -. The Atlantic writes. bureaucrats. https://docs. shoot that down. The foreign-policy establishment remains virtually unchanged despite the catastrophic errors so many of its members made during the Iraq War. I have uploaded them various places.com/podcast/episode. although I do not know for sure.58 USN Robot Guns (2 Nov 29) USN = United States Navy The US Navy has an Aegis Combat System.59 which is capable of autonomously tracking enemy aircraft and guiding weapons onto them. then shoot down the ones headed for population centers. Dec 14. Israel also has autonomous drones. calculate where they will land.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/12/when-the-us-shoots-a-human-should-be-pulling-thetrigger/266254/ 58 https://www.html 61 For more info on Iron Dome. and CEOs.cfm?id=drones-accelerate-archaeological-si-12-1231 59 http://www.its elected officials. As the global economy melted down.
com/articles/2012/12/11/navy-x47b-drone-first-military-robot.69 There is a lot of sloppiness in descriptions. or the software which worked on other drones is not being shared. US Space Plane Drone X-37B (2 Dec 11) The X-37B bears a superficial resemblance to the space shuttle.17 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Sky Net X47B lands on USN Aircraft Carrier (3 Mar 04) ! USN = United States Navy. What I have read about it so far is unclear whether it is an ordinary drone which can go into space. by the military.63 Here are pictures of the X-47-B drone.66 The plan is for it to fly missions. is not the same as not having a human pilot period.65 so either these are old pictures.co. by artificial intelligence (AI) and GPS. and not quite making it.aspx 68 See chapter = Autonomous Drones Exist. I suspect some time in WW II when Germany shooting at Britain with V1 and V2. I am surprised British news media forgot this.com/2012/12/20/need-an-interim-uav-solution-for-american-aircraft-carriers-take-agood-hard-look-at-the-mothballed-s-3-viking/ 66 http://www.com/u/0/107040353898400532534/posts/eTLzfhTDaNo 17 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder .67 Contrary to some articles’ claims. meaning no man on board.68 UAV = Unmanned Air Vehicle.com/2012/12/11/x-47b-goes-to-sea/ 65 http://aviationintel. we may never know which drone was the first to be piloted exclusively without a human in the loop. Then there is the indoor drone without human or GPS (which can be hacked – see Drone Terms. because that’s the popular mis -conception in the anti-war movement.com/2012/06/18/x-37b-returns-home-what-was-it-doing-up-there-for-over-a-year/ https://plus.bbc. allegedly flown without a human controlling it.com/2012/11/28/x-47b-lands-on-aircraft-carrier-for-the-first-time-um-sort-of/ http://aviationintel.html 67 http://gcn. from air craft carriers. 69 X-37-B http://aviationintel.dailymail. X-47B = a USN drone which is to operate without human control.uk/news/magazine-21576376 64 http://aviationintel. 64 I had heard that other drones in similar circumstances had already learned how to do this.uk/sciencetech/article-2240394/X-47B-stealth-drone-hoped-carrier-borneunmanned-aircraft. I desire a shorter word than Autonomous.google. The X47-B drone is stealth. or if artificial intelligence is involved. across drone manufacturers. and Semi-Autonomous for Unmanned Unmanned Air Vehicle. Not having a human pilot on board.). but men are needed to remotely operate it.net/2012/03/us-navy-developing-pilotless-drones/ http://www. I will use Sky Net. trying to land on an aircraft carrier. until shortly after D-Day. For the time being. which has a clear meaning without the legal double speak of military for AWS and SAWS. meaning no men involved in remote operations.com/2012/12/14/three-rocketsthree-historic-events-one-week/ http://aviationintel. US Military Drone future plans (2 Nov 28) DOD = Department of Defense Here from my Drone Reports: 63 http://icrac.co.
2012 Oct 08+ Review: I had barely begun studying this monster report. on Autonomous Killer Robot Drones.hsdl.html claimed to have come to them from Scribd 2012 Nov 28 I started a Drone Robots doc.18 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Congress House Transcript Drone Future Warfare 2010 March70 134 pages DOD Autonomous Drones 2012 July71 125 pages DOD Autonomous Weapon Policies 2012 Nov72 15 pages DOD Drone UAS Integrated Roadmap 200973 210 pages Other sources (2 Nov 29) Here from my Drone Reports: Evolution of Drone Warfare74 (7 pages) Brad Allenby and Carolyn Mattick explain why new technologies mean we need to rewrite the “rules of war.slate. It is House Hearing Transcript 111-118 or PDF 64-921 Abstract Summary = http://www. on Autonomous Killer Robot Drones.general-files.pdf thanks to it being mentioned here: http://www. so what I have on it. or earlier. so what I have on it. 2012 Nov 28 I started a Drone Robots doc. which references this document. in time may diverge from references in Drone Reports. 2012 Sep 05 uploaded to my Google Drive Drone Info Document collection. 2012 Nov 28 I started a Drone Robots doc. on Autonomous Killer Robot Drones.osd. so what I have on it. 71 2012 Sep 05 I obtained this 125 page document by DSB = Defense Science Board http://www.org/?abstract&did=4913 Full 4 Meg Transcript = https://www. in time may diverge from references in Drone Reports. such as: http://icrac.mil/dsb/reports/AutonomyReport. I tentatively plan to study DoD from smallest to largest.hsdl.acq. so what I have on it.theatlantic. which references this document. which references this document. which references this document.com/download/gs4d92955fh35i0/Evolution%20of%20Drone%20Warfare. and related issues.”75 70 2012 Oct 10 downloaded public domain. 72 2012 Nov 24 downloaded http://cryptome. in time may diverge from references in Drone Reports. 2012 July 15. There are many articles talking about this document. on Autonomous Killer Robot Drones. I plan to delay return until I am caught up on the smaller ones. on Autonomous Killer Robot Drones.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/11/drones_cyberconflict_and_other_military_t echnologies_require_we_rewrite.org/?view&did=4913 2012 Nov 28 I started a Drone Robots doc. so what I have on it. 74 2012 Oct 18 discovered at http://www. 2012 July 15 uploaded to my Google Drive Drone Info Document collection. if that is possible. 75 http://www.net/2012/11/dod-directive-on-autonomy-in-weapon-systems/ 73 DoD Drone roadmap as of 2009. 2012 Sep 05 uploaded to my Linked In / Box Net / Drone Info / Drone Sources sub-folder 2012 Oct 12+ Review: I have not yet read this. I had obtained this download.org/dodi/dodd-3000-09.com/international/archive/2012/09/how-terrified-should-we-be-of-the-pentagonsplan-to-automize-drones/261944/ Also see Autonomous Drones in Drone Terms document. in time may diverge from references in Drone Reports.pdf 2012 Nov 28 I started a Drone Robots doc. when I got distracted by many other smaller reports.html 18 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . in time may diverge from references in Drone Reports. which references this document. 2012 Sep 03 uploaded to my Linked In / Box Net / Drone Info / Drone Sources sub-folder.
in time may diverge from references in Drone Reports.” UNQUOTE 76 77 HRW = Human Rights Watch 2012 Nov 23 downloaded http://www. Adopt national laws and policies to prohibit the development.com/2012/12/readings-autonomous-weapon-systems-and-their-regulation/ 19 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder .19 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM HRW = Human Rights Watch (2 Nov 28) ! Their report launched a debate. Commence reviews of technologies and components that could lead to fully autonomous weapons.hrw.” November 19. According to Lawfare. 2012. 2013. production. 2012.lawfareblog.org/blogs/abumuqawama/2012/11/rage-against-machines. with less dimensions. on Autonomous Killer Robot Drones. which previously had been much more low key.hrw.com/2012/11/human-rights-watch-report-on-killer-robots-and-our-critique/ many of which have some discussion of the merits of the report.hrw. 78 Ban ‘Killer Robots’ Before It’s Too Late | Human Rights Watch » http://www.lawfareblog. 2012 Nov 28 I started a Drone Robots doc.hrw.com/2013/02/greg-mcneal-on-human-rights-watch-and-killer-robots/ 80 http://www.lawfareblog. this report makes HRW’s case to ”[p]rohibit the development.org/news/2012/11/19/ban-killer-robots-it-s-too-late which I found out about thanks to http://afgeneralcounsel.cnas. These reviews should take place at the very beginning of the development process and continue throughout the development and testing phases.79 Dec 11. Feb 28. Here from my Drone Reports: HRW76 Killer Robots Losing Humanity 2012 Nov77 55 pages The HRW report is accompanied by some articles. Lawfare shared a recommended reading list regarding recent discussion of Autonomous Robots.org/reports/2012/11/19/losing-humanity-0 and see press release http://www. production. so what I have on it.mil/2012/11/26/killer-robots-part-4/ and http://www. and use of fully autonomous weapons through an international legally binding instrument.mil/2012/11/23/killer-robots-part-3/ and http://afgeneralcounsel. which references this document. “Losing Humanity: The Case Against Killer Robots.dodlive.org/news/2012/11/19/ban-killer-robots-it-s-too-late 79 http://www. an important conversation.org/sites/default/files/reports/arms1112ForUpload_0_0.78 Lawfare on HRW (3 Feb 28) Many great sources have more content on some topics than I find time to read and digest all of what they have.html and http://www. and use of fully autonomous weapons.dodlive. QUOTE Human Rights Watch and Harvard Law School Human Rights Clinic. Lawfare’s Benjamin Wittes has another discussion of the HRW position.80 This included.pdf from http://www.
html 82 ICRC = International Committee of the Red Cross http://intercrossblog. But the material. and more. to the Allenby and Mattick article. and sustainable engineering. in Slate’s Future Tense.html 85 http://www.org/2012/12/11/autonomous-weapon-systems-and-regulation-a-brief-bibliography/ 90 http://www.com/2012/12/the-icrc-and-slate-an-exchange-on-weapons/ 84 http://www. a professor of civil. One of the responses.brad_allenby.90 Kenneth Anderson has summarized leading articles. 2012 QUOTE: In two posts. UNQUOTE I visited his brief biographies.83 See separate Red Cross chapter section.mil/2012/12/16/crs-on-detention-of-u-s-persons-as-enemy-belligerents/ 89 http://opiniojuris.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/11/drones_cyberconflict_and_other_military_t echnologies_require_we_rewrite.lawfareblog. Brad Allenby is the Lincoln professor of engineering and ethics.lawfareblog.html 86 http://lincolncenter-dev.edu/ 87 http://www. one on Opinio Juris89 and the other on LawFare.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2012/11/20/human_rights_watch_s_case_against_killer_robots_re port_misunderstands_the.com/authors. I am familiar with all that he mentioned.com/authors.html 88 http://afgeneralcounsel.dodlive. in Slate’s Future Tense explaining why they think we need new rules of war. and the founding chairman of the Center for Earth Systems Engineering and Management at Arizona State University.carolyn_mattick. candidate in environmental engineering and a graduate fellow in emerging technologies at the Lincoln Center for Applied Ethics86 at Arizona State University. Ken (2 Dec 25) The USAF Ethics Blog informs us.87 Anderson. 84 Brad Allenby wrote an article. is among the most important recent ingredients.20 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Allenby and Mattick (2 Dec 12) Brad Allenby and Carolyn Mattick jointly wrote an article.slate.81 Then other writers commented on their article. extending a debate. came from ICRC. environmental. 81 http://www. 85 Carolyn Mattick is a Ph.org/blog/how-international-law-adapts-new-weapons-and-technologies-warfare 83 http://www.88 Dec-16.icrc. which he cites.slate.slate. ASIL Autonomous Weapons Backgrounder (3 Jan 23) ASIL = The American Society of International Law. reports and blog posts on the issue of proposed limits on autonomous weapon systems.82 which Lawfare then commented further on.com/2012/12/readings-autonomous-weapon-systems-and-their-regulation/ 20 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . explaining why he thinks Human Rights Watch does not understand military realities on the battlefield.asu.D.
Oct. (Also recommended is Major Thurnher’s more detailed Octobe r 2012 article in Joint Force Quarterly (National Defense University. weapons need to be able to discriminate between different targets. 2. It is Ok to kill people. He talks about similar treaties to what is being proposed. I started stubs near the bottom. as soon as I cut pasted them to these notes. Are there warfare conditions under which it would not be legal to use this weapon? According to Lawfare. they represent solely the author’s views. this ASIL Insight piece is organized around two legal issues: 1. 2013 QUOTE91 “The Law That Applies to Autonomous Weapon Systems” is written by Jeffrey S. 2012). Matthew IRAC Overview (2 Dec 12) Note: most of the hyper links got broken. a JAG officer on faculty at the Naval War College.92 He has worked as an academic. 67.com/2013/01/readings-jeffrey-s-thurnher-on-law-of-armed-conflict-applied-toautonomous-weapon-systems/ 92 http://www. Matthew Bolton is assistant professor of political science at Pace University in New York City.pace.lawfareblog. 2012:97 QUOTE 91 http://www. so the references are conveniently placed. the general public. Weapons should not cause unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. Washington DC. 4. fundamental pieces of weapons law: 1. for each of those treaties.93 of Political Mine Fields. Dr. this ASIL Insight piece also lists. descriptive pieces on topical issues meant as non-technical “backgrounders” for journalists.”) UNQUOTE According to Lawfare. Thus the importance of copying the relevant urls within footnotes.94 in International Committee for Robot Arms Control (IRAC)95 Analysis96 Oct 3. in case we later wish to expand upon them.21 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM ASIL Insights = short.edu/dyson/academic-departments-and-programs/political-science/faculty/matthewbolton 93 http://icrac. crisp. and a useful guide to understanding the legal issues raised by the possibility of increasingly automated weapon systems that might one day be fully autonomous. and anyone looking for a quick path into an international law topic.) According to Lawfare Jan 19. “No One at the Controls: Legal Implications of Fully Autono mous Targeting. aid worker and a freelance journalist in 15 countries. Bolton. Vol. It is not Ok to torture them.net/author/gubrud/ and 21 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . Thurnher. Is the weapon itself lawful? 2. No. M Bolton. it is short. and discusses. but are written to give an understanding of the background legal issues. Under Geneva Conventions.
net/ 96 http://icrac.98 Oct-2.net/who/ 107 http://www.org/the-solution/the-treaty/ 109 http://politicalminefields. See separate CETMONS section.com/2012/07/26/new-draft-of-the-arms-trade-treaty/ 110 http://www.icbl. I have a backlog of that type of wishing.100 saying “Decisions to kill and injure should not be made by machines and. As a member of ICRAC.net/author/gubrud/ 103 http://icrac.cfm?abstract_id=2046375 I downloaded this “Law and Ethics for Robot Soldiers … see the chapter SSRN = Social Science Research Network. 102 http://icrac.article36. along with Thomas Nash and Richard Moyes of the advocacy group Article 36.net/category/analysis/ 97 http://icrac.” More conservative commentators have also recognized the need for some normative framework for robotic weapons.com/aboutme/ 94 http://politicalminefields. I want to go to the original and study for myself. and National Security (CETMONS).net/2012/10/debating-proposals-on-a-possible-international-convention-on-robotic-weapons/ 105 http://icrac. 2012:104 QUOTE The 2009 statement by International Committee for Robot Arms Control (ICRAC). Military Operations. Earlier this year.net/statements/ 106 http://icrac.com/2012/10/01/bergen-time-for-drone-treaty/ 100 http://www.com/sol3/papers. which called for bans on autonomous weapons.22 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM In the last few years there have been increasing calls for a global regulatory framework to govern robotic weapons.com/ 99 http://politicalminefields. M Bolton 102 continues in IRAC103 Oct 3.com/aboutme/ 95 http://icrac. I have been considering ways to flesh out the ICRAC proposal with further provisions building on the precedents of the landmine107 and cluster munition treaties.106 I have endorsed this statement.108 as well as the draft Arms Trade Treaty109 (currently still being negotiated) and the broader corpus of international humanitarian law governing conduct in war.jsp Red Cross 22 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . the arming of robotic weapons with nuclear arms and the deployment of armed robots in space 105 is probably one of the most developed proposals I have seen. I called for a complete ban on autonomous armed robots. the distinction between military and civilian is a determination for human beings to make.ssrn. However. argued in a paper for the Columbia Science and Technology Review that: UNQUOTE Then he goes on to quote some of it. influential counter-terrorism correspondent Peter Bergen called for a treaty to manage and mitigate drone proliferation99. an interdisciplinary group of legal.stopclustermunitions.pwsinger. security and defense intellectuals from Consortium on Emerging Technologies.icrc.php/icbl/Treaty 108 http://www.101 In 2011.110 http://politicalminefields.org/index.net/ 104 http://icrac.org/statements/ban-autonomous-armed-robots/ 101 https://papers.net/2012/10/debating-proposals-on-a-possible-international-convention-on-robotic-weapons/ 98 http://wiredforwar.org/eng/war-and-law/index. even if at times it will be imperfect.
I published an article (for Global Policy’s online Comment & Opinion section)111 and a post on my blog112 outlining possible provisions for an International Convention on Robotic Weapons. this is my own personal adaptation and expansion of it and so should not be interpreted as an institutional position of ICRAC.116 QUOTE This insect spy drone was developed for use in urban areas. not to pin down precise language. so my purpose in doing this is to provoke discussion and dialogue. and is equipped with a camera and a microphone. elsewhere in my research notes I share114 indications that pieces of such weapons are: In current usage. UNQUOTE Center for New American Security (2 Dec 12) Many other sources are citing this source. UNQUOTE On the contrary. like they are on a different planet.org/blogs/abumuqawama/2012/11/rage-against-machines. I conclude they are living in an alternate reality quite divorced from my own. 116 https://plus.com/blog/02/10/2012/time-ban-killer-robots-considering-internationalconvention-robotic-weapons 112 http://politicalminefields. not a lawyer or roboticist.113 QUOTE They find it a logically ludicrous concept. Moreover.google. It can land on you. I may add here. In there is a citation to a drone. You have to be on G+ to be able to access the links. Funded by the US Government. which after I had read some of their articles. and I suspect that more advanced versions are military secrets.html 114 As I come across more. I am a political scientist. and is already in production.cnas. 115 See USN Robot Guns chapter.com/u/0/103028459671171670815/posts/G2XhvRbtd4Y 23 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . or be used in assassinations.23 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Yesterday. while I have used the ICRAC statement as a foundation.115 being tested. they have a “rage against the machines” write -up about the HRW report.globalpolicyjournal. government policies. UNQUOTE 111 http://www. In my Drone Notes there is a chapter listing Technological Advances. which looks like an insect. They say that no weapon is yet fully capable of taking humans out of the loop . Nov 21 2012. and it may have the potential to take a DNA sample or leave RFID tracking nanotechnology on your skin.google.com/u/0/101378900168144468134/posts/W7v5pTCG4vd https://plus. it can be remotely controlled. or have not been paying attention to the history of capitalism. and is smaller than a person’s thumb.com/2012/10/02/proposal-for-an-international-convention-on-robotic-weapons/ 113 http://www.
so if eliminating humans from the loop is cheaper. RFID tags are also injected into various farm animals and pets. Dec 12 2012. they have an article on the relative silence in US media about what US drones are doing around the world.uk/news/technology-20461752 which at least one student is protesting on alleged religious grounds.org/blogs/abumuqawama/2012/12/silence-and-drones. I guess the author has missed a half century of history where millions of blue collar jobs have been automated. by the cheapest possible means. Some people are concerned about the ability to spy upon end consumers.org/files_images/general/11-21-2012_TRO-Petition_Hernandez.shtml 118 http://www. I believe this is because they have not thought through security implications. has many other reasons why they think this is ludicrous.118 Accountability Myth (2 Dec 12) The Nov 21 2012 Center for New American Security “rage against the machines” write up about the HRW report. https://www.co. also for legitimate purposes. and how large the radio device.com/articles/20121125/15041521137/court-temporarilyblocks-school-district-suspending-student-refusing-to-wear-student-idtracking-device.cnas. Wouldn’t it be better to have a framework of civility defined before the new technology gets implemented? The Nov 21 2012 Center for New American Security “rage against the machines” write up about the HRW report. then so be it. A Texas school mandates students have RFID tag on them at all times. then there is a battle thru the courts and legislatures to reign in that abuse. and an eternity putting a stop to it. in that humans would tell it who to target. There is a fear that they might also be injected into humans for illegitimate purposes. not visible to the naked eye. for a variety of perfectly valid business tracking purposes.html 24 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder .pdf School tried to suspend student for refusing to wear student ID/tracking device. it could go out of range of controller. says:119 QUOTE 117 RFID tags are physically almost microscopic.cnas. such as military commanders would not want autonomous robots not subject to chain of command. which is not governed by any legislation. for decades after such behavior was legalized. and get new instructions.org/blogs/abumuqawama/2012/11/rage-against-machines.bbc. but this effort was reversed by a court.techdirt. They are placed on and in all sorts of merchandise in their supply chain. after the leaders have ruled. This is why normal bar code scanners need to be within 6 inches of the bar code they are reading (there's also an RFID in there which is getting updated). is related to how large the radio antenna is. through RFID tags still active after they take merchandise home. It is a limitation imposed by the laws of physics. We have a state of art today where new technology comes along. so he does not comprehend how the very top command wants the job done. When I was looking into the RFID controversy. spends a decade or more abusing people. then return to report. There are authorities who are promoting their use in ways which would place people at greater risk.117 I learned that the distance a radio signal can travel between some device and its network. Look at the police arresting people for using cameras in public.24 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM I suspect this insect drone is semi-autonomous.html 119 http://www. Other observers speculate more sinister motives for the proposals. and also many white collar jobs eliminated by electronics. http://www. http://www.rutherford.
org 122 2012 Dec 1 downloaded http://www.25 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM The distinction HRW draws between “H uman-on-the-Loop Weapons” and “Human-out-of-the-loop” weapons is totally arbitrary.stlr. but if USA would believe this lie. naming it: STLR121 Killer Robot Governance 2011122 44 pages o Cite as http://www. or was this an intelligence and policy failure? Suspicions abound that similar intelligence sources and methods are being used as input to choice of who should be killed by drones. on Autonomous Killer Robot Drones. an interdisciplinary group of legal. which references this document. which are now some place else. where that info came from. The belief does not understand latency. for which military decisions are made. Remember WMD in Iraq? We still do not know.stlr. for sure. Were there really WMD in Iraq. and the US military and CIA and DoJ basically giving the finger to those requests.net/2012/10/debating-proposals-on-a-possible-international-convention-on-robotic-weapons/ 2012 Nov 28 I started a Drone Robots doc.120 There is also the lack of accountability with respect to the basis. I downloaded the CETMONS report. in time may diverge from references in Drone Reports. so what I have on it. where they should be targeted. demanding to know the basis for which this or that allegedly innocent family was killed. to target this or that alleged enemy. UNQUOTE I am troubled by this belief that “human-on-the-loop” weapons have human oversight which can override and veto their actions. who told their torturers what they thought the torturers wanted to hear.org/html/volume12/marchant. Military Operations. STLR = Science and Technology Law Review at Columbia.stlr. particularly since one key criteria HRW draws is that “human-on-the-loop” weapons have human oversight which can override and veto their actions. of acting on false intelligence. Theories include: Innocent suspects being tortured. security and defense intellectuals from Consortium on Emerging Technologies. 123 https://creativecommons.org/cite. to stop the torture.pdf finding out about it from http://icrac.0/ 25 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . found in these notes. and is ignoring the reality of court cases around the world. and “human -out-of-the-loop” weapons do not. can be enormous. particularly in Pakistan and Britain. www. who knew they could not over-throw Saddam dictator by themselves. and National Security (CETMONS). Freedom Fighters in Iraq. argued in a paper for the Columbia Science and Technology Review… See IRAC Matthew Bolton. CETMONS (2 Dec 12) In 2011.0 License123 120 121 See Relevant Terms Defined for many concepts and acronyms etc. The cost.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.cgi?volume=12&article=7 o This work is made available under the o Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3. and FOIA in the USA. then USA would over-throw Saddam for them.
so what I have on it. Lawfare Matt & Ken (2 Dec 10) Nov 26 2012.acq.” It further “establishes guidelines designed to minimize the probability and consequences of failures in autonomous and semi-autonomous weapon systems that could lead to unintended engagements.126 they briefly quote from the 125 page report. Deputy Secretary of Defense. which quote extensively from each other.127 Written by Matt and Ken. I tentatively plan to study my many DoD downloads from smallest to largest.com/2012/09/defense-science-board-on-autonomous-systems/ See in US Military drone future plans and Drone Reports.lawfareblog. Dec 11. which references this document. UNQUOTE Lawfare (2 Dec 03) I am following several blogs.osd.mil/dsb/reports/AutonomyReport.124 This included. This approach encourages study of original sources.lawfareblog. 126 http://www. 2012 Sep 05 uploaded to my Google Drive Drone Info Document collection. QUOTE 124 125 http://www. “Autonomy in Weapons Systems. that I have downloaded HRW report.com/2012/11/human-rights-watch-report-on-killer-robots-and-our-critique/ See in Human Rights Watch Chapter and Drone Reports. 2012. that I have downloaded this report. instead of just what someone else chooses to quote.26 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM DoD (2 Dec 12) DoD = US Department of Defense.” Department of Defense Directive.com/international/archive/2012/09/how-terrified-should-we-be-of-the-pentagonsplan-to-automize-drones/261944/ Also see Autonomous Drones in Drone Terms document. Carter. in time may diverge from references in Drone Reports. the Directive establishes “DoD policy and assigns responsibilities for the development and use of autonomous and semi-autonomous functions in weapon systems. I would rather have a chapter heading on each source. in their Critique of Human Rights Watch Report on Killer Robots. 2012 Nov 28 I started a Drone Robots doc.lawfareblog. 26 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . than duplicate the material. 2012. Lawfare shared a recommended reading list regarding recent discussion of Autonomous Robots.pdf thanks to it being mentioned here: http://www. QUOTE Ashton B. November 21. Sept 12. 127 http://www.09. 2012. including manned and unmanned platform s. on Autonomous Killer Robot Drones. in Defense Science Board on Autonomous Systems. Number 3000.” A key concept in the document – which is designed to be applicable across many different kinds of weapons systems over time and during their development – is that the “appropriate” level and kind of human involvement in the system will depend upon many factors and circumstances.125 According to Lawfare. 2012 Sep 05 uploaded to my Linked In / Box Net / Drone Info / Drone Sources sub-folder 2012 Oct 12+ Review: I have not yet read this.theatlantic.com/2012/12/readings-autonomous-weapon-systems-and-their-regulation/ 2012 Sep 05 I obtained this 125 page document http://www.
opposition to stem cells. and reaches some overly sweeping and unwise conclusions. the Department of Defense has issued a directive entitled “Autonomy in Weapon Systems. in Pentagon Directive on “Autonomy in Weapon Systems” »129 QUOTE Speaking of autonomous weapons systems. that I have downloaded this report. becomes a multi-million dollar industry in another. But treaties. Human Rights Watch (along with the Harvard Law School International Human Rights Clinic) published a report titled “Losing Humanity: The Case Against Killer Robots. can and should be rethought as technology advances. While HRW’s new report is an important contribution to this debate – containing useful background discussion of emergent precursor systems currently in use or under development – we think it rests on some questionable premises both factual and moral. 129 http://www.27 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Last week. research banned in one nation.”132 It declares: Then they quote some of it. 131 See in Human Rights Watch Chapter and Drone Reports. and this raises a legitimate concern about whether highly automated or autonomous weapons systems would comply with the laws of war.128 There are always nations that the US is in a conflict with. 132 See in US Military drone future plans and Drone Reports. See DoD chapter section. cloning.lawfareblog. like laws. Nov 27 2012. as we have seen with peaceful uses of outer space. UNQUOTE The critique has a US military centric viewpoint. when they consider their national interests more important. I agree that International Law Courts have failed to live up to their expectations. Certainly the direction of weapons development is toward greater automation. with many serious adversaries competing in a drone technology arms race. already possible in some very limited forms).” It argues for a preemptive prohibition by multilateral treaty on the development and use of “fully autonomous weapons that could select and engage targets without human intervention” — a technological feat likely to be possible a few decades from now (and. I agree that treaties can pre-judge science. where the US cannot be in a leadership position. but this is because most nations of the world give the finger to their rulings. I believe there needs to be treaty negotiation thru the UN. UNQUOTE 128 See my Drone Nations which documents that drones are active in over 100 nations in our world. which fails to appreciate the arms race around the world. so long as we are on the brink of war with each other. which Matt and Ken130 and Human Rights Watch131 all were. that I have downloaded HRW report.com/2012/11/pentagon-directive-on-autonomy-in-weapon-systems/ 130 See Nov 26 2012 from Lawfare. An important challenge is the issue of holding individuals criminally liable for war crimes when lethal systems operate autonomously. 27 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . in fact.
without any evidence to substantiate their positions. I agree that over time. the report’s authors m ake a lot of assumptions about the technology that may well prove wrong QUOTE Al Mac Observation: It seems to me that a lot of authors are making assumptions. often do not. engineering concepts. but as I have noted elsewhere. technology development may get some things functioning better than human decision-making. Lawfare Concepts (2 Dec 12) Dec 11. US government regulation and weapons review processes. and audits. I think there could be standards: Do not deploy said technology until it achieves specified standards. right now.” 36 Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 3 (2013). 2012.134 that we should ban the inferior machines. unless there are government regulations.” “The Loop. Lawfare Research Paper Series 1-2012. 2012 in Does Human Rights Watch Prefer Disproportionate and Indiscriminate Humans to Discriminating and Proportionate Robots?133 QUOTE To reach this conclusion. In the language of engineers. Lawfare came out with a recommended reading list regarding recent discussion of Autonomous Robots. regulations for today’s drones must be “crafted with an eye towards tomorrow’s technologies. 133 http://www.com/2012/12/readings-autonomous-weapon-systems-and-their-regulation/ 28 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . using the evolution of today’s rapidly automating drones as an example. humans can do it better.com/2012/12/does-human-rights-watch-prefer-disproportionate-andindiscriminate-humans-to-discriminating-and-proportionate-robots/ 134 See for example. the Feb 2010 attack in Drone Dates. “Understanding “The Loop’: Regulating the Next Generation of War Machines. But rather than: HRW position that because.28 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Dec 01. Opposition position that has confidence in technology development. and military strategy in order to yield a precise.” “autonomy. with good oversight.” As a consequence.lawfareblog. this paper (which inaugurated the Lawfare Research Paper Series in May 2012) provides a detailed explanation of the distinct technical meanings of “automation. say Marra and McNeil. Human nature is not going to change. “tomorrow’s drones are expected to leap from ‘automation’ to true ‘autonomy’. which included:135 QUOTE William Marra and Sonia McNeil. I have seen human nature in the work place since the 1960’s. According to Lawfare. where US military attacked children by mistake.lawfareblog. 135 http://www.” an d other key concepts essential to intelligently regulating gradually automating weapons systems. then waited 12 hours before reporting it. common vocabulary for debating the proper forms and modes of regulation of incrementally automating weapons systems. so there should be no such ban. The paper brings together international law.
December-January 2012-13 (final published version at Policy Review here. Kenneth Anderson and Matthew Waxman. Human Rights Watch and Harvard Law School Human Rights Clinic. 2012. See HRW section for more info.29 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Yet today’s debates about humans and ‘the loop’ rely on langua ge too imprecise to successfully analyze the relevant differences between drones and predecessor technologies. 2012. Michael N. See SSRN chapter section for more info. 2012.” Policy Review. See DoD chapter section for more info. Deputy Secretary of Defense. Lawfare came out with a recommended reading list regarding recent discussion of Autonomous Robots. Lawfare Research Paper Series 1-2012. “Autonomy in Weapons Systems.lawfareblog. US Naval War College. November 21. William Marra and Sonia McNeil. Number 3000.09. See SSRN chapter section for more info. where he co-directs the Harvard Law School-Brookings Project on Law and Security.” UNQUOTE Lawfare Reading List (2 Dec 12) Dec 11. “Losing Humanity: The Case Against Killer Robots. “Understanding “The Loop’: Regulating the Next Generation of War Machines. Schmitt.com/2012/12/readings-autonomous-weapon-systems-and-their-regulation/ 29 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . International Law Department. UNQUOTE They plan to make additions to this over time. and working draft with footnotes at SSRN here). Carter.” 36 Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 3 (2013). Lawfare Wittes and Malinowski (2 Dec 11) Benjamin Wittes is a Senior Fellow in Governance Studies at the Brookings Institution.136 QUOTE Ashton B. “Autonomous Weapon Systems and International Humanitarian Law: A Reply to the Critics.” Department of Defense Directive. “Law and Ethics for Robot Soldiers.” SSRN Working Paper. Draft of December 4. 2012.” November 19. He 136 http://www.” They conclude that needless confusion and possibly policy error pervade discussions about “when an advanced technological system is autonomous and what the implications of autonomy might be … language useful to the policymaking process has already been developed in the same places as drones themselves — research and engineering laboratories around the country and abroad. See Lawfare Concepts chapter for more info.
We don’t share that rosy assumption. Mr.S. and replies to that. Here. and others legitimately to act against him.com/2012/12/tom-malinowski-responds-on-autonomous-lethal-systems/ 139 I share Lawfare’s observation about the ineffectiveness of International bans. Wittes shares what Mr.lawfareblog. which comment on each other’s prior writings. 140 http://www. Wittes talks about the potential for future weapon systems which might solve some of today’s challenges. after some preliminary remarks:138 QUOTE Some of the arguments below (and by others in favor of a treaty ban on autonomous lethal systems) assume the likelihood of an effective international prohibition. The target. Mr. has already been selected. government warnings to Assad that he’ll probably face direct U. as we write this we’re also reading U. regarding lethal autonomous systems. he keeps 137 138 http://www.S.140 The good news for them.lawfareblog. And nor do we think he feels he needs sophisticated robotic systems to wipe out civilians and their property. Mr.com/author/benjamin/ http://www. UNQUOTE Here. This is a case where only a strong combination of power and principles will stop Assad. international law here probably does serve as an important background marker for the U. though). action if he uses his vast caches of chemical weapons against the rebels.com/2012/12/tom-malinowski-responds-on-lethal-autonomous-systems-part-ii/ 30 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . Malinowski recently wrote. QUOTE Imagine a robot designed for targeted strikes against individual targets. but he’s living in a compound with large numbers of civilians—wives and kids. and we’re dubious that it’s serving as a direct barrier to him using chemical weapons. Tom Malinowski is with Human Rights Watch. Lawfare says they are quoting Mr Malinowski’s post in its entirety. For example.30 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM is the author of several books and a member of the Hoover Institution's Task Force on National Security and Law. Malinowski does not appear opposed to the principle of weapon systems which shoot down incoming attacks.S. especially with regard to compliance by states we’re most worried about. is that their areas of disagreement are narrowing.139 Specifically regarding Tom’s point below that an international ban on autonomous lethal systems will help ensure that they’re never used by brutal dictators like Syria’s Assad on their own people. Nor do we think it’s the moral code of his commanders that will determine whether he uses these weapons. say—with whom he is interacting on an ongoing basis.137 Benjamin Wittes has posted several times on Lawfare. and that’s what we are trying to promote in our proposals. a senior terrorist figure. Precisely to discourage drone strikes. They each write articles.lawfareblog. We don’t think it’s the Chemical Weapons Convention that’s stopping him (the CWC hasn’t stopped him from gaining this capability in the first place.
consider this one—which already exists. UNQUOTE They explain why this is a bogus understanding. this article.google. to the Allenby and Mattick article.lawfareblog.31 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM himself close to these and other civilians.org/blog/how-international-law-adapts-new-weapons-and-technologies-warfare 145 http://www.com/sol3/papers. It argues vigorously against recent calls by Human Rights Watch (HRW) and others for a sweeping. maybe it crashes into the target’s head and explodes. Third. it has very long loiter time. Another was why “lethal” weapons are preferable over those intended to be “non-lethal". Now imagine that our new robot has a few advances—none of them unthinkable. allowing it to strike incredibly quickly. by two members of the international law department of the US Naval War College. New weapons are not 141 http://www. published Feb 5. in my view—over current technology. exploiting splitsecond calculations about the target’s distance from the civilians in relation to the weapon’s blast radius. and the laws of war.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jTPhInUoZJNu1kT604y1CV0xM0w?docId=CNG.ssrn. If you think this robot sounds fantastical. 144 ICRC = International Red Cross http://intercrossblog. but it’s specifically designed not to destroy the building (and the other people in the building) in doing so. it is very small and quiet and thus hovers very low.141 UNQUOTE Harvard National Security Journal (3 Feb 18) “Out of the Loop” Autonomous Weapon Systems and the Law of Armed Conflict. UNQUOTE The Red Cross goes on to explain QUOTE Often when new technologies and weapons emerge there are concerns expressed that they are not covered by existing law . Red Cross. may be downloaded from Social Science Research Network (SSRN).143 came from ICRC. so it can watch the target for long periods. Second.144 which Lawfare then commented further on. its on-board weapon has an extremely small blast radius.com/2013/02/readings-autonomous-weapon-systems-links-post-updated/ 143 See separate chapter section on what they had to say.lawfareblog.com/2012/12/the-icrc-and-slate-an-exchange-on-weapons/ 31 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder .145 The Red Cross says that two of the questions raised by Allenby and Mattick reflect a serious misunderstanding of the nature of weapons. total international ban on autonomous weapon systems.2f1 142 https://papers.com/2012/12/readings-autonomous-weapon-systems-and-their-regulation/ http://www.142 According to Lawfare. discusses various issues related to lethal autonomous weapon systems.lawfareblog.cfm?abstract_id=2212188 http://www. One of the responses.b0b893fb04aee2445cb9d54b02462bd7.icrc. the robot decides autonomously when to attack. First. ICRC (2 Dec 12) ICRC = International Committee of the Red Cross. The two questions the Red Cross is referring to are: QUOTE One question was whether international humanitarian law is properly suited to emerging new means and methods of warfare. And fourth—and critically—to make sure that the strike does not kill the civilians in the compound. 2013.
Paul U of Ottawa (2 Nov 29) Paul Robinson is a professor in the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Ottawa.146 He wrote an article Who Will Be Accountable for Military Technology? It was published Nov 15.paul_robinson. 146 147 http://www. cannot be held legally accountable for their actions. He is the author and editor of numerous books on military history and military ethics. such as robot drones. have declared that US military use of drones constitute war crimes … they are not being used in accordance with international human rights laws. we face a very real danger that it will become increasingly difficult to hold those who wage war on our behalf accountable for what they do. and lack of seeing the big picture.single. See chapter section on Killer Robots Part I. for a weapon system. 2012 in Slate’s Future Tense. the old laws and treaties may seem unclear.slate.32 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM allowed under international law. their secrecy.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/11/lethal_autonomous_robots_drones_tms_an d_other_military_technologies_raise. Robinson. means it cannot be used.slate. the accountability difficulty is not just because of the advance of technology. A handgun can be fired into the air. UNQUOTE Accountability Complexity (2 Nov 29) In my view. The lack of regulations. There’s the issue that machines. Others. The ICRC points out that sometimes. where future shock can impact many people.com/authors. including Military Honour and the Conduct of War: From Ancient Greece to Iraq. 147 This article was referenced in the USAF General Counsel Blog. do. Al Mac observation: If the ICRC explanation is valid. through amendments to the various treaties. with many relevant links in his article. then this might explain why various nations. Artificial intelligence is not the only technology to pose such accountability problems. and the UN. until they are specifically authorized. They also explain why it is meaningless to characterize any weapon as lethal or non-lethal. Hundreds of people have been killed using weapons labeled as non-lethal. too. He points to several people who have called for an international convention regulating the use of lethal robot drones. although of a different sort. such as bio-enhancement.html 32 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . thanks to new technology. QUOTE As technology advances. it is also the complexity of human organizations. Thus there is an international discussion seeking to improve that clarity.html http://www.
defense needs and future priorities. and the future of the U. Singer lectures frequently to U. http://afgeneralcounsel. Dec 11.S.S. With the voting compromised. either the end user. but it is illegal to do anything about it. a hub for International Affairs. dating back to Da Vinci’s designs for a robotic knight and including things like German remote-controlled torpedo boats in WW I.org/features/the-think-tank/essays/the-robotics-revolution/ See Center for New American Security commenting on this article. a Stanford Professor got his hands on Voting Machines made by multiple manufacturers. The drones are then sold to government agencies. using chips from other vendors. QUOTE While unmanned systems have a long history. UNQUOTE 148 149 More info about Peter Singer here: http://opencanada. military audiences and is the author of several books and articles. current U.148 Peter W. Several years ago. since it supposedly violated trade secrets of the Voting Machine companies. So now we have a reality in which we know these machines can be hacked and spoofed. defense system. or the software company. Who is accountable for this? State Legislators who bowed more to Industry Lobbyists than to Academic Ethical desires. He assigned one class the task of finding ways to spoof them. Then it is discovered that the software was not doing the job properly. so no way to audit whether the votes were sabotaged. 2012. Many states have no paper trail. 149 He writes about the history of drones.S. can voters even get this fixed? Drones are manufactured.dodlive. are no longer with the company. including Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century. Collectively they found scores of ways to spoof all the machines. Is the problem misinformation. 2012. It is then found that they are not doing what was desired. Singer is the director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative and a senior fellow in Foreign Policy at Brookings. and personnel in other places in government hierarchy to decide what the drones are to do. thanks to USAF General Counsel. then a second class to deduce how the first class had spoofed voting info in specific machines. which use info from independent intelligence agencies. Advances in technology made unmanned systems more usable. This info was then published. which are supposed to perform well defined functions. Dec 12. misunderstanding? Singer.org/author/petersinger/ http://opencanada.33 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Companies exist in a government regulated industry. in Open Canada.mil/2012/12/12/rpas-drones-and-accountability-for-military-action/ 33 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . Peter on Robotics Revolution (2 Dec 12) Peter W. the new conflicts that followed 9/11 drove demand. They buy software to satisfy their record keeping meets government and other mandates. malfunction. and what we have been seeing in the news media. I found out about both. it wasn’t until a decade ago that they truly took off in war. Singer wrote about the Robotics Revolution. especially through the incorporation of GPS technology which allowed such systems to locate themselves in the world. Singer’s research focuses on three core issues: the future of war. The reaction was for many state legislatures to prohibit such behavior in the future. Who is accountable for this? The personnel who made the software acquisition decisions. and implementation. At the same time.
with technology constantly doubling upon itself in everything from power to storage to broader innovation patterns.org/blog/how-international-law-adapts-new-weapons-and-technologies-warfare 155 https://papers. that ICRC disagrees with. that the computing power that can fit on a microchip doubles just under every two years or so.152 The second argued for a change in the treatment of nonlethal weapons. 153 http://afgeneralcounsel. and.154 UNQUOTE As usual. our computers.mil/2012/11/13/war-with-nonstate-actors/ See Allenby and Mattick chapter section. This is a huge article.cfm?abstract_id=2046375 156 SSRN = Social Science Research Network 34 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . where their smallest bits are electrons neutrons protons. and http://afgeneralcounsel.dodlive. our robots will be as much as a billion times more powerful than today.icrc. Not surprisingly.150 there have been several articles recently on Slate. to study as my time permits. If Moore’s Law holds true over the next 25 years.mil/2012/11/14/the-impact-of-nonlethal-weapons/ http://www. Slate (2 Dec 12) According to USAF General Counsel Blog. exploring many implications.com/sol3/papers. and computer. then our chips. he disagrees with both Slate articles. ICRC legal advisor Neil Davison offers a detailed response that is well worth reading. 152 Page not found.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/11/nonlethal_weapons_and_the_law_of_war.ssrn.mil/2012/12/05/the-icrc-responds-to-slate/ See chapter section on the Red Cross. the way it has held true over the last 40 years. Peter Singer writes. he may not recognize that there is a limitation. to how small things can be made. We now have quantum computers. It also has a dark side. It has become an encapsulation of broader exponential trends in technology that have occurred through history.dodlive.151 QUOTE One Slate post argued that international law would need to be revised to reflect the new weapons and war we are fighting. I want to study original sources. they posted Law and Ethics for Robot Soldiers.dodlive. in physics. SSRN = Social Science Research Network (2 Dec 03) April 28 2012.h tml 154 http://intercrossblog. crediting how I found them. It can revolutionize our society like the horseless carriage.155 I am adding it to my Drone Reports.slate. Science does not yet know how to get smaller than that. 153 In a post on the ICRC blog. yes. I named my copy: SSRN156 Robot Soldier Law and Ethics 2012 April 157 20 pages 150 151 http://afgeneralcounsel. QUOTE One of the laws in action when it comes to technology is Moore’s Law.34 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM We are at the beginnings of what a new technology will be able to accomplish. UNQUOTE However.
158 (See footnotes. This paper has been cited and discussed many places. Lawfare recommended reading list regarding recent discussion of Autonomous Robots. US Naval War College. but not on autonomous ones.lawfareblog. According to Lawfare.com/2012/12/readings-autonomous-weapon-systems-and-their-regulation/ 35 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . does not preclude them from being directed at combatants and military objectives. 2012. Dec 11.” It concludes that “autonomous weapon systems are not unlawful per se.” The draft article analyzes weapons automation and autonomy through the lens of international humanitarian law. Schmitt.” SSRN Working Paper. against HRW’s analysis. also included. a leading laws of war scholar at the Naval War College. production. including: http://www. they will do so only 157 2012 Nov 28 downloaded from https://papers.” UNQUOTE Dec 11. “Law and Ethics for Robot Soldiers.lawfareblog.com/sol3/papers.159 This included. but autonomous weapon systems are not prohibited on this basis as a category.160 QUOTE Kenneth Anderson and Matthew Waxman. Their autonomy has no direct bearing on the probability they would cause unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. Lawfare shared a recommended reading list regarding recent discussion of Autonomous Robots. “Losing Humanity.com/2012/11/human-rights-watch-report-on-killer-robots-andour-critique/ 2012 Nov 28 I started a Drone Robots doc. so what I have on it. 2012.35 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Matt and Ken have also written about this topic. Draft of December 4. and use of autonomous weapon systems is “unlikely to find traction. this brief (6. other places. December-January 2012-13 (final published version at Policy Review here. Individual systems could be developed that would violate these norms. “Autonomous Weapon Systems and International Humanitarian Law: A Reply to the Critics.lawfareblog. The article finds that the “Human Rights Watch position” in favor of a preemptive ban on development. which references this document.org/publications/policy-review/article/135336 159 http://www.lawfareblog.cfm?abstract_id=2046375 found out about it here: http://www. 2012. as well as the specific US practices to comply with international law obligations to review weapons systems.com/2012/12/readings-autonomous-weapon-systems-and-their-regulation/ 160 http://www.hoover. International Law Department.com/2012/12/readings-matt-and-ken-on-law-and-ethics-for-robot-soldiers/ 158 http://www. According to Lawfare. Professor Schmitt. and need not result in their having effects that an attacker cannot control.000 word) policy essay points out that the while autonomous weapons systems will enter the battlefield. QUOTE Michael N. has posted this draft paper as a brief (24 page) response to the HRW report. and working draft with footnotes at SSRN here).” Policy Review.ssrn.) I have downloaded some other SSRN documents on drones. in time may diverge from references in Drone Reports. on Autonomous Killer Robot Drones.
“don’t try to regulate what doesn’t exist yet” attitude toward regulation of gradually automating weapons systems. A wait-and-see attitude risks allowing technology to become locked into development paths that might lead to weapons that would be less desirable from a legal and ethical standpoint. It argues instead that the US should work to create transparent international expectations about the legal requirements of autonomous weapons through the promulgation of its internal norms. These stategenerated norms are not generally matters of international law.html See Center for New America Security. than duplicate the material. however.mil/2012/11/20/killer-robots/ 36 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder .org/features/the-think-tank/essays/the-robotics-revolution/ 163 http://www. This approach encourages study of original sources.” Instead they are remotely piloted vehicles with as much (if not more) human control as an F-16 or F-15. which quote extensively from each other. The HRW-type ban treaty would unacceptably give up potentially large gains in humanitarian protection that might emerge from new technologies of automation over coming decades. Nov 20 2012.dodlive.161 Without interjecting his own comments. UNQUOTE USAF General Counsel Blog (2 Nov 28) ! USAF = United States Air Force I am following several blogs. he suggests both the Peter Singer article 162 and Dan Trombly’s response163 are well worth a read. instead of just what someone else chooses to quote. Human beings are still very much in the “kill chain.dodlive.mil/2012/12/12/rpas-drones-and-accountability-for-military-action/ http://opencanada.cnas. 2012 he links to what other people have been debating.36 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM incrementally. does exist. but what the US government would regard as a plausible way forward on the basis of existing law of war norms in an area of novel technological and other issues. Indeed. I would rather have a chapter heading on each source. US military accountability. or a preemptive ban treaty of the kind urged by HRW. Killer Robots Part 1 (2 Dec 12) In Killer Robots Part 1.org/blogs/abumuqawama/2012/12/silence-and-drones. standards. he writes:164 QUOTE The Air Force’s Predators and Reapers are not drones. Drones and Accountability (2 Dec 12) Dec 12. about alleged Drone implications vs. The essay rejects either a wait-and-see.” The technology to allow completely autonomous weapon systems. through small technological changes that are sometimes unrelated to weapons as such. and best practices. and there are serious moral and legal issues that 161 162 http://afgeneralcounsel. they are not even “unmanned vehicles. 164 http://afgeneralcounsel.
Killer Robots Part 2 (2 Nov 29) In Killer Robots Part 2. concluding with: Read it all here. that I have downloaded HRW report. there has been quite a bit written about whether we should have an international ban on autonomous weapon systems. in a separate chapter section = Robinson. then: Read it all here. Nov 23 2012. there will always be a human in the loop: He quotes some of it. Trombly’s analysis of the topic is quite comprehensive and is worth reading for anyone interested in the Human Rights Watch concerns .mil/2012/11/23/killer-robots-part-3/ 167 See in Human Rights Watch Chapter and Drone Reports. Dan Trombly at CNAS has an interesting response. 37 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . and that organizations’ very effective op -ed strategy on the topic.37 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM need to be considered before we think about adopting these autonomous weapon systems. He quotes the former chief scientist of the Air Force. Paul Robinson of University of Ottawa describes some of these issues: He goes on to quote some of this.mil/2012/11/20/more-on-killer-robots/ http://afgeneralcounsel. then: Read it all here. UNQUOTE I explore what Robinson has to say. then: Read it all here. For a contrary view. UNQUOTE 165 166 http://afgeneralcounsel. he writes:166 QUOTE Perhaps as a result of the recent Human Rights Watch report on autonomous weapons167. You might also find the perspective of the former Chief Scientist of the Air Force to be of interest as well. He thinks there is little to be gained– and much to be lost–by removing humans from the kill chain. Then he comments on the overall topic. see this Air Power article by Caitlin Lee. In large measure this is a technology issue better answered by experts in artificial intelligence rather than lawyers.dodlive. Bonnie Doherty of Human Rights Watch and Harvard Law School has an essay at Foreign Policy that argues for international agreements barring weapon systems that remove humans from the decision-making process: He quotes some of what they had to say. that emphasizes that even with so-called autonomous weapon systems. The Defense Science Board recently released a report that suggests more interest in autonomy than Dr. Dahm.dodlive. Paul U of Ottawa. UNQUOTE Killer Robots Part 3 (2 Nov 29) In Killer Robots Part 3. he writes:165 QUOTE We earlier blogged about concerns about autonomous weapon systems. Nov 20 2012.
striking a target within seconds – often before it is heard by people on the ground.169 Kenneth Anderson and Mathew Waxman have published their analysis in a new Policy Review essay. arsenal of armed drones – primarily the Predator and Reaper – can remain aloft. they give a brief summary of their argument: Then he quotes some of it. in this general section. On LawFare. compared to four hours or less for F-16 fighter jets and A-10 ground-attack aircraft.S. which I will link separately. QUOTE First. drones can fly directly over [allegedly] hostile territory without placing pilots or ground troops at risk of injury. for more than 14 hours. drones provide a near-instantaneous responsiveness which dramatically shrinks what U.171 He starts with excerpts and examples from the history of heavier than air flight. that I have downloaded HRW report. Second. military targeting experts call the “find-fixfinish” loop. Nov 26 2012. a hub for International Affairs. Second.38 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM I wrote a comment. in Open Canada. For example.mil/2012/11/26/killer-robots-part-4/ See in Human Rights Watch Chapter and Drone Reports.org/features/the-think-tank/essays/lethal-drones/ 38 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . the Department of Defense has issued a new policy directive on autonomous weapon systems. that I have downloaded this report. drones allow for sustained persistence over potential targets. Micah (2 Dec 12) Micah Zenko wrote about Lethal Drones Dec 10. he writes:168 QUOTE In response to the Human Rights Watch Report. with a link to a video of a drone which did not have a human in the loop. 171 http://opencanada. Third. Killer Robots Part 4 (2 Nov 29) In Killer Robots Part 4. or death. but says uses and abuses of drones are different than manned flight history. capture. Then Read it all here. then how they got used in warfare. 2012. but the posted comment dropped the url. the U. 170 See in US Military drone future plans and Drone Reports.170 UNQUOTE Zenko. Contrast this with the August 1998 cruise-missile salvo that 168 169 http://afgeneralcounsel. unlike manned aircraft or raids. A drone-fired missile travels faster than the speed of sound.dodlive. fully loaded with munitions. Law and Ethics for Robot Soldiers.S.
Similarly.latimes.washingtonpost. drones. Drone-fired missiles can also be – and have been – diverted172 at the last moment if noncombatants enter the likely blast radius. drone strikes would be much less effective. U. drones:174 “Every operation. thanks to poor intelligence. in Yemen. For example. military co-operate with their Pakistani counterparts to collect intelligence to identify and track suspected militants. However. Second.39 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM targeted Osama bin Laden. there will be significantly less situational awareness and precise targeting information for drones. and when they inadvertently crash. unthreatened by antiaircraft guns or surface-to-air missiles.com/articles/2012/02/27/10_things_you_didnt_know_about_drones?page=full 39 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . The Pakistani army clears the airspace for U.S. the precision and discrimination of drones are only as good as the supporting intelligence. obtain presidential authorization. First. they take permission from the president. to analyze the intelligence. the United States has taken advantage of permissive environments. but they carry the dire risk of misattribution as a nuclear first-strike.html 175 http://www. where non-battlefield targeted killings have occurred.” As a result.” UNQUOTE 172 173 http://articles. 174 http://www.S.com/world/national-security/yemeni-president-acknowledges-approving-usdrone-strikes/2012/09/29/09bec2ae-0a56-11e2-afff-d6c7f20a83bf_story. program the missiles. the CIA and U. President Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi has praised U. Pakistani troops have repeatedly fought against the Taliban to recover the wreckage. and they’ll start falling from the sky like rain. Without such tacit or explicit support.com/2011/feb/22/world/la-fg-drone-strikes-20110222 And also have often not been diverted.S. an operation which required predicting where he would be in four to six hours. however. which the US secures with payments in foreign aid and security assistance. and fly them to the target. armed drones benefit from host-state support.foreignpolicy. which is derived from multiple sources. Intercontinental ballistic missiles loaded with conventional munitions can reach distant targets much faster than cruise missiles. drones suffer two significant limitations. you put in a high-threat environment.S. In states which lack a vast network of enabling intelligence. before taking place. according to former Air Force lieutenant-general David Deptula.173 At the same time.175 armed drones that are deployed against a capable air-defense system would be vulnerable to attack: “Some of the [drones] which we have today.
net/author/gubrud/ and http://politicalminefields. which belong in a future international law convention. or chapters.com/aboutme/ 178 http://icrac. but the other computer companies have yet to incorporate in their systems. 2.php/icbl/Treaty 182 http://www.40 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Similar Treaties (2 Dec 12) We can pattern the proposed HRW treaties on pre-existing treaties. to make sure it is not a hack job.php/icbl/Treaty 40 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . (This is a concept IBM invented 50 years ago.177 in International Committee for Robot Arms Control (IRAC)178 Analysis179 Oct 3.icbl.icbl.net/ 179 http://icrac.org/index. 2012:180 QUOTE I have been considering ways to flesh out the ICRAC proposal with further provisions building on the precedents of the landmine181 and cluster munition treaties. first work the decryption verification check that it has the USAF or CIA owner-code.182 as well as the draft Arms Trade Treaty183 (currently still being negotiated) and the broader corpus of international humanitarian law governing conduct in war. Land Mine Treaty (2 Dec 12) Here is a reference to it. discussed extensively in my Drone Terms. 177 http://politicalminefields.176 of Political Mine Fields.org/the-solution/the-treaty/ 183 http://politicalminefields.186 Civilized Human Principles (2 Dec 01) Various people have suggested clauses.stopclustermunitions.184 UNQUOTE Cluster Monition Treaty (2 Dec 12) Here is a reference to it.net/category/analysis/ 180 http://icrac.) 176 http://icrac. please shoot at it.com/aboutme/ See IRAC Matthew Bolton section.185 IHL in armed conflicts treaty (2 Dec 12) IHL = International Humanitarian Law.stopclustermunitions. M Bolton. If you get a software update.com/2012/07/26/new-draft-of-the-arms-trade-treaty/ 184 http://www. If you see a useful target.org/index.org/eng/war-and-law/index.org/the-solution/the-treaty/ 186 http://www.net/2012/10/debating-proposals-on-a-possible-international-convention-on-robotic-weapons/ 181 http://www.jsp Red Cross 185 http://www.icrc. Laws of Robotics (2 Dec 03) The US Military and CIA laws of robotics are probably something like this: 1.
187 188 In Drone Terms. 5. It is a human right not to be killed on the decision of machines.41 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM 3. but also torture. see: Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station. at least one human being must be held personally responsible and legally accountable for the decision…. 2. “We believe… it is unacceptable for machines to control.net/2012/10/debating-proposals-on-a-possible-international-convention-on-robotic-weapons/ 189 http://icrac. get a fuel up. Recognition of the rights of survivors of robotic weapon violence and international cooperation in the provision of victim assistance. nor to be ruled in the conduct of life through the agency of overseeing machines which may decide the use of force as coercion. 4.” The principle is not just about killing. Disaster Recovery (2 Dec 01) There are innocent communities which have been devastated by drone assaults. National and international mechanisms for recording the casualties of robotic weapon violence. mind reading. nor to be threatened with violent force. determine. http://icrac. In all cases where such a decision must be made. or return to the nearest friendly base. Funding should be demanded. or decide upon the application of force or violence in conflict or war. nor to be subjected to violent force or pain on the decision of machines. interrogation. pain or death as a form of coercion on the decision of machines.net/2012/11/the-principle-of-humanity-in-conflict/ http://icrac. severe weather disaster. 3.net/2012/10/debating-proposals-on-a-possible-international-convention-on-robotic-weapons/ 41 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . for example. When you run low on gas or ammo. National reporting on treaty implementation. International cooperation in the reconstruction of communities damaged by robotic weapons. for those violations of human decency and dignity. Matthew Bolton calls for. UNQUOTE Human Control Principle (2 Dec 01) Principle of Human Control = the notion that machines should not be deciding that this or that human is to be killed. International cooperation on treaty implementation. not previously stated within any body of law or philosophy. of the nations and people to be held accountable. 187 They need foreign aid similar to that which goes to victims of an earthquake.188 QUOTE 1.189 This is a proposed new principle. including technical assistance.
This has all sorts of implications. I try to figure out how come they are broken. on the basis of what alleged facts with an audit trail of where those facts came from. the word “machines” might be adjusted to include institutions rules and policies.net/2012/11/the-principle-of-humanity-in-conflict/ http://icrac. and must sign their name to key decisions and documents. Similar analysis is needed in this discussion. where: 1. and preferably exactly one (e. the US Supreme Court has declared Corporations to be persons.190 Humanity Principle (2 Dec 01) Principle of Humanity = a concept found in early Hague and Geneva Conventions first drafted a century ago. It may need to be classified. I have evaluated many human systems which are obviously broken. or make use of weapons that are inherently inhumane. it must be retained and made available for judicial review . Currently. At least one person (a human person). and accounting.191 190 191 http://icrac. I think we need more professions like medicine. then perhaps they would have the status of humans. inflict unnecessary suffering. There should be an audit trail. I have proposed new activities to provide alternative solutions. If we ever give artificial intelligence beings equal status under the law. in the USA. starting with the difficulty of proving accountability. without proper human oversight. There might also be a chapter defining what proper human oversight should look like. 3. as many corporate and government records are shredded when thought to no longer be needed. This is especially relevant with drone killing. It should be declassified at some point in the distant future. Where the initial draft proposes that “machines should not do this or that to humans”. must be accountable for each decision to use violent force against a particular person or object at a particular time and place. where people are certified as competent. Human Responsibility Principle (2 Dec 01) Principle of Human Responsibility = We must hold ourselves responsible for the decision to use violent force. and why premeditation efforts fail. but that record should not get destroyed because of old age. 2.net/2012/11/the-principle-of-humanity-in-conflict/ 42 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . with rights like humans. a commanding officer).g. if there is some logical way to punish them when they misbehave. In the conduct of war we must not be needlessly cruel. Where data has been recorded pertaining to the circumstances of such decisions. and cannot delegate that responsibility to machines. to avoid repeating the same kinds of mistakes. This person was ordered killed. Also see my Mitigation Suggestions in Drone Terms. engineering. and the impact of big money on negative advertising in politics.42 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM I would amend this.
let alone via police drones? Matthew Bolton would require regulation of. ‘non-lethal’ or ‘pain’ weapons by robotic systems. It has to be honored by nations which have the power to enforce it. It is not enough to have a non-proliferation treaty. shouldn’t it also be banned for use by police against the civilians of a nation. But. I e-mailed Matthew Bolton pointing this out. and in war.194 QUOTE 1. as opposed to a mass of combatants and non-combatants in a similar area? Killers Trade Ban (2 Dec 01) See my Drone Nations notes. If a weapon has been banned for use by military on the battlefield. which ban the sale of delivery systems for WMD etc. which I found out from GAO. about non-lethal weapons like Tasers. such as Drone Terms. blinding lasers. Prohibition of trade or transfer of robotic weapons. UNQUOTE But these weapons exist. particularly ’unmanned’. do serious damage. Transparent reporting on the trade and transfer of robotic weapons.193 Matthew Bolton calls for.192 QUOTE arming robotic.net/2012/10/debating-proposals-on-a-possible-international-convention-on-robotic-weapons/ 43 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder . 194 http://icrac. 192 193 http://icrac. cluster munitions or other weapons prohibited by international humanitarian norms. systems with nuclear. supplying links to the GAO reports.195 QUOTE use of so-called ‘less-lethal’. I share info about treaties. or use systems able to target them better at military targets.net/2012/10/debating-proposals-on-a-possible-international-convention-on-robotic-weapons/ 195 http://icrac. to certain nations. UNQUOTE Killing with Non-Lethal Weapons (2 Dec 01) I have written citations in my earlier notes. as the GAO investigation makes clear. and mentioning a few other related topics. biological or chemical weapons. landmines. where I uploaded my Drone Nations notes. at people’s heads.43 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM Matthew Bolton would ban. and how tear gas canisters aimed. leaders consider most options on the table. have permanently harmed innocent people. Is it better to send them blindly at an enemy. they are not only not doing their job. In there. components.net/2012/10/debating-proposals-on-a-possible-international-convention-on-robotic-weapons/ Over the weekend 2012 Dec 1-2. There are several US government agencies whose job it is to stop this from happening. parts. which have killed hundreds of people. they are helping grease the wheels of trade to make sure the weapons go to inappropriate national customers. and other instances where police supposedly armed with non-lethal weapons. related technologies and munitions. 2. to countries and armed groups that commit serious violations of international human rights and humanitarian law.
44 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop 3/15/2013 10:47:11 PM UNQUOTE 44 Drones (semi) autonomous out of human loop / Studies / Drones / folder .
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