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Adolf Hitler Rise to power


Nazi Germany

Who voted for the Nazis? he never got majority but the Nazi success was amazing But 1932 37% of votes

largest single party young generations and old loyal voters from the past gained most from the middle-class and protestant parties lowest in South and West, highest North and East

doing better in protestant areas than strong catholic small towns and rural areas rather than in large industrial cities in cities the workers voted socialists he did appeal to all sectors in German society Rural, middle-class protestant background mostly

a. Catholicism and Socialism had strong ideologies opposed to nationalism b. Nazi propaganda was not strong enough to break the organization strength of Catholicism and Socialism

They were strong in trade union Catholicism had church hierarchy

c. Both (cat. and soc.) had a strong sense of identity d. people without feeling of traditional loyalties and identity would vote Nazis most Nazi supporters had little faith in existing system disillusioned people

and their status in society was being threatened shop keepers, farmers, professionals crises 1929 32 was climax in disaster Fear Hitler exploited that with propaganda The youth was also strong supporter

pre-war a baby boom -> now theyre coming to vote, they got a very little chance to get work. Now about 40% of the party members. The young joined the SA

pride, job, theyre disillusioned, keep them occupied, status

A) Consolidation of Power 1933-1934

(p. 207-209) Hitlers position wasnt strong there were only 2 other Nazis in Cabinet

Frick minister of Interior Gring minister without portfolio

Nazi + Nationalist coalition -> not a majority in Reichstag within 2 months dictator legally leader of single largest political party so could not be ignored they had control of key areas of state responsibility for police -> harass people Goebbels responsible for propaganda radio and press Hitlers personality clever politician, no way he would become puppet

1. Reichstag elections as soon as he became chancellor 1933 campaign for the last election characterized by violence and terror meeting of socialists and communists broken up

(middle paragraph 207) fear generated before the elections

used this in his propaganda -> appealed to the people blamed the violence of government and communists

Financial support from big businesses and industry used the Reichstag fire to strengthen their position communists blamed and

Hindenburg persuaded to sign Decree for protection of people and state (p.207 bottom) Hitler used this to crush the opposite powers hundred arrested 288 seats in Reichstag the Nazis and Nationalists now have majority they outlawed the communists and Nazis then had overall majority. to change the constitution he needs 2/3 propaganda, exploiting fear, violence -> to win the elections

1. The Enabling Act March 1933 it would transfer all power to chancellor and his government for 4 years (p. 208) legal dictatorship he wouldnt have to consult Reichstag to enact laws parliamentary procedures

would end

new Reichstag met in Opera House in March

Communists not allowed in (some in prison) others were intimidated by SA

Hitler promised church to support them Catholics voted for him (Centre party) only Social democrats voted against the bill was passed

Now he can create dictatorial state -> End of Weimar

Gleichschaltung (1933-1934) bringing into line , coordination to Nazify German life German culture, education, political, social life became more controlled Hitler Youth started in Spring: German political system brought into line Federal states, political parties and Trade unions are counter to Nazi ideology Nazi plan is for unified Germany -> has to change

April 33: passed a law in which the Nazi state government could introduce laws without referring it to Landtage (provincial governments) January 34: he abolished the provincial governments end of federal system Trade unions were very powerful and organized threat for Nazis

TU weakened by depression May 33: Hitler annexed Trade unions and its leaders arrested German labour front established (DAF) DAF was supposed to represent workers but it controlled them

7th April 33: Law for restoration of professional civil service courts, school, universities were purged from alien elements got rid of Jews and others. They created organisations that Germans had to Join: DAF Hitler Youth German lawyers front

Nazis rejected democracy no other opinions wanted authoritarian rule, one party state communists destroyed, banned social democrats

by June/July 33 other parties adopted self-gleichschaltung July: law against formation of new parties government decree proclaimed the Nazi party the only legal party middle 1933: coordination in area of politics and social life but not complete in Christian churches, big businesses (supported Nazis) and army not influenced

agreement with Vatican about Christian churches

in October 14, 1933: Reichstag dissolved

Night of the Long Knives 30th June 1934 (page 210) Hitler wanted to end the permanent state of revolution he was concerned that party is getting out of his hands conservatives could get worried about the speed of change not many happy within the party -> call for radical change to attack the German elite

call came from SA anti-capitalist, left-wing side of Nazi party high working class membership put a lot of emphasis on social element of Nazi program didnt see a need to satisfy the conservatives

paid a major role in early years in winning the political battles on the streets some of them wanted more power and not to compromise leader Rhm he called for Nationalist socialist revolution he had different views from Hitler about future role of SA he saw SA as key organization for ceasing power and wanted to integrate army and SA together -> horrified the army

their traditional role was threatened by SA

Hitler saw SA as a subordinate in the party Rhm represented more Nazi part of the party [see previous notes on Weimar for who and why they joined] Hitler needs to subdue this element

Hitler is now caught between SA with his political friend and the army army has to power to remove Hitler!! SA could never match the discipline and expertise of the army army was critical for Hitlers foreign policy Hitler attempted to reduce the tensions but didnt succeed

in Spring 1934 Hindenburg is close to death Hitler wants to combine presidential and Chancellors office

he needs backing of army to do this

army itself wants to get rid of SA and therefore end the idea of 2nd revolution Hitler eliminated SA as a political and military force using the SS Rhm and other leaders were killed army provided weapons and other transport

What was the significance of the Night of the Long Knives? elimination of possible threat, it elevated the position of army Hitler was now more sure of support from army SS were discipline elite under Himmler SA had no significant part in the regime no political role SS now became elite institution of terror it secured Hitlers personal powers as well

Hindenburg died and Hitler merged offices Hitler took the title Fhrer

Why was Hitler able to consolidate his powers? there was opportunity to get rid of Hitler -> it was obvious what hes doing army supported him many wanted to return to authoritarian rule no wide spread opposition workers were weakened by unemployment fatalism around workers no strikes, nothing attracted by possibility of success and careerism others simply wanted quiet life others simply wanted change others underestimated him saw it as a temporary measure Hitler was clever he used the law (Enabling act, emergency decrees, gave concessions (church, army)), propaganda, terror tactics (SA,SS), moved quickly

B) Nazi System of Government Nazi party has complete authority over German life Nazi state was not well ordered system

the roles of party and the state were never clearly stated -> lot of internal conflicts -> chaos


the 3rd Reich was mix of overlapping institutions and structures the Nazi party and state offices existed parallel to each other

they didnt knock down the old structure (school ministry,) -> functions were duplicated -> conflict between officials and central government

heads of old government ministries party appointed specialist deputies doing similar functions e.g. German inspector of German roads was a newly appointed but overlapped with some of the functions of the traditional minister for post and transport -> frequent conflicts Youth leader of the Reich duplication of the minister of education Office of deputy Fhrer, 4-year plan office, SS and Gestapo under Himmler

Offices (civil service) was very well established and ran by educated people and could be destroyed quickly no purges (only on Jews)

the law to ensure unity of party state was established but it meant nothing (Dec 33) Hess became Reichstag deputy Fhrer in the mid-30s and got special powers he could control the appointments to the civil service

all civil servant had to join party by 1939 -> more control and supervision


Bormann: created 2 new departments

Deputy of internal party affairs would control the discipline in the party advance the position of the party Deputy of affairs of the state the party became the institution of government under Bormann the party still had conflict with the sate institution remained (whereas in Russia it dominated)

the intentionalists view -

Hitler deliberately set his institutions and officials against each other Structuralist or functionalist view the chaos was unintended

Hitler dominated Germany from 1933-45 he was able to issue decrees after the enabling act in theory, his power was unlimited Nazi Germany was one-party state and he was the commander, president and chief of armed forces


even his wishes and the official interpretations of his wishes were the law Hitler myth: he was the architect of German miracle, he was responsible for all success in the government, he understood his people, defended Germany against enemies: Jews and Bolsheviks

Germany has a long tradition of authoritarianism in Germany, he was good speaker, and did have success they had reason to accept the myth, propaganda machinery Hitler was very dependent on his subordinates to put forward his decisions all the officials were competing with each other to carry out Hitlers wishes his decisions would be interpreted and made into policy to carry out Hitlers wishes most decisions were not made by Hitler but it was his will Hitler was more preoccupied with foreign politics

Was Hitler the all powerful dictator? Traditional view Hitler was the powerful dictator and made all decisions Revisionist view Hitler was very weak and was not involved in parliament decisions Kershaws view Hitler is the key figure to the policies, all policies reflect Hitlers vision no opposition to his will, hes the one who legalizes the policies but hes necessarily not the one who decides on the actual policies.


(Reich Chancellery: after Enabling Act most laws and decrees were drawn by Chancellery officials responsible for creating new legislations depending on the responses from the departments new sections in the party and state were created by the chancellery letters to Hitler and paperwork went trough here therefore leader Lammer controlled what goes to Hitler therefore controlled policies) handout: What happened to the traditional power structures?

C) The Police state the SS was formed in 1925 Himmler became the leader of SS in 1929 elite police (bodyguards before) 1933: 52 000 SS men blind obedience -> completely committed to support Nazi state main instrument of terror 1931 Himmler created the Special Security Service (SD)


internal police/intelligence headed by Heindrich

1933 Himmler took control of all political police in Lander (different states) including the Gestapo (Secret police in Prussia) Gestapo went after the enemies of state

1936 Himmler Chief of German Police he unifies all the police (SS, SD, Gestapo) he controls all police power create SS-police-SD system

grew into major power bloc in Germany responsible for all security matters e.g. concentration camps led by Death Head also formed its own military divisions Waffen SS

by 1939 very powerful, strong influence the power of SS increased during the war as the army gained more territory 40 000 Gestapo by 1945 SS responsible for creating New order in E. Europe


used slave labour to build V2 rockets, facility underground

SS guardians of Race ideology SS marriage order -> marry people only the same Aryan race

How powerful were they? Some historians say they were less powerful than they seemed. View: The Gestapo was weaker because the power rested on the popular support of people they lacked enough personnel to carry out their policies dependent on cooperation of German people pointing fingers at each other


Nazi Propaganda


D) Role of Nazi propaganda April 1930: Gobbles was put in charge goal: to reach everyone propaganda brought together the political attitudes posters and leaflets continued to play important role modern technology also being used expensive cars airplanes moving Hitler around quickly to be seen at different places

Radio and Press most important

1933 Gobbles brought German broadcasting under Nazi control -> Reich Radio company dismissed about 13% of staff on racial or political base the government supported production of cheap radios in 1932: 25% of pop. had radio, 39: 70% mean of mass communication: radio was most important means of indoctrination brainwashing broadcasts also in public places: loudspeakers in restaurants, offices, factories permanent impression of Fhrer Radio wardens going around and checking if everyone is listening, speakers turned on

Control of press 1933: 4 700 daily newspapers, mostly privately owned


Adolf Hitler Rise to power


wide audience, range of topics, different views, each region different newspapers

Nazi publishing House bought many newspapers 1933 it controlled 2/3 of German press Gobbles introduced daily press conference to provide guidelines to editors 1933 Editors law -> editor is solely responsible for newspaper content -> self-censorship even the unofficial press was silenced -> sterile journalism

Propaganda new institutions to control propaganda: Ministry for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda established in March 33 Reich Culture Chamber Sept 33to promote German culture for benefit of Volk anyone involved in culture activities had to join this propaganda had a purpose to shape public opinion German cultural life was a way of achieving censorship and indoctrination the Chamber had 7 sub-chambers: theatre, press, radio, music, fine art, literature and film

Music rich in classical tradition jazz, dance bands were banned (the ones during the Golden Years) they were threat for the regime the Reich Chamber of Music controlled everything


Adolf Hitler Rise to power


many musicians emigrates: Mendelssohn and Mahler Wagner and Strauss became popular Annual festivals dedicated to Opera Volk operas encouraged Music and tales of German heroes patriotic emotions

Art/Painting healthy Aryan art modern abstract art replaced by clear images that ordinary Germans could understand and would inspire them people are heroes healthy peasants, great athletes, productive women not individuals all working artists had to be member of Reich cultural chamber, otherwise they loose their license Hitler loved exhibitions in 1941 1000 art exhibits (The glory of labour, Blood and Soil) huge statues in front of public buildings -> Nazi message sculptures usually men biologically strong and healthy

Rallies music, marching, uniforms, flag -> all propaganda



Adolf Hitler Rise to power


Reich Film Chamber censored the films only 1/6 of Films produced were propaganda recordings of rallies Nuremberg Rally emphases of racial ideology, power

others to entertain people

Architecture made of material that would last monumental styles -> clear propaganda purpose how mighty, strong Reich is German style of housing and youth hostels very pro-countryside autobahn

younger people grew up in the new culture

What role does Propaganda play in Nazi Germany? (p. 215 Control over individuals)


Adolf Hitler Rise to power


For Hitler it was crucial that he gains and holds up to the popular support from the German people. The goal was to reach everyone in Germany trough propaganda. Hitler appointed Goebbels as a leader of propaganda who ran the Ministry for popular Enlightenment and Propaganda. The main and probably most effective was radio. In 1933 Goebbels brought the German radios under the Reich radio company. He dismissed about 13% of the workers either because of racial or political reason. The government also supported the production of cheap radios so in 1939 about 70% of the German population had a radio at home. There were also wardens that would go around the working places and check if the people are listening to the radio or loudspeakers. Trough this way Hitler was able to convey his speeches or other information to the people easily and effectively. Even when he stopped giving the speeches, his old ones were being constantly repeated trough the loudspeakers.


Adolf Hitler Rise to power


Another important part of propaganda was the press. Germany had a wide range of newspapers and magazines. In 1933 it was about 4,700 daily newspapers that were usually privately owned. This was a possible threat for Hitler because he didnt want people to have the freedom of speech in press because otherwise some information that he dislikes our would be a possible threat for Nazis could be conveyed. Therefore a Nazi Publishing House was established which bought many newspapers. Also in 1933 was established the Editors law that made the editors solely responsible for the content of their newspapers. This caused self-censorship so even the unofficial press was silenced. What Nazis claimed that they want to promote the Germany culture to benefit the Volk people.

Aim of propaganda: to convince, indoctrinate and CONTROL the people Historians: art performs the function to transform the ideology into pictures Nazi ideology lived in every art kind toys, paintings, costumes, songs homemade products no imports

How successful propaganda was?


Adolf Hitler Rise to power


depended on peoples age, views and in what time the propaganda was strengthening the regime or propaganda built the state? anti-church propaganda counter-productive

SS (Schutzstaffel) inspired by Mussolinis Brownshirts Hitlers personal army got to power after night of long knives led since 1929 by Heinrich Himmler elite German units entry requirements: Aryan race, prove German nationality since 1750, no one in family was ever Jewish 1939 SS merged with SD (Sicherheit Dienst) and Gestapo and Kriminalpolizei Himmler SS directed all below -> RSHA (Reich Sicherheitamt) Waffen SS (1st Leibstandarte, Totenkopfverbnde (15,000; led death camps), Einsatzgruppen) Allgemeine SS (Germanic, Ahneibe, Schutzstaaffe SS)


Adolf Hitler Rise to power



Nazi Economy & Army


Economy in 3rd Reich 1933: recovering from depression, shortage of goofs, no imports, no foreign currency Hitler wanted to strengthen the economy restore Germany to full employment -> would create feeling of optimism to re-build military might -> territorial expansion sees war as inevitable -> need to be self-sufficient the suffering from blockade -> must not be repeated raw materials self-sufficient -> substitution of imports Hitler not interested in economy Problems: Depression let to shortage of essential raw materials and not enough foreign economy for imports investment from abroad was low hit by economic slum in World trade

Approaches: 1) Policy of autarky this would involve creation of trading community under German influence expansionist views (Balkan, Austria) no dependence on other countries for key commodities iron, food,


Nazi Propaganda


increase German production and develop substitutes 1) Policy of deficit financing


Nazi Propaganda


spend money on public works highways, housing this would stimulate demand for other goods force other people out of work (women, Jews) subsidies for employing more workers 1) Defense economy

peacetime economy would be directed to the demands of total war

no clear policy in beginning -> pragmatic approach key features of Nazi economy (33 45)

1) Recovery under Schacht president of third Reich, 34-37 Economy minister 1) Rearmament Goering not minister of economy but controlled it 1) War Speer

in early years economy under Schacht (34-37)


Nazi Propaganda


-> Economy recovery:

public investments tripled 33-36 government money given to employment schemes (autobahn, forestation, housing) armament spending increased tax for farmers lowered, tax for others increased unemployment declined to 1.7 millions by mid 1935

Problems: a) Serious problem of inflation regime had tight control on prices and wages no oppositions because of labour front demand started to grow -> more spending X ideology to support workers a) Balance of payments payment higher than income rearmament -> demand for raw materials -> some areas prioritized, other cut serious implication on military (Butter or guns)


Nazi Propaganda


New plan introduced by Schacht

New Plan 1934 tighter control on trade and currency -> government prioritized imports had to be supported by government result: 34 imports of raw cotton and wool were cut so demands for imports of heavy industrial could be met trade treaties with S-E Europe Barter exchange of goods

in short term it helped in long term when rearmament gained speed more import needed 1935 unemployment fell industrial production 49.5% since 1933 trade circles 1936 crisis in balance of payment because of demands of rearmament and increased consumption

-> move the industry to more export -> earn foreign currency -> reduce armament spending


Nazi Propaganda


solution was unacceptable -> Schacht replaced by Goering 78.9 billion Marks national budget increased imports/exports balanced

the crises of 136 led to the Four Year Plan under Goering aim: to make German armed forces and economy ready for war to achieve the plan 4 areas were given priority Increase in agricultural production Sectors of the labour force will be retrained (heavy ind,) Government would regulate even more the exports and imports Achieve self-sufficiency in now Goering is more economic director the plan wasnt for a specific war but part of more plans to be ready for war in mid-40s total self-sufficiency not possible still dependent on import of 1/3 of raw materials (oil, iron, rubber)

but did increase production of food and iron production of aluminum and explosive increased greatly slowly another method of self-sufficiency was moved in: taking other countries Views:


Nazi Propaganda


Mason: Hitler tried to supply both food and guns -> made Germany not prepared, slowed rearmament

others: war preparations was not major significance, Hitler planning only minor war Klein: partial mobilization of the economy war strategy which would involve short wars because of shortage of raw materials

Overy: total war by 1943

after 1942, the German economy became more staged Speer wanted to relax the constrains and controls upon industry Germans military wasnt as great as eg. British was under Speer in 1942 the economy was reorganized under Speer Central planning board set up 42-44 massive increase major areas of the economy: agriculture government did try to help peasants bc. it was part of their ideology Blood and soil

eg. cancelling debts, introduced the entailed farm law: land could not be sold to protect the small farm, farms could not be mortgaged

however it didnt help them to get richer


Nazi Propaganda


the regime was more interested in larger efficient farms bc. their production was important for self-sufficiency

controlled priced at first helped farmers but later it just kept prices below the market levels

many farms just left the land, the whole production dropped during the war lack of capital for investment in small farms machinery was for war, not agriculture

in industry the mittlestand (middle class) was to be protected it was under state supervision state controlled most resources most industries remained privately owned the larger firms eventually pushed out small businesses

Hitler needed the support of big businesses to revive the economy more important than ideological desires he needed heavy industry rather than small businesses

Transport Autobahn schemes were to create new Germany lot of confusion, eg. with railway system


Nazi Propaganda


39-41 military spending doubled food was rationed

Albert Speer central planning war policy for industrial self-responsibility 6 000 of planning committee

Army in Nazi Germany strong military tradition great social status elite top generals had great influence in political life of the country (long knives) the army was not coordinated (gleichstachaltung) - Nazified its position strengthen when Hitler destroyed SA (1934) the army influence was strong only in short-term it compromised between army and Nazi regime

in the long term the compromise mode weakened the army oath of loyalty to Hitler: any future resistance will be act of treason

1934 37: the relation between state and army good


Nazi Propaganda


generals cooperated because they had similar ideas anti-communists, nationalistic

conscription reintroduced in 1935 army increased to 500 000

1937: Hossbach Memorandum Hitler outlined his view for expansion and more aggressive approach to foreign policy purely received by the army war minister van Blumberg wasnt happy because they thought Hitler is expanding too quickly (and commander in chief van Fritz) Hitler very unhappy with the leadership too weak forced both men out of office

Hitler was now able to subordinate (control, dominate) the army got rid of war minister, therefore Hitler is the commander in chief 16 generals were retired, 44 transferred to other positions danger of uniting together from 1938 the influence of the army is greatly reduced before they needed the army to secure they position, but now they are in control of almost everything


Nazi Propaganda


the army was however still influential but brought under the control of SS (after Bomb plot in July 44), new laws issued, had to Nazi salute


Social impact of Nazi regime


Hitlers belief was that national socialism was an ideology that would change German society

it opposed individualism and approved ideal of Volksgemeinschaft (peoples community) -> for healthy Aryans who would accept dictatorship

their ideas on race and class encouraged new social attitudes and racial principles the Nazi propaganda machine was great importance in winning support for the Nazis

Propaganda was a sharpest weapon in conquering the state and remains sharpest our sharpest weapon in maintaining and building op the state Goebbels 1934

propaganda helped to win the support for policies and also helped to indoctrinate the people with the Nazi Weltanschauung (View of the world) (see notes on Propaganda)

Religion Christianity was the main religion (protestants and Catholics) the Nazi teachings were opposite to Christian he wanted to replace Christianity with new Aryan faith

One is either Christian or German Hitler


Nazi Economy & Army


the church would be an obstacle in indoctrinating people to Volksgemeinschaft and to being loyal to Hitler

in the early years, Hitler tried to keep good relations with churches encouraged the SA to attend the protestant church services to show unity in 1933 he signed Concordat (an agreement) between the papacy and regime

church will stay out of politics and the church would be allowed to exist and have freedom to practice their religion and education

Hitler hoped to weaken the influence the church by establishing the Reich church to replace them -> destroy they were threat to his indoctrination

they cooperated because they feared for their position and thought that Hitler would keep the traditional values

Hitler established new rituals to replace the old ones in 1933 change in policy regime interferes more in religious affairs

catholic church lost privileges under Concordat many priests arrested or harassed charged with made up charges catholic schools had to change


Nazi Economy & Army


Reich Church aim was to combine all protestant Churches into one church within this church, there was a movement (more fanatical) called the German Christians they wanted to restructure the protestant faith they described themselves as the SA of the church even had Nazi style uniforms and salutes Hitler hoped he could use this movement to coordinate the protestant churches in 1933 Hitlers advisor on protestant church affairs Mller became Reich Bishop many protestant priests were not happy with the German Christian Church and broke away from the Reich church forming the Confessional church which followed traditional Luther teaching by 1935 the Nazi coordination of churches had had little success so the attempt to have unified Nazified protestant church has failed instead there were 3 groups of protestant churches: Reich church, German Christians (trying to control the Reich church) and Confessional church The Nazis didnt want a strong policy of suppression of the church because that would simply alienate many German people but at the same time they didnt want the churches to be independent


Nazi Economy & Army


A ministry of church affairs was established (anti religious measures put in charge) priests would be charges publicly, close monasteries, parents were encouraged to send their children to state schools

1939 religious schools have disappeared Hitler youth was made compulsory in 1936 the position of churches was weakened but led to individual protests against the regime pope Pius XI. wrote 1937 letter: With burning belief very opened and anti-Nazi pope Pius XII. didnt speak against the regime and therefore criticized bishop von Galen spoke out strongly against euthanasia described as the only effective protestor against 3rd Reich

formed U-boat commander later joined the confessional church, prison in Dachau in place of Christianity Nazis wanted a new faith Teutonic Paganism German faith which would reject Christianity completely, put Hitler in center and all Christian ceremonies would disappeared

each one feared each other the Nazis received limited success in religious policy churches were weakened but not destroyed Hitlers plan needed more time Christian church has also failed: morally and actively to oppose the regime


Nazi Economy & Army


To what extend did Hitler achieved totalitarian regime? youth schools, church, women, propaganda to show how much control he had

How important was propaganda in Nazi Germany?

How important was the ideology in Hitlers rise to power?

How important was Nazi ideology in Nazi Economic policy?

Education and Youth also under propaganda education was a tool for the long term survival of the regime the schools and the youth club had the aim to have a greater influence than the parents and the church Rust the Nazi education minister: the chief purpose of the school is to train human beings to realize that the state is more important than the individual, and that individuals must be willing to sacrifice themselves to nation and Fhrer education was intended to indoctrinate the youth into the believes of national socialism the new order would survive if this was successful


Nazi Economy & Army


Schools: in 1934 under Reich ministry of education and science youth must be fit, strong, loyal to Fuehrer, good fighters -> to achieve this by changing curriculum the existing school system was adapted to the Nazi needs teachers were coordinated any politically unreliable teachers were dismissed teachers had to join the National Socialist Teachers League (NSCB) special courses were given to teachers that were not completely supportive emphases on ideology and physical strength the curriculum was adapted great emphases on physical education (15% of timetable) the Nazi ideas were incorporated into the subjects history, biology, mathematics Biology racial theory (eugenics, genes, racial purity) Religion no classes History Germany is great, will be great, Hitler is great New Nazi elite schools were created NAPOLAS (national political education for boys) taken over by 1936 by SS military style education universities saw dramatic reduction in numbers education downgraded many teachers (10%) were dismissed because of race, political reasons new appointments to Uni had to go trough ideological training camps


Nazi Economy & Army


students were supposed to have 2 meetings a week of ideological training University curriculum was revised

Youth movements: Nazi youth movement grew very rapidly DJ Deutsche Jungen - boys 10 14 yrs HJ Hitler youth 14 18 yrs JM Young girls 10 14 yrs BDM Girls 14 18 yrs Totals: 1932: 108 000, 1938: 7 038 200 the stress was on political indoctrination and also separate role of sexes was stressed 1936 all youth organization were banned and membership of Hitler youth became compulsory but some managed to avoid it

Alternative Youth: Edelweiss Pirates resistance group in youthful way mostly boys from 14 17 y.o. had badges edelweiss flower, and crossed bones was just overall name for many groups membership mostly working class


Nazi Economy & Army


didnt have clear aims only rebellious groups trying to escape the Nazi system singing songs about sex and food some of the groups were politicized beating up the Hitler youth patrols during the second world war some helped escaped prisoners, distributed allied leaflets the authorities responded more harshly over time sometimes raids and arrests 1942: 139 Edelweiss pirates arrested in Dsseldorf 1944: leaders of the Cologne Edelweiss were hanged Swing Group middle class youth

had money, went to nightclubs developed in large cities: Hamburg, Berlin, Frankfurt many were listed on Hitler youth but rejected their ideas alternative identity to Hitler youth listened to forbidden music some bars and night clubs were closed down because they were threat they showed the failure of the regime to dominate the youth

The Nazi education reduced the academic quality many were disillusioned with the Nazi youth but millions joined it even parents disliked the Nazi training but it was safer to conform


Nazi Economy & Army


95% of the youth supported Hitler

Women and Family early 20th Century decline in population growth 1900 2 million live births 1933 - 1 million women in work were increasing not unusual in industrial cities also many people realized if they limit family size, their standard of living would increase contraceptives available also economic situation led to decline in birth rate war left lot of marriageable women the growth in industry production required a lot of female labour

ideology of national socialism was a complete contrast to these trends national socialism was against the emancipation of women socially and economically Nazi ideology was anti-feminist there were separate roles for men and women seen in youth camps, school curriculum womens place was in the home: Kinder, Kche, Kirsche


Nazi Economy & Army


Nazi created a series of organisations for women and girls and millions joined: National socialist womens organisation - trained housewife

German womens enterprise an elite group of women who would be dedicated to Nazi ideology

Welfare schemes supporting poor women and children Harvest kindergartens mothers with more children received medals by 1933 women were excluded with all top positions within the party concern with declining population, growing meant national strength 1933 36: women not allowed to work in medicine, law or high ranks of civil service number of female teachers and university students was reduced interest-free loans were given to working class women to encourage them to leave work and marry (up to 600 Marks)

during the depression years, the labour offices discriminated against women in 1932 37 the employment of women fell but in 1937 there was a shortage of labour due to the conscription introduced and rearmament programme

at the same time Nazi economy growing war made it difficult to apply Nazi ideology


Nazi Economy & Army


women returned to work in mass number, life was difficult because they also had to work at home

to increase the population, anti-abortion laws were introduced contraceptive or family planning advice were limited maternity benefits and family allowances introduced all supported by extensive propaganda the birth rate did increase at 33 - 1939, following that slow decline marriage has also increases but then divorces started to increase many people, women particularly, were sterilised because they didnt want them to reproduce because of their anti-socialist behaviour or were considered a threat

social engineering Lebensborn spring of life, institution for women to have children with members of SS men

The Nazi policy towards women shows limitation of the regime, cautious approach they were forced out of work but they had to use a lot of financial support to force them to have babies

later the previous policies side stepped because they needed women in work social services for women improved for many the Nazi restrictions were horrific, but some were happy that they can state Nazis didnt achieve complete totalitarian control


Nazi Economy & Army


middle-class women with carrier were less enthusiastic about Nazi policies, they suffered

Test THUR: Domestic policies, look at aims, how implemented and were they successful? Economic policies, Churches, Women, Propaganda, Education What were the successes and failures of domestic polices? Identify the aims of educational and youth policies. In what ways and with what results was propaganda used?

Another Questions: Assess the importance of ideology. For what reason and with what success have single party states attempted to control either education or the arts? In what ways and for what reason was education and cultured controlled.

Watch out for specific dates!!

225/8) To what extend have the Nazi carried out economic and social revolution. Up to 1939


Nazi Economy & Army


p. 225 / Q 7, 8, 9

Outsiders Ideological

threat to political unity Biological those who genes opposed threat (Jews, gypsies, mental) Social those who do not fit the behaviour norms of society

July 33: The law for prevention of hereditary diseased offspring it allowed for forced sterilisation and euthanasia by 1939 Anti-socials those who did not fit the Volksgemeinschaft -> beggars, prostitutes, alcoholics, young criminals, workshy

were rounded up and imprisoned in camps, forced to wear black triangles divided on those who worked or those who just didnt those died homosexuals 1936 The Reich central office of combating homosexuality and abortion was created

tried to establish a register of homosexuals


Nazi Economy & Army


Himmler ordered the SS to sent them to concentration camps and shot some became objects of medical experimentation Gypsies their lifestyle stood up out of German society they were always set apart even before 1930 became victims of racism not considered as threat as long as they dont dirt the German blood 1938 Himmler issued Decree for the struggle against Gypsy plague 1939 started sending Gypsies to the camps, then to Poland 1942 Himmler ordered them to be send to Auschwitz -> there separated to Gypsy camps

11 000 of the 20 000 in Auschwitz were gassed, total 500 000 throughout Europe killed Jews race was the centre of Nazi social policy anti-Semitism was normal in Europe but Hitler brought it to higher level, took the chance or blamed Jews for his misfortune in past Anti-Semitism was dominant theme in his office led to economic boycotts shops attacked, racial laws, government backed the violence, mass shooting and gas chambers

33-34 excluded from professionals jobs Sept 35 Nuremberg laws: Reich citizenship act Jews werent citizens,


Nazi Economy & Army


Law for protection of German blood and German honour protection of pure marriages Summer 1936 Olympics - the boycotts eased because of press 37 intensified November 38 Kristallnacht. Jewish children kicked out of school 39 their valuables taken away, curfew cannot go outside in certain hours 40 deportation begins 41 have to wear the Star of David early 42 meetings to agree the final solution, 42 extermination facilities were established 43 destruction of Warsaw ghetto very dense, there was uprising which failed, food wasnt getting in 45 Russians liberated Jews

Who was responsible??

Did Hitler achieve his social revolution Volskgemeinschaft? How successful was it?


Nazi Economy & Army


To what extend was Germany totalitarian state?


German Foreign Policy


Aims: Sources -> a) Mein Kampf need to acquire new soil advantage: support healthy class looking to east at expensive Russia

a) Hitlers second book 1928 next stage of Mein Kampf stress the need for Lebensraum in East Germany is no threat to British German dominating Europe, struggle with US

a) Four-Year Plan 1936 Germany to protect world and itself against bolshevism

a) Hossbach Memorandum turning point: Hitler stresses the need for more aggressive approach to foreign policy

the revision of Versailles began under Weimar and Germany was emerging as a stronger power


Social impact of Nazi regime


many Historians see the Hossbach memorandum as a turning point where Germany turns from revisionist policy to aggressive policy 2 views:

Programme School (intuitionists) Hitler had a clear set of objectives Continentalists planned expansion would be limited to leaderships within Europe Globalists believe Hitler wanted supremacy in Middle East and Africa a finally a struggle with USA for world domination Structuralist School

Polycratic view of Thirds Reich all policies including the foreign policy were shaped by many institutions both party and non party. Not solely Hilters programme

Revisionist phase 1933 1937 carefull slow approach army and economy not ready for conflict priority to consolidating his position try to improve friendship with Britain and Italy so Germany would be isolated try t weaken France power, position


Social impact of Nazi regime


the international situation is in German favour

1. Weakness of L of N - no collective security 2. Britain had large empire because of commitments to his empire they cannot commit fully to League of Nations, they stretched too far Britain wanted to avoid war France major economic problems, political system unstable US isolated

this cautious approach made Nazi regime reasonable -> Europe fell into false sense of security

Germany withdrew from disarmament conference (1936) because he wouldnt be able to pursue his independence policy

France was unreasonable slow to make concessions on balance > no agreement 1933 Germany out of LoN hoped for alliances with Britain and Italy to isolate France aim to revise Versailles by coming to agreement with great powers signed 4 power pack: Britain, France, Italy, Germany non-aggression pact with Poland seriously weakened French security

in long term: Hitler had no intention guaranteeing independence to Poland


Social impact of Nazi regime


the Nazi power still limited GB sympathetic to German revisionist demands, no major success for Hitler

1935 Saarland under control of LoN returned to Germany plebiscite Versailled revision: 1935 Hitler announced existence of Luftwaffe 1936 conscription -> increase in armed forces -> against LoN Britain, France and Italy condemned -> Stresa Declaration Germany reassured them of peaceful intentions

1935 Naval agreement allowed Germany to have a navy of 35% strength of

British fleet -> immediately weakened the Stresa Declaration

1935 unity between France, Britain and Italy ended Italy got away with it so it highlighted weaknesses of league of nations Britain and France came out the worst alienated Italy, failed to stop more aggression by using the league and Germany was the only power to benefit because the Abyssinian crises was turning point weakened the league and gave Hitler the opportunity to take the Rhineland and led to Rome-Berlin axis (36) Hitler took the Rhineland in 1936, the occupation was unopposed, France was not willing to act alone and Britain was not willing to fight said its Germans land


Social impact of Nazi regime


Rhineland is major turning point the buffer between France and Germany is gone the terms of Versailles have now been overturned other powers felt that they have to be consolatory - friends, not opposing Germany Hitler is fortifying his borders at France and looking at East French couldnt do anything

1936 39: Spanish civil war created good situation for Hitler Italy and Germany became involved in the War of Side of Nationalists (Franco) fighting Republicans Hitler - good chance to have friendly government in Madrid which would supply them with mineral resources and provide bases for German submarines Soviets intervened on the side of Republicans Britain and France policy of non-intervention afraid it would escalate into major international conflict Germany benefited because it diverted the attention of W powers while Germany was following rearmament program it also improved relations between Germany and Italy (Rome-Berlin axis) by the end of 36 the German diplomatic status has change for better because Germany had dominant military and diplomatic position on the continent and no longer constrained by Versailles


Social impact of Nazi regime


Plans for war: 1936: economic crises, not ready for war also Four Year Plan (flip back to notes) conservative members of army advised him to be cautious

1937: Hossbach conference > indicated more aggressive policy but no clear plan it does show he was moving more from diplomatic to military policy he restructured the army at this point the high command

1938-39: move to war Austria and Czechoslovakia on hit Austria is independent and Germany was forbidden to Anschluss with them in 1938 the Austrian Nazi movement was reestablished very powerful and disruptive also by 1937 Mussolini had close relations with Germany he wouldnt object on Germanys move to unite with Austria there was a plebiscite in Austria if they want to unite with Germany. Plebiscite called

by Austrian chancellor he hoped people would say no to Anschluss


Social impact of Nazi regime


Foreign policy

Aims Mein Kampf Need to require a new soil for a settlement of a new population and this would have the advantage that it would support healthy peasant class If land was to desired in Europe it can be only gained at the expense of Russia Hitler's Second Book 1928 / Hitler's secret book Sequel to Mein Kampf Kept at his headquarters with orders to be published after his death Need of land from east German dominating Europe and final struggle with USA Four year plan 1936 Germany was to protect the western front against Bolshevism and Germany had a duty to protect herself from this 'catastrophy' Hossbach Memorandum 1937 Meeting between Hitler and the military leaders Turning point in foreign policy Hitler stresses the need for more aggressive approach to foreign policy Use force to solve its problems


Social impact of Nazi regime


Revision of Versailles began under Weimar as Germany becomes a stronger power Many historians see the Hossbach Memorandum when Germany moves from revisionist to aggressive policy highly debated Programme School (intentionalist) Believe that Hitler had a clear set of objectives, which involved stage by stage plan 'Continentalists' planned expansion would be limited to leadership within Europe 'Globalists' Hitler wanted supremacy in the Middle East and Africa and finally in the end a struggle with USA for world domination Structuralist School Polycratic View of Third Reich All policies including the foreign policy were shaped by many institutions both party and not. Not solely Hitlers program

Revisionist Phase 1933-1937 Hitler takes slow approach Economics and military are not ready He has to give priority to consolidate his position in Germany Tries to improve friendship with Britain and Italy, so that Germany wouldn't be



Social impact of Nazi regime


Tries to weaken France (alliance, position, power etc.) The international situation in Europe in 1933 is in favor for Germany The weakness/ineffectiveness of the League of Nations (failed to act with Japan

invasion of Manchuria 1931 no collective security against aggression) Great Britain had a large empire which made it very difficult to be fully commitment

to its empire and League of Nation, then to keep status Quo in Europe Britain wanted to avoid war with Germany Didn't want to risk their trade routes France Major economic powers Unstable government politically not strong USA isolated Careful approach made the Nazi regime look reasonable/respectful Europe fell into false sense of security 1933 - withdrew from League of Nation 1936 - Germany withdrew from the disarmament conference Discussion on arms and disarmament French slow to make concession on the balance of arms (France seen as unreasonable

while Hitler gained sympathy particularly from Britain and Italy) More freedom for Hitler to act


Social impact of Nazi regime


Tried to negotiate alliances with Britain and Italy to isolate France Aim to revise the Treaty of Versailles with coming to agreements with the great

powers Four Power Pack (Great Britain, France, Italy and Germany) Mussolini organized it, the idea was to work together to solve European problems 1934 - Non-aggression pact with Poland Makes Germany look very diplomatic, reasonable and peaceful Weakened French security in eastern Europe Secures Germany eastern border In long term Hitler had no intention to guarantee independent Poland 1934-1935 Nazi power still limited and even thou Great Britain was sympathetic to

Germany's revisionist demands, there was no major success for Hitler at this time 1934 Austrian Nazis attempted a cue failed frightened Mussolini and he

moved Italian units to the border 1935 Saar land voted to return to German rule from League of Nation rule Versailles revision 1935 Germany announced the existence of Luftwaffe (against Versailles) 1936 Hitler introduces conscription (against Versailles) Britain, France and Italy condemned it verbally Stresa Decleration


Social impact of Nazi regime


Hitler tried in Reichstag of his peaceful intentions offered Great Britain a naval

agreement 1935 which allowed Germany to have navy which would be 35% the strength of the British fleet against Versailles, but Britain accepted immediately brakes Stresa front 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia unity between France, Great Britain and Italy ended

Rome-Berlin Axis nations Britain and France came out the worse have alienated Italy and failed to stopped he Also when Italy got away with it it highlighted the weaknesses of the league of

aggression by using League of Nation for collective security League was seen as ineffective Abyssinian crisis was a turning point, which weakened the League and gave Hitler the

opportunity to take the Rhineland (March 1936) unopposed occupation France was not willing to act alone Britain not willing to fight over what they saw as Germany taking her own backyard Churchill and later others agreed that Hitler was supposed to be stopped at this point Buffer between France and Germany is gone Some terms of Versailles has been overturned Hitlers prestige at home and abroad 7th of March Reichstag dissolved


Social impact of Nazi regime


After Hitler has taken over Rhineland Hitler made a plebiscite over militarization of

Rhineland approved Others powers after this did not relay on French nor Britain Hitler fortifying borders on western borders and he looks to the east French thinking was defensive and weren't able to take any aggression west of 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War created a favorable situation for Hitler Italy + Germany became involved in the war on the side of the Nationalists (Franco) Soviet Union involved on side of Republicans Great Britain and France Non-intervention (were afraid it would escalate into

major international war) Hitler wanted a friendly government in Madrid which would supply Germany with

minerals and possibly to use submarine bases, the conflict in Spain would distract the western powers while he was re-arm The conflict disturbed the western powers while Germany was following re-armament

program at home (1936-1937) Improved relationship between Germany and Italy 1936 Rome-Berlin Axis By the end of 1936 the German diplomatic status had change for the better, because

Germany, not France, has dominant diplomatic and military position on the continent. No longer isolated


Social impact of Nazi regime


No longer confined/restricted by the Versailles terms Plans for wars 1936 Economic crisis Hitler not ready Four year plan Conservative members

of the army advise Hitler to be cautious does not have alliance with Britain which he hoped for November 1937 Hosbach conference still no clear plan for foreign policy, but

showed that there is movement more toward military policy restructured the high command of the army in preparation for a possible war 1938-1939 Move to war Austria it was clear from Hosbach memorandum that his next move is to take

Austria and Czechoslovakia 1938 Austrian Nazi movement has been re-established powerful and disruptive By 1937 Mussolini had a close relationship with Germany and indicates that he

won't object or move against Germany if it was unified with Austria He hoped to take Austria peacefully through political pressure and internal

distribution Chancellor declared referendum Invaded Austria March 1938 forced the Austrian Chancellor to resign new one

(Seyss Inquart) was forced to request entry of German troops no referendum, Anschluss Britain and France protested, but were not willing to go to war (France has its own

political crisis)


Social impact of Nazi regime


Britain is rearming, but wants to distract Berlin attention by dealing with matters in

Africa and Asia Anschluss bring many economical advantages to Germany (mineral resources)

boost of ecenomy Balance of powers in Europe is changing

Czechoslovakia Democratic state, created by Versailles alliance with France, Russia and Romania member of League of Nations Hitler saw it as strategic thread due to its position and alliances Czechoslovakia was in weak position as none of its allies (expect Romania) had

borders with Czechoslovakia. State had a lot of ethnic division 2 millions of Poles, Slovak, Hungarians, Sudeten Germans Hitler instructed Sudeten German leader to ask for concessions which would be

difficult for the Czechoslovakia to meet (toward autonomy) Britain was not willing to act on Czechoslovakia behalf and saw Hitlers request

reasonable. France was in no position to help Czechoslovakia


Social impact of Nazi regime


Britain and France saw Czechoslovakia as an artificial state try to find peaceful

solution give into Hitler's demands Bene give into the demands, but Hitler instructed Sudeten party leader to start unrest

in the region (Hemlain) Hitler exploited the British 'justice of Versailles' 1938 Munich agreement (four power conference, without Czechoslovakia) Hitler's strategy was May 1938 Czechoslovakia mobilizes September 1938 Norimberg September 1938 Chamberlain succeeds in pressuring Bene Hitler didn't want to risk continental war yet In Britain some felt that Britain and France were defeated Effects of Munich agreement Economic and strategic advantage for Germany Czechoslovakia lost, fortification and industry Hitlers domestic popularity increases USSR sees appeasement that West won't stand up to Hitler USSR is excluded from conference feel that their attempt to form anti-Nazi

coalition is futile as West is only giving into Germany's demand make agreement with Germany and move to understanding of Nazi Germany


Social impact of Nazi regime


March 1939 Germans march into Prague Encouraged Poles and Romanians and Hungaria to take peaces of Czechoslovakia Tells Slovak leaders to demand autonomy (demands that Slovakia declares

independence or else they will be taken over) Chcha goes into Berlin where he is forced to surrender

Poland Memel Baltic Port formally part of German Prussia One week after taking Prague, German troops move in spontaneous uprising and

Hitler used it Britain and France realizes that Hitler can't be trusted Chamberlain and Dalaclies made a Anglo-France guarantee to Poland (Greece and

Romania) against attack March 1939 Hitler tries Poles to return Danzig area Hitler wants a German controlled route to Eastern Prussia Poland rejected Hitler goes against the non-aggression pact with Poland As Hitler advances to take Prague, Britain and France starts talks with USSR May 1939 Soviet Union feels that the Western powers have little to offer them to

guarantee their security (can get a better deal with Germany)


Social impact of Nazi regime


August 1939 - Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact greatly altered the balance of powers

in Europe major advantage for Germany destroyed all attempts by the west to form an alliance against Germany, secured Germany's eastern borders (avoided danger of war on two fronts), Poland is isolated, Germany also gets important raw materials from USSR September 1939 Hitler at war with Poland p. 218 Foreign Policy

See handout for Hitler's foreign policy for IB guide for answering questions.