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A

Seminar report on CRYOGENIC GRINDING

Submitted by
Manoj Kumar Naik 0901294165 Mechanical Engineering 2009-13

Supervised by
Prof. K.Mahapatra (Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering)
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Behind every student who ascends the height of success and achievement has a group effort and it is reflected in this project. We cannot undermine the role and responsibility of the people who were instrumental in extending all possible support for preparation of this project report. We express our deep sense of gratitude and appreciation to Head of Mechanical department Prof. K.Mahapatra and our guide Krutibash Khuntia for their constant valuable guidance and help in implementing our project report. We further take this opportunity to thank all the staff members of our college for taking active participation and providing us all the necessary data and statistics during the preparation of our report so as to make it a great success.

Manoj Kumar Naik 0901294165 Mech. Engg.

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report CRYOGENIC GRINDING entitled is being submitted by Manoj Kumar Naik in partial fulfillment of Degree of Bachelor in Technology in Mechanical Engineering to the Biju Patnaik University of Technology, is a record of bonafied work carried out by them under my guidance and supervision. The results embodied in this project report have not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any degree.

Guide Krutibash Khuntia Dept. Of Mech. Engg.

Prof. K.Mahapatra HOD (Mech. Engg.)

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ABSTRACT
The term "Cryogenics" originates from Greek word which means creation or production by means of cold. As prices for energy and raw materials rise and concern for the environment makes safe waste disposal difficult and Costly, resource recovery becomes a vital matter for today's business. Cryogenic grinding technology can efficiently grind most tough materials and can also facilitate Cryogenic recycling of tough composite materials and multi component scrap. The heart of this technology is the CRYOGRIND SYSTEM. It employs a cryogenic process to embrittle and grind materials to achieve consistent particle size for a wide range of products. The cryogenic process also has a unique capability for recycling difficult to separate composite materials. Cryogenic grinding is a method of powdering materials at sub-zero temperatures ranging from 0 to minus 70F. The particles are frozen with liquid nitrogen as they are being ground. This process does not damage or alter the chemical composition of the materials. Normal grinding processes which do not use a cooling system can reach up to 200F.

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CONTAINS 1. CRYOGENIC GRINDING PROCESS 2. CRYOGENIC GRINDING PROCESS 3.METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR CRYOGENIS GRINDING 4. Cryogenic Screw Feed Conveyor 5. CRYOGENIC PREPARATION OF SAMPLE MATERIALS 6. TRADITIONAL/ CRYOGENIC GRINDING 7. BENEFITS 8. APPLICATION OF CRYOGENIC GRINDING 9. Conclusion 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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INTRODUCTION
The term Cryogenics originates from Greek word which means creation or production by means of cold. As prices for energy and raw materials rise and concern for the environment makes safe waste disposal difficult and Costly, resource recovery becomes a vital matter for todays business. Cryogenic grinding technology can efficiently grind most tough materials and can also facilitate Cryogenic recycling of tough composite materials and multi component scrap. The heart of this technology is the CRYO-GRIND SYSTEM. It employs a cryogenic process to embrittle and grind materials to achieve consistent particle size for a wide range of products. The cryogenic process also has a unique capability for recycling difficult to separate composite materials. Cryogenic grinding is a method of powdering materials at sub-zero temperatures ranging from 0 to minus 70F. The materials are frozen with liquid N2 as they are being ground. This process does not damage or alter the
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chemical composition of the material in any way. Normal grinding processes which do not use a cooling system can reach up to 200F. These high temperatures can reduce volatile components and heat-sensitive constituents in materials. The cryogenic grinding process starts with air-dried material, rather than freeze-dried materials. Solid materials are ground or pulverized by way of hammer mills, attrition mills, granulators or other equipment. A smaller particle size is usually needed to enhance the further processing of the solid, as in mixing with other materials. A finer particle also helps in melting of rubber and plastics for molding. However, many materials are either very soft or very tough at room temperatures. By cooling to cryogenic temperatures with liquid N2, these may be embrittled and easily fractured into small particles.

CRYOGENIC GRINDING PROCESS


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The material is feed into a feeder hopper and dropped into a conveyor when the material to be processed enters the pre-chilled conveyor; liquid N2 is sprayed and blended directly onto the material. The material is conveyed via a stainless steel special design auger. The auger not only transports the grinding media, but also mixes greater cooling efficiencies. The liquid N2, a cryogenic fluid with a boiling heat from the with liquid N2 for

temperature of 196 0C absorbs gas exits the

material and vaporized to a gaseous state. The N2 system conveying the process heat away from the process

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Liquid N2 is added until the temperature of the material is reduced to a predetermined set point. This set point is the glass transition temperature of the material finally the brittle material enters an it is ground to a desired impact (pin) mill where

particle size. Computer controls the entire process of cryogenic grinding system. Since almost all materials embrittle when exposed to cold temperatures, cryogenic size reduction utilizes the cold energy available from liquid N2 to cool, embrittle and inert materials prior to and or during the grinding process. All materials which
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due to their specific properties at ambient temperatures are elastic, have low melting points, contain volatile or oily substances, have low combustion temperatures and are sensitive to oxygen, are ideal candidates for cryogenic size reduction. Physical properties of liquid N2 is produced by the separation of air into its components in an air separation plant and is distributed in vacuum insulated transport vessels to the end user where it is stored in a vacuum insulated storage vessel till it is used. At atmospheric pressure liquid N2 is at a temperature of 320 deg F and possesses a latent energy content of 94 BTU/LB resulting in a total cooling energy content of 179.6 BTU/LB. N2 is a non-flammable, non toxic and inert gas which makes up 78.09% of the air we breathe. Raw material passing along a conveyor is cooled using controlled amounts of liquid N2 which allows for finer grinding and increased throughputs.

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METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR CRYOGENIS GRINDING :


The production rate of a conventional cryogenic grinding system incorporating an impact mill may be increased by (a) providing means to allow at least 70% of the embrittled material entering the mill to leave the mill before it passes the inlet; and (b) providing means to restrict the flow of the cold gas through the impact mill. The product leaving the impact mill is screened and any oversize is preferably recycled to the impact mill. 1. A method with of cryogenically than grinding pieces of of

material, cryogenic

substantially

less

consumption

refrigerant

heretofore

required,

comprising the steps of: (a) Pre- cooling the pieces of material to be ground in counter-current heat exchange with a cold gaseous cryogenic refrigerant, (b) further cooling and embrittling the pre-cooled pieces of material in direct contact with a liquid cryogenic
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refrigerant, and thereby vaporizing said liquid cryogenic refrigerant and generating said cold gaseous cryogenic refrigerant, (c) Continuing said cooling and embrittling step for a sufficient contact time to thoroughly embrittle said pieces throughout, (d) Introducing said thoroughly embrittled pieces of material through an inlet of a rotary impact mill, (e) Passing said thoroughly embrittled pieces of

material through said mill in an arcuate path comprising more than 270 of travel through said mill, (f) discharging on the first pass through said mill at least 70% of the entering embrittled material through a no screened discharge opening subtending an angle of between 5 and 60, and (g) Restricting the flow of said cold refrigerant gas which is discharged from said mill to a sufficient degree to cause the majority of said cold gaseous refrigerant which is generated to flow in counter-current heat
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exchange with said pieces of material according to step(a). 2. The method according to claim 1, including the step of removing at least 85% of the embrittled material entering said mill on the first pass there through. 3. The method according to claim 1, including the step of removing at least 95% of the embrittled material entering said mill on the first pass there through. 4. The method according to claim 1, including the step of separating oversize pieces discharged from said mill, and recycling said oversize pieces to step (a).

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4.2- Apparatus for cryogenically grinding material comprising: (a) a pre-cooling hopper, (b) mixer-conveyor means connected to said hopper and including means for injecting liquid cryogenic refrigerant into direct contact with material therein for embrittling said material and generating cold gaseous refrigerant, (c) a rotary mill having an inlet connected to receive embrittled material from said mixer-conveyor means, and including non-screened outlet means located more than 270 degree apart from said mill inlet in the direction of rotation of the mill, (d) said non-screened outlet means subtending an angle of between 5 and 60 for discharging at least 70% of the material on the first pass through said mill, and (e) means for receiving ground material from said mill outlet means and including gas flow restricting means
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for reducing the flow of gas discharged from said mill to a minor portion of the cold gas generated in the mixerconveyor and thereby forcing the major portion of the cold gas in counter-current heat exchange with the material in said mixer-conveyor means and in said feed hopper. 6. The apparatus as claimed in claim 5 in which said non-screened outlet means subtend an angle of between 20 and 50. 7. The apparatus as claimed in claim 5 in which said non-screened outlet means is positioned adjacent said mill inlet.

8. The apparatus as claimed in claim 5 in which a multiple deflector lining extends around the entire arcuate path between said mill inlet and said mill outlet means.

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9. The apparatus as claimed 5 in which said gas flow restricting means comprise gas flow control valve means having variable positions for varying the amount of cold gas flowing through and discharged from said mill v/s that flowing in counter-current heat exchange with said pieces of material being cooled thereby. According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of cryogenically grinding
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material,

which method comprises

the steps

of

advancing the material to be ground towards an impact mill, embrittling said material by bringing said material into direct contact with liquid N2 and a stream of cold vaporized N2 the major portion of which is travelling away from said impact mill in countercurrent flow with said material; introducing said embrittled material through the inlet of said impact mill; removing at least 70% of the embrittled material entering said mill before it passes said inlet; and providing means to restrict the flow of gaseous N2 from said mill so that only a minor portion of said N2 passes through said impact mill. The present invention also provides apparatus for cryogenically grinding material which apparatus comprises means for cryogenically embrittling. means for restricting the flow of cold gas leaving said impact mill; and means for screening the material leaving said mill. Preferably the apparatus also includes a conveyor for returning the material which will not pass through
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said screen to the means for cryogenically embrittling said material. Advantageously, said impact mill consists of a hammer mill although the invention is applicable to other mills in which grinding is achieved by impacting the material to be ground against a moving member, for example, a rotary beater mill, a fan mill, a turbo mill and a pin disc mill.

Cryogenic Screw Feed Conveyor

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The

cryogenic

feeder

is

specially

constructed

stainless steel heat exchanger designed to optimize heat transfer, using liquid N2 as a refrigerant. The feeder is suitable for pre-cooling a wide variety of materials, including plastic, rubber, food and drugs to their embrittlement operations. temperature Heavy-Duty for cryogenic and grinding components

simplicity of construction assure a durable and reliable cryogenic cooling system.

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The cooling conveyor operates with high thermal efficiency resulting in lower N2 consumption. The material is cooled to it's embrittlement temperature traveling through the cooling conveyor. When the material is passed through the pulverizer it is reduced to the required size. Some products can be reduced to as low as -325 mesh. The material to be ground is loaded into a feed hopper. From the hopper, the material enters the cooling conveyor where liquid N2 at -320 F is sprayed directly onto the material. The liquid N2 vaporizes to a gas by absorbing the required heat of vaporization from the feed material. Seeking thermal equilibrium, the cold N2 gas continues to cool the feed material to its embrittlement point. A thermocouple and temperature controller is used to control and monitor the temperature within the cooling conveyor and the grinding mill discharge hopper. The material enters the Pulva - Sizer Grinding Machine where the material is ground into a powder.
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CRYOGENIC PREPARATION OF SAMPLE MATERIALS


Within the context of sample preparation, size

reduction plays an analysis. If the

important role as it has a particles are too coarse or

substantial influence on the results of the subsequent inhomogeneous the results of the analysis may turn out to be incorrect, especially if there is only a very small amount of sample material which represents the total amount. Brittle materials like minerals, salt or slag can be easily crushed by applying high mechanical stress through impact, pressure or friction from outside. However, what can be done when the mechanical forces alone are not able to reduce the sample material to particles that are as small as possible? One solution to this problem is provided by the use of grinding aids such as liquid N2 (LN2 ;T =-196 C) or dry ice (CO2 ;T =-78 C) which promote the breaking behavior of such materials.
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For which materials is cryogenic grinding advisable?


With many polymers (plastics such as PP, PET, PA, etc.), as well as other materials, their viscoelastic behavior during grinding only results in a plastic deformation, i.e. crack initiation and therefore breakup does not occur. If objects such as elastic plastics are immersed in liquid N2 then their temperature falls below the socalled glass-transition temperature; this reduces the ability of the material to resist a high mechanical stress by elastic-plastic behavior or viscous flow. If this precooled material is now placed in a suitable mill there is a build-up of stress peaks in the material matrix which results in brittle breaking behavior of the sample, i.e. the sample breaks like glass. The cryogenic process produces fairly smooth fracture surfaces. Little or no heat is generated in the process. This results in less degradation of the rubber. In addition, the most significant feature of the process
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is that almost all fiber or steel is liberated from the rubber resulting in a high yield of usable product and little loss of rubber. The price of liquid N2 has come down significantly recently and cryogenically ground rubber can compete on a large scale with ambient ground products.

Cryogenic

grinding:

an

independent voice
CRYOGENIC grinding is a proven technology that is extremely effective, especially for plastics and rubbers, according to Frank Burmester, an engineer with industrial gas supplier Air Products in Germany. But as he pointed out: Unfortunately, all too often its put in a box marked expensive.

Probing the fundamental:


Conventional cryogenic grinding uses liquid N2 to cool the material to be ground, making it brittle and so reducing the amount of energy required by the mill. It also increases throughput often by 100% or more for
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the same particle size distribution or enables finer grinding at the same throughput, and it tends to narrow the product particle size distribution. Liquid N2 consumption varies from around 0.7 kg for every kg of material ground, for low-value products such as recycled rubber, right up to 2 0 kg/kg for difficult, high-value products that cannot be ground by any other method. One reason liquid N2 consumption figures are so hard to pin down, is that different users get different performance from similar equipment: One plant may use 1 kg of liquid N2 per kg of product, while another may use three or five times as much for the same product in an identical mill. The hard part has been not in the software but in deciding what to measure and what weighting factors to use. A conventional cryogenic grinding process measures the temperature at a single point, at the bottom of the mill.

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Grinding quickly, grinding cool:


GRINDING is a pretty inefficient process: up to 99% of the mechanical energy entering the mill ends up as heat. With industrial mills typically in the size range 20100 kW, cooling is a significant issue and for materials that deform or melt when they are warmed, temperature rise can also be a problem. Water or other liquids provide effective heat transfer, but not all materials are suitable for wet grinding. Indirect water cooling of the mill is of limited effectiveness because of the lack of heat transfer area. Most dry mills therefore rely on a large flow of air or N2 to both cool and transport the product. But even with a large airflow, some particles can reach temperatures of up to 300C, which is often high enough to cause a significant loss of quality. A clean and effective way to boost cooling is to inject liquid N2 at a temperature of 196C into the product upstream of the grinding process. An example is the
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Cryo-grind system offered by industrial gas supplier Air Products.

How low can we go?


The liquid N2 is injected directly into the mill, where it acts as a heat transfer medium rather than a refrigerant. Liquid N2 injection rate is controlled by a sensor that measures the temperature of the air and N2 leaving the mill. The ground product leaves the mill at typically 1030C, and at no stage does its temperature fall low enough to cause embrittlement. To allow time for the materials temperature to fall sufficiently, the liquid N2 is sprayed onto the feed in a special contactor, such as a screw conveyor, well upstream of the mill. Large particles are harder to chill, so the feed is typically a granulate of around 36 mm size. Cooling shrinks the crystal lattice of the substance to be ground, and introduces microscopic cracks that greatly reduce the amount of energy needed to cause fracture. Usefully, the heat capacity of the material
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decreases as the temperature falls, thus reducing the amount of liquid N2 needed to reduce the temperature further.

TRADITIONAL/ CRYOGENIC GRINDING


Disadvantages of Existing Grinding System The heat is developed inside the grinding mill Advantages of cryogenic Grinding System Temperature below 0 0C inside the grinding mill Low energy consumption Approx. 2 - 3 times higher grinding capacity

High energy consumption Existing grinding equipments more than two times recycle into

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the mill for required particle size. Fire Risk High capacity motors are required to grind the material Air pollution due to evaporating essential oil into the atmosphere No control on particle size No Fire Risk Low capacity motors are required to grind the material evaporation of essential oil into the atmosphere Particle size under control

BENEFITS:

Smaller particles More uniform particle size distribution Efficient process Process cooling/temperature control Trial Facilities

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Can grind smaller rubber particles below 200 Improved surface morphology Low capacity motors required Reduced power consumption Approx. 2 - 3 times higher grinding capacity

micron

APPLICATION OF CRYOGENIC GRINDING:


Grinding of heat sensitive or friable materials Rotational molding materials Textile coatings Adhesive coatings Many twin screw extruder applications Powder coatings Electrostatic coatings Additives for compounding Specialty molding applications requiring smooth

finishes

Conclusion:
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From the above report we concluded that Cryogenic grinding technology can efficiently grind most tough materials recycling. levels and The of can also facilitate mill cryogenic high specific grinding

precrushing energy is reduced meaning that the achieves performance. Also, prevents grinding losses and thermal damage to the feed material t hat would otherwise be caused by the volatisation or overheating of constituent ingredients.

BIBLIOGRAPHY I have prepared seminar report on cryogenic grinding by the help of followings books: Production Engineering Manufacturing Technology
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Also

taking

data

from

from

following

internet sites: www.google.com www.wikipedia.com

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