Translations, Bibliographies, etc.


by the following





MORRIS JASTROW ,LL.D., Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania; JAMES H. BREASTED, LL.D., Professor of Egyptology, University of Chicago; CHARLES C. TORREY, D.D., Professor of Semitic Languages Yale
University; A. V.


LL.D., .Professor of Indo-Iranian, Columbia Uni-

CHARLES R. LANMAN.LL.D., Professor of Sanskrit. Harvard University; REV. CHARLES F. AIKEN, S.T.D., Dean of the Faculty of Theology, Catholic University; FRIEDRICH HIRTH, LL.D., Professor of Chinese, Columbia University; REV. WILLIAM E. GRIFFIS, D.D., former Professor at the Imperial
University, Tokio.

E. A.





Director of Egyptology in the British Museum; SIR MASPERO, D.C.L., Member of the Royal Institute of France; REV. A. H. LL.D., Professor of Comparative Philology, Oxford University; W.

LL.D., Professor ol Egyptology, University College, London;

STEPHEN LANGDON Ph.D., Professor of Assyriology, Oxford University; SIR ERNEST SATOW, LL.D., G.C.M.G. British Minister to Japan H. OLDENBERG,

LL.D., Professor of Sanskrit, Kiel University; T. W. RHYS-DAVIDS, LL.D., Librarian of the Royal Asiatic Society; ARMINIUS VAMBfeRY, LL.D., Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Budapest.





Legislative Council of Ceylon;

DUTT. C.I.E., Author of the History of Civilization in Ancient India; DARAB D. P. SAN J ANA, Educational Society of Bombay; VISCOUNT KENCHO SUYEMATSU LL.M., Japanese Minister of the Interior; SHEIK FAIZ-ULLAH-BHAI, Head Master of the Schools of Anjuman-i-Islam; RALPH T. GRIFFITH, President Benares College, India; JIVANJI JAMSHEDJI MODI, Fellow of Bombay University, Officier

de 1'Acade'mie Francaise.


the editorship

of a staff of

specialists directed








This Volume


one of a complete set of the Sacred Books

and Early Literature

of the East, consisting of fourteen In Volume I of the aeries will be found a ceraa to the limitation of the edition and the registered
of this vet.


Copyright, 1917,
Parke, Austin, and Lipscomb, Inc.


there are five hundred statues now worshipped as Gods..D. In this temple. erected about 500 A. .THE TEMPLE OF FIVE HUNDRED GODS. though originally perhaps meant as genii or as the disciples of Buddha.


CHARLES F. Professor of Chinese at Cambridge University..D. ALEXANDER. former British Plenipotentiary in China.. HORNE. SIR MAJOR-GENERAL G. G. LONDON NEW YORK INC. GILES.THE SACRED BOOKS AND EARLY LITERATURE OF THE EAST VOLUME XII MEDIEVAL CHINA In Translations by C.D. . A. LL..D. former Professor of Chinese at Cambridge University.D.B. REV. DAVIS... With a Brief Bibliography by FRIEDRICH HIRTH. AND LIPSCOMB. PARKE. WYLIE of the London Mission at Shanghai. PH. LL. JOHN F. Professor of Chinese at Columbia University With an Historical Survey and Descriptions by PROF. and other noted Chinese scholars. AUSTIN. LL. JAMES LEGGE. HERBERT A.

." GENESIS I. unless you call a child a false man. 3. nor was there ever really a false religion." Let there be light. ' There never was a false god." MAX MULLER.

the Most Popular among a Thousand Religions 1 TAOISM I. in the North ..) . 800?) 227 the First Book of the Primeval Chinese IV. Taoism (330 of B. 75 79 148 162 175 189 The Nei or Inner Circle The Floods of Autumn Knowledge Rambling The History of Taoism Anecdotes Teaching .. YIN Pu KING Reputed (A. . . 1000) 235 The most popular Taoist Book . .C.?) or Book of the Virtues of the Tao 11 Lao-Tze's Profound and Puzzling Gospel II. 666) 231 V THAI-SHANG (A.D. THE "DIVINE CLASSIC" OF CHUANG-TZE.. The Disputed Books of Chuang-Tze 197 LATER TAOIST TEXTS III. TAO-TEH KING.C..D. THE IMPERIAL MANDATE RAISING LAO-TZE TO GODHOOD (A... (520 B.D.CONTENTS OF VOLUME XII MEDIEVAL CHINA PAGE INTRODUCTION Taoism. popularize! of the ..

SZE-MA CHIEN.C. an historical 399 BIBLIOGRAPHY 415 .D. AUTUMN OF THE PALACE OF HAN. 379 Chinese Christianity HISTORY AND DRAMA VIII. 781) . 396 IX. drama the first historian (100 B.) as .. THE NESTORIAN TABLET The sole relic of (A. the 243 Confucianism State CONTENTS PAGE OTHER RELIGIONS VI.. THE WORKS OF MENCIUS The founder Religion of (300 B...) .

ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME XII FACING PAGE The Temple The Shrine of Five Hundred Gods Frontispiece of the Dead Emperors 78 The Sages of China 226 A Chinese Priest 382 vii .


"popular" religion of China to-day.SACKED BOOKS AND EARLY LITERATURE OF MEDIEVAL CHINA INTRODUCTION TAOISM. Among these thousand of worship. 1 . conservatism. 1. human everything in accordance with carefully established formulas. To this our volume adds a brief glance at the later development of Confucianism and other faiths. own a most remarkable and a most remarkable history. THE MOST POPULAR AMONG A THOUSAND RELIGIONS being the most tolerant of tered so all lands. Confucianism and Buddhism.. The works which Confucius wrote about 500 B." What Confucianism chiefly insisted upon was decorum. As the faith of the common people. Confucianism is synonymous with the ancient classics. three are far more prominent than others. a doing of interest. Two of them. XII. In Chinese literature.C. we find that this too has literature. as we have already seen. mathematically arranged for it was from the first a religion of "ceremonies. form the " ancient treasure " of Chinese volumes. the wide-spread scholarship. Taoism has developed along lines of profoundly In Confucianism we found everything carefully recorded. ways both in the number of their adherents and in the honor done them by the Government. . Yet when we turn a literature of its to Taoism. have been already depicted in our previous There remains for the present volume Taoism. VOL. has sheldifferent faiths that it has been called many the land of a thousand religions. combined with the still older books which he honored and preserved.

It has no use for philosophers. doctrines. which they Pronunciations differ widely in different parts of the vast expanse In most of the coast In mis where Europeans come an initial 44 " " " Tao " 1 is pronounced almost like sound like " dow. it bases itself to-day on the book which opens this " Old Philosopher. Indeed it claims to be the original religion of China and of mankind." So. -Tze (short " e ") of China. and certainly its central. To be sure.C. If. the philosopher begins to build up from this idea any of its logical consequences. nor for their deductions. the Tao-Teh King of the Lao-Tze. who is supposed to have ruled the land in 2697 B. telling us that Hwang-Ti was instructed in his faith by an ancient sage. Other Taoists would take us He yet further back." d. Kwang who Chang-Tze.2 THE SACRED BOOKS This should be kept in mind in reading the present volume . ancient that mankind primevally were simply and naturally good. he declares himself a mere transmitter of earlier knowledge. by applying the teachings of Taoism to his own existence had lived twelve hundred years. or at least religion for Its most teachings somewhat justify the title. Taoism finds itself at every point in protest against the logical. . books are already in revolt against civilization. Apparently the faith is far older than Confucianism. Even the question of the age and origin of Taoism is as tantalizingly vague as everything else about it. They declare that all the organization of society is mistaken. the legendary civilizer of China. and therewith has taught them subtlety and sin. Taoism will scornfully set those theories aside. organizing spirit of the Confucians." volume. as voiced in modern anarchism or kindred doctrines. There is difficulty even in saying precisely what Taoism 1 It has no desire to formulate itself or to explain its is. asserts that all his teachings are really those of Hwang-Ti. But Lao-Tze is like Confucius at one point. It has even been called by modern critics the " " of anarchy . Lao-Tze. the prophet of Taoism. There even exists among the Taoists a curious i little book. . its earliest. the Yin Fu King. and that civilization has made them selfish and grasping. however." making with " cow. too. rhyming pronounced " low " (as in " cow ").

meaning. a Hence several meanverb. THE TAOTEH KING Taoism rests for its literary foundation. ings Chinese scholars tell us that we must approach the author with sympathy. but each may do idea he is expressing. can be read from any ancient Chinese sentence. or a modifying adjectival form. offering it as a voice . in widest disagreement as to its value. however. This tiny book is given in our volume but as Western criticism has been a unit in regarding it as a work of very much later date.LITERATURE OF THE EAST declare is 3 his the actual book of the Emperor Hwang-Ti. seems the loosest of all civilized word-forms. we ship of any ancient book in the world. and that then we will easily discriminate several differing things. its age. record of the teaching of the long-lived Kwang. Not only does each character stand for duty as a noun. it is here classed with the more modern Taoist texts. on which its value must depend. But this method of interpreting the . must get into touch with his spirit and puras to which pose. Lao-Tze was a its and philosopher of the generation immediately preOf that there is no doubt whatever and ceding Confucius. we have already in our previous volume pointed out the difficulty of As to its turning the vagueness of Chinese literature into the definiteness of English thought. When. meaning. But the Chinese written language. yet even around the Tao-Teh there has arisen so much of doubt and controversy that Western scholars are still On the Tao-Teh King. therefore. turn to consider the meaning and value of this foundationstone of Taoism we are on more puzzling ground. years. some of our leading scholars have asserted that his authorship of the Tao-Teh is as fully established as is the authorscholar . They thus claim for the Yin Fu an antiquity of almost five thousand from the very cradle of Chinese civilization. and even its authorship. Language at its best can never be more than a very imperfect method of transmitting to the brains of others the imperfect visions of our own loosely working minds. and especially in its ancient books.

" Tao " is " the view-point the commonest translation of " Way or path. then. He only humbly interprets such of its movings and its meanings as creation shadows forth for men. reject Way thus. but he will at least appreciate the meaning of the endless controversy about the book. " " The chief controversy rages about the word Tao itself. He knows neither its limits nor its purposes he sees only that it is right and is omnipIt is the Tao. by offering him two translations of the opening chapters of the unquestionably remarkable book. if he will. it . is the unknown Power which the great Lao-Tze makes no pretense of understanding. the creative force .4 THE SACRED BOOKS Tao-Teh has led to such widely differing versions of its meaning and its worth. it is rather the im- expelling force which sweeps us on. that is Tao the Tao is not simply the trodden path . he has been sometimes suspected of inventing the Indeed. of the universe. that we have felt it necessary to invite the reader into the vortex for himself. the road along which all men are traveling. standing apart not only from human form but from every quality of humanity which we are prone to attribute to His infinity. He will also turn with interest to the following section of our volume. Yet ture. and that it moves forever onward. the otent. Only if we must be as a wholly impersonal God. Tao even this interpretation as too definite. and along which all the universe is traveling with us. Who or what is the " Tao " ? Some of our scholars would " " Nature or the course of Natranslate as meaning the great sweeping onward from eternity to And in this eternity. the rushing wind of istence. entire religion himself. THE " DIVINE CLASSIC Chuang-Tze " OF CHUANG-TZE is the most celebrated follower of Lao-Tze. the writings of Chuang-Tze. and in this sense the Tao comes very near to meaning what conceive the we mean by God. The Tao. after he has read the Tao-Teh. which Carlyle has visioned for us. The reader may. and then attributing it to Lao-Tze .

. He was a clever satirist. always ready with tales invented at the moment. Buddhism crept into the faith. no established leaders. and while there seems quite sufficient proof that Taoism existed before his time. Chuang-Tze was one of the greatest romancers who ever lived.LITERATURE OF THE EAST and to the earlier ages. it followed had no priesthood. erated alchemy and astrology. The most important of his books. are Their popularity in China has never waned. definite historical figure. which are regarded as the core of his teaching. It rapidly degento preserve the form of its doctrines. If Hwang-Ti really invented Taoism. 5 In brief. a brilliant optimist. magic and divination. as Hwang-Ti. yet to all others. He Chuang-Tze belongs the fame of having established it as the popular religion of his countrymen. to that Taoism itself . LATER TAOIST TEXTS The Taoism of later ages we may dismiss more briefly. Men might Later seek to know the Tao by what means they would. as himself. we can not doubt that. and advocated doing nothing. or Inner Circle. if it had not. lowers There were many other philosophers whose sometimes rivaled in numbers the following fol- of Confucius. In those days the teachings of Confucius were not yet established as a State religion. to illustrate whatever point he wished. a vigorous arguer. he both could and would have been ready to invent The possessor of this lively fantasy was a it. and if Lao-Tze formulated and preserved it. It came to include into a mass of superstitions. Chuang-Tze attacked them all. and as others. and especially the Nei. He adopted the views of the long dead Lao-Tze and maintained them against wrote some thirty-three books to uphold his views and by these and by his teachings spread Taoism over all China. Many of the doctrines of ages even made Lao-Tze a god. given here. Since Lao-Tze opposed the social organization of men in governed bodies. of seven books. lie lived and wrote about a century and a half after Confucius. complete. and at length Lao-Tze became a sort of Taoist Buddha who had been reincarnated again and again.

" Taoist shrines and orders of monks sprang up like those of the godhood became Lao-Tze. was not immediately adopted in the days of its great teacher Confucius or Kung. perhaps primeval Chaos itself. theon. THE WOBKS OF MENCIUS After this brief tracing of the development of Taoism and we must survey the growth of other religions in China. . It rites was and many faiths. and trinity a third even vaguer figure. with childish with charms against evil spirits and superstitions. who had become renowned as a miracle-worker and who was declared to have been appointed the judge in heaven to weigh the deeds of men. that Taoism was its first despised by Europeans. and also a poetic inscription preserved in the birth- Fu " temple of Lao-Tze. popular gospel Chinamen who find the great Taoist doctrines of old are too a god.D. trated to its original writings and Only by slow degrees have known and we pene- more consistent central These are still partly preserved for modern times. At a still Buddhists. perhaps the Ti or God of Heaven of Confucianism. which is the Taoism as read by the Chinese of to-day. including the already mentioned little book of the Yin King. The real name of phies. We " of abstruse can at least grasp the simple Taoism of the Thai- Shang. not only by the books of Lao-Tze and Chuang-Tze. gives. Yu Hwang Ti has become the most worshiped of the later date (A. the formula of the ceremonial which made him also give the Thai-Shang. It remained but one among many philosountil it was taken up by Mencius. the Tao. Because of this direct control of human fate. and was worshiped. but also by many later works. Confucianism. a head-priest of the faith. its literature. as this hodge-podge of prayers to many idols. as we have just seen. Taoist gods.6 THE SACRED BOOKS " preserve for men the knowledge of the Way. this celebrated sage was but we have Latinized it Mang. The most noted of these our volume form. in Taoist temples also a trinity of The 1116) a new deity entered the Taoist panThis was Yu Hwang Ti.

as were the Buddhist teachers from India. THE LESSER LITEBATTJBE OF CHINA Outside of religious works. There In fact. just as fucius. in fact. The Confucianism taught to-day in China is the specific form developed by Mencius. There is.LITERATURE OF THE EAST into Mencius. While humbly attributing all his doctrines to his master. even before our era a is an enormous mass of it. When they reached China they We Christian era monks were listened to as thoughtfully. he really revised and popularized them and then brought his country to accept this revised faith as its chief religion. His seven books therefore occupy a section of our volume. as the one surviving record of early Christianity in China. a striking parallel between the Taoist masters Lao-Tze and Chuang-Tze. Christianity was given equal chance with Confucianism. In the days of its success a tablet had been erected telling of its history. For a while it prospered. And there have rediscovered is it. . as respectfully. In the days after its disappearance this tablet was preserved with honor in a temple among tablets erected to other lost religions. Mang added much to the faith he had learned from the writings of Confucius. and the Confucians Kung and Mang. At one time there must have been many thousands of Nestorian Christians in China. It is called more recent Europeans the Nestorian tablet. Mang was a 7 we Latinized Kung Fu-tze into Con- younger contemporary of our great Taoist teacher Chuang-Tze. know now that somewhere along in the seventh century of our of the Nestorian sect journeyed as missionaries over most of Asia. Then. Taoism. and given here. It left behind just one remarkable monument. and Buddhism to be ranked among the " State religions " of the Empire. the medieval literature of China would have little interest to Western readers. the faith dwindled and finally died out. for some cause that we may never learn. THE NESTOBIAN TABLET Christianity found also an early welcome in China.

medieval China never developed drama very far. Pu Sung-ling. could not permaThe massing up of books nently check Chinese literature. and there has always been some doubt as to just how much of the actual writings even of Confucius and Lao-Tze were then preserved. Even the " Great Burning. those being selected which describe the Taoist teachers. as with ChuangYet there is one work of ChiTze. immediately began again.C. though its existence is inevitably interwoven with that of humanity.C. and how much was afterward rewritten from the memory of their disciples. mere Confucian conservatism has in similar fashion checked Chinese development in every line. The oldest Chinese history now known is that of Sze-ma Chien. it enforced philosophy. Sze-me Chien's work is it really a yet it collection of not wholly reliable anecdotes. A single well-known example of a Chinese play is. such as philosophic works. has served as the model history for all later generations. They tolerate its theme for the sake of its masterly style. which " is still regretfully referred to by Chinamen as the Great Burning" (213 B.8 THE SACRED BOOKS Chinese emperor concluded that the vast number of books was become a burden to his people and ordered all books destroyed. Many scholars sacrificed their lives in the effort to preserve their literary treasures. except for a few selected forms. Fiction too. which was written about 100 B. As for the drama. since there was no such art preserved among the Confucian classics. Poetry is still modeled on the ancient classic poetry preserved by Confucius in the Shih King. however. presented here to complete our survey of the literature. or " Strange Stories of language. but also in other forms. chiefly in commentary and explanation of the religious works. nese fiction so artistically written that even Chinese philosophers admire it. The result was an enormous burning of books.). was regarded by Chinese scholars as undignified and was only tolerated when." however. which they hold up as the perfection of their This is the Liao Chai. Some stories from are quoted in the present volume." .

LITERATURE OF THE EAST As the 9 " was not written until 1679. its Strange Stories us well down toward modern times and production brings may be fitly accepted as ending the literature of medieval China. " .


TAOISM TAO-TEH KING OR BOOK OF THE VALUES OF THE TAO One of the profoundest philosophical "books the world has ever produced/' PROF. Lao-Tze possessed in a remarkable degree a great and deep consciousness of God of so sublime and precise a nature that it almost realizes the idea of God belonging to Revelation" PROP. VON DER GABELENZ. VICTOR VON STRAUSS. " " .


however. the founder of the faith. The first translation. It has frequently been ranked among the very greatest books of the world. The arguments for this are so strong that General Alexander has protested against the "timidity " of scholars who admit the accuracy of the translation yet avoid its use. Our second translation is by Professor Legge. and whatever version the reader may accept THE surviving of its central doctrine of the " Tao. the writer of this celebrated book. Professor Legge gives us a version the accuracy of which is undeniable. Confucius once referred to him as the " Venerable Philosopher. since elevating Lao-Tze to the rank of godhood. the only work of Lao-Tze. is the impressive tale by Sze-ma Chien. By seeking to cling as exactly as possible to the vague Chinese symbols of the original." and as these Chinese characters " also be interpreted as meaning the Old Boy." the mad may legend was invented that Lao-Tze was only born after having been carried by his mother for over seventy years.TAO-TEH KING (INTRODUCTION) Tao-Teh King is the Gospel of Taoism. a brief further word may be helpful. that of General Alexander. and really needs the further translation of General Alexander or another to make it intelligible. has surrounded him with fables. Modern Taoism. expresses the views of scholars who frankly accept the Tao as meaning God. he will certainly be impressed by the depth of Our reason for insight into life which Lao-Tze displays. given in probability this volume. the recognized leader of Chinese scholarship in the West. of the Venerable Philosopher's weariness with 13 ." the great " Way " of the universe. It is not. Of Lao-Tze himself. easy to under- stand. presenting two translations of the first part of the Tao-Teh King has been explained in the general introduction. and was Of more historic thus white-bearded and aged at birth.

He was a scholar and became librarian of the royal library of Chau. and as they sipped their tea together he persuaded Lao-Tze to stay with him lized " Way. who was his junior by half a century. He was born in the year 604 B. and even his life. leaving behind him the record of his wisdom. we can still separate some definite facts of the philosopher's life. If we could renounce our benevolence and discard our righteousIf ness. that men should " recompense injury with kindnesses. there would be no thieves and robbers. only pausing for a moment at the urgency of the last civi- man. He had fashioned his whole not unwillingly into obscurity. seems to have been his view that in the old days of simplicity men had instinctively The central faith that molded his " " followed the right Way in all their acts. but Lao-Tze was not a preacher and made no effort As age came on. According to tradition. wisdom. he withdrew to win converts to the Tao." doctrines. it would be better for the people a hundredfold. we could renounce our artful contrivances and discard our scheming for gain." long enough to write down the doctrine of the Lao-Tze did so and then passed out into the desert. an eager disciple of Lao-Tze. asked the sage to drink with him a final cup of tea. whereas in his own days of sophistication they were steadily losing not only " the knowledge but the power of the Way. his book. life on what was perhaps the noblest of his teachings." In his book " If we could renounce our sageness and discard our he says." . the warden of the outer gate. where the birth-temple erected to honor him still stands. the people would again become filial and kindly. once met and argued with him . the Tao-Teh King.14 THE SACRED BOOKS the evil world and his quiet departure into the wilderness. to a gentle pessimism. the warden. Confucius. at Po Chau. From amid many accretions of legend.C.

TAO-TEH KING OB BOOK OF THE VALUES OF THE TAO PART ONE CHAPTER. and issue from the same source. For the God which can be defined or named is but the Creator. 15 . we shall also have gained a knowledge of that which constitutes evil for all things stand in a mutual relation to each other. Yet the spiritual and the material. gain a knowledge of the nature and attributes of the nameless and undefinable God must first set himself free from all earthly desires. and so. When we i Translated by Gen. When we have gained a knowledge of that which constitutes goodness. are similar in origin. for unless he can T Now he who w ould he will be unable to penetrate the material veil which interposes between him and those spiritual conditions into which he would obtain an insight. and the same obscurity belongs to both. though known to us under different names. G. CHAPTER II have gained a knowledge of that which constitutes beauty. Alexander. in order to gain a knowledge do this. G. for deep indeed is the darkness which enshrouds the portals through which we have to pass. of these mysteries. I 1 God all (the great everlasting infinite First Cause from whom things in heaven and earth proceed) can neither be defined nor named. we shall also have gained a knowledge of that which constitutes its reverse. the Great Mother of all those things of which our senses have has been said .

.16 " THE SACRED BOOKS Nothing and something Are relative terms. Easy and hard Are the same. ever how all things in when apparently doing rememnature work silently together com. of high character are not promoted. despite all his efforts. seeks to keep the minds of his subjects free from evil thoughts. without exception." Hence bering it is that the Sage works nothing. so that in the end> all. the people will not strive to follow their example. their bodies. . but should some. he takes care that they shall not have opportunities for making use of it. the high to the low tones and the notes Also claim. so does he endeavor to weaken their strengthen vicious inclinations. Are but modifications. when objects which would be likely to desires are kept out of sight. just as when those When men things which are difficult to attain are not valued. are rendered wholesome food amenable to good government. And before and behind Only changed situations. Therefore it is that the wise Ruler. and possessing nothing fulfilling the purpose for which they were created without relying on the help of others advancing to maturity and yet unable to remain in a state of completeness. His unceasing aim is to prevent their a knowledge of depravity and vice. whilst at the same time he fills their bellies with and just in proportion as he seeks to . and instructs without uttering a word. and yet it is because of this very ing into being . gaining however. acting on these principles. succeed in doing so. thieves will not care to steal them. In like excite evil manner. men's minds will not be disturbed by them. The long to the short A The Which proportion affirms. incapacity for continuance that they are able to continue.

The Sages were not actuated by mere motives of benevolence. out whose pregnant womb All things have issue. But not so with words. Sets in order the tangles. and it is out of the immaterial that He has created all things. but He would appear to have Lord of Heaven was. yet how deep and profound He seems. which seems to be empty when it is at rest." CHAPTER VII is The fact of VOL. . Though we know Him not in all His fulness. as instruments. a proof of their . but all things in nature are dealt with much in the same way as the artificial dogs stuffed with straw. The mystic Mother. XII. used in the sacrificial rites. Heaven and Earth may be likened to the blacksmith's bellows. hence they dealt with mankind much in the same manner that is to say. I He stands before us know not His existed before the origin. And there will need no labor for its use. too. Brings the atoms together. who Blunts the sharp points.LITERATURE OF THE EAS^ CHAPTER IV 17 God is immaterial. as as the Great Everlasting Preserver. how pure and perfect He is. for much talking leads to exhaustion therefore he who is wise knows when to stop. CHAPTER VI It was written of old "The Spirit of the Valley never dies. but when it is set in motion a continuous stream of air issues from it. she is called The Root of Nature. Oh. CHAPTER v Heaven and Earth do not act from motives of benevolence. Heaven and Earth enduring 2. Attempers the light. Hence. Only hold to this. are dealt with. as He stands before us as the Great Universal Progenitor.

He who is able to wash himself clean from all obscure and . though he has neither private nor personal aims. preserves his position. or to a capacity for doing or to punctuality but it is only when goodness is used . CHAPTER IX It is easier to carry The point which is an empty vessel than a full one. the term Goodness has a variety of applications. or to profundity in a thinker. It may refer to the quality of the ground upon which a house stands. though he places himself on one side and gains all he seeks for. for water works much as God does. not even disdaining those gloomy depths which the vulgar look upon with horror. having an innate capacity for endurance which does not proceed from their So it is that the Sage becomes a leader of others. When CHAPTEK x the investigation of his spiritual nature his chief object will be able to bring all his studies to a focus. . often felt after it has been sharpened silver will soon become blunt. in reference to freedom from contention that it can be con- sidered faultless. . though he keeps himself in the background. The hall which is filled with its and gold will not long retain contents. . meritorious services have led to fame. it is time to follow the heavenly rule and retire into obscurity. CHAP-TEE vin Transcendent Goodness is like water.18 THE SACRED BOOKS own action or initiative. He who his bears wealth and honor arrogantly will work out own destruction. and this concentration of his energies will render him capable He who makes of arriving at a condition of sensibility to impressions similar to that which belongs to a young child. Water is peaceful and extends its beneficent action throughout Nature. " " Now. or to sincerity in a speaker or to well-ordered government .

LITERATURE OF THE EAST 19 should gloomy thoughts will become sound in mind. CHAPTER XII The eye is dazzled by a variety of colors. jection to act. and who. The ear is deafened by a diversity of sounds. CHAPTER XI thirty spokes of a chariot-wheel and the nave to which are attached would be useless. which permit of ingress and egress. The door and window frames of a house would be but for the empty spaces they enclose. The The vase molded out of clay would be useless." ." and " Suffering and honor are alike corporeal. but for the useless. He will be as the brood hen who carries on her work when in a state of perfect rest. And the character is ruined by seeking to be rich. mystery. he will be able to remain in perfect repose and peace as he watches the processes of Nature proceed around him. Well indeed may this be called a deep and impenetrable . to procreate and nourish to bring forth. but for the hollow space they in which the axle turns. to increase and multiply. empty space left for its contents. through this that his perceptive faculties become cultivated. so that he is able to it is CHAPTER XIII There are two sayings which require explanation " Promotion and degradation alike give rise to fear. however beneficial the material may be to us. Hence it is that the wise man prefers to be emotional rather than to be sensuous. is able. This teaches us that. without the immaterial it would be useless. and arrive at just conclusions. and if he govern his people on principles founded he be a ruler on love. and the admission of light and air. without knowledge. and not to hold in sub- may . and not retain possession. and not to depend upon others for assistance. The taste is vitiated by a mixture of flavors. The mind is excited by excessive exercise. whilst the light of intelli- gence overspread the world.

This is why he who does honor to his who self." at and can not see to is called " invisi- " " That which you inaudible. us be careful not to define it or give it a name. us therefore try what can be done by bringing them together and uniting them in One. and the only lives. that he degraded is haunted by the dread that his degradation be continued. no matter in what aspect we may let it." These three definitions are difficult of realization when taken singly." listen and can not hear is called That which you seize upon and can not grasp is called intangible." indeed a deep mystery. " to establish a resemblance between indefinable." and things regard and let which have no real existence. bestows the same love upon may be entrusted with the government of an empire. whilst he who has been first is. may respect to the second saying. or it will escape from us and become even more subtle than it was This is what is meant by " seeking to define the before. we shall find nothing either hidden or revealed. we would gain a knowledge of our present we must hold on to the God of the Past. . without With body there could be no bodily pain. We can not recognize His presence if we advance toward Him we can not see what is behind Him if we follow Him we can not see what is before God is . if processes which formed the beginning of that Past. The three negations now form a single combination. and for the same reason there would be no personality on whom honor could be a bestowed. clue which will lead us up to Him is a knowledge of the Him. or he others as he does upon him- own CHAPTER XIV That which you look ble.20 THE SACRED BOOKS The meaning of the lives in fear that who has been promoted he may be degraded. it means that the sense of suffering is a consequence of corporeal existence . Yet. but if we scrutinize it closely. person. .

will become capable of committing vile actions. as practised by the Sages. there capable of cleansing the impurities of by tranquillity and rest ? And who is there capable of producing a state of perfect repose by the long-conis Now who his nature tinued calm of a peaceful life ? In conclusion: Those who affect to cherish these principles. Their caution resembled that which is produced by a fear of our associates and of those who live in our neighborhood. indefinite. but watch the changes as they pass. Their carriage was as the bearing of a guest toward his host. come down to us in such an exiguous. In their indignation they were rough as a piece of unplaned wood. I will. . regaining perfect Peace first .LITERATURE OF THE EAST CHAPTER XV 21 The virtues of the olden time. Returning to the state from whence they came is to say. however. and like the torrent it became turbid through its own movement. Their self-effacement was as the melting away of an icicle. By Which each and working out the everlasting fate all is bound to from the is He enlightened who has it well learned this But he who knows not will sink in sin. do my best to make them clear. For all in Nature stand before our eyes. Their influence was as far-reaching as the flow of a mountain torrent. so remain to the end of their lives in an unreformed and and imperfect condition. and carnal thoughts. That which the Sages took a pleasure in doing may be likened to the wading across a swollen torrent in mid-winter. and yet have no desire to carry them out in their entirety. and obscure form that it is very difficult for us to understand them. CHAPTEK XVI He who And we That would reach the goal of perfect peace Must be devoid of self.

CHAPTER XIX If the world could but get rid of its wisdom and its knowledge. filial and corrupt. and so there came a time when there was such a falling-off. at a time when there was no harmony As piety and fraternal affection appeared to flourish. the time-honored ones of antiquity. CHAPTER XVII to God: In the days of the Great Sovereigns. He who knows of it And Royalty an attribute of Heaven. that virtue and benevolence.22 THE SACRED BOOKS will be tolerant. been set forth with sufficient clearness. It may be considered that these three conditions have not . And being tolerant is therefore just." CHAPTER It XVIII was when God had been set aside. And what is Heaven-like comes most near He who is God-like has eternal life. and ministers claimed to be upright when the whole fabric of the State was thoroughly depraved in the social relations. both in their words " and actions. wisdom and prudence were made to take his place. I will therefore give . the people would at once return to the practise of filial piety and fraternal affection if it could but get rid of its cleverness and covetousness. But Justice is the function of a King. even the lower orders had a knowledge of God. Those who followed only feared Him. if it could but discard and get rid of its virtue and benevolence. And so his body passes without harm. Insufficient faith leads to no faith. Then came those who were dissatisfied with Him. the people would be a hundred times better off. Their successors confined themselves to expressing their admiration and love for Him. and acted upon that knowledge. so that. there arose a wide-spread spirit of deception. there would be no thieves or robbers. that even the people were led to say We are self-created. a consequence.



of the practical effects they would produce: Honesty and simplicity would he encouraged, selfishness diminished, and covetousness all but done away with.


There would be nothing very grievous in renouncing study, for it matters very little, after all, whether we use the character wei or the character ah for " yes" and such knowledge can not be compared with that which enables us to discriminate between good and evil, and to know that there is a sense of fear in the human heart which can not be got rid of. Alas the world is overgrown with weeds, and it is almost The mass of impossible to keep them within due bounds. the people thrive and enjoy themselves like cattle in a rich pasture, and are as happy as he who stands on an elevated

But I, alas! am as a solitary ship at anchor on an unknown shore like an infant before it has
terrace in spring.

advanced to the immaturity of childhood. I stand alone amid an innumerable host living as if there were no return to the state from which they came. Yes! It must be that the mass of mankind have been granted a superfluity of gifts, whilst I, alone, have been neglected and passed by, for my judgment is weak and my

mind is full of doubt. The vulgar are enlightened and quick

witted, whilst I can

not penetrate the darkness which surrounds me. The vulgar have knowledge and the spirit of inquiry, whilst I, alas am full of despair and am like the ocean

which knows no rest. The mass of mankind can find a reason for everything, but my thoughts are foolish and of no account. Why do I thus differ from others and stand alone ? It is to the great Mother because I honor and revere God whom we owe our being and all that supports life.

CHAPTER XXI The Supreme Good, as manifested to us, is an emanation from God the creative principle of God. In the beginning there was naught but chaos. Oh, how wild Oh, how obscure it was
! !



Then out of its midst came forth forms Oh, how wild how obscure it was Oh, Out of its midst came material objects. Oh the stillness Oh! the stillness. -Oh! the darkness Out of its midst came forth the forms of life -- perfect

in subtlety. Out of its midst


consciousness, so that


the knowledge

of all this remains,

from then till and we are enabled

to see all that has

happened in the world pass in review before
it is

that I have this knowledge of the beginning of all things, I give all that I have now written as my answer.

Should I be asked how

CHAPTER XXII " To amend the depraved,

To straighten the crooked, To fill up the hollows, To renew the worn out

what few attain to

Though many attempt
It is because the

Sage unites these powers in his own perrendered capable of becoming a model for the whole world. He casts a bright light around him, because he has no wish to shine; he stands out prominently from others, because he is filled with humility; and it is because he is free from self-assertion that his merit is acknowledged.
son that he
It is because of his self-abnegation that his


it is

because he


work endures, non-contentious that there is no power

upon earth capable of opposing him. How then, may I ask, can the old saying I have quoted be regarded as a mere repetition of empty words ? Verily, it is
so comprehensive that

would be

difficult to find




not included in



Yet a few words which naturally suggest themselves. What is it- -I would ask --which causes the strong breeze to blow itself out in the course of the morning, and
the heavy rain to cease before the close of day

The answer is, the action of Heaven and Earth. But Heaven and Earth, powerful as they may


be, are of enduring forever; and if this be the case with incapable


how much more must


be so with man.

Remember, however, that the man who regulates all his actions by a belief in God will become like unto God; just

who walks in the path of virtue will become virtuous and he who pursues a course of vice will become vicious. But he who has become like unto God will be a servant of God, whilst he who has become virtuous will obey the dictates of virtue, and he who has become vicious will continue
as he

to be a slave to vice.

To have

a weak faith

is to

have no



who raises himself on his toes is unable to stand firmly, or he who straddles out his legs to walk easily, so will he who sees nothing outside himself be incapable of becoming intelligent. So, too, it is, that he who thinks he is always right will never emerge from obscurity nor he who boasts of his own merits stand high in the opinion of his fellows nor he who has no pity but for himself live long in
Just as he

the remembrance of others.

Such modes of proceeding, when compared with the divine principles of action emanating from God, present themselves to us much as the off-scour ings of food and other loathsome
matters held in universal detestation might do.


it is

that the godly



careful to eschew



CHAPTER XXV Before Heaven and Earth were, Naught but deep silence
o'er a void

endless immensity Dead, for no breath



had yet breathed there Oh, how silent, how void it was


Then He

the Infinite,


Perfect, Immutable,

Moved through

this nothingness;

He, the Creator, The " Mother " of
I, in

all things.



Knowing no name
Speak of "




As God," the Eternal, Thus in one word
Including His attributes: He, the All-Knowing, The All-Pervading,

Near yet so far off. Man's laws are earthly,
Nature's are Heaven-born, Yet one and both come

From God, the great Source And Center of all Law.
Gravity is the source of lightness, and rest the controlling power of motion. Therefore it is that the wise man does not even when making but a day's journey separate from his baggageso that should a beautiful view spread itself out wagons, before him, he rests a while, and then continues his journey. Hence, too, the Kuler who acts with levity will lose the subjects who form the very root of his power, whilst should he act with undue haste, he will lose his Kingdom.



good walker moves lightly over the ground, and his

footsteps leave



A good speaker is accurate and keeps his temper. A good reckoner needs no tablets. A good smith needs no wooden bars, yet the
fastens can not be opened.

doors he


skilful joiner needs

no cords


keep his work together.



In the same manner, it is through the skill and ability of the Sage that his fellow men are aided without one of them being discarded or lost, and it is the same when he deals with
the brute creation or material objects. " This is what is called being doubly enlightened," and hence it is that the skilful man becomes the unskilful man's

master, and the unskilful


becomes the skilful man's

When the slave does not honor his master, and the master does not love his slave, although they may both have a knowledge of what is suitable, they will be guilty of gross stupidity.
be considered an abstract of the leading principles belonging to a very difficult and subtle subject.




He who puts forth his strength And keeps back his weakness
Is like a deep river

Into which His virtue


the streams flow.


Until he


wane not once more,

As pure

as in childhood.

He who shows forth his light And hides all his darkness
Shall serve as a model




in the Empire. it is that his virtue

Shall be lasting and fail not Till merged in the infinite.

"He who

makes known his glory shame behind him

In which

Shall be like a valley all take refuge.

Abounding in His gifts shall


Till restored to his elements."

It is out of the simple elements into

which every thing in

nature resolves

itself that all

material objects are formed: and in like manner the Sage, by making use of the constituents he finds at hand, is able to build up a stable government


establish laws,


shall not be

unduly severe on a

substantial basis.

upon an empire from ambitious motives will not succeed, for an empire is a divine institution, and he who thinks he has the power of making it will mar it and he who thinks he has the power of ruling it by mere force of For truly, as the old saw has it will will lose it.

He who

"While some advance The rest retire,
While some inhale


rest respire,

While some are weak

The rest are strong, While some stand The rest move on."


Therefore the wise man endeavors to keep within due bounds, and avoid all exaggeration, luxury, and extravagance.

would assist a ruler by the application of principles proceeding from a knowledge of God is far more likely to succeed, than he who would coerce an empire by the adoption of stringent military measures, for where large armies are established thorns and thistles grow apa<3e, and where they march pestilence and famine follow in their footsteps.

He who

The wise

ruler rests satisfied

when he has gained

his point,

and does not presume, because he has succeeded, to adopt arbitrary measures; neither does he allow his achievement

or arrogant. Should he, however, be compelled to take further action, he is careful to guard himself from being led, by any subseboastful,

make him

either presumptuous,

quent success, to adopt a line of conduct that harsh or tyrannical.


be either




things pass through maturity to old age, which is as to say they are not God-like, for all that is not

God-like soon comes to an end.

weapons may be, they can not be regarded as auspicious instruments, and it is because of the universal dislike entertained toward them that they have no place in the system of the statesman whose action is regulated


excellent warlike

by divine


In the dwelling of the Superior Man, the place of honor is on the left, but that of the soldier, in the military movements and exercises, is on the right, for the soldier, like the weapon, is not an instrument of happy augury. The instruments used by the Superior Man are very different, and even when they fail him he makes use of none other.
great object of the Superior Man is to preserve peace and tranquillity. He takes no pleasure in winning battles, for he knows that if he did so he would be finding gratifica-


tion in the slaughter of his fellows, and he believes that he who takes delight in the destruction of his fellow men will

never succeed in gaining the affection of those he rules over.





in all that

auspicious the left occupies the highest place ; the right. So it is that in the inauspicious

general in chief

is placed on the left, whilst the on the right, and this accords with the position which has the place of honor in the funeral Rites. Truly, he who kills numbers of men should mourn over them and weep over them, and a victorious battle should be celebrated with the same rites as are appointed for a funeral.


the second in



" God

unchanging and has no name."
this statement is so short

and so simple, Yet if kings and princes were the world can not take it in. but to receive it, there is nothing under Heaven which would not resort to them, and it would produce a spirit of harmony which would descend upon the Empire like a fragrant dew,

Now, although


no longer require to receive orders would be rendered capable of con-


so that the people would their superiors, but

trolling their



But when a name was given to the Great First Cause, which has been continued to this day, the knowledge I speak of became arrested, and we soon cease to be familiar with that which is withheld from us.



if the right

knowledge of God were but spread through

the Empire, it would become like the ocean and great rivers into which the rivulets and streams continuously flow.


He who has a knowledge of other men is intelligent, but he who has a knowledge of himself is enlightened. He who gains a victory over other men is strong, but he who gains a victory over himself is all powerful. He who is temperate is rich, but he who is energetic has
strength of purpose. He who does not waste his vital powers may live long, but he who dies and is not forgotten will be immortal.

and all-pervading God is All nature turns toward Him for support and sustenance, and He withholds It is impossible to find a name for His nothing. perfections. He bestows His love and care on all that He has Passionless and created, yet demands nothing in return. Eternal, His glory is exhibited in the smallest of His works. All nature reverts to Him, and though He seeks not to -exalt Himself He is revealed to us by His greatness. Hence it is that the Sage, during the course of his whole life, never seeks to be great, and this is why he is able to


reach the very pinnacle of greatness.



All the people in the Empire will rally round the is able to realize the grand conception which



to God.



They will not only rally round him, but they will cease from evil-doing and become calm, peaceful, and contented. He who entertains a guest with music and feasting will give him pleasure, and make him unwilling to depart but should he open his mouth and speak to him of God, ah how But altasteless and unattractive his words would seem. though what we see and hear of God is so dim and indistinct, yet His power, to those who seek to use it, is inexhaustible.

That which

about to contract must be in a state of about to become weak must be strong. about to fall down must stand up. about to be stolen must be in
its place.

That which That which That which
All this



but a vague


of saying:



come by gentleness, and strength is vanquished by weakness. Hence it would be as idle to attempt the reformation of a State by severe measures, as it would be to try to catch fish in the depths of an abyss.


not do.


eternally at rest, yet there


nothing that he does

their rule

If kings and princes would but hold fast to this, all under would work out their own reformation. But if

after they -had done this it might be found necessary to act, I would control them by adopting, as far as possible, those

pure and simple principles which belong to the Great Nameless One.

The simple nature

of the Nameless


Will free us from desire, and so give Peace,


peaceful States will govern best themselves.



idea of what the want of skill 2. So it is that existence . it is really the same . CHAPTER 1. and in doing this they have the All in the world t/ know . and its manifestation. Conceived of as having no name. it receives the different names. all things. it is the Mother of 3. This chapter is named " Embodying the Tao. To understand the Tao one must be partaker of its nature. 2. Always without desire we must be found. as well as the difficulty of his subject would allow him. the nature of the Tao in itself. 32 . these two aspects." The author sets forth. that can be trodden is not the enduring and unThe name that can be named is not the enduring and unchanging name. ToWhere the Mystery is the gether we call them the Mystery. conceived of as having a name. But if desire always within us be. but as development takes place. FOLLOWING CLOSELY THE CHINESE WORDING) CHAPTER 1. 4. James Legge. If its deep mystery we would sound. I 2 The Tao changing Tao. the beaut v of the beautiful. one to the idea of the other 1 2 and non-existence give birth the that difficulty and ease produce Translated by Prof.TAO-TEH KING PART ONE l (A SECOND TRANSLATION. it is the Originator of heaven and earth. is. Under deepest is the gate of all that is subtle II and wonderful. and in doing this they have the idea of what ugliness is they all know the skill of the skilful. Its outer fringe is all that we shall see.

3. III and employ men of superior ability is the from rivalry among themselves. weakens their wills. that the musical notes and tones become harmonious through the relation of one with another. Such is the uniform teaching of follower Chuang-Tze. and that being before and behind give the idea of one following another. they go through their processes. The work is 'Tis this that done. All things spring up. not way to prize articles which are difficult to procure is the way to keep them from becoming thieves not to show them what is likely to excite their desires is the way to keep their minds from disorder. 4. thereby securing their and universal good order. and there is no resting in it as an achievement. they grow. and there is no claim made for their ownership. Not to value to keep the people . in the exercise of his government. and where there are those who have knowlWhen there edge. and there is not one which declines 3. in the state of primitive simplicity and ignorance. good order is universal. accomplished. Therefore the sage. that length and shortness fashion out the one the figure of the other ." The object of the chapter to show that government according to the Tao is unfavorable to the them rather spread of knowledge among the people. 3 Therefore the sage manages affairs without doing anything. 2. . He constantly tries to keep them without knowledge and without desire. and conveys his instructions without the use of speech. makes the power not cease to be. XII. but I could not succeed to my satis- faction in the endeavor to * " is Called Keeping the People at Rest. fills their bellies. and strengthens their bones. empties their minds. to show itself.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 33 the one the idea of the other . s Paragraph 2 should be rhymed. that the ideas of height and lowness arise from the contrast of the one with the other. 4 CHAPTER 1. to keep them from presuming to act on it. 7OL. and of all Taoist writer* Lao-Tze and his restfulness great 8. and would keep rhyme it. is this abstinence from action. and there The work is is no expectation of a reward for the results. but how no one can see.

" Quiet and unceasing is the operation of the Tao. We should blunt our sharp points. o Called " The Completion of Material Forms. May not the space between heaven and earth be com- pared to a bellows? 'Tis emptied. and used in praying for rain. and bring ourselves into agreement with the obscurity of others. which occupies itself . Heaven and earth and the sages dealt so with all things and with the people. It might appear have been before God. aye the same. act from the impulse of any wish to be benevolent they deal with all things as the dogs of The sages do not act from any wish grass are dealt with. they deal with the people as the dogs of grass are dealt with. Tis moved again. CHAPTER V 1. to be benevolent. yet it loses not its power. and afterward. 5 Called " The Use of Emptiness. 2. and sends forth air the more." This title rightly expresses the import of this enigmatical chapter. Your inner being guard. I do not know whose son it is. and effective is the rule of the sage in accordance with it. when the sacrifice was over. and unravel the complications of things. CHAPTER vi The valley spirit dies not. and in our emmust be on our guard against all fulness. were thrown aside and left uncared for. The female mystery thus do we name. 5 Heaven and earth do not . but there is a foundation laid in it for the development of the later Taoism. IV The Tao is like ployment of it we How deep and unfathomable ! the emptiness of a vessel . as if it would ever to so continue! 3. Much speech to swift exhaustion lead we see. it is. and keep it free. The grass-dogs in paragraph 1 were made of straw tied up in the shape of dogs. How pure and still the Tao is.34 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTEK 1. as if it were the Honored Ancestor of all things 2. we should attemper our brightness.

which constitutes " The spirit of the valley " has the Teh in the name of our king. all men dislike. Is called the root from which grew heaven and earth. and yet it is found in the foremost place he treats his person as if it were foreign to him. which is a father and mother.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Its gate. from which at first they issued forth. Heaven is long-enduring. Is it not because he has no personal and private ends. by the management of the breath or vital used metaphorically as a symbol of " emptiness " " " is the something inthe spirit of the valley or vacancy . good earth afford a pattern to the sage. and The reason why heaven and earth are earth continues long. and the sage affords a pattern to all men. without striving to the contrary. that therefore such ends are realized ? ." The chapter teaches that one's best Heaven and is realized by not thinking of it. This is because they do not live of. or for. and in its occupying. 7 CIIAPTEK VII 1. the low place which Tao. and without its power remain. 35 Long and unbroken does Used gently. and yet that person is preserved. the touch of pain. 7 Called " Sheathing the Light. or seeking for it. 2. 2. . come to be a name for the activity of the Tao in all the realm of " The female mystery " is the Tao with a name of its operation. through into two. The processes of generation and production can hardly be imagined by us but by a recognition of this fact. VIII The highest excellence is like that of water. able to endure and con- tinue thus long selves. themhow they are able to continue and endure. The ex- cellence of water appears in its benefiting all things." All living beings have chapter 1. belonging to the Tao. and visible. material " The " " valley " is dividing and immaterial. " the Mother of all things. Hence its way is is near to that of the The excellence of a residence life in the suitability of with the prolongation of force. is Therefore the sage puts his own person last. yet almost personal. and thence appearing in the forms of things. CHAPTER 1. and so of life as coming Lao-tze thought of the existing realm of nature an evolution (not a creation) from the primal air or breath.

" . When he has cleansed away the most mysterious sights of his imagination. that of the conduct of affairs is in its ability. 2. the place. that of associations is in their being with the virtuous that of govern- ment in its securing good order. 8 the intelligent and animal souls are held together in one embrace. and of all self-satisfaction in the results of his doing. no one finds fault with him. When When one gives undivided attention to the vital breath. When the work is done. their possessor can not keep them safe. and he can rule men without purpose and effort. and that of the initiation of any is is movement 3.36 THE SACRED BOOKS . In paragraph 3 he appears free from all selfconsciousness in what he does. wrangle And when CHAPTER IX It is better to leave a vessel unfilled. tell The whole seems to what can be accomplished by one who possessed of the Tao. way of Heaven. and this brings its evil on itself. The other two paragraphs seem to speak of what he can do under the guidance of the Tao for himself and for others. they can be kept from separating. in paragraph 2 is a Taoistic phrase for the nostrils gates of heaven as the organ of the breath." This chapter is one of the most difficult to understand and translate in the whole work. but I am persuaded the first clause of it is some- how is corrupt. one's When name is is obscurity the becoming distinguished. When wealth and honors lead to arrogancy. and brings it to the utmost degree of pliancy. than to attempt to If you keep feeling a point that carry it when it is full. one with the highest excellence does not about his low position. that of the mind is in abysmal stillness. 1. Even Chu Hsi was not s Called " able to explain the first member satisfactorily. has been sharpened. and keep his intelligent and animal souls from being " The separated. he can become as a tender babe. to withdraw into CHAPTER x 1. The text of that member seems well supported. He can by his management of his vital breath bring his body to the state of Taoistic perfection. Possibilities. he can become without a flaw. its sharp- gold and jade fill the hall. in its timeliness. the point can not long preserve ness.

the five tastes are Salt.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 2. Sour. A. and objects rare and strange. and Sweet. White. B. but it is on the empty space for the axle. and Yellow. XII 9 Color's five hues from th' eyes their sight will take. it produces them and does not claim them as its own it does all. depends. CHAPTER 1. Sought 2. E. can not he do so as a female bird ? While his intelligence reaches in every direction. The five colors are Black. Green or Blue. The mysterious This is what is called . and yet does " not control them. CHAPTER The XI thirty spokes unite in the one nave. and what has not that for actual usefulness. and yet does not boast of it it presides over all. that the use of the wheel fashioned into vessels. and the wild hunting waste Make mad the mind. Called " . Acrid. to seek the former. and prefers The Repression of the Desires. S7 In loving the people and ruling the State. The The flavors five deprive the mouth of taste. chariot course. Bitter. but it is on their empty hollowness. Red. and to maintain the primitive simplicity of men's ways and manners. what has a positive existence serves for profitable adaptation. can not he appear to be without knowledge ? 3. Music's five notes the ears as deaf can make . Therefore. and not the insatiable longing of the eyes. that its use depends. the five notes are those of the imperfect Chinese musical scale. Therefore the sage seeks to satisfy the craving of the He puts belly. can not he proceed without any purpose of action ? In the opening and shutting of his gates of heaven. D. Clay is but it is on the empty space within. our G. from him the latter. for. . " Quality of the Tao. men's conduct will to evil change." Government in accordance with the Tao seeks to withdraw men from the attractions of what is external and pleasant to the senses and imagination. that their use depends. The Tao produces all things and nourishes them. The door and windows are cut out from the walls to form an apartment.

38 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER 1. CHAPTER xiv 1. Its upper part is not bright. " the Equable. and hence we blend them together and obtain The One. do not get hold of and we name it it " the Subtle. 10 We look at it. and he who would administer it with the love which he bears to his own person may be entrusted with it. lower part is not obscure. and its Called " The Manifestation of the Mystery. Therefore he who would administer the kingdom. Ceaseless in its action. may be employed to govern it. and Wei. what great calamity could come to me ? 3. can not be made the subject of description. it yet can not be named. Hi. then it again returns and becomes nothing. as entirely distinct from things. honoring it as he honors his own person. to be regarded as personal conditions of the same kind. . and see it. honor and great calamity." and we name it and we do not hear it. 2. The And what ity is meant by saying that honor and great calamas are to be similarly regarded personal conditions? What makes me liable to great calamity is my having the body which I call myself if I had not the body. The Chinese characters which I have translated " the Equable." The subject of paragraph 1 is the Tao." " the Inaudible." and " the Subtle. but the Tao in its operation. We try to grasp it. and not the primal conception of it. which rises before the mind in the second paragraph. and in 1823 Re"musat fancied that they were intended to give the Hebrew tetragrammaton which he thought had come to Lao-tze somehow from the West. and the losing it leads to the fear of still greater calamity: this is what is meant by saying that favor and disgrace would seem equally to be feared." are now 10 /." With these 'three qualities." it We it. and we do not listen to it. and This is 2. XIII Favor and disgrace would seem equally to be feared. What is meant by speaking thus of favor and disgrace ? Disgrace is being in a low position after the enjoyment of favor. pronounced . or been found by him there. getting that favor leads to the apprehension of losing it. and we name " the Inaudible.

. we follow it. meet it and do not see its Front . As they were thus beyond men's knowledge. it and Who Let it be still. 3. with a and exquisite penetration. condition of rest? Let movement go on. this is called the Fleeting and Indeterminable. 11 . and were deep also so as to elude men's knowledge. but great in its results. can secure the and the condition 4. in man. cent like ice that is that has not been valley. Who can make the muddy water like and dull will gradually become clear. know CHAPTER xv 1." The chapter exhibits the operation of the Tao in nature. comprehended its mysteries. The getting to possess the Tao. CHAPTER XVI U vacancy should be brought to the utmost degree. Shrinking looked they like those who wade through a subtle stream in winter. 3. and that of stillness guarded with unwearying vigor. this is called unwinding the clue of Tao. and We do not see its Back. and the Semblance of the Invisible. irresolute like those who are afraid of all around them grave like a guest in awe of his host evanes. or to be an embodiment of it. 1. of rest will gradually arise. and in government. melting away. They who preserve this method of the Tao do not full of themselves that they wish to be full of themselves. When we can lay hold of the Tao of old to direct the things of the present day. and this is in accordance with the " the Tao might seem to have been saying in the fourth chapter that . but all-powerful unaccompanied with any demonstration of its presence. and are able to it as it was of old in the beginning. It is through their not being can afford to seem worn and not appear new and complete. The skilful masters of the Tao in old times. I will make an effort to describe of what sort they appeared to be. unpretentious like wood fashioned into anything. 2.LITERATURE OF THE EAST called the 39 Form of the Formless. an operation silent. vacant like a clear ? muddy water. follows the becoming Heaven or Heaven-like. The state of Called " Returning to the Root.

" in the conduct of government. is generally illustrated by a reference to the utterances in chapter L." The last possessor and displayer of the Tao spoken of as that he who has come to the full possession of the Tao is sentence. This returning to their root stillness state of stillness. fulfilled their appointed The ing rule. 12 In the highest antiquity. 2. in Chuang-tze especially. and we see them return to their original state. showing by their reticence the importance which they set upon their words ! Their work was done and their undertakings before God. he endures long. the people did not know that In the next age they loved them and there were their rulers. . is we them return what we call the see to its root. passionless influence of the Tao was gradually and injuriously superseded " by the wisdom of the world. it know leads to wild movements and evil issues. and that may be called a reporting that they have end. In that likeness a to heaven he possesses the Tao. unchangTo know that unchanging rule is to be intelligent . them. and that capacity and forbearance lead to community of feeling with all things.40 THE SACRED BOOKS then All things alike go through their processes of activity. and to the end of his bodily life. we often find the full " Heaven. The knowledge of that unchanging rule produces a grand capacity and forbearance. exempt from all danger of decay. 2. 12 Called " The Unadulterated Influence." But. Tao was deficient in the rulers a want of faith in them ensued in the people. as seen in the earliest and paradisiacal times. and he who is king-like goes on to be heaven-like. showing how the silent. as if Lao-tze did indeed see in the Tao a preservative against death." The influence is that of the Tao. is exempt from all danger of decay. How irresolute did those earliest rulers appear. CHAPTER xvn 1. not to report of that fulfilment is the regular. The two chapters that follow are closely connected with this. Possessed of the Tao. When things in the vegetable world have displayed their luxuriant growth. in the next praised Thus it was that when faith in the they despised them. From this community of feeling comes a kingliness of character. In the next they feared them.

In the last three chapters he has been advocating the cause of the Tao against the learning and philosophy of the other school of thinkers in the country. XVIII Method) ceased to be observed." and flattering " yea " Small is the difference they display." The chapter sets forth the difference to external appearance which the pursuit and observance of the Tao produce between its votaries and others. and courses plain and true Would selfish ends and many lusts eschew. If we could renounce our benevolence and discard our righteousness. Those three methods of government Thought olden ways in elegance did fail And made these names their want of worth to veil . when the kinships. 2. " We are as we are. . and there ensued great hypocrisy. benevolence and righteousness came into vogue. good and ill What space the gulf between shall fill? . Then appeared wisdom and shrewdness. there would be no thieves nor robbers. filial When harmony no CHAPTEB. If we could renounce our it 2. and Lao-tze speaks in it as himself an example of the former. Called " Being Different from Ordinary Men. If we could renounce our artful contrivances and discard our scheming for gain. CHAPTER 1. wisdom. and found an end to the troubles and anxieties of his own mind . But simple views. XIX sageness and discard our would be better for the people a hundredfold. Hence the chapter has an auto13 biographical character. The ready " yes. the people would again become filial and kindly. 13 When we renounce learning we have no troubles. States and clans fell into disorder. But mark their issues. loyal ministers appeared. Here he appears as having renounced learning. but at the expense of being misconceived and misrepresented by others.LITERATURE OF THE EAST were successful. 1. while the people of ourselves " ! 41 all said. When the Great Tao (Way or longer prevailed throughout the six sons found their manifestation. CHAPTER XX 1.

Profound it is. The forms of things all in it crouch . the range of questions asking to be of men look satisfied and pleased. . Eluding sight. in its operation. The Empty Heart.42 THE SACRED BOOKS all What men ! fear is is indeed to be feared. as the latter says. as if I had no home to go to." seems. as a full banquet. chaos. I seem to be carried about as on the sea. eluding touch. but I value the nursing-mother. What I have rendered " semblances. can of Tao the nature tell ? it flies." and Chalmers " forma. I look rejected and forThe multitude of men all have enough and to spare. like a rude borderer. while I alone seem to be benighted. the Tao. while I alone am dull and confused. thing. My mind is I alone seem to have lost everythat of a stupid man . The multitude if as yet given no indication of their presence. drifting as if I had nowhere to rest. Thus I alone am different from other men. their only source. my desires having spring. all right. There are their semblances." Julien " les images. in some way to correspond to the " Eternal Ideas " of Plato in the Divine ject Mind. how or from what. while I alone seem dull and incapable. Eluding touch. lorn. but how wide and wituout end discussed 2. he does not say. as if mounted on a tower in enjoying I alone seem listless and still." The subject of the chapter is the Tao Lao-tze's mind is occupied with a very difficult sub- to describe the production of material forms by the Tao. They look full of discrimination. Things' essences i* Called " all there endure. All men have their spheres of action. I am in a state of Ordinary men look bright and intelligent. dark and obscure. eluding sight. CHAPTER XXI 14 The grandest forms of active force From Tao Who Our come. I am like an infant which has not yet smiled. sight our touch as well.

and therefore he shines from self-assertion. 43 Of what. He whose desires are . desires are many goes astray. He is free from self-display. Things form and never know decay. It is because he is thus free from striving that therefore no one in the world is able to strive with him. XXIII is Abstaining from speech marks him who violent wind does not last spontaneity of his nature. and therefore his merit is acknowledged from self-complacency. is To whom is it To Heaven and Earth. and therefore he is distinguished. and therefore he acquires superiority. straight. new. . the withered foliage of a tree. : CHAPTER 1. The few 2. the empty." The first clause was an old saying. when Now So. 3. the crooked. from self-boasting. it is CHAPTEB XXII 1. That saying of the ancients that " the partial becomes " complete was not vainly spoken all real completion is comprehended under it. it is so.. Its name . How know things? I that By so with all the beauties of existing this nature of the Tao. 15 partial becomes complete. and manifests it to all the world. for a whole morning. gets them he whose .what passes not away . that these two things are owing? If Heaven and Earth can not make " The Increase Called granted to Humility. Therefore the sage holds in his embrace the one thing of humility. which Lao-tze found and adopted. " " The which but he employs it so as to make it do so. in their beautiful array. a sudden rain does not last for the A obeying the whole day. shall then be told.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Those essences the truth enfold seen. emptiness becomes full is literally the hollovvness of a cavity in the ground which "The worn out" is explained is sure to be filled by overflowing water. which comes out new and fresh in the by next spring. . 'twas so of old. Whether it was intended to embrace all the cases which are mentioned may be questioned. . full the worn out.

and making the manifestation of its course their object agree with him in that while even those who are failing in both these things agree with him where they fail. we have the same term applied in chapter xrv to the three immaterial constituents there said to be blended in the idea of it. " He does not know its name. but that term does not necessitate our regarding " it as material. CHAPTER XXIV 1. ing a i ." Nor does his going on to speak of " it as chaotic " necessarily lead us to conceive it as made up of the 41 material elements of things". whom he agrees in their failure have also the But when there is not of attaining to the Tao. coming into existence before Heaven and Earth. Hence. how much less can man! 2. or a tumor standpoint on the body. which all dislike. viewed from the of the Tao." In this chapter Lao approaches very near to give an answer to the question as to what the Tao is. he who asserts his own views is not distinguished . those who are also pursuing it agree with him in it. who stands on his tiptoes does not stand firm. So." and he designates it by the term denot" " course or " way. the happiness of attaining to it. the course of the Tao do not adopt and allow them. How still it was Called " Representations of the Mystery. and indicating the phenomenal attribute. are like remnants of food. Hence those who pursue ority allowed to him.44 THE SACRED BOOKS such spasmodic actings last long. he who vaunts himself does not find his merit acknowledged. he who is self -conceited has no superi- Such conditions. happiness faith sufficient on his part." We have seen in the preceding chapter that it is used to signify " spirits and men. 3." Tao. those with whom he agrees as to its manifestation have the happiness of attaining to it. those with whom he agrees as to the Tao have those who are . Therefore when one is making the Tao his business. he stretches his legs does not walk easily. a want of faith in him ensues on and those with the part of the others. CHAPTER XXV 1. and yet leaves the reader disappointed. he who dis- He who plays himself does not shine. He commences by calling it "a thing". 16 There was something undefined and complete.

I do not know its name. he quietly remains in his proper should the lord of a myriad If he chariots carry himself lightly before the kingdom? he has lost his root of gravity. . place. Earth is great. to active movement. Passing on. the ruler of movement." Was he groping after God if haply he might find Him? I think he was. Gravity is the root of lightness. it returns. Heaven is great. Man takes his law from the Earth the Earth takes its law from Heaven Heaven takes its law from the Tao. when he says " it was before Heaven and Earth were produced. CHAPTER XXVI 1. and not acting from a personal will. consciously evolving in the direction of its own wisdom and love. does not go far from his baggage-wagons. it a name I it call it The Great. passes on in constant flow. it becomes remote. and the sage king is one of them." and "might been before God. that "the nameless Tao was the beginning (or seem to have originating cause) of Heaven and Earth. Making an effort further to give 3. Although he may have brilliant prospects to look at. and he gets so far as to conceive of Him as "the Uncaused Cause. and the sage king is also great.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 45 and formless. The law of the Tao is its being what it is. How CHAPTER XXVII 1. In the universe there are four that are great. and undergoing no change. if he p^eed do act lightly. but after all the Tao is simply from itself. phenomena come before our observation. The skilful traveler leaves all no traces of his wheels or the method in which their development or evolution. indifferent to them. power from the Tao. . standing alone. 4. The other subordinate causes whicli he mentions all get their force or a spontaneity. Having become remote. in And yet. reaching everywhere and in no danger of being exhausted! It may be regarded as the Mother of all things. and I give it the designation of the Tao (the Way or Course). he will lose his throne. Therefore the Tao is great. Therefore a wise prince. stillness. 2." he comes very near his affirmations in chapters I and iv. Great. marching the whole day." but comes short of the idea of His personality. . 2.

Therefore the man of skill is a master to be looked up . might " The utmost degree This is called greatly err about them. to by him who has not the skill . free from all stains. loves disgrace. Who Yet 17 " knows how glory shines. the skilful speaker says nothing that can be found fault with or Warned. All come to him. black's shade. or the feudal lord in a State. an artless freedom from all purpose. of mystery. and so does not cast away any man he is always skilful at saving things." The chapter sets forth humility and simplicity. Who knows how white attracts. of humility displayed. while to open what he has shut will be impossible." thing. while to unloose what he has bound will be In the same way the sage is always skilful at impossible. yea. and he who has not the skill If is the helper of the reputation of him who has the skill. all beneath the sky." CHAPTER XXVIII 1. Returning to Simplicity. saving men. nor e'er for it is pale . and the other did not rejoice in his helper. such as he was in the primeval time. and so he does not cast away anyThis is called " Hiding the light of his procedure. the skilful closer needs no bolts or bars. 2. as characteristic of the man of Tao. " The sage " in para" The Son of Heaven " the Head of all rule in the graph 2 may be kingdom. Displayed in view of all beneath the sky. Yet always keeps himself within The pattern Endless return to man's first state has made. though intelligent. the skilful binder uses no strings or knots'. his female feebleness maintains. . 17 Who Yet knows still manhood's strength. the one did not honor his master. He in the unchanging excellence arrayed.46 footsteps . an observer. the skilful reckoner uses no tallies. his As to one channel flow the many drains. Thus he the constant excellence retains The simple child again.

and the uncertain issue of attempts to deal with it according to ordinary methods. vessels.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Behold his presence in a spacious vale. who would so win and can not be got it destroys it. by what he does. 1. when divided and distributed. Wherever a host is stationed." All efforts made with a purpose are sure to fail. and the uncertainty of things and events teaches the same lesson. The store in ruins mocks our toil. He a spirit-like thing. will not assert his mastery in the harmony with the kingdom by force of in arms. 2. He who would assist a lord of men Tao 2. The unchanging excellence completes its tale 47 . up. becomes the Head the Officers of government . Such a course is sure to meet with its proper return. The idea in the text is based on the immunity of spirit from all material law. The sage. . Hence the sage puts away easy indulgence. I see that he will not suc- ceed. when employed. excessive effort. The kingdom is by active doing. Strength is of weakness oft the spoil. forms of all The unwrought material. is Called " Taking no Action. infant man in him we hail. he that who would hold it in his grasp loses it. and to effect this If any one should wish to get the kingdom for himself. and in his greatest regula- tions he employs no violent measures. The nature of the Tao necessitates their doing so. and 1. To which men come from all beneath the sky. The simple 2. briars and thorns spring In the sequence of great armies there are sure to be bad years. " has become a That the kingdom or throne is a " spirit-like vessel common enough saying among the Chinese. extravagance. The course and nature of things are such What was in front is now behind. What warmed anon we freezing find.

however beautiful. Calm he uses them only on and repose are what he To prizes. on occasions of mourning. 3. . The superior man the instruments of the superior man the compulsion of necessity. but in time of war the right hand. hateful. 4. 1. and stops. and not 2. 2.48 3. with the bitterest grief and the victor in battle has his place rightly according to those rites. has killed multitudes of men should weep for them is. it may be said. the whole world dares not deal with one embodying it as a minis1. has no name. is . he strikes it. Therefore they who have the Tao do not like to employ them. considered as unchanging. The second in command of the army has his place on the left his the general commanding in chief has his on the right men . CHAPTER XXXI arms. He will strike the blow. that He who assigned to him as in the rites of mourning. Now ordinarily considers the left hand the most honorable place. On occasions of festivity to be on the left hand is the prized position. place. to all creatures. continuing his operations to assert and complete his mastery. : become the things have attained their strong maturity they This may be said to be not in accordance with is Tao and what not in accordance with it soon comes to an end. but will be on his guard against being vain or boastful or arrogant in consequence of it. but not from a wish for mastery. When old. He strikes it as a matter of necessity. victory by force of arms is to him undesirable. THE SACRED BOOKS A skilful commander He does not dare by strikes a decisive blow. Though in its primordial simplicity it may be small. CHAPTER XXXII The Tao. the right hand. . Those sharp weapons are instruments of evil omen. are instruments of evil omen. consider this desirable would be to delight in the slaughter of and he who delights in the slaughter of men can not get his will in the kingdom.

All-pervading the left 2. 2. it has a name. He who is satisfied with his lot is rich he who goes on acting with energy has a . and its action has the effect of enlightening what is dark. he who knows overcomes others is strong. its qualities are the very opposite. As soon as it When proceeds to action. Lao-tze believed in another life for the individual after the Many passages in Chuang-tze indicate the same faith. 19 3. hand the great Tao! and on the right. does not fail in the requirements of his position who dies and yet does not perish has CHAPTER XXXIV 1. 20 VOL. and with weakness and not with strength. and in paragraph 4 is that Tao come forth into operation and become Teh. present. 20 He who knows other men is himself is intelligent. without the directions of men." The teaching of the chapter is that the possession of the Tao confers the various attributes which are here most distinguished. Heaven and Earth under its guidance unite together and send down the sweet dew. xil. for men. 4. 4. all 49 If a feudal prince or the king could guard and hold it. Called " Discriminating between different Attributes. the Teh which affords a law is From this to the end of the paragraph is very obscure. and overcoming what is strong. alone. It has been objected to it that elsewhere the Tao is represented as associated with dulness and not intelligence. which it When its gives to them.LITERATURE OF THE EAST ter. When they 5. relation of the The CHAPTER XXXIII 1. not one refusing obedience to it. men can know to rest in it. No doubt. would spontaneously submit themselves to him. firm will. he who overcomes himself is mighty. The " primordial simplicity " in paragraph 2 is the Tao in its simplest conception. he longevity. it once has that name. He who continues long. which. He who discerning. is It may be found on All things depend on it for their production. they can be free from all risk of failure error. Tao to all the world is like that of the great rivers and seas to the streams from the valleys. Inwardly. But these seem to be qualities viewed from without. . and by itself. know and to rest in it. reaches equally everywhere as of its own accord. and acting on what is beyond itself.

as it comes from the mouth. peace. is sure to make a previous expiration first when he is going to weaken strengthen him: when he is going to overthrow another.. invisible Tao. But though the Tao. though it seems not worth 2." nor its weapons " instruments of government. These should not be shown to the people." overcomes the hard and the weak the strong. and receive no hurt. going to despoil another. great same way to accomplish through his not making himself CHAPTER XXXV 1.50 THE SACRED BOOKS is work accomplished. . unless it be the first part of chapter I. Music and dainties will make the passing guest stop for a time. Hence the sage is able in the his great achievements. ." nor its punishments." Paragraph 3 is the most fre- queijtly quoted of all the passages in our King. he will is . whom the Taoistic system would keep in a state of primitive simplicity and igIn no other way can I explain the paragraph so as to justify norance. but find rest. the use of 21 it is inexhaustible. 2. CHAPTER XXXVI 1. Fishes should not be taken from the deep instruments for the profit of a State should not be shown to the people. Fishes taken from the deep. being looked at or listened to. clothes all it does not claim the name of having done it. 3. and the feeling of ease. 21 Called " Minimizing the Light." that is. seems insipid and has no flavor. and makes it may be named in no assumption of being their lord All things return to their root and disthe smallest things. he will first have made gifts to " him this is called Hiding the light of his procedure. can be easily taken or killed that is plain enough. When one is about to take an inspiration. 3. he will first have raised him up when he another. " The water. the whole world repairs. the place undoubtedly belonging to it in the system. and brought into shallow . sharp " " " are not its treasinstruments of a State of war. To him who holds in his hands the Great Image of the Men resort to him. appear. It is that he can accomplish may be named in the greatest things. The soft . It things as with a garment. he . its rewards and ures. and do not know that it is it which presides over their doing so .

END OF PAST ONE . Simplicity without a name Is free from all external aim. desire. all things would of themselves be transformed by them. If princes and kings were able to maintain it.LITERATURE OF THE EAST CHAPTER XXXVII 51 1. All things go right as of their will. With no desire. The Tao in its regular course does nothing for the sake of doing it. at rest and still. 2. and so there is nothing which it does not do. If this transformation became to me an object of I would express the desire by the nameless simplicity. 3.

Thus it Called About the Attributes". and had no need to do Those who possessed them in a lower degree were anything. and therefore they possessed them in fullest measure. The to have come out of its absoluteness. 3. and when men did not respond to always seeking it they bared the arm and marched up to them. as it is historical. benevolence appeared. Those who possessed the highest benevolence were always seeking to carry it out. 22 " 52 . and had need to be so doing. when benevolence was lost. and is also the commencement of dis5." and yet there would be a danger of its thus misleading us in the interpretation of the " " virtue is the activity or operation of the Tao. 2. In paragraph 5 we evisupposed dently have a rt&umG of the preceding paragraphs. Those who possessed the highest righteousness were always seeking to carry it out. which is chapter. Those who possessed the highest sense of propriety were to show it. 6. and therefore they did not possess them in fullest measure. It is not easy to render teh here by any other English term than " virtue. Those who possessed in the highest degree those attributes did nothing with a purpose. and had no need to be doing so. and when righteousness was lost.TAO-TEH -KING PART Two CHAPTER XXXVIII 1. righteousness appeared. and had need to be so doing. Now propriety is the attenuated form of leal-heartedness and good faith. of Tao. and. the proprieties appeared. 4. its attributes appeared. though what took place on the early stage of the world may also be said to go on taking place in the experience of every individual. 22 Those who possessed in highest degree the attributes of the Tao did not seek to show them. 1 translate them in the past tense. Those who possessed in a lower degree those attributes sought how not to lose them. when its attributes were lost. that is. always doing. was that when the Tao was lost.

dwells with the fruit and not with man It is thus that he puts away the one and makes choice of the other. Princes and kings. as described in the conclusion of chapter xxv. it soon would rend If earth were not thus sure. spirits soon would fail the drought would parch each vale . . Spirits with powers by it supplied. the If not so filled. would all decay. 53 is swift apprehension is only a flower of the Tao. If heaven were not thus pure. ing for the sake of doing. 23 The things which from of old have got the One (the Tao) are it is bright and pure. Without that life. However grand and high. undemonstrative nature. it yet 23 . is flimsy . Valleys kept full throughout their void." " Hence princes and kings call them- Men of small virtue." without a nave. One (Tao). and what lofty finds its its previous in the lowness stability from which " it rises. 7. abides by what is solid. 3. All creatures which through it do live. 'twould break and bend ." Is not this and as Carriages an acknowledgment that in " their considering themselves mean they see the foundation So it is that in the enumeration of the of their dignity? " The Called Origin of the Law. through which in its spontaneity. without that moral sway. And the Tao affords that law by its passionless." In this title there is a reference to the Law given to all things by the Tao. Thus it is that dignity finds is its firm root in meanness. Without these powers. . Heaven which by All these are the results of the 2. doing nothdoes all things. CHAPTER XXXIX 1.LITERATURE OF THE EAST order . selves Orphans. creatures would pass away. and the beginning of stupidity. Princes and kings who from it get The model which to all they give. Thus it is that the Great and eschews what the flower. Earth rendered thereby firm and sure .

of the Tao by contraries. the shadow of a shade. but prefer to be coarselooking as an ordinary stone. leading to a result the opposite of what existed previously. themselves elegant-looking as jade. when they have heard about laugh greatly at it. but never word it said. : " The Tao. when they hear about the it Tao. And A vessel great. If it were not thus laughed at. he has most whose lot the least supplies. seem now to keep it and now to lose it. Tao's mighty deeds. Its largest square doth yet no corner show. Who progress in it makes. that existence sprang from It as non-existent and not named. earnestly carry into practise." Called " Dispensing with the Use of Means " with their use. . Scholars of the CHAPTER XLI highest class. it is the slowest is its made. Its solid truth seems change to undergo . seems light to lack . 2. when brightest seen. semblance great. when they have heard about it. Its greatest beauty seems to offend the eyes. Therefore the sentence-makers have thus expressed themselves it. 1. Its firmest virtue seems but poor and low. seems drawing back. Its highest virtue from the vale doth rise. that The suhject of the brief chapter is the action is. CHAPTER XL 24 The movement of the Tao By contraries proceeds. Loud A 24 sound. and by means which might seem calculated to produce a contrary result.54 THE SACRED BOOKS do not come on what makes They do not wish to show different parts of a carriage we it answer the ends of a carriage.' as it appears to us. Scholars of the middle class. All things under heaven sprang from It as existing and named. it would not be fit to be the Tao. Scholars of the lowest class. Its even way is like a rugged track. And weakness marks the course Of 2. 1.

" against and overcoming" is a metaphor taken from hunting. to have little virtue. to understand by it the we can not see how. . CHAPTER 1. thus teach. it is better unsubstantial air which penetrates everywhere. Ho" " shang Kung says that what has no existent is the Tao. I will make this the basis of my teaching. stand Dashing water. 55 it is The Tao is is hidden. vantage belongs " The Transformations of the Called Tao. 2. and go forward to embrace the Brightness into which they have emerged. This latter case is stated emphatically in paragraph 3. and others are diminished by being increased.Three. that which has no substantial existence I know hereby what adenters where there is no crevice. What other men CHAPTER XLIII 26 1. So it is that some things are increased by being diminished." " " to By the softest thing in the world it is agreed that we are " under" which will wear away the hardest rocks. while they are harmonized by the Breath of Vacancy. I also teach. All things leave behind them the Obscurity out of which they have come. and yet these are the desig. Three produced All things. and the lesson is drawn from it." In paragraph 2 we have the case of the depreciating epithets given to themselves by kings and princes. to doing nothing with a purpose." The chapter takes us back to the lines of chapter XL that " Weakness marks the course Of Tao's mighty deeds. nations which kings and princes use for themselves. which we found before in chapter xxxix. . and Lao-tze says that it was 25 the basis of his teaching. What men to be as carriages without naves dislike is to be orphans. contrary course of self-exaltation leads to abasement. XLII K . and has no name but . the Tao which skilful at imparting to all things what they need and making them complete. The softest thing in the world dashes against and overcomes the hardest.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 3. The violent and strong do not die their natural death. 26 Called "The Universal Use (of the action in weakness of the Tao). 3. The Tao produced One One produced Two Two pro- duced. and a similar Such depreciation leads to exaltation.

56 2. Thy And 2. cleaves to Rejects what is fame more great . To which would you adhere? Keep life and lose those other things . brings Sorrow and pain more near ? 2. and the advantage arising from non-action. CHAPTEE XLV 1. Who knows to stop Incurs no blame. Constant action overcomes cold. Or fame or life.. greatest fulness. When the Tao their swift horses to draw the prevails in the world.which Keep them and lose your life . Who Of thinks his great achievements poor Shall find his vigor long endure. Exhaustion ne'er shall stem the tide. being still overcomes Purity and stillness give the correct law to all under heaven. is Who content Needs fear no shame. still stupid seem. eloquence heat. . From danger Long free live shall he. Who Who 3. loves large stores Gives up the richer state. Thus we may see. THE SACRED BOOKS There are few in the world who attain to the teaching without words. Which do you hold more dear? Or life or wealth. deemed a void. they send back When the Tao is dung-carts. CHAPTEE XL VI 1. Do thou what's straight greatest art still crooked deem. CHAPTEB XLIV 1. a stammering scream.

Tsiao Hung commences his quotations of commentary on this chapter " He carries on the with the following: process of diminishing till there is nothing coarse about him which is not put away. and also diminished the right. 57 disregarded in the world. men . shrewdness. no calamity greater than to be discontented with one's lot. and the service gence. and his virtue and the Tao are in such but though he does nothing. CHAPTER XLVIII 1. occurs in and it is difficult to lay down its precise meaning." The chapter is a lesson to to judge of things according to their internal conviction of similar things in their own experience. and all things are done. 27 28 He who devotes himself to learning seeks from day to Called " Surveying what is Far-off. if he understand the movements of his own mind. The farther that one goes out from himself." Such is a Buddhistic view of the passage. it for the first time Lao-tze would seem to teach that man is a microcosm. In a passage in the "Let perspicacity. he allows all things to do their own doing. intelliwe have a Confucian view of the passage: wisdom be guarded by stupidity. one understands all that takes place under the sky without looking out from his window. and of the possessor will affect the whole world. He puts it away till he has forgotten all that was bad in it. But the bad was wrong. . good diminished the wrong. Without going outside his door. It is only by the Tao that the world can be won. The phrase. " 28 Called " Forgetting Knowledge the contrast between Learning and the Tao. Having in it. and the good is right. and accomplished their ends without any purpose of doing so. "The Tao" or way of Heaven. 2. 2. Therefore the sages got their knowledge without traveling. he can understand the movements of all other minds. no Therefore the fault greater than the wish to be getting. off. He then puts away He does so till he has forgotten all that was all that is fine about him.LITERATURE OF THE EAST lands. one sees the Tao of Heaven. the less he knows. the process is carried on till they are both forgotten. " " Narratives of the School not very intelligible. Passion and desire are both cut union that he does nothing. gave their right names to things without seeing them. the war-horses breed in the border guilt greater than to sanction ambition . There is no sufficiency of sufficiency. let them be guarded by . contentment is an enduring and unchanging 27 CHAPTER XLVII 1. and that. it is somewhat mystical. Short as the chapter is.

and his daring and strength will shake the age." The chapter sets forth the Tao as an antidote against decay and death. To those who are good to me. 30 Men come forth and live .58 THE SACRED BOOKS to increase his . tending to injure health. all get to be sincere. in the method 2 of ' period A. I am also sincere 1. and he deals with them all as his children. To those who are sincere with me. In paragraph 1 life is presented to us as intermediate between two non-existences. 2. I am also good and thus all get to be good. let them be guarded by timidity.' " Called The Quality of Indulgence. . CHAPTER XLJX 29 day The sage has no invariable mind of his own he makes the mind of the people his mind. He who gets as his own all under heaven does so by If one take trougiving himself no trouble with that end. and able to respond. Having arrived at this point of non-action. he is not equal to getting as his own all under heaven. and thus 3. The people all keep their eyes and ears directed to him. there is nothing which he does not do. complaisance. A good commentary on the chapter was given by the last emperor but one of the earlier of the two great Sung dynasties.D." ao Called " The Value set on Life. and keeps his mind in a state of indifference to all. I am sincere and to those who are not sincere with me. and there will be what we call the " diminishing it." those who pursued courses likely to cause disease and shorten . CHAPTER L 1. and his wealth will be all within the four seas. I am good and to those who are not good to me. . 1111-1117: "The mind of the sage is free from pre-occupation and able to receive. . 2. still. The sage has in the world an appearance of indecision. dominated as it is in him by the Tao. knowledge he who devotes himself to the Tao seeks from day to day to diminish his doing. ble with that end." The chapter shows how that quality enters largely into the dealing of the sage with other men. let them be guarded by humility. "the ministers of death. " The ministers of life to themselves " would be those who eschewed all things. they enter again and die. till he arrives at doing nothing on purpose. and diminishing it again. and exercises over them a transforming influence. He diminishes it and again diminishes it. 3. both internal and external.

and enters a host without having to avoid buff coat or sharp weapon. 3. But I have heard that he who is skilful in managing the life entrusted to him for a time travels on the land with4. but only injured it. to perpetuate life. 59 ten three are ministers of life to themselves. And for what reason ? Because there is in him no place of death. the third three would be those who thought that by mysterious and abnormal courses they could prolong life. 4. nurses them. Tao produces all things. Those three classes being thus disposed ten rightly using the Tao. and overspreads them. and exalt 2. And for what reason ? Because of their excessive endeavors 3. out having to shun rhinoceros or tiger. com- matures them.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 2. Therefore its all things with- out exception honor the Tao. and are completed according to the circumstances of their condition. operation. CHAPTEE 1. its ability vaunt exercises no in doing so it brings them to maturity and control over them. of. nor the tiger a place in which to fix its claws. nor the weapon a place to admit its point. ation. nourishes to their full growth. this is called its mysterious . The rhinoceros finds no place in him into which to thrust its horn. but always a spontaneous tribute. outflowing oper- This honoring of the Tao and exalting of its operation are not the result of any ordination. its LI All things are produced by the Tao. brings them pletes them. Thus it is that the them. and three are ministers of death. life. of them It produces them and makes no claim to the possession it carries them through their processes and does not . and nourished by outflowing operation. but whose movements tend to the land or place of death. They receive their forms according to the nature of each. Of every There are also three in every ten whose aim is to live. maintains them. there remains only one in .

or how he. but their fields shall be ill-cultivated. but people love the byways. he seems in this to go on to the operation of it in man. 1. The Tao which to be When the mother is found. As in the preceding chapter. with his higher nature. what is soft and tender is the Who And uses well his light. all blight. guard the qualities of the mother that belong to him. carry a sharp sword at their girdle. When to one knows that he his mother's child. 3. 3. we know what her is children should be. The perception of what is small is the secret of clear- sightedness. and put into a position to conduct a government according to the Great Tao. If I were suddenly to become known. and have a superabundance of property Returning to the Source. Reverting to its source so bright. of his nostrils. Let him keep his mouth closed. 8i " . the guarding of secret of strength. 5. LII 31 is originated all under the sky considered as the mother of them all. and shut up the portals he will be exempt from laborihim keep his mouth open. 2. They shall wear elegant and ornamented robes. pamper themselves in eating and drinking. himself. and all his life there will be no safety for him. what I should be most afraid of would be a boastful display. Their courtyards and buildings shall be well kept. The great Tao (or way) is very level and easy. Let all his life and proceeds 4. Will from his body ward hides the unchanging from men's sight. 2. to the end of his life he will be free from all peril. and ous exertion." The meaning of the chapter is and the commentators give little help in determining it. and spend his breath in the promotion of his affairs. and their granaries very empty. should ever be maintaining it in Called obscure.60 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER 1. Lao-tze treats of the operation of the Tao on material things.

but 1. by the observation of different cases. . How do I know that this effect is sure to hold thus all under the sky? By this method of observation. . 2. The infant's bones are weak and its sinews soft.LITERATURE OF THE EAST and wealth This is . in the neighborhood in the State and in the kingdom. becoming hoarse . 3. The neighborhood where will prevails abound And when Good seen throughout the State. It knows not yet the union of male virile its and female. What his skilful arms enfold. physical essence. ! 61 such princes may be called robbers and boasters. . In this way the effect will be seen in the person. shall bring in lengthening line Sacrifices to his shrine. Sons 2. What Tao's skilful planter plants Can never be uptorn. 4. From him can ne'er be borne. in the family. fortune will be found. contrary to the Tao surely CHAPTEB LIV 1. will accrue! it . yet its grasp is firm. He who Tao is like an infant. CHAPTER LV has in himself abundantly the attributes of the Poisonous insects will not sting him fierce beasts will not seize him birds of prey will not strike him. Tao when nursed within one's His vigor will make true . And where the What riches In thriving family it rules. . And men thrive all around. and yet its showing the perfection of it member may be excited All day long showing the will cry without its throat harmony in its constitution. 'tis Employ it the kingdom o'er. self.

will keep his mouth shut and close the portals of his nostrils. ment. beyond all consideration of profit or injury of nobility or meanness he is the noblest man under heaven. the more implements to profit that the people have. war may be used with crafty dexterity. 82 . And in the knowledge wisdom finds its throne. CHAPTER LVI 1. ever ready to speak about care to speak about does not know it. contrary to the Tao soon ends. Whatever is 4. False is the strength. All life-increasing arts to evil turn Where the mind makes the vital breath to burn. the more do strange contrivances is add to their " Called The Mysterious Excellence. which may be said to be contrary to the Tao. . the more acts of crafty dexterity that men possess. but the made one's own only by freedom from action and it is How do I know that so ? By these facts : In the kingdom the multiplication of prohibitive enactments increases the poverty of the people. When things have become strong. is may be ruled by measures of correction. LVII A State weapons of kingdom purpose. and o'er it we should mourn." The chapter gives us a picture of the man of Tao. they then become old. CHAPTER 1. he will attemper He who knows it his brightness. it .62 3. is . 32 He who knows is the Tao does not it he who 2. and bring himself into agreement with the This is called " the Mysterious Agreeobscurity of others. oblivious of himself and of other men. 2. 3. the noblest man under heaven. He will blunt his sharp points and unravel the complications of things. THE SACRED BOOKS To him by whom this harmony is known. The secret of the unchanging Tao is shown. the greater disorder there in the State and clan." he Such a one can not be treated familiarly or distantly. humble and retiring.

Therefore a sage has said. I must believe. with vigor and success. " I will do nothing of purpose. The " " call of what we living fast. and the people will of themselves become rich. and the people will of themselves become correct. is 63 of legislation. the " moderation " is the opposite Heavenly element in our nature. 33 33 For regulating the human in our constitution and ren- Galled " Guarding the Tao. and the good in it shall by a turn become evil. like a corner which injures no one with its He is straightforward.LITERATURE OF THE EAST appear. but does not dazzle. there is nothing like moderation. The abuse of it and other passages in our King helped on. Therefore the sage is like a square which cuts no one with its angles." CHAPTER 1. and the people will be transformed of themselves. I will manifest no ambition. The government That which is meddling. nor any by personal Power above it. and the people will of themselves attain to the primitive simplicity. Oft goodness to the people best supplies . and disappointment bring. Paragraph 1 has been translated." . 3. but the Tao embodied in our constitution. the later Taoist dreams about the elixir vitae and " In governing life-preserving pills. I will take no trouble about it." The chapter shows how it is the guarding of Tao that ensures a continuance of long life. men and in serving Heaven. Misery happiness is to be found by its side Happiness lurks beneath it! Who knows what either will misery come to in the end ? 2. Will work but ill. ! ! ! . the more display there thieves 3. CHAPTER LIX 1. The delusion of the people on this point has indeed subsisted for a long time. touching everything." But " Heaven " there is not intended " the blue sky " above us. Shall we then dispense with correction? The method of correction shall by a turn become distortion. license he is bright. the more and robbers there are. but allows himself no sharpness. LVIII that seems the most unwise." burning the candle at both ends. I will be fond of keeping still.

CHAPTER LXI a great State is its being like a low-lying. their good influences converge in the virtue of the Tao. His case possesses the mother of the State may continue is like that of the plant of which we say CHAPTER LX 1.64 THE SACRED BOOKS is dering the proper service to the heavenly. .it becomes the center to which tend down-flowing stream all the small States under heaven. Thus it is that a great State. shall be. 2. and the manes of the departed will not manifest their spiritual It is not that those manes have not that spiritual energy. he laid in it a foundation for the superstition of the later and present Taoism about the spirits of the dead. . and when one knows not what the limit the ruler of a State. nothing It is only by this moderation that there is effected an That early return is early return to man's normal state. With Of this subjugation we know not what shall be the limit. 84 gains them for by condescending to small and that small States. this is the that its roots are deep and its flower stalks firm way to secure that its enduring life shall long be seen.. there comes the subjugation of every obstacle to such return. Tao. What makes from the case of all females: the female Stillness may be always overcomes the male by her stillness. 2. Let the kingdom be governed according to the Tao. 2. Governing a great State is like cooking small fish. States. that it could not hurt men. by Whatever Lao-tze meant to teach in paragraph 2. 3. but it will not be employed to hurt men. there like moderation. 34 3. To illustrate considered a sort of abasement. he may be He who long. what I call the repeated accumulation of the attributes of the that repeated accumulation of those attributes. It is not energy. 3. 1. itself. but neither does the ruling sage hurt them. When these two do not injuriously affect each other.

and that as the precursor of the team of horses in the court-yard." and conclude with one. 1. though I must think that its value is somewhat diminished by the method in which he reaches it. SB to act without thinking of to conduct affairs without feeling the trouble of way of the Tao prominence expect. Therefore when the sovereign occupies his place as the . 5. . In the one case the abasement leads to gaining adherents. to serve.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 65 abasing themselves to a great State. his three ducal minis- though a prince were to send in a round symbol-of-rank large enough to fill both the hands. Even men who are not good are not abandoned by it. 4. of all things the most honored place. win it over to them. The great State only wishes to unite men together and nourish them. " Called Thinking in the Beginning." In paragraph 1 the clauses us a cluster of aphorisms illustrating the procedure of the Tao give " by contraries. Bad men it guards. which is the chief glory of Lao-tze's teaching. which one might present on his knees. and the could escape from the stain of their guilt by it ? This guilty is the reason why all under heaven consider it the most valuable thing. in the other case to procuring favor. Each gets what great State must learn to abase itself. Tao has No 2. Its admirable words can purchase honor its admirable deeds can raise their performer above others. nor is it found (so far as VOL. It has not the in the later teaching of Taoist writers which we should I know) in Chuang-tze. 4. and he has appointed ters. 3. Son of Heaven. and doth their ill efface. treasures give good men so rich a grace . the other. a small State only wishes to be received by. such an offering would not be equal to a lesson of this Tao. It is the acting. but the CHAPTER LXII 1. XII. and it desires. Why it was it that the ancients prized this Tao so much ? Was not because it could be got by seeking for it.

The sage does not act so. All difficult things in the world are sure to arise from a previous state in which they were easy. . 1. to consider what is small as great. tree which fills the arms grew from the tiniest sprout. is 2.66 THE SACRED BOOKS . Therefore the sage. The master of it anticipates things that are difficult while they are easy. Therefore the sage sees difficulty even in what seems easy. it is easy to take measures against it. them. he does not lay hold so. If they were careful at the end. and a few as many and to recompense injury with kindness. the tower of nine stories rose from a small heap of earth the journey of a thousand li commenced with a single step. and so never has any difficulties. he who takes hold of a thing in the same way loses his hold. and does not prize things difficult to get he learns what other men do not learn. Thus he helps the natural development 3. is able on that account to accomplish the greatest things. But people in their conduct of affairs are constantly ruining them when they are on the eve of success. as they should be at the beginning. . 4. to taste without discerning any flavor. He who lightly promises is sure to keep but little faith he who is continually thinking things easy is sure to find them difficult. that which is brittle is easily broken. with an ulterior purpose does harm. CHAPTEK LXIV easily kept hold of. and therefore does no harm. and does things that would become great while they are small. before a thing has given indications of its presence. Action should be taken before a thing has made its appearance . and therefore does not lose his hold. while he never does what is great. order should be secured before disorder has begun. The . is at rest is That which that which very small is easily dispersed. and turns back to what the multitude of men have passed by. and all great things from one in which they were small. they would not so ruin them. 3. 2. Therefore the sage desires what other men do not desire. He who acts .

places his person behind them. a blessing. 2. while he who govern a State does not try do so 3. se Called "The Three 2. men do not feel his weight. In this way though he has his place above them. That whereby the rivers and seas are able to receive the homage and tribute of all the valley streams. Now it paragraph Precious Things. showing indeed its possessor as opposite to others. it is thus that they are the So it is that the sage ruler. . CHAPTEE LXV 1. these two things finds in Ability to know this model them also his and rule con- CHAPTER LXVI 1. puts himself by his words below them. but leading them to a great conformity to him. 36 All the world says that. and. 3. The difficulty in governing the people arises from their having much knowledge. strive. He who knows model and rule. Deep and far-reaching is such mysterious excellence. wishing to kings of them all. do they feel it an injury to them. wishing to be before them. is their skill in being lower than they. no one finds CHAPTER LXVII 1. it Because he does not possible to strive with him. not to enlighten the people. He who tries to by to his wisdom is is a scourge to it.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 67 of all things. The ancients who showed their skill in practising the Tao did so. but rather to make them simple and ignorant. nor though he has his place before them. and does not dare to act with an ulterior purpose of his own. it yet appears to be inferior to other systems of teaching." This title is taken from and suggests to us how the early framer of these titles intended to express by them the subject-matter of their several chapThe three things are the three distinguishing qualities of the ters. stitutes what we call the mysterious excellence of a governor. be above men. 2. Therefore all in the world delight to exalt him and do not weary of him. while my Tao is great.

said. are all sure to be victorious even in battle. for long would its smallness have just been known! 2. He who vanquishes yet still Keeps from his foes apart He whose bests men most fulfil Yet humbly plies his art. He who He who in Tao's wars has skill . and Heaven will save its possesfirmly to maintain its ground. 3. Assumes no martial port fights with most good will To rage makes no resort.68 is THE SACRED BOOKS its If it greatness that makes it seem to be inferior. I can become a vessel of the highest honor. say. . were like any other system. the hindmost place. by his very gentleness protecting him. economy. and for being liberal . Thus we And ne'er contends. . same phrase is now the common designation of Buddhism in China. "I do not dare to be the host to commence the war I prefer to be the guest possessor of the Tao. and the third is . 4. Nowadays they give up gentleness and are all for being bold . the three great moral qualities appearing in its The followers." CHAPTER LXIX 1. shrinking from taking precedence of others." " Like Heaven's his ends. we may venture to say. The first is gentleness. A master of the art of war has . That they with him unite. With that gentleness I can be bold. Gentleness is sor. of the Tao itself. " He Thus we Thus we " say. the qualities. But I have three precious things which I prize and hold fast. Men's wills he bends. and seek only to be foremost of all which the end is death." say. therein is his might. the second is economy. No sage of old more bright. with that economy I can be liberal shrinking from taking precedence of others.

is know and 2. and I am on that account It is thus that the sage wears a poor the more to be prized. He knows " The The Tao comCalled Difficulty of Being Rightly Known." and rules all Lao-tze's teaching. an originating and all-comprehending principle my words. known. My practise. 2. 3. I do not dare to advance an inch I prefer to retire a foot. It is because they do not know these. not the disease. the pain that would be insepaand therefore he does not have it. in There CHAPTER LXXI 1. XIV. CHAPTER LXX 37 1. Compare the words of Confucius . and the people of a State are all under the direction of their ruler. on the defensive. while he carries his signet of jade in his bosom. no weapon to grasp. that men do not know me. there is ally crossed. rable 3T from it. advancing against the enemy where there is no enemy. and an authoritative law for the things which I enforce. They who know me are few. and very easy to is no one in the world who is able to able to practise them. but there words are very easy to know. 2. To know and yet think attainment." This is called marshaling the ranks where there are no ranks. His utterance here is very principle in the Analects. as the members of a clan were prehends all in the loins of their first father. Lao-tze's yet the philosopher had to complain of not being and rule or ruler was the Tao. garb of hair cloth. There is no calamity greater than lightly engaging in war. he who deplores the situation conquers. and continue to look up to him. To do that is near losing the gentleness which is so Thus it is that when opposing weapons are actuprecious. important. baring the arms to fight where there are no arms to bare grasping the weapon where .LITERATURE OF THE EAST to act 69 . we do not know is the highest know and yet think we do know is a It is simply by being pained at the thought of having The sage has this disease that we are preserved from it. not to disease.

himself. in defiance of the laws. he whose boldness appears in his not daring to do so lives on. large . that which 2. and the other to 1. Therefore the sage knows these things of himself." This title is taken from the expression in paragraph 4. is put to death. Of these two cases the one appears to be advantageous. The meshes of the net of Heaven are far apart. does not call. what to do it skil- It is the way .70 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER LXXII 38 1. and to enforce the lesson by the " example of the sage. 2. Its demonstrations are quiet. of Heaven not to strive. When the poeple do not fear what they ought to fear." the true master of the Tao. and yet fully overcomes not to speak. and yet men come to it of themselves. but does not appear to set a value on. and yet its plans are skilful and effective. It is by avoiding such indulgence that such weariness does not arise. but letting nothing escape. . But When Who Heaven's anger smites a man. the cause shall truly scan? On this account the sage feels a difficulty as to in the former case. CHAPTER LXXIV 1: The people do not fear death: to ? what purpose is it to try to frighten ss Called " If the people were Loving one's Self. is their great dread will come on them. 4. 3. He be injurious. them with death . And thus he puts the latter alternative away and makes choice of the former. and yet it is skilful in obtaining a reply. let them not act as if weary of what that life depends on. Let them not thoughtlessly indulge themselves in their ordinary life . but does not parade his knowledge loves. and the object of the chapter seems to be to show how such loving should be manifested. CHAPTER LXXIII whose boldness appears in his daring to do wrong.

It is 1. 39 Man at his birth is supple and weak. dry and and withered. strong. 4. Thus it is that firmness and strength are the concomitants of death. who would dare to do wrong? 2. Seldom is it that he who under- takes the hewing. in 2. and I could always seize those who do wrong. and thereby invites the feller.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 71 always in awe of death. softness and weakness. their early growth. against Trusting in Strength. are soft and brittle. . the concomitants of life. There is always of death. Therefore the place of what is firm and strong is below. and that of what Called " is soft and weak is above. The people through this that they are 3. Thus it is that to leave the subject of living altogether out of view than to set a high value on it." To trust in whose strength is more in weakness and humility. and put them to death. 2. 3. A Warning one's force is contrary to the Tao. at their death. at his death. does not cut his own hands ! suffer from famine because of the multitude of taxes consumed by their superiors. It is through this that they suffer famine. Hence he who relies on the strength of his forces does not conquer. The people make light of dying because of the greatness . of their labors in seeking for the means of living. The people are difficult to govern because of the excessive agency of their superiors in govevning them. is better CHAPTER LXXVI 1. firm Trees and plants. instead of the great carpenter. He who presides over the infliction would inflict death in the room of him One who who so presides over it may be described as hewing wood instead of a great carpenter. It is this which makes them think light of dying. difficult to govern. So it is with all things. and a tree which is strong will fill the outstretched arms.

It is not so with the way of man. but no one is able to carry it out in practise. It is the Way of Heaven to diminish superabundance. and what was low is raised up. CHAPTER LXXIX 1." Words that are strictly true seem to be paradoxical. Every one in the world knows that the soft overcomes the hard. results as his. 1. To him who They 4. " He who accepts his State's reproach Is hailed therefore its altars' lord. and supplements where there is deficiency. 2. this be beneficial to the other ? .72 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER LXXVII (or Tao) of Heaven be compared The part of the bow which to the method of bending a bow ? was high is brought low. 3. 3. There is nothing in this world more soft and weak than water. there is sure to be a grudge remainAnd how can ing in the mind of the one who was wrong. and the weak the strong. and to supplement deficiency. Who can take his own superabundance and therewith serve all under heaven? Only he who is in possession of the Tao! 4. and yet for attacking things that are firm and for strong there is nothing that can take precedence of it there is nothing so effectual for which it can be changed. 2. CHAPTER LXXVIII 1. all bears men's direful woes the name of King accord. When a reconciliation is effected between two parties after a great animosity. Therefore the ruling sage acts without claiming the he achieves his merit and does not rest arit rogantly in he does not wish to display his superiority. Therefore a sage has said. He takes away from those who have not enough to add to his own superabundance. May not the Way So Heaven diminishes where there is superabundance.

the people return to the use of knotted cords instead of the written characters. " Standing Alone. their plain . In the of Heaven there is no partiality of love. They should think . CHAPTER 1. that. while looking on death 1. it is always on the side of the good man. common. 3. even to death. In a little remove elsewhere to avoid it. He does not use the personal pronoun " I. the sage keeps the left-hand portion of the record of the engagement. though there were individuals with the abilities of ten or a hundred men. yet not them. but I would make the people to old age. and what he would have government in all time to be. and by contraries in a *o Called . I would make 4. fine words are not sincere." The chapter sets forth what Lao-tze conceived the ancient government of simplicity was. they should have no occasion to don or use . he who has the attributes of the Tao regards only the conditions of the engagement. they should have no occasion to ride in them though they had buff coats and sharp weapons. Way CHAPTER LXXX 40 order State with a small population. while he who has not those attributes regards only the conditions favorable to himself. and the voices of the fowls and dogs should be heard all the way from it to us. 2. So." but it is most natural to suppose that he is himself thnt subject. clothes beautiful their 5. " *! Called The Manifestation of Simplicity. their coarse food sweet . 41 Sincere words are not fine. I would make the people.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 73 2. Though they had boats and carriages. their poor dwellings places of rest simple ways sources of enjoyment. and he modestly supposes himself in charge of a little State and a small population. I would so it. 3. not have any intercourse with it. and does not insist on the speedy fulfilment of it by the other party. Therefore to guard against this. there should be no employment of them. as a grievous thing. and There should be a neighboring State within sight." The chapter shows how quietly and effectively the Tao proceeds.

the sharpness of the Way of Heaven. way that only the master of it can understand. 2. The more that he expends for others. the more that he gives to others. showing that in all its five thousand characters there is nothing beyond what is here said. the more does he have himself." Wu Chang. END OF THE TAO-TEH KINO . it injures not. says " sums up in this the subject-matter of the two Parts of his Treatise. The sage does not accumulate for himself. the disputatious are not skilled in it. With all strive.74 THE SACRED BOOKS Those who are skilled in the Tao do not dispute about it. the extensively learned do not know it. The author. Those who know the Tao are not extensively learned. with all the doing in the way of the sage he does not 3. the more does he possess of his own .

but the fire is transmitted elsewhere.TAOISM THE DIVINE CLASSIC OF CHUANG-TZE TRANSLATED BY PROF. . JAMES LEOQE " Perfect speech is to put speech aside" CHUANG-TZE." " CHUANGTZE. and we know not that it is over and ended. What we can point to are the faggots that have been consumed. The ancients described death as the loosening of the cord on which God suspended the life.


" or more briefly the whole body of doctrine now became known as the Lao of a man Chuang. of Hwang-Ti and Lao-tze. are said to have been. but perhaps the laughing philosopher was as careless of his books as of some other The books of Chuang things.THE DIVINE CLASSIC OF CHUANG-TZE (INTRODUCTION) was born early in the fourth century B. prone enough to create fables for them. under such light-hearted guise or with such apparent frivolity.. like a modern deck of cards. selves. for only thirty-three now 77 survive. from which his writings are often called " the Divine Classic of Nan-hua. just as the first Taoist. while the fantasies of Chuang are the deliberate fashionings " " of broad knowledge and easy culture. fifty-two in number . Chuang has been compared to our English Bunyan but the visions of are those of impassioned Pilgrim's Progress ignorance upheld by intense confidence in its own truth. this " must have often been led astray by the fantasies of True Man." and he himself is called " the True Man of Nan-hua. CHUANG-TZE third.C. the master of Mencius. So widewas the influence of these tales that whereas in earlier spread " the words times Taoistic literature had been referred to as the Hwang Lao. He was an older contemporary and died in the and a rival teacher to the great Mencius. Perhaps his contemporaries knew that his tales were not to be accepted literally but certainly later generations. and even of these . tze was Nan-hua." Never was another religion established . had been an older contemporary of Con- The birth-place of Chuangfucius. Lao-tze." This title may sound a bit quaintly to Westerners when we consider the absolutely irresponsible fashion in which Chuang seems to have invented derogatory stories about Confucius or any other opponent.

" " of Taoism with which Chuang closed his work. " Inner Set " of books." The " Floods of Autumn " is usually accounted Chuang's most eloquent book. " ." We give them both.78 THE SACRED BOOKS four or more are usually rejected as spurious. History To these we add the most interesting of the " doubtful books " written either by Chuang or by a disciple in direct imitation of his fanciful style. Hence in our present work we give the reader first the seven chief books. but certainly the fantasia. Then follow the more noted of the " Outer Set. and also the vague presses it close. called by the commentators the Nei or on which Chuang's teaching is founded. Knowledge Rambling in the North.

The road leading
to the

Imperial tombs


bordered by colossal

statues of beasts

and men.






* Floods of Antii

ent book; bir trabling in the North,"


also the vague


closed hia



doubtful books w

in direct imitation

3HT 1O












In the Northern Ocean there is a fish, the name of which 1 is Khwan, I do not know how many li in size. It changes into a bird with the name of Phang, the back of which is I do not know how many li in extent. When this also are like clouds all round bird rouses itself and flies, its wings
the sky.


the sea



so as to bear it along, it

prepares to remove to the Southern Ocean. Ocean is the Pool of Heaven.

The Southern

a record of marvels. There is the book called Chi Ilsieh 2 We have it in these words " When the phang is removing to the Southern Ocean it flaps its wings on the water for 3000 li. Then it ascends on a whirlwind 90,000 li, and it But similar to this rests only at the end of six months." movement of the breezes which we call the horses of is the the fields, of the dust which quivers in the sunbeams, and of living things as they are blown against one another by the

1 The khwan and the phang are both fabulous creatures, far transcending in size the dimensions ascribed by the wildest fancy of the West to the kraken and the roc. Chuang-tze represents them as so huge by way of contrast to the small creatures which he is intending to show that size has nothing to do with the Tao, and to introduce the perfect enjoyment which the possession of it affords. The passage is a good specimen of the Yu Yen, metaphorical or parabolical narratives or stories, which are the chief characteristic of our author's writings; but the reader must keep in mind that the idea or lesson in its " " is generally of a Taoistic nature. lodging 2 There may have been a book with this title, to which Chuang-tze appeals, as if feeling that what he had said needed to be substantiated. 79


is it

Is its azure the proper color of the sky? occasioned by its distance and illimitable extent?

If one

were looking down from above, the very same appearance would just meet his view.



moreover, to speak of the accumulation of water; be not great, it will not have strength to support a large boat. Upset a cup of water in a cavity, and a straw will
if it


were a boat. Place a cup in it, and it will stick fast the water is shallow and the boat is large. So it is with the accumulation of wind; if it be not great, it will not have strength to support great wings. Therefore the phang ascended to the height of 90,000 li, and there was such a mass of wind beneath it thenceforth the accumulation of wind was sufficient. As it seemed to bear the blue sky on its back, and there was nothing to obstruct or arrest its course,



as if




make saying, an effort and fly toward an elm or sapan-wood tree ; and sometimes before we reach it, we can do no more but drop to the

could pursue its way to the South. cicada and a little dove laughed at





Of what use is it for this creature to rise 90,000 and make for the South ? " He who goes to the grassy

suburbs, returning to the third meal of the day, will have his belly as full as when he set out ; he who goes to a distance
his grain where he stops for the night ; he who goes a thousand li will have to carry with him What should these two small provisions for three months.

of 100

will have to



know about

the matter?

The knowledge

of that



small does not reach to that which


the ex-

many. How morning does not know what takes place between the beginning and end of a month the short-lived cicada does not know what takes These are instances place between the spring and autumn.
perience of a few years does not reach to that of do we know that it is so ? The mushroom of a

This seems to be interjected as an afterthought, suggesting to the reader that the phang, soaring along at such a height, was only an exaggerated form of the common phenomena with which he was familiar.


of a short term of


In the south of Chu there is the whose spring is 500 years, and its autumn the same; in high antiquity there was that called Ta-chun, whose spring was 8000 years, and its autumn the same. And Pliang Tsu* is the one man renowned to the present day for his length of life if all men were to wish to match him, would they not be miserable ?
tree called Ming-ling,



In the questions put by Thang 5 to Chi we have simfrar " statements: In the bare and barren north there is the dark and vast ocean the Pool of Heaven. In it there is a fish, several thousand li in breadth, while no one knows its Its name is the Jchwan. There is also a bird named length. the phang its back is like the Thai mountain, while its wings are like clouds all round the sky. On a whirlwind it mounts upward as on the whorls of a goat's horn for 90,000 li, till, far removed from the cloudy vapors, it bears on its back the blue sky, and then it shapes its course for the South, and

proceeds to the ocean there."



by the

side of a

marsh laughed at it, and said, "Where is it going to? I spring up with a bound, and come down again when I have reached but a few fathoms, and then fly about among the brushwood and bushes; and this is the perfection of flying.


that creature going to ? between the small and the great.


This shows the difference

that men, whose wisdom is sufficient for the duties of some one office, or whose conduct will secure harit





some one


or whose virtue


befitting a

ruler so that they could efficiently govern some one State, are sure to look on themselves in this manner (like the quail),

and yet Yung-tze of Sung would have smiled and laughed


the patriarch Phang." Confucius compared himself to him (Analects, VII), "our old Phang"; and Ku Hsi thinks he was a worthy officer of the Shang Dynasty. Whoever he was, the legends about him are a mass of Taoistic fables. At the end of the Shang Dynasty (1123 B.C.) he was more than 767 years old, and still in un-



abated vigor. We read of his losing 49 wives and 54 sons. 5 The founder of the Shang Dynasty.






This Yung-tze, though the whole world should have praised him, would not for that have stimulated himself to greater endeavor, and though the whole world should have condemned him, would not have exercised any more repression of his course; so fixed was he in the difference between the internal judgment of himself and the external judgment of others, so distinctly had he marked out the bounding limit of glory and disgrace. Here, however, he

His place in the world indeed had become instopped. different to him, but still he had not planted himself firmly
in the right position.

There was Lieh-tze, who rode on the wind and pursued his way, with an admirable indifference to all external things, In rereturning, however, after fifteen days, to his place.
gard to the things that are supposed to contribute to happiness, he was free from all endeavors to obtain them; but though he had not to walk, there was still something for which he had to wait. But suppose one who mounts on the ether of heaven and earth in its normal operation, and drives
along the six elemental energies of the changing seasons, thus enjoying himself in the illimitable what has he to " 6 wait for ? Therefore it is said, The Perfect man has

no thought of

self; the Spirit-like

man, none of merit; the

Sagely minded man, none of fame."





proposing to resign the throne to
the sun and

Hsu Yu,



moon have come

forth, if the torches

have not been put out, would

not be difficult for them to

the seasonal rains are coming down, if give light? we still keep watering the ground, will not our toil be labor lost for all the good it will do ? Do you, Master, stand forth The description of a master of the Tao, exalted by it, unless the predicates about him be nothing but the ravings of a wild extravagance, above mere mortal man. In the conclusion, however, he is presented under three different phases, which the reader will do well to keep in



The great sovereign with whom the documents

of the

Shu King


as sovereign,


and the kingdom

will at once be well governed.

still continue to preside over it, I must look on myself as vainly occupying the place I beg to resign the throne to " you." Hsu Yu said, You, Sir, govern the kingdom, and

If I

well governed. If I in these circumstances take your place, shall I not be doing so for the sake of the name ? But the name is but the guest of the reality ; shall




I be playing the part of the guest? The tailor-bird makes its nest in the deep forest, but only uses a single branch; the mole drinks from the Ho, but only takes what fills its

Return and

rest in being ruler


will have nothing

to do with the throne.

Though the cook were not attending to his kitchen, the representative of the dead and the officer of prayer would not leave their cups and stands to take his

Chien Wu asked Lien Shu, saying, " I heard Chieh-yu talking words which were great, but had nothing corresponding to them in reality once gone, they could not be brought I was frightened by them back. they were like the Milky which can not be traced to its beginning or end. They Way had no connection with one another, and were not akin to " the experiences of men." What were his words ? " asked Lien Shu, and the other replied. He said that " Far away on the hill of Ku-shih there dwelt a Spirit-like man whose flesh and skin were smooth as ice and white as snow; that his manner was elegant and delicate as that of a virgin that he did not eat any of the five grains, but inhaled the wind and drank the dew; that he mounted on the clouds, drove along the flying dragons, rambling and enjoying himself beyond
; ;

the four seas; that by the concentration of his spirit-like powers he could save men from disease and pestilence, and
secure every year a plentiful harvest." These words appeared to me wild and incoherent and I did not believe them. " So it is," said Lien Shu. " The blind have no perception of the beauty of elegant figures, nor the deaf of the sound

of bells and drums.


is it

only the bodily senses of which

Chuangtze probably invented them. his throne appeared no more to his deep-sunk oblivious eyes. nor would he feel the fervor of the greatest heats melting metals and stones till they From the flowed. and that things which seemed useless were not really so when rightly used. the people of which cut off their who hair and tattooed their bodies." " the brief and tame. could not drown him. so that they had no use for them." Or Hui Shih. and maintained a perfect government within the four seas. would not have to address himself laboriously to the task. with those attributes. though all things were one mass of confusion." with an interview between whom and Mencius the works of that philosopher commence. That man. went with them dealt in the ceremonial caps of Yin. when he returned to his capital on the south of the Fan water. dust and chaff of himself. He was a friend of Chuang-tze. self with things ? " 9 CHAPTER VI A man of Sung.). Nothing could hurt that man. to Yueh. and he heard in that condition the whole world crying out to him to be rectified. The description. to illustrate his point that size had nothing to do with the Tao. however.C." We have in it the results of the Tao in its fullest embodiment. the greatest floods. as if it were his business to rectify the world. and of this your words supply an illustration in yourself. I do not think that the conversations about " the great calabash" and "the great tree" really took place. saying. Spirit-like 11 . the chief minister of "King Hui of Liang (or Wei) (370-333 B.84 THE SACRED BOOKS There is also deafness and blindness can be predicated? a similar defect in the intelligence. of " The King of Wei sent Shun was the successor Yao in the ancient " All this description is to give us an idea of the Spirit-like man. he could still mold and fashion Yaos and Shuns 8 how should he be willing to occupy him. is man. and an eccentric thinker. " 10 This the Perfect paragraph is intended to give us an idea of who has no thought of himself. reaching to the sky. compared with the accounts of Hsu Yu and of kingdom. 10 the four Perfect CHAPTER Hui-tze s 9 VII n told Chuang-tze. Yao ruled the people of the kingdom. man. and scorching all the ground and hills. Having gone to see Ones on the distant hill of Ku-shih.

counsel to the ties King of Wu. I cut it in two to make the parts into drinking-vessels but the dried shells were too wide and unstable and would not hold the liquor. ueeless for holding anything ? master. A stranger heard of it. the hands from getting chapped was the same in both cases fleet. all intelligence ! seem to have been closed against my would " I have a large tree. who was then engaged in hostiliThe King gave him the command of his with Yueh. There was a man of master.LITERATURE OF THE EAST me some when not seeds of a large calabash. men call the Ailantus. and his family for generations had made the bleaching of cocoon-silk their business. but in the one case it led to the investiture of the possessor of the salve. to hold five piculs you. ' We have. . which I sowed. Now in one morning we can sell to this man our art for a hundred ounces let him have it. swells out to a large size. in the use of what was large. by means of which you could have floated over rivers and lakes. and proposed to buy the art of the preparation The kindred all came tofor a hundred ounces of silver. and have only gained a little money. could contain five piculs (of anything). on which he inflicted a great defeat. 85 The fruit. Sir. and in the other it had only enabled its owners to continue their bleaching. I used it to contain water. and was invested The keeping with a portion of territory taken from Yueh. Its trunk but is not fit for a carpenter to apply his line to it its smaller . owing to the different had calabashes large enough not think of The use made of difference of result was the art. . Now . . ' and considered the proposal. fully grown. but it was so heavy that I could lift it by myself. instead of giving yourself the sorrow of finding that they were Your mind. gether. my pieces." Chuang-tze replied. been bleaching cocoon-silk for generations. and in the winter he had an engagement with that of Yueh. why did you making large bottle-gourds of them. ! Sung who was skilful at making a salve which kept the hands from getting chapped. nothing but large useless things Because of their uselessness I knocked them to " You were indeed stupid. which Hui-tze said to Chuang-tze.' said they.' The stranger accordingly got it and went away with it to give .

said. You. It is large indeed. the wanderer approaches. so that the disk and square can not be used on them. Now your words. that he had become unconscious of . " Yen. OR "THE ADJUSTMENT OF " CONTROVERSIES CHAPTER I Nan-kwo Tze-chi was seated. neath enjoyment of untroubled ease sleep beNeither bill nor axe would shorten its existence. or in a wide and barren wild ? There you might saunter idly by Yak. east and west it leaps about. but how should you understand is. a builder would not turn his head to look at it. side. or in the uselessness to cause you distress " ? BOOK CHI II wu LUN. it ? You may all " He had lost himself". but it can not catch mice. Yen Chang Tze-yu. and the mind to become like slaked lime? His appearance as he leans forward on the stool to-day is such as I never saw him have before in the same position. was looking up to heaven and breathed gently." Chuang-tze replied. who was in " attendance and standing before him. Though planted on the wayside. Sir. leaning forward on his stool. . Sir. have a large tree and are troubled because it is of no use why do you not plant it in a tract where there is nothing else. avoiding neither what is high nor what is low. seeming and to have lost all consciousness of any companion. till it is caught in a trap. are great. What is this ? Can the body be made to become thus like a withered tree." Tze-chi said. seen a wild cat or a weasel? There it lies. crouching and .86 THE SACRED BOOKS branches are knotted and crooked. but of no use all unite in putting them " Have you never away from them. there would be nothing to injure it. low. you do well to ask such a question I had just now to be in a trance. so large that like a cloud . His disciple. Again there is the till it is hanging in the sky. or dies in a net. He lost i myself 1 . What is there in its its it.

The first notes are slight. which come from its myriad apertures. . and there like a large puddle. The here like a wet foot-print. but in harmony with them. the natis about to pass with our author into " of the phenomena of men and things. a hundred spans round. the apertures and cavities are like the nostrils. of . ural " course . all the apertures are empty and still. When " and quivering of the branches and leaves ? " The notes of Earth then are simply those Tze-yu said. blows. in connection with the notes of Earth. of the deep wail. and its cessasounds from the myriad apertures Both of these things tion makes them stop of themselves." a mild form of the Buddhistic samadhi. of the gruff note. now square. now round like a cup or a mortar. and even of himself. and the notes of Man may just be compared to those which are brought from the fierce gusts have passed away. and Gentle those that follow deeper. The term a mere synonym of Tao. it is called Wind/ Sometimes it does not come so. It is intimated. of the shout. the arrowy whizz. but they form the subject of the next paragraph. no necessity to introduce any foreign Influence or Power like Heaven is " Heaven." " I venture to ask from you a description of Tze-yu said. " When the breath of the Great Mass of nature comes strongly. winds produce a small response. as if he were about to enter into the " an Immortal. but when it does. of the inhaling of the breath. of the sad and piping note.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 87 have heard the notes of Man. Of the sounds of Man very little is said. the are different. or the mouth. but have not heard those of Earth you may have heard the notes of Earth. of the stern command. but have not heard those of Heaven." 2 Tze-chi replied. Nothing is said in answer to the disciple's inthat there quiry about the notes of Heaven. however. violent winds a great one. or the ears. ' . have you not seen this in the bending the tubes of bamboo." The reply was. from the wind and the apertures themselves: should " there be any other agency that excites them ? arise state of around him. then from a myriad apertures there issues its excited noise have you not heard it in a prolonged gale ? Take the projecting bluff of a mountain forest in the great trees. 2 The sounds of Earth have been described fully and graphically. allow me to ask about the notes of " When the wind Heaven." indeed. sounds issuing from them are like those of fretted water. all these.

and can not be restored to vigor and brightness. Man . anticipation and regret. and daily there is the There are hesitancies. determined to overcome. like music from. or it is like their water which. sleep. fickleness and fixedness. Joy and anger. shows ments. his would be un. showing that the mind is become like an old and dry moat. small apprehensions causing restless distress. and great apprehensions producing endless fears. called for: this is nearly a true statement of the case. and knowledge is " wind " the . the body is set free. small speech is merely so much talk. once voided. Where their utterances are like arrows from a bow. the soul communicates with what is external to us. those who feel it their charge to is pronounce what is right wrong. and we do not know whence they sprout. reservations. like the decay of things in autumn and winter. 3 When we complete. we have those who maintain their The weakness of their arguviews. and that it is nigh to death. It might seem as ' if there would be a true Governor concerned in it. again. day and night succeed to one another and come before us. deep striving of mind with mind. vehemence and indolence. others then leads to various activity. Words are the " sounds " of by which they are excited.88 THE SACRED BOOKS Great knowledge is wide and comprehensive small knowlGreat speech is exact and edge is partial and restricted. sadness and pleasure. but we do not know what it is that makes it be so. I should not have mine if there were not I with my views. when we awake. Let us stop! Let us stop! and what Can we ? expect to find out suddenly how they are produced If there were not the views of another. can not be gathered up Then their ideas seem as if fast bound with cords. where they are given out like the conditions of a covenant. or mushrooms from the warm moisture. the failing of the minds of some from day to day. all these moods. eagerness and tardiness an empty tube. we have difficulties. Our intercourse with .

. all complete in their places. there His neither advantage nor hurt. with its hundred parts. who would be left alone and without a teacher ? would it be so with those who know the sequences of only knowledge and feeling and make their own selection among them. without knowing where he is going to is it not a deplorable case ? Men may say. but He has no form. which do I love the most ? Do you love them all equally ? or do you love some more than others? Is it not the case that they all perform the part of your servants and waiting women ? All of them being such. the mind will be the same along with : . are they not incompetent to rule one another ? or do they take it in turns to be now ruler and now servants ? There must be a true Ruler among them 4 whether by searching you can find out His character or not. and to be weary and worn out with his labor. they pursue their course to the end. That such a One could act so I believe. Given the body.LITERATURE OF THE EAST but 89 not find any trace of his presence and acting. but it would be so as well with the stupid and unthink. but we do not see we do His form." but they . its parts do not fail to perform their functions till the end comes. with the speed of a galloping horse which can not be stopped. " But it is not death " yet of what advantage is this ? When the body is decomposed. He has affections. 4 The name " Ruler " is different from " Governor " above both indicate the same concept in the author's mind. it : must not the case be pronounced very deplorable of ? Is the life alone be so man indeed enveloped to whom it appears so? to other men ? in such darkness ? Is it I And does it not appear to CHAPTER If III we were to follow the judgments of the pre-detennined 5 Not mind. In conflict with things or in harmony with them. without seeing the fruit of one's labor. is the bodily form complete. s This " teacher " is " the Tao. is it not sad? To be constantly toiling all one's lifetime. so far as the truth of When once we have received operation is concerned. and its six viscera. its nine openings.

of Mih-tze. to have his and negations is like the case described in the " He went to Yueh to-day. who coped with and remedied the flood of Yao. It would be making what was not a fact to be a day. Hence it is said. what he says. and arrived at it yestersaying. or s attacked so Mih Ti. e The successor and counselor The followers The disciples That is. does he then He thinks that his words are different really speak or not ? from the chirpings of fledgelings but is there any distinction between them or not ? But how can the Tao be so obscured. be indeterminate as from a mind not made up. the heresiarch. whom Mencius . . and speech comes to be obscure through the vain-gloriousness of the speaker. it be so. But even the spirit-like Yu 6 could not have known how to do this. All subjects may be looked at from two points of view from that and from this. I do not see it only as I know it myself. : . " That view comes from this and this view is a consequence of that " which is the theory that that view and this the opposite views produce each the other. no plan is like bringing the proper light of the mind 9 to bear on them. the principle of the Tao. If I look at a thing from another's point of view. the perfect mind. of Shun. do I know it. If we would decide on their several affirmations and denials. . and how should one like me be able to do it ? But speech is not like the blowing of the wind the speaker has a meaning in his words. . So it is that we have the contentions between the Literati 7 and the Mohists.90 ing. fiercely. See Mencius. and vice versa." fact. . " True " and " False " in that there should be a a it ? How " " can speech be so obscured that there should be the Eight " " and the Wrong about them ? Where shall the Tao go to that it will not be found ? Where shall speech be found that it will be inappropriate ? Tao becomes obscured through the small comprehension of the mind. If. . 8 the one side affirming what the other denies. THE SACRED BOOKS For one who has not this determined mind. however. there is affirmed now life and Although now death now death and now life now the admissibility of a thing and now its inadmissibility now its inadmissibility affirmations . 7 of Confucius.

man same as that. Therefore and now its admissibility. is not so good a plan as is ac- to illustrate that it is not a horse. the king of Wu.LITERATURE OF THE EAST The disputants now now deny. 1 things pillar. There is nothing like the proper light of the mind. name How ? so? How is it not so It is not so. cause not A thing is called to by it. is of a finger of my own to illustrate that the finger not a finger is not so good a plan as to illustrate a finger not so by means of what is acknowledged to be not and by means of what I call a horse to illustrate that calls a what another horse is not so. All things in by means of what heaven and may be dealt with as a finger. without end to those Therefore I affirming. he stands pivot of the Tao. " said. and who hastened on his progress to ruin and death. 11 10 . she herself perishing at the same time. if we take a stalk of grain and a large 1 like Hsi Shih." CHAPTER IV By means of another that it is . Does a thing seem so to me ? may I say that it is so. and that view is the same as But that view involves both a right and a wrong. A famous beauty. this being so. now deny and now affirm. in the center of the ring of thought. its name through is it the constant It is so beit is application of the it is so. fore. path is formed by constant treading on the earth A ground. a courtezan presented by the king of Yueh to his enemy. ment of what is right. but views things in the 10 and hence forms his judglight of his Heavenly nature. Therecapability. where he can respond without end to the changing views. and without end to those denying. Equivalent to the Tao. 91 affirm and the sagely does not pursue this method. this view involves also a right and a wrong are there indeed. that and this ? They have not found their point of correspondency which is called the This view is the : As soon as one finds this pivot. and this. because Everything has its inherent character and its proper There is nothing which has not these. a loathsome leper and a beauty so. or are there not the two views. each of their myriads be dealt with as a horse. Does it seem not so to me ? I say that it is not so. knowledged to be not a horse.

name for the . the another Literally. we do not know how we have what called the our spirits and intelligence. completion and dissolution. and do not know the agreement which underlies it and the views of others. This being so. That success gained. In the mornHis two ing I will give you four and in the evening three. When we is stop. things crafty Tao all be reduced to the same they may in the light of the category of opinion about them. obstinately determined to establish our own view. but the result of the one was to make the creatures angry. and he said. stop. and rests in the equal fashioning of Heaven. and yet Tao. it is only the far-reaching in thought who know how to comprehend them in this unity.92 THE SACRED BOOKS and things strange large and things insecure. It was separation that led to completion ensued dissolution. and of the other to make them pleased an illustration of the point I am insisting on. in " In the morning I giving them out their acorns. we are near to the object of our search. " Very well. we have what is called " In the morning three. once said. without regard to their again be comprehended in their unity . will give you three measures and in the evening four. by which all things are fashioned. man CHAPTEE v Among point." This made them all angry. Therefore the sagely brings together a dispute in its affirmations and denials. and occupy ourselves with the ordinary views." proposals were substantially the same. "the Heaven-Mold or Holder" Tao. 1 2 Both sides of the question are admissible. These ordinary views are grounded on the use of things. may from completion . and that judgment secures the success of the inquiry. first 12 the men What of old their knowledge reached the extreme was that extreme point ? Some held that at there was not anything. The study of that use leads to the comprehensive judgment. and there we it is so." What is meant toil When we " " by that In the morning three ? A keeper of monkeys. let us give up our devotion to our own views. This is the extreme point. But all things.

" It is difficult to understand the reason why Chuang-tze introduces these men and their ways. If the injury arose before their formation. It was through the it about It definite expression of different opinions that there ensued injury to the doctrine of the Tao. but there had not begun to be any expression of different opinions about it." And their lute sons. . then am I also successful . though they tried to make them so. moreover. was this injury to the doctrine of the Tao which it led to the formation of partial preferences. neither I nor any other can succeed. Chao's method of playing on the was natural. They loved them because they were different from those of others. and Shih Kwang were both musicians of the State of which appears as Kwang's surname. A third class held that there was such recognition. but without any responsive recognition of it on the part of men. yet to the end of their lives accomplished nothing. with all the threads of their fathers' compoIf sitions. but not to use one's own views and to take his position on the ordinary views is is what is called using the proper light. was his denomination as "music-master. But as they could not be made clear. were all extraordinary. Shih Kwang's indicating time with his staff. Therefore the scintillations of light from the midst of con- fusion and perplexity are indeed valued by the sagely man. there would have been no such playing on the lute as Chao's. !Shih. and therefore they practised them to the end of their lives. if they can not be pronounced successful. Chao Wan Tsin. could be said to have succeeded. they. Was indeed after such preferences were formed that the injury came? or did the injury precede the rise of such preferences ? If the injury arose after their formation. or how it helps his argument. while leaning against a dryandra-tree. 13 Chao Wan's playing on the lute. They loved them and wished to make them known to others. they ended with the obscure dis" " cussions about the hard and " the white. The knowledge of the three men in their several arts was nearly perfect. and Hui-tze's giving his views. A second class held that there was something.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 93 utmost point to which nothing can be added. proceeding in this way.

There was a beginning previous to that beginning before there was the beginning. Heaven. there was non-existence. Under heaven there is nothing greater than the tip of an autumn down. and the Thai mountain is small. ing from existence to existence. and how much less can ordinary people do so! Therefore from non-existence we proceed to existence till we arrive at three proceed. can there be speech about them? But since they are spoken of as one. i* ? That is. to how many should we reach Let us abjure such procedure. we do not know whether it was Now I have really anything existing. and all things and I are one. and discarding looking at things from the standpoint of an original nonall considerations of space and time. or of a different character. must there not be room for speech ? One and Speech are two two and one are three. and simply rest here. have said be really anything to the point or not. they have a character of their own. the most skilful reckoner can not reach the end of the necessary numbers. Since they are one. There was no existence before the beginning of that no existence. There was a beginning. . or really not existing. Going on from this in our enumeration.94 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER VI But here now are some other sayings: I do not know whether they are of the same character as those which I have already given. which can not be distinguished from the others. . There is no one more long-lived than a child which dies prematurely. and Phang Tsu did not live out his time. but I do not know whether what I . Whether they be of the same character or not when looked at along with them. and I were produced together. Earth. But though this be the case. said what I have said. There was existence there had been no existence. existence. 14 There was no existence previous to the no existence before If suddenly there was the beginning of the no existence. There was a beginning before 14 that beginning. let me try to explain myself.

its does not vaunt humility." meaning the four cardinal points of space. Literally. argumentative do not reach the point. tions and their Distinctions. Benevolence that is Disconstantly exercised does not accomplish its object." Outside The Tao at at first : the limits of the world of men. relations. These five seem age is 16 That is. Words that are displayed is not the Tao. the sage indicates his judgments. that is The Tao interestedness that vaunts its purity is not genuine. Lu. is " and Autumn " Confucius's Annals of The Spring plimented by Chuang-tze. of space. had no constant forms of expression. to show them to others. limits he occupies his thoughts. Emulations and Contentions. Let me describe those demarcations they are the Left and the 15 the Relations and their Obligations.LITERATURE OF THE EAST CHAPTEE VII 95 first met with no responsive recognition. These are what are called " the Eight Qualities. direct opposites. " Dis- putation is a proof of not seeing clearly. but does not pass any judgIn the Chun Chiu. 16 ClassificaRight. and argues without the form of argument. sometimes a name for the universe Here we must restrict the meaning as I have done. Hence we have the saying. 18 which embraces the history of the former kings. 17 the sage occupies his thoughts. The Great Argument does not require words. inside those ments. i? "righteousness". but does not discuss about anything. Courthat is most stubborn is ineffectual. BeSpeech cause of this there came the demarcations of different views. the six conjunctions. with the zenith and nadir. Great Disinterestedness Great Courage is not seen in stubborn bravery. but Thus it is that he does not argue in vindication of them. while men generally state theirs argumentatively. the proper " way of dealing with the Literally. separates his characters from one another without appearing How to do so." The Great Tao does not admit of being praised. here com- . does he do so? The sage cherishes his views in his own breast. Great Benevolence is not officiously benevolent.

. virtue exceed all suns " ! CHAPTER VIII 21 Meh Sir. and all things were illuminated by them how much should your among the . Who knows the argument that needs no words. Chueh all 21 asked Wang " saying. 20 Even when smite the rulers of Tsung. he will have a pain tions : How i Names for the Tao." filled he may pour from it without its being exout its being hausted and all the while he does not know whence the sup" The Store of Light. Therefore the knowledge that stops at what it does not know is the greatest. " I wish to asked Shun. " Do you know should I know it ? " asked the other again. . saying. but they tend to become square and immovable.96 to be THE SACRED BOOKS round and complete. Do you know. creatures agree in approving and affirming ? " was the reply. I will reply. . supposed to have been t\v> of the Perfect Ones whom Yao visited on the distant hill of Ku20 Three small States. I can not get them out of my mind. standing " Those three rulers live in " Therefore of old Yao replied. shih. and is that you do not know ? He do you know that when try and explain my meaning. How is it so ? Shun mugwort and you can not get them out of your mind ? Formerly. " what " How what it he got the same " Then asked a third time " and Wang I anare all creatures thus without knowledge ? " swered as before. I. and the to be trodden ? Way that is not He who is able to know 19 this has what is called " The He may pour into it withHeavenly Treasure-house. Is Yao's wish to smite an instance of the "quality" of "emulation" or jealousy? -' Both Taoistic worthies of the time of Yao. and that when I say ing that I do know it?' And let me ask you some ques' If a man sleep in a damp place. in my court. and Hsu-ao. their little States as if they were how is it that other brushwood . adding however. Notwithstanding. ' I say I know it/ I really am showing that I do not know ( I do not know it/ I really am showit. Kwei. ten suns came out together." 19 This is what is called ply comes.

but does any one of the four know the right taste? The dog-headed monkey . " Since you. . rides on the sun and moon. . pelled by them. Hsi Shih. but it be so with an eel ? If he be living in a tree. the first principles of benevolence and righteousness and the paths of approval and disapproval are inextricably mixed and confused ? female attraction ' As together: criminate how is it possible that I should know how to dis" among them ? Nieh Chueh said further. do not know is advantageous and what is hurtful. Great lakes might be boiling about him. thinking them beautiful. and the the hurrying thunderbolts might split the wind shake the ocean. Mao 22 and Li Chi 22 were accounted by men to be most Tshiang beautiful. . without being able Being such. owls and crows delight in mice. they dived deep in the water from them when birds. he will it be frightened and all in a tremble. ! make him Two famous beauties. a contemporary of the other beauty. but will monkey? And does any one of the three place? . I look at the matter. Sir. be so with a his right know Men eat animals that have been fed on grain and deer feed on the thick-set grass centipedes enjoy small grass snakes. Neither death nor life makes any change in him. in 672 B. the elk and the axis deer cohabit and the eel enjoys itself with other fishes. as men did. of the State of Yueh. the daughter of a barbarian chief among the Western Jung. She wai 22 captured by her his wife 23 Not He subsequently made of Tsin. is the Perfect man " also in the same way without the knowledge of them ? " Wang I replied. and he would what not feel the cold to . they separated and fled away. but frightened and reDuke Hsien f. and he would not feel their heat . the former.LITERATURE OF THE EAST will 97 in his loins. The Perfect man is spirit-like. and rambles at ease beyond the four seas.C. mountains. mate in the female gibbon. 23 But did any of these four know which in the world is the right finds its . and like her also. and half his body will be as if it were dead . he mounts on the clouds of the air. the latter. VOL. but when fishes saw them. XII. and how much less should the considerations " of advantage and injury do so afraid. to the great injufy of his family and State. they flew from them aloft and when deer saw them. the Ho and the Han might be frozen up.

By the clause interjected in the translation after the first " Master. He does not put himself in the way of what is profitnor try to avoid what is hurtful he has no pleasure in able. And you is to be brought down by it being roasted. and they are all before him as doing so.98 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER IX " I heard asked Chang-wu Tze. " How could any one stand by the side of the sun and moon. he speaks without speaking. it them? you. If the master " that immediately follows be Confucius they must have been contemporary with him. " . the man seems stupid and to know nothing. think of it ? Chang-wu Tze replied. He blends sagely ten thousand years together in the one conception of time. and how should Chiu be competent to understand to describe the course of the Mysterious Way. making his inferior capacities unite with him in honoring the One Lord. found in any established Way. and immediately look out for the dove that . but what is mentioned here. 24 saying. I will try to explain the thing to you in a rough way. Men in general bustle about and toil. he does not speak when he speaks thus finding his enjoyment outside the dust and dirt of the world. " you. the Master speaking of such language as the following: ' The sagely man does not occupy himself with worldly affairs. and immediestimate of their meaning. " How do I know that the love of life is not a delusion ? 2* We know nothing of these men. the myriad things all pursue their spontaneous course. are too hasty in forming your You see the egg." I have avoided the incongruity of ascribing the long description of Taoism to Confucius.' The Master considered all this to be a shoreless flow of mere words. and hold under his arm all space and all time ? Such language only means that the sagely man keeps his mouth shut. Sir. seeking for anything from any one. ately look out for the cock that is to be hatched from it see the bow. I consider What do " The hearing of such words would have perplexed even Hwang-Ti. moreover. do you in the same way listen to me. and puts aside questions that are uncertain and dark. he does not care to be Chu Tshiao-tze 24 . and .

and with nice discrimination insist on their knowledge. and ate his grain-and-grass-fed meat. CHAPTER x " Since you made me enter into this discussion with you.LITERATURE OF THE EAST and that the dislike of death is not like a 99 young person's and not knowing that he is really going home ? Li Chi was a daughter of the border Warden of Ai. but if after ten thousand ages we once meet with a great sage who knows how to explain them. are you indeed right. and I indeed wrong? If I have got the better of you and not you of me. in their dream they may even have tried to interpret it but when they awoke they knew that it was a dream. How do I know that the dead do not repent of their former craving for life ? " Those who dream of the pleasures of drinking may in the morning wail and weep those who dream of wailing and . to the place of the king. But when she came then she regretted that she had wept. if I employ you. All the while. weeping may in the morning be going out to hunt. It will be the same if I employ . When the ruler of the State of Tsin first got possession of losing his way. and now of grooms. These words seem very strange. am I indeed right and you indeed Is the one of us right and the other wrong? are we both right or both wrong? Since we can not come to a mutual and common understanding. men will certainly con- wrong? tinue in darkness on the subject. When they were dreaming they did not know it was a dream. And there is the great awaking. how can he. agreeing with And the same may be said. ! evening. the stupid think they are awake. after which we shall know that this life was a great dream. shared with him his luxurious couch. now playing the part of rulers. do so correctly ? one who agrees with me. she wept till the tears wetted all the front of her dress. if you have got the better of me and not I of you. " Whom shall I employ to adjudicate in the matter ? If I employ one who agrees with you. He and you are both dreaming. it will be as if we met him unexpectedly some morning or . her. I Bigoted was that Chiu who say that you are dreaming am dreaming myself.

one of the Taoistic names for the Tao. Let us forget the lapse of time . and shall we then To wait on wait for that great sage ? We need not do so. being disturbed." 26 CHAPTER XI saying. all denials. it is certainly different from its ." is said to be the same as "the Heavenly Mold or Holder. 27 My waiting is it for the scales of a " the invisible 25 The phrase which I have called here operation of Heaven. " What is meant 25 neither can there be any dispute about that. and bring to bear on them the proper light of the mind. In this way I and you and those others would all not be mutual understanding. if there be one. and by learn how It is by this following this on into the unlimited past. it is certainly different from the denial If the assertion of it: there can be no dispute about that. we have found the pivot to which all conflicting opinions. The harmonizing of them is to be found in the invisible operation of Heaven. all positions and negatives converge. the Heavenly Fashioner. and take up ions. . and now you have stopped. If the affirmation be according to the reality of the fact. able to come to a others to conflicting opinions are changed is simply like not so waiting at all. all things being traced up to the unity of the Tao. all affirmations. I wait for the movements of something else to do what I do. and now you have risen up how is it that you : The Penumbra asked the Shadow. and that something else on which I wait waits further on another to " " do as it does. and the first cause.100 THE SACRED BOOKS one who differs from us both or one who agrees with us both. 26 That is. formerly you were sitting. are so without stability ? The Shadow replied. 27 The mind can not rest in second causes. method that we can complete our years without our minds by harmonizing conflicting opinions in There is the affirmation the invisible operation of Heaven ? and the denial of it and there is the assertion of an opinion and the rejection of it. rejection : our position there." that is. let us forget the conflict of opinLet us make our appeal to the Infinite. is inscrutable. of an opinion be correct. "Formerly you were walking on.

" BOOK III YANG SIIANQ CHU. but the case of the shadow is still more remarkable. 1 Under what is said about knowledge here there lies the objection of Taoists to the Confucian pursuit of knowledge as the means for the right conduct of life. I.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 101 28 How should I know why snake. or do not do another ? " Formerly. the veritable Chau. nor of what is evil with any approximation to the punishment which 2 an accordance with the Central Element of it will incur 3 our nature is the regular way to preserve the body. instead of the quiet simplicity and self-suppression of their 2 system. knowing this. and when. the peril can not be averted. OE " NOURISHING THE LORD OF LIFE " CHAPTER There limit. the key to the three paragraphs that follow. But the text The " doing good " and the " doing evil " of it is not easily construed. Chuang Chau. but to knowledge there is no un- With what is limited to pursue after what is limited a perilous thing. are to be lightly understood. 4 28 Even these must wait for the will of the creature. 4 "The ruler Wan-hui" is understood to be "King Hui of Liang (or own is This . we still seek the increase of our knowledge. to nourish our parents. 3 A name for the Tao. is I a limit to our is life. : CHAPTER II His cook 4 was cutting up an ox for the ruler Wan-hui. or it was now a butterfly dreaming that it was Chau. itself. dreamt that I was a butterfly. a butterfly flying about. and was myself again. feeling that it was enjoying I did not know that it was Chau. or the wings of a cicada ? I do one thing. to maintain the life. This is a case of what is called the Transformation of Things. I did not know whether it had formerly been Chau dreaming that he was a butterfly. Suddenly I awoke. and to complete our term of years. 1 There should not be the practise of what is good with any thought of the fame which it will bring. But between Chau and a butterfly there must be a difference.

The spirit-like manner. and spirit acts as it wills. and do not look at it with my eyes. and in a leisurely Wei). with the knife in my hand. and the edge of the knife has no appreciable thickness when that which is so thin enters where the interstice is. it may have been injured in cutting. After three Now I deal with it in a years I ceased to see it as a whole. not allowing my eyes to wander from the Then by a very slight place. knife slips through the great Observing the natural lines. oxen. it moves along! Nevertheless. in the audible ripping off of the skin. My art avoids the membranous " ligatures. the sounds were all in regular cadence. the cook laid down his knife. "Ah! Admirable! That your " art should have become so perfect Having finished his operation. and slicing oper- ation of the knife. whom and Mencius *Two pieces of music.102 THE SACRED BOOKS his hand. planted his foot. crevices and slides through the great cavities. and employed the pressure of his knee. whenever I come to a complicated joint. taking advan- use of my my my tage of the facilities thus presented. There are the interstices of the joints. and moving my hand slowly. When I first began to cut up an ox. . I look all round. Now my knife has been in use for nineteen years. I proceed anxiously and with caution. Whenever he applied leaned forward with his shoulder. Movements and sounds proceeded as in the dance of " the " Mulberry Forest and the blended notes of " the Ching Shau. the part is quickly separated. senses is discarded. and yet its edge is as sharp as if it had newly come from the whetstone. I saw nothing but the entire carcass. ascribed to Chang Thang and Hwang-Ti. and see that there will be some difficulty. an ordinary cook changes his every month it may have been broken." 5 The ruler said. remark." with the account of an interview between the works of that philosopher commence. how easily The blade has more than room enough. movement of the knife. it has cut up several thousand A good cook changes his knife every year and much more the great bones. and . and replied to the " What your servant loves is the method of the Tao. 5 ! something in advance of any art. Then standing up drops like a clod of earth to the ground.

. At first I thought he was the man of men. " Were you not a friend of the Massaid to him. but after crying out three times.LITERATURE OF THE EAST manner. And this was a hiding from himself of his Heaven-nature. disciples " "I was. and now I do not think so. and thirty steps to get a drink. and an excessive indulgence of his human feelings. does not seek to be nourished in a coop. and the young men wailing as if they had lost their mother." CHAPTER III When Kung-wan Hsien saw startled. " Is it proper ter ? then to offer your condolences merely as you have done ? He said. Though its spirit would there enjoy a royal abundance. with an air of in its 103 and put ! satisfaction. a forgetting of what he had received in being born what the ancients called the punishment due to neglecting the Heaven-nature. . When I entered a little ago and expressed my condolences. he was sort of man is this ? How is it he has but one foot Then he added. it sheath. " It is. and not from it of this man caused him to have but In the person of man. it does not think such confinement good. When the Master came. Chin Shih went The son. he came out. and " said. from Heaven ? or from Man ? " must be from Heaven." but it CHAPTER IV to condole with his When Lao Tan died. Excellent I have heard the words of my cook. each foot has its marrow." he replied. A pheasant of the marshes has to take ten steps to pick up a mouthful of food. there were the old men wailing as they had lost a son. By this I know that his peculiarity is from Heaven. wipe it clean. In his attracting and uniting them to himself in such a way there must have been that which if " made them involuntarily express their words of condolence. and not from Man. ? What Is the Master of the Left. " It Man. and they said. and learned from them the nourishment of our life." The ruler Wan-hui " said. Heaven's making one foot. it was at the proper time when he went away. as they were doing. . and involuntarily wail.

. and consults none but himself as to his vigor He deals with his State as if it were a light matter. and we know not that it is over and ended. OR " MAN IN THE WORLD. . and quietly submitting The to its ceasing afford no occasion for grief or for joy. I have heard you. God. BOOK IV TSAN CHIEN SHIII. his designation or married name. 1 The favorite Confucius . He thinks lightly of his people's dying.' I wish through what I have there are many who are ill. Quiet acquiescence in what happens at its proper time. " " And with what ter. and has no perception of his errors. ^ The concluding sentence might stand as a short paragraph by itself. and asked leave " to take Where are you going to ? asked the Mashis departure. I will go to Wei. ASSOCI" ATED WITH OTHER MEN CHAPTER I 2 Yen Hui 1 went " to see Chung-ni. if peradventure the evils of the State may be cured. 2 disciple of Confucius.104 it THE SACRED BOOKS was the simple sequence of his coming." in it. heard from you to think out some methods of dealing with ter." " Alas The risk is that you will go only Chung-ni said. 6 What we can point to are the faggots that have been consumed but the fire is transmitted 7 elsewhere. styled also Tze-yuan. TLe about the marshes. " that the ruler of Wei is in the "I have heard object ? of his years. Maspeople Leave the State that is well governed go to the At the door of a physician State where disorder prevails. a usage here ascribed to the ancients." was the reply. and the the animating spirit. know not where to turn to. . ' Wei. " fire " The " faggots " are understood to represent the body. they are as thick as heaps of fuel. say. . The right method to suffer in the punishment of yourself ! ! " This short sentence is remarkable by the use of the character Ti. the dead are lying all over the country as if no smaller space could contain them on the plains and course. of the cord on which ancients described death as the loosening God suspended the life.

and water views. Your eyes will be dazed and full of perplexity. That embarrassment will make you anxious. -as king and ruler. You indeed will ! hardly escape being injured by the man to whom you go " Further. benevolence and righteousness. the evils which men about him ? . However anxious you may you will not save yourself. and should not be allowed to have free course in one's conduct. will take advantage of you. your demeanor will be conformed to his you will confirm him in his In this way you will be adding fire to fire. In the of the name men overthrow one another wisdom bepursuit comes a weapon of contention. if perchance he takes pleasure in men of worth and hates those of an opposite character. With such admixture. then he. in themselves was not fixed. any tyrannous man ? do you know how virtue is liable to be dissiMoreover. setting them forth in the strongest and most direct language. He is sure to be injured by them in return. Virtue pated. the one method will become many methods. what leisure had they to go and be. and immediately contend with you for victory. hating his reprover's possession of those excellences. . Both these things are instruments of evil. he. whom he wishes to influence and supposing he is free from the disposition to strive for reputation. before the tyrant. . Supposing one's virtue to be great and his if he do not comprehend the spirit of those sincerity firm. and how wisdom proceeds to display itself? is dissipated in the pursuit of the name for it. and afterward If what they wanted they found the response to it in others. you will try to look pleased with him. you will frame your words with care. Their multiplication will embarrass you. what is the use of your seeking to make yourself out to be different from such Before you have begun to announce your views. The perfect men of old first had what they wanted to do in themselves. increasing. will who injures others put him down as doing him injury. if he do not comprehend their minds when in such a case he forcibly insists on interfere with the proceedings of " . and wisdom seeks to display itself in the striving with others.LITERATURE OF THE EAST in such a case will not admit of 105 any admixture. as we may express it. . to water.

and you are sure to die at the hands of such a tyrant. doing so in uprightness and humility. . their craving for whatever they could get was insatiable. indeed plans of operation ? " ? How can you do so This man makes a display of being filled to overflowing with virtue. They had engaged in war without ceasing. Ordinary men do not venture to oppose him. because they so ordered their conduct. seeing he does end. one '' ! s * 5 The tyrant with whom the dynasty of Hsia ended. Those States were left empty. the people being exterminated." Yen Hui said. Yao continue their population. this account. THE SACRED BOOKS To these signs of deferring to him at the first You will be in danger. how much Nevertheless you must have less will you be able to do so! some ground for the course which you wish to take. of making your words more strong. 4 " and Chieh 3 killed Kwan And 5 formerly Lung-fang. " May I go. and he proceeds from the way in which he affects them to seek still more the He may be described as unsatisfaction of his own mind.106 you deplore. pray try and tell it to me. Both of these cultivated killed the prince Pi-kan. A worthy minister of Chieh. to overcome the thirst for fame and substance. His feelings are not to be determined from his countenance. and how much less will he be so by your great lessons? He will be obstinate. suffering as they did from their op- Chau 6 On pressors. down in sympathy with the lower peotheir persons. A half-brother of Chau. and refuse to be Wei is. Again. like them. affected by the small lessons of virtue brought to bear on him from day to day. and on their account opposing their superiors. there will be no not believe you. and with no one to own fame. No. And this ruler of who craves after fame and greater subhave you not heard it? Those sages were not able stance. using also every endeavor to be uniform in my " " was the reply. The tyrant with whom the dynasty of Shang or Yin ended. bending ple to comfort them. and Yu attacked the ruler of Hu. and has great self-conceit. their such regard had they rulers compassed their destruction : for their anciently attacked the States of Tshung-chih and Hsii-ao. the tyrant of the Yin Dynasty.

and have not spied out adhere to your plans. " Fully declaring my sentiments and substantiating them " by appealing ancients. To carry the memorandum-tablet to court. as if my words were only my own. This is what is called forward. And should I then. to antiquity. ceeding. I shall be a co-worker with the lessons Although the words in which I convey my may really be condemnatory of the ruler. being a co-worker with antiquity. I will deliver my lessons. governed by the Tao. I will outwardly seem to He may bend to him. how can you go to him " in this way and be successful ? Yen Hui rejoined. though straightof antiquity. and not my own. they would have no occasion to blame me. or disapproved of them ? In this way men will pronounce me a 7 This is what is called being a sincere and simple boy. but this will be all the result.LITERATURE OF THE EAST converted. They all employ them. I shall be a co-worker with other men. 107 outwardly agree with you. you may be held Though you firmly How free from transgression. but inwardly there will be no self-condemnation. This is what is called being a fellow worker with other men. and be successful ? ! can you do so? You have too many plans of prothe ruler's character. whom we style the son of Heaven. co-worker with Heaven. and should I presume not to do so? Doing what other men do. . be seeking to find whether men approved of them. " Well then . No. I shall be free from blame. while inwardly maintaining my straightforward intention. When because I I thus speak of being a co-worker with Heaven. these are the to kneel. May I go to Wei in this " " " said Chung-ni. I shall be a co-worker with Heaven. Inwardly maintaining my straightforward intention. Outwardly bending to the ruler. and to bend the body reverentially observance of ministers. are equally regarded by Heaven as Its sons. they will be those In this way. and substantiate them by appealing to antiquity. and myself. in this way produce the transformation which you can you desire i "How ? All this only shows in you the mind of a teacher " ! Entirely unsophisticated. it is know that the sovereign. indeed way.

For months together we have no spirituous drink. Can is. "It is the fasting appropriate to sacrificing. I venture to ask the method from you. the Hui that I was I be said to have obtained this freedom from pre-occupation ? " The Master replied. to walk without In acting after the mantreading on the ground is difficult. But the spirit is free from all pre-occupation and so waits for the appearance of things." Chung-ni replied. nor do we taste the proscribed food or any strong-smelling " The reply can this be regarded as fasting ? vegetables was. now. You will not wait even for the hearing of your mind. " EnI tell you that you can enter and be at ease in the tirely. Not to move a step is easy." said Hui. You will not wait for the hearing of your ears about it. Yen Hui " will tell you. that I can employ it. but for the hearing of your mind. Let the mind . My family rest in the verification of the Tightness of what is in the will. Hui easy will be dis" said. s The Tao." is poor. will you find He who thinks it approved of by the bright Heaven. after having made trial of this fasting. let him hear your notes no other door.108 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER II I can go no farther . be silent. the Hui . 8 there is freedom from all pre-occupation such freedom is the fasting of the mind. that I am. " Maintain a perfect unity in every movement of your will. . enclosure where he . But when it easy to practise it? you have the method. and you will not be far from success in your object. but for the hearing of the spirit. as I said. and not come into collision with the which belongs to him. there I was. Let the hearing of the ears rest with the ears." I venture to ask what that fasting of the mind is." Hui said. " It is fasting. " Said ". and Chung-ni answered. Where the proper course is. 9 " Before it was possible for me to employ this method. probably. If he listen to your counreputation if he will not listen. employ no other medicine. has passed away. sels. but it is " not the fasting of the mind. and as if you had no other option. dwell with Open him as with a friend in the same apartment.

I have not heard of flying I have heard of the knowledge of the wise. The information that comes through the ears and eyes is comprehended internally. we have what is called the body seated they and the mind galloping abroad. but it will not be in a hurry to attend to the business. predecessor of Fu-hsi. This was the hinge on which Yu and Shun moved it was this which Fu-hsi and Chi-chu 10 practised all their lives how much more should other men follow the : ! . I have heard of flying with wings . if it were successful. Even when do not so rest. there was sure to be the evil of constant anxiety. a sovereign of the ancient paradisiacal " time. 11 12 As a criminal according to the Tao. Chi will probably treat me as his commissioner with great respect. asked Chung-ni. Chu-liang. : same rule " ! CHAPTER III Tze-kao. . the empty apartment is filled with light through it. apprehension. there were few which. the spiritual intelligences will come. I am very full of and how much less the prince of a State You. great or small. it was only ! . saying. proper way. whether it succeeded or not. on a mission which is very important. in acting after of Heaven. manner I have not heard of the knowledge of the unwise. and the knowledge of the mind becomes something external when this is the case. The king is sending me. without them. .LITERATURE OF THE EAST ner of men. it is difficult to play the hypocrite. duke of Sheh. Sir." punished by his sovereign. and how much more will other men do so All things thus undergo a transforming influence. . and that. 10 A Or. once said to me that of all things. Felicitous influences rest in the mind thus emblemed. Even an ordinary man can not be readily moved to action. and take up their dwelling with us. there was sure to be the evil 12 of being dealt with after the manner of men that. if not conducted in the 11 could be brought to a happy conclusion that. being about to proceed on a mis" sion to Chi. Look at that aperture left in the wall . if the thing were not successful. as in their proper resting-place. the 109 it is easy to fall into hypocrisy.

Occupied with the details of the business in hand. and from its obligation there is no escaping anywhere between heaven and earth. and this is the fullest discharge of loyalty. are simply obeying the dictates of their hearts. without reference to or choice of the business. and rest in it as what is appointed . and do not seek delicacies man whose using cooling drinks. and this is the highest achievement of virtue. what leisure has he to think of his pleasure in living or his dislike of death ? You. and forgetful of his own person. In all inrepeat to you what I have heard tercourse between States. cookery does not require him to be This morning I received my charge. In the same way a subject finds his rest in serving his ruler. and this is the height of filial duty. The evil is twofold.110 the virtuous evil. after the manner succeed. " In all things under heaven there are Chung-ni replied. tell to bear the burden of the mission. serving his parents without reference to or choice of place. They know that there is no alternative to their acting as they do. The love of a son for his parents is the implanted requirement. as a minister. the considerations of grief and joy are not readily set before them. I not able Can you. the king is sure to deal with of men. These are what are called the great . may well proceed on your mission. two great cautionary considerations: the one is the require- And if the thing do not conflicting anxieties. my master. there let : " But me . THE SACRED BOOKS man who a could secure its In my diet I take what is not being followed by coarse. When men He who to is in the position of a minister or of a son has indeed do what he can not but do. . am I not feelSuch is my state being the internal heat and discomfort ? fore I have actually engaged in the affair I am already suf. " to help me in the case ? something fering from me am me ment implanted in the nature the other is the conviction of what is right. Sir. and can never be separated from his heart the service of his ruler by a minister is what is right. if they are near to each other. Therefore a son finds his rest in cautionary considerations. and in the evening I am drinking iced water .

are easily set in mothe success of the matter of which the real point is lost is lost. But to convey messages which express the complacence or the dissatisfaction of the two parties is the most difficult If they be those of mutual complacence. as their excitement grows excessive. but always end with disorder . Hasty examination of the case eagerly proceeds. When the this distrust to ' the internuncio! Hence Rules for . and revengeful thoughts arise in their minds . but as the end draws near. . But woe 13 all extravagance leads to reckless language. they display much wonderful dexterity.they do not know how. ment things are treated as trivial. both sides. skilful wrestlers begin with open trials of strength. dislike. but always end with masked attempts to gain the victory. cios. Parties drinking according to the rules at first observe good order. and such language fails to arises. an overflow of expressions of is . Transmit the message exactly as it stands Speech say. On this animosities arise on wildly bellows forth its rage. there must be sincere adherence to truth in their Those messages will be transmitted by internunmessages. as their excitement grows excessive. 111 should be mutual friendliness.LITERATURE OF THE EAST . driven to death.' CHAPTER IV Moreover. as when a beast.. verified by deeds if they are far apart. command belief. Words are like the waves acted on by the wind the real point of the matters discussed . so is the internuncio likely to keep himself whole. they assume great proportions. so much as by artful words and one-sided speeches. The wind and waves Hence quarrels are occasioned by easily put in peril. People are at first sinbut always end with becoming rude at the commencecere. nothing The breath comes angrily. uproarious. Since they do not know how such thoughts arise. do not transmit it with any overflow of language. who knows how they is will end ? Hence the Rules for Speech Probably a Collection of Directions current at the time. their fun becomes " In all things it is so. . by them tion is . thing in the world. there sure to be an overflow of expressions of satisfaction if of mutual dissatisfaction.

enter into his pursuits. of other men. and urging on a settlement imperils negotiations. Departing from his i say. and a bad settlement can not be altered ought he not to be careful ? " Further still. consulted Chu Po-yu. but he does not His wisdom is just sufficient to know the errors What am " ful . " Chu Po-yu replied. you will fall with him and you be ruined. . but the Tao. case ? Be on your guard be careYour best plan will correct ." This is . you will tumble down with a crash. what else can you do to fulfil the charge of your father and 14 The best thing you can do is to be prepared to ruler ? sacrifice your life and this is the most difficult thing to do. Let him not urge on a settlement. your mind to try to be in harmony with him and yet there While are dangers connected with both of these things. nourish the central course which you pursue. If he go beyond the regular rules. " " is this young man. A good settlement is proved by its lasting long. I to do in such a is your question you keep yourself with your person to seek association with him. he will complicate matters. do not enter into his pursuits seeking to keep near while cultivating a harmony of mind with him. sition is as bad as will be at the peril of our State . it will be at the peril of a bad way. If in your personal associasuperior you are to him. he will think you do so for the reputation i* Not meaning the king of Chu. and with be. circumstances of your position. it on my own person. you show how different you are from him. ! . the highest object for you to pursue. if I insist his proceeding in a right way. to him. being about to undertake the office of Teacher of the eldest son of Duke Ling of Wei. If I allow him to proceed in it could be. If in maintion how taining a harmony with his mind. by a reference to your unavoidable obligations. do not show ! Good indeed see that know how he errs himself." said he. .THE SACRED BOOKS Let not an internuncius depart from his instructions. let your mind find its enjoyment in the instructions ' . whose natural dispoHere. CHAPTER v Yen Ho. whose will was to be found in his nature and the conditions of his lot.

and regard you as a creature of evil omen. on his way to Chi." VOL. injure the ornaments on their heads. unconscious of its inability for such a task. cised in the management of nature. you are " Do you They likely to incur the fate of the mantis. Be on your guard. to arrest the progress of the carriage.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 113 and the name. do you humor him in this characteristic 15 if you find him to be free from ever leading him lofty airs. 8. be you with him as another boy. . the their attendants disappear. If mosquitoes and gadflies light on them. be careful. " Do you not know the fate of the praying mantis ? It angrily stretches out its arms. came where he saw an oak-tree. . master mechanic. show yourself to be the same on so as to keep him free from faults. The more care that is taken of them. it is because they have gone against that ent Those again who are fond of horses preserve their dung in baskets. and the grooms brush them suddenly away. if you find him one of those who will not have their ground marked out in the ordinary way. and smash those on their breasts. If you cherish a boastful confidence in your own excellence. but showing how much it thinks of its own powers. They watch till their hunger is appeased. dealing with them from their knowledge of their natural ferocity. If you find him to be a mere boy. Tigers are differ- from men. and do so in accordance with their nature. but they fawn on those who feed them. be- cause of the rage which their killing of them will excite. XII. called Shih. They do not even dare to give them their food whole. and place yourself in collision with him. which was used as Do not cross " Equivalent to him in his peculiarities. When any of these are killed by them. the horses break their bits. not know how those who keep tigers proceed ? do not dare to supply them with living creatures. because of the rage which their rending of it will excite. and their urine in jars. " more does " their fondness for Ought not caution to be exerthem ? CHAPTER VT A is to Chii-yttan.

and said it. it could not be seen. learned it it has been of the greatest use to me. Sir. A boat made from its wood would sink. should I have become of the great size that I am ? And. So it is that their productive ability makes their lives bitter to them. Shih. and hence 16 it is that it has attained to so great an age. I have to him. you and I are pare with me ? mental trees? . bringing on themselves the destructive treatment which they ordiI have sought to It is so with all things. and thrown among the dirt. ie No one has thought it worth cutting down. the altar-oak appeared to him in a dream. and said. gourds and other low fruit-bearing When their fruits are ripe." When Mr. a door would be covered with the exuding sap. but come to a premature end in the middle of their time. after which there were ten or so. and rose up eighty cubits on the hill before it threw out any branches. pummelo-trees. and the smaller are torn away. pear-trees. they are knocked down plants.114 THE SACRED BOOKS It was so large that an the altar for the spirits of the land. It measured a ox standing behind hundred spans round. I had long done discover how it was that I was so useless and now I have till the effort nearly caused my death so. never seen such a beautiful mass of timber as this. . from each of which a boat could be hollowed out. " Since I followed you with my axe and bill. but held on his way with- workmen. It is quite useless. from them. " What other tree will you comout stopping. moreover. not look round at it. looked long and then ran on to his master. however. a pillar would be riddled by insects. narily receive. The large branches are broken. but the mechanic did not look round at it. orangetrees. " and do not stopping ? speak about it. an article of furniture would soon go to pieces. they do not complete their natural term of existence. Shih was returning. the material of it is good for nothing. Why would you. People came to see it in crowds as in a market-place. a coffin or shell would quickly rot. of his One at and admiringly 7 Will you compare me to one of your ornaThere are hawthorns. . Suppose that I had possessed useful properties. but went on without " " Have done/ said Mr.

and mulberry-trees grow well." said he. how is it that it yet acts here as " the altar for the spirits of the land ? " Be still. ! and its result. saw a large and extraordinary tree. He licked one of its The smell of leaves. it is thus that it has attained to tree good for nothing. a useless man. would it be in danger of being cut down ? Morethe reason of its being preserved is different from that over." was the and do not say a word. It simply happened to grow here. he kept " thinking about his dream. in rambling about the Heights of Shang. master's reply. know all this about me. and thus those who do not know it do not speak ill of it as an evil thing.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 115 both things . and its shade would " cover them all Tze-chi said. cypresses. when he looked down to its root. a useless tree ? " When Mr. however. for more than " " three whole days together. its stem was divided into so many rounded portions that neither coffin nor shell could be made from them. and his mouth felt torn and wounded. how should one thing thus pass its judgment on another? how is it that you. of the preservation of things generally . is a This. it would make a man frantic. The teams of a thousand chariots might be sheltered under it. . indeed. If it were not used as the altar." In Sung there is the district of Ching-shih. is not your explaining it from the sentiment which you have expressed wide of " the mark ? " CHAPTER VII Nan-po Tze-chi. as if intoxicated. and those of seven or eight lessness . at its smaller branches. in which Those of catalpae. they were so twisted and crooked that they could not be made into rafters and beams. and Ah and spirit-like men acknowledge this worthsuch a size. but the workman said. Shih awoke. It What a tree is this must contain an extraordinary amount of timber! When ! ! he looked up. Being so taken with its uselessness. them which are a span or two or rather more in circumference are cut down by persons who want to make posts to which to tie their monkeys those which are three or four spans round are cut down by persons who want beams for their lofty and famous houses.

. and his two thigh bones were like ribs. because of his constant ailments. and ten bundles of firewood. By sharpening needles and washing clothes he was able to make a living. When the government was calling out soldiers. was still able to support himself. madman of Probably the name of an old work on But was there ever a time in China on any altar? is i when human sacrifices were offered to the Ho. book specifies oxen that have white foreheads. . want and come to a premature end in the middle of their growth under the axe and bill this is the evil that befalls them from . the sacrifices. Chieh-yu. By sifting rice and cleaning it. in consequence do not complete their natural term of life. when it was giving out grain to the sick. whose . this poor Shu would bare his arms among the others when it had any great service to be undertaken. pigs that have turned-up snouts. how much more may they do so. and men that are suffering from piles. he received three chung. In the same way the Chieh 17 CHAPTER VIII There was the deformed object Shu. 18 His chin seemed to hide his navel his shoulders were higher than the crown of his head the knot of his hair pointed to the sky his five viscera were all compressed into the upper part of his body.116 THE SACRED BOOKS spans are cut down by noblemen and rich merchants who The trees single planks for the sides of their coffins. none of the work was assigned to him. their supplying good timber. . or One The of Chuang-tze's creations. deformity is that of their faculties 19 ! CHAPTER IX When if Confucius went to Chu. If this poor man. and complete his term of life. so deformed in body. but spiritlike men consider them on this account to be very fortunate. . he was able to support ten individuals. whose uselessness only proved useful to them. and forbids their being sacrificed to the Ho. deficiency of their faculties here mental faculties assimilate them to the useless trees in the last would two paragraphs. The wizards know them by these peculiarities and consider them to be inauspicious.

I pursue my course. . A . and yet no one knows how Give over give over approaching men with the to avoid it. I avoid publicity. part of the present Shan-tung. OR " THE SEAL OP VIRTUE COMPLETE " CHAPTER 2 * there was a Wang Thai who had lost both his of of in See the Analects. to be sought again the sage tries to accomplish all his service. ye thorny ferns. There is a jingle rhyme also in the sentence. Our author fabricates him according to his fashion. Happiness is lighter than a feather. prevails. robs itself " . ! O is Phoenix. 22 ministers to the fire fries itself. . O injure not my way! " To save my feet. but no one knows the " The mountain by its trees weakens itself. passed by " O Phoenix. calamity is heavier than the earth. 1 The native State of Confucius. exhausts its moisture or productive strength." BOOK TEH CHUNG In Lu 20 21 V I FU. or winding stray! " 22 Literally. 20 117 as he was wandering about. that my feet may not be lessons of ! ! hurt. The madman would seem to contrast his own course with that Confucius. ! You are in peril you are in peril. that my path may not be injured. I backward turn. and some critics find something like this them: " Ye ferns. XVIII. but no one knows how to support it. your virtue hurrying on where you have marked out the ground against your advance! I avoid publicity. know the advantage of being useful. but the meaning is very uncertain. 2 Taoist of complete virtue but probably there was not really such a person.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Chu. advantage of being useless. and therefore it is cut down. The varnish-tree All men is useful. how is your his door. the past is not When good order prevails in the world. 21 The grease The cinnamon-tree which can be eaten. now crookedly. and therefore incisions are made in it. now going backward. it is enough if he simply escape being punished. and virtue degener- not to be waited for. when disorder ated! The future he may preserve his life at the present time. said.

he must be very different from ordinary men." chapter n. great considerations. I will make him my teacher . the disciples who follow him about divide Lu When he stands. or Rung. he does not discourse to them.118 THE SACRED BOOKS asked Chung-ni about him. Perhaps a disciple of Confucius . which " also is the Author " of all the changes that take place in time and space. The reply was. What is the peculiar way in which he. or Chu and Yueh all to . to him empty. What do you mean ? When we look said. we see them So it is with this Wang Thai. . " Though Wang Thai is a cripple. been too late in going to him. and come back full. as for instance the liver and the gall." said Chung-ni. he changes not. Though they would occasion him no loss. 6 See the " Tao-Teh King. I have only Chung-ni replied. we see them to be different. while his disciples who followed and went about with him were as numerous as those of Chung-ni. known as the venerable Wang. heaven and earth were to be overturned and fall. and yet he is joined. not elsewhere mentioned as such. teach them. when he sits. and how much more should those do so who are not equal to me Why should only the State of Lu follow him ? I will lead on all under heaven with me to do so. Chang " at things. he does not equally with you. as they differ. 6" That in which there is no element of falsehood" is the Tao. but his 3 * mind delights itself in the Chung-ni is one of the many titles for Confucius. and he keeps fast hold of the author of them/' 6 " " " Chi when we be a unity. saying. while other things change. look at them. as they agree. feet. may the mind be complete? What " sort of man is he ? " This master is a sage. 3 Chang Chi 4 But they go ! employs his mind ? " in him. He takes no knowledge of the things for which his ears and eyes are the appropriate organs." Chang Chi re" He is a man who has lost his feet. formations of things are to him the developments prescribed for them. Master. " Death and but they could work no change life are . His judgment is fixed re6 garding that in which there is no element of falsehood The transand. Is there indeed such a thing as instruction without words ? 5 and while the body is imperfect.

and holds all things in this to secure it and able in his lodging in the six members 8 whom his ears and eyes serve but as conveying emblematic images of things." entirely occupied with his proper self. . and so as to correct the lives of others. But how should he be " willing to occupy himself with other men ? CHAPTER II Shan-thu Chia was another man who had lost his feet. Of things which are what they are by the influence of the earth. 7 but mind. . it is only the pine and cypress which are the best instances in winter as in summer brightly green. who comprehends all his knowlIf such a man edge in a unity and whose mind never dies his treasury. and keep them in the contemplation of their real selves. earth. take the result of fearlessness how the heroic spirit of a single brave soldier has been thrown into an " army of nirie hosts. who simply has ! were to choose a day on which he would ascend far on high. and trunk. and the Tao in all things. If a man only seeking for fame can produce such an effect. 119 He looks at the unity which belongs to things. As a verification of the power of the original endowment. . " Men do not look into running water as a mirror. . of his body. how is it that men make so much of him ? " The reply was. the most correct examples were Yao and Shun fortunate in thus maintaining their own life correct. Another cripple introduced by our author to serve his purpose. By his knowledge he has discovered the nature of his and to that he holds as what is unchangeable . but into is 7 Chang Chi " He still water it is only the still water that can arrest them all. Along with Tze-chan of Chang he studied under the master 7 8 9 The arms. head. men would seek to follow him there. He looks on the loss of his feet as only the loss of so much said. all things in the Tao. Of those which were what they were by the influence of Heaven.LITERATURE OF THE EAST harmony of all excellent qualities. Wang Thai saw legs. way how much more may we look for a greater result from one whose rule is over heaven and earth. when it has been preserved. and does not perceive where they have suffered loss.

I have heard that when a mirror is bright. 10 A famous archer of antiquity in the twenty-second century B. There now is our teacher whom you have chosen to make you greater than you are. "Most crimi! in describing their offenses. is to get out of his " whose pleasure one dwells long with a man of ability and virtue. When A shattered object as you are. the dust does not rest on it. or perhaps earlier. Sir. might examination of yourself?" The other said. that also was There appointed. that is the place where they should be hit and if they be not hit. Now I am about to go out . and when you still talk in " this way. and therefore rest in it as what was appointed for them. he comes to be without error. if they are in the middle of his field. the other from me by his instructions in what is good. have preserved their feet.120 THE SACRED BOOKS Tze-chan said to him one day. and return to a better mood he has washed. I throw off that feeling. adding. which makes me feel vexed and angry. without my knowing it. will you stay behind or not? Moreover. are you not in error ? Tze-chan rejoined. do you remain behind. . few would describe them so as to make it appear that they should not nals.C.. are many with their feet entire who laugh at me because I have lost my feet. rank like myself. " In our Master's school is there indeed such recognition required of official rank? You are in your official rank. yourself out as good as Yao it you would still strive to make If I may form an estimate of not be sufficient to lead you to the your virtue. of official . I will remain behind. " If I go out first. " it dust rests on the mirror is not bright. would make it out that they ought not to have lost their feet for them. They are only the virtuous who know that such a calamity was unavoidable." Next day they were again sitting on the same mat in the hall. When men stand before an archer like 1 10 with his bent bow. But when I go to our teacher. and if you go out first. and would therefore take precedence of other men. . when Tze-chan spoke together " the same words to him. you do not try way do you consider yourself equal to one of official rank ? Shan-thu Chia replied. when one. . when you see one Po-hwan Wu-tsan.

were regarded by " me as doing the part Heaven and Earth. called Shu-shan the Toeless. Now. are you not >! Tze-chan felt uneasy. Sir. say- Khung Chiu. my master. and have not without my feet. Sir. and does not know that the Perfect man considers this to be as handcuffs and fetters to him. altered his manner wrong in this ? and looks. But now I am come to you. to learn to make up for the evil of his former conduct how much more should those be so whose conduct has been ." Lao Tan said. " Toeless. and nothing which Earth does not sustain of ceive . and said. told Lao Tan of the interview. Chung-ni said to " him. and I have for the object of our study the virtue which is internal. Master. do you not come " inside. where he dwelt: a sort of nickname. Sir. I am but a poor creature. you have incurred such a calamity. "Why did you not disciples of being 11 " Toeless " is ably. " Be stimulated This toeless cripple is still anxious to effort. my disciples. I apprehend. and not an adjunct of the body. prob- . There is nothing which Heaven does not cover. 11 who came on his heels to see Chung-ni. how could I know that you would " re- me in such a way ? Confucius rejoined." Shu hill was. say anything more about it. " unchallenged ! Mr. Confucius said. of what use is your coming to " Toeless said. still possessing me now ? " what is more honorable than my feet. and which therefore I anxious to preserve entire. Shu-shan or "Toeless of Shu hill. am you. I came to lose my feet. " You need not. Through my ignorance of my proper business and taking too little care of my body.LITERATURE OF THE EAST I have attended him now known that I am for nineteen years. has not yet attained to be ing. however. around him ? He is seeking to have the reputation an extraordinary and marvelous man. and yet you are continually directing your attention to my external body. you. By your want of circumspection in the past. where I will try to tell you what I have learned ? When Toeless had gone out. But why." CHAPTER III In Lu there was a cripple. What has he to do with keeping a crowd of a Perfect man.

and that the admissible and inadmissible belong to one category. " It Heaven. . when she saw him ugly as he was. I called him. and saw him. was marquis of Lu from 494 to 468 B. Perhaps this was spoken by his wife before their marriage. ' I had more than ten times rather be his concubine than the wife of any other man. Perhaps the meaning is so in the Taoistic order of things.C. moresatisfy men's craving for food. so as to be able to save Duke Ai Lu 13 7 had no revenues. when I was drawn to the man and before he had been with me a full year. ter. as I have said. but always seemed to be of the same opinion with others. ugly man in Wei. His wife. to scare the whole world. called Ai-thai Tho. And yet his father-in-law and his wife were of one mind about him in his presence. so as to be able to He was ugly enough. Ai i* The account Ai-thai is tion. who lived with him. so Would this be possible ? " freeing him from his fetters ? Toeless said. I was minded State being without a chief ministo commit the government to him. . I had death. He had not the position of a ruler. He The responded to my proposal sorrowfully. " There was an 14 His father-in-law. Certainly he was to scare the whole world. He had not lived ugly enough with me.synonym of Tao. saying. is of Ai-thai Tho is. He agreed with men instead over. represented to her parents. for many months. but finally gave the government 12 " Heaven " here it is is a . however.THE SACRED BOOKS simply lead him to see the unity of life and death. saying. and Tho to be his name. he must have been different from other men. men from He confidence in him. . of trying to lead them to adopt his views his knowledge did not go beyond his immediate neighborhood. is It was in the sixteenth year of Duke Ai that Confucius died.of course Chuang-tze's own fabricaunderstood to be descriptive of his ugliness. 15 He was never heard to take the lead in discussion. thought so much of him that he could not be away from him. I was ashamed of myself as inferior to him. and looked undecided as if he would fain have declined it. 12 How of is the punishment can he be freed from inflicted it ? " on him by CHAPTER IV asked Chung-ni. "unavoidable".

though he did no special service for them." meant by saying that his powers " Death and were complete ? life. afraid only that he fested in his person. and ran away. however. When a man dies in battle. and are not allowed to enter . What they had loved in their mother was not her bodily figure. he left me and went away. how much greater results should be This expected from men whose mental gifts are perfect! Ai-thai Tho was believed by men. when a man is newly married. What sort of man was he ? " " Once when I was sent on a mission to Chung-ni said. They Duke Ai " said. when they all left her. failure blame and praise. poverty and wealth. there is no reason why he should care for them. he remains for a time absent from his official duties. of the royal harem do not pare their nails nor pierce their ears. were perfect. and as if there were no other to share the pleasures of the kingdom with me. hunger and superiority and inferiority. though his realization of them was not mani- ment of their States. able to discover to what they Owe their origination. I was sorry and felt that I had sustained a loss. 123 In a little time. and success. though he did not speak a word. presChung-ni replied. After a little they looked with rapid glances. Day and night stances. They felt that she did not see them. I saw some pigs sucking at their dead mother. and was loved by them. Chu. these are the changes of circumheat thirst. in neither The members case is there the proper reason for their use.LITERATURE OF THE EAST into his hands. and unoccupied with them. but what had given animation to her figure. cold and lot. they do not at his interment employ the usual appendages of plumes: as to supplying shoes to one who has lost his feet. and that she was no longer like themselves. That their bodies might be perfect was sufficient to make them thus dealt with. ervation and ruin. the operation of our appointed but there is no wisdom they succeed to one another before us. What is " are not sufficient therefore to disturb the harmony of the into the treasury of innature. He made men appoint him to the govern- would not accept He must have been a man whose powers the appointment.

who was so pleased with him. in all his experiences to realize in his mind what is appropriate to each season of the year these are the characteristics of " him whose powers are perfect. Formerly sovereign to stand in court with his face to the south. lest any should come to a miserable death of his duty. .14 telligence. I and Chung not on the footing of ruler and subject. to allow no break to arise in this state day or night. All within its circuit is preserved in peace. who was so pleased is Specially the season of complacent enjoyment. by employing myself this I considered to be the sum too lightly. I may cause the ruin of my State." CHAPTER V A person who had no lips. that he looked on a perfectly formed man as having a lean and small neck in comparison with him. Now that I have heard that description of the Perfect man. and there comes to ous efficacy nature. and that. THE SACRED BOOKS To cause this harmony and satisfaction ever to be diffused. to rule seemed to the kingdom. Another who had a large goitre like an earthenware jar addressed his counsels to Duke TTwan of Chi. and to pay good heed to the accounts of the people concerned." And what do you mean by the realization of these powers " not being manifested in the person ? pursued further the " The reply was. saying. I fear that my idea is not the real one. things can not separate themselves influence. is The virtuit no agitation from without. It may serve as an example of what I mean. There is nothing so level as the surduke." Some days afterward Duke Ai " it told this conversation to me the work of the Min-tze. face of a pool of still water. whose legs were bent so that he could only walk on his toes. 16 in his relations with exso that it is always spring-time ternal things. the perfect cultivation of the harmony of the Though the realization of this be not manifested from its in the person. addressed his counsels to Duke Ling of Wei. and who was otherwise deformed. while the feeling of pleasure is not lost from the mind. but on that Chiu are of a virtuous friendship.

extraordinary. was taken from this! " " the Tao " and Heaven " have is Lu Shu-chih maintains here that the same meaning. but not the passions and desires of other men. and looks on wisdom as but the shoots from an old stump. Heavenly nature! " The man. him a man ? . what is easily forgotten. Tao gives him his personal appearance him his bodily form how should we not call Heaven gives " " Since you call him a Hui-tze rejoined. . of what use would arts of intercourse be to him? He has no goods to dispose of . what need has he to play the merchant ? The want of these four things is the nourishing to do . agreements with others are to him but so much glue.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 125 with him that he looked on a perfectly formed man as having 17 So it is a neck lean and small in comparison with him. need has he for anything of man's devising? He has the bodily form of man. that nourishment is its ! fection of his " Can a man indeed be withHui-tze said to Chuang-tze. what enly food. Therefore the sagely man has that in which his mind finds its enjoyment. " The reply was. Being without the passions and desires of men. how can he be without passions and desires ? IT Lin Hsi-chung wonders whether the story of the man who was so taken with the charms of a one-eyed courtezan. and great skill is but as merchants' wares. of what use would wisdom be to him ? He has no cutting and hack- He has lost of what use would glue be to him ? nothing. ment of HeavSince he receives this food from Heaven. that he thought other women all had an eye too many. kindnesses are but the arts of intercourse. The sagely man lays no plans . and therefore he is a man. How insignificant and small is the body by which he belongs How grand and great is he in the unique perto humanity his Heavenly nature . 18 and powers. any deficiency in his When men do not forget bodily form may be forgotten. He has the form of man. and forget what is not easily forthat is when one's virtue gotten. we have a case of real oblivion. who is thus " " The without passions and desires ? Chuang-tze said." out desires and passions ? " But on what grounds do you call him a man. their approvings and disapprovings are not to be found in him. " He can.

and approaching nearly to what we understand by the Christian virtue of " Faith. and does not try to increase his " store of life. and subject your vital powers to toil. and 19 you babble about what is strong and what is white. 1 Both " Heaven " and " Man " here are used in the Taoistic sense the meaning which the terms commonly have both with Lao and Chuang. Heaven selected for you the bodily form of a man. " harm as if it . him ought to knowledge. grasping the stump of a rotten dryandratree. deal with your spirit were something external to you. Sir. he always pursues his course without effort. ance and powers. how would he get his body ? The Tao gives him his personal appearChuang-tze said." to his body. conducting the student of the Tao to an unquestioning submission to the experiences in his lot." If there were not that Hui-tze rejoined. What I mean when I say that he is without these is. " increasing of the amount of life. THE SACRED BOOKS You are misunderstanding what I mean by passions and desires. and contemptuously refers to some of his well-known peculiarities. OR " THE GREAT AND MOST HONORED MASTER " CHAPTER I He who knows and knows play. He who l knows the part which the Heavenly plays knows that it is naturally born with him. that this man does not by his likings and dislikings do any inward harm to his body. the part which the Heavenly also that which the Human l in has reached the perfection of in him plays. he who knows the part which the Human ought to play proceeds with the knowledge which he possesses to nourish it in the direction of what he does not yet know 2 to complete one's natural term of years and : Chuang-tze beats down his opponent.126 " reply was. Heaven gives him his bodily form. BOOK VI TA TSUNG SHIII." 19 . which are beyond his comprehension. 2 The middle member of this sentence is said to be the practical outcome of all that is said in the Book. leaning against a tree you go to sleep. You sing your ditties. and he does not by his likings and dislikings do any internal But now you.

the exit from it awakened no resistance. and of all attempts by means of the hatred of death. The True men of old knew nothing of the love of life or Entrance into life occasioned them no joy. When men are defeated in argument. CHAPTER II What is meant by " the True Man " ? The True men of old did not reject the views of the few . had been.LITERATURE OF THE EAST not 127 to an untimely end in the middle of his course is the fulness of knowledge. though they might succeed. confirmation of it as correct . Being such. of any mind to resist the Tao. are deep. How do we know that what we call the Heavenly in us is not the Human ? and that what we call the come Human is and then there not the Heavenly ? There must be the True man. The breathing of the true man comes even from his heels. had their food Their breathing came deep and silently. they did not accomplish Being such. there is an evil Such knowledge still awaits the attending this condition. they did not seek to their ends like heroes before others . and they did not inquire into what their beginning end would be. they forgot all fear of death. lay plans to attain those ends. and returned to their state beThus there was in them what is called the want fore life. ComThey did not forget what their posedly they went and came. their words come from their Where lusts and desires gullets as if they were vomiting. slept. They accepted their life and rejoiced in it. the springs of the Heavenly are shallow. is the True knowledge. . Tao. . they could ascend the loftiest heights without fear they could pass through water without being made wet by it they could go into fire without being burnt so it was that by their knowledge they ascended to and reached the . while men generally breathe only from their throats. The True men of old did not dream when they no anxiety when they awoke. . Although it be so. though they might make mistakes. it does so because it is not yet determined. they had no occasion for repentance. they had no self-complacency. and did not care that should be pleasant.

their minds were free from all thought their demeanor was still and unmoved. that he was of the time of Thang. Kwang. JShan-thu Ti was of the Yin Dynasty. and also the count of Chi. was Hsu-yu. in his conduct of war. Hence he who tries to share his joys with others is not a sagely man. and Shan-thu Ti. . but still inferior to the True Man. as instances of good and worthy men. their foreheads beamed Whatever coldness came from them was like simplicity. . and loses his proper self. Of Hu Pu-Chieh all that we are told is that he was " an ancient worthy. he who observes times and seasons to regulate his conduct is not a man of wisdom. Po-i. of the Shang Dynasty. he who manifests affection is not benevolent. Being such. that of autumn whatever warmth came from them was like that of spring." One account of Kwang is that he was of the time of Hwang-Ti. Such were they who are called the True men. Such men as Hu Pu-Chieh. They did in regard to all things what was suitable. with ears seven inches long. Their joy and anger assimilated to what . Po-i and Shu-chi are known to us from the Analects. whose name. Therefore the sagely man might. his benefits and favors might extend to a myriad generations without his being a lover of men. I must suppose. vice for other Wu CHAPTER IV The True men of old presented the aspect of judging others s The seven men mentioned here are all adduced. Chi Tha. Most of these are referred to in other places. the count of Chi. is not the right scholar and he who throws away his person in a way which is not the true way can not command the service of others. another. and sought to secure for them what they not seeking their own pleasure. . Hsu-yu. and no one could know how far their action would go. destroy a State without losing the hearts of the people. Shu-chi. Wu I can find nothing about Chi Tha. 8 desired. a contemporary of Thang. He drowned himself in the Ho. he to whom profit and injury are not the same is not a superior man he who acts for the sake of the name of doing so. all did sermen. it is said. we see in the four seasons. .128 of the THE SACRED BOOKS Human to assist the Heavenly.

and they always selected it . 4 CHAPTER v In this way they were one and the same in all their likings and dislikings. their every movement seemed to be a necessity to them. their humility was evident. XII. Considering ceremonies to be its supporting wings. their blandness fixed men's attachment to their virtue. they * dom from thought VOL. and virtue to be accordance with others. Considering wisdom to indicate the felt it time for action. Where they liked.LITERATURE OF THE EAST aright. yet their generosity appeared in the manner of their infliction of death. indicate the time for action. wisdom to . and they never incurred them ceremonies to be its supporting wings. they direction of affairs. they sought to ascend its heights along with all who had feet to climb it. Such were they. they had forgotten what they wished to say. they were the same. Their accumulated attractiveness drew men's looks to them. 9. and they were all-ac- Considering punishments to be the substance of government. . their there haughty indifference was beyond its control. and yet men really thought that they did what they did by earnest effort. they were the same. and they always observed them. where they did not like. They considered punishments to be the substance of government. peculiarities were natural to them. in the latter where they disliked. but with a certain severity. they pursued by means of them their cordant. Unceasing seemed their endeavors to keep their mouths shut when they looked down. . necessary to employ it in the Considering virtue to be accordance with others. 129 but without being partizan8. They seemed to accommodate themselves to the manners of their age. but being without flattery or cringing. but was nothing of unreality or display about it. of feeling their own Their insufficiency. but they were not obstinately attached to them. All this paragraph is taken as illustrative of the True man's freeor purpose in his course. they were fellow workers with the Heavenly in them. course in the world. In the former case where they liked. Their placidity and satisfaction had the appearance of joy.

. what makes my life a good makes my death also a good. and keep one another wet by their slime. at death I find rest in it. and they still love specially regard how much more should they love It. my old age seeks ease on it. whether small or great. s The great and most honored Master the Tao. hide away anything. I think. Such were those who are called the True men. how much more should 6 When the they do so for That which is their true Ruler springs are dried up. but at midnight there shall come a strong man and carry it off on his You back. succession of night and day Men have no power to do anything in reference to them There are those who such is the constitution of things. ! ! that they should moisten one another there by the damp about them. 7 And when men praise Yao and condemn Chieh. i This sentence contrasts the cramping effect on the mind of Confucianism with the freedom given by the doctrine of the Tao. it would be better for them to forget one another in the rivers Than and lakes. The whole paragraph is an amplification of the view given in the preceding note. my life is spent in toil on it. before the views of the earliest Chinese diverged to Theism and Taoism. and so such persons should love Heaven. I my body on it. Death and life are ordained. just as we have the constant in both cases from Heaven. 6 . were co-workers with the The one of these elements in their nature did not overcome the other. 8 If you hide a boat in the ravine of a hill. and hide away the hill away in a lake. s The Tao does this. you will say that the boat is secure. while you in the dark know nothing about it. and seek the renovation of the Tao. There is in the text here. distant as It is That which stands out Superior and Alone 6 Some specially regard their ruler as superior to themselves. and will give their bodies to die for him. Heaven 5 as their father. in the may Love is due to a parent. CHAPTER There is VI find the support of the great Mass of nature.130 THE SACRED BOOKS Human in them. the fishes collect together on the land. it would be better to forget them both. an unconscious reference to the earliest time.

there is even then occasion for joy. all to be good. 9 so that there was nowhere to which it could be removed. 11 It produced heaven. and in the existence of a Supreme was to the Tao that those concepts were owing. It may be apprehended by the mind. Men at a very early time came to believe in the existence of their It Ruler or God. but this body undergoes a myriad transformations. 13 before the Thai-chi not be seen." and now brings in the Tao itself as his subject. from It the mysterious existence of God. how much more will they do so in regard to That man and on which all things depend. chapter n. and does not immediately reach its perfection does it not thus afford occasion for joys incalculable? Therefore the . but while protoplasm lies down in the lower parts of the earth. But there are other. and perhaps higher. and by which all things are prepossibility served. It is with its possessor. Before there were heaven and earth. teraction of the is See next page. from of old. things said of 11 it here. . and from which every transformation arises! Itself CHAPTER This It is VII the Tao. enjoys himself in that form which there is no of separation. spirits after death. his beginning sagely his ending. From It came the mysterithere It was. When the body of man comes from its special mold. and has no bodily form. an " ever- during thing. but does nothing. but may not be received by his scholars. It produced earth. there is in It emotion and sincerity. and in this other men imitate him. ous existences of spirits. It has Its root The Tao can not be taken away. and yet it shall disappear from it.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 131 most suitable place. But if you could hide the world in the world. but It can and ground of existence in Itself. the Thai-chi was imagined to be in the higher regions of space. He considers early death or old age. this would be the grand reality of the ever-during Thing. 10 It may be handed down by the teacher. This was something like the current idea of protoplasm. Compare the predicates of It here with Book II. 12 The primal ether out of which all things were fashioned by the inYin and Yang. securely existing." 10 Our author has done with " the True Man. It was 12 and yet could not be considered high .

minister to Wu-ting. and by 21 It dwelt in the Dark Palace. 13 14 and by It adjusted heaven and earth. No one knows Its beginning. and a bird's 20 body. we met with him in I. 17 The spirit presiding over the Yellow River. and yet deep. no one knows Its end. enjoyed himself in the Great River. etc. is Appears here as the spirit of mount Thai. and by It was set on the North Pole. and by It became chief the Five Chiefs. Fu-hsi got It. a grandson of Hwang-Ti. Fu Yueh mounted to the the kingdom. who thus in a trice became master of After his death. and by 16 n It became lord of Khwan-lun." 21 The Spirit of the Northern regions. very much in Taoism what mount Sumeru is in A A name Buddhism. and lived on from the time of the lord of Yu to that of Fu Yueh got It. 13 It was older could not be considered to have existed long. prehistoric sovereign. maternity of the primary matter. and 20 by It ascended the cloudy sky. Fang-i got It. than the highest antiquity. Hwang-Ti 19 got It. . and from all antiquity have not intermitted their bright shining. Shih-wei got It. The second of the " Five Tis ". Khan-pei got It. with a man's face. itself. Hsi Wang-mu 22 got It. but simply as one of Chuang-tze's fictitious personages. 13 i* is The Tao i8 independent both of space and time.132 it THE SACRED BOOKS was below all space. Chuan-hsu got It. to whom many important discoveries and inventions are ascribed. 10 Appears before in Book II the first of Sze-ma Chien's " Five Tis " no doubt a very early sovereign. is placed by many at the head of Taoism . and by It had her seat in the palace of Shao-kwang. and yet could not be considered 13 It was produced before heaven and earth. and yet could not be considered old. the great eastern mountain. and by It Chien Wu 18 got It. The Wei-tau and from all antiquity has made no eccentric movement. Phang Tsu got It. the fairyland of Taoist writers. . and by It penetrated to the mystery of the 15 got It. The Sun and Moon got It. Yu-chiang got It. is Name of the spirit of the Khwan-lun mountains in Tibet. and by It dwelt on mount Thai. 2- A queen of the Genii on mount Khwan lun. I do not know what to say of his " Dark Palace. 5. for the constellation of the Great Bear.

LITERATURE OF THE EAST eastern 133 riding on Sagittarius and Scorpio. perad- If he venture. and the com- The Tao is a thing not living. I proceeded to do so. if. his mind was afterward clear as the morning. " No." was the reply. After three days. but not the Tao. possessing his abilities. he might become the sagely man indeed. CHAPTER Nan-po Tze-khwei asked Sir. and in seven days he was able to banish from his mind all thought of men and things. so ? " your complexion is like that of a child. he was able to banish all thought of Past ality perceived. I continued my way. but with deliberation. how is the Tao." The reply was. for one possessing the Tao of the sagely man to communicate it to another Accordingly. do so. " You are old. he was able to This accombanish from his mind all worldly matters. while I had the Tao. the abilities. but not said. which accompanies all other things and meets them. I thought. to count his life as foreign to himself. he was able to penetrate to the truth that there is no difference between life and death 'how the destruction of life is not dying. I wished. " from the . and after That individuthis he was able to see his own individuality. while it VIII Nu Yu. and my instructions continued. " I have become acquainted with " Can I learn the Tao ? " Nu Yu to How can you ? You. where. he took his place among the stars. saying. are not the man There was Pu-liang I who had the abilities of a sagely man. " "I learned it. intercourse with him in the same plished. however. without any teacher. to teach him. Freed from this. it was easy. The other said. Tranquillity amid all Dismunication of other life is ' turbances/ meaning that such Disturbances lead to Its Perfection. or Present. should not do so. portion of the Milky Way. after nine days he was able This accomplished. This accomplished. which is present when they are overthrown and when they obtain Its name is their completion. Sir. being alone." " And how all this ? learn did you.

" Do ! you dislike your it ? condition ? " He " replied. and the rump-bone from death? Who knows how death and birth. I should be watching with it the time of the night. and said. were friends together. Tze-yu. he. and Tze-lai. All. when some one said. from Wu-ao." The four men looked at one another and laughed. but no one seized with his mind the drift of the questions. when we lose that at death. literally. He limped to a well. and Tze-sze went to inquire " 24 is the Creator great. living Tze-sze. the head to be made from nothing. " Alas that the Creator should have made me the deformed object that I am " Tze said. No. were on and disappearing. left why arm should I dislike If He were to transform my into a cock." . and he learned it from I-shih. his shoulder was higher than his crown. That ! . CHAPTEB IX " Who can suppose talking together. from the grandson of Lo-sung he learned it from Shan-ming he learned it from Nieh-hsu he. and made no trouble of his condition. his breath came and went in gasps: yet he was easy in his mind. roast if He were to transform my 23 24 Meaning writings. looked at himself in it. my rump-bone into a wheel. when we have got what we are to do. from Tshan-liao. . he. "the son of the assisting pigment. squeezed into the upper part of his body . his chin bent over his navel. compose the one body? I would be friends with him. the spine from life. Tze-li. however.184 son of THE SACRED BOOKS Fu-mo 23 . and my spirit into a horse. from Hsuan-ming. he." said the sufferer. on his crown was an ulcer pointing to the sky . if He were to transform right arm into a crossI should then be looking for a hsiao to bring down and bow. submission is . Not long for him. from Hsu-yi. Moreover. The Tao. there is the time of life in which to do it. . and would not change it for another steed. these four men. How He should have made me the deformed object that I am " He was a crooked hunchback his five viscera were ! " after Tze-yu fell ill. I should then be mounting it." he learned it .

" why should I hate condition ? CHAPTER X Before long Tze-lai fell ill.). understand that heaven and earth are a great melting-pot. the great founder would be sure to regard it as uncanny. But called loosing the cord by which the life is suspended. he simply follows the command. one hang up can not loose himself. and say. and the Creator a great founder. or north.C. and said to them. What Great indeed is the Creator ! ! will you of an Wherever a parent tells a son to go. he " said to the dying man. So. neither joy nor sorrow can This would be what the ancients find entrance to the mind. of a famous sword. I shall be obstinate and rebellious. I must become a man. The Yin and Yang are more to a man than his If they are hastening my death. made for Ho-lu. if it were to say. when a form is being fashioned in the mold of the womb. " body in it ." Then. again. leaning against the door. my life is spent in toil on it my old age seeks ease on it. and I do not parents are.' the Creator would be sure When we once to regard it as uncanny. Get out of the way! Do not disturb him as he is passing through his change. at death I find rest on it: what has made my life a good will make my death also a good. and manifest that submission. ' I must be made my . And that creatures can not overcome Heaven the my inevitable is a long-acknowledged fact. or the arm to? " 25 Tze-lai replied. " Here now is a great founder.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 135 what is required. south. where can we have to go 25 28 The name Here comes in the belief in transformation. while his wife and children stood around him wail" Tze-li went to ask for him. into a sword like the Mo-yeh/ 26 6 1 must become a man . he is held fast by his bonds. Wu (514-494 . west. Hush ing. and lay gasping at the point of death. the king of B. There is the great Mass of nature I find the support of insect ? He now make you to become ? Where will He take Will He make you the liver of a rat. east. casting his metal. When we rest in what the time requires. quietly submit to them. If the metal were to leap up in the pot.

saying. after a time. Then they sang together in unison. " Who three men. " In calling the dead back. and laughed. as men. and things. and said. Mang Tze-fan. and Tze-chin Chang. I can not describe them . " Ah ! ! ! Hu ! Ohone!" 27 " I venTze-kung hastened forward to them. CHAPTER XI Tze-sang Hu. and treated the body as a thing foreign to them.136 THE SACRED BOOKS We from a are born as to that shall not be right for us? and we die to a calm awaking. can associate together without any thought of such association. " What sort of men are those? They had made none of the usual Tze-kung preparations. Suddenly. Confucius heard of the event. still here remain. One of the survivors had composed a ditty. and the other was playing on his lute. what sort of men are they ? " Confucius replied. or act together tion? Who without any evidence of such co-operacan mount up into the sky and enjoy himself amidst the mists. Tze-sang Hu died. Sang Hu ah come. and sent Tze-kung to go and see if he could render any assistance. and would have no end ? " The three men looked at one another and laughed. not perceiving the drift of the questions. The two men looked "What does this ? man know about the idea that underlies our rules " returned to Confucius. accordance with the ancient and modern practise in China of But these were doing so in a song to the lute. they continued to associate together as friends. and reported to him. . were friends together. Before he was buried." quiet sleep. saying. Sang Your being true you've got again. ture to ask whether it be according to the rules to be singing thus in the presence of the corpse ? " at each other. these One of them said. They were singing in the presence of the corpse. While we. come. disporting beyond the utmost limits of and forgetting all others as if this were living. and there was no change in their countenances.

There is no common ground for those of such different ways and when I sent you to condole with those men. 28 . reone of the people killed man as " suspended by ferring. without aiming at the transcendental method of the Taoists. I will share with you what I have attained " I venture to ask the method to. and its outward constituents." Tze-kung rejoined. in or air. and water. and exhibit themselves as doing so " to the ears and eyes of the multitude ? " Yes. wind I am strange description of himself by the sage. while I occupy and enjoy myself in what lies within those ways. moreover. and used it in pursuing the path of duty. Literally." Confucius was content to accept his life. act acTze-kung said. 28 They uents like the liver and the ears and eyes. Again no knowledge of first principles. or what and what is last They borrow different substances. With ? these views. They consider life to be an appendage attached. perhaps.LITERATURE OF THE EAST " 137 Those men occupy and enjoy themselves in what is outside the common ways of the world. make man to be the fellow of the Creator. Master. according to his conception of it. I can attach no other or better meaning to the expression. composed of the elements Growing of earth. They. and again they end and they begin. man is develops in the Tao. A " . and Confucius said. How should they confusedly address themselves to the ceremonies practised by the common people. how should they know is first wherein death and life are to be found. " The reply was. " " Fishes breed and which you pursue grow in the water. 2 The idea that the body lire. but why do you. to the description of a living a string from God. and seek their enjoyment in the formless condition of heaven and earth. and seek their enjoyment in the business of doing nothing. an excrescence annexed to them. Nevertheless. cording to the common ways of the world ? 29 " I am in this under the condemning sentence of Heaven. and exposed to public view by Heaven". They occupy having themselves ignorantly and vaguely with what they say lies outside the dust and dirt of the world. excrescence. and death to be a separation of the appendage and a dispersion of the contents of the . I was acting stupidly. and pre- tend that the common form them. of the body is composed of dismiss the thought of its inward constitgall.

Yen Hui Withthe mourning-rites he exhibited no sorrow. men do nothing. Mang-sun does not know either what purposes life serves. saying. " That Mang-sun carried out his views to the utmost. And moreover. he will simply await the transformation which he does not yet know." Hence it is other men. men ' ! ' said. I venture to ask about the man who stands The reply was." Chung-ni said. Hence it . the fishes cleave the pools. Tshai died. something else. Mang-sun presented in his body the appear- felt The people set such store by the mourning-rites. and their nourishment is supplied to them. or what death serves. and the enjoyment of their ' life is secured. Developing in the Tao. " He stands aloof from aloof from others. out these three things. is it that in the State of Lu one who during all has not the reality may yet get the reputation of having it? I think the matter very strange. in the core of his heart he felt no distress. he does not know which should be first If he is to be transformed into sought. This would seem to show that Taoism arose after the earlier views of the Chinese. that Mang-sun he must present the appearance of observing them. the superior man among Heaven!'" CHAPTER the superior man among men is the small man of is XII " When the mother of asked Chung-ni. how does he know that it has taken place? Take the case of me and you: are we in a dream from which we have not begun to awake? " Moreover. This is all he does. how does he know that it has not taken place? And when he is not about to undergo his change. he was considered to have discharged his mourning well. but he is in accord with Heaven is said. and which last. but in this case it was not possible for him to appear to be negligent in his ceremonial 30 but he succeeded in being really so to himself.' " Tze-kung said. The small man of Heaven men. Fishes forgot one another in the rivers and lakes forget one another in the arts of the Tao. observances. so . He was advanced in knowledge.138 THE SACRED BOOKS the water. when one is about to undergo his change. in all his wailing for her he did not Mang-sun shed a tear.

benevolence and righteousness. " Why then have you come to me ? Since Yao has put on you the brand of his benevolence and righteousness. having in himself the reason they wailed. you dream that you are a bird. it is not the smile suddenly produced that produces the arrangement of the person." said the " can see nothing it can not be.LITERATURE OF THE EAST of no loss." But. and Hwang-Ti his wisdom. And we as have our individuality which makes us what we are compared together but how do we know that we determine all . When one rests in what has been arranged. Chu-liang his strength. It is not the meeting with ing is pleasurable that produces the smile. which " I should like to skirt along its hedges. or that you are a fish." Hsu Yu rejoined. the blind have nothing to do with the green. other. but in his mind he was conscious The death was to him like the issuing from one's at dawn. how will you be able to wander in the way of aimless enjoyment." I-r Tze rejoined. he also why he did so. eyes. Eyes without pupils of the beauty of the eyebrows. what and puts away all thought of the transformation. gated colors of the sacrificial robes. and be able to tell clearly and which wrong in conflicting statements. they all recovered them under the molding of your system. and seem to be diving in the in But you do not know whether we that are now speakdeep. 139 ance of being agitated. " Tze having gone to see Hsu Yu. yellow. of unregulated contemplation. when Wu-chuang lost his beauty. and no more terrible reality. and cut off your nose with his right and wrong. You must yourself labor at reply was. are awake or in a dream. When wailed. and seem to be soaring to the sky. and varie" Yet. and the ever-chang" " That may be but I-r Tze said." CHAPTER I-r XIII him. ing forms of dispute ? is right . any case correctly that individuality? Moreover. he is in unity with the mysterious Heaven. and other features. how do you know that the Maker . He was dwelling more awake than others were. the latter said to What " benefit have you received from Yao ? " The Yao says to me.

but that is not enough. Another day. and " What do you mean by saying that you sit and forget said. and said. antiquity. you are become impermanent. you are free from Chung-ni said. You have. and does not consider it any act of skill His favors reach it to all generations. saw the Master. I will tell you the rudiments. to which the sage would. " I am " What do you mean ? " "I have lost making progress. Here is another testimony." 32 Another denomination." " One with that Pervader. O my Master! O my Master! He gives to all things their blended qualities. and said." third day. He is this is He in whom I find my enjoyment. and supply my dismemberment. its dissolved. This I call sitting and forgetting all things. Hui again A Yen Hui parts is " replied. . adduced by our author. so that. no doubt." all thought of ceremonies and music." forget everything. and does not count it any righteousness. and does not count Himself old." CHAPTER XIV Yen Hui said. of Confucius's appreciation of Taoism. and bidding my knowledge. " Ah that may follow you as my teacher ? will not obliterate the my ! can not yet be known. indeed." Chung-ni changed countenance. possibly. so transformed. again perfect in my form. I am become one with the Great 31 Pervader. but benevolence and righteousness. everything ? " that is not enough. Hui again saw Chung-ni. He carves and fashions all bodily forms. all likings. Thus leaving my perceptive organs are material form." " Very well . He overspreads heaven and supports the earth. have taken 82 exception. " I am " What do you mean ? " "I sit and making progress. of the Tao." was the reply. and He does not count more ancient than the highest any benevolence.140 THE SACRED BOOKS marks of branding. become superior to me I must ask leave farewell to my ! to follow in si your steps." "Very well. I " Hsu Yu said." Chung-ni re" What do you mean ? " "I have ceased to think of plied. My connection with the body and discarded. " I am making progress.

OE " THE NORMAL COURSE FOR RULERS AND KINGS " CHAPTER I Nieh Chueh put four questions to which did he know how to answer. Would my parents "O have wished me to be so poor ? Heaven overspreads all . the highest issue of Taoism unquestioning submission to what beyond our knowledge and control. and there came the Father! O Mother! O Heaven! O Men!" words. and I could But here I am in this extremity not do so. there issued from it sounds between singing and wailing. not one of On this Nieh Chueh He Do . when it Tze-yu had rained continuously for ten days. it is what " 34 was appointed for me ! ! BOOK VII YING TI WANG. and so does Earth sustain all would Heaven and Earth make me so poor with any unkindly feeling ? I was trying to find out who had done it.LITERATURE OF THE EAST CHAPTER XV 33 141 and Tze-sang 33 were friends. and thinking in vain. leaped up. who " line of Thai. how it was replied. Tze-yu said. 33 3* 2 He of Yu still kept in himself the idea of : Two Here is of the is men in chapters ix and x. than Fu-hsi. that I was brought to such extremity. Sir. Hwang-fu Mi. and in great delight walked away and informed Phu-i-tze " it ? l Wang I. and the line was hurriedly " pronounced. earlier. 2 An ancient sovereign. with- out any partial feeling. who adds that Shun served him as his master when he was eight years old. So. When he came rice. no doubt. a lute was struck. The voice could not sustain itself. Tze-yu entered and said. " I fear that Tze-sang may be in only now know said to him." So he wrapped up some and went to give it to him to eat. but nothing is known of him. . to Tze-sang's door. Once. Why "are you singin such a way ? The other ing. I suppose the name indicates that his clothes were made of rushes. of the line of Yu was not equal to him of the of it. 1 An ancient Taoist. of the time of Shun. this line of poetry " I was thinking.

to avoid being hurt by the dart on the string of the archer. " you? who The reply was. and awake in contented simplicity. Think of the bird which flies high. superior to the lower creatures. or employing a mosquito to carry a mountain on its back. as a man. Shun in governing employed his acquired knowledge. in order to carry on the government of the world. said to him. He me that regulations according to their when rulers gave forth their own views. hypocrisy of virtue. And when a sage is governing. . and he did win men. and enacted right- eous measures. this is the simple and certain way by which he secures the success of his affairs.THE SACRED BOOKS benevolence by which to constrain the submission of men. and so his government goes on. What told did Tsah-chung Shih tell Chieh-yu. Thai had not begun to do so." " The s He thought nothing about his being. and " all would be transformed. came to the neighborhood of the Liao-water. he had not begun by doubts and his virtue was very true to proceed by what belonged to him as a man. and the little mouse which makes its hole deep under Shan-chiu to avoid the danger of being smoked or dug out. does he govern men's outward actions? He is himself correct. For the right ordering of the world it would be like trying to wade through the sea and dig through the Ho." That is but the Chieh-yu said. CHAPTER Chien II Wu " " went to see the mad recluse. He would consider himself now merely as a horse. . no one would venture not to obey them. rambling on the south of mount Yin. are rulers less knowing than these two little creatures " ? CHAPTER III Thien Kan. but he had not begun to proceed by what did not belong to him as a man. to meet with the man whose name is not Happening there known. saying. He of the line of Thai would sleep tranquilly. and now 3 His knowledge was real and untroubled merely as an ox. he put a done I beg to ask what should be question to him.

said is a man. whom Mencius attacked so haps. " In the governing of the intelligent kings. their transforming influence reached to all things. blend yourself with the primary ether in idle indifference allow all things to take their natural course. which make men lead them in strings . for the government of the world that you thus moreover. but the people No one could tell the did not refer it to them with hope. do you put to me a question for which you are unWhy prepared? I would simply play the part of the Maker of all things. Yang 4 Tze-chu. but can one similarly endowed be compared to the " intelli- gent kings ? " I venture looked discomposed and said.LITERATURE OF THE EAST nameless 143 Go away you are a rude borderer. a contemporary and disciple of Lao-tze. proceed beyond the six cardinal points. and wander in the region of nonentity. When wearied. and the nameless man said. And moreover. man " enjoyment in pure simplicity. " Thien Kan. . alert and vigorous in responding to all matters. to ask you what the government of the intelligent kings is." its . He was. his various contrivances. and admit no personal or selfish consideration: do this and the world will be governed. CHAPTER IV having an interview with Lao Tan. What method have you. " Such a man is of the intelligent kings ? to one of the intelligent kings but as the bustling underling of a court who toils his body and distresses his mind with " Here to him." Lao Tan replied. said. can he be compared to one " The reply was. their services overspread all under the sky. * fiercely. The Yang-Chu. clear-sighted and widely intelligent. I would mount on the bird of the light and empty air. again asked the agitate my mind ? " Let your mind find question. or the sagacity of the dog that catches the yak. per- . however. the agility of the monkey. to dwell in the wilderness of desert space. but they did not Yang Tze-chu seem to consider it as proceeding from themselves. and an unwearied student of the Tao. it is the beauty of the skins of the tiger and leopard which makes men hunt them.

" On the morrow. and have not communicated its reality and spirit. of Chang saw him. and whether their lives would be long or short. the eggs. he wept till the front of his jacket was wet with his tears. and so enable this man to to succeed in interpreting your physiognomy. " I have communicated to you but the outward letter of my doctrine. Liehpeople tze went to see him. Try to come to me with him again. and told Hu-tze what the man had said. not be fathomed. and said." a real knowledge of it. if there be not the cock among them." : 5 "The hens" " spirit . but without any appearance of growth or regularity he seemed to see me with the springs of my vital power closed up. " I showed myself to him with the forms of vegetation beneath the earth. and the day like a spirit. He will not live not for ten days more! I saw something strange about him I saw the ashes of his life all slaked with water! " When Lieh-tze re-entered. accordingly. foretelling the year. but they made men and things be Where they took their stand could joyful in themselves. "Alas! your master is a dead man. signify the letter of the doctrine. he told Hu-tze of his interview." CHAPTER v In Chang there was a mysterious wizard called Chi-hsien. their misery and happiness. their preservation and ruin. He knew all about the deaths and births of men. to be perfect. the wizard said. " I considered your doctrine. When they went out. "the cock/' its . and was fascinated by him. and they found their enjoyment in the name realm of nonentity. that I may show myself to him.144 THE SACRED BOOKS of their agency. Returning. Lieh-tze came with the man and saw Hu-tze." Hu-tze replied. how should they lay real eggs ? 5 When you confront the world with your doctrine. There were the sprouts indeed. they all ran out of his way. the When the nionth. Try to come me with him. my master. Hu-tze said. the decade. you are sure to show in your countenance all that is in your mind. but I have found another which is superior to it. and do you think that you are in possession of it ? However many hens there be.

there is an abyss. 10. VOL. Lieh-tze went in and reported this I will again view him. Lieh-tze brought the man again When they went out. where it does so from the arresting of its course. he seemed to see with the springs of vigorous action in full play." words to his master. But before he had settled himself in his position. there is an abyss. meant to represent." Hu-tze rejoined. " There is an end of him turned. the wizard lost "Pursue him. 145 Next day. I confronted He did not know what I vacancy. accordingly.LITERATURE OF THE EAST and saw Hu-tze. ." " This time I showed myself to him after to Hu-tze. and the water keeps flowing on. " It is a fortunate thing for your master that he met with me. and again saw Hu-tze with him. Try to come with him again. and they again saw Hu-tze. I showing him myself after the pattern of what was before him with pure began to come from my author. He will get better. who said. " I showed myself to him after Neither semblance the pattern of the earth beneath the sky. with the superiority inclining to neither. and an easy indifference. where it does so. but could not come up with him. life me the pattern of the grand harmony of the two elemental He seemed forces. and told Hu-tze. Where the water wheels about from the movements of a an abyss. Let him try to steady himself. and stand his physiognomy. the man said. When they went out. He reLieh-tze did so. " I was he is lost I could not find him. nor reality entered into my exhibition. Now he thought it was the idea of ." said Hu-tze. there is again. to see me with the springs of vital power in equal balance." Next day they came. he has all the signs of living! I saw the balance of the springs of life that had been stopped Lieh-tze went in. There are nine abysses with their several names. and himself and ran away. and I have Try to come with him only exhibited three of them. and reported these inclining in his favor. dugong." Next day Lieh-tze came with the man again. but the springs of were issuing from beneath my feet. XII. saying. who said. . the wizard " Your master is never the same. I can not undersaid.

Let us try to make them for him. CHAPTER VI Non-action makes non-action serves fits its him exemplifier the lord of all fame. He did the cooking for his wife. who treated them very well. and injures none. and for three years did not go out. but does not retain it. it is a mirror." Accordingly they all Perhaps * " 8 Meaning " Meaning Sudden. and said. as the treasury of all plans . while this poor Ruler alone has not one. They consulted how they might repay his kindness. shut up in himself. Thus he is able to deal successfully with all things. hearing.146 THE SACRED BOOKS exhausted strength. non-action all offices. eating. Lieh-tze considered that he had not yet begun to learn his master's doctrine. He fulfils all that he has received from Heaven. it responds to what is before it. He put the carving and sculpture about him. He fed the pigs as if he were feeding men. And in this way he continued to the end of his life. It conducts nothing and anticipates nothing. and therefore he ran away. Like a clod of earth he stood there in his away Amid all distractions he was silent and bodily presence. Heedless. Shu and Hu were continually meeting in the land of Chaos. and returned to pure simplicity. and breathing." " god " would be a better translation. but there the perfect man employs his mind. and the Ruler of the Center was Chaos." . " Men together of the Southern 8 The Ruler 6 have seven orifices for the purpose of seeing." After this. but he does not see that he was the recipient of anything. The range of his action is inexis nowhere any trace of his presence. A pure vacancy of all purpose is what characterizes him. 7 the Ruler of the Northern Ocean was Hu. When the lord of haustible. VII CHAPTER Ocean was Shu. and now that of an onward flow. He returned to his house. He took no part or interest in occurring affairs. him for the burden of all non-action makes him wisdom.

less " END OF THE NEI ." One critic says to the use of knowledge in government.LITERATURE OF THE EAST dug one orifice in him every day." But surely " Heedit was better that Chaos should give place to another state. opposition " that an "alas! might well follow the concluding "died." says allegory is ingenious and amusing. " " " and Sudden did not do a bad work. The little 147 at the end of seven It indicates. "how action (the opposite of non-inaction) injures the first condiMore especially it is in harmony with the Taoistic tion of things. Lin. and 9 days Chaos died.

I have heard parties surely spoken of me. and the hundischarging themselves into the Ho. with his face to the east. On this the Spirit-earl of the delight." 3 had not come Tso. Then he began to turn his face round. I should have been in danger of continuing in my ignorance. If I to your gate. and been laughed at for long in the schools of our great System. or the tenth of the " Outer " books supplementary to the Nei. presses about him who has learned a hundred points of the Tao. was greatly swollen.FLOODS OF AUTUMN CHAPTER I l The time Its current of the autumnal floods all dred streams were was come. The Floods of Autumn the works of Chuang-tze. 3 Thus the Confucian learning and its worthies were to the system of Tao only as the waters of the Ho to the great sea. It is more difficult to collect the legends about Tso of the sea. 1 "A frog usually accounted the most eloquent of It is the seventeenth of his books. thinking that all laughed with the beauty of the world was to be Ho 2 found in his charge. or of the Northern Sea. as if he were confronting " What 2 the vulgar saying exTso. and thinks that there is no one equal to himself. looked across the expanse. without being able to see where its waters began. and at first I did not believe them. 148 . said. little of the knowledge of Chung-ni and the making righteousness of Po-i. Now I behold the all-but-boundless extent of your realms. Along the course of the river he walked east till he came to the North Sea. 2 Our author adopts the common beliefs or superstitions of his time. is and after his fashion puts his own reasonings into the mouths of these mythological personages. so that across its channel from bank to bank one could not distinguish an ox from a horse. was And moreover. the Spirit-lord of the Northern Sea. over which he looked. and said with a sigh.

wherever boats and carriages reach. men form only one portion. 149 he is con- An -it insect of the summer can not be talked with about ice its own season. compared in a large marsh with the space between the four seas. how should I make much When we single little grain of rice in a great granary! would set forth the number of things in existence. Of all the waters under heaven there are none so great as the sea. made much of myself. all which the royal founders of the three dynasties contended for. of myself ? I estimate all within the four seas. notwithstanding this. Thus. and yet it is not emptied. and beheld the great sea. but of all whose life is mainis myriads of things. all which excited the . and man all the nine provinces . is because I compare my own bodily form with the greatness of heaven and earth. knows nothing beyond your own ignorance and inferiority. Its it takes no notice of floods or of drought. it A myriad being fitted to be talked with about great principles. and are in the way of streams flow into it without ceasing. Within this range are comprehended all the territories which the five Tis received in succession from one another. compared with the occupy Men only one of them. So long as I see myself to me thus small. they are not equal to a single fine hair on the body of a horse. and afterward it discharges them also without In spring and in autumn ceasing.LITERATURE OF THE EAST in a well can not be talked with about the sea fined to the limits of his hole. and remember that I have Between received my breath from the Yin and Yang. Chiang and that I have never. A scholar of limited views can not be talked with about the Tao he is bound by the teaching which he has received. and yet it is not filled. heaven and earth I am but as a small stone or a small tree on a great hill. undergoes no change. to be smaller than a ! superiority over such streams even as the and the Ho can not be told by measures or numbers . compared with the space between heaven and earth. we speak of them as myriads. to be not so large as that occupied by a pile of stones I estimate our Middle States. tained by grain-food. Now you have come forth from between your You have come to know banks.

nor disheartened by failure knowing the inconstancy of man's lot. this leads to error and confusion. appeal with intelligence to things of ancient and re- knowing how cent occurrence. The different capacities of things are illimitable . or standing on tiptoe to lay hold of the latter knowing that time never stops in its course. Po-i was accounted famous for declining to share in its government. We must reckon that what men know is not so much as what they do not know. They know the plain and quiet path in which things proceed.150 THE SACRED BOOKS anxiety of Benevolent men . nor much of them . nor count it a calamity to die the end and the beginning of things never occurring twice in same way. and the point of a hair as that of what is small ? " Tso of the Northern " Sea replied. the ' Looking at the subject in this is the point of a hair way. without being troubled by the remoteness of the former. may I consider heaven and earth as the ideal of what is great. No. therefore they are not overjoyed to live. not overjoyed by success. Therefore men of great wisdom. do not think them insignificant for being small. and all which men in office have toiled for. for being great They capacities differ inimitably. "Well then. and they can not attain their end. looking at things far off or near at hand. They examine with discrimination cases of fulness and of want. and Chung-ni was accounted great because of the lessons which he addressed to it. When they take that which is most small and try to fill with it the dimensions of what is most great. and that the time since they were born is not so long as that which elapsed before they were born. how can you know that sufficient to determine the minuteness . but is always moving on man's lot is ever changing. They acted as they much of themselves therein like you who a did. time never stops. making little time ago did so of yourself because of your volume of " ! water CHAPTER II The earl of the Ho said. the end and the beginning of things never occur twice in the same way.

while he differs in his conduct from the own from vulgar. that which is most great can not be encompassed'. there is no longer a possibility of numerical What can be discoursed about in words is the estimate. tilty of things. what can be reached in idea is the subWhat can not be discoursed about in words. he does not plume himself on declining them while he does not borrow the help of others to accomplish his affairs. emoluments of the world furnish no stimulus to him. when from the standpoint of what is great we look at what is small. he does not plume himself on being so different the multitude. " When from extreme degree and the vast mass is greatness in its largest form. we do not take it all in . there is no longer a possi- numerical division. each has its suitability . Different as they are. is this " of the Northern Sea The earl of the Ho said. " Therefore while the actions of the Great Man are not directed to injure men. he does not plume himself on his bility of benevolence and kindness while his movements are not made with a view to gain. nor does he despise those who in their greed what is mean. and what can not be reached by nice discrimination of thought. he does not consider the menials of a family as mean . really the truth ? Tso replied. where it is not possible to encompass a mass. nor despise the . we do not Now the subtile essence is smallness in its see it clearly. or that heaven and earth are sufficient " complete the dimensions of what is most large ? what is CHAPTER in " The disputers of the world all ' That which is most minute has no bodily form . not The rank and glib-tongued flatterers. Where there is no bodily form. and say. . he does them while it is his desire to follow . But the subtile and the gross both presuppose that they have a bodily form. grossness of things .LITERATURE OF THE EAST of to 151 most small. his do strength. the standpoint of what is small we look at what is great. he does not plume himself on supporting himself by . has nothing to do either with subtilty or grossness. while he does not strive after property and wealth. according to their several conditions.

them with respect to their tendencies. such is the view arising from the consideration of tendency and aim. There are the there is no one who may not be condemned. their being noble or mean does not depend on themselves. . When great or small ? we look at them in the light of the Tao. and that what is small and what is great can often not be denned. if we approve of what they approve." CHAPTER IV The is earl of the Ho said. or what is internal. The Man of Tao does not become distinguished. and . Looking at . allowing to everything the service which it does. then there is no one who may not be approved of and. and despises others.152 does he reckon THE SACRED BOOKS its punishments and shame to be a disgrace. and that the point of a hair is as a mound or a mountain such is the view given of them by their relative size. yet that the one can not be without suggesting the idea of the other. to so great a degree may the lot be restricted. Looking at them in their differences from one another. they are neither noble nor mean. the unsuccessful . each of whom approved of his own course. thus their share of mutual service is determined. He knows that the right and the wrong can often not be distinguished. there if we call those great others. that heaven and earth are but as a grain of the smallest rice. cases of Yao and Chieh. for there is not one which is not unserviceable. the Great Man has no greatest virtue is ' thought of self . there is not one which is not serviceable and. We know. if we condemn what they condemn. each thinks itself noble. Looking at them in the light of common opinion. how do we come to make a distinction between them as noble and mean. and in the same way We shall thus know . Looking at them in themselves. and as " " Tso of the Northern Sea replied. instance. which are greater than not great. extending the consideration to what it does not do. and condemned the other. that East and West are opposed to each other. I have heard ' it said. Looking at them from the services they render. there is nothing that is is nothing that is not small. " Whether the subject be what external in things.

and each became king. requirements of his time and contrary to its custom is called an usurper. and the follow and honor those ' : rulers of the three dynasties transmitted their thrones to their He who acts differently from the successors in another. The Ti sovereigns resigned their thrones to others in one way. but in bright day it stares with its eyes and can not see a " A it but mound " or a hill the natures of creatures are different. which led to his ruin. The horses Chih-chi and Hwaimplements 4 liu could in one day gallop 1000 li. on the one hand. and yet each continued to be Ti Chih-khwai resigned his marquisate.LITERATURE OF THE EAST " 153 Formerly Yao and Shun resigned their thrones. they are visionaries. the Duke of Pai contended for Chu. and a time for mean. Yet notwithstanding they go on talking so if they are not stupid. . but for catching rats the gifts of they were not equal to a wild dog or a weasel creatures are different. and have nothing to do with the wrong? shall we not who secure good government. and from the conduct of Yao. we see that there is a time for noble acting. and have nothing to do with those who produce disorder ? show a want of acquaintance with the principles of Heaven and It is like Earth. and honoring Heaven and taking no account of following Earth. and with the different qualities of things. these characteristics are subject to no regular rule. ' Hence the sayings. It is clear that such a course can not be pursued. . which led to his extinction. Looking at the subject from these examples of striving by force and of resigning. Shall we not follow and honor the right. it is like following and honoring the Yin and taking no account of the Yang. The white horned owl collects its fleas in the night-time. CHAPTER V battering-ram may be used against the wall of a city. can not be employed to stop up a hole the uses ot are different. and can discern the point of a hair. he who complies with the time and follows the * Two of King Mu's team of eight famous steeds. and of Chieh on the other. Thang and Wu contended for the sovereignty.

should you know what constitutes earl of the Ho. what is mean? These expressions are but the different ex- do? and what am I not to do? How am tremes of the average level. " There is no end or beginning to the Tao. and form no called being Hold all things in your love. without any local or partial regard. and now fulness The years can not be rethey do not continue in one form. not reaching a perfect state which can be relied on. with every move- . What are few? and what are many? These are denominations which we employ in thanking donors and dispensing gifts. Things indeed die and are born. Do not keep pertinaciously to your own ideas. favor- ing and supporting none specially. which put you in such opposition to the Tao. Be scrupulous. With every movement there is a change. and what I pur" Tso of the Northern Sea resue or put away from me ? " From the standpoint of the Tao. the ruler of a State does not selfishly bestow his favors. Now there is emptiness.154 THE SACRED BOOKS How common O Hold your peace. practise is said to be righteous. But what am I I to be guided after all in regard to what I accept or reject. like not study to be uniform in doing so it only Be severe and different you are from the Tao. begin again. produced. when they end. or the great " ? who are the small and who CHAPTER VI The to earl of the Ho " said. yet gentle. who whose four terminating points are particular enclosures. when sacrifice is offered to him who does not bestow his blessing selfishly. . fulness and emptiness. of things is like the hurrying and galloping along of a horse. Decay and growth. Do shows how strict. Very well. This all is things are equally regarded there is no long or short among them. time can not be arrested. Be large-minded like space. what is noble ? and plied. being noble and being mean. It is thus that we describe the method of great righteousness. illimitable. and The life discourse about the principle pervading all things. like the tutelary spirit of the land.

What then there so valuable " . and the noses of oxen tion. ." What do you mean ? and by the is " Human ? " by the Heavpursued the earl. he is sure to understand how to regulate his conduct in all varying circumstances. Fire can not burn him who is so perfect in virtue. do not bury your proper fame in such a pursuit of it. . it means that he discriminates between where he may safely rest and where he will be in peril that he is tranquil equally in calamity and happiness. 'What is heavenly is internal. " Oxen and horses " Tso replied. Having that understanding. you be pronounced to have reached perfection.' 3 : ." CHAPTER VII is The in the Tao ? Tso of the Northern Sea replied. Hence it are pierced. have four feet. that is what I call the doing of Man. he will not allow things to injure himself.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 155 ment there is an alteration. carefully guard the Way and do not lose it this is what I call reverting to your True Nature. earl of the " Ho " said. your root in what is Heavenly and your posi- tion in Virtue. You will bend or stretch only after the necessary hesitation and may " enly. appointment of Heaven. that he is careful what he avoids and what he Hence it is so that nothing can injure him. approaches . ' . This does not mean that he is indifferent to these things. What should you be doing? what should you not be doing? You have only to be allowing this course of natural transformation to be going on. that what I Do not by the Human doing extinguish the Heavenly constitution do not for your Human purpose extinguish the is said. He who knows the Tao is sure to be well acquainted with the principles that appear in the procedures of things. If you know you will have the operation of what is Heavenly and what is Human. call their Heavenly constituWhen horses' heads are haltered. Acquainted with those principles.' The virtue of man is in what is Heavenly. said. what is human is external. will have returned to the essential. nor water drown him neither cold nor heat can affect him injuriously neither bird nor beast can hurt him.

and therein are superior to me." The khwei is "a sort of dragon (it may be. the milliped. But it is only he who 6 is the sagely man that is the Great Conqueror of all. But you can point to me. . But now you. Therefore he whom all that are small can not overcome is a great overcomer. With and can hardly manage to go along. With such a blustering* force I rise in the North Sea and go on to the South Sea. how BO abundantly furnished so. and it may be said also to the wind." who embodies the Tao. and the eye to be like the mind. multitude of feet . Now I Have you put in motion the springs set in knowing how I do so. you who have no feet at all ? " How can the method of moving by the springs set in us by Heaven be changed ? How could I make use of feet ? " I go along by means of that I do not go so fast as " I get along by moving my serpent said to the wind. thus appearing to have some bodily means The of progression.156 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER VIII desires to be like the milliped . as you are also in treading on me. without The milliped my said to the serpent. " Yes. ? my one leg I hop Now you have a is it that " The milliped " said. and blow standing. myriad feet which you can employ. their means of progression and action. Yet notwithit is only I who can break great trees. " The about." me by " Heaven. rise with a blustering force in the North Sea. while the smaller portions fall portion down like a shower of mist in innumerable drops. down great houses. 5 the milliped to be like the serpent. and go on in the same way to the seemingly without any such means. Nothing is said of the eye and the mind it was not necessary to dwell on the Tao in them." The sagely man is " the True man. Jchwei said to the milliped. the serpent. The Tao has given to the khicei. the wind The khwei 5 to be like the eye . a worm) with one The hsien has many feet one account calls it " a centiped." South Sea . you are It is not not seen one ejecting saliva? The largest of it is like a pearl. How " does it take place ? The wind said. backbone and ribs. and yet how is it " The serpent replied. Sir. . the serpent like the wind. foot.

8 and therefore saying. constructed by him to convey his own Taoistic t lessons. that is the courage of with great distress is yet not afraid the sagely man." With this he A begged to take his leave. " We thought you were Yang Hu. 7 some people of Sung once surrounded him with a hostile intention several ranks deep but he kept singing to his lute without stopping. No doubt the Yang Ho of " Analects " XVII. Under Yao and Shun there was no one in the kingdom reduced to straits like mine. I have tried to avoid being reduced to such a strait for a long time. " Come here. I have sought to find a ruler that would employ me for a long time. . Those who do business on land do not shrink from meeting rhinoceroses and tigers that is the courage Tsze-lu Confucius was traveling in Khwang. " People that do business on the water do not shrink from that is the courage of meeting iguanodons and dragons fishermen. . and that I have not escaped shows that it was so appointed for me. shows the character of the time." the leader of the armed men approached and took his leave. When he knows that his strait is of the determined soldier. Our author's account of this event is his own. surrounded you. and it was not by their sagacity that men succeeded as they did. Master. Wait. " that you are so pleased ? Confucius said. . determined for him. Under Chieh and Chau no good and able man in the kingdom found his way to employment and It it was not for want of sagacity that they failed to do so. When men see the sharp weapons crossed before that is the courage and look on death as going home them. and I will tell you. my good Yu.LITERATURE OF THE EAST CHAPTER IX 157 and saw him. was simply owing to the times and their character. and then meeting of hunters. " See Confucian Analects. When came in. there is determined for me in my lot." IX and XI. and you will see what little afterward. and withdrew. and said. and that I have not found one. Now we see our mistake. " How is it. and that the employment of him by a ruler depends on the character of the time.

a great admirer." . and strike out. I dive till my feet are lost in it. it is Eastern Sea. now discussion. that " the attributes of material objects. whose views it is not easy to define. . I do not know whether it be that I do not come up to him in the power of . I draw my legs together. evidently. are separate existences.158 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER X Kung-sun Lung asked Mau of Wei. of the dilapidated well. such as hardness and color. . When I have got to the mud. and having by means of the propet of this well. formed by the fragments of the broken tiles of the jections lining proceeded to the water. or that knowledge is not equal to his. when one has entire command of all the water in the gully. and what was allowable and what was not I studied painfully the various schools of thought. I see that of the shrimps. and how it said to the turtle of the I leap upon the paraI enter. 9 " . myself master of the reasonings of all their masters. saying. I became proficient in the practise of benevolence and righteousness. n Holding. and Mau was one of the sons of its ruler at this time. crabs. and more than a match for the sophist Lung. 10 Wei was another of the divisions of Tsin. of Chuang-tze. and hesitates to go forward. But I do not feel able to open mouth. and tadpoles there is not one that can do like me. and made 10 . they throw me into a flutter of surprise. looked up to " Have you not heard of the frog heaven. smiled. I brought together the Views that agreed and disagreed I considered the questions about hardness and whiteness ai I set forth what was to be affirmed and what was not. Then turning round. He has come down to us as a philosophic sophist. Moreover. I learned the teachings of the former kings and when I was grown up. When I was young. keep my chin up. it is supposed. I thought that I had reached a good understanding of every subject but now that I have heard the words of Chuang-tze." Kung-tze Mau leaned forward on his stool. and venture to ask my my you what course I should pursue. and said. drew a long breath. 'How I enjoy myself? the greatest pleasure to enjoy one's self here in this dilapi- The grandson ( Kung-sun ) of one of the rulers of Chao ( one of the three States into which the great State of Tsin had been broken up).

equal to sound seven years out of eight there was a drought. you. 159 why do and see it for yourself? not you. when Chuang-tze. often come and enter. and its water was not sensibly increased. and is lost in the Without any regard to east and west. Master. self in surprise.' When the frog of the dilapidated well heard this. who have not wisdom enough to know the words employed in discussing very mysterious subjects. and that they do it is Thus advance nor recede for any addition or subtraction. is freedom he launches out in every direction. evidently some small insect. and anon rises to the height of the Empyrean. out of ten the flooded land all drained into it. still desire to see through the words of " And moreover. but we can not tell . On this he hesitated. The turtle of the Eastern Sea was ' then proceeding to go forward. and told the frog all about the ' sea. yet hasten to show your sharpness of speech on any occasion that may occur. tasks to which both the insects are sure to be is like its further. employing a mosquito to carry a or a milliped 12 to gallop as fast as the back. but the rocks on the shore saw no diminution of the water because of it. that mountain on Ho runs . is not this being like the frog unequal. when you. and in the time of Thang for press its extent. start- A different character graph what.LITERATURE OF THE EAST dated well . he was amazed and terror-struck. from that for a milliped in the last paraa Shang Chu. with now unfathomable. for nine years depth. that no change is produced in its waters by any cause operating for a short time or a long. Still of the dilapidated well ? " And that Chuang-tze plants his foot on the Yellow Springs below the earth. and lost himnot . drew back. he found his right knee caught and held fast. but before he had put in his left foot. saying. whether great or small and this is the great pleasure afforded by the Eastern Sea. A distance of a thousand its li is not sufficient to ex- nor would a line of eight thousand cubits be In the time of Yu. who have not wisdom enough to know where the discussions about what is right and what is wrong should end. Without any regard to south and north.

be thus honored? Or would it to live. If now you do not go away. and were marched back to it on their hands and knees. and said. and could not shut He slank away his mouth. and how they did in Han-tan? quired what they might have done in that capital. in amazeis grandly intelligible." Chuang-tze kept on holding his rod without looking " I have heard that in Chu there is a spiritround. the wearer of which died 3000 years ago. and grope among ment. so called from of Khai-fang. I will keep on drawing my tail me through the mud. you will forget your old acquirements.160 ing from what is THE SACRED BOOKS abysmally obscure. in the present department . and his tongue clave to its roof. " I wish to trouble you with the charge of all within my territories. Chuang-tze had told Hui-tze that Chuang-tze went to see him. Some one i Another name for Wei. when the King of Chu sent two great officers to him. and draw its tail after it over the mud. Was it better for the tortoise to and leave its shell to it have been better for " through the mud ? been better for it to The two live. and ran off. with the message. like tortoise-shell. search for his views to examine them. Sir. and which the king keeps. in a hamper covered with a cloth. are not both the implements too small for the purpose ? Go your ways. heavens through a tube. or aiming at the earth with an awl. you." after " Go your ways. in his ancestral temple. he comes back to what All the while. them for matter for discussion at the this is just like peeping . they had forgotten what they had learned to do in their old city. and keep on dragging its tail " It would have officers said. CHAPTER XI Chuang-tze was once fishing in the river Phu. " And have you not heard of the young learners of ShauBefore they had acling. its capital." Kung-sun Lung gaped on the speaker. die. and fail in your profession. Sir." CHAPTER XII 13 Hui-tze being a minister of State in Liang.

about at their ease that is the enjoyment of fishes. and though indeed I do not fully know you. and instituted a search for the stranger all over the kingdom for three days and three nights." the argus pheasant. joyment of fishes You ' How ' do you know what constitutes the en. looked up to it and gave an angry scream. " You are not a fish . There is in the south a bird. it flies to the Northern never resting but on the bignonia." may ourselves together over the So the be " Williams thinks the bird critics explain the name. I know it from our enjoying Hao. you certainly are not a fish. on which he was afraid. and never drinking but from the purest springs. when a phoenix went passing overhead. ? put your i* question to You knew that I knew it. never eating but the fruit of the melia azederacli. how do you know what ' .LITERATURE OF THE EAST 161 was come with a wish to supersede him in his office. 14 do you know it ? Starting from the South Sea. An owl. and yet you me well." " Let us keep to your original question. when the former said. to frighten me with a simi" lar scream ? Chuang-tze and Hui-tze were walking on the dam over the " These thryssas come out. once." play The other said. called the Young Phoenix ' . said to me. How do you know that I do not know what ? " constitutes the enjoyment of fishes " Hui-tze said. and Hao. 11. " a variety of the peacock. After " this Chuang-tze went and saw him. in your possession of the kingdom of Liang. Do you wish now. constitutes the enjoyment of fishes ? Chuang-tze rejoined. which had got a putrid rat. Chuang-tze replied." or TOL. XII. and said. " I am not you. . " You are not I. and the argument is complete against your knowing what constitutes the happiness of fishes.

where he saw Heedless Knowledge. devoted to the pursuit of it. Ah I know. disappointed by the fruitlessness of his quesreturned to the south of the Bright Water. but Dumb Inaction gave him no reply. Hwang-Ti said. I wish to ask you some questions: By what process of thought and anxious consideration do we get to know the Tao? Where should we dwell and what should we do to find our rest in the Tao? From what point should we start and what path should we " He asked these three pursue to make the Tao our own ? 2 questions. and who replied. 2 he put the same questions. the height of the End of Doubt. returned to the palace of the Ti.CHIH PEI YU OR KNOWLEDGE RAMBLING IN THE NORTH CHAPTER Knowledge 2 l I had rambled northward to the region of the " Knowledge addressed him. and are used as the names of personages. know how to answer. or " Knowledge. where he saw Hwang-Ti. lf>2 . where he ascended the height of Imperceptible Slope. and ascended tions. and put the questions to him." But while he was about to speak. to dwell nowhere and do nothing Blurter. having more or less to do with the qualities of the Tao. " To exercise no thought and no anxious consideration is the first step toward knowing the Tao. to whom " ! is the twenty-second book of Chuang Outer " books. when it happened that he met with Dumb Inaction. saying." last of the and the " the Tao. This is one of the most typical books of Chuang in its figurative style. Knowledge. 2 All these names are metaphorical. and will tell you. he forgot what he wanted to say. again receiving no answer to his questions. but he did not Dark Water. Not only did he not answer. yet in it he speaks most plainly of his own views of 1 The Chih. His remaining books are classed as miscellany.

arrives at doing nothing. Heedless Blurter has an appearance of being so. This sentence is metaphorical of the Tao. and the commencement of disorder. He who practises the Tao daily diminishes his He diminishes it and again diminishes it. there is death. truly right . if you wanted to make it return to the original condition of its there is materials. . quot- * 5 See the " Tao-Teh King. Ceremonies appeared. its Characteristics When its Characteristics were lost." " I and you Knowledge then asked Hwang-Ti. 6 between them ? breath. to start from nowhere and pursue no path is the first step toward making the Tao your own. those who speak of it do not know it . When Righteousness was lost. " e This " Arranger is the Tao. The Tao can not be made lence may be practised. Ceremonies are but the unsubstantial flowers of the ' 4 Hence also it is Tao. Those who know the Tao do " 3 not speak of it . a regularly fashioned utensil. saying. these two passages. Since death and life thus attend on is s See the " Tao-Teh King. peared. no doubt. further said.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 163 is the first step toward resting in the Tao. by Ceremonies ' may be partially atmen impose on one another. " Dumb Inaction is ' use of speech. When that is collected. as he vaguely intimates. Benevocharacteristics will not come to us at our call. when it is dis- persed. When Benevolence was lost. and death is the predebut who knows the Arranger of this connection . know this those two did not know it which of us is right ? " . there is nothing that he does not do. Righteousness apappeared. till he doing." chapters LVI and n. Chuang-tze ing. 3 its ours by constraint . and Hence the sage conveys his instructions without the The reply was. Having arrived at this non-inac4 Here now tion. whose spell is broken by the intrusion of Knowledge. would it not be difficult to make it do so 5 any but the Great Man accomplish this easily ? ? Could " Life is cessor of life the follower of death. I and you are not ' near being so." chapters xxxvin and XLVIII. it is said. The life is due to the collecting of the there is life .' something. Hence When the Tao was lost. Benevolence appeared. Righteousness tended to. As it is said. .

did not answer me. 7 Even they. he yet did not do so. Not only did he not answer me. because we know it. and the spirit-like and wonderful is transformed again into the foetid its and putrid. why do you say that you you." Heedless Blurter heard of all this. but while he wanted to Now I have asked tell me. the is said to do nothing f " Compare the Tao-Teh King. Not only did he not tell me." chapter xxv. and while he wanted to tell me. I and you are not nearly right. one breath of Hence it is said. but they do not discuss them. are not near doing so?" Hwang-Ti replied. The sages trace out the admirable operations of Heaven and Earth. but they say nothing about them. to know how CHAPTER II The operations of Heaven and Earth proceed in the most admirable way. like and wonderful. why should I account either of them an evil? " Therefore all things go through one and the same exLife is accounted beautiful because it is spiritperience.' ' ' I asked Dumb Inaction. and reach to and understand the distinctive constitutions of all things. and he " but he did not answer me. Heedless Blurter was nearly right. and you knew all about them . as well as all the tribes that undergo their transformations. . All under the sky there is life. "Dumb Inaction was truly right. the four seasons observe the clearest laws. Knowledge said to Hwang-Ti. and death is accounted ugly because of But the foetid and putrid is transfoetor and putridity.164 THE SACRED BOOKS each other. he forgot all about my questions. such language showing that they look to Heaven and Earth as their model. the dead and the living. and thus it is that the Perfect Man and the Greatest Sage to originate nothing. because he did not know the thing. I asked Heedless Blurter. with their spirit-like and most exquisite intelligence. and considered that Hwang-Ti knew how to express himself on the subject. formed again into the spirit-like and wonderful. but they say nothing about them. all things have their complete and distinctive constitutions. because he forgot it. and therefore the sages prized that unity.

who re- " If you keep your body as it should be. small beneath the sky. and all that it contains. You will have the simple look of a new-born calf. but it is still All things are nourished by it. 8 III CHAPTER Nieh Chueh asked about the Tao from Phei-i. rising. seasons revolve the four each in its proper order. and will not seek to know the cause of your being what you are. and have no form. by we may obtain a view of what we mean by Heaven. without their spirit-like. Call in your knowledge. it all. and the spiritual belonging to you will come and lodge with you . and walked away. true. The Yin and Yang. s . now it seems to glide away. This is what is called the Root and Origin . it is in- debted to this for the completion of form." Phei-i had not finished these words when the other dozed off into a sleep. the Harmony of Heaven will come to you. "Like stump of rotten Like lime when slaked Real is tree his frame. it.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 165 square and the round. Now it seems to be lost in obscurity. singing as he went. Heaven. and now All things continue and move by knowing it it." which See the account of Nan-kwo Tze-chi in Book II. at the one thing. chapter i. ever same through this. Vast as is the space included within the six cardinal points. now descending. dark his aimless mind! one from him can counsel find. but it continues. cares what's hidden to pursue. the Attributes of the Tao will be your beauty. and the Tao itself will be your dwelling-place. Phei-i was greatly pleased. and look only plied. solid. What sort of man is he ? " Oh dim and No *' " The binomial " Heaven and Earth here gives place to the one term is often a synonym of Tao. and make your measures uniform. do not understand their root and origin. lies within this twofold root of Heaven and Earth." Nor his wisdom. the as is an autumn its hair. his mind became. but nevertheless they all from the oldest time by it preserve their being.

snakes. But . How then can you get the Tao. entrusted to you by Heaven and Earth. clear and purge your mind. but an office. we should not know the taste of our food all is done by the strong Yang influence of Heaven and Earth. Therefore when we walk. " Can I get " the Tao and hold it as mine ? The reply was. difficult to describe I will give you an outline of its replied. Life is not yours to hold. " Not the name of a man. See the account of death and life in chapter i. " Your body is not your own to hold how then can you get and hold the " " Tao ? Shun resumed. CHAPTER V Confucius asked Lao Tan. It is entrusted to to act in accordance with it. wash your spirit white as snow. we should not know what to occupy ourselves with. saying. who holds it ? Chang said. Your grandsons and sons are not yours to hold. as by fasting and vigil. and those with eight from eggs. 10 saying. It is the blended harmony of the Yin and Yang. I venture to ask you about the Perfect Tao. the Spiritual from the Tao.166 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER IV Shun asked his attendant Chang. Your nature." must. If my body be not mine to pos" " sess and hold. simplest attributes. and the bodily from the seminal essence. and crabs. The term in the text denotes the cast-off skin or shell of insects. They are the exuviae u entrusted to you by Heaven and Earth. After this all things produced one another from their bodily organizations. constituted as it is. 10 11 . " You The Luminous was produced from the Obscure the Multiform from the Unembodied. " Being at leisure toLao Tan day. and >J hold it as your own ? . and press your knowledge. when we eat. is you by Heaven and Earth not yours to hold. we should not know where we are going when we stop and rest. Thus it is that those which have nine apertures are born from the womb. It is the bodily form entrusted to you by Heaven and Earth. and sternly reThe subject of the Tao is deep.

tinous substance in which the breath is collecting. the sun and moon would not move. insufficient to play the part of a good Yao or a bad Chieh in. but he will return to his original source. classified. coming leaves no trace. how short is the space between them! It is but the name for a moment of time. reasoning will not make men wise in it . and dwells between heaven and earth only for the present a mere man. this is the true character of the Tao. according to which they are 12 his life be long or his death early. Whether " The fruits of trees and creeping plants have their distinctive characters. " Here is a man born in one of the middle states. and find their dependence in it. and they would seem to be correct. and nothing would flourish: such is the operation of the Tao. when all things go to it.LITERATURE OF THE EAST their 167 . without overburdened or weary. the With this one word our author sweeps the teaching of Purgatorial Sufferings. How deep it is." " " is The commentators the man here there suppose that by tended "a eage". beginning again when has come to an carried along and sustained all things. you try to add to it. however you try to take from it. that would be like the way of being the superior man. Looking at him in his origin. and though the relationships of men. says. it like the sea! How end! grand If it it is. merely an external operation. when his life begins. this is what the sages maintain about it. it admits of no diminution. it admits of no increase. we have but a gelafeels himself . the most extensive knowledge does not necessarily know it . " Moreover. 13 He independent both of the Yin and Yang. the However sages have decided against both these methods. nor earth broad . They who in this are strong in their limbs. and clear in their seeing. they respond to everything Without aright without regard to place or circumstance. they dwell in no apartment they are in a vast arena reaching in all directions. acute in their They exercise their hearing. are troublesome. this heaven would not be high. and their going no monument 12 they enter by no door. Hu Wan-ying " away is in- . sincere and far-reaching in their thinking. search for and find the Tao minds without being toiled.

all ." The other said. he does so according to It was thus that the Tis flourished. saying. and mankind grieve for it. . heard with the ears it is better to shut the ears than to try This is what is called the Great Attainment. and the body will follow them: This is the Great Returning home. There may be some confusion amidst the yielding to the change ." That will be more satisfactory. for." " " It is in this earthenGive me a still lower instance. Living things are made sad by death. he does them he responds to them in their regular harmony according to his virtue. when he meets with them. easily and quietly they all enter again. By a transformation they live. does not set himself in opposition to them. but it is only the removal of the bow from its sheath." " It is in this " Give a lower instance." to hear it. Where is what " Ev" you call the Tao to be found? Chuang-tze replied." panic grass. " Men's life between heaven and earth is like a white colt's passing a crevice. This is what the Those whose knowledge is complete do not discuss it." " " It is ware tile. is what what those who are on their incorporeity. and the emptying the natural satchel of its contents. As with a plunge and an effort they all come forth . and when he has passed through them. " frame came from That the and will bodily return to the same. and by another transformation they die. the most clear-sighted do not meet with the Tao it is better The Tao can not be to be silent than to reason about it. and even when he accidentally comes across any of them.168 THE SACRED BOOKS sage. not seek to retain . but the intellectual and animal souls are taking their leave." " Surely that is the lowest instance ? . such Even discussion shows that their knowledge is not complete. and way to know it need not strive multitudes of men discuss together. " Specify an instance of it. " It is here in this ant. CHAPTER VI " Tung-kwo Tze asked Chuang-tze. erywhere. kings arose. and suddenly disappearing. thus that the the Tao. men in common know.

These names are difplete/ All-embracing/ the Whole. Tao The that they are so in themselves. when met there. should I be in the vastest waste.LITERATURE OF THE EAST in that excrement. to try to " thing. That which makes things what they are has not the limit which belongs to things. contemptuous reply. If it got to. A . and the boundlessness of speak of fulness and emptiness it we mean the unbounded. ( ' . Suppose we were roam about be together in the region of Non-action the . do not touch Chuang-tze said." " 14 169 reply. but is neither produces withering and decay. if it .' but the reality sought in them is the same referring ferent. the limit of the unlimited. of withering and and emptiness. I should not know where it had went and came again. fulness nor emptiness i* It produces fulness . but . to the One in the palace of Nowhere. it is just the same. the fundamental point of the Tao. J should not know where if it went on going and coming. we might discuss about the subOr suppose we were to ject without ever coming to an end. Though I entered it with the greatest knowledge. should we say that Tao was Simplicity and Stillness? or Indifference and Purity? or Harmony and Ease? My will would be aimwent nowhere. and testing its weight as the foot descends lower and lower on the body. " We decay. In vague uncertainty less. To this Tung-kwo Tze gave no Your questions. And if we call it the Great There are the three terms 'ComTao. the only question being as gation to what it was. my master. I should not know how inexhaustible it was. 15 You should not specify any parThere is not a single thing without the Tao. provoked by Tung-kwo's repeated interroas to where the Tao was to be found. ticular thing. is We do not know the practises from which our author draws his illustrations here sufficiently to make out his meaning clearly. I should not it had stopped know when the process would end. and when we speak of things is being limited. They remind me of the questions addressed by the superintendents of the market to the inspector about examining the value of a pig by treading on it. So it is with the Perfect Tao.

" " What determined by various " are they ? Do-nothing said. That Heaven knew how cramped and mean. we call them dark ! not even the ten-thousandth part of the Tao. " I know reply. indeed. Now that there is no Master to correct my heedless words. are metaphorical. laughed and said. they misrepresent it. When men try to discuss it. and there is no form we harkeri for it. 18 saying. and there is no sound. not understand so much as the tip of an autumn hair how how much more might he who embodied the Tao do so We look for it. intended. and said. and to suggest to the reader what it is or what it is not. 18 who replied. " aside with a clash. and we are surprised that a higher place is not given to him among the Taoist patriarchs than our author as- signs to is him here. still know to keep hidden your heedless words about it and die. saying." CHAPTER A-ho Kan 16 VII and Shan Nang studied together under Lao17 was leaning forward on his stool." 18 asked Infinitude. but lation and dispersion. but is itself neither accumulated nor dispersed. heard these words." " Is points is ? " your knowledge of " It is." Shan Nang leaned forward on his Then he laid the staff stool. Now you that the superior men everywhere cling. to set forth attributes of the Tao. it first We third of these can hardly be said to know anything more of the men than what is mentioned here. When they discuss the Tao. having midday A-ho Kan pushed open the door and entered. . Hereupon Grand Purity " Do " "I do not know it. like those in the first paragraph of the Book. is neither root nor branch . and is dead. as coming in the chronological list between Fu-hsi and Hwang-Ti. . it is simply for me to die Yen Kang. Shan Nang At shut the door and gone to sleep in the day-time. laid hold of his staff and rose. These names. lung Chi. " Lao-lung is dead. no doubt. " It is to him who embodies >. and if Shan Nang is well known. ! the of Tao who do it." was the you know the Tao ? He then asked Do-nothing. it produces accumubranches.170 is THE SACRED BOOKS It produces the root and neither withering nor decay. and therefore he has cast me off. who had come in to condole. it. how arrogant and assuming I was.

" cross CHAPTER 21 VIII Starlight i asked Nonentity. former who asks has never learned anything about the Tao. 19 Therefore they can not over the Khwan-lun. saying. and the latter answers where answer is impossible. and asked No-beginning. " then to know it ? And is to Is not to know it ing. he has no internal knowledge of the subject. Even the another answer him. Infinitude's plies which was right ? and which was wrong ? that he did not know it ? or Do-nothing's saying that saying " The I do not know it he knew it ? " No-beginning said. When people without such internal knowledge wait to be questioned by others in dire extremity. ' ' ' ' l ' ' ? . form? In the same way the Tao does not admit of being know that the considered mean. was profound. "Master. When one asks what does not admit of being asked. what can be expressed in words Do we know the Formless which gives form to is not It. The characters Kwang Yao denote the points of light all over the ." " If one ask about the Tao and No-beginning further said." Grand Purity took the words of those " Such were their retwo. named. and and diffused. . and may be may be bound and compressed. These are the marks by which I know it. The Khwan-lun may be considered the Sacred Mountain of Taoism. sayternal conditions. 20 nor roam in the Grand Void. do you 20 21 The first beginning of all things or of anything. The Tao can not be expressed in words. the latter to its exGrand Purity looked up and sighed. neither of them knows it. and internally know nothing of the Grand Commencement. Tao can not be heard what can be heard is not It. tremity. they show that externally they see nothing of space and time. know it not to know it ? But who knows that he who does " " The not know it really knows it ? No-beginning replied. 21 saying. The Tao can not be seen what can be seen is not It. his questioning is in dire exWhen one answers where answer is impossible. He asks what does not admit of being asked. and the I know it was shallow. that it that it may be dispersed .LITERATURE OF THE EAST "I 171 Tao may be considered noble. The former had reference to its internal nature.

and still there be a non-existing existence. so it was of old. It was the same of old as now. as no existing thing. Next day. How existence. " You are indeed skilful. When I said. saying. " Can it be known how it was before heaven and earth ? " The reply was. It can. I was fond of forging swords. is it possible to reach to this ? " CHAPTER IX The forger of swords the age of eighty. but got hold of noth" 22 Perfect Who can attain to ing. looked to it. he listened for it. By ing else. and for the Minister of War had reached had not lost a hair's-breadth of his The Minister said to him. and said. than starlight. was twenty. " It can. however. By length of time one acquires ability at any art. disciples sky. and how much more one who is ever at work on it What is there which does not on this. which was that of a deep void." I can think of no better translation for " " " is a perthem. Have you any method that makes you so \ " The man " Your servant has always kept to his work. ! this? I can conceive the ideas of existence and non-existbut I can not conceive the ideas of non-existing nonence. Yesterday I asked whether it could be known how it was before heaven and earth. 3. but could see nothing. constant practise of it. he clutched at it. " 23 One of the of Confucius Analects " VI. I looked at nothI paid no attention to anything but swords. " . Master. I came to be able to do the work my without any thought of what I was doing." Nonentity sonification of the Tao. Starlight then said. and succeed by it ? " depend ! CHAPTER x Tsan Chiu 23 asked Chung-ni.172 exist ? THE SACRED BOOKS " He got no answer to his quesor do you not exist ? tion. he had another " interview. Sir." Tsan Chiu asked no more and withdrew. but could hear nothing.' Yesterday. as personified here. but the idea of the order that pervades and regulates throughout the universe. As it is now. ability." chapter xiv. ' dusted with stars. and you. " Tao-Teh 22 A quotation from the King. and looked steadfastly to the appearance of All day long he the other. however. said.

25 Was that which was produced before Heaven and Earth a thing? That which made things and my reply. with death give death to life. we can not part. Things forth and could not be before things. exactly caught our author's meaning." and never coming to an end. asked Chung-ni. When one only notes the changes of things." The " Before there can be grandsons and sons there must be grandfathers and fathers to transmit them.LITERATURE OF THE EAST to me. and are trying to discover the meaning. as if there had been things propreviously been things ducing one another without end. In this matter there is no old time and no present no beginning and no ending. I have heard There should be no demonstration of welcoming . did not reply was. mind may be shown. saying. is an idea taken from CHAPTER XI Yen Yuan i you say. . but take no note of external changes. There can be no answering on your on." " Yesterday you seemed to understand me Chung-ni said. The love of the sages for others. amid all external changes. 173 I seemed to understand you clearly. himself continuing one and the same. because your own spiritual nature had anticipated clearly. for you are in an unspiritual mood. . this. Could it be that there were grandchildren and children before there were other grandchildren and children?" 24 Tsan Chiu had not made any reply. " Master. there must have been another heaven and earth. change internally nowadays men change internally. gave to each came character was not itself a thing. 25 Meaning the Tao. as if there had its . To-day it seems dark to you. there should be no movement to meet ' . I venture to ask in what way this affection of the " The ancients. so before there were the present heaven and earth. but to-day it is dark I venture to ask you for an explanation of this. when Chung-ni went " Let us have done." But I am not sure that he has in this remark 24 Hu Wan-ying says. Do death and life wait for each other? There is that which contains them both in its one comprehension. he . We can not with life give life to death.

and they who do not wound others can not be wounded by them. sadness comes and succeeds to it. THE SACRED BOOKS How should there be a difference between should he put himself his changing and not changing ? in contact with and come under the influence of those external How changes ? He is sure. But the superior men so called. such as the masters of the Literati and of Mohism. were bold to attack each other with their controversies.174 does not change. when they go. not this also sad? Perfect speech is to put speech all 26 perfect action is to put action away . is . 26 the garden of Hwang-Ti. but they do not know what they do not meet ." away at This personage has occurred before in Book VI. When sadness and joy come. can not avoid. I can not prevent their approach . the palace of the Lord of Yu. The park of Shih-wei. but beof the present day! fore the joy is ended. to keep his points of contact with them from being many. to digest knowledge that is known is a thing to be despised. . they use what that ! power they have. His " park as a place for moral and intellectual inquiry is here mentioned so early was there a certain quickening of the mental faculties in China. I can not retain them. of later days. who were in possession of the " Tao. however. but they can not be strong where they are Such ignorance and powerlessness are what men powerless. and the these all were places in which houses of Thang and Wu was done. That they should try to avoid what they can not avoid. How sad it is more so are the men men should only be as lodging-houses for things. Only he whom others do not injure is able to welcome and meet men. " Forests and marshes make me joyful and glad . and the emotions which they excite They know what they meet. chapter vn the head of the most ancient sovereigns. and how much this Sages in dealing with others do not wound them .

not to be separate from its real truth constitutes what we call the Perfect man. Fang Shu has " nostrum. to be separate from the essen- nature thereof constitutes what we call the Spirit-like man. Its Attributes as the Root of his nature. and is reckoned as the thirtythird. To regard Heaven as his primal Source." But then whence does the spiritual 3 in it come down ? and whence does the intelligence 4 in it come forth ? There is that which gives birth to the Sage." little more meaning than our word s Which forms the sage. 6 we call To regard benevolence as the source of all kindness. and the employers of them think each that the efficiency of his own method leaves nothing to be added to it." sky. 2 All the methods of educational training and schemes of governmental policy.THIEN HSIA l OR HISTORY OF TAOISM CHAPTER I The methods employed in the regulation of the world 2 are many." and hence This is the last of the books of Chuang. constitutes what the Sagely man. " It is everywhere. one and the same. advocated by " the hundred schools " of human wisdom in contradistinction from the method or art of the Tao. 4 Which forms the sage king. knowing also the prognostics given in change and transformation. right- " 1 Thien Hsia means " under the the world of men. e Here we have five definitions of the " Man of Tao/' 175 . and the Tao as the Gate by which he enters into this inheritance. 5 Not to be separate from his primal source constitutes what we tial call the Heavenly man not . But where is what was called of old " the method of the Tao ? " 2 We must reply. 5 Or. and that which gives his perfection to the King the origin of both is the one.

In this brief phrase is the one recognition." But one is not prepared for the comparatively favorable judgment passed on those scholars. might be learned from the scholars of Tsau 8 and Lu. and followed them out to their graduated issues. 8 7 Still . eousness as the source of propriety as the rule of all conduct. Its hundred offices are thus first. the old and weak. The reading Tsau has not been challenged. but inferior to the five above. who was " the scholar of Tsau. by our author. and can only be understood of Mencius. in all the six directions went their penetration. business has its regular course. constitutes what we call the 7 Superior man. investigation as conducting to certainty. They nourished all Their things. beneficent influence reached to all classes of the people. within the circle of the Tao. as seen in all their regulations. These scholars were pre-eminently Confucius and Mencius. orphans and in all these solitaries. Great and small.176 THE SACRED BOOKS all distinctions. thus diffusing a fragrance of gentleness and goodness. the comparison of subjects as supplying the grounds of evidence. the great matters of clothes and food are provided for . fine and coarse their presence and operation. outward expression of the social duties. the Shu. and the Yo. and produced harmony all under heaven. and subtle and all-embracing as heaven and earth. The Shih describes what should 'be the aim of the mind the Shu. third. Their intelligence. and much of it was still to be found in the Historians. fourth. and on what we call the Confucian classics. cattle are fattened and looked after. the understood all . To regard laws their names as the as assigning the different social conditions. They fundamental principles. receive is anxious consideration for the nourishment ways provision made of the people. the government stores are filled. 8 and the girdled members of the various courts. of the existence and work of Mencius. so that things can be numbered as this is the basis of second. and in the four quarters all things were all felt open to them. and music as the idea of all harmony. What of it was in the Shih. arranged. the Li. How old ! complete was the operation of the Tao in the men of It made them the equals of spiritual beings. was handed down from age to age in their old laws. and so on government.

and could not come back to the same point. The case was that changed. the ear. discriminates the principles that underlie all things. and was the rule to himself. nor agree together.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 177 course of events. the Yo. CHAPTER II Tao was To leave no VOL. the Li is intended to direct the conduct. and thus was that the Tao. . scattered all under heaven. or rightly estimate the ways of the spiritual and intelligent. XII. but their different faculties can not be inter- They might be compared the mouth. So it . and established in our Middle states. Each had its peculiar excellence. and there was the time for the use of it but notwithstanding no one covered or extended over the whole range of truth. and attempts to estimate the success of the scholar of a corner who arrived at by the ancients. and sages and worthies no longer shed their light on it. passes his judgment on all the beautiful in heaven and earth. Every one in the world did whatever he wished. and the great scheme The The system of the of truth held by the ancients. to set forth harmony. and the Chun Chiu. the nose. or its own faculty. became obscured and lost its clearness. which inwardly forms the sage and externally the king. it students of that later age unfortunately did not see the undivided purity of heaven and earth. Alas! the various schools held on their several ways. to display names and the duties belonging to them. to show the action of the Yin and Yang. and plumed themselves on possessing it as a whole. are also occasionally mentioned and described in the writings of the different schools. Seldom is it that such an one can embrace all the beautiful in heaven and earth. Some of the regulations of these men of old. Many in different places got one glimpse of it. the eye. the Yi. to future generations . example of extravagance 12. The Tao and its characteristics ceased to be regarded as uniform. There ensued great disorder in the world. about to be torn in fragments all under the sky. Each sense has to was with the many branches of the various schools. became repressed and lost its development.

His doctrine did not admit of Anger. but they enjoined them in they Mo made excess. and Chin Hwa-li.178 to THE SACRED BOOKS to show no wastefulness in the use of anything. Hwang-Ti had his Hsien-chih Yao. his Ta Chang Shun. Thus Mohism appears as an imperfect Taoism. He would have no singing in life. and a Common Participation in all advantages. and with it all strove not to appear different from others. to keep themselves in their expenditure under the restraint of strict and exact emergencies of the so as to be prepared for occurring such regulations formed part of the system rule. Mo (or Meh) Ti was a great officer of the State of Sung. the high and low their different degrees. and were appreciated by 9 Mo Ti. and still applied to the examination-hall of the Han-lin graduates in Peking. his Ta Shao. no singing during and no wearing of mourning after death. three inches thick. " the treatise Against Music. of which only a few. of the period between Confucius and Mencius. he would have a coffin of elaeococca wood. and followed them themselves too strictly. but attacked the ceremonies and music of the his disciple ancients. fivefold." hall built by King Wan. the noble and mean . his Ta Hsia. The coffin of the Son of Heaven was sevenfold of a feudal lord. In the mourning-rites of the ancients. and condemned Fighting. were delighted with them. and without any enclosing shell. He says. twofold. ing on occasions of death. " Chin Hwa-li and my other disciples 10 300 men. make no display in the degree of their ceremonial observances. and no wearing of mournHe inculcated Universal Love. He was fond also of Learning. As the rule for all. When they heard of such ways. his Ta Hu. but the most important." and enjoined the subject of " called another. Tao in antiquity. The teaching of such lessons can not be regarded as life. Yu. . King 10 and King Wu and the Wan. Yet he did not agree with the former kings. He left many treatises behind him. But now Mo-tze alone would have . in one place. survive. had their several observances. Economy in Expenditure. Chin Hwa-li seems to have been his chief disciple. of a great officer. threefold. The name of the great . Duke of Chau made the Wu. his music of the Phi-yung. Thang. of other officers." on his followers.

men will not endure it. There was no hair left on his conducting them to the sea. and thus he out the myriad states. with shoes of wood or twisted hemp. men demns singing. and of Mo-tze. " Mo-tze. the branch streams were 3000. With his own hands he carried the sack and wielded the spade. and he conand he condemns wailing. and he condemns such expression is this truly in accordance with man's nature ? Through life and at death niggardliness his way is one of great toil. and not fit to be a Mohist. unkindliness. will sing. Easily translated. Causing men sorrow and melancholy. in praise of his views. when Yu was draining off the waters of the flood. from the knee to the ankle. such as lords . : be carried into practise. toiled in the service of the world. . how can the aversion of the world to it be overcome? The world averse to it. it must be far from the way of the ancient kings. men will express their joy. not stopping day or night. I fear it can not be regarded as the way of a sage. Notwithstanding. various feudal 11 The 11 Some say 12 this Chin was the preceptor of Mo Ti. He bathed his hair in the legs nels of the violent wind. thus marking Yu was a great sage. he set free the chan- Chiang and the Ho. and opened communications with them from the regions of the four I and the nine The famous hills with which he dealt were 300. but the statement has not been historically illus- trated. 179 affording a proof of his love for men his practising them in his own case would certainly show that he did not love himself but this has not been sufficient to overthrow the views . till he had united all the streams of the country." The effect of this is that in this later time most of the Mohists wear skins and dolychos cloth. Anciently. but considering such toiling on their part as their They say that he who can not do this highest achievement. Though Mo-tze himself difficult to might be able to endure it. men will wail. 12 and Mohists of the south. said. is acting contrary to the way of Yu. and combed it in the pelting rain. Contrary to the minds of men everywhere. provinces.LITERATURE OF THE EAST . and the smaller ones innumerable. the followers of the disciples of Chin of Hsiang-li.

but not among the Taoist writers.180 THE SACRED BOOKS Chi Chih. is Decayed and a not to be rejected CHAPTER III To keep from being shun all entangled by prevailing customs." and their expressions about the difference between " the odd " and "the even. The idea of Mo Ti and Chin Hwa-li was good. Mo-tze was indeed one of the best men in the world. 14 When only by the mention of them here. 13 texts of They regarded and their most distinguished member as a sage. showing that this was the aim of his mind such a scheme belonged to the system of the Tao 14 in antiquity. but their practise was wrong. Both these men are said to have been of the time of King Hsuan of Chi. wished to make him their chief. offered to them. 13 all repeated the but they differed in the objections which they Mo. not to be reck- conduct to others. Nevertheless. and it was appreciated by Sung they heard of such ways. They would have made the Mohists of future ages feel it necessary to toil themselves. and in their deceitful glosses they called one another Mohists of different schools. Khu Hu. which you may search without finding worn his person might be. not to set himself stubbornly against a multitude. They had their dispu" what was hard. and to cease his action when enough had been obtained for the less in his nourishment of others and himself. to ornamental attractions in one's self." with which they answered one another. as the author of i* Known ." tations. In the Catalogue of the Imperial Library of Han. turning on " what constituted sameness " and what " difference. To the present day these controversies are not determined. till there was not a hair on their legs. hoping that he would be handed down as such to future ages." and " what was white. to desire the peace and repose of the world in order to preserve the lives of the people. thus producing a condition superior indeed to disorder. Hsing is and Yin Wan. 13 and Tang Ling-tze. but he scholar of ability indeed ! his equal. but inferior to the result of good government. Yin Wan " one appears. and still be urging one another on.

" to save their age Notwithstanding all this. and to blend together all within the four seas . he does not borrow from others to supersede his own endeavors." But I fear the Master would not get his fill from this. would still have to be mindful of the world. and their wish was to plant this everywhere as the chief thing to be pursued. It was as if " What we request and wish is simply that there they said. but they were strong to show themselves. he knows that inferior to his own. they only insisted on their Hence object the more strongly. from war. he considers the and causing the disuse of arms to be an external achievement. when any think that he is their intelligence is prohibition of aggression of no use to the world. intercourse with others. In this way they went everywhere. . the Treatise.LITERATURE OF THE EAST they were delighted with them. and the disciples. " Is it necessary I should preserve my life ? Shall I scheme how to exalt myself above the master. Though the world might not receive them. be set down for us five pints of rice that will be may enough. they acted too much out of regard to others. as if they said. and too little for themselves. they sought to save the people from fighting. " " the Forbearance of the Mind was " the Action of the Mind. they forbade aggression and sought to hush the weapons of strife. moreover. They endured insult without feeling it a dis- grace. The superior man does not censoriously scrutinize the faults of others. and the making his own desires Such was to be few and slight to be the internal triumph." He is said also to have been the preceptor of Kung-sun Lung. and wore 181 They made the Hwa-shan it as their In their distinguishing badge. though famishing. never stopping day or night." their discrimination between the great and the small. Their name for they began by being indulgent to them. " it is said. and would not abandon it. counseling the high and instructing the low. whatever their differences might be. and. the " savior of the age ? " It was. cap. The high and the low might be weary of them." By the warmth of affection they sought the har- mony of joy. have to say.

thinking . his only concern being to avoid trouble he learned nothing from the wise and thoughtful. and they were appreciated by Phang Mang. . but It does not discriminate between them. they were delighted with them. you must omit the . he under- took no charge. and followed where thing. Conscious of his unfitness. Now with a hammer. When they heard of such ways. Heaven can cover. without any positive tendencies. They considered that the first thing for them to do was to adjust the controversies about " different things. you do not reach all. and disallowed the greatest sages which the world had known. and Shan Tao. Earth can contain. following in the wake of others." discarded his knowledge and also all thought of himself. easy and compliant. without any selfish partialities. Hence it is said. and that if we had a little knowledge it was likely to prove a dangerous thing. you select. He disregarded right and wrong. now with his hand." They knew that all things have what they can do and what " If they can not do. acting only where he had no alternative. He said that the best knowledge was to have no knowledge. but going along with all all such courses belonged to the Taoists of antiquity. CHAPTER IV Public-spirited. Thien Phien. and with nothing of the partizan. but it can not cover. The Great Tao embraces all things.182 subtle THE SACRED BOOKS and the coarse. capable of being led. if you teach some things. Therefore Shan Tao others. but the Tao neglects none. smoothing all corners. and laughed at those who valued ability and virtue. he accommodated himself to all conditions. . . he did nothing. without any double mind not looking round because of anxious thoughts not scheming in the exercise of their wisdom not choosing between parties. but it can not sustain. and pursued it as his course to be indifferent and pure in his dealings with others. and breaking all bonds. only of carrying himself with a lofty disregard of everyHe went where he was pushed. They said. Remiss and evasive. and with the attainment of this they stopped. and took no note of the succession of events.

troubles that arise describe the conduct of living men . and could be charged with no transgression ? What was Creatures that have no knowledge are free from the from self-assertion and the entanglements from the use of knowledge. and men of spirit and eminence laughed to" The way of Shan Tao does not gether at him. and all their Hence Shan Tao life long they do not receive any praise. doing nothing wrong ? that. and spoken. " Let me come to be like a creature without knowlsaid. and said." His spirit was like the breath of an opposing wind. but it was as if he were not taught at all. that able only of the dead is strange indeed It it ?) ! should be predic- same with Thien Phien. like the revolutions of a grindstone. of one's indiciency in accumulation. " The Taoist professors of old came no further than to say that nothing was absolutely right and nothing absolutely wrong.LITERATURE OF THE EAST he was led. He learned under Phang Mang. whether in motion or at rest. and he did not escape shaving the corners and bonds of which I have What he called the Tao was not the true Tao. the reason that he appeared thus complete. Phang Mang. Of what use are the teachings of the sages and edge. that spring they do not depart from their proper course. he committed no error. like a 183 whirling wind. and in the solitude To such viduality to dwell with the spirit-like and intelligent was apprea course belonged to the Tao of antiquity. and the things as its coarse embodiment. " worthies ? But a clod of earth never fails in the course proper for it. how can it be described in words? But he was always contrary to the views of other men. what he called the right was really the wrong. like a feather tossed about. Thien Phien. . which he would not bring together to view. and it When they heard of ciated by Kwan Yin and Lao-Tze. and Shan Tao did not in fact know the Tao. The master of Phang Mang said. but nevertheless they had heard in a general was just the way about it. Moving and at rest. CHAPTER v take the root from which things spring as the essential to see defipart.

but maintains his female weakness becoming the channel into which all streams flow. and says. Kwan Yin says. to be last. " He knows others. and he counts gain as loss. I will receive the offscourings of the Men all choose fulness . Let me only escape blame. They made weakness and humility their mark of distinction. and therefore he has a superabundance." See chapters xxvin. " To him who does not dwell in himself the forms of things show themselves as they are. from the "Tao-Teh King." his masculine power. but all things be preserved in their substantiality.' ' He does not store. he looks solitary. this may be pronounced the height of perfec- tion.' He regards what is deepest as his root. . and laughs at the clever and nothing. He knows his white purity. et al. but has a multitude around him. and made the ruling idea in it that of the Grand Unity. and considered that by empty vacuity no injury could be sustained." O Kwan men is is Yin. saying. his stillness is like that of a mirror. may be said to be all quotation. his response is like that of the echo. and says. His movement is like that of water. in his imperfect condition. From the . but he feels complete ingenious. Men all seek for happiness. Lao Tan says " down to this. In his conducting of himself he is easy and leisurely and wastes He does nothing.184 THE SACRED BOOKS such ways they were delighted with them. This is another " name for Lao-Tze. and Lao Tan. and what ' is most restrictive as his rule . but keeps his disgrace becoming the valMen all prefer to be first he alone chooses ley of the world. wprld. He does not take precedence of Lao Tan 15 says. but follows them. the sharp and pointed is blunted. with more or less exactness. xxn. and does not encroach generous on any man. The strong is * 16 He is always broken. he alone chooses emptiness. They built their system on the assumption of an eternal non-existence. harmonious in his association with others. he is still as a clear lake. ye were among the greatest of antiquity True men indeed ! .' and forbearing with others. makes him seem to be disappearing altogether His tenuity .

He did not condemn the agreements and myriads differences of others. he may be pronounced exact and correct. he has a friendly regard to those who consider life and death as having neither beginning Root (origin of and great. and an abundance of corroborative illustrations. Such were the questions belonging to the scheme of in antiquity. nor look at them as peculiar to himself. that change and transformation are ever proceeding. He constantly Tao indulged his own wayward ideas. with important quotations to substantiate the truth. Above. whither does it proceed ? as they are. though his phraseology be ever-varying. he seeks delight in the Maker . the fulness and completeness of his ideas can not be exhausted. he employed the words of the cup of endless application. wild and extravagant words.LITERATURE OF THE EAST CHAPTER VI 185 That the shadowy and still is without bodily form. and phrases to which no definite meaning could be assigned. he is comprehensive As regards the Author and views. What is death? What is life? What meant by the union of Heaven and Earth ? Does the spiritual intelligence go away ? Shadowy. and free. 17 When he heard of such subjects he was delighted with them. thus autobiographical. but did not make himself a Considpartizan. his dealing with the IT is As regards Chuang Chau is another name for Chuang-Tze himself. Master (the Great Tao Itself). carrying our thoughts to range and play on nor end. and they were appreciated by Chuang Chau. where does it go ? is All things being arranged Subtle. so that he might live in peace with the prevalent views. there is no one place which can be fitly ascribed to it. He discussed them. ering that men were sunk in stupidity and could not be talked to in dignified style. deep. using strange and mystical expressions. The passage . below. but incapable of being determined. and did not try to rise above the of things. He chiefly cared to occupy himself with the spirit-like operaearth. there is no harm in amusing one's self with them. its turns and changes are worth being looked at . opening up new all things). vast. Though his writings may seem to be spark- tion of heaven and ling trifles.

Hui Shih 18 had many ingenious notions. heaven and earth are of one body with me." Things which are joined together can be sepadifferences . and his words were wide of their mark. and are not derived from his predecessors. his principles are inexhaustible. They are subtle and obscure." " A mountain may be as level as a marsh. he would say it may be which is so great that there is nothing outside called the Great One and that which is so small that there " What is nothing inside it may be called the Small One." Hui Shih by such sayings as these made himself very all or south of Yueh." " I know the center of the world it is north of Yen things be regarded with love." " If conspicuous throughout the kingdom. this is what is called making much of " The south is unlimited and agreements and differences. They are only riddles or paradoxes. 10 It is of little use trying to h'nd the answers to these sayings of Hui Shih and others. the emancipation of that from the thraldom of things. and was considered an All other debaters vied with one another and able debater. said that all things are entirely alike or entirely different. " That Taking up one thing after another.186 THE SACRED BOOKS Nevertheless on the subject of transformation." " I proceed to Yueh to-day and came to it yet has a limit. " in similar exhibitions. There They would say. and often mentioned in the intervening Books." said that things greatly alike are different from things a little alike." " yesterday. but we are glad to have the account of him here given." " A creature may be " When it is born to life and may die at the same time." " The sun in the meridian may be the sun declining. but his doctrines were erroneous and contradictory. as enabling us to understand better the intellectual life of China in Chuang-tze's time. and can not be fully explained." Heaven may be as low as the earth. when it is rated. delighted is Introduced to us in the first Book of our author. this is what is called making little of agreements and : . He was not a Taoist. and high. His writings would fill five carriages." has no thickness and will not admit of being repeated is 1000 " 19 li in size. .

but he had not the art of controversy. rain." " The " Where finger indicates. who asked him how of extraordinary views. They glamour vanquished men in argument. it was that the nor the earth sink." compass " not surround its handle." " A " A chisel does should not itself be round. on and on without end. pause. and what was the cause and the thunder's roll and crash. and Kung-sun Lung were true members of their specious representations they threw a over men's minds and altered their ideas." Fire is not tadpole " " mountain gives forth a voice." wheel does " not tread on the ground. tained indeed his masculine energy. there is " a time when it is neither flying nor at rest. Hui Shih. yet still thinking that his words were few. but needs not touch. and say" In heaven or earth who is my match ? " Shih maining. Hui Shih daily used his own knowledge and the arguments of such was others to propose strange theses to all debaters At the same time he would talk freely of his practise." was in this way their lifetime. without that the debaters responded to coming to an end. Shih made no attempt to evade the questions. thinking himself the ablest among them.LITERATURE OF THE EAST are feathers in an egg." The " kingdom belongs to Ying." motherless colt never had " If from a stick a foot long you every day a mother." The eye does not see. the object." Swift as the arrowhead is. and adding to them the strangest obser- . without of wind." bay horse and a black ox are three." dog might have been " " called a sheep. talking about all things." " A " white dog is black. and answered him without any exercise of thought. only keeping them in the enclosure of their sophistry." 187 " fowl has three feet." The tortoise is longer you " A A A A A The carpenter's square is not square." than the snake. himself." has a tail. By man named Hwang sky did not fall Liao. In the south there was a Hwan Twan this class." " A A A take the half of It all it. in a myriad ages it will not be exhausted." " come to may not be the end." The shadow of a flying bird " does not itself move." hot. but could not subdue their minds." dog is " not a hound.

with all his talents. till in the end he had only the reputation of being a skilful debater. He was weak in the standpoint of Heaven and Earth. If we look at Hui Shih's ability from of debaters. and his way might seem strong was narrow and dark. was only like the of what service was To give its full development to any one a good thing. and he who does so is in the way to capacity a higher estimation of the Tao. though he in comparison with others. but Hui Shih could find no rest for himself in doing this. Alas Hui Shih.188 vations. real attainment. He diffused himself over the to anything? is world of things without satiety. and wished to make himself famous by overcoming them and on this account he was not liked by the multitude . or running a race with his shadow. Alas! ! END OF CHUANa-TZE's LAST BOOK . restless activity of a mosquito or gadfly it it . he pursued all subjects and never came back with success. It was like silencing an echo by his shouting. vast as they were. THE SACRED BOOKS He thought that to contradict others was a real triumph. made nothing out.

Near the Chuang-tze said to him." ! will not be small ' Now the ruler having sent a message of invitation to him. though But when it it is led wished it ? a solitary calf. and you will be ground to powder. be complete? What could you add to 189 them?" The dis- . There was a man Ho was a poor man who supported his family by weaving rushes to form screens. The father said. and been presented by him with ten carriages.ANECDOTES (FEOM THE OTHER BOOKS OF CHUANG-TZE) who. and the consequences to ing him asleep. and earth. there ' you kingdom of Sung is deeper than any pool of nine chung. " Have you seen. and under the chin of the Black Dragon. would that be possible for to be again " Chuang-tze was about to die." said he. found a pearl worth a thousand ounces of silver. the stars and constellations for my pearls and jewels and all things assistfor my burial ing as the mourners. Bring a stone. ox? It ia robed with ornamental embroidery. "for my coffin and its shell. showed them boastfully to Chuang-tze. That you were able to get it must have been owing to your findLet him awake. and its king is fiercer than the Black Dragon. Chuang-tze replied to the messenger. and break it in A pearl of this value must have been in a pool nine pieces. as if the " latter had been a boy. That you were able to get the chariots must have been owing to your finding him asleep. Sir. His son. chung deep. a sacrificial Some and feasted on fresh grass and beans. the sun When my two round symbols of jade. Will not the provisions and moon for . when diving in a deep pool. his disciples signified " I shall have heaven their wish to give him a grand burial. having had an interview with the King of Sung. into the grand ancestral temple. Let him awake.

the crows and kites will eat me. " I sought it in measures and numbers. and after twelve years I have not found it. and when. there be not the correct obedience. the sage will not deposit it. there be not the presiding principle. he had not heard of the Tao." THE SACRED BOOKS We are afraid that the crows and kites will " Chuang-tze rejoined. we should only rest in them for a night. the mole-crickets and ants will eat me : to take from those and give to these would only show your partiality/' year. eat our master. it will not remain there. within. who said to him. it will not be carried out. below. they will have much to say long. against us. 1 This would be in 503 or 502 B." in the Yin and Yang. When it in possession of mind without. enter- that which is power in the receiving mind there. if it could be told to others. men ." Lao-Tze said. " Just so If the Tao could be . and went south to Phei to see Lao-Tze." was the reply and the other went on. men would all tell it to their brothers if it could be given to others. have you ? I have fifty-first When Confucius was in his 1 heard that you are the wisest man of the North. pare .190 " ciples replied. and Lao-Tze would be more than a hundred years old. would all why it give can not be transmitted it to their sons and grandsons. where it will lie hidden. ! up to others. we should not seek to have much of it. " You have come. the sage will not give ing in from without.have you " " also got the Tao ? Not yet. The reason is no other but this that if. the sage will not permit it to lie hid a possession common to all . Above. men would all serve it up to their parents. and if. outwardly.. there is no out from the mind it is given not received by the out . if it could be served men would all present it to their rulers . presented to another. it. " Have you sought it ? " Confucius said. and after five years I had not " And how then did you seek it ? " "I sought it got it. and not occupy them for If men see us doing so. 2 That is. Benevolence and righteousness to entertain 2 Fame is were as the lodging-houses of the former kings. Sir . com" Analects " XVI.C.

then the places of heaven and earth and of the four cardinal points If mosquitoes or gadflies puncture to you. and the dust gets into your eyes. those who seek distinction can not give up the thought of fame. winnow chaff. " Those who think that wealth is the proper thing for them and stood in the Untroubled Ease can not give up their revenues. Confucius spoke to him changed skin. Thus they rambled in the vacancy of Untroubled Ease. but only those are able to use them who do not obstinately refuse to comply with their great changes." because the Lao-Tze said. Correction is Rectification. While they hold their grasp of those things.' is When the of some do not acknowledge this. not borrowing needs no outlay. But will keep you all the night from sleeping. your this painful iteration of benevolence and righteousness excites mind and produces in it the greatest confusion. Hence minds gate of it is ' said. " Hatred and kindness taking and giving . and dwelt in Righteousness as in a lodging which they used for a night. and they will not look at a single example. found their food in the fields of Indifference. Sir.LITERATURE OF THE EAST " 191 The perfect men of old trod the path of benevolence as a path which they borrowed for the occasion. The ancients called this the Enjoyment that Collects the True. those who cleave to power can not give the handle of it to others. and stand forth in all the natural attributes belonging to you why must you use so much If you. reproof and these eight things are instruinstruction. are all At an interview with Lao-Tze. it my not to lose their natural simthe wind in its unplicity. requires the doing of nothing. death and life . from which they might perceive the folly of their restless pursuits: such men are under the doom of Heaven. " If you of benevolence and righteousness. gardens which they had not borrowed. Indifference is easily supplied with nourishment. and if you would also imitate constrained movements. it Heaven in them has not been opened. ments of rectification. would cause men ! . When they let them go. they are afraid of losing them. they are grieved.

saying. but the fame that has accrued to them is the same. and is nourished by the Yin and Yang. Confucius returned home. said. may say . Sir. the fishes huddle Than that they should moisten together on the dry land. and was unable to shut it how could I admonish and correct Lao-Tze ? " " 3 So then. can this man indeed sit still Tze-kung said. I kept my mouth open. and keep one another wet by their milt. as a representative of the dead. and the fame and praise which men like to contemplate do not itself black. Tshze. wish to rolled on " " The Three admonish me about ? Tze-kung replied. Kings and Five Tis ruled the world not in the same way. by . Lao-Tze was then about to answer his salutation haughtily " in the hall. defeated i*o-Tze more signally than Confuciii? bad been. and carry a great whom you have to lost? The snow-goose does not bathe every day nor the crow blacken itself to simplicity of their black and white does not afford any ground for controversy. coils itself up. also get to see him ? Accordingly with a message from Confucius he went to see . what do you. The dragon itself Lao-Tze. you have seen Lao-Tze in what " Confucius way might you admonish and correct him ? " In him I that I have now seen the dragon. and there is its body it unfolds and becomes the dragon complete. make make itself white. but he said in a low voice. make them one another there by their gasping. and for three days did not speak. My years have and are passing away. It rides on the cloudy air.192 THE SACRED BOOKS drum to seek for the son energy. " Master. every day The natural When the greater than they naturally are. How is it Tze-kung would seem to have undertaken this expedition to maintain the reputation of the Master and h>? &2hool only to be. it would be better for them to forget one another in the rivers and lakes. when he is profoundly still ? Can he exhibit himself in his movements " like heaven and earth ? May I. and then appear as the dragon ? Can his voice resound as thunder." From this interview with Lao-Tze. springs supplying the pools are dried up. His disciples then asked him.

and they used their weapons as if they might legitimately do so." was the reply. Yu had recourse to his strength. If any. no one blamed him. 4 Shun ruled it so as to produce a feeling of rivalry in the minds of the people. From them came first the doctrine of the relationships of society and what can be said of the now prevailing customs in the marrying of wives and daughters ? I tell you that the rule of the Three Kings and Five Tis changed. . and before they were three years old. XII. saying that they were killing thieves and not killing other men. The people formed themselves into different combinations. Yao ruled it so as to cause the hearts of the people to cherish relative affection. Kings was opposed to the brightness of the sun and moon * Referring to some abuses. they began to call people by their surnames and names.LITERATURE OF THE EAST that 193 " " Come you alone consider that they were not sages ? forward a little. contrary to the doctrine of relationship. and I will tell you how the Three Hwangs and the Five Tis ruled the world. . and Shun gave it to Yu. and did not dare to rebel. so it was throughout the kingdom. King Wan was obedient to Chau-hsin. " Come a little more forward. but nothing can be greater than The wisdom of the Three the disorder which it produced. so as to cause the inirids of the people to become it Then was that men began Men's minds became scheming. " gave the kingdom to Shun. Their wives gave birth to their children in the tenth month of their pregnancy. however. and Thang to the force of arms. Everywhere there was great consternation. my son. Hwang-Ti ruled it so as to make the all conformed to the One simplicity. but those children could speak at five months. Yu ruled it to die prematurely. If the parents of one of them died. 13. and would not submit to him. and then arose the Literati and the followers of Mo (Ti). King Wu rebelled against Chau. VOL. may be called by that name. Why do you say that their government was not the same ? " " Yao. no one blamed them." Lao-Tze said. And I say that their methods were not the same. minds of the people made the observances on the death of other members of their kindred less than those for their parents. my son. and he did not wail.

the march of the seasons can not be arrested. for what I myself consider a long 5 and am thoroughly acquainted with their contents. But vestiges are the them? A by the shoes. THE SACRED BOOKS contrary to the exquisite purity of the hills and streams below. if you miss it. . Those six writings are a description of the vestiges left by the former kings. the Li. not be stopped. and subversive of the beneficent gifts of the four seasons between. and impregnation takes place. If you get the Tao. and the female responds from the air below. they still regarded themselves as sages: was it not a thing to be ashamed of? But they were shameless. speak about are prints left still only the vestiges." Tze-kung stood quite disconcerted and ill at ease. the Yo. and impregnation takes place. the creatures called lei are both male and fe- The nature can male. Unable to rest in the true attributes of their nature and constitution. Their wisdom has been more fatal above. Sir. the Tao can . are they the shoes that produced pair of white herons look at each other with pupils that do not move. there can. and each individual breeds of itself.' 5 3 is is no no effect that effect that it is But with the preparation of the Chun Chiu Confucius's life ended very plain that no conversation such as Chuang-tze has fabri- cated here could ever have taken place. all offenders against the right. I have discoursed about the ways of the former kings. those six Books. the Yi. but do not tell how they made such vestiges and what you. than the sting of a scorpion or the bite of a dangerous beast. " It is fortunate that you have not mex with a ruler fitted to rule the age. time. not be altered the conferred constitution can not be changed . . and set forth the examples of the dukes of Chau and Shao and not one of them has adopted my views and put them in practise how very difficult it is to prevail on such men. With seventy-two rulers. and the Chun Chiu. the male insect emits its buzzing sound in the air above. Confucius said to Lao-Tze. and to make clear the path to be pursued Lao-Tze replied. " I have occupied myself with the Shih. the Shu.194. 9: ! . there can not be produced.

not only had she no life. but she had no breath. " could I transform men ? Lao-Tze said. by the communication of their milt. but she had no bodily form.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 195 Confucius after this did not go out. Deformed and Mr. you have found the Tao. drum" ming on the basin. where Hwang-Ti had entered into his rest. I therefore restrained myself! " Mr. When she first for me was it to be singular flected on the and not died. " I have got it. another change. change again. sleeping in the Great Chamber and if I were to fall sobbing and going on to wail for her. She had not yet been born to life. When you go on to drum on this basin and sing. harmony that I have not played my part in with these processes of transformation. finding him squatted on the ground. possible But I reaffected by the event ? commencement of her being. But as I Long is it did not play my part in harmony with such transformation. another There is now a change. from winter to summer. the small-waisted wasp by transformation when a younger brother comes. and there came birth and life. . and When then dies in her old age." how Chuang-tze's wife died. One-foot were looking at the mound-graves of the departed in the wild of Khwan-lun. the fishes . not to wail for her is enough. not only had she no bodily form. is it not an ex" cessive and strange demonstration ? Chuang-tze replied. The relation between these things is like the procession of the four seasons from spring There now she lies to autumn. " You will do. Chiu. till at the end of three months he went again to see Lao-Tze. and said. and there was the bodily form. During the intermingling of the waste and dark chaos there ensued a change. When a wife has lived with her husband. and singing. " It is not so. Suddenly a . Hui-tze went to condole with him. said to him. Ravens produce their young by hatching. I should think that I did not understand what was appointed for all. and there was breath. and. and brought up children. elder weeps. with her face up. and she is dead.

Life and death are like day and night." Chuang-tze did not believe it. in your greed of life. The living tumor began grow on frame thus borrowed is but so much dust. and " What you said to me was after the fashion of an said. in the service of a perishing Or was it through State. If my change is coming to me. and said. bleached indeed. Sir. The former said to " " " " Do you dread it ? the other. reflecting disgrace on your parents and on your wife and children? Or was it that you had com" pleted your term of life ? Having given expression to these questions. tell you about death ? "I should. and made a pillow of it when he went to sleep. " my royal court. There is none of those things after death. why should I dread it ? Life is a borrowed thing. Tranquil and at ease. " How should I cast away the enjoyment of brows.196 THE SACRED BOOKS to their left wrists. men in their lifetime. and to give you back your father and mother. All your words were about the entanglements of orator. he saw an empty skull. and undertake again the toils of mankind ? r> : . " If I could get the Ruler of our Destiny to restore your body to life with its bones and flesh and skin. Sir. our years are those of heaven and earth. At midnight the skull appeared to him in a dream." replied he. why should I dislike it ? " When Chuang-tze went to Chu. Did you. and the skull re" sumed In death there are not the distinctions of ruler above and minister below. and come to this? Or did you do so. he took up the skull." said Chuang-tze. Tapping it " with his horse-switch. would you wish me to do so?" The skull stared fixedly at him. fail in the lessons of reason. and all your village acquaintances. And you and I were looking at the graves of those who have undergone their change. saying. which made them look distressed as if they disliked it. he asked it. There is none of the phenomena of the four seasons. your wife and children. but still retaining its shape. knitted its and said. No king in his court has greater enjoyment than we have. Would you like to hear me. No. by the punishment of the axe? your evil conduct.

do not fulfil the duties of the relationships which they they be able to lay down 1 The three books here given are sometimes classed as the 29th. and paid no regard to their parents and brethren. saying. All were distressed by them.THE DOUBTFUL WORKS OF CHUANG-TZE BOOK l XXIX " TAO CHIH. had passed away before Confucius was born in 551 B. They did not sacrifice to their ancestors. but many Chinese critics doubt their au- thenticity. and in the smaller the people took to their strongholds. Wherever they 9. but it is an anachronism to say that Confucius was on terms of friendship with him. passed through the country. Confucius spoke to Liu-hsia Chi. 2 who had a brother named Tao Chih. which is mentioned. This Tao Chih had who marched at their will through the kingand oppressing the different princes.C. probably.. in the larger States the people guarded their city walls. They dom. a son of his employed in an important expedition in 634 B.C. they forgot the claims of kinship. 30th. under which designation he is mentioned both in the Confucian " Analects " and in Mencius. OR " THE ROBBER CHIH CHAPTER I Confucius was on terms of friendship with Liu-hsia Chi. being older than the Christian era. in the Tso Chuan. " Fathers should the law to their sons. assailing dug through walls and hroke into houses. In their greed to get.. If they are unable to do so. and must certainly have deceased before the death of Tze-lu (480). and elder to instruct their younger brothers. 197 . if forgeries. 2 Better known as Liu-hsia Hui. Yet. so that he. and 31st of Chuang's books. they drove away people's cattle and horses. they are very ancient ones. and they are typical of the author's reckless invention of whimsical tales. they carried off people's wives and daughters. and was called Chan Hwo and Chan Chin.000 followers. He was a scion of the distinguished family of Chan in Lu. We find.

till he saw the usher. Khung Chiu of Lu. he the language of abuse. nor the younger receive the lessons of their elder brothers. But when Tao Chih heard of the arrival. If you agree with him. his eyes became like blazing stars. him from me. With as his charioteer." his hair rose up and touched his cap. and " Is not this fellow. Confucius alighted from his carriage. Khung Chiu. and you are not able to instruct him better. " You say. moreover. enraged." bowing twice respectfully to man as he said so. and I beg to go for you and give him counsel. wrong-doings. but if sons will not listen to the orders of their fathers. the general's lofty righteousness. is You arbitrarily decide right and what wrong. and your younger brother is this Robber Chih. whom he found with his followers halted on the south of Thai-shan. and elder to instruct their younger brothers. he flew into a great rage . what is to be done ? And. and your girdle is dead The more you make your tongue what is a drum-stick. Sir. " to whom he said. and Tze-kung seated on the right. are one of the most talented officers of He the age. that artful hypocrite of Lu ? Tell You invent speeches and babble away. THE SACRED BOOKS You. t " a piece of skin from the ribs of a ox. is a pest in the kingdom. and his will like a whirlwind he is strong enough to resist all enemies. did not attend to this advice. though one may have your powers of persuasion. and he readily meets men with You must not go to him. he went to see Tao Chih. and your You wag your lips and clothes without that of weaving. if you oppose him. thereby leading astray . You get your food without the labor of plowing." Confucius. the more nonsense you utter. and went forward. ornaments on your cap are as many as the branches of a said he." Liu-hsia Chi replied. talk. and clever enough to gloss over his . that fathers must be able to lay down the law to their sons. have heard of the men's livers. I. tree. appealThe ing without ground to the examples of Wan and Wu. he is is glad.198 sustain. Chih is a man whose mind is like a gushing fountain. I can not but be ashamed of you. however. Sir. The usher went in and announced the visitor. and mincing Yen Hui which he gave them to eat.

If you do not do so. Take yourself off home at once. and bowed twice to " sent in another message. gathering the multitudes round this is the lowest of them. your crime is very heavy. Whoever and two inches in height. there is a brightness about your face and a light in your eyes. I wish to have an interview with you. You recklessly set up your filial piety and fraternal duty. Your food. hand on his sword. who in a great rage stretched his legs apart. Chiu. To be naturally tall and large. and with glaring eyes and a mind." On this Confucius hastened forward." 3 But Confucius laid his " Come forvoice like the growl of a nursing tigress. 4 To take the position . " Make him come forward. Tao Chih said. and I wish and hope to When the usher had tread the ground beneath your tent. are pleased to look upon him this is the highest of those To comprehend both heaven and earth in his qualities. and add it to the provision for to-day's and curry favor with the feudal the noble. you shall live. to see and speak to of a ruler in his court. General. his face to the south. if it be contrary to it. you shall die. and making its learned scholars not occupy their thoughts with their proper business. but. Declining to take a mat. and leading on his troops possesses one of these qualities is fit to stand with 4 But you. said. I will take your liver. Your person is unite in yourself all the three. you face to face. princes." Confucius replied. If what you say be Tao Chih. in accordance with my ward. " I have heard that everywhere under the sky there are three most excellent qualities. I enjoy the good will of your brother Chi. wisdom.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 199 the princes throughout the kingdom. the wealthy. your teeth are like rows of eight cubits a That is. and to be able to speak eloquently on all subjects To be brave and couragethis is the middle one of them. and offense is great . to be elegant and handsome without a peer. and style himself a Prince. so that young and old. he drew hastily back. him. noble and mean. saying. resolute and daring.' " communicated this message. your lips look as if stained with vermilion. ous.

this is to try to persuade me by considerations of gain. That I am tall and handsome. greatly enraged. The descendants of those worthies were greatly reduced .o speak ill of them behind their back. now have not so much territory Thang and Wu were both set up as . and can not approve of you. and ordinary people. which was possessed by Yao and Shun. Chiu.' I am ashamed If you are of you. and will fulfil the wishes of the whole city several . are all ignorant." said Tao Chih. and honor you there as a feudal lord. but they still had a name and a place. I should like to go as your com- and Yueh in the south. and along with them offer the sacrifices to your this will be a course befitting a sage and an ancestors 5 officer of ability. elegant " pleased with likes to praise men to their face will also like t. Though you were not to praise me for it.200 THE SACRED BOOKS precious shells. The kingdom will see you begin your career afresh you will cease from your wars and disband your soldiers you will collect and nourish your brethren. General. * and jet you are named The Robber Chin. and to whom remonstrances may be addressed with success. I will get them to build for you a great missioner to Wu hundred li in size. to establish under it towns containing several hundred thousands of inhabitants. And when you tell me of a great wall and a multitudinous people. to Sung and Wei in the east. inclined to listen to me. and to cocker me as one of the ordinary people. to Chi and Lu in the north. the Sons of Heaven." Come forward. . while their descendants 6 as would admit an awl. low. do I not know it myself? And I have heard that he who and large. and to Tsin and Chu in the west. " Those who can be persuaded by considerations of gain. but in after ages their posterity were cut 8 It is said near the beginning that Chih and his followers had ceased to offer such sacrifices they had no religion. kingdom. But how could such advantages last for long? Of all great cities there is none so great as the whole kingdom. so that all who see me are this is an effect of the body left me by me my parents. your voice is attuned to the musical tubes.

they wove and made clothes they had no idea of injuring one another this was the grand time of Perfect virtue. 7 in the wild of Cho-lu till the blood fought with Chih-yu flowed over a hundred li. With your peculiar robe and narrow girdle. they crowd of ministers. They dwelt along mothers. moreover. with your deceitful speech and hypocritical conduct. I have heard that anciently birds and beasts were numerous. and the many tyrannized over the few. the rulers have all been promoters of disorder and confusion. you made him put away his high cap. and in winter kept themselves warm by means of them. with the elks and deer. lay aside his long sword. so that they lived in nests in order to avoid the animals. whatever subjects are anywhere discussed for the instruction of future ages.LITERATURE OF THE EAST off 201 and extinguished was not this because the gain of was so great a prize? "And. King Wu killed Chau. you delude the lords of the different States. You yourself now cultivate and inculcate the ways of Wan and Wu you handle instituted their . and are seeking for riches and honors. the Robber Chih ? You prevailed by your sweet speeches on Tze-lu. Commonly spoken of as *' the first rebel. When Yao and Shun arose. 7 " and receive your instructions. and rose up in quiet security. the people lay down in simple innocence. and made him your follower. was not able to perpetuate this virtuous state. From Thang and Wu downward." . They plowed and ate. Anciently the people summer they collected great stores of faggots. and on account of this they are their position called the people of the Nest-builder. however. They knew their but did not know their fathers. and men were few. Hwang-Ti. In Shan Nang. He the people the age of . In did not know the use of clothes. and on account of this they are called who knew how to take care of their lives. Thang banished his lord. There is no greater robber than you are why does not all instead of styling me the world call you the Robber Chiu. and in the night they roosted on the trees. In the daytime they gathered acorns and chestnuts. Since that time the strong have oppressed the weak.

was exhibited in pickle over the eastso did your teaching of him come to ? nothing. 8 Shun was not filial. you were held in a state of siege between Chan and Tshai there is no rest. and the affair proved unsuccessful. 10 When Shan-thu Ti's Referring to his setting aside his unworthy son. you were reduced to extremity in Chi. Khung Chiu is able to arrest ' violence and repress the wrong-doer . when Tze-lu wished to slay the ruler of Wei. Tan-chu. and still he was not able to perfect his virtue. They declined the rule of Ku-chu. After a dispute with Tze-kung. These are the six men of whom the world thinks the most highly. a sage . yet when we accurately consider their history. you were twice driven out of Lu you had to run away from Wei. his body ern gate of the capital . Why. You have done no good either for how can your doctrines be worth exalts so being thought much of? " There is no one whom the world much as it does Hwang-Ti. and died of starvation on the hill of Shau-yang. we see that for the sake of gain they all disallowed their true nature. This. the fact was highly honorable to Yu. is the meaning. 10 A recluse of the time of Confucius. and condemned the world. Yu was paralyzed on one side. your instructions Such have been the misfortunes brought Tze-lu to pickle. King smote Chau. till the blood flowed over a hundred li. but he died with his arms round a tree. and brought on by his devotion to his labors.202 THE SACRED BOOKS ' so that all the world said. but fought in the wilderness of Cho-lu. 1 think. according to Han Ying. King Wan was imprisoned in Yu-li. " Among those whom the world calls men of ability and virtue were the brothers Po-I and Shu-chi. and did violence to its proper qualities and tendencies: their conduct can not be Wu thought of but with deep shame. Yao was not kind to his son. leaving their bones and flesh unburied. Pao Tsiao vaunted his conduct. " Do you call yourself a scholar of talent. s . yourself or for others. he committed suicide in the way described. but in the end. 9 Thang banished his sovereign. and giving the throne to Shun. attending your course. ing-place for your person in the kingdom.

Looking at all the These two were what the world has been that everybody above cases. where he was eaten by the fishes and turtles. there is not one worthy to be honored . in any of these. Wei Shang had made an appointment with a girl to meet him under a bridge. if you tell me about the things of men alive. as they were bound " to do. pining.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 203 remonstrances were not listened to. I am unable to know anything about it . the lowest longevity is The greatest longevity man medium longevity is eighty Take away sickness. and died with his arms round one of the pillars. the ears to hear music. bereavement. They were all caught as in a net by their desire for fame. and went away. The eyes wish to look on beauty. a flavors . and as to the admonitions which you. one can open his mouth and Heaven and laugh. and was burned to death with a tree in his arms. calls loyal ministers. Chiu. the pig that is borne away by a current. are only four or five days in a month. down to those of Tze-hsu and Pi-kan. Among those whom the world calls faithful ministers Tze-hsu. but when she did not come. not caring to nourish their life to its end. and calamities. years. he fastened a stone on his back. and the Wu heart of Pi-kan was cut out. the times when. he was angry. mourning. and the water rose around him. anxieties. or the beggar drowned in a ditch with his alms-gourd in his hand. earth have no limit of duration. sixty. the mouth to enjoy the will to be gratified. but the death of man has . Sir. wish to impress about the state of the dead. But when the duke afterward overlooked him in his distribution of favors. if you tell me have heard and know all about. The deaths of these four men were not different from those of the dog that is torn in pieces. there have been none like the prince Pi-kan and But Tze-hsu's dead body was cast into the Chiang. and cut a piece from his thigh as food for Duke Wan. Chieh Tze-thui was the most de- voted of followers. and threw himself into the Ho. what I on me. I will now tell you. can reach is a hundred years. he would not go away. they are only such as I have stated. but the end laughs at them. my views about the condition of man.

the reason why he appears as interlocutor in this paragraph. and narrowly escaped his mouth. you will not acquire gain.204 its THE SACRED BOOKS appointed time. Take the longest amount of a limited time. who said to him. and he could not see and his color was that of slaked He laid hold of the cross-bar. And did he not set himself " in opposition to all your views. artful. and hurried away. and unable to draw his breath. if you look at the matter . CHAPTER II " asked Man Kau-teh. and said." official II. Chiu. vain. and nourish their appointed longevity. I cast from me. holding his head down. Thus. Why do you Tze-chang not pursue a righteous course ? Without such a course you will not be believed in. Be quick and Your Way is go. not available to complete the true nature of worth talking about >: ! man. Your carriage and horses are travel-stained have you not been to see Tao " Chih ? Confucius looked up to heaven. outside the east gate of the capital of Lu. " 12 A fictitious name. played with his whiskers. 'as I said he would do ? " He did." meaning. His eyes were dazed. deceitful." . sighed. tiger's head. Full of gain recklessly got. and compare it with what is unlimited." This is. that Tze-chang "studied with a probably. stroked the ized himself without being ill. " " Yes. you will not be employed in office and if not employed in office. Hurry It is only a wild it is recklessness. all that you say. 18) view to emolument. Those who can not gratify their will and natural aims. lime. are all unacquainted with the right Way of life. Chi. unless you are believed in. he encountered Liu-hsia " Here you are. and mounted his carriage. and hypocritical. its brief existence is not different from the passing of a crevice by one of King Mu's horses. back and say not a word more. not Confucius bowed twice. 12 saying. My case has been that of the man who cauterI rushed away." The other went on. u 11 We are told ("Analects. right in the gate. . When he got back. He went out Thrice he missed at the door. the reins as he tried to take hold of them. For some days I have not seen you.

Hsiao-po. yet when you think over the thing in your own mind. you will see that the scholar should not be a single day without pursuing a right" He who has no shame eous course. Thus it is that the position of sovereign does not necessarily . . were poor. a great robber becomes a feudal lord. and in the gate of the feudal lord your righteous 13 For instance." Man Kau-teh replied. styled Chang-tze. and think over the thing in your own mind. and gaining nothing. on the other hand. robbers are put in prison. and resent the imputation these two sovereigns are despised by the smallest men. Thus the greatest fame and gain would seem to spring from being without shame and being believed in. then he will be put out and change countenance. Therefore if you look at the matter from the point of reputation. connect with being thought noble. and protest that he is not worthy to be so spoken of: these two philosophers are held to be truly noble by all scholars. killed his ruler. and he in whom many believe becomes illustri- ous. Chung-ni and Mo Ti. If you discard the thought of reputation and gain.LITERATURE OF THE EAST from the point of reputation. or estimate 205 it from the point of gain. and common men but if you say to a Prime Minister that his conduct is like that of Chung-ni or Mo Ti. and Thien Chang. right thing. Hwan. look ashamed. or estimate it from the point of gain. and took his sister-in-law to himself. a righteous course is truly the right thing. The poor and of common rank with being thought difference of being thought noble or mean arises from the " Small conduct being good or bad." Man Kau-teh said. i : . and yet became his minister. killed his elder brother. you will see that the scholar in the course which he pursues is simply holding fast his Heavenly nature." " Formerly Chieh and Chau each enjoyed Tze-chang said. nor the condition of being mean. the Duke scholars will be found. and usurped Kwan Chung is The name of Duke Hwan. to be believed in is the If you discard the thought of fame and gain. and all the wealth of the kingdom was his but if you now say to a mere money-grabYour conduct is like that of Chieh or Chau/ he will ber. becomes rich. the honor of being sovereign.

and ' the unsuccessful as the Tail. that Confucius ever received a gift from Thien or Chan Hang. and Shun banished his half-brother : Man observe the rules about the different degrees of kin ? Thang overthrew Chau did they observe . Who is bad ? and who is good ? The successful is regarded as the Head. 15 Exaggerations or misrepresentations. but where the actual search for reputation and gain may not be in accordance with principle and will not bear to be examined in the light of the right way." i* There is no evidence but rather the contrary. no difference bethe near tween the noble and the mean. the followers of Mo hold deposed Chieh King Wu : : that all should be loved equally: do we find in them the 16 and separation of the fivefold arrangement of the virtues. but observe no distinction between and the remote degrees of kin." or Three Cardinal parties Objects of Duty. let me and you refer 18 the matter to-morrow to the decision of Wu-yo. we must still recognize its meaning as denoting " one who is unbound . is Jf we take Wu-yo as a name. but in their conduct they abased themselves before In this way their words and actions must have been them. Sir. no order between the old and is of what the young. at war together in their breasts.206 the State. ' held to be right. 14 THE SACRED BOOKS and yet Confucius received a present of silks In their discussions they would condemn the from him. are all for reputation.' " If you do not follow the usual course Tze-chang said. for gain. was it not a contradiction and perversity ? As it is said in a book. men. the righteousness that should obtain between the noble and the mean? King Chi took the place of his elder brother. which is the simplest construction. and the Duke of Chau killed his did they observe the order The that should obtain between the elder and the younger ? Literati make hypocritical speeches ." Probably what are called " IT The in the Three Bonds of Society. " is the live constant virtues. and I am 17 all And further. the six parties in the social organization? you. social organization ? 15 did they his eldest son. and the six parties in the " " Yao killed Kau-teh replied. then how shall a separation be made of the fivefold arrangement of the virtues.

Look . Dissatisfied asked Mr. Do plete your righteousness. IV. The way in which they change their feelings and alter their nature is different. then others tion and pursue after gain. 20 The Khwang Chang of Mencius. Wei Shang was drowned such were the misfortunes of good faith. and as the time Be it right. not haste to be rich do not follow after your perfection. Do not turn your course do not try to com. cease your endeavors. and talked about in these later times. If in you. Pao-tze stood till he was dried up Shan-tze would not defend : . who does not strive for reputaWhen men are rich. paid the penalty of these misfortunes." Much of what he say is in rhyme. carry out your idea ponder over verge. you do. and might also be so translated. . in their determination to be correct in their words and resolute in their conduct. after all. The small man pursues after wealth the superior man pursues after reputation. Do not be a superior man follow the rule of the Heavenly in you. and were involved in these distresses. Be it crooked. You will fail in what you do. Tze-hsu had his eyes gouged out such were the evil consequences of their loyalty.LITERATURE OF THE EAST " 207 . hold fast the ring in yourself in which all conditions conAlone by yourself. They show us how superior men. 19 Chuang-tze 20 ness. did not see his father such were the failures of the righteous. Hence it is said.the right way. and replace it with doing nothing." CHAPTEE " III Mr. view the thing in the light of Heaven as revealed round on every side of it. be it wrong. : " you will lose the Heavenly in you/ The upright person bore witness against his father. indicates. they would be the same. but if they were to cast away what they do. all . This Wu-yo said. : These are instances handed down from former ages. be it straight. Know-the-Mean. by the conventionalities of opinion. 19 is made to A false charge. . saying. There is no man. himself: such were the injuries brought on by disinterestedConfucius did not see his mother . Pi-kan had his heart cut out . ' Do not be a small man return and pursue after the Heavenly in you.

" Dissatisfied rejoined. and all the wealth of the kingdom were his. wide of the mark when he thinks that this is the way to promote long life. every way advantageous to man. that we consider ourselves scholars who have abjured all vulgar ways and risen above the world. he would not be beyond the reach of misfor" But riches are in tunes and evils. in order to be free to act as he does. but he does not know why he Even if he had the dignity of the Son of Heaven. Sir. and to secure You the rest of the body and the satisfaction of the mind.208 THE SACRED BOOKS go to them. have no idea of this. He is entirely without the thought of submitting to the rule of what is right. they put themselves beneath them. But to see others taking that position and doing honor to us is the way to prolong life. abandoning most important and discarding what is most honorBut is he not able. knowledge is deficient ? Is it that you have the knowledge. gent and discriminating his taking advantage of the virtues . but he does not inquire how his body is so variously affected. and his happy joys. his contemplied. but he does not inquire how his mind has such what is different experiences. however. He therefore studies ancient times and the present. With them his attainment of the beautiful and mastery of every art become what the perfect man can not obtain nor the sagely man reach to . his appropriation of the bravery and strength of others enables him to exercise a powerful sway his availing himself of the wisdom and plans of others makes him be accounted intelli. and Know-the-Mean renever allow yourself to forget it ? " " Here now is this man judging of us. poraries. and the differing questions about the right and wrong. and agrees with the vulgar ideas and influences of the age. to pursue his course. and to secure the rest of the body and the He has his painful afflictions and satisfaction of the mind ? his quiet repose. and living in the same neighborhood as himself. he has his apprehensive terrors. Going to them. but want the strength to carry it into practise ? Or is it that your mind is made up to do what you consider right. He knows how does so. Is it that your alone. In that position they do honor to them as nobler than themselves. .

but they will not in their possession of it make a mock of others. for what was deemed admirable. require any master Though the world may condemn one's indulgence of them. When they have not enough. for the good of the people. They estimate the evils to which they are exposed. " Yao and Shun were the sovereigns. avoidance and pursuit. not because of their benevolence toward the people . and therefore they but not because they seek will decline and not accept them for reputation and praise. they do not strive for more they have no they is -directed . They think how their possessions may be injurious to their nature.LITERATURE OF THE EAST of others 309 makes him be esteemed able and good. If they have already a superfluity. they will seek for it they will strive for it in every quarter. It did so. their power may be that of the sovereign. Through their exercise of introspection. this is the nature of man. Though he looked to with awe as may a ruler and father. and yet not think of themselves as greedy. and yet not think of themselves as disinterested the conditions of disinterestedness and greediness are with them not from the constraint of anything external. music. with the pleasures of the taste and of power. been the sovereigns. they would not. and declined what was in- . who can " refrain from it ? Know-the-Mean replied. the wise further object. their wealth may be that of the whole kingdom. they will decline the throne. do not others. he minds and rejoiced in without any previous learning of them the body reposes in them without waiting for the example of Desire and dislike. Therefore when have enough. Shan Chuan and Hsu Yu might have injure their lives. beauty. but they would not These all followed after its occupancy injure themselves. but they will not in their nobility be arrogant to others . XII. and are anxious about the reverses which they may experience. and harmony prevailed. but they would not receive the throne. but they do not go against the proper rule and degree. 14. they will decline any more . by what was advantageous VOL. and so they do not seek for one. " The action of . to them. Moreover. not that they declined it without purpose. . are appreciated by men's is not be the holder of a State.

though they enjoy not for the sake of the reputation and praise. and their mouths are stuffed with the flesh of fed beasts and with wine of the richest flavor. their hearts are distressed with their very fulness. Sunk deeply in their selfsufficiency. : the superfluity is of wealth. they fill their stores. and flutes. Thus. use still it. they covet power. they did what they did. the distinction. indoors they have many chambers and partitions. saying. refuse to desist from their course. and out-of-doors they do not dare to go alone: they may be said to be in a state of constant said to be sad. drums. think- ing to derive comfort from them. The ears of the rich are provided with the music of bells. deaf to all admonition. they forget their proper business: theirs may be pronounced a condition of disorder. and out-of-doors they are afraid of being injured by plundering robbers. and longcontinued pressure till their death arrived. THE SACRED BOOKS and all continued his argument. " Tranquil ease is happiness a superfluity is injurious so it is with all things. ." Know-theMean replied. they seek for more and will not desist their condition may be : Indoors they are apprehensive of pilfering and begging thieves. they resemble individuals ascending a height with a heavy burden on their backs: their condition may be pronounced one of bitter suffering. when quiet and retired. alarm. and they are full of boasting: they may be said to be in a In their desire to be rich and striving for state of disease. they are drowned in luxurious indulgence their persons seem to shine. denied themselves what was pleasant. and would fain monopolize it. and restricted themselves to a bare sustenance in order to Dissatisfied the world celebrates their superiority. and especially it is so where sustain their life . . They covet riches. flageolets. gain. and. They are even more elated. " In thus thinking it necessary for their reputation. so are their desires till satisfied.210 jurious. they bitterly distressed their bodies. and hold on their way: their conduct may be pronounced disWhen their wealth is amassed till they can not graceful." but so they had life-long distress. . when they clasp it to their breasts and will not part with it .

but they forget them all. When the evil comes. masreplied. why would you give me the Probably King Hui-wan (298-265 B. I will give him a thousand ounces of silver. which makes the the paragraph commences seem strange. it is not to be peace. any one can persuade the king. so fond was he of them. they could not bring back one day of untroubled " When they look for their reputation. and other States to plan measures against 2 it. and laid the Chuang-tze is able to do this. who. The thing continued for three years. when the kingdom began to decay. appeared as his guests. and by the sacrifice of all their wealth. Over a hundred of them would die or be severely wounded in the course of a year. lining the way on either side of his gate. is it not a case of great delusion ? " BOOK XXX YUEH CHIEN. what sengers. " O prince. however. he said. and have lost their faculty of judgment. " Only The crown-prince Khwei was distressed. into . and silver 1 ? " The prince " I have heard that you.LITERATURE OF THE EAST These six conditions are the most deplorable in the world.) of Chao. and fighting together before him day and night. King Wan of Chao delighted in the swordMore than three thousand men. nor of his son Khwei. when they seek for their wealth." His attendants said. fight. masters of the weapon. though they begged it with all the powers of their nature. saying. and put an end to these swordsmen. " " formerly appears as a contemporary of King Wan. but he was never weary of looking on at their engagements. one of the States which the great State of Tsin was subdivided. with which 2 Sze-ma Chien says nothing of King Wan's love of the sword-fight. " If case before his attendants. To and destroy their bodies.C. striving for such task their thoughts. an end as this . it is not to be got. and which afterward In this Book Chuang-tze all claimed the sovereignty of the kingdom. would not accept them. but went with the mesWhen he saw the prince. seen . have you to say to Chau." Thereupon the prince sent men with a thousand ounces of silver to offer to Chuang-tze. OE " DELIGHT IN THE SWORD-FIGHT " l Formerly.

Sir." " I will then. THE SACRED BOOKS I sent you respectfully the are sagacious and sage. " I have heard. The king is delighted with all this but now you are sure to present yourself to him in your scholar's dress." This was ready in three days. " I will see none but swordsmen. When Chuang-tze entered the door of the hall. that you have got the . thousand ounces of silver. and when he appeared in it before the prince. the king. what is there in the kingdom of Chao that I might ask for which I would not get ? The crown-prince said." " but the swordsmen whom his well. and accomplish what you desire. tell " you what I wished from you ? Chuang-tze rejoined. . nor. with your leave. the latter went with him to introduce him to the king. my sword would deal with him. when he saw the king. and therefore I have sought an interview with you on the ground " What can you do of my skill in the use of the sword." " " Let me meet an opponent ? with your sword against with an opponent every ten paces." Chuang-tze replied. he did not hurry forward. coarse and unornamented and their coats are cut short behind.212 ter. and not fulfil your expectation. They wear slouching caps with tassels. with whiskers . They have staring eyes. The king asked him. " Yes but my father. swordsman's dress. O prince. I shall be punished with death. how dare I now gifts. projecting out. prince to mention you beforehand " ? The reply was. " . and could I then enjoy this silver ? Or suppose that I shall succeed in persuading his Majesty. and this will stand greatly in the way of your success. "I have heard that your Majesty is fond of the sword-fight. get me a Chuang-tze said. " What do you want to teach me." observed the prince Majesty sees all have their hair in a tangle. so that I should not be stopped in a march of a thou- . and talk about the hazards of their game. who then drew his sword from its scabbard and waited for him. that what you wanted me for was to wean the king from what is his delight. Suppose that in trying to persuade his Majesty I should offend him. as a prelude to the silks and other But as you decline to receive them. " That is know but I am expert in the use of the sword. did he bow.

and 8 its girdle is the enduring hills. " Any length will suit me. to the arena. reaching him before he can return the blow. then seems to give him an advantage." " The king accordingly made trial of his swordsmen for till more than sixty of them were killed. Go to your lodging. and Chuang-tze went on. the sword of a feudal prince." replied Chuang-tze. the sword of the Son of Heaven. . s A region lying along the present gulf of Chih-li. and then go hall. like to have an opportunity to show you my skill. any one of which I will use. the capital of which near the Peking." for the opportunity. I will make arrangements for the play. " You have not your match in the kingdom. should like to hear about the three " its point This sword has Yen-chi and Shih-chang Chi and Mount Tai for its edge Tsin and Wei for its back Chau and Sung for its hilt. "A good swordsman first makes a feint against his opponent. and finally gives his I should thrust. . which he called Chuang-tze. or sewounded. He then selected five or six men. and then call you. Han and Wei for its sheath. It is regulated by the was Some noted place in the State of Yen. between the Pei-ho and the Ching-ho in Shan-tung. and made verely them bring their swords and take their places beneath the seven days. Stop for a little. and said to him. and wait for my orders. Master. *A wall." Chuang-tze replied. built as a barrier of defense against the northern tribes. after " . The king then asked him what would be the length of the sword which he would use and he said." " What about the sword of the Son of Heaven ? " " 3 4 for . . . as may please your Majesty. but I have three swords. site of the present ." The king said." The king was delighted with him. and said. Let me first tell you of them." said the king .LITERATURE OF THE EAST 213 sand li. north of Yen." " I There is swords. It is embraced by the wild tribes all around it is wrapped 5 up in the four seasons it is bound round by the Sea of Po . and the sword of a common man. To-day I am going to make you and these men show what " I have long been looking you can do with your swords.

as in the former case. there is nothing left on any side of it . . with whiskers projecting out." 6 in amazement. there is nothing above it. there is is nothing above it . supported by the strength of the kingdom. when directed upward. able and honorable officers for its back. there nothing in front of it. and obey the orders of the ruler. . between. there its wielding is . when wheeled round. it penetrates to Let this sword be once used. point. every division of the earth. The sword of the Chuang-tze replied. and in all the parts of the State there is peace. when wheeled round. when laid down. above. and directed by good government. when lifted up. by means of Punishments and Kindness its unsheathing is like that of the Yin and Yang it is held fast in the spring and summer. and is in accordance with the three luminaries . and said again. when laid down. This is the sword of the " King Wan " looked lost And what replied. there is nothing below it . this sword be once used. its law is taken from the round heaven. When it is thrust forward. and the whole kingdom it submits. Above. it is put in action in the autumn and winter. valiant and eminent officers for its sheath. it is in harmony with the minds of the Let people. and you seem to hear the crash of the thunder-peal. is cleaves the floating clouds." common man ? " asked " the king once more. below. there is nothing below it. and below. and have their By this sword Chuang-tze evidently means the power of the sovereign. nothing in front of it. loyal and sage officers for its hilt. its law is taken from the square earth. pure and disinterested officers for its edge.2U five THE SACRED BOOKS elements . and is in accordance with the four seasons. common man is wielded by those who have their hair in a tangle. Within the four borders there are none who do not respectfully submit. who wear slouching " And what about the sword of the caps with coarse and unornamented tassels. This is the sword of the feudal lord. about the sword of a feudal lord ? " Chuang-tze This sword has wise and brave officers for its Son of Heaven. and the princes are all reformed. there is nothing on any side of it. When this sword is thrust directly forward.

stopped and The disciples began to read sat down by the Apricot altar. ." The picture which the Book raises before my mind is that of a forest. and Chuang-tze said to him. months. 815 who have staring eyes. Chuang-tze's parables had had their intended effect. of the . and the swordsmen rooms. on passing the old Apricot altar. Your end. It was not in his mind to do anything for the swordsmen. A altar reared by Tsang Wan-chung to solemnize covenants. This is the sword below. a ruined building called out as the site of the School of Confucius. and that you fighting-cocks. which the king walked round three times. common man. rambling in the forest of Tze-wei." which was etery. did not quit the palace for three this the On to the top of the hall. and talk only about the hazards of their game. of your Majesty. having on it the altar of Tsang Wan-chung. before you." i means by forest or grove in the neighborhood of the capital of Lu. to which the ground sloped down. leaving the capital of Lu " This is the the eastern gate. and with a lake or at least a stream near to it." Confucius. they all killed 7 1 themselves. great king. " the College of Chu-Sze. said. they Majesty occupies the seat of the Son of Heaven. calm yourself. XXXI r ' OR " THE OLD FISHERMAN Confucius. The commentators say: " Indignant at not being treated as they had been before. 7 all killed themselves in their own BOOK YIT-FU." men king drew Chuang-tze with him. should be so fond of the swordsmanship of such common is unworthy. The place would suit pointed all the demands of the situation in this Book. I have said all I wished to say about swords. The users of it are not different from any morning their lives are brought to an are of no use in the affairs of the State. it scoops out the liver and lungs.LITERATURE OF THE EAST coats cut short behind . not far from the Confucian cemthe old fisherman. unable to sit down to it. as I venture to think." King Wan. when music by the appearance of they were attracted from their books and I visited in 1873. with a row or clump of apricot-trees. Here the writer introduces us to the sage and some of his disciples. and went up where the cook set forth a meal. along which was a terrace. " Sit down quietly. thereafter. They hit at one another the sword slashes through the neck and Above. Tze-wei " black silken curtains. on one occasion.

" "And Mr.216 THE SACRED BOOKS their books. he not a sage ? " and down the slope he went in search of him. and reported what the man had said to " Is Confucius. " " steps. he would promote loyalty to the hereditary lords. but " This scion of the Khung family devotes Tze-kung replied. who pushed his lute aside. he is imperiling his Alas how far removed is he from the proper ! way of life " ! Tze-kung returned. his object being to benefit the kingdom: this is what Mr." was Is he a ruler possessed of " Is he the asTze-kung's reply. himself in his conduct he manifests benevolence and righteousness. " said. till he got to the dry ground. saying as he But I am afraid benevolence is benevolence went. Who is he ? " Man the of Lu. saying. Khung family. ditty was finished. he will not escape the evils incident to humanity. he cultivates the ornaments of ceremonies and music he pays special attention to the relationships of society. listened. he them. His beard and eyebrows were turning white his hair was all uncombed. and. Pointing to Confucius. when he stopped. Turning round and seeing Confucius. Khung devotes himself to. By em- No any prince or king ? other began to laugh and to retrace his " " " . and the right hand at his chin. singing He had not half finished his ditty when an as he did so. in his own nature to leal-heartedness and sincerity. Yes. When he reached the edge of the lake." " Tze-lu replied. he . and came toward . with his left hand holding one of his When the knees. dragging the boat toward him. He walked thus up from the bank. there was the fisherman with his pole. and arose. who both responded and went to him. " " No. while he proceeded to play on his lute. old fisherman stepped down from his boat. He is the Superior of what family is he?" "He is of " And what is the occupation of this seeks the transformation of all classes of the people . and on this the ! bittering his true nature ! mind and toiling his body." The territory ? sistant of stranger further asked. he beckoned to Tze-kung and Tze-lu. he came back toward . and his sleeves hung idly down. Khung ? " To this question Tze-lu gave no reply. above. below.

the clans in their States rebellious. croachment on one another's rights. there ensues the greatest disorder. and said. want of probity in conduct. " A little while ago. loyal ministers at their courts . . . learning the feudal lords. do what is correct in their several positions. there is no en- we have . . I do not know what you wished to say. and went forward. twice. articles " No .LITERATURE OF THE EAST him and stood up. dare I but listen to you with a humble and unprejudiced mind ? " The stranger replied. troubles of great officers. and the common people. The reply was. . " Fields running to waste leaking rooms insufficiency of food and clothing taxes unprovided for want of harmony among wives and concubines. the great officers. 217 Confucius then drew back. When the sovereign. fortunate if I may but hear the sound of your words to complete the assistance that you can give me >! ! " All " ! responded the stranger. . and have ventured here to wait for your instructions. Inferior to you. and young Incompetency for their charges inattention to their official business. my Master. the beauty of good order and when they leave their proper duties. want of skill in their mechanics. Allow me to explain what I am in possession of. . " Since I was young. and the common people are anxiously concerned about their business. " ! " how great is your love of Confucius bowed twice. and to pass over from its standWhat you occupy point to the things which occupy you. " Like seeks to like. yourself with are the affairs of men. old these are the troubles of the common people. and want of order between . carelessness and idleness in subordinates failure of merit and excellence these are the and uncertainty of rank and emolument " . " Sir ? asked the stranger. and then rose up. and birds of the same note respond to one another this is a rule of Heaven. these four classes. you broke off the thread of your remarks and went away. bowed to him " What do you want with me. When the officials attend to their duties. I have cultivated learning till I am now sixtynine years old but I have not had an opportunity of hearing the perfect teaching.

oppression and disorder to plunder . with a view to transform the various classes of the people is it not an excessive multiplication of your and music. Sir. the social relationships uncared for and the people abandoned to licentious dis. . and the of which we must by all which do not concern means take account. moreover. and the dissatisfaction of the sovereign these are the troubles of the feudal lords.218 THE SACRED BOOKS of tribute of bad quality . affecting all things injuriously. order these are the troubles of the Son of Heaven and his ministers. to agree with Without reference men with to their being good or bad. and business ? " And. " To take the l management of 7 ' affairs him To bring forward a subject monopolizing. superior man will not make a friend of one 7 A . " Now. is called ' 7 praise tery. defects produce disorder among other men and injury eight to one s self. is called being dangerous. is called 7 calumny. men are liable to eight defects. for expenditure exhausted or deficient. their pre- and attack one another. and yet you take it on you to regulate ceremonies to give special attention to the relationships of society. with his departments of business. which no one regards is called loquacity/ To lead men on To by speeches made to please them is called sycophancy. or a minister of the royal court. to the injury of suming the people ceremonies and music ill-regulated the resources . To praise a man deceitfully. among the feudal princes. " Want of harmony between the Yin and Yang unseasonableness of cold and heat.' ' 1 men without regard to right or wrong is called flatTo be fond of speaking of men's wickedness is called ' part friends and separate relatives is called 7 mischievousness. conduct of affairs to four evils. you have not the high rank of a ruler. a feudal lord. or in the same way fix on him the character of being bad. in order to steal a knowl7 i Those edge of what they wish. nor are you in the inferior position of a great minister. To ' 7 depravity. double face. late appearances at court in spring and autumn .

to obtain for one's self the reputation of meritorious service. Very diffiThere was a man cult it is. He did not know that. exerhis stupidity was excessive! prints cise your judgment on the questions about benevolence and where agreement righteousness. long standing. Sir. . his shadow did ran on He thought he was going too slow. to disapin his ' ' . his shadow would have disappeared. and then rose up and said. and that if he had remained still. changed countenance. These are the prove of him. so that he ran to escape from them. nor minister. is called boastful conceit. is called obstiwhen another agrees with himself.LITERATURE OF THE EAST who has them. and disliked to see his who was frightened at his shadow But the more footsteps. the more not prints were. and however fast he ran. and leave him. Lu. I had to flee from Wei the tree under which I rested . ' ' own way when remonstrated with. numerous his footfrequently he lifted his feet.' four evils. till his strength was exhausted and he died. encroaching on the work of others. " will 219 an intelligent ruler make him his : To speak of what I called the four evils To be fond is of of conducting great affairs. Sir. I do not know what errors I had committed that I came to be misrepresented on these four occaThe stranger looked grieved sions and suffered as I did. is called greediness errors without changing them. if he had stayed in a shady place. however good he may be. he would have lost his footAnd you. was cut down in Sung I was kept in a state of siege between Chan and Tshai." " at these words. is called ambition to claim all wisdom and intrude into affairs. to approve of him. with all his speed without stopping. to make you understand. Again he bowed " I was twice driven from twice. and allow no course to the four evils. and said. nacy and. you investigate the points . i he begins to be capable of being taught. changing and altering what to see his representing it as one's own." Confucius looked sorrowful and sighed. and ' ' . When one can put away the eight defects. and to go on more resolutely . when he disagrees.

no account of how . when you do not cultivate your own person. the principal thing. if he forces himself to show affection. he awakens no harmonious reciprocation. as gentle. The beauty of the service renthe giving them pleasure. it is not real sorrow. the enjoyment. you have mastered the rules of receiving and giving. however he may smile. and difference touch you look at the changes from movement to rest and from rest to movement. your simply rendering to others what was due to them. Hence if one only forces himself to wail. in the service of parents. true affection. yet awakens awe. good service sadness and sorrow. in the service of rulers. takes done the festive drinking which ministers enjoyment does not depend on the appliances for it is . plied.220 THE SACRED BOOKS . then you would have escaped such entanglements. are you not occupying yourself with what is external ? " Confucius with an air of sadness said. he excites no awe . and this is why we count it so valuable. in festive drinking. the sorrow. and carefully guarded your proper truth. however he may seem to be severe. . in the it appears according to the requirements of each case it : service of parents. If you earnestly cultivated own person. is dered to a ruler does not require that it always be performed in one way the service of parents so as to give them pleasure . in the mourning-rites. without any demonstration. exercises a spiritual efficacy without. True grief. however sadly he may do so." The stranger re- Truth is pure sincerity in its highest without this pure sincerity one can not move others. Given this truth yet produces a harmonious reciprocation. In our relations with others. is yet sorrowful true anger. as pleas- ant enjoyment . as In loyalty and integrity. and make the cultivation of others your object. in festive drinking. " A man's proper within. in the performance of the mourning-rites. without a sound. as loyalty and integrity . if he forces himself to be angry. filial duty. " Allow me to ask what it is that you call my proper Truth. you have defined the feelings of liking and disliking. degree . you have harmonized the limits of and yet you have hardly been able to escape joy and anger the troubles of which you speak. without a smile. But now.

If it be one with whom you can walk . Yen Yuan now to him the . where Tze-lu strap but Confucius did not look round. take care that you do not associate with him. handed returned to the carriage. and are influenced by other men they do not know how to prize the proper Truth of their nature. that you were early steeped in the hypocrisies of men. I will then beg to receive your instructions there. proper Truth what he has received from Heaven. and he did not hear the sound of the pole. are not ashamed. man's it. Confucius bowed twice to the fisherman. Rites are prescribed for the practise of the common people. and prize their proper Truth. operating Therefore the sages take spontaneously. treat another with the awe and reverence which you have now shown. go with him to the subtlest mysteries of the Tao. ' together. and unchangeable. but are under the dominion of ordinary things. and you will yourself incur no responsibility/ Do your " I must leave you With I must leave you utmost. their law from Heaven. and went away among the green reeds. Tze-lu. Master. I have heard the saying. If you. consequently. but I have never seen you. I . Master. That I have met you to-day is as if I had the happiness of getting to heaven. incomplete. and change according to the customs around them always. Sir. Alas for you. saying. reverse of this. whom you can not walk together and he do the Tao. long time. and finish " my learning of the Great Way. continuing where he was. till the wavelets were stilled. asked him.LITERATURE OF THE EAST the observance of the mourning-rites with the proper sorrow asks no questions about the rites themselves. are unable to take their law from They Heaven. by his side in the " I have been your servant for a carriage." The stranger replied. If it be one with not know ! this he shoved off his boat. Sir. let me venture to ask where your dwelling is. and have been so late in hearing about the Great Way!" Once more. when at last he ventured to return and take his seat. without is The stupid do the submitting to the restrictions of custom. but will let me be as your servant. then " rose again. and said. and continue to teach me.

would take such want on yourself. If you see a man of superior wisdom and goodness. in practise is ruin . " Difficult indeed is it to change you.THE SACRED BOOKS have seen you in the presence of a Lord of ten thousand chariots or a Ruler of a thousand. and you. heaved a sigh. and do not ! you fail in propriety. and said. O Yu. For things to fail in this is death. To oppose that old fisherman to-day might be said to possess it. Alas there is ! no greater calamity to man than the want of this characteristic. " old fisherman receive such homage from you ? Why did the Confucius leaned forward on the cross-bar of the carriage. dared I presume not to show him rever- Tao. how could he make others submit to him ? And if their submission to him be not sincere. while you have still carried yourself with a reserved and haughty air. he honors And ence?" END OF THE DOUBTFUL BOOKS OF CHUANG-TZE . to conform Therefore wherever the sagely man finds the it it. bent from your loins in the form of a sounding-stone. man did not possess it in the highest degree. was not your reverence of him excessive? Your disciples will all think it strange in you. and they have never received you in a different audience-room. or treated you but with the courtesies due to an equal. the Tao is the course by which all things should proceed. they do not attain to the truth of their nature. O Yu You have been trained in propriety and righteousness for long. you want the great characteristic of humanity. but to-day this old fisherman has stood erect in front of you with his pole in his hand. success. Moreover. and inflict a lasting injury on their persons. and do not honor him. and yet your servile and mean heart has not been taken from you. you alone. would bow twice before you answered him. that I may speak fully to you. Come nearer. If that fisher- show him respect. while you. If you meet one older than yourself. to observe it is " it is life. Master.

TAOISM THE POPULAR TAOIST TEXTS " When Heaven seems to be most wrapt up in Itself." THE YIN FU. Its opera- tion is universal in its character. .


800 than they do with anyto thing we could conceive as emanating from the antiquity of Hwang-Ti. and disappeared again. He was deified in the year A. no question but that the Kwang present Yin Fu is a comparatively modern work. the great civilizer. As to the name or immaterial world . who conferred on him the title of Thai-Shang Lao Chun. The verses that hold the next place here gain their importance from their direct connection with the " Venerable " Philosopher Lao-Tze. Sometimes it is even carried back of Hwang-Ti and attributed to his mythical twelve-centuries-old teacher. explaining each by the other. nator. though there may once have been an original Yin Fu of very ancient date. There is. from which this took its name. excepting perhaps the origbeing inal Yi King.D. Fu is " King means a classic book.D. we have already spoken. There it was wholly lost. Yin means " " or agreement ." of the " little the unseen book. It is this Yin Fu which we now It is obscure in spots.D. which had probably existed 225 at hia . explained it fully and clearly. Legend would thus set the Yin Fu as the oldest book of China. however. but its style and manner possess. No one could then read it. 666 by a Chinese emperor. tradition ascribes to that Chang-Tze. harmonize far better with A. VOL. 800. until a mysterious old woman suddenly appeared. the organizer of the first Chinese kingdom in 2697 B. 15. The old Yin Fu was said have been once hidden away in a cave to save it from destruction. or Great God and Mysterious OrigiIn his temple. which opens this section volume. XII.C. The popular the it of our Taoist most ancient emperor Hwang-Ti.THE POPULAR TAOIST TEXTS (INTRODUCTION) OF Yin Fu King. a balancing " So this is the classic which balances or harmonizes the unseen with the seen. but was rediscovered about A.

1000. It is deemed a great act of merit to paragraph aid by voluntary contribution toward the gratuitous distribudotes. and it is frequently published with a collection of several hundred anecbooks." which might be translated the "Thai-Shang Kan Ying God Lao-Tze's Trac- and " Ying. Wylie says of it. Its full title is " Phien." in which Kan Ying means Actions their Reactions. what we might call an up-to-date manual of Taoism. Mr. . to illustrate every seriatim. along tion of this work." The Thai-Shang was probably written about A. there was thereupon erected an inscription telling how the honor was conferred and concluding with the poetic ode here given. with pictorial illustrations." This is the most popular of all Taoist on the Kan by the ignorant as the actual voice of a god. It is in a as far as Taoism ever accounts for way. a Taoist account of the Creation. shape. So that it represents what is for China a very modern book.226 THE SACRED BOOKS birth-place from a much earlier date. and style of execution. Many commentaries have been written upon it. anything Our final Taoist book is the "Thai-Shang" or "god- book" tate itself. It is accepted . " The various editions of it are innumerable it has appeared from time to time in almost every conceivable size. The Rev.D.

THE SAGES OF CHINA. A Japanese painting of a group of unknown Chinese philosophic teachers and writers. .

[nmentaries haA<KJ|f&) ^^I&t'lMQpMI iOTfd it is frequently ii*UMied. a Taoist account . there ted an inscription telling how the honor was thereupon was conferred It i)g with the poetic ode here given.. rycitiili vlwt in for rhiaa A v<-ry modern book. it has appeared from time to time in almost every conceivable size. and style of execution.) V. The Rev. /iit Its book fuil is the is " " Thai-Shang or " god- title "Thai-Shang Kan Ying Kan It is Ymg " ? which Kan Ting means " Actions This is the most popular of all Taoist in accepted by the ignorant as the actual voice of a gt*i.\wJh U . " The various editions of it are innumerable .THE SACRED i- B< i:-!hpla-e from a ranch earlier date. Wylie says of it. Tt i- ntribution tom-ard the gratuitous distribu- i'V T hc-i-Shai^ 80 tlmt it pr*>hWy wntton tboot A.D. 1 n cai : ' -<}*\tv\ ) \\ \ ' pird^rph far as Taoism ever accounts for way. Mr. . WM . shape. 1000.

^e^tfJjL y"~ . ^>-r- .


" he adduces the first paragraph explain " of the first of the of the 1 " Heaven in its motion Yi. To Heaven who sees them and understands their operation apprehends how they produce prosperity. 1 and maintains Its doings as his own. Propriety. symbolism hexagram gives the idea of strength. the heaven of the text including also earth. These elements fight and strive together. The nature is . the Course of Man is thereby determined. now overcome. Water generates Wood. In accordance with this. 3. Metal generates Water.YIN FU KING OE CLASSIC OF THE HARMONY OF THE SEEN AND UNSEEN CHAPTER I 1. and one's name has become distinguished. to withdraw into obscurity is the Way of Heaven. and overcomes Water. Wood generates Fire. though I have seen them distributed among the five viscera. The same five foes are in the mind of man. and son." " 2 To the doings of Heaven." Li Hsi-yueh adduces the last explain " Tao-Teh " sentence of the When the work is done." Accordother term in the binomial combination of ing to the Taoist teaching. When the Way of Heaven is established. and when he can set them in action after the that he has to do is accomplished. and overcomes Earth. 227 . and overcomes Wood. things receive their transformations from his perall of Heaven belongs also to Man the mind a spring of power. and production goes on with vigor and beauty." chapter ix. of Man To the Way of Heaven. 8 and he all manner of Heaven. Knowledge. now overcoming. and overcomes Fire. the " heaven and earth. startling name the " five elements. there belong the five mutual foes. the element of Earth generates Metal. King. till by such interaction a harmony of their influences arises. and the five virtues of Benevolence. * It is more difficult to give an account of the operation of the five elements in the mind of man. 4 all space and time are at his disposal. 2. Righteousness. the superior man nerves himself to ceaseless activity." " " s The thieves robbers ) here is understood ( foes." which pervade and indeed make up the to mean whole realm of nature. If one observes the 2 Way of Heaven. and Faith.

in concert. is sure on to the destruction of the wood. The sun and moon have their definite times. Heaven and Earth are the is away despoil- ers of all things. e Where the concluding quotation is taken from is not known. the mysteriousness of the Spirit's action. movement ensue. all transformations have their commencepowers ments determined.228 4. Of course any quotation is inconsistent with the idea of the early origin of the treatise. When calamity go fire arises in arises in a State. THE SACRED BOOKS When Heaven puts forth its power of putting to death. 5 Heaven and Earth resume When Heaven and Man exert their their proper course. it is sure to When we call one conducts the work of culture and refining wisely a Sage. the stars and constellations lie hidden in darkness. ." 6 . Hence it is said. all things are the despoilers of Man. his power of putting to death. all the all things. The abuse of the nine apertures is chiefly in the three most important. having once begun. The paragraph is intended to show us the harmony of the Three Powers. as the three Powers. if thereafter go to ruin. When to wood. The nature of man is here clever and there stupid . When Earth puts forth its power of putting to death. all transformations quietly take place. The language of the third sentence about the influence of Man on Heaven and Earth finds its explanation from the phraseology of the thwan of the twenty-fourth hexagram of the Yi. Men know " B " The here seems merely to indicate power of putting to death the " rest " which succeeds to movement. and Man three despoilers act as they ought to do. dragons and When Man puts forth serpents appear on the dry ground. 5. the despoiler of When the members are properly regulated when the springs of motion come into play. but they do not know how what is not Spiritual comes to be so. and the one of these qualities may lie hidden in the other. II it is For Heaven now to give life and now to take the method of the Tao. him CHAPTER 1. " During the time of nourishment. the evil. but one only sees its meaning darkly. and their exact 2. they are at rest. which may be now in movement and now at rest.

" The first character of it properly " " birds. all III The blind hear well. 3. 7 The first sentence of this paragraph is very difficult to construe. " " The next four sayings are illustrations of Lao-Tze's contraries of is it introduced here as illustratTaoism. It is 7 by breath that we control whatever creature is we grasp. and the deaf see well. The final saying is a truism. quickened to activity by external things. 5. The crash of thunder and the blustering wind both come without design. The spring by which the despoilers are moved is invisible and unknown to all under the sky. CHAPTER 1. Perfect stillness is the entire disinterestedness of it. Perfect enjoyment is the overflowing satisfaction of the nature. Life the root of death. It peds". and injury springs from kindness. and dies through excessive pursuit of them. " to seize is also interchanged with another of the same name. When Heaven seems to be most wrapt up in Itself. The spring of the mind's activity is in the eyes. To derive that is advantageous from one source is ten times better than the employment of a host to do this thrice in a day and . Balfour gives for it reside in the Breath or Vital Fluid." It is often found with another denotes denoting quadruand again it is found alone denoting both birds and beasts. he strengthens his body by it when the small man has got it. " The Laws affecting the animal creation Mr.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 229 measures as large and small. but so it is that the greatest kindness comes from It. night 2." in which meaning I have taken it. He who sinks himself in water or enters amidst fire brings destruction on himself. and death the root of Kindness springs from injury. Heaven has no special feeling of kindness. denoting but the bearing of the or grasp. saying on the general meaning of the treatise I have not apprehended. is a myriad times is better. is The mind universal in its is its character. and the spiritual intelligence becomes apparent. When the superior man has got it. ing that whatever is done with design is contrary to the Tao? : . . The service of the sages hereupon arises. he makes light of his life. life. 3. The stupid man by studying the phenomena and laws of heaven and earth becomes sage I by studying their times . Its operation 4.

I leave it with the judgment on it. the cycle. can not say that I fully understand this concluding paragraph Yin Fu King. Therefore the sages. and to understand. The method of heaven and earth proceeds gently and gradually. spirit-like springs of power. and thus it is that the Yin and Yang overcome each other by turns. the arts of the Yin and Yang in the victories of the one over the other: all these 9 come brightly forward into visibility. but it would seem that there is a wonderful machinery. and the mastery of the kingdom. earth. s Some it is 9 I certainly difficult to construe scholars have expunged this paragraph as not being genuine. The way of perfect still- ness can not be subjected to numerical calculations. The method of spontaneity proceeds in stillness. One thing is plain from it how the Yi King was pressed into the service of the Taoism that prevailed when it was written. He considers his sageness as being an extraor8 dinary attainment I do not consider mine so. it late it for the purpose of culture. by which all the heavenly bodies are produced. I in my freedom from stupidity am the same. knowing that the method of spontaneity can not be resisted. and so change and transformation proceed accordingly. They who go to the Yin Fu for direction in war and use Lao-Tze for guidance in government go far astray from the meaning of both. . spirit-like springs. the eight diagrams. and the sexagenary cycle . the conduct of war. take action accordingly and regu6. and hidden ghostliness . but men do not know it. and so was that heaven. the eight diagrams. " The subject-matter of the Yin Fu and TaoTeh is all intended to set forth the action by contraries of the despoiling powers in nature and society. 7. As to finding in them directions for the government of States. quoted by Li Hsi-yueh from a Lu Tshien-hsu. and hidden ghostlinesses they all have a deep meaning. The one takes the place of the other. and productions become He in his stupidity is perplexed about sageness. and all things were produced. with such expressions as those about a wonderful machinery by which the heavenly bodies are produced." of the .230 THE SACRED BOOKS intelligent.

Its work did naturally. 2 The Hwangs preceded the Tis in the Taoistic genesis of history. distant 3. More And grew Tao's highest gifts. as here represented. simple ways more rare became. 231 . Unseen. 2. The laws displayed proved but i Wine-cups and stands the board adorned. And pillars eight the heaven sustained. The valleys wide. The Perfect Tao. the old harmonious ways. with movement wise. talents prized.LAO-TZE (iNSCEIBED IN THE TEMPLE AT LAO-TZE^S BIRTHPLACE) 1. That the material of the bonds should be. 2 Its 2 . would seem to anticipate the progress " of society. and varnished wit a net. Remote. Bonds " with written characters on them superseded the " knotted cords " of the primitive age. And in their hands the ivory bonds. power the elements all felt. The still And Men all placidity was gone. Back in the depths of ancient time. 1 The Tis must blush before the Hwangs The Wangs must blush before the Tis. The incipient germs of things appeared. All living things in classes came. Shepherd and Lord established were. Four equal sides denned the earth. so it was with the Tis and the Wangs or Kings. and as being more simple were Taoistically superior to them. slips of ivory. before the Tis began. . and mighty streams.

Grottoes then oped to him their somber gates. according to the story. . but I fail to see how the growth of the trees about them indicated the ruin of his temple. the twin tablets were but heaps of stone. village near the stream of Traces of him will still retain The Ko 5 . 4.THE SACRED BOOKS And shields and spears the country filled. : The close-meshed nets the fishes scared And numerous bows Then did As 'neath the the birds alarmed. And in short time he rambled far. With changed times the world is changed. 6 The nine wells. But now. And sun and moon. All dragon gifts his person graced . and falling into the Hwai. when he wished to leave China. Small to him seemed the mountains five. His stately temple fell to ruin His altar empty was and still . as in the days of old. are mentioned by various writers. . In carriage by black oxen drawn. or bubbling springs. the sharp made The mean rejected. The complicated he resolved. And narrow seemed the regions nine About he went with lofty tread. 4 Around the purple air was bright. his spirit 6. This of course was Lao-Tze. near the village where Lao was born. . Like the stork's plumage was his hair. unseen. the Bear the star shone down. and the generous chose In brightness blunt. So it was. 5 The Ko is a river flowing from Ho-nan into An-hui. And thence. True Man 3 get his birth. power flowed forth. as the heaven and earth. And a * 6 By the nine wells dryandras grew. . lasting like the 5. that Lao-Tze drew near to the barrier gate. not far from the district city of Hwai-yuan.

From From and where the great trees grow. And lofty pavilion with its distant prospect." I suppose. desert sands 7 Men And of all regions gave their hearts to him. . All different creatures came sincere. families became polite and courteous. And And pure temple.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 7. " the desert The " desert sands " were. 9. phoenix caves. no doubt. And light fell on the heavenly mirror down. beams are of plum-tree. " of the incense. Black clouds a thousand notes set forth And in the fragrant winds were citherns heard. he. spirits came to take from him their law." Gobi. . Their largest vessels brought their gifts. its ridge-pole of cassia . . balustrade winds round it many are its pillars About them spreads and rolls the fragrant smoke 9 Its A . and from the dragon woods." 7 of . So has he built this 10. . the tripods were made sure. kings their rarest things described. called to rule. *33 But when our emperor was All spirit-like and sage was Earth's bells reverberated loud. with hills and meadows around. The universe And And portents all were swept away All souls. planned its stately structure Pleasant." The trees referred to were " s " The must be Lao-Tze. or bright or dark. in brightness shone. revered. sage beneath the Pillar " The smoke. what we call " in the extreme East. Through his transforming power. 8. . 8 Still emulous of the sovereigns most ancient. Ever kept he in mind the sage beneath the Pillar. and from the offerings.

234 THE SACRED BOOKS . are followed by the the explanations of them by King Wan his hsiang. 10 Numerous and at their ease. 11. as Immortals or Hsien. The Immortal officers come to their places 10 The Plumaged guests are found in its court. where his thwan. and ascend (fly up) to heaven. bright and efficacious. Most spirit-like. Its aid. From far and near men praise It In the shades. Arrived there. unfathomable. and in the realms of light. Yet always it awakes the highest echoes. They send down blessing." from the idea that by their discipline and pills they can emancipate themselves from the trammels of the material body." higher in An allusion to the text of the . it further appears they were constituted into a hierarchy or society. 11 Loud is Its note. of which some of them called 10 Taoist monks are " were 11 rank than others. hexagrams of the Yi King. Reverently have we graven and gilt this stone And made our lasting proclamation thereby to heaven and earth. they look up for . Cool and pure are the breezes and mists. symbolism of their different lines by the duke of Chau "officers. with their symbolism attached. Plumaged or Feathered Scholars. but never sound emits. Tao's principles abide.

1 There are no special doors for and happiness in men's lot they come as men themcalamity selves call them." The three " their pairs of stars are called the upper. good luck and occasions for felicitation shun them. there are spirits Accordingly. 2 This paragraph. which record their acts of guilt and wickedness. is found in the Tso Chuan in the twenty -third year of Duke Hsiang (549 B.) part of an address to a young nobleman by the officer Min Tze-ma." of 8 This and other passages show how Taoism pressed astrology into its service." 235 . 5 When their term of life is exhausted they die. after the first three characters. The only difference in the two texts is in one character which does not affect the meaning. take away from 4 their term of life. and lower Thai. punishments and afflictions. or three Eminences. according to the lightness or gravity of their offenses." equivalent to * The swan in the text here seems to mean " the whole of the allotted term of life. the same character has the special meaning " a period of a hundred days. middle. "the Chariot of the Supreme Ruler. When that term is curtailed. The Thai-Shang 1 Thai-Shang is an honorary title conferred on Lao-Tze when he was declared a god. Thus the text of this Taoist treatise is taken from a source which can not be regarded as Taoistic. 6 The Northern Peck or Bushel is the Chinese name of our constellation of the Great Bear.THAI-SHANG KAN YING PHIEN OR LAO-TZE'S 1. and meet with many sorrows and All other men hate them. in heaven and earth that take account of men's transgressions. 2 " 3 2. " There also are the Spirit-rulers in the three pairs of the Thai stars of the Northern Bushel 6 over men's heads." Further on. and take away . " s This seems all through space. BOOK OF ACTIONS AND THEIR RETRIBUTION " says. evil stars send down misfortunes on them. Their recompenses follow good and evil as the shadow follows the substance. calamities attend them.C. men become poor and reduced. and.

10 He will be loyal. The names and places of the three spirits are given. first He who way wishes to seek for long life 9 must avoid these. they forthwith ascend to the court of Heaven. he will respect the old and cherish the young. but the phrase is evidently plural. Here it indicates the day. . "He will not tread in devious byways. loving to his younger brothers. rejoice to rescue them from their perils to regard their gains as if . and report men's deeds of guilt and transgression. filial.236 THE SACRED BOOKS from their term of life periods of twelve years or of a hundred days. " There also are the three Spirits of the recumbent body which reside within a man's person. creatures. 7 As each kang-shan 8 day comes round. to put a stop to what is evil. s Kang-shan is the name of the fifty-seventh term of the cycle. and trees he should not hurt. they were his own. and given differently. and all living things. when they are great. grass. and submissive to his elder. Transgressions. indicating every fifty-seventh day. 3. to yield much. great and small. he will not impose on himself in any secret apartment. or year. " In the case of every man's transgressions. twelve years are taken from his term of life. not to vaunt his own superiorities. to The Khang-hsi Dictionary simply explains sew shih as " the name of a spirit". "Is his right. and compassionate widows. On the last day of the moon. He will pity orphans. and their losses in the same way. are seen in several hun- dred things. he should go forward in it is it wrong. He will make himself correct and so transform others. Even the insect tribes. to help them in their straits. not to publish their shortcomings. and exalt and display what i is good . ought to pity the malignant tendencies of others to over their excellences. " He . 10 In its widest meaning. Men. He will feel kindly toward all creatures. Long life is still the great quest of the Taoist. he should withdraw from it. and take little for himself . a hundred days. He will amass virtue and accumulate deeds of merit. the spirit of the Hearth does the same. when they " are small. .

LITERATURE OF THE EAST 237 receive insult without resenting it. The Rishis of Buddhism are denoted in Chinese by Hsien Tsan. if he regard his wickedness as a proof of his ability. and attack and expose his kindred by consanguinity and affinity if he is hard. Nara. roving demons. In this place three out of the five classes are specified. Purusha. residing on earth in caves. if he treats with clandestine slight his ruler or parents . if he is ruthlessly cruel in taking his own way if his judgments of right and wrong are incorcalumniates his fellow learners . and honor with an appearance of apprehension . violent. fourth. Rishis. dwelling among men. and ascribes to them only a temporary exemption for a million years from transmigration. or Earth Hsien. and the actions of his conduct are in opposition to reason. but Chinese Buddhists and Taoists view them as absolutely immortal. the spiritual Intelligences defend him ." The which. Bhumi. and he who would seek to become an Immortal of Earth 12 should give the proof of three hundred. All other men respect Heaven in its course protects him. may hope to become Immaterial and Imall evil emolument follow him. and distinguish five classes: first. mortal. . and without humanity. rect 11 . practise deception and hypocrisy. third. roaming through the air. and can bear to do what is cruel and injurious. if he disregards the authority of those whom he should serve if he deceives the simple . for want of a better term. the fourteenth Buddhist patriarch. we translate by famous Nagarguna. this is what is called a good man. each having its own price in good deeds. . what he does is sure n he to succeed . 12 Here there appears the influence of Buddhism on the doctrine of the Tao. or Human Hsien. second. " Immortals. " 4. Preta. if he secretly harms the honest and good . or Spirit-like Hsien. residing on the seven concentric rocks round Meru. Deva . he vent baseless slanders. But if the movements of a man's heart are contrary to righteousness. or Demon Hsien. if . and him. and his likings and aversions are in despite of what is Here are the happy issues of doing good in addition to long life " compare the Tao-Teh King. 12 He who would seek to become an Immortal of Heaven 12 ought to give the proof of 1300 good deeds. or Heavenly Hsien. if he . to bestow favors without seeking for a and give to others without any subsequent regret return. and fifth. counts ten classes of these Rishis. if he is disrespectful to his elders and teachers." chapter L. happiness things keep far from him.

if he takes credit to himself for the ability of of others. gives the reins to his will and puts on airs of majesty. separates men's bones and flesh. leads others to waste their property and others. conceals the excellences wealth . and overthrows the worthy. wrong. and assists others in doing . receives favors without feeling grateful for them. 13 if he trouble and throw into disorder the government of the State. slays those who have surrendered. publishes the things discreditable to others. maltreats the orphan and oppresses the widow. broods over resentments without ceasing. and massacres those who have made their submission." . if he shoots birds and hunts beasts. blocks up the dens of animals and overturns nests. reviles and slanders the sage and and assails and oppresses the principles of reason worthy. if he casts the laws aside and receives bribes. losses. unearths the burrowing insects and frightens roosting birds. and defames the merit achieved by others.238 proper . if he tries to hinder the exercise of an courts . and claims merit for doing so. and vir- tue. THE SACRED BOOKS if he oppresses inferiors. and causes the separation of near relatives 14 encroaches on what others love. puts others to shame in seeking victory for him13 i* A Confucian phrase. if he slights and makes no account of Heaven's people. exchanges bad things for good. and the sight of an execution makes him more enraged with the criminal. if he imperils others to secure his own safety. " Literally. enters light offenses as heavy. and sacrifices the public weal to his private advantage. superiors by gratifying their evil desires. if he knows his faults and does not change them. art for a living. or knows what is good and does not do it throws the guilt of his crimes on others. bestows rewards on the unrighteous and inflicts punishments on the guiltless kills men in order to get wealth. diminishes the property of others to increase his own . . holds the right to be wrong and the wrong to be right. throws censure on the upright. hurts the pregnant womb and breaks eggs if he wishes others to have misfortunes and . and overthrows men to get their offices. and searches out the private affairs of others.

LITERATURE OF THE EAST 239 self. throws into confusion the established rules in order to defeat the services of others. he yet feels no shame if he owns to favors which he did not confer. and burdens and practise intimidation. if he ruins the families of others. and wishes them to die. or seeing them with bodily imperfections he laughs at them or when their abilities are worthy of praise. and puts off his errors . when no rites require it. purchases for himself empty praise. keep them back if he buries the image of another to obtain an injurious power over him 15 or employs poison to kill trees if he is indignant and angry with his instructors or opposes and thwarts his father and elder brother if he takes things by violence or vehemently demands them if he loves . he endeavors to . his anger vents itself in imprecations . if. . injures or destroys the growing crops of others. he wishes them to be banished or degraded or seeing them wealthy and prosperous. and injures the implements of others to deprive them of the things they require to use . . detracts from the excellences of others. he wishes them to be broken and scattered if he sees a beautiful woman and forms the thought of illicit intercourse with her. when the arts of sorcery and witchcraft were largely employed to the injury of men. marries away his own calamity to another. and by a peradventure escaping the consequences of his misconduct. and sells for gain his own wickedness. is indebted to men for goods or money. . on others. and screens his own shortcomings if he takes advantage of his dignity to . and begins to speak of their misdeeds . . . and breaks up projected marriages if becoming rich by improper means makes him proud . . if. . vexes all living creatures . . is Han The crimes indicated here are said to have become rife under the Dynasty. cooks animals for food. . if he sees others meeting with misfortune. when his requests and applications are not complied with. and gets possession of their money and valuables admits the water or raises fire in order to injure their dwellings if he . and indulges his cruelty to kill and wound if without cause he wastes cloth in clipping and shaping it. seeing others in glory and honor. scatters and throws away the five grains. . . and keeps hidden dangerous purposes in his heart.

calls in the spiritual Intelligence to mark the filthy he gives and afterward repents that he has done so. is exacting and oppressive to his inferiors . mind or . . . . reviles the Spirits and styles himself correct if he casts aside what is according to right. if he rewards and punishes unfairly. . turns his back on his near relatives. . calls it . and his face to those who are distant if he appeals to Heaven and Earth to witness to the mean thoughts of his . light weights.240 secretly to pilfer. . on getting what is new. . THE SACRED BOOKS and openly to snatch. recklessly hurries to join associate fraternities. if. his wife or concubine to disobey the instructions of his parents . tries by oaths and imprecations to prove himself correct and in his liking for drink is rude and disorderly if he quarrels angrily with his nearest relatives and as a man he is not loyal and honorable if a woman is not gentle and obedient if the husband is not harmonious with his wife. if he is covetous and greedy after wealth. reproaches the wind and reviles the rain. . is led by the words of . if he plans and seeks for what is beyond his lot or lays tasks on people beyond their strength if he indulges his lustful desires without measure if there be poison in his heart and mildness in his face if he gives others filthy food to eat or by corrupt doctrines deludes the multitude if he uses a short cubit. and thus amasses illicit gain if he degrades children or others of decent condition to mean positions. if he invents wicked speeches to calumniate and overthrow the innocent. . . and tries to frighten other men if he murmurs against Heaven and finds fault with men. and deceives and befools his superiors to get it. makes himself rich by plunder and rapine. strives and raises litigations. and imitates what is against it. he forgets the old . if the wife does not reverence affairs of his life. or by artifice and deceit seeks for promotion. and a small pint. or borrows and does not return. . if he is insatiably covetous and greedy. if . if he fights and joins in quarrels. or deceives and ensnares simple people. a narrow measure. . if he indulges in idleness and pleasure to excess. defames others and being straightforward. mixes spurious articles with the genuine. and agrees with his mouth while he dissents in his heart.

according to their lightness or gravity. or uses dirty firewood to cook with. 16 or in the early dawn . ethical teaching of China. if he is guilty of improper conduct to his wife or sons. or wails. . . judgment extends days. or over a man. the family that accumulates evil is sure to have superabundant misery. sighs. suddenly points to the three luminaries looks long at the sun and moon in the months of spring burns the thickets in hunting. The commencements of the four seasons. with his face to the north angrily reviles others. take away the culprit's periods of twelve years or of one hundred If his term. if she is constantly jealous and envious. of life is exhausted. . . death ensues. and without reason kills tortoises and smites snakes " In the case of crimes such as these. at death there remains guilt unpunished. when fronting the north." We know also that the same view preVOL. bawls out or gets angry on the first day of the moon abortions. or urinates.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 241 her husband. XII. . if he takes fire from the hearth to burn incense. points at a rainbow. if he sings and dances on the last day of the moon or of the year. : 17 he over the Life. spits. if he rises at night and shows his person naked. 18 is IT When is Trifling acts and villainous crimes are here mixed together. if she fails to behave properly to her parents-in-law. sings. . leaps over the food. 16. strides over the well or the hearth. . to his posterity. the equinoxes and solstices. if he opposes and rebels against the charge of his sovereign if he occupies himself in doing what is of no use and cherishes and keeps concealed a purpose other than what appears if he utter imprecations against himself and against others in the assertion of his innocence or is partial in his likes and dislikes if he . weeps. if at the eight terms of punishments if he spits at a shooting star. the Spirits presiding the year inflicts . if he is always fond of boasting and bragging. The principle enunciated here is very ancient in the history of the It appears in one of the Appendixes to the Yi King: "The family that accumulates goodness is sure to have superabundant happiness. when fronting the fireplace . if he treats with slight and disrespect the spirits of his ancestors. and moreover. 16 kills newly born children or brings about if he does many actions of secret depravity.

and all the members of 5. those who wrongfully kill men are only putting their weapons into the hands of others who will in their turn kill them. but afteralters his way and repents. contemplates what is wicked. though the evil be not yet done. if the thought of doing evil " Now when has arisen. " their families. " If one have. The bad man speaks what is wicked. he has these three virtues: at the end of three every day Heaven is sure to send down blessing on him. the good Spirits are in attendance on him. temporary relief. though the sage himself does not it. the bad Spirits are in attendance on him. he is sure wicked. indeed. thieves. resolved not to do anything but to practise reverently all that is good. when these gradually die. Therefore the good man speaks what is good. there are the disasters from water. though the good be not yet done. an account is taken. contemplates what is good. Further. If they do not die. and does what is wicked every day he has these three vices at the end of three years Heaven is sure to send down misery on him. indeed. done deeds of wickedness. " To take to one's self unrighteous wealth is like satisfying one's hunger with putrid food. and robbers. but death also the thought of doing good has arisen in a man's mind. in the long run to obtain good fortune this is called changing : ward calamity into blessing. from losses of property. or one's thirst with poisoned wine. fire. follows It gives a it. and evil tongues to balance the value of their wicked appropriations. How is it that men will not exert themselves to do what is good ? " years . of their wives and children. : vailed in the time of Confucius. Or. and does what is good. when parties by wrong and violence take money of others.THE SACRED BOOKS the Moreover. expressly sanction . and set against its amount. illnesses.

." MENCIUS.MODERN CONFUCIANISM MENCIUS The people are the most important element in a nation.


.C. feeling apparently that praise could reach no higher. Mencius may have been a shrewder courtier. They form still So great became while his complete literary work. In these two respects his merit was great. and sought to show men how to He did this more develop and bring forth that natural good.MENCIUS (INTRODUCTION) or MENCIUS. but as soon as Mencius spoke we hear of benevolence and righteousness. we should still have been button- ing the lappets of our coats on the left side. Confucius only claimed himself his spoke of the will or mind. the Confucianism. He was born we have B. as a later Chinese disciple. given. He taught the essential goodness of man's nature. that comparatively young he was summoned to court after court to give his counsel to the rulers. but Mencius enlarged also on the nourishment of the passion-nature. One Chinese philosopher in a burst of extravagant enthusiasm for Mencius cries out. they seem to have been always honored. true founder in 371 B. Of the many Chinese anecdotes of Mencius. and shame had been heaped upon him. " Had it not been for him. Confucius had thus to govern kings but his advice had been almost sought universally rejected. Mang. of high fame expressed the matter. words than by books yet in the course of a very active life by of preaching he found time to write the seven books here . of is. and our discourse would have been all confused and indistinct. the fame of Mencius as a teacher. and his counsels had certainly a stronger and more human appeal. the one best 245 . He early became an enthusiastic student of all the literature of Confucius and pro- and died in 288 Yet. " Confucius philosopher only spoke of benevolence." This emphasizes the more fully rounded philosophy of Mencius. as official already noted.C." There the enthusiast stops.

His mother sought a new house. various scenes which he witnessed at the tombs.246 THE SACRED BOOKS worth recalling is perhaps that of his widowed mother's wise " At first they lived near a house-moving on his account.' another ancient and carefully treasured tale of the " As philosopher Mang grew up. and asked him how far he He answered her with an air of indifference . The through admonition. it is said. ' This. The boy took to playing the part of a salesman. the lecture did not need to be repeated. that he was doing well enough. and Mencius amused himself with acting the cemetery. he was sent to school. and asked what she meant. ' is the proper place for my son. and found one at last close by a There her child's attention was taken with public school." she was weaving. This/ said the lady. and she removed to a house in the market-place. vaunting his wares and chaffering with customers. The idler was alarmed. and he endeavored to imitate them. satisfied. the various exercises of politeness which the scholars were The mother was taught. showing that she had done what he was doing that her cutting her web was like his neglecting his learning. had its proper effect. When he returned home one day his mother looked up from is : Here the web which had got on. is no place for my son . when she gave him a long lecture.' she said. on which she took a knife and cut through her web. But the change was no im' ' ' provement.

profit kingdom ? Mencius replied. 5. To have a thousand in ten thousand. and the kingdom will be enprofit In the kingdom of ten thousand chariots. since you have not counted come here. murderer of his sovereign shall be the chief of a family of . Mencius went to see 2. " There never has been a man trained to benevolence There never has been a man neglected his parents. and profit be put first. named after some important person intro- 247 . is i Each book of Mencius duced at the beginning. " ' ' my " Why am i must your Majesty use that ' What I likewise provided with. What ' ' ' to profit is to be done to profit ? our families ' ' ? common people will say. sir. who they will not be satisfied without snatching all. the dangered. and these are word my only topics. What and the inferior officers and the is to be done to profit our persons ? Superiors and inferiors will try to snatch this the one from the other.THE WOKKS OF MENCIUS THE BOOK OF KING HWUY l BOOK I. the murderer of his prince shall be the chief of a family of a hundred chariots.a thousand chariots. In a kingdom of a thousand chariots. 4. King Hwuy Venerable of Leang. The king it " said. are profit ? counsels to benevolence and righteousness. PART I I CHAPTEK ' 1. but if righteousness be put last. can not be said not to be a large allotment. What is to be done kingdom ? the great officers will say. a distance of a thousand li. and a hundred in a thousand. my "If your Majesty say. may I presume that you are likewise provided with counsels to far to 3.

248 THE SACRED BOOKS who made his sovereign Let your Majesty also say. he said to them Be not so earnest the multitudes came as if they had been his children. of fishes leaping about ' ! King Wan used the strength of the people to make his tower and his pond. If they are not wise and good. and turtles. 4. have pleasure as well as themselves. " an after CHAPTER 1. and. said. ? " Mencius replied. and these shall be the only themes. ' trained to righteousness consideration. king was in his spirit-park. looking round " at the large geese and deer. and therefore they could enjoy it. people in less than a day completed it. i Benevolence and righteousness. he measured and began : it. addressed themselves to it. though they should die with " O We .' The wilt thou expire? people wished for Kee's death. II Mencius. sun. The And When But The The The out and planned it. when will die together with thee. have these things. another day. and yet the people rejoiced to do the ' work. does so sleek and fat : And the white birds shone glistening. does reposed about. Poetry. full The king was by How " was it his spirit-pond. In the Declaration of Thang it is said. " He measured He measured it ' out and commenced his spirit-tower . calling the tower the spirit-tower/ calling the pond ' the spirit-pond/ and rejoicing that he had his large deer. though they " It is said in the Book of 3. saw King Hwuy of Leang. they have pleasure in these things.' Why must " use that word ? you 'profit 6. they do not find pleasure. Do wise and good princes also find pleasure in these things 2. "Being wise and good. The king went and stood with him by a pond. The ancients caused the people to his fishes.

in which the people nourish their living and . If the seasons of husbandry be not interfered with. This condition. trail their arms behind them. I act on the 1. my people increase. King Hwuy of Leang " said." "Since your Majesty paces. I do indeed exert my mind to the utmost. turtles are more than can be eaten. this enables the people to nourish their living and bury their dead.LITERATURE OF THE EAST him. without any feeling against any. and after their weapons have been crossed. 249 how Although he had towers. " 3. and convey grain to the country in the Inside. could he have pleasure alone ? " Small as my virtue is. "Your Majesty is fond of war. enter the hills and forests only at the proper time. the grain will be more than can be eaten. knows this. some run fifty paces and stop. the wood When the grain and fish and will be more than can be used. And yet the people of the neigh- boring kingdoms do not decrease. On ploys his mind as I do. Mencius replied. and there is more wood % than can be used. I remove as many of the people as I can to the east of the river. The soldiers move forward to the sound of the drums. They may They only did not run a hundred but they also ran away. nor do How is this?" 2. birds." replied Mencius. If close nets are not allowed to enter the pools and ponds. I do not find that there is any prince who emplan. ponds. in the government of my kingdom. and animals. When the year is bad on the east of the river. laugh at those who run a hundred paces ? " not do so. and run. If the year be bad on the inside of the river. let take an illustration from war. on one side they throw away their coats of mail. Some run a hundred paces and stop. the fishes and turtles If the axes and bills will be more than can be consumed. What would you think if those who run fifty paces were to " The king said. " you need not hope that your people will become more numerous than those of the me neighboring kingdoms. same examining the government of the neighboring kingdoms.

and gray-haired men will not be seen upon the heads. When people It is not owing to me it is owing to the year. ' Let It was not I it was the weapon ? and then saying cease to lay the blame on the year. and persons of fifty years may be clothed with silk. Let careful attention be paid to education in schools. " your granaries for them. . I wish quietly to receive your instructions.250 THE SACRED BOOKS is bury their dead without any feeling against any. that is proper for the cultivation of the farm with its hundred mow. and persons of seventy Let there not be taken away the time years may eat flesh." CHAPTER IV 1. and the family of several mouths that is supported by it shall not suffer from hunger. where persons of seventy wearing silk and eating flesh. and you do not know people dying 5. instantly from all the empire the people will come to you. roads. step of royal government. Is there any difference between " The king killing a man with a stick and with a sword ? " There is no difference. ' . let not their times of breeding be neglected." said. Your dogs and swine eat the food of men. 4. " Is there 3. carrying burdens on their backs or on their It never has been that the ruler of a State." was the reply. King Hwuy of Leang " said." " 2. you say. inculcating in it especially the filial and fraternal duties. In what does this differ from stabbing a man and killing him. the first " Let mulberry-trees be planted about the homesteads with their five mow.' die. and swine. and you do There are not know to make any restrictive arrangements. Mencius replied. any difference between doing it with a sword and with the style of government ? " " There is no difference. pigs. and your Majesty to issue the stores of ' . dogs. and the black-haired people suffering neither did not attain to the Imperial from hunger nor cold such results were seen dignity. In keeping fowls. from famine on the roads.

know. being sparing in the use of punish- ments and and making the taxes and levies light. fines. so causing that the fields shall be plowed deep. died of famine. Beasts devour one another. With a territory which is only a . and on the wilds there are those who have This is leading on beasts to devour men. it is possible to attain the Imperial " If your Majesty will indeed dispense a benevolent government to the people. Ts'u. we have sustained disgrace at the hands of I have brought shame on my departed predecessors. 251 In your kitchen there is fat meat in your stables there are fat horses. and men hate them for said. shall cultivate their filial piety. and truthfulness. and wish on their account to wipe it away. on we have lost seven hundred li of territory to Ts'in and on the south. serving thereby. being the parents of his people. But your people have the look of hunger. sincerity. and the weeding of them be carefully attended to. first made wooden images to bury with the dead ? So he because that man made the semblances of men. and said. once for all. as you. on the east we have the west been defeated by Ts'e. Mencius then " doing so. When a prince. " 5. and then my eldest son perished . what shall be thought of him used them for that purpose " who causes his people to die of hunger ? " CHAPTER V 1. where is that parental relation to the people 6. 3. " ? "Was he not without posterity who Chung-ne said. . and. their elders and superiors . There was not in the empire a stronger State than Tsin. their fathers and elder brothers. venerable Sir. hundred dignity. Mencius replied.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 4. you will then have a abroad. fraternal respectfulness. What course is to be pursued to accomplish this ? " " 2. and that the strong-bodied. But since it descended to me. administers his government so as to be chargeable with leading on beasts to devour men. during their days of leisure. King Hwuy of Leang " said. li square. at home.

and children are separated and scattered abroad. Their parents suffer from cold and hunger. the plants become dry. Then the clouds collect densely in the heavens. who will oppose your Majesty? " 6. Abruptly he asked me. States rob their people of their time. so that they can not plow and weed their fields. Who can give it to him ? ' "I 6. as if by a shoot.' I beg your Majesty not to doubt what I say. wives. Mencius went to see the King Seang On coming out from the interview. it to him. " The rulers of those 4. they send down torrents of rain. Brothers. All the people of the empire will unanreplied.' " < 3. " 5. he did not persons. Who can so unite it ? ' "I ' 4. He who has no pleasure in killing men replied. to to support their parents. I saw nothing venerable about him. How can the empire be settled ? ' I replied. as it were. he said to some " When I looked at him from a distance. there is not one who does not find pleasure in killing men. 2. appear like a sovereign. all the people in the empire would look toward him with outstretched necks. In such a case. Those rulers.252 people THE SACRED BOOKS who can be employed. when drought prevails. VI of Leang. When it does so. ' It will be settled by being united under one sway. ' The benevolent has no enemy. in order pared. .' " ' 5. drive their people into pitYour Majesty will go to punish them. Does your Majesty understand the imously give way of the growing grain? During the seventh and eighth l ' months. falls. with sticks which they have pre- oppose the strong mail and sharp weapons of the troops of Ts'in and Ts'u. If there were one who did not find pleasure in killing men. and the grain erects itself. when I drew near to him. who can keep it back? Now among the shepherds of men throughout the empire. In accordance with this is the saying. or drown them. can so unite it." CHAPTER 1.

The king saw him." and then Mencius " The heart seen in this is sufficient to carry you to the Im- The people all supposed that your Majesty perial sway. It did." The man answered. which made you do as you did. " May I be informed by you of the transactions of Hwan of Ts'e. " " and asked. this incident really occurred." The " Let it go. What virtue must there be in order to the attainment of Imperial sway ? " Mencius Answered. as water flows downward with a rush." " You 6. the people repress. Mencius " replied.' CHAPTER 1. be about Imperial government." " 4. " The love and protection of the people . The king asked again. your servant has not heard them. ' are going to consecrate a bell with its blood." " From what do you know that I am competent to that ? " " I heard the following incident from Hu Heih ' The king/ speak. The king said. " How can that be " We omitted ? Change it for a sheep. grudged the animal. I can not bear its frightened appearking said. The king replied. with this there is no power which can prevent a ruler from attaining it. VII of Ts'e asked. but your servant knows surely.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Such being indeed the ' 853 would flock to him. said he. death. that it was your Majesty's not being able to bear the sight. are right." " 5." " 3. saying. " Shall we then omit the con" secration of the bell ? The king said. and therefore they have not been transmitted to these after If you will have ages. " Yes. let it : me was sitting aloft in the hall." I do not know whether said. which no one can case. Where is the ox going ? The man replied. leading an ox past the lower part of it. as if it were an innocent person going to the place of ance. when a man appeared. Is such a one as I competent " to love and protect the people ? Mencius said. And yet there really . There were none of the disciples of Chung-ne who spoke about the affairs of Hwan and Wan. and Wan of Tsin?" The King Seuen 2. The king said.

What really was my mind in the matter ? I did not grudge the expense of it. motive." " 8. my Master. the movements of compassion began to work in my mind. he can not 'bear to eat their flesh. You saw So is the superior man the ox. having seen them alive. I am able by reflection to measure this is verified. How 10." said Mencius. on which Mencius proceeded. When you changed the large one for a small. but when I turned my thoughts inward. he can not bear to see them die having heard their dying cries.would No. spoke those words. and examined into it. that therefore I changed it for a sheep. in your discovery of ! . as if it were an innocent person going to the place of death. how should they know the true reason ? If you felt pained by its being led without guilt to the place of death. Therefore he keeps away from his cook-room. and changed it for a sheep There was reason in the people's saying that I grudged it. There is no harm in their saying so. my I indeed did the thing." 7. Suppose a ' man were make this statement to your Majesty: three thousand catties. is it that this heart has in ? it what is equal to the to Imperial sway " Mencius " replied. The minds of others. " " . Now here is kind- my eyesight of an autumn . and had not seen the sheep. I could not discover my own mind. my Master. But though Ts'e be a small and narrow State. that. affected toward animals. but feather . My it strength is sufficient to lift is not sufficient to lift one is sharp enough to examine the point ' but I do not see a wagon-load of faggots hair. It is said in the Book of Poetry. how should I grudge one ox? Indeed it was because I could not bear its frightened appearance." " 9. Mencius pursued." was your Majesty allow what he said ? " the answer. The king was pleased. " Let not your Majesty deem it slrange that the people should think you were grudging the animal. ( ' . what was there " The King laughed to choose between an ox and a sheep ? " and said. and said. When you. " Your conduct was an artifice of benevolence.THE SACRED BOOKS was an appearance of what the people condemned.

" 12. and the empire may be made to go round in your palm. In such a matter as breaking off a branch from a tree at the order of a superior. he do not carry it out. and his family of the State was governed by it. and the people's not being loved and protected is because the not employed. Your Majesty's not exercising the Imperial sway is a case like that of breaking off a branch from a tree. " In such a thing as taking 'the Thae mountain under your arm. the wagon-load of firewood's not being seen is because the vision is not used. reached to his brothers. if you say to people I am not able to do it/ that is a real case of not being able. so that the young in the families of others shall be similarly treated do this. It is said in : the His example affected his wife. and leaping over the north sea with it. he will not be able to protect The way in which the ancients came his wife and children. so that the elders in the families of others shall be similarly treated. How is this ? Is an exception to be made here? The truth is. It of Poetry. Therefore your Majesty's not exercising the Imperial sway is not such a case as that of taking the Thae mountain under of not doing it. Treat with the reverence due to age the elders in your own family.' Book ' The language shows how King Wan simply took this kindly heart. treat with the kindness due to youth the young in your own family. and exercised it toward those parties. Therefore your Majesty's not exercising the Imperial sway is because you do not do it. the feather's not being lifted is because the strength is not used . Therefore the carrying out his kindly heart by a prince will suffice for the love and protection of all within the four seas. greatly to surpass other men was no other than this simply and if : . not because you are not able to do it. How may the difference between the kindness is not doing a thing. The king asked. and leaping over the ' north sea with it. and the not being able to do it. it is your arm. be repre" sented ? Mencius replied. ' if you say to people I am not able to do it/ that is a case not a case of not being able to do it." " 11.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 255 ness sufficient to reach to animals. and no benefits are extended from it to the people.

The king said. and no benefits are extended from it to how Now ? reach the people. your kindness is sufficient to reach to animals. The relations of all things may be thus de13. what they themselves did. " If you climb a tree to seek for fish. " Are you led to desire it. Then." Mencius added. we know what things are long. greatly desire. so as to affect others. you greatly desire ? Mencius resumed." 16.256 that they THE SACRED BOOKS knew well to carry out. I hear from you what it is that The king laughed and did not speak. The king replied 'No." " Is it " " It so bad as that ? 17. what your Majesty greatly desires may be known. to have Ts'in and Ts'u wait at your court." . worse. 14. " Mencius " May because you have not enough of light and warm clothing for your body? Or because you have not enow of beautifully colored objects to delight your eyes? Or because you have not voices and tones enow to please your ears ? Or because you have not enow of attendants and favorites to stand before you and receive your orders? Your Majesty's various How officers are sufficient to supply you with those things. and it is of the greatest importance to estimate the motions of the mind. I beg your Majesty to measure it. what you desire is like climbing a tree to seek for fish. is even was the reply. endanger your soldiers and officers. How should I derive pleasure from these things ? My object in them is to seek for what I princes . " By weighing. to rule the Middle Kingdom. You collect your equipments of war. and excite the resentment of the other " do these things cause you pleasure in your mind ? " " 15. because you have not enough of rich and sweet food for your mouth ? Or said." said the king my desire is not on " account of them. can your Majesty be led to entertain such a desire on account " " " of them ? No. You wish to enlarge your territories. and what short. you will not suffer any sub- . How is this Is an exception to be made here? we know what things are light and what heavy. and to attract to you the barbarous But to do what you do to seek for tribes that surround it. although you do not get the fish. By measuring. termined.

" " Yes and quer ? so it is certain that a small country can not contend with a said. and the farmers all to wish to plow in your Majesty's fields. am stupid and not able to advance to this. VOL. The king said." Teach me Master. you must likewise turn back course for " 18. this will cause all the officers in the empire to wish to stand in your Majesty's court. with the desire which you have. I wish you. . both traveling and stationary. its to the radical attainment. you will assuredly afterward meet with calamities. each of a thousand li square. Mencius replied. if Now your Majesty will institute a government whose action shall all be benevolent. are able to maintain a who. although I am deficient in intelligence and my and try " to carry your instructions intc They are only men of education. The territory within the four seas embraces nine divisions. . that the weak can not contend with the strong. and all throughout the empire who feel aggrieved by their rulers to wish to come and complain to your Majesty. vigor. If with one part you try to subdue the other eight. 17. if they have not a fixed heart. fixed heart. all to wish to store their goods in your Majesty's market-places. that few can not contend with many. I will essay effect. what is the difference between that and Tsow's contending with Ts'u ? For. 257 you do what you do to seek for what you desire. and traveling strangers all to wish to make their tours on your Majesty's roads.LITERATURE OF THE EAST sequent calamity. if they have not a certain liveAnd it follows that they will not have a fixed heart. clearly . without a certain livelihood. And when they are so bent. " great. May I hear from you the proof of that ? Mencius if But If the people of Tsow should fight with the people of Ts'u. which of them does your Majesty think would con" " The people of Ts'u would conquer. and the merchants. lihood. to assist my intentions. All Ts'e together is but one of them. in the way of self-abandonment. doing it moreover with all your heart. XII. of moral deflec20." The king " " asked. As to the people. who will be able " to keep them back ? "I 19. there is nothing which they will not do.

In keeping fowls. " " Therefore an intelligent ruler will regulate the live- sure that. that is proper for the cultivation of the farm with its hundred 24. that in good years they shall always be abundantly satisfied. and are afraid they will not succeed. that. below. they shall have sufficient wherewith to serve their parents. filial and fraternal duties . of depravity. let not their times of breeding be neglected. they have not sufficient wherewith to serve their parents. and the family of eight mouths that is supported by it Let careful attention be paid shall not suffer from hunger. why not turn to that which is 23. and persons of fifty years may be clothed with silk. so as to make below. and. and. sufficient wherewith to support their wives and children. What leisure have they to cultivate propriety and righteousness ? the essential step to it? Let mulberry-trees be planted about the homesteads with their five mow. How can such a thing as the people be done under the rule of a benevolent entrapping man ? 21. and swine. and.258 THE SACRED BOOKS When they thus tion. Now the livelihood of the people is so regulated. " 22. carrying burdens on their backs It never has been that the ruler of a or on their heads. the inculcation in it to education in schools especially of the and gray-haired men will not be seen upon the roads. they have not sufficient wherewith to support their wives and children. have been involved in crime. their lives are continually embittered. Notwithstanding good above. lihood of the people. dogs. in years. and they will urge shall escape the proceed to what is good. may danger them. years. for in this case the people will follow after that with ease. they do not escape perishing. and of wild license. " mow. and persons of seventy Let there not be taken away the time years may eat flesh. above. " If your Majesty wishes to effect this regulation of the livelihood of the people. and that in bad years they After this he of perishing. to follow them up and punish them this is to entrap people. bad In such circumstances they only try to save themselves from death. pigs.

or to enjoy it along with many ? enjoy that " "May " I hear from you the proof of it along with many. or to enjoy it along with enjoy " " To enjoy it along with others. . Ts'e would be near to a state of good government The music of the present day is just like the music of Mencius said. audience of the king. present age. ! antiquity. to Which is the more pleasant Mencius asked. the kingdom of Ts'e would be near to a state of good government. His Majesty told me that he loved Chwang Paou. music by yourself alone." 4. I am unable to love the music of the ancient sovereigns I only love the music that suits the manners of the 2. That's how our king their brows.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 259 State where such results were seen the old wearing silk and eating flesh. " If your Majesty's love of music were very great. others ? " to enjoy music along And which is the more pleasant " " To with a few. " 6. Mencius. your Majesty is having music here. with aching heads. Mencius proceeded. " and said. and I was not prepared with anything to reply to him. and the notes of ple hear the noise of your knit your fifes and pipes. . having an audience of the king. said to him." 3. The king ? said. I have heard. and they all. Now. " If the king's love of music were very great. PART I II CHAPTER 1." 5. ' ." was the reply. "Your servant begs to explain what I have said about music to your Majesty. and say to one another. and the black-haired people suffering neither from hunger nor cold did not attain to the Imperial dignity. in regard to effecting that. " Your Majesty. I had an seeing Mencius. What do you pronounce about that love of music ? " Mencius replied." Another day. " that you love music was it so ? The king changed color." BOOK I. " music. told the officer Chwang said. The peobells and drums.

having music here. and they all. how could he enjoy free from all sickness! Now. and they all. say to one another. and the park king added.' ing here. horses. of distress Elder brothers and younger brothers. The people hear the noise of your bells and drums. ? THE SACRED BOOKS But why does he reduce us to this extremity Fathers and sons can not see one another. " " The " Was it so exclaimed the king. say to one another. " Was it park of King Wan contained seventy square li ? " so that the " Mencius It is so in the records." said Mencius. and see the beauty of your plumes and streamers. The people hear the noise of your carriages and horses. are Now your Majesty is huntseparated and scattered abroad. your Majesty is ! you have yours. are separated and Their feeling thus is from no other reascattered abroad. delighted." people. ' and with joyful looks. " 7. how our king were free from all sickness Their feeling thus is from this hunting?' could he enjoy no other reason but that you cause them to have pleasure as this music ' ? Now. and say to But one another. and with joyful ' That sounds as if our king were looks. Elder brothers and younger brothers. large as that ? " The still looked on it as small. the Imperial sway awaits you. and the notes of your fifes and pipes. your Majesty is hunting here. If he were not." replied. wives and children. your Majesty now will make pleasure a thing common to the people and yourself.260 likes his music." CHAPTER 1. That looks as if If he were not. and they all. The people hear the noise of your carriages and and see the beauty of your plumes and streamers. II The King Seuen of Ts'e asked. delighted. " If 8. with aching heads. wives and children. knit their brows.' son but that you do not give the people to have pleasure as i ! well as yourself. " contains only forty square li. My . That's how our king likes his hunting of distress ? why does he reduce us to this extremity Fathers and sons can not see one another. 2.

"contained seventy square li. How dare he withstand me ? '. Is it not with reason that the " look upon them as large ? people killed a man. The king said. But it replied.. I love valor. of King Wan.' ' 4. I 3. He who delights in Heaven will who stands in with his love and protection the whole empire. "A great saying! But I have an " not to love "I beg your Majesty. and savs. for instance. ' infirmity. ' " 3. If a man brandishes his sword. with a small counas the King Thae served the try. He awe of Heaven will affect with his love and protection his own kingdom. inquired about the great prohibitory regulations. and Kow-tsin served Wu. and that he who killed a deer in it was held guilty of the same crime as if he hares. requires a perfectly virtuous prince to be able. to serve a small one boring kingdoms ? of Ts'e asked. saying. He who with a small State serves a large one And stands in affect awe of Heaven. great State serves a small one delights in Heaven. to serve a large one Heun-yuh. Thang country. and will thus preserve its favoring decree. III way There is. and I heard. I fear the Majesty of Heaven. that inside the bordergates there was a park of forty square li. and was it not with reason that they looked on it as small ? " When I first arrived at the borders of your State. small valor. It is said in the Book of Poetry. looks fiercely.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 261 How is this ? " " The park people still look on it as large. it requires a wise prince to be able." . and King Wan served the Kwan barbarians. Is there any to regulate one's maintenance of intercourse with neigh" " The King Seuen " Mencius served Ko. but the grass-cutters and fuel-gatherers had the privilege of entrance into it." was the reply. before I would venture to enter it . so also had the catchers of pheasants and He shared it with the people. had those forty square li are a pitfall in the middle of the kingdom.this is the valor 5." was the reply. Thus CHAPTER 1. " He who with a 2. with a great as.

and King was ashamed of it. they condemn their superiors. condemn their superiors is wrong. 6. they also rejoice in his joy. but when the superiors 2. " to of the people do not make enjoyment a thing common to the people and themselves. Let now your Majesty also. ' Heaven having produced the inferior people. anger. " 8. " 3. Wu gave repose to all the people of the empire. when they can not enjoy themselves.' This was the valor of King Wan. In the Book of History it is said. and if people generally are not able to enjoy themselves. and said to him. " 7. with the purpose that they should be assisting to God. This was the valor of King Wu. they also do wrong." CHAPTER 1. worth likewise find pleasure in these things ? " Mencius re" plied. be the opponent only of a single I beg your Majesty to greaten it. and whoquarters of the empire. and therefore distinguished them throughout the four Whoever are offenders. They do. How dare ' any under heaven give indulgence to their refractory wills ? There was one man pursuing a violent and disorderly course in the empire. When a ruler rejoices in the joy of his people. the expectations of the empire. IV The King Seuen of Ts'e had an interview with Mencius Do men of talents and palace. only afraid that your Majesty does not love valor. by one display of his anger. ever are innocent.262 *\ THE SACRED BOOKS common man. To consolidate the prosperity To meet of Chow. " ' The king blazed with And he marshaled his hosts. He also. here am I to deal with them. who can " It is said in the of a individual. Book of Poetry. when he grieves at the sorrow of his . To stop the march to Keu. in the Snow " For them. in one burst of anger. King Wan in one burst of his anger gave repose to all the people of the Empire. The people are give repose to all the people of the empire. appointed for them rulers and teachers.

tions are uttered by one to another with eyes askance. and Thus the people proceed to the commission of wickedness. that ' my tour may be fit to be compared with the ' ' visits of excellent inquiry the emperor visited the princes it was called a tour of inspection. An 5. a sympathy of sorrow will do the A same: in such a state of things. and stores of provisions The hungry are deprived of their food. it can not be but that the ruler attain to the Imperial dignity. and then to bend my course southward What shall I do along the shore. sympathy of joy will pervade the empire. " ' 7. . that is. " 4. the duke. I wish to pay a visit of inspection to Chuenfu. A host marches in attendance on the ruler. and that excursion. The governors. they are utterly lost: these things proceed to the grief of their subordinate water. deficiency of yield. is what I call yielding to it. will ' " Now the state of things is different. or they urge their way against it. were a pattern to the princes. what will become of our happiness? If our king do not make this excursion. to Descending along with the current. and Ch'aou-wu. There is what 6. become of our help? That ramble. they are wild.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 263 people. and are consumed. And moreover. they also grieve at his sorrow. he surveyed the States under their care. King of IVe. till I come to Lang-yay. the saying of the Hea Dynasty If our king do not take his ramble. that is. and supplied any offices. in the spring they examined the plowing. oppressed. they reported their administration of their Thus. When When the princes attended at the court of the emperor it was called a report of office. ! inspection made by the ancient emperors ? " The minister Ngan replied. saying. and the people are the Imperial ordinances are violated. in the autumn they examined the reaping. and supplied any deficiency of seed . and forgetting Pressing up against return. Maledicthere is no rest for those who are called to toil. and the supplies of food and drink flow away like rulers yield themselves to the current. asked the minister Ngan. Formerly. neither of the proceedings was without a purpose.

is for you. my prince. to pursue your course. and calling the Make for me music grand music-master." ' ? He who restrains his prince loves CHAPTER v The King Seuen of T'se said. call being wild. there were no prohibitions respecting the ponds and weirs the wives and children of criminals were not involved . or widowers the old and husbandless. is ? " May " royal government I hear from you what the true " King Formerly.' And it was then that the Che-shaou and Keo-shaou were made. propriate If your Majesty wishes to to the emperors. What fault is it aries to supply the ' ' to restrain one's prince his prince. as follows : Wan's government of K'e was The husbandmen cultivated for the government one-ninth of the land." was the reply. is what I call urging their way Pursuing the chase without satiety is what I against it. the true royal government. .264 it. or stop the movement for that object ? " The Brilliant Palace is a palace ap2. or orphans classes are the most destitute of the people. or these four solitaries. in the poetry to which it was said. but goods were not taxed. He issued a proclama' " ' The tion throughout his State. lost. the descendants of officers were salaried. king was pleased.' " The duke 10. at the passes and in the markets. Delighting in wine without satiety is what I call being 8. wants of the people." 3. The king " said. " ' It 9. the young and fatherless. Shall I pull it pull " down. . . 1. "People all tell me to down and remove the Brilliant Palace. and went out and occupied a shed From that time he began to open his granin the borders. then do not pull it practise down. no doings which might be so characterized as wild and lost. or widows the old and childless. and have none to in their guilt. he said to him to suit a prince and his minister pleased with each other. There were the old and wifeless. ancient emperors had no pleasures to which they gave themselves as on the flowing stream. Mencius replied. strangers were inspected. THE SACRED BOOKS and forgetting to return.

Poetry. " "I fond of wealth. and loved his wife. and what " the Imperial sway ? difficulty will there be in your attaining " I have an 5. in the seclusion of the house. "<Ku-kung'Than-fu Came in the morning. That he might gather his people together. and those who marched had their bags way those It was not till after this that he thought he of provisions. and filled his granaries. far as the foot of K'e Along with the lady of horse. and spears. He tied up dried provisions and grain In bottomless bags. Keang. could commence his march." said the king " The reply was. and sacks. there were no dismen. and glorify his State. As hill. for the miserable and ' solitary ! ! 4. made them the first objects of his regard. and battle-axes. With bows and arrows all-displayed. in the institution of his government with its benevolent action. " ' am them excellent. O excellent words " Mencius said. as it is said in the Book of Poetry. and abroad. Formerly. galloping his By the banks of the western waters. Formerly. . and King Wan." It is said in the Book of of beauty. They came and together chose the site of settlement. If your Majesty loves wealth. " ' The But rich alas ! may " get through. satisfied women. King Thae was fond beauty. He commenced In this his march/ ricks who remained in their old seat had their and granaries. Kung-liu . He reared his ricks. why do you not " I have an infirmity.LITERATURE OF THE EAST whom 265 they can tell their wants. there were no unmarried . large and small. infirmity I am fond of " The reply was." was fond of wealth.' At that time. " Since your Majesty deems practise The king them ? said. With shields. It is said in the Book of Poetry. let the people be able to gratify the same feeling. The king said.

it. all "When man of When all your great officers all say. while he himself went to Mencius said to the King Seuen " Ts'u to travel. and what difficulty will there be in your " attaining the Imperial sway ? CHAPTER 1. said to him. 2. ' for generations." you deal with him ? " 3. VI of T'se. Suppose that the chief criminal could not regulate the officers under him. tue/ neither may you for that believe When the . " The employing them at all that they have not " ? ruler of a State advances to office men of talents and virtue. only as a matter of necessity. Mencius. Suppose that one of your Majesty's ministers were to entrust his wife and children to the care of his friend. what is to be done ? " The king looked to the right and left. he should find that the friend had caused his wife and children to suffer from cold and hunger how ought he to deal with him ? " The king " He should cast him off. may he do so but with ? caution 4. on his return. Those whom you advanced yesterday are gone in it to-day. 3." The king and How shall I know ability. If within the four borders of your kingdom there is not good government. having an interview with the King Seuen of " When men speak of an ancient kingdom/ Ts'e. let the people be able to gratify the same feeling. Since he will thereby cause the low to overstep the honorable. Mencius proceeded. and that. those about you say. ' This is a man of talents and virit. " Dismiss him. Mencius again said. and you do not know " said. so avoid The reply was.266 THE SACRED BOOKS If your Majesty loves beauty." said. and strangers to overstep his relatives. but that it has ministers sprung from families which have been noted 1. Your Majesty has no intimate ministers even. how would judge " The king said. 'This is a talents and worth/ you may not for that believe it. it is not meant thereby that it has lofty trees in it. " 2. CHAPTER vn . and spoke of other matters.

said to him. the people all say.' then examine into the find that the and when you " man say.' When all your great officers people say.' don't listen to them. fellow. then your Majesty will be angry.LITERATURE OF THE EAST ' 267 of talents and virtue. . " said. case. and when you see that the man deserves death. replied. and that King Wu smote Chow ? Mencius 2. 5.' then inquire into the case. This man won't do. won't do. This man ' people case. ' put him to death. you are going to build a large mansion. Mencius " He who mere I have heard of the cutting off of the fellow but I have not heard of the putting a sovereign to Chow. in his case.' ing. . You must act in this way in order to be the parent of the people. May a minister then put his sovereign outrages the benevolence proper to his nature is called a robber he who outrages righteousness is called a ruffian. When say.* then exand when you find that the man is such. " Was it so. having an interview with the King Seuen of " If T'se. The robber and ruffian we call a said. and when he has found such large trees. don't listen to them. This man deserves death. will surely cause the master of the workmen to look out you for large trees. employ him. This is a man amine into the * ' say. Should the workmen hew them so as to make them too small. VIII The King Seuen of Ts'e asked. When all those about you This man deserves When all your great officers death. " 6.' don't listen to them. saying. death." CHAPTER IX Mencius. ' In accordance with this we have the say- the people killed him." The king ? " to death 3. thinking that object. won't do. don't listen to them. all say.' When the This man won't do. ' This man deserves death." CHAPTER 1. send him i away. " It is so in the records. thinking that they will answer for the intended 1. When all those about you say. that " Thang banished Kee. you will be glad.

it may be worth 240. The King Seuen asked. Now. Among the ancients there was one who acted on this principle.000 taels. What do you say " taking possession of it ? " If the 3. 3 they will just in like manner make another revolution. attacking another of ten thousand chariots. people of Yen will be pleased with your taking possession of it. you will surely emBut when you come to a lapidary to cut and polish it. thousand chariots. saying. and the people brought baskets of rice and vessels of congee. a man spends his youth in learning the principles of right government. in the stone. l your Majesty says to him. " 4. and. and some tell me to take For a kingdom of ten thousand chariots. Among the my ancients there was one who acted on all this principle. namely King Wan. The people of Ts'e attacked Yen. " Here now you have a gem unwrought. ploy ' the government of the State. namely King Wu. and follow me. then do not do so. then you say. to meet your Majesty's host. and conquered it. " Some tell me not to take possession of it for myself. with thousand chariots. and follow me/ what shall we say ? being grown if up 2. then do so.' . to complete the conquest of it in fifty days. possession of it. 2.268 THE SACRED BOOKS they will not answer for the purpose. If the people of Yen will not be pleased with your taking possession of it. was there any other reason for this but that they hoped to escape out If you make the water more deep and of fire and water? fire the strength of your country of ten you attacked another country of ten more fierce.' Although How act so differently calling in the lapidary to cut the gem it that you herein from your conduct " ! in CHAPTER x 1. he wishes to put them in practise . For the present put aside what you have learned. Heaven will surely come upon me. is an achievement beyond mere human from to If I do not take possession of it calamities strength. to vigor. Mencius replied. When. For the present is put aside what you have learned.

the rude tribes on the west murmured. him. The King Seuen many them ? " said to Mencius. when he was engaged The cry was in the south. it is this .LITERATURE OF THE EAST CHAPTER XI 1. frequenters made no change in their operations." prince 2. The people ple. and now. When he pursued his work in the east. the falling of opportune rain. The rest of the empire is indeed jealously afraid of the a doubled territory you strength of Ts'e. The whole empire had confidence in him. You have pulled down the an! As soon as Thang he commenced with Ko. and are removing to Ts'e its How can such a course be deemed proper ? precious vessels. took possession of it. I have never heard of a with a thousand li standing in fear of others. and resolved to deliver Yen from their power. The princes have formed to attack me: how shall I prepare myself for plans " Mencius replied. " It is said in the Book of History. when with do not put in practise a benevolent government which sets the arms of the empire in motion. and your Majesty went and punished supposed that you were going to deliver them out of the water and the fire. ' It is said again in the Book of History. Why does he make us last? Thus. " I have heard of one who with seventy li exercised all the functions of government throughout the empire. That was Thang. l cestral temple of the State. We have waited for ' our prince long . the prince's coming will be our reviving " Now the ruler of Yen was tyrannizing over his peo3. So did those on the north. and put their sons and younger brothers in chains. and the people were delighted. the looking of the people to him was like the looking The in a time of great drought to the clouds and rainbows. and upon this the princes of the various States deliberated together. began his work of executing justice.But you have slain their fathers and elder brothers. While he punished His progress was like their rulers he consoled the people. 269 The people of Ts'e having smitten Yen.. to meet your Majesty's host. The husbandmen of the markets stopped not. and brought baskets of rice and vessels of congee.

THE SACRED BOOKS " If your Majesty will make haste to issue an ordinance. XIII The Duke Wan of Thang asked Mencius. when the Duke of Muh asked Mencius." CHAPTER 1. stopping the removal of the precious vessels. If I put them to death for their conduct. and none of the people would die in their defense. this people will love you and all above them. " If you will put in practise a benevolent government. and not saving them. 3. have been stored with grain." CHAPTER 1.' Do the people have returned their conduct to the officers. " Of my officers there were killed thirty-three men. your granaries. All the while. saying. and saying that. Beware. If I do not put them to death. in this way you may still be able to stop the threatened attack. O prince. beware. Or shall I serve Ts'u ? " Shall I serve Ts'e ? " . blame them. Thang is a small kingdom. saying. then there is the crime unpunished of their looking angrily on at the death of their officers. and your treasuries and arsenals have been full. What pro- Now at length ceeds from you will return to you again. old and young. and the ablebodied. you will appoint them a ruler. and cruel to their inferiors. and lies between Ts'e and Ts'u. in your State been. it is impossible to put such a multitude to death. and will die for their officers. How " is the exigency of the case to be met?" In calamitous years and years of famine. who have been scattered about to the four quarters. and withdraw from the country . The philosopher Tsang ' said. the old and weak of your people. O prince. not you. restoring your captives. and not one of your officers Thus negligent have the has told you of the distress. who have been found lying in the ditches and water-channels. XII There had been a brush between Tsow and Lu. after consulting with the people of Yen. superiors 2. Mencius replied. have numbered several thousands.270 4.

saying. the barbarians of the north were conHe served them with incursions upon it. and have the this is a proper people so that they will not leave you replied. What is the proper course for me 1. ? " Mencius " replied. when King Thae dwelt in Pin. casions me great alarm. He did not take that situation. we can not 1." CHAPTER XIV " Thang asked Mencius. in after 3. be prepared to die in your defense. Though I do my utmost to serve those large kingdoms on either side of it. went to the foot incursions upon it He of mount K'e. The Duke Wan of to take in the case 2. Formerly. He served them with pearls and gems. build higher your walls guard them along with your people. Formerly.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 2. when King Thae dwelt in Pin. and still he suffered from them. is that Ts'e to you. there is one beyond I can suggest. as having selected it. prince ? Be strong to do good. there shall be one who will attain to the Imperial dignity. thing Dig deeper your moats. escape suffering from them. In case of attack. If you will . doing successors. It was a matter of necessity with him. prince lays the foundation of the inheritance. and still he suffered . 271 This plan which you propose is me. Thang is a small kingdom. the barbarians of the north were continually making therefore left it. Mencius " course. The The movement ocpeople of Ts'e are going to fortify See. is all What That your business. " If you do good. " course shall I take that " we may do so ? Mencius replied. saying. He served them with dogs and horses. among your descendants. generations. " What stantly making skins and silks. O. A what may be continued by his As to the accom- plishment of the great result: that is with Heaven. and hands down the beginning which he has made. and there took up his residence. have me counsel you. CHAPTER XV The Duke Wan of Thang asked Mencius. and still he suffered from them.

" " How is this " said the other. The officer Yo-ching entered the court. Do not go to see him.' Those who followed him looked like crowds hastening to market. prince. my I territory. to make your election between these two courses. because you think that man of talents and virtue. made a request to him. We must not lose him. By such men the rules he is a of cere- monial proprieties and right are observed. " On the other hand. you have saying. 1." 2. The kingdom is a 2. What the barbarians want is have heard this that a ruler does not with that wherewith he nourishes them. " Prince. Let him be prepared to die for it. Let him not quit it. my The duke said. I venture to ask. and the officers do not yet know where you are going. and dwelt there. But on the occasion of this Hang's second mourning. why have you not gone to see ence. why should you be troubled about having no prince? I will leave this/ Accordingly. prince." prince. in paying the honor of the first visit to a com! mon man. " One told me that on the Mang K'o ? occasion of the scholar Hang's second mourning. one Tsang Ts'ang. when his favorite.272 THE SACRED BOOKS ' from them. his observances exceeded those of the former. and announced to them. " That you demean yourself. injure his people crossed the mountain Leang. My children. The Duke P'ing of Lu was But now. thing to be kept from generation to generation. " The duke said. One indit vidual can not undertake to dispose of it in his own person. Ho is a benevolent man. I apprehend. is. The people of Pin said. Seeing this. ask you.' " I 3. the given instructions to the officers as to where you were going. horses have been put to the carriage. he assembled the old men. some say. " I will not. he left Pin." CHAPTER XVI about to leave his palace. saying." The duke said. when you have gone out. and had an audiHe said. " I am going to see the scholar Mang. his obIt is on that acservances exceeded those of the former. built a town at the foot of ' mount K'e. . " On other days.

named Tsang Ts'ang. and afterward five tripods ? " The duke said. stopped him. " That can not be called * That was the difference between being poor exceeding. How counsels into practise. not finding in the prince of Lu a ruler who would confide My in me. and the shroud. and he was consequently coming to see you. After it may be. on the second. I suppose. from the efforts of others. and being 3. by others. and the stopping him is. " I Yo-ching saw Mencius. told the prince about you. rich. is from Heaven." Yo-ching said. and therefore he did not come according to his "A man's advancement is effected. when one of his favorites. on the first occasion. that he first used three tripods. that. purpose. . But to advance a man or to stop his advance is really beyond the power of other men. those appropriate to a great officer. XII.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 273 ! " count that I have not gone to see him. and." How is this " answered Yo-ching." this. the grave-clothes. " By what you call * exceeding/ you mean." Mencius said. and said to him. it may be. he used the rites appropriate to a scholar. " No I refer to the greater excellence of the coffin. could that scion of the Tsang family cause me not to and put my find the ruler that would suit me ? " VOL. the shell. 18.' .

and said. 'He was an object of veneration to my grandfather. you could you promise yourself to accomplish anew such results " as those realized by Kwan Chung and Gan ? " 2. and do you still think it would not be " enough for you to do what they did ? 5. and who Wan. Tsang Se would not play Kwan Chung. ! : 274 . Kwan Chung Mencius answered. Sir. You are indeed a true man of Tse. saying." concluded Mencius. and how low. " Master. said. were to obtain the ordering of the government in Ts'e. Mencius said. with all the virtue which belonged to him. There was King disciple is hereby very much increased. " The perplexity of your 7.' Then/ pursued the other. to which do ' ' to yourself or to Tsze-lu ? you give the superiority Tsang Se looked uneasy. and is it what you desire for me. after all. that I " should do so ? raised his prince to be the leader of all the other princes. is it that Thus." " So " returned the other. was what he accomplished entirely Kwan Chung how 4. You know about Kwan Chung and Gan. " you liken me to him ? " ' Kung-sun Ch'ow " said. flushed with anger and displeasure. and nothing more. Some one asked Tsang Se. saying. and Gan made his prince illustrious. " 3. how long he enjoyed the direction of the government of the kingdom. " To raise Ts'e to the Imperial dignity would be as easy as it is to turn round the hand. How dare you compare me with Kwan Chung ? Considering how ' ' ' i possessed the confidence of his prince.THE BOOK OF KUNG-SUN CHOW BOOK II. PART I I CHAPTER 1. if Kung-sun Chow asked Mencius. did not die till he had reached a hundred years and still 6. Do you give the superiority to yourself or to Kwan Chang ? Tsang Se.

of the influence also which had emanated from the earlier Moreover. " How can King Wan be matched to ? Wu-ting there had appeared six or seven worthy and sage sovereigns. and this length of time made a change Wu-ting had all the princes coming to his court. and Chow dynasties.' The not like waiting for the farming seapresent time is one in which the Imperial dignity is may be easily attained. Then. it There was not one of all the people who was not his subject. and of their good government. and possessed the empire as if it had been a thing which he moved round in his palm. On all these accounts. 9. who gave their joint assistance to Chow in his government. From Thang things. borders of the State so Ts'e possesses the people. and King Wan made his beginning from a territory of only one hundred square li. Yin. men of ability and virtue. So it was on his side. "In the flourishing periods of the Hea.LITERATURE OF THE EAST his influence 275 had not penetrated throughout the empire. The empire had been attached to Yin for a long time. there sovereigns. The people ' " A A husbandry. It required King Wu and the Duke of Chow to continue his Now you course. but that is not like embracing the wisdom and discernment. Cocks crow and dogs bark to each other. took a long time for him to lose the empire. There was not a foot of ground which he did not possess. all. In consequence of these difficult. were the viscount of Wei and his second son. all the way to the four 10. that the Imperial dignity might be so easily obtained is say : King Wan 8. before that influence greatly prevailed. There were still remaining some of the ancient families and of the old manners. their Royal Highnesses. but that sons. Pe-kan and the viscount of Ke. man may have of Ts'e have a saying. No . man may have instruments of favorable opportunity. the imperial domain did not exceed a thousand li. and Kaou-kih. it was difficult for him immediately to attain the Imperial dignity. and Ts'e embraces so much territory. then not a sufficient object for imitation? " Mencius said. Chow was removed from Wu-ting by no great interval of time.

in a country of ten thousand chariots. double their achievements is sure to be realized. let benevolent government be put in practise." CHAPTEK 1. II " Master. my Master. and the people will be delighted with it. your At " The scholar Kaou had attained is not difficult. " 12. saying." said are far beyond Mang Pun. : . " 11. Mencius. Confucius said. no power will be put able to prevent his becoming Emperor. The hungry are easily supplied with food." forty I attained to an unperturbed mind. " No." Ch'ow said. you " The mere attainment. is only at this time that such could be the case. and the thirsty are easily supplied with drink. Moreover. He did not 3. so as to be able to carry your principles into practise. ' The flowing progress of virtue is more rapid than the transmission of imperial orders by stages and couriers/ the present time. if Kung-sun Ch'ow asked Mencius. "At from hanging by the heels. " 4. never was there a time farther removed than the present from the appearance of a true sovereign: never was there a time when the sufferings of the people from tyrannical government were more intense than the present. though you should thereupon raise the prince to the headship of all the other princes. in practise a benevolent government. " Is there any way to an unperturbed mind ? " The answer was " Yes. With half the merit of the anIt cients. were to be appointed a high noble and the prime minister you of Ts'e. or even to the Imperial dignity. Pih-kung Yiu had this way of nourishing his valor He did not flinch from any strokes at his body. Ch'ow asked. as if they were relieved 13. to an unperturbed mind at an earlier period of life than I did." 2.276 THE SACRED BOOKS : change is needed for the enlarging of its territory no change If its ruler will is needed for the collecting of a population. it in such a position would would not be to be wondered at mind be perturbed or not ? " Mencius replied. " Since it is so with you.

: Mang She-shay had this way of nourishing his valor He said. neither should he receive from a He viewed stabbing a prince of ten thousand chariots. He feared not him he always A any of all the princes. what produces dissatisfaction in the mind is not to be helped by passion' ChW " effort/ This last. and how the Philosopher Kaou does the same ? Mencius answered. Master. How can I make certain ' " of conquering " 6. shall I not be in fear even of a poor man in his loose garments of hair cloth ? If. to calculate the chances of victory and then engage: this is to stand in awe of the opposing force. was after all inferior to what the philosopher Tsang maintained. It speaks thus If. which was indeed of the most importance. being his merely physical energy. " against thousands and tens of thousands/ 8. What is not attained in words is not to be sought for in the mind. said. Do you love valor ? I heard an account of great valor from the Master. bad word addressed 5. I will go forward 7. To measure the enemy and then advance. He considered that the slightest push from any one was the same as if he were beaten before the crowds in the market-place. not to . when there is unrest in the mind. on self-examination. of ten thousand chariots just as stabbing a fellow prince dressed in cloth of hair. May I venture to ask an explanKung-sun ation from you. " Kaou says. I find that I am not upright. to the Pih-kung Yiu resembled I do not know valor of which of the two the superiority should be ascribed. I look upon not conquering and conquering in the same way. Tsang. I find that I am upright. ? Mang I can only rise superior to all fear/ She-shay resembled the philosopher Tsze-hea.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 277 turn his eyes aside from any thrusts at them." 9. but yet Mang She-shay attended to what was of the greater Formerly. of how you maintain an unperturbed " mind. " Yet. the philosopher Tsang said to Tsze-seang. 1 ' : importance. to returned. what Mang She-shay maintained. on selfexamination. and that what he would not receive from a common man in his loose large garments of hair.

to ask " what you mean by The reply was. Without it. " I venture vast. The passion-nature pervades and animates the body. and sustaining no injury. " 14. ' is chief.278 THE SACRED BOOKS But seek for relief from passion-effort. Therefore I say. it fills up all between heaven and earth. " When it is the will alone which is active. and the passion-nature is Maintain firm the will. It it is I therefore said. and the passion-nature is subor- not be conceded. flowing passion-nature it. may be conceded. " wherein you. Ch'ow pursued. ' violence to the passion-nature. it moves the passion-nature." "I nature. " It is difficult to describe " This is the passion-nature: It is exceedingly great and exceedingly strong. Maintain firm the will. 15. and do no violence to the passion " nature ? Mencius replied. but without the object of thereby nourishing the Let not the mind forget its work. in the case of a man falling or running is from the passion-nature." Mencius told him. because he makes it somethe nature becomes starved. I am skilful in nourishing my vast. it moves the will. Being nourished by rectitude. Kaou. . ' The will subordinate/ how do you say. When it is the For passion-nature alone which is active. and do no 10. venture to ask." 12. This is the passion-nature It is the mate and assistant of righteousness and reason. " Since you also say. "but let passion-nature. surpass words. Ch'ow observed. The will is first and chief. not to seek in the mind for what is not attained in words can of the passionnature. ! your 13. is produced by the accumulation of righteous not to be obtained by incidental acts of righteousIf the mind does not feel complacency in the conduct. and yet it moves the mind. man is : in a state of starvation. flowing passion11. ' thing external/ " 16. ness." said Ch'ow again. that instance now. The will is the leader dinate to it. Kaou has never understood righteousness. " I understand Master. There must be the constant practise of this right- eousness. " deeds .

These evils growing in Tsae Go and Tsze-kung observed. who was grieved that his growing corn was not longer. " ? Mencius said. have been helping the corn to grow long. I am tired to-day.' to. but 17. and found the corn all withered. : shows your wisdom. Yen Niu. What they do is not only of no benefit to the ' 7 nature. sage is what I can A not rise tired. Let us not be like the man of Sung. saying. I know how the mind has departed from principle. it also injures it. displayed in the government. They who assist it to grow long pull out their corn. "Oh! what words are these? ' For- merly Tsze-kung asked Confucius. I am not competent. " When words are one-sided. You teach without being tired: that .' Then. and teach without being * You learn without satiety that Tsze-kung said. extravagant. in himself. His son ran to look at it. but still he said. he returned home. while their words were good. were skilful in speaking. and let it alone they do not weed their corn. Having done this. What do you mean " by saying that you understand whatever words you hear ? Mencius replied. and so he pulled it up. I learn without satiety." Sage shall again arise. I very stupid. and. There are few in the world who do not deal with their passion-nature as if Some indeed conthey were assisting the corn to grow long.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 279 there be no assisting the growth of that nature. On this ChW " my ' attained to be a Sage 19. Master. the disciple Min. he will certainly follow mind is at mind do injury the its wits' end. have you 18. When words are I know how the mind is fallen and sunk. In the matter of the disciples of speeches. When a words." <l Kung-sun Ch'ow further asked. are hurtful to the conduct of affairs. When words are evasive. are you l ' a Sage ? Confucius answered him. When words are all-depraved. I know how the to government. There was a man of Sung. I know how the mind of the speaker is clouded over. and Yen Yuen. were distinguished Confucius united the qualities for their virtuous conduct. Master. sider it of no benefit to them. looking and said to his people.

Then. nor command * Whom may I not serve ? My I not serving prince. " Yes. in order . Master. These proper to continue in it were all sages of antiquity. then to go into it when it was proper to keep retired from office. and Tsze-chang had each one member of the : would not have what words were those ? " sage. Ch'ow said. are they to replied. What do you say of Pih-e and " Their ways were different from mine. " 20. Mencius replied. I once heard this hea. then to continue in it long: when it was proper to withdraw from it quickly. have brought all the princes to attend in their court." said E-yun ? Mencius. But what I wish to do is to learn to be like Confucius. with which of these are you pleased to rank yourself ? " 21. To say. there never was another Confucius. they would. did they have any points of agree- No. and have obtained the empire. fucius. in a time of good government to take office. li " The reply was. " Not to serve a prince whom he did not esteem. long. ' 3 a people whom he did not approve ." 23. and I have not attained to do what they did. you please. Ch'ow then asked." " 22. Ch'ow " " said. but members. Yen Yuen had I all the venture to " ask: these. Let us drop speaking about if the disciple Min. Ch'ow said. . then to keep retired from it when it was . What people may him makes him my command ? My command- ing them makes them my people/ In a time of good government to take office.280 THE SACRED BOOKS Benevolent and wise: since Confucius shows your benevolence. When it was proper to go into office. and in small proportions. Comparing Pih-e and E-yun with Conbe placed in the same rank? " Mencius Since there were living men until now.' Now. Tsze-yiu. and on the occurrence of confusion to retire this was the way of Pih-e. And none of them. TszeFormerly." " 24. you are a Sage. also to take office that was the way of E-yun. then to withdraw quickly this was the way of Confucius. all of sovereigns over a hundred them. himself regarded as a sage. and when disorder prevailed. ment with him ? If they had been of territory. Yen Niu.

the Fung-hwang among birds. we know the character of his government. Yiu Jo is l said. Tsze-kung said. according to their merits. They submit. said. and Yin Jo had wisdom demeaned themselves 26. we know the character of his virtue. Tsze-kung. Wan with " they do not submit to him in heart. in When only a hundred.' 28. By hearing his music. and rivers and seas among rain-pools. Is it only among men that it is so? among quadrupeds. By viewing the ceremonial ordi' " nances of a prince. because their strength is not adequate to resist. one by force subdues men ." " I venture to ask wherein he differed 25. III who. from them. not one of them can escape me. Thang did it with only seventy li. From the birth of mankind till now. According to my view of our Master. " Tsae Go." Mencius replied. the Thae mountain among mounds and anthills. Ch'ow said. Mencius " He makes a pretense A leader of the He who. princes requires a large kingdom. or put to death one innocent person. There and rise above the level. Though differSo the sages among ent in degree. using force." CHAPTER 1. 281 act of un- would have committed one righteousness. to benevolence is the leader of the princes. ' Now. sufficient to know the sage. practises for become the sovereign of the empire. I can arrange. they would not have to flatter their favorite. Tsae Go said. mankind are also the same in kind. When one subdues men by virtue. there has never been another like our Master. In those things they agreed with him. using virtue. To benevolence is the sovereign of the empire. and King 2. he is far superior to Yaou and Shun/ " 27. Even had they been ranking themselves low. But they stand out from the K'e-lin their fellows. a prince need not wait a large kingdom.LITERATURE OF THE EAST to obtain the empire. From the distance of a hundred ages after. the kings of a hundred ages. and from the birth of mankind till now there never has been one so complete as Confucius. they are the same in kind.

they. " It is said in the Book of 3. What is said in the Book " e From the west. let him clearly digest the principles of his government with its legal sanctions. from the north. and the able 2.282 THE SACRED BOOKS and sincerely submit.' Confucius said. Benevolence brings glory to a prince. Perhaps ye will not dare to insult me. as of Poetry. giving the worthiest among them places of dignity. seek for calamities for themselves. I gathered the bark from the roots of the mulberry. and the opposite of it brings disgrace. Poetry. from the east. When " Before the heavens were dark with rain. is like hating moisture and yet living in a low situation. and then even great kingdoms will be constrained to stand in awe of him.' is an illustration of this. in fact. disciples in their submission to their hearts' core they are pleased. ' Now." CHAPTER IV 1. I thought. offices of trust. the best course for him to pursue is to esteem virtue and honor virtuous scholars. There was not one who thought of refusing submission.trees. From the south. was the case with the seventy Confucius. . to abandon themselves to pleasure and indolent indifference. If a prince hates disgrace. For the princes of the present day to hate disgrace and yet live complacently doing what is not benevolent. ye people below. Mencius " said. the ' Did not he who made ' way " of governing ? his kingdom. who this ode understand If a prince is able rightly to govern will dare to insult him ? But now the princes take advantage of the time. " throughout his kingdom there are leisure and rest from external troubles. taking advantage of such a season. 4. And wove it closely to form the window and door of my nest. when throughout their kingdoms there are leisure and rest from external troubles.

' ' CHAPTEE v 1. If a ruler give honor to men of talents and virtue and employ the able. at his frontier-passes. 6. and wish to plow in his fields. and wish to make their tours on his roads. all the people of the empire his people. and by the passage of the Ta'e Kea ' : When Heaven sends down calamities. all aid to cultivate the public field.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 5. is illustrated by what is said in the Book of Poetry " ' Be always studious to be in harmony with the ordinances ' of God. then will be pleased. 283 " " Calamity and happiness in This : all cases are men's own seeking. and exact no other taxes from them. " If. then the people in the neighboring kingdoms will look up to him to and wish come and be " . the traders of the empire will be pleased. 6. and wish to stand in " his court. So you will certainly get for yourself much happiness . then all the travelers of the empire will be pleased. if is not possible any longer to live. it is still possible to escape from them. Mencius said. there be an inspection of persons. so that the offices shall all be filled by individuals of distinction and mark then all the scholars of the empire will be pleased. " If he require that the husbandmen give their mutual 4. but no taxes charged on goods or other articles. If a ruler can truly practise these five things. If. " 5. in the market-place of his capital. he levy a ground-rent on the shops but do not tax the goods. " 3. then all the husbandmen of the empire will be pleased. when we occasion the calamities ourselves. or enforce the proper regulations without levying a ground rent. and wish to store their goods in his market-place. or of the hamlet's quota of cloth. If from the occupiers of the shops in his market-place he do not exact the fine of the individual idler. then 2.

my meaning may be illustrated thus: even nowadays. " The and disapproving is the principle of knowledge. feeling of commiseration is the principle of The feeling of shame and dislike is the princiThe feeling of modesty and complaisple of righteousness. and succeeded in his design. and they. never as a parent.284 THE SACRED BOOKS From the first birth of mankind till now. if men suddenly see a child about to fall into a well. the government of the empire was as easy a matter as the making anything go round in the palm. such a case who did not attain to the imperial dignity. they will without exception experience a feeling of alarm and distress. that the feeling of shame and dislike is essential to man. and that the feeling of approving and disapproving is essential to man. They will feel so. " When I say that all men have a mind which can not 3. The feeling of approving 5. ance is the principle of propriety. that the feeling of modesty and complaisance is essential to man. they play . " 6. Mencius " said. " From this case we may perceive that the feeling of 4. Thus. yet say of themselves that they can not develop them. All men have a mind which can not bear to see the sufferings of others. such a ruler will not have an enemy in all the empire. Men have these four principles just as they have their four limbs. has any one led children to attack their parent. had likewise a commiserating government. nor as a ground on which they may seek the praise of their neighbors and friends. nor from a dislike to the When reputation of having been unmoved by such a thing. tised a with a commiserating mind was praccommiserating government." CHAPTER VI 1. commiseration is essential to man. The ancient kings had this commiserating mind. having these four principles. bear to see the sufferings of others. benevolence. " 2. not as a ground on which they may gain the favor of the child's parents. as a matter of course. When men. and he who has no enemy in the empire is Never has there been a ruler in the minister of Heaven.

" 2. If he misses. and the armormaker's only fear is lest men should be hurt. how can he be wise ? ? Now. or that of a spring which has begun to find Let them have their complete development. of his failure in simply turns round and seeks the cause himself. his best course is to practise benevolence. 5. if 3. or an arrow-maker's being ashamed to make arrows. It is virtuous manners which conl " If a man. and he who says of his prince that he can not develop them." CHAPTER 1. Is the arrow-maker less benevolent than the maker of armor of defense ? And yet. The archer adjusts himself and then shoots. and the issue will be like that of fire which has begun to burn. is a thing in which great caution is required. the priest and the coffin-maker. benevolence is the most honorable dignity conferred by Heaven. he 4. " does not He against those who surpass himself. will suffice to love and protect all within the four seas. VII Mencius said. ing a residence. " Since all men have these four principles in them7. Since no one can hinder us from being so. " The man who would be benevolent is like the archer. we are not benevolent From the want of benevolence and the want of wis- will ensue the entire absence of propriety and righteousness he who is in such a case must be the servant of other dom men." murmur . So it is with The choice of a profession. Let them be denied that development. and the quiet home in which man should dwell. and they vent. Confucius said. in selectstitute the excellence of a neighborhood. them know to give them all their development and completion. let for a man to serve his parents with. and they will not suffice selves. the arrow-maker's only fear is lest men should not be hurt. " yet this is being not wise. do not fix on one where such prevail. plays the thief with his prince. the servant of To be men and If he be ashamed of his case. yet ashamed of such servitude is like a bow-maker's being ashamed to make bows. therefore.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 285 the thief with themselves.

He regarded virtue as the common property of himself and others. Therefore. Pursuing the examination of his dislike to what was we find that he thought it necessary. to the time when he became emperor. When . " The 3. it " Hwuy inconsistent with his purity to go to them. He would not receive their gifts. there is no help them in the same practise. as if he were going to be defiled. although some of the princes made application to him with very proper messages. When any one told Tsze-lu that he had a fault. and delighting to learn from others to practise what was good. or to speak with a bad man. Mencius " " said. " From the time the potter's art. When advanced to employment. Therefore. great Shun had a still greater delight in what was good. to leave him with a high air. Mencius " said.286 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER VIII 1. others. would have been to him the same and court cap amid mire and ashes. he bowed to the speaker. exercised and was a fisherman. He would not stand in a bad prince's court. he would not receive their gifts. nor 1. be standing with a villager whose cap was not rightly adjusted. lected and left without office. To stand in a bad prince's court. giving up his own way to follow that of 2. nor did he think it low to be an inferior officer. is to 5. as to sit with his court robes counting 2. he did not murmur." man greater than his helping men to CHAPTER IX Pih-e would not serve a prince whom he did not approve. nor associate with a friend whom he did not esteem. he rejoiced. When Yu heard good words. he did not conceal his virtue. of Liu-hea was not ashamed to serve an impure prince. 4. attribute of the superior practise virtue. When negbut made it a point to carry out his principles. speak with a bad man. when he plowed and sowed. " To take example from others to practise virtue. he was continually learning from others. if he happened to evil.

be given up and abandoned. Mencius " said. " Pih-e was narrow-minded. he did not grieve. Opportunities of time vouchsafed by are not equal to advantages of situation afforded by the Earth. and advantages of situation are not equal to the Heaven union arising from the accord of Mencius. This is because advantages of situation afforded by the Earth are not equal to the union arising from the accord of Men. Although you stand by my side with breast and arms bare. if pressed to relosing himself. and an outer wall of seven. Now. When he wished to leave. there must have been vouchsafed to them by Heaven the opportunity of time. he had a saying. You are you. and whose moats are distinguished for their depth. but they are not able to take it. self-possessed." BOOK II. ' " In accordance with these A it is 4. principles said. Accordingly. at the same time not ' naked. he companied with men indifferently. where the arms of its defendants. He would remain in office when 3. main in office he would remain." Mencius said. is a city with an inner wall of three li in The enemy surcircumference. " There 2. and the stores Yet it is obliged to of rice and other grain are very large. The superior man will not follow either narrow-mindedness or the want of selfrespect. are distinguished for their strength and sharpness. pressed to do so. and in such case their not taking it is because opportunities of time vouchsafed by Heaven are not equal to advantages of situation afforded by the Earth. not counting it required by his purity to go away.LITERATURE OF THE EAST straitened ' 287 by poverty. PAET I II CHAPTER 1. " 3. There is a city whose walls are distinguished for their height. and Hwuy of Liu-hea was wanting in self-respect. to surround and attack it. and I am I. round and attack it. offensive and defensive. . or with your body how can you defile me ? Therefore.

he was feeling a little unwell. his own relations revolt from the the being assisted by many reaches its highest prince. the empire 7 is overawed. a visit of condolence." nately. not by the strengths of mountains and rivers. Mang Chung re3. but if he do fight. In the morning I will hold my expose myself to the wind. and may not ing : court.288 THE SACRED BOOKS people is bounded in. and hastened to go to court. and to-day you are going to pay 2. and say to him. the whole empire becomes obedient to the prince." reaches its When CHAPTER 1. But I have got a cold. " When one to 5. Yesterday." Next day. the " I was wishking sent a person to him with this message to come and see you. the being assisted by few strength of arms. I do not know whether you will give me the opporMencius replied. not by the sharpness and He who finds the proper course has many to assist him. he went out to pay a visit of condolence to some one of the Tung-kwoh family. extreme point. you declined going to the court on the ground of being unwell. To-day " he was a little better." Having said this. Yesterday. when Kung-sun Ch'ow " said to him. and not able to go to the court. before you return home. I beg that. what must be the result ? Therefore. plied to them. he sent several men to look for Mencius on " the way. he must overcome. proper ? Yesterday. " Unfortutunity of seeing you then." said Mencius. and could not go to court. I am unwell. I do not know whether he can have reached it by this time or not. May this not be regarded as im" " " I was unwell . II As Mencius was about to go to court to see the king. a kingdom is secured. when the king's order came. He who loses the proper course has few When this to assist him." . : In the meantime the king sent a messenger to inquire about his sickness. the true ruler will decline to fight . I am better why should I not pay this visit ? " to-day. you will go to the court. and also a physician. not by the limits of dikes and borders . point. whom the whole empire is prepared to be obedient attacks those from whom their own relations revolt.

there is the relation of father and son abroad. is therefore no man of Ts'e who respects the king so much ' say. there this. as I do. Mencius answered him. In courts. " Oh what words are respect to him. Between father and son the great Between prince and minister ruling principle is kindness. . have their wealth I have my righteousness. On Mencius felt . answer must be without a moment's hesitation. " In the king's order. When the prince's order calls. a opher Tsang spoke them." these ? Among the people of Ts'e there is no one who speaks is ! the relation of prince and minister. This does seem as if it were not in accordance with that rule of propriety. The ing to my conduct ? Let their rulers wealth of Tsin and Ts'u can not be equaled. to be honorable." 6. .' Thus they manifest a disrespect than which there can be none greater. King said to him. Not Book of Rites it so. Let them have I have my benevolence. king about benevolence and righteousness. virtue is one of them. the the is said. In the empire there are three things univerreal principle. In the family.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 4. and there stop the night. Sir. " How can you give that mean' The philosopher Tsang said. Are they thus silent because they do not think that benevolence and No. VOL. the carriage must not be waited for/ You were certainly going to the court. Wherein should their nobility I be dissatisfied as inferior to them ? ' Now shall we say ? Seeing that the philosthere is in them. I have seen the respect of the the ruling principle is respect. Those are the two relations among men. XII. When a father calls. but I have not seen in what way you show king Mencius replied. I do not dare to set forth There before the king any but the ways of Yaou and Shun. 289 himself compelled to go to King " CVow's. Nobility is one of that these sentiments are not right sally them . then you did not carry your purpose out. to you. acknowledged age is one of them 19. but when you heard " King said. but in their hearts they righteousness are admirable? to the This man is not fit to be spoken with about benevolence and righteousness. I apprehend. That was not what I meant." 5.

III " Ch'in Tsin asked Mencius. " Now throughout the empire. and do not love to is This from no other make make ministers of those by whom they might be taught. and you refused to accept it. that they would not venture to call them to If Kwan Chung might not be called to him by go his prince. 1. and for helping one's generation and presiding over the people. but that they love to ministers of those whom they teach. which and when you were likewise accepted. and then employed him as his minister. how much less may he be called who would not to them. 1. the territories of the princes are of equal extent. age holds the first place. and the Duke to Hwan Chung. did Thang behave to E-yun. when you were in Ts'e. and then employed him as his minister. in See. Accordingly. and in their achievements they are on a level. reason. When he wishes to consult with them. : There was the behavior of the Duke Hwan to Kwan Chung he first learned of him.680 taels were sent to you. " to this extent. saying. and delight in 7. 8. you accepted. which you If your declining to accept the gift in . in villages. The prince who does not honor the virtuous. the other two are not equal to virtue. the king sent you a present of 2. 9. and so without difficulty he became emperor. in Sung.400 taels When you were of fine silver. Kwan play the part of Kwan Chung '' ! CHAPTER 1.200 taels were sent. is not worth having to do with. and so without difficulty he became chief of all the : princes. can the possession of only one of these be presumed on to despise one who possesses the other two ? How accomplish great deeds will certainly have ministers whom he does not call to go to him. " So 10. is to " Therefore a prince who their ways of doing. Formerly. Not one of them is able to exceed the others. he goes to them. there was the behavior of Thang to E-yun he first learned of him.290 THE SACRED BOOKS nobility holds the first place of the three.

' " When Why should I have declined the gift ? I was in See. I have heard that you are taking measures to protect yourself. Here. grass " . I was about to take a long jourTravelers must be provided with what is necessary for ney. have likewise lost your place in the ranks many times. How is it ? be taken with a bribe possible that a superior " man should CHAPTER 1. would you. have numbered several thousands. things in which belong to me. I was apprehensive for my safety. and send this to help you in procuring arms/ Why ( should I have declined the gift ? " 5. addressed the gov" ernor of it. "Well then. saying." was the reply. Keu-sin." said Mencius. of course he must search for pasture-ground he can and for them. of the cattle and sheep of another. The prince's message was." " That is a state of it does not ernor replied. If one of your spearmen should lose his place in the ranks three times in one day. the old and feeble of your people. one of these alternatives. Mencius said.LITERATURE OF THE EAST the first 291 case was right. you. calamitous years." " " is a man who receives charge 3. Master. your declining to do so in the first case was wrong." " I did right in all the cases. If. But when I was in Ts'e. after searching for those. who have been found lying in the ditches and water-channels. and undertakes to feed them for him. If your accepting in the latter case was right. and taking measures for my protection. and the able-bodied. Sir. ( A present against traveling expenses. 2. In bad. your accepting it it in the latter case was wrong. Mencius said. IV Mencius having gone to P'ing-luh. " "I would not wait for three put him to death or not ? times to do so. " 3. 2. When I was in Sung. their expenses. I had no occasion for money. 4. The message was. to act. To send a man a gift when he has no occasion for it is to bribe him. who have been scattered about to the The govfour quarters. and years of famine. You must accept. Sir.

" 4. I have heard that he who is in charge of an office. " There seemed to be reason in your declining the governorship of Ling-k'iu. Another day. waited upon . The people of Ts'e said. as assistant commissioner. CHAPTER v Ch'e Wa. who said. when he is prevented from fulfilling its duties. and that he on whom is the responsibility of giving his opinion. will he return his charge to the owner ? or will " he stand by and see them die ? " Herein. : CHAPTER 1. Mencius said to the king. His disciple Kun-tu told him these remarks. " Of the governors of your Majesty's cities I am acquainted with five. VI Mencius." said the officer. " either in going forward or in retiring ? to the course . " 5. ought to take his departure. resigned his office. On this. Ch'e Wa remonstrated on some matter with 1. but the only one of them who knows his faults is conversation to the the guilty one." He then repeated the " In this matter. went on a mission of condolence to Thang. also sent Wang Hwan. But I am in charge of no office on me devolves no duty of speaking out my opinion may not I therefore act freely and without any constraint." 4. but we do not know as 3. Wang Hwan. morning and evening. and said to him. the governor of Ka. Mencius said. Now several months have elapsed. he did well. and went away. because the latter office would afford you the opportunity of speaking your views. " I am guilty. when he finds his words unattended to. and requesting to be appointed chief criminal judge. and have you yet found nothing of which you might speak ? " 2. " In the course which he marked out for Ch'e Wa. which he pursues for himself. Mencius had an audience of the king. and. occupying the position of a high dignitary in The king Ts'e." K'ung Keu-sin.292 THE SACRED BOOKS not find them. his counsel not being taken. I am king. ought to do the same.

the road from IVe was it that. from the emperor people. superior world be niggardly to his parents. to Mencius. the ancients all used this style. and said. And. who. and the tiquity. is there no satisfaction to the natural of a man. during all the way to Thang is not short. This was done by all. The position of a high dignitary of Ts'e is not a small one . moreover. was too good. submit the matter. I wish to take the liberty to question to you. As you were then pressed by the urgency of the business. the inner coffin was made seven inches thick. men can not have the feeling of If they have not the money to make them in this way. he stopped at Ying. Why should I alone not do so ? " 4. Mencius replied. 3. " There were the of your mission ? proper officers to speak to who attended him about them ? to them." man will not for all the . ignorance of my incompetency. they can not have the feeling of pleasure.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 293 Mencius. and not simply for the beauty of the but because they thus satisfied the natural feelings of their hearts. I did not venture to put any Now. however. in preventing the earth from getting near pleasure. there was no rule for the In middle ansize of either the inner or the outer coffin. If prevented by statutory regulations from making their coffins in this way. When they were not prevented. and had the money. " What occasion had I CHAPTER 1. in begged to put a question to him. Kung-sun Ch'ow said " How there and back. where Ch'ung Yu " Formerly. On his return to Ts'e. you never spake to Hwan about the matters " Mencius replied. Thang and back. VII Mencius went from Ts'e to Lu to bury his mother." 2. 2. to the common appearance. outer one the same. The wood " of the coffin. during all the way . feelings to the bodies of his dead ? " " I have heard that the 5. you employed me to superintend the making of the coffin. never spoke to him about the business of their mission. it appeared to me.

on bis own impulse. say" Mencius replied. to smite me be smitten. " cius. " . ISTo. were pleased. " . ing. asked Mencius.' him." Kwan-sbuh to oversee the heir of Yin. Suppose there were an officer here. If be bad Who may smite it ? I would have answered asked me ' He who is the minister of Heaven may smite it. you were privately to give to him your salary and rank and suppose that this officer. If knowing that this would happen he appointed Kwan-sbuh. Whether does your Majesty consider yourself or grieved. very 2. It may/ They accordingly went and smote it. 1.' swer him how should But now with one Yen to smite another Yen " I have advised this 2 ' ' ' ' ' CHAPTER 1. The people Ch'in of Yen having rebelled. The people of Ts'e smote Yen. If be appointed him. and that. . IX " I feel said. saying. whether Yen ? He Yen might ' Is " it really the case that " replied. also without the king's orders. he was deficient in benevolence. the king of Ts'e much ashamed when I think of Mencius." " Let not your Majesty be said to him.294 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER VIII Shin Thung. with whom you.' I will answer him this man be put to death ? Who may put him to death ? I will anIf he ask me The chief criminal judge may put him to death. May Yen be smitten ? Tsze-kSvae bad no rigbt to give Yen to another man. Sir. and that one asks me ' He may. " It may. were priwould such a transaction vately to receive them from you be allowable ? And where is the difference between the case " of Yen and this ? Some one asked Men2. and Tsze-che bad no rigbt to receive Yen from Tsze-k'wae. and I answered him. you advised Ts'e Shin Thung asked ' ' May Suppose the case of a murderer. appointed but Kwan-shuh with the power of the Yin State rebelled. without informing the king. not plied. " Oh what words ! are those ? " " said Kea. " The king reChow-kung the more benevolent and wise ? Kea The Duke of Chau.

" " I wish 3." CHAPTER X his office. though a sage." 3. and What kind of a man was the Duke asked him. in them. he was deficient in knowledge. can your Majesty be expected to be so! I beg to go and see Mencius. but in vain. it how much feeling. I do not know if hereafter I may expect have another opportunity of seeing you. Kwan-shuh was his elder brother. " 2. and pur" Mencius said. and them." " Did the Duke of Chau know that he would rebel. and that Kwan-shuh with the State of Yin rebelled?" "It is. was the younger Was not the brother. Mencius replied. The superior men when they had reformed them with their former men of the present day They go on to raise apologizing only persist in their errors ? discussions about them likewise. " He did posely appoint him to that office ? " " not know. saying. and all my court joyed exceedingly Now again you abandon me. and said. Mencius gave up wished to see you. they reformed them. indeed it is what I desire. all the people looked up to But do the superior admiration. the king said to the officer She. but. of the present time. Then." Then. " I dare not request permission to visit you at any particular time. and relieve your Majesty from that less Ch'in " was the reply. Moreover. Formerly. " An ancient sage. and made arrangements for returning to his native State.LITERATURE OF THE EAST knowing that I 295 f would happen. persist of old were like eclipses of the sun and moon. The errors of the errors. ." Kea accordingly saw Mencius. " Is it the fact that he appointed Kwan-shuh to oversee the heir of Yin. I got the opportunity of being by your side. the Duke of Chau was not completely benevolent and wise. he still fell into error ? " " The Duke of Chau." answered Mencius. Another day. to turning home. when the superior men of old had errors. and are realong with me. The king came to visit him. of Chau ? " when they have superior men All the people witnessed them. in accordance with what is right ? error of Chow-kung " 4. I 1.

000 chung. and therefore they proceeded The to lay a tax upon his taxing of traders took its rise from this mean CHAPTER XI 1. The . that all the officers and the people may have such an example to reverence and imitate. It " monopolize the conspicuous mound. to catch in his net the whole gain of the market. fellow. Mencius. She took advantage who . before I would venture to speak to Allow you. ' A strange man was Tsze-shuh E. A person who wished to detain him on upon behalf of the king. and you. Menand his stool " I passed the stranger was displeased. 3. somewhere in the middle of the kingdom. and began to speak to him. these. among the seekers of the disciple Ch'in. him this for me ? to " convey this message hy means of reported his words to Mencius. Of happened that there was a mean fellow. and simply had certain officers to keep order among them. " 5. sleep and do not listen to me. Master. came and sat cius gave him no answer." The people all thought his conduct mean. tried to 7. but he again schemed that his son or younger brother should be made a high officer. old time. wares. would my now accepting 10. was passing the night in Chow. and to support his disciples with an allowance of 10.296 to give THE SACRED BOOKS Mencius a house. and said. the market-dealers exchanged the articles which they had for others which they had not. Yes but how should the officer She know that the thing may not be ? Suppose that I wanted to be rich. He pushed himself into the service of the government.000 chung. he had to retire indeed. Who indeed is there of men but wishes for riches and honor? But he only. down. Ke-sun said.000 be the conduct of one desiring riches ? " 6. Thence he looked right and left. but leaned slept. who made it a point to look out for a conspicuous mound. night in careful vigil. having taken his leave of Ts'e. His prince declining to employ him. and get up upon it. having formerly declined 100. Had you not better tell 4. Mencius said. 2.

" How should Yin Sze know me The disciple li remarks. be Wu. But. "When . who cut you XII ? " CHAPTER 1. he would certainly have recalled me." 2. clearly to you.LITERATURE OF THE EAST me to request that I 297 replied. and the king had not sent after me. and only till then. When I stopped three nights before I quitted Chow. I in my own mind I still considered my departure speedy. was my mind resolutely bent on returning to Tsow. was that what I desired to do? I felt myself constrained to do it. made a Thang or If he knew ligence. but do not treat me as Tsze-sze was treated. Sir. Kaou informed Mencius of these Mencius said. You anxiously form plans with reference to me. to others. I went away because I did not find in him a ruler to suit me. If the king had changed. saying. he could not have induced person by Mencius " may Sit down. If he were to is one who may be made to do what is good. notwithstanding that. 3. he took his leave. and came notwithstanding. how can it be said that I give up the king? The king. " 4. 5. if the Duke Muh had not kept a the side of Tsze-sze. that showed his account of this. then. stopping three nights before he quitted Chow! I am dissatisfied on that he could not be . it I came a thousand was what I desired to do. Formerly. Is it you. that shows he was seeking his own benefit. was hoping that the king might change." and I will explain the case Tsze-sze to remain with him. but how dilatory and lingering was his departure. he would not have been able to make him feel at home and remain with him. ! When to wait on the king. If See Liu and Shin Ts'eang had not had a remembrancer by the side of the Duke Muh. you who cut me ? Or is it I. not again presume to see you. When I quitted Chow. If he did not Yin Sze spake about him know that the king could not want of intel- made such. " 4. after all. When Mencius had " a left Ts'e. He came a thousand li to wait on the king because he did not find in him a ruler to suit him.

he dwelt in 6iu. " Am I like one of your little-minded people ? They 6. and that during that 3. " There of the Kung-sun Ch'ow asked him saying. Was it the " way without receiving salary ? Mencius replied. we might expect the rise of such individuals that the empire should it But Heaven does not yet wish enjoy tranquillity and good order. . Mencius said. there besides If wished this. When Mencius office left Ts'e. and on their remonstrance not being accepted. would It it THE SACRED BOOKS be for the happiness of the people of Ts'e would be for the happiness of the people of the only? whole empire. " 2. ically. in it. they get angry. " time there should be 4. all their strength for a whole day. before they will stop for the night. " 5. I am hoping that the king will change. will remonstrate with their prince. and this is another. he said. i " Ch'ung Master. men " illustrious in their generation. you look Ts'e. I am daily hoping for this. That was one time. Examining the character of the present time. who is me otherwise than dissatisfied to bring " ? it about? How should I be CHAPTER XIV 1. with their passion displayed in their countenance. and travel with 7. " I am indeed a small man. they take their leave. more than TOO years have elapsed.298 use me. Yu questioned him like one who carries an air of dissatisfaction in his countenance. XIII When Mencius left upon the way." When Yin Sze heard this explanation. saying. till From the commencement of the Chow dynasty is now. ' It is a rule that a true Imperial sovereign should arise in the course of five hundred years. " No when I first saw the king in ." CHAPTER 1. the date Judging numer- past. ancients to hold 2. But formerly I heard you say The superior man does not murmur nor grudge against men/ against Heaven. and.

came orders for the collection of troops. I declined to receive any salary. on retiring from the interview." . to remain so long in Ts'e was not my purpose. to go away. But. Immediately after. when it would have been improper for me to beg permission to leave. it 299 was my intention. " 3.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Ts'ung. Because I did not wish to change this intention.

" Yen Yiu accordingly proceeded to Tsow. Thang. I am a man. his ' make disease will not be cured by it. I suppose. was returning from Ts'u. taking its length with its breadth will amount. " Formerly. They were men. father devolves this great duty to to send you to ask the advice of Mencius. my upon me I . he " Prince. Mencius said to him. havwent by way of Sung. It is small. the Crown-prince Yen Yiu. when speaking. Mencius spoke with me in Sung. What kind of a man was Shun ? What the Crown-prince i ' When ' kind of a man am I ? He who exerts himself will also become such as he was. him how the nature of man is always made laudatory reference Yaou and Shun.' CHAPTER 1. If medicine do not raise a commotion in the patient. do again visited Mencius. and.THE BOOK OF DUKE WAN BOOK III. you " 4. King Wan is my teacher.' Kung-ming E said. and only one. a good kingdom. doubt my words ? The path is one. to 3. and visited Ts'u. PART I I CHAPTER 1. II said to the Duke Ting of Thang died. Why should I stand in awe of them ? Yen Yuen said. he to Duke Wan Mencius discoursed good. but still sufficient ' to ' It is said in the Book of History. When the ing to go to Mencius. alas ! When Now. to fifty li. Shing Kan said to the duke king of Ts'e. 2. and in my mind I have never forgotten his words. wish 2. of Thang was Crown-prince. Now. and then to proceed to its various services. ' How should the Duke of Chau deceive me by those words ? " 5. and consulted 300 .

ferior ministers there is no one who will presume not to join in the lamentation. and binding on all. ancestors are to be followed/ meaning that they received those things from their ' example is a proper source to hand them down. do you again On this. that kingdom which we honor. and they should be sacrificed to according to The ceremonies this may be called filial piety/ propriety to be observed by the princes I have not learned. he setting them this example. When a prince dies. He approaches the congee." : reported the execution of his commission. he may not seek a remedy in others. observed this practise. and the body of the " The officers. from the emperor to the mass of the people. and the prince determined that the three years' mourning should be observed. the funeral duties to parents. when they are dead. I am afraid I may not be able to discharge my duty in the great business that I have entered on. ' to do their utmost. His aged relatives. they should be buried according to propriety. 301 Is this not good ? In dischargsaid. Of all the officers and inplace of mourning. Moreover. his successor entrusts ' " He sips the the administration to the prime minister. Yen Yiu former princes of Lu. and said. have. but I have heard these points that the three years' mourning. Yen Yiu went again to consult Mencius for me. but Tsow. Confucius said. What the . neither have any of our own former princes observed it. 3. and the eating of congee.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Mencius. they should be served according to propriety . and consulted Mencius. and now don't come up to the wishes of my aged relatives and the officers. For you to act contrary to not proper. Mencius said. none of them. Mencius " When parents are alive. Hitherto. and weeps. the garment of coarse cloth with its lower edge even. I have not given myself to the pursuit of learning. but have found my I pleasure in horsemanship and sword-exercise." " 4." It is so. but only in himself. were equally prescribed by three dynasties. the History says: In the observances of mourning and sacrifice. His face is of a deep black. The prince said again to -Yen Yiu. men indeed feel constrained ing The philosopher Tsang said. did not wish that it should be so.

and of wild license. " The business of the people may not be 2. 7 prince. CHAPTER 1. the people be done under the rule of a benevolent trapping man? Therefore. and the prince said. " The matter does indeed It is so.' " The way of the people is this : If they have a cer- If they have' tain livelihood they will have a fixed heart. had come from other States to condole with him were greatly pleased with the deep dejection of his countenance." returned with this answer to his commission. The business depends on the the wind blows upon it. from all Those who quarters of the State they came to witness it. 7 So for five months he dwelt in the shed. The grass must bend when that between the wind and grass. And if not a certain livelihood they have not a fixed heart. III The Duke Wan of Thang asked Mencius about the proper way of governing a kingdom. Mencius said. Then get up quickly on the roofs Soon must we begin sowing again the 3.' 5. When they have thus of depravity. a ruler who is endowed with talents and virtue will be gravely complaisant and economical. his inferiors will be found to love exceedThe relations between superiors and inferiors is like ingly. of moral deflection. been involved in crime. showing 4. " ' In the daylight go and gather the grass. And at night twist your ropes." When the time of interment arrived. remissly attended to. they have not a fixed heart there is nothing which they will not do in the way of self-abandonment. monies. to follow them up and punish them How can such a thing as enthis is to entrap the people. All the officers and " He may be said to understand the cerehis relatives said. and the mournfulness of his wailing and weeping.302 superior THE BACKED BOOKS man loves. It is said in the Book of Poetry. " . depend on me. grain. Yen Yiu without issuing an order or a caution.

then upon our private fields It is only in the system of mutual aid that there is a public even in the field. being not sufficient to repay the manuring of the fields. that 8. yet not to be able to nourish their parents. heo f and heaou this all those educational institutions for the instruction of the people. By might be taken without its being oppressive. and taking from the people only in accordance with regulated limits. In good years. this system still requires the taking of the full amount. and the payment of a the seventy The founder of Yin enacted mow allotment. and the share system. so that they proceed to borrowing to increase their means. ' " 7. "Establish ts'eang. what allotment. For regulating the lands. much mow not better than that of taxing. Yang Hu benevolent. the regular amount was fixed by taking the average of several years. observed in Thang. was paid in all these was a tithe. in ' is already May And the rain come down on our public ' ! field.' 6. enacted the fifty mow the allotment. He who wishes to be benevolent will not be of the " The sovereign Hea Dynasty tax. the produce exaction would be small. " ' where. sen. Lung said. and none which is dred the tax system. is his parental relation to the people ? " As to the system of hereditary salaries. It is said in the Book of Poetry. and. after the whole year's toil. and the actual But in bad years. " 9. and the system of mutual aid. rich. . When the parent of the people causes the people to wear looks of distress. when the grain lies about in abundance. and from this passage we perceive that Chow Dynasty system has been recognized. The share system means mutual division. The founder of the Chow enacted the hun- In reality. ' " He who seeks to be rich will not be 5.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 303 a respectful politeness to his ministers. 10. there is no better system than that of mutual aid. The aid system means mutual dependence. said. till the old people and children are found lying in the ditches and water-channels such a case.

When those are thus illustrated by superiors. ease. by the Yin. sitting at your 14. he will certainly come and take an example from you. " 11. " Since your prince. kindly feeling will prevail among the inferior people below. of them all is to illustrate the human relations. and you by them make new your kingdom. and thus you will be the teacher of the true sovereign. By the Hea The name Dynasty. the name heaou was used . that of sen. that of ts'eang.304 THE SACRED BOOKS is'eang indicates nourishing as its object. wishing to put in practise a benevolent government. heaou indicates teaching. and the produce available for On this account. salaries will not be evenly distributed. also will Do you practise those things with vigor. the division of the land into squares will not be equal. As to the heo f they beThe object longed to the three dynasties. and sen indicates archery. and by that name. is said in the Book of Poetry. The duke afterward sent Peih Chen to consult Mencius about the nine-squares system of dividing the land. " It 12. Although the territory of Thang is narrow and small. " 'Although It received a Chow was an old country. there would be none to rule the country- " . When the boundaries have been defined correctly. new destiny/ That is said with reference to King Wan. the division of the fields and the regulation of allowances may be determined by you. has made choice of you and put you into this employment. If the boundaries be not defined correctly. you must exert yourself to the utmost. a superior grade. yet there must be in it men of a superior grade." 13. the first thing toward a benevolent government must be to lay down the boundaries. and by the Chow. Mencius said to him. oppressive rulers and impure ministers are sure to neglect this defining of the boundaries. Now. Should a real sovereign arise. and If there were not men of there must be in it countrymen.

he addressed the Duke Wan. all and sustain one another in sickness. "A the public field. Those are the great outlines of the system. saying. His disciples.LITERATURE OF THE EAST men. " A man of a distant region. 1. to make the people pay for themselves a tenth part of their produce. 19. are practising a benevolent government. In the fields of a district. consisting of fifty mow. This is the way by which the countrymen are distinguished from those of a superior grade." CHAPTER IV There came from Ts'u to Thang one Heu Hing. " Let the supernumerary males have their twenty-five 17. those who belong to the same nine squares 18. cultivate in common the public field. XII. and I wish to receive The a site for a house. 305 If there were not countrymen. " 20. in the remoter districts. square li covers nine squares of land. 20. one must have his holy field. Coming right to his gate. which nine The central square is squares contain nine hundred mow. mow. each having its private hundred mow. Thus the people are brought to live in affection and harmony." Duke Wan gave him a dwelling-place. there will be no quitting the district. Prince. each 16. there would be none to support the men of superior grade. VOL. or removal from one dwelling to another. and made sandals of hemp and wove mats for a living. "I would parts of the kingdom. to reserve one division to be cultivated on the system of mutual aid. and eight families. aid one another in keeping watch and ward. observing the nine-squares division. occasions of death. who gave out that he acted according to the words of Shin-nung. all wore clothes of haircloth. and to become one of your people. " On render friendly offices to one another in their going out and coming in. . ask you. numbering several tens. and in the more central 15. " From the highest officers down to the lowest. I have heard that you. And not till the public work is finished may they presume to attend to their private affairs. Happily to modify and adapt it depends on the prince and you.

" would injure A boilers and earthenware pans." " The getting those various articles 5. in " exchanging their various sive to the articles for grain. Sin. Is it not so ? " " No. " We have heard that you. however." was the the produce. came from Sung to Thang. I suppose that Heu Hing sows grain " " Is it not so ? It is so. 7 likewise a sage. their own meals. a disciple of Ch'in and his younger brother. he related to him with approbation the words of lieu Hing to the following effect The prince of Thang is indeed a worthy prince. and wears his answer. He gets it in exchange for woven by himself ? " " " That Why does Heu not weave it himself ? grain. He gets them in exchange for grain. which is How can an oppressing of the people to nourish himself. morning and evening. Now.306 2. the real doctrines of antiquity. and eats " I suppose also he weaves cloth. abandoning entirely whatever he had pleased learned. Mencius said. THE SACRED BOOKS At the same time. showing that you are wish to become the subjects of a sage. Ch'in Seang." " Does he make those articles himself ? " share ? " No. moreover." plain cap. Prince. We ' Ch'in Seang saw Heu Hing. wise and able princes should cultivate the ground equally and along with their peoThey should prepare ple." " " " Is it " What kind of a cap ? a cap." " Does Heu cook his food in his husbandry. are not oppres- husbandman. How why should such a thing be sup- posed ? And does not Heu act the potter and . and. the prince of Thang has his granaries. became his disciple. in exchange for grain is not oppressive to the potter and the founder. and does he plow with an iron " Yes." " " No. he was greatly with him. and the potter and the founder in their turn. and eat the fruit of their labor. treasuries. and shares on their backs. Mencius then said. are putting into practise the government of the ancient sages. He has not yet heard. Heu wears " " " Does he wear He wears a cap ? clothes of haircloth. own manufacture. i : When " he be deemed a real worthy prince ? " 4. But now. and arsenals. Having an interview with Mencius. saying. with their plow-handles Leang. while at the same time they carry on their government. 3.

no means be carried on along with the business of husbandry. whatever articles he can require are ready to his hand. this way of doing would keep the whole empire running about : Hence. and regulated the course of a vent also for the Hwae and Sze. selves. 7. being produced by the various handicraftsmen if he must first make them for his own use. made a universal inundation. the vast waters. and led them all to the sea. The various The birds and beasts kinds of grain could not be grown. flowing out of their channels. those who labor with their strength are governed by others. cleared the courses He opened of the Tse and Thah. and little men have their proper business. ' the world had not yet been perfectly reduced to order. Then. and prints of birds crossed one another throughout the MidTo Yaou alone this caused anxious sorrow. and some labor with their strength. Those who labor with their minds govern others. . Mencius resumed. and vegetation on the mountains and in the marshes. and consumed. Yu separated the nine streams. is it the government of the which alone can be carried on along with the practise empire of husbandry? Great men have their proper business. and birds and beasts swarmed. those who govern others are supported by them. and Yih set fire to. dle Kingdom. in the case of any single individual. Some labor with their minds. Those who are governed by others support them. so that the birds and beasts fled away to hide themof the fire to be employed. " In the time of Yaou. Vegetation recognized. supplying himself with the articles which he uses solely from his own establishment? Why does he go con- fusedly dealing and exchanging with the handicraftsmen? Why does he not spare himself so much trouble ? " Ch'in " The business of the handicraftsman can by Seang replied. when was luxuriant. so that they all flowed into the Kiang. and measures to regulate the disShun committed to Yih the direction set forth. there is the saying. Moreover." " 6. The paths marked by the feet of beasts pressed upon men.' This is a principle universally upon the roads. He raised Shun order were the forests to office. the Ju and Han.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 307 founder.

308 THE SACRED BOOKS this became possible for the people of the Middle Kingdom to cultivate the ground and get food for themselves. between father and son. could he have done so? " The minister of agriculture taught the people to sow 8. minister of instruction. righteousness between husband and wife.' ' ' . . and comfortably lodged. What Yaou felt giving him anxiety was the not getWhat Shun felt giving him anxiety was the not ting Shun.' Hence to give the benefit the empire is called benevolence. rectify them. When the five kinds of grain were brought to maturity. there should be affection. Yu and Kaou-yaou. help them give them wings thus causing them to become posThen follow this up by stimulating sessors of themselves. and conferring benefits on them. This was a subject of anxious solicitude to the sage Shun.' to another man would be easy to find a man who shall empire 10. . attention to their separate functions between old and young. had they leisure to cultivate the ground ? " 9. without being taught at the same time. warmly clad. he did not enter. Encourage them. cultivating the five kinds of grain. and he appointed See to be the When was done. between sovereign and minister. lead them on. straighten them. But he whose anxiety is about getting his hundred mow not being properly cultivated is a mere husbandman. ' " a kindness. it . to teach the relations of humanity: how. they become almost like the beasts. benefit the empire is difficult. ' called The imparting by a man to others of his wealth is The teaching others what is good is The finding a man who shall called the exercise of fidelity.' When the sages them. and reap. . The highly meritorious emperor said to him. a proper order and between friends. were exercising their solicitude for the people in this way. During that time Yu was eight years away from his home. : . the people all enjoyed a comfortable subsistence. fidelity. Although he had wished to cultivate the ground. and though he thrice passed the door of it. Now men possess a moral nature but if they are well fed.

whose doctrines are not those of the ancient kings. You and your brother followed him some tens of years. before he returned home. What has been washed in the waters of the Kiang and Han. ! ! " ' you call a scholar of high and distinguished qualities. The people could find no name for it. ' This may not be done. 309 Confucius said. Tsze-hea. after three years had elapsed his disciples collected their baggage and prepared to return to their several homes. how here glistening is is it! Nothing can be added "Now this shrike-tongued barbarian of the south. Among the scholars of the northern regions He was what there were perhaps none who excelled him. but he said. Chung-ne. and yet ? In their governing seeming as if it were nothing to him the empire. where he lived On analone another three years. thinking that Yiu Jo resembled the sage. Pleased with the doctrines of Chow-kung and Ts'u. but I have never yet heard of any Ch'in Leang was a native of being changed by barbarians. were there no subjects on which Yaou and Shun employed their minds ? There were subjects. tried to force the disciple Tsang to join with them. wished to render to him the same observances which they had rendered to Confucius. . having possession of the empire. But on entering to take their leave of Tsze-kung. as they looked toward one anAfter this other. he came northward to the Middle Kingdom and studied them. they wailed.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 11. and bleached in the au- They tumn sun to it/ 14. " other occasion. but Tsze-kung went back and built a house for himself on the altar-ground. 13. Great indeed was Yaou as a sovIt is only heaven that is great. 12. Formerly. only they did not employ their minds on the cultivation of the ground. till they all lost their voices. How Princely indeed was Shun majestic was he. responded to it. "I have heard of men using the doctrines of our great land to change barbarians. and when your master died you have forthwith turned away from him. and only Yaou corereign. How vast was his virtue. Tsze-chang. when Confucius died. and Tsze-yiu. they returned to their homes.

that must throw the empire into confusion. Mencius. punished King and Seu.310 THE SACRED BOOKS turn away from your master and become his disciple. Mencius said. but I have not heard of their descending from lofty trees to enter into dark valleys. The Mihist.' Thus Chow-kung would be sure to smite them. no one would impose on him. some ten unequal quality. Ch'in . being the same in quantity and with shoes which were of the same size." " 18. If you reduce them all to the same standard. present I " sought. If a boy of five cubits were sent to the market. to see I indeed wish to see him. When I am better I will myself go and see him. times. with the different hanks of grain. Mencius replied. " In the Praise-songs of Lu ' it is said. E need not come here again. Your conduct is different indeed from that of the philosopher You Tsang. ten thousand times as valuable as others. through Seu Peih. some a thousand times. but at am still unwell. nor any deceit in the kingdom. "I have heard of birds leaving dark valleys to remove to lofty trees. being of the same weight. 16. It is the nature of things to be of Some are twice. So it would be with bundles of hemp and silk. and you become their disciple again it appears that your change is not . some five times." " Seang said. E Che. If Heu's doctrines were followed. If large shoes and small shoes were of the For people to follow the doctrines of Heu would be for them to lead one another on to practise deceit." . 15. same who would make them? CHAPTER V 1. good. How can they avail for the government of a State ? " price. linen and silk of the same length would be of the same price. " He He smote the barbarians of the west and north. then there would not be two prices in the market. some 17. some a hundred times.

Mencius said. If the covering them thus . Now Mih considers E does he regard them as if they were wrong. And. to change the customs of the empire. as if they were that watching over an infant/ What does this expression mean ? ' sounds that we are to love all without difference of degree." E said. parents. in the most ancient times. " E Che dent. who said. To-day I am able to see him. I have heard that E is a that in the regulation of funeral thinks with matters a spare simplicity should be the rule. and so he served them in the way which his doctrines discountenance. but the manifestation of love must begin with our Seu reported this reply to Mencius. when passing by them. and E makes them to have two roots. cause of his error. emotions of their hearts affected their faces and eyes. the true principles will not be fully evi- Next day. " Even according to the principles of the learned. Let me first correct him. and flies and gnats biting at them. and instantly they went home. they saw foxes and wildcats devouring them. and came back with baskets and spades and covered the bodies. 3. it To me child of his brother is merely is to like his affection for the infant of a neighbor is ? What if simply this: that be laid hold of in that expression an infant crawling about is about to into a well. and not honor them? Notwithstanding his views. 311 again sought to see Mencius. unable to bear the sight. it is no crime in the infant. Heaven gives birth to creatures in such a way that they have fall This is the one root. The perspiration started out upon their foreheads. " 4. E buried his parents in a sumptuous manner.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 2. we find the ancients acted toward the people." " does E really think that a man's affection for the Now. But if I do not correct his errors. took them up and threw them into some water-channel. and they It was not on aclooked away. how Mih's doctrines Mihist. The count of other people that this perspiration flowed. Afterward. Moreover. they did not inter their parents. The disciple Seu informed E of these remarks. there were some who When their parents died.

may we likewise do that ? " the Chaou Keen may be got. By straight. you seem to me to be standing on a small point. " Formerly the duke king of Ts'e." 5. they did not get a single bird. has instructed me. Confucius said. him. Moreover. If one go to see the princes without waiting to be invited. The forester would not come. PART I II CHAPTER 1. THE SACRED BOOKS you may see that the filial son and virtuous man. 4. " He what Mencius had E was thoughtful for a short time. if it can be got by bending eight cubits to make one cubit straight. manner their parents. when. you make eight cubits bending only It appears to me like a thing which might be all the other princes." Mencius said. act The said. The determined officer never forgets that his end may be in a * With ditch or stream. By bending only one cubit." disciple Seu informed E of BOOK III. officer made Wang Leang act as charioteer for his favorite He. the result might be so great that you would make one of them emperor. the History one cubit. if smaller. and then said. called his forester to him by a flag. the brave officer never forgets that he may lose his head/ What was it in the forester that Confucius approved his not going to the duke. when summoned by the article which was not appropriate to him. If now you were once to wait upon them. and the duke was going to kill 2. " In not going to wait upon any of the princes. done. Formerly. The favorite He . once when he was hunting. what can be thought of him ? " 3. reference to this incident.312 was indeed right. or. then. in the course of a whole day. that you would make one of them chief of ' says. Ch'in Tae said to Mencius. that sentence. in interring in a handsome according to a proper rule. you make eight cubits straight/ is spoken with reference to ' thus approved? He the gain that If gain be the object.' Moreover.

"How ' can such men ' ' young woman. this was ac- corded to him." be great men? At the capping Have you not read the Kitual Usages ? At the marof a young man. and the princes are afraid. I drove for him so as deceitfully to intercept the birds. like the blows of an axe. you must be careful. reporting this result. flames of trouble are extinguished throughout the empire. 2. He is the poorest charioteer in Some one told this to Wang Leang. Are not Kung-sun Yen and Chang E really great men? Let them once be angry. Mencius said. of what kind would my conduct be ? Never has a man are wrong. Though.LITERATURE OF THE EAST ' 313 reported this result. been able to make others straight. saying. management of their horses . strictly observing the proper rules for driving. accompanying her to the door on her leaving. Leang refused. I drove for him.' When he told Wang ' Leang so. he would not do so. by bending they would have caught birds and animals enow to form If I were to bend my principles a hill. and in one morning he got ten. saying. Do not disobey your riage of a ." And you who has bent himself CHAPTER 1. It is said in the is Book of Poetry. however. I will make him charioteer in the world/ l ' always drive your carriage for you. to it. I beg leave to to decline the office/ Thus this charioteer even was ashamed bend im- properly to the will of such an archer. " ' There no failure in the The arrows I are discharged surely. You must be respectful. He is the best Keen said. II " King Ch'un said to Mencius. and the all Let them live quietly. not accustomed to drive for a " mean man.' beg leave to try again/ By dint of pressing. The favorite. and in the whole day he did not get one bird. who said. " You are going to your home. and cautioning her with these words. ' I the world. when in one morning they got ten birds.' am 5. said. his father admonishes him. her mother admonishes her. and follow those princes.

and when that desire is disappointed." THE SACRED BOOKS Thus to look upon compliance as their correct course is the rule for women. he dare to feel happy. not being all comhe does not presume to sacrifice. and the dress not complete. When he passed from the boundary of a State. III men asked Mencius. he was tion. out of office. " Did superior of old time take office ? " Mencius replied. It is said in the the scholar who. to be above the power of riches and honors to make dissipated. also for condolence 4.' Is there not here sufficient ground slaughter. does not sacrifice. The Record ' If Confucius was three months without being employed by some sovereign." CHAPTER 1. he does not presume to sacrifice. Chow Seaou says.314 husband. he was sure to carry with him his proper gift of introduc- Among the ancients. the vessels. "Did " employed by a sovereign. on being unofficer the loss of his prince plows himself and is assisted by the people. to stand in 3. " What was the meaning of Con- . saying. he looked anxious and unhappy. condoled with. His wife keeps of Rites. Book ' A kingdom to a prince. Seaou said. when he obtains his desire for office. " ? Seaou again asked. to practise his principles for the good of the people. silk-worms. and unwinds their cocoons. and to walk in the great path of the world.' The victims for ' And and the garments. Mencius answered. show a too great urgency ? " 3. the millet not pure. to supply the millet for sacrifice. to make the garments for sacrifice. The loss of his place to an is like not this condoling. to practise them alone. of poverty and mean condition to make swerve from principle. the correct seat of the world. has no holy in the same way. and then neither may plete.' 2. if an officer was three months unemployed by a sovereign. field.' Kung-ming ' E i said. " They did. and of power and force to constitute the great make bend these characteristics man. " To dwell in the wide house of the world.' If the victims be not perfect.

If the young people. . IV and live upon them. extravagant procedure to go from one prince " Is it not an excessive 2. by an improper way is of a class with young people's boring a wife. " If attended by several hundred men ? there be not a proper ground for taking it. difficulty about the taking it ? " When a son is born. No. improper. This feeling of the may is possessed by all men. If there be such a proper ground. then Shun's receiving the empire from Yaou is not to be considered excessive. what is desired have a husband.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 315 fucius's always carrying his proper gift of introduction with him. Seaou pursued. a single bamboocup of rice may not be received from a man. because he goes from one State to another ? " " 6. ? was the reply. Do you think it was to another P'ang Kang asked Mencius. that she holes. withparents out waiting for the orders of their parents. and an interchange Mencius answered. and the arrangements of the go-between. or get over the wall to be with each other. but I have not heard of any being thus earnest about being in office. but they To go to get office also hated being so by any improper way. to receive his support notwithstanding. saying. ancients did indeed always desire to be in office. shall bore holes to steal a sight of each other. " is like the plowing of a husbandman. 3." when CHAPTER 1. Does a husbandman part with his plow. ? " Kang " said. The kingdom of Tsin is one. what is desired for him is that he may have for her is a daughter is born. and " Mencius replied. If there should make any be this urgency about being in office. followed by several tens of carriages." as others. then The their parents and all other people will despise them. of official employments." " If do not have an inter-comyou munication of the productions of labor. as well " An officer's being in office. But for a scholar performing is no service. why does a superior man " Mencius answered. when he passed over the boundaries of the State where " he had been 5.

or do " To this Kang replied. you remunerate. and slight him who practises man. you. " with his purpose ? He is of service to He deserves to be supported. let And me ask. carpenters and carriagewrights may all get their food from you. . victims. then husbandmen will have a superfluity of grain. ' I have no means of supplying the necessary replied. the chief of which was living in a dissolute condition and neglecting his proper sacrifices. he adjoined to ihe State of Ko. at returned Mencius. If you have such an interchange. Here now is a home. and should be supported. Wan Chang What 2. and abroad. Thang sent messengers to inquire why he did not sacrifice. but will you indeed pose may " remunerate him ? " No. it is not the purpose which concluded." thereby to seek for a living ? benevolence and righteousness " 4. Do you . " ? remunerate a man's intention. Mencius said. and Ts'e and Ts'u hate and attack him. ." " 5. The aim of the carpenter and carP'ang Kang said. 1. the aim of the superior man in his practise of principles " " What have you to do. but the work done. so that one from his overplus may supply the deficiency of another. " I you remunerate his service ? remunerate his intention. Sung is a small State. in this case is to be done ? " dwelt in Po. There is a man here who breaks your tiles and draws unsightly figures on your walls his purbe thereby to seek for his living. who." CHAPTER v " asked Mencius.316 THE SACRED BOOKS of men's services. Its ruler is now setting about to practise the true royal government. and yet you will awaiting the rise of future learners refuse to support him. He replied. How is it that you give honor to the carpenter and carriage-wright. saying.' Mencius "When Thang On this. is filial. Is it also riage-wright is by their trades to seek for a living. respectful to his elders who watches over the principles of the ancient kings. Thang caused oxen and sheep to be sent . and women will have a superfluity of cloth." said Kang and Mencius then " That being the case.

while they killed those who refused to give them his people to intercept those who were up. but to avenge a of executing justice. There was a boy who had some millet and flesh for the What is said in laborers. He gave tranquillity to their people. and took their stores from them. "When Thang began his work work in the east. who welcomed him with baskets full of their black and yellow silks. that we may be made happy by him. While he punished their he consoled the people. and paddy. Thang sent the mass of the and feeble carried their food the ground for him. but he ate them. ' We have waited for our is said in the Book of History.LITERATURE OF THE EAST to 317 sacrifice.' So they . cooked rice. he had not an enemy in the empire. and though he punished eleven princes. while the old to them. rude tribes in the west murmured. the l did those on the north.' people of Po to go and On till this. him. Their cry was people's longing for him was like their longing for rain in a time of great drought. rulers. who was thus slain and robbed. no change in their operations. The frequenters of the markets Those engaged in weeding in the fields made stopped not. of Chow. Thang proceeded 3. His progress was like the It falling of opportune rain. we may escape from the punishments under which we suffer. and still continued not to Thang again sent messengers to ask him the same question ' I have no means of obtaining as before. ' the Book of History. ' All within the four seas said. saying. the necessary millet. millet. When he pursued his common man and woman/ 4. the prince. The chief of Ko behaved as an enemy to the provision-carriers/ has reference to this. 1 From henceforth we shall serve the sovereign of our dynasty of Chow. and the people were delighted. to punish him.' " There being some who would not become the subjects 5. he commenced with Ko. when he replied. So when he was engaged in the south. " Because of his murder of this boy. ' Why does he make us last ? Thus. It is not because he desires the riches of the empire. The chief of Ko led thus charged with wine. When our prince comes. King Wu proceeded to punish them on the east.

if he were to be taken and placed for several years in Chuang or Yoh. old and 2.318 THE SACRED BOOKS joined themselves. " or a man of Ts'u ? " will employ a man of T'se to He father beat of Ts'e. although his his son to learn the speech of Ts'e. " the language of Ts'u. " teach him/' said Puh-shing. all within the four seas would be lifting up their heads. as subjects. " If but one man of Ts'e be teaching him. and looking for its prince. Great as Ts'e and Ts'u are. to the great city of Chow. Will he in that case employ a man of T'se as his tutor. what would there be to fear from them ? " 1. and the lower classes of the one met those of the other. " Sung is not. In the Great Declaration be put forth. as you say. the territories of it is ' My power shall Shang I will put him to death to punish him my work appear. it would be impossible supposed that See Keu-chow was a scholar of virtue. wishing him to learn the speech will be impossible for him to do so. and invading seize the oppressor. Thus. though his father should beat him. more glorious than that of Thang. cer of Ts'u here. who wishes I see that you are and I will plainly tell you Suppose that there is a great offiPub-siring. and and yellow silks to destroying them. with baskets of rice and vessels of congee.' 7. and there be a multitude of men of Ts'u continually shouting out about him. wishing to have him for their sovereign. it him every day. the men of station of Shang took baskets full of black meet the men of station of Chow. Mencius said to Tae desiring your king to be virtuous. If it were practising royal government. Suppose that all in attendance on the king. and so shall the greatness of said. " 6. Wu saved the people from the midst of fire and water. how he may be made so. practising true royal govern- ment. and you have got him placed in attendance on the king. You . I will . But in the same way. seizing only their oppressors. wish- ing for him to speak him to do so. Mencius went on.

present to do with the levying of a tithe only. old and young. ' flattering harder than the summer said. They who shrug up way.' Tsze-lu considering these remarks. carried their scrupulosity to When a prince is urgent. it is not improper to see him. Yang respects to him. he must go to the officer's to pay his respects. excess. VIII and " I am not able to said to Mencius. Yang Ho watched when Confucius was out. scholar. they are full of blushes." such persons. were See Keu-chows. Confucius. There are those who talk with people with whom they have no great community of feeling.' By CHAPTER 1. " Yang Ho wished to get Confucius to go to see him. the spirit which the superior man nourishes may be known. " Among the ancients. high and low.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 319 young. are not See Keu-chows. " 2. What the point of righteousness involved in your not going to see the " Mencius replied. Twan Kan-muh prince. therefore. " The philosopher Tsang and laugh in a laborer in < said. high and low. whom would the king have to do evil with ? And suppose that all in attendance on the king. was out. how could Confucius decline going to see him ? initiative Ho Ho 4. leaped over his wall to avoid the See Liu shut his door and would not admit the prince. he did not go to see the sovereign. and immediately Tae Ying-che . and went to pay his in his turn. toil their shoulders. As it is the but disliked doing so by any want of propriety. 3. If you look at their counI do not desire to know tenances. and sent him a roasted pig. These two. whom will the king have to do good with ? What " can one See Keu-chow do alone for the king of Sung ? CHAPTER 1. VII is " Kung-sun Chow asked Mencius. saying. that when a great officer sends a gift to a rule. however. watched when had taken the At that time. if the latter be not at home to receive it. if one princes ? had not been a minister in a State. the fields.

4. but I am compelled to do it.320 THE SACRED BOOKS With your leave I abolishing the duties charged at the passes and in the markets. until next year. On this. make an end of the practise/ 3. " Shun employed Yu to reduce the waters to order. He and conducted them drove away the snakes and dragons. and will then make an end of them. ' is said in the Book of History. then use why wait till next year?" CHAPTER IX to Mencius. priates to him. and ' . and the dangers forced and obstructions which thev had occasioned were removed. It for themselves. long time has elapsed since this world of men received its being. and into the grassy marshes. Indeed. the waters flowing out of their 3. to the sea. I am not fond of disputing. channels inundated the Middle Kingdom. Mencius said. The waters in their wild course warned me. the Hwae. and in the high grounds they made caves. will take only one fowl a month. The disciple Kung-tu said " " replied. and the people had no place where they In the low grounds they made nests could settle themselves. " 2. the people beyond our school all speak of you as being fond of Mencius I venture to ask whether it be so. the Ho. until next year. " In the time of Yaou. Master. both the tax and the duties. ' ( some of his neighbor's stray and he replies. and the Han. " What do you think of such a course ? " Here is a man 2. Snakes and A dragons occupied it. who every day approSome one says fowls. when I will all If you know that the thing dispatch in putting an end to " is it unrighteous. . Yu dug open them their obstructed channels. and now a period of confusion. the waters pursued their course through the country. will lighten. Such is not the way of a good man With your leave I will diminish my appropriations. even the waters of the Kiang. and there have been along its history now a period of good order.' Those ' waters in their wild course ' were the waters of the great inundation." disputing. 1. however.

Yes It is the Spring and Autumn which will make men know me. and slew him.' cease to arise. The ployed scholars indulge in unreasonable discussions. They are all in state of great confusion. Greatly were they carried out by the plans of King Wan of King Wu! energy They are for the assistance and instruction of us who are of an after day. King Wu. and the Unemprinces of the States give the reins to their lusts. that mark sages fell into decay. and it is the Spring and Autumn which will make 8. " After the death of Yaou and Shun. XII. Afterward. It is Great and splendid were the said in the Book of History. Again the world fell into decay. and after three years put its sovereign to death. and threw fields out of cultivation to form gardens and parks. and occupied them. and elephants. He drove far away also the tigers. corrupt speakings and oppressive deeds became more rife gardens and parks. sage emperors . the principles 5. so that the people could not get clothes and food.LITERATURE OF THE EAST The birds and beasts which 321 had injured the people also disand after this men found the plains available for appeared. Perverse speakings and oppressive deeds waxed rife There were instances of ministers who murdered again. so that the people knew not where they could rest in quiet. leopards. Chow-kung assisted He ' ! principle correct.' What the Spring and Autumn contains are matOn this account Confucius said. and of sons who murdered their fathers. rhinoceroses. them. thickets and marshes. the empire was again in a . and principles faded away. " Once more. and destroyed Chow. " 6. ponds and lakes. By the time of Chow. Spring and Autumn. and deficient in nothing. He drove Fei-leen to a corner by the sea. and made the ' men condemn 9.' " 7. their sovereigns. VOL. smote Yen. became more numerous. 21. me. and birds and beasts swarmed. Oppressive sovereigns arose one after another. who pulled down houses to make ponds and lakes. ters proper to the emperor. and the empire was greatly delighted. The States which he extinguished amounted to fifty. * ' ' ! " Confucius was afraid.

am alarmed by these things. it. If you throughout you will find that Now. ' away ferocious animals. then those perverse speakings This will delude the people. there are fat horses.' which does not acknowledge the ple But to acknowledge peculiar affection due to a father. there is fat meat. so that such perverse speakers may not be able to show themselves. " I 10. beasts will be led on to devour men. . Their delusions spring up in men's minds. When sages shall rise up again they will not change words. and the principrinciples ples of Confucius not set forth. they are pernicious to their government. and do injury to their practise of affairs. and address myself to the defense of the doctrines of the former sages. E ' In famine. in the state of a beast. and men will and righteousness.322 THE SACRED BOOKS fill words of Yang Chu and Mih Teih listen to people's discourses ' the empire. neither king nor father is to be Kung- ming In their their kitchens. And no one dared to resist us. my Chowinundation. of hunger. When devour one another. each one for himself. they have adopted the views either of Yang or of Mih.' north . I drive away their licentious expressions. and stop up the path of benevolence benevolence and righteousness are stopped up. " ' He smote the barbarians of the west and He punished King and Sen. Confucius completed the all Spring and Autumn/ and rebellious ministers and ous sons were struck with terror. If the is leading on beasts to devour men. and on the wilds there are those who have died of said. But their people have the look stables. " In former Yu repressed the vast waters of the 11. ' is to love all equally.' which does is Yang's principle Mih's princinot acknowledge the claims of the sovereign. Shown in their practise of affairs. and to oppose Yang and Mih. and the empire was reduced to order. villain- " It is said in the Book of Poetry. extended even to the barbarous tribes of kung's achievements the west and north. and he drove and the people enjoyed repose.' of Yang and Mih are not stopped. 12. times.

but he considered his brother's emolument to be unrighteous." 2. He after swallowing three mouthfuls. "I also wish to rectify men's hearts." " " 4. But. His elder brother Tae received from a revenue of 10. as the Among regard Chung is thumb among where the self-denying purity he pretends to? To carry earth- out the principles which he holds. and tried to eat more than half-eaten by worms. worm. the fingers. the fruit a man of which had been crawled to it." 5. to barter them. I must But still.000 chung. Over a well there grew a plum-tree. some of the fruit." CHAPTER X 1. " 14. Mencius " replied. one must become an " Now. Chung dwells built by a Pih-e ? or was it built by a robber like Chih? Was the millet which he eats planted by a Pih-e? planted by a robber like Chih ? These are things which can not be known. and to put an end to those perverse doctrines. 13. till he could neither hear nor see. what does that matter ? He himself weaves sandals of hemp. when. and Was the house in which drinks the yellow spring below. for so only can it be done. and his wife twists hempen or was it threads." said Chang. K'wang Chang said to Mencius. " Chung belongs to an ancient and noble family of TVe. Do I do so because I am fond of disputing ? I am compelled to do it. " Is not Ch'an Chung of true self-denying purity? He was living in Wuling. an earthworm eats the dry mold above. and for three days was without food. Mencius rejoined. Whoever is able to oppose Yang and Mih is a disciple of the sages. to oppose their one-sided actions and banish away their licentious expressions and thus to carry on the work of the three sages. and would not eat of it. and in Ko the same way he considered his brother's house to be un- . 3. hearing.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 323 These father-deniers and king-deniers would have been smitten by Chow-kung. he recovered his sight and the scholars of Ts'e.

a man must fesses? n be an earth-worm. and would not dwell in it. he went and dwelt in Wu-ling.THE SACRED BOOKS righteous.' . in such circumstances complete the style of life How can he which he proWith such principles as Chung holds. thing. cackling thing for ? and gave him some of it to eat. One day afterward. Just then his brother came It's the flesh of that cackling into the house. Avoiding his brother and leaving his mother. he returned to their house. what his mother gave him he would not eat. said. and said. but what his wife gives him he eats. He will not dwell in ' ' ' his brother's house. and then he can carry them out. He. which he went out and vomited it.' upon " 6. his eyebrows. but he dwells in Wu-ling. when it happened that some one sent his brother a present of a live goose. What are you going to use that knitting By and by his mother killed the goose. Thus.

could not determine correctly the five notes. the utmost the thoughts of their hearts. without the pitch-tubes. without a benevolent government. " 2. round. There are now princes "Hence we have ' carry themselves into practise/ " It is said in the Book of 4. the saying: Virtue alone is not sufficient for the exercise of government. used their power of hearing to the utmost. nor will they leave any exall because they do not put into pracample to future ages tise the ways of the ancient kings.' Never has any one fallen into error. The principles of Yaou and " Shun. level. could not form squares and circles. the level. and straight: When they had the use of the instruments is inexhaustible. and called the line. they called in to their aid a government that could not endure to witness the 325 .THE BOOK OF LE LOW BOOK IV. The acute ear of the music-master K'wang. The power of vision of Le Low. " 5. the square. Mencius said. and skill of hand of Kung-shu. tranquil order of the empire. without forgetfulness. "'Without transgression. laws alone can not 3. they in to their aid the compass. without the compass and square. while yet the people do not receive any benefits from them. PAST I I CHAPTER 1. When the sages had used the vigor of their eyes. they called in the pitch-tubes to their aid to determine the five notes: the use When they had exerted to of those tubes is inexhaustible. to make things square. Poetry. and a reputation for benevolence. who followed the laws of the ancient kings. Following the ancient canons. could not secure the who have benevolent hearts.

' When superiors do not observe the rules of propriety. then seditious people spring up. Superiors violate the laws of righteousness.226 sufferings of THE SACRED BOOKS men: and their benevolence ' overspread the Hence we have the saying To raise a thing high. It is not the exterior and interior walls being incomplete. who. Can he be pronounced wise. Therefore only the benevolent ought to be in high stations. and inferiors violate the penal laws. and inferiors do not learn. does not proceed according to the ways of the former kings ? " 7. the office obedience is not paid to rule. those officers be deemed. tended. 9. and It is not the cultivable area not being ex- and wealth not being accumulated. and in station. : . which occasions the ruin of a kingdom. " 8. empire. and that kingdom will perish in no time. " 7 cise of government. who take office and retire from it without regard to propriety. in the exer6. When a man destitute of benevolence is in a high he thereby disseminates his wickedness among all below him. who serve their prince without righteousness. we must begin from the top of a mound or a hill to dig to a great depth. much at ' your ease . and his ministers have no laws by which they keep themselves in the discharge of their duties. " ' When such an overthrow of so Chow ' ! is being produced by Heaven. we must commence in the low ground of a stream or a marsh. " Therefore it is ' said. . 12. " It is said in the Book of Poetry. stores 10. When the prince has no principles by which he examines his administration. then in the court obedience is not paid to principle. and who in their so dilatory And may words disown the ways of the ancient kings. It is only by a fortunate chance that a kingdom in such a case is preserved. Be not ye 11. " " ' At your ease that is. dilatory. which constitutes the calamity of a kingdom. and the supply of weapons offensive and defensive not being large.

' or The cruel. III Mencius " said. the human relations are perfectly exhibited. and he who does not rule his people as Yaou ruled his injures his people. difficult Therefore it achievements is said. " ' The beacon It of Yin was not remote. If one stop short of the highest pitch.' " CHAPTER 1. " 2. By the sages. and that they lost it. tate the one Yaou. " carries the oppression of his people to the highest pitch will himself be slain. was by benevolence that the three by not being benevolent . He who does not do these things. and his kingdom will be ' ' will be styled The dark. This is what is intended in the words of the Book of Poetry. and his kingdom will perish.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 13. though he may have filial sons and affectionate grandsons. 3. ' There are but two courses which can be pursued. He they will not be able in a hundred generations to change the designation. Confucius said. that of virtue and its opposite. saying tent to this. He who as a sovereign would perfectly discharge the duties of a sovereign. was in the time of the sovereign of Hea/ ' CHAPTER 1. and he who as a minister would perfectly discharge the duties of a minister. " The compass and square produce percircles and squares. It dynasties gained the empire. his life sovereign who will notwithstanding be in danger. 3*7 " may To set before him what is good and repress his perversities may be called showing reverence for him. and the other Shun. ' may to himself: My sovereign is incompebe said to play the thief with him.' "A 4. II fect Mencius said. " 5. To urge one's sovereign to be called showing respect for him.' and weakened. have only to imi- He who does not serve his sovereign as Shun served Yaou does not respect his sovereign.

by what we do. the whole point. of States are determined. it VI " said. and yet delight in not benevolent this is like hating to be drunk. he can not preserve the empire from passing from him. The root of the State is in the family. If he treats others politely. will turn to him with recognition and submission. being strong to drink wine. let him turn inward and examine his 2. the State. THE SACRED BOOKS " It is by the same means that the decaying and flourishing. " If the 3. " It is said in the Book of Poetry. If a high noble or great officer be not benevolent. and his own benevolence. " ' empire Be always God.' CHAPTER v Mencius " said. and no responsive attachment his shown to him. Menciua is said. and yet being . lies The administration of government is not in not offending the great families. be not benevolent. People have this common ' saying : The The root of the empire is in empire. " 4. is If he government his wisdom. emperor be not benevolent. he can not preserve his four limbs. and examine ourselves in every When we do When a man's person is correct. If the sovereign of a State be not benevolent. He .' the State. let him turn inward and examine trying to rule others." 1. feeling of respect. The root of the family is in the person of its head. unsuccessful. studious to be in harmony with the ordinances ' of And you will obtain much happiness." CHAPTER Mencius difficult. the family. " not. " If a man is love others. 3. realize what we dewe must turn inward. he can not preserve his kingdom. the preservation and perishing. he can not If a scholar or common man preserve his ancestral temple. let him turn inward and examine own sire. Now they hate death and ruin.328 2. and they do not return his politeness.

' Confucius said. if it be small. " ' The descendants of the emperors of the Shang Dynasty Are in number more than hundreds of thousands. and yet are ashamed to receive their commands. and in to imitate King Wan. of Ts'e said. married to the prince of Wu. They are all submissive to Chow. " For a 4. Pour out the libations. VII When right government prevails in the of little virtue are submissive to those of empire. prince who is ashamed of this. the best plan is Let one imitate King Wan. and at the same time to refuse to receive their commands. ' As against so benevolent a sovereign. Poetry. Not to be able to command others. Because the decree of Heaven is not unchanging. The officers of Yin. and those of little worth to those of great. princes When bad great. and the weak to the strong. if his State be large. they . is to cut one's self off from all intercourse with others. This is like a scholar's Now being ashamed to receive the commands of his master. he will be sure to give laws to the empire. But.LITERATURE OF THE EAST whom 329 the great families affect will be affected by the whole State. God having passed His decree. princes of small power are submissive to those of great. or in seven years. Mencius said. " the small States imitate the large. " government prevails in the empire.' " perish. They are submissive to Chow. admirable and alert. " It is said in the Book of 5. The duke king ' His tears flowed forth while he gave his daughter to be 3. five years. and assist in the capital of Chow. They who accord with Heaven are preserved. such a one's virtue and teachings will spread over all within the four seas like the rush of water. Both these cases are the rule of Heaven. and they who rebel against Heaven 2." CHAPTER 1. and he whom any one State affects will be affected by the whole empire. When this is the case.

' CHAPTER IX 1.' " 4. man must first despise himself. ' Hear what he sings. the wash the It does to wash my feet. This is illustrated in the passage of the Thae Kea. my children. family must first destroy itself. then he will wash his cap-strings. When clear. are not benevolent who " ' When the water of the Ts fang-lang is clear. strings of my cap. " ' It is said in the Book of Poetry. This diiferent application is brought by the water on itself. and then others will destroy it. escape them. empire. Mencius " said.330 THE SACRED BOOKS could not be deemed a multitude/ Thus. kingdom must first smite itself. " 5. how could we have such destruction of kingdoms and ruin of families ? " 2. It does to When 3. 1 to it is not possible any longer to ' live. if the prince of a State love benevolence. Kee and Chow's and losing the empire arose from their losing the people. Who can take up a heated substance. Without wetting his hands ?' CHAPTER 1. it is still possible When we occasion the calamities ourselves. How is it possible to speak with those ? princes Their perils they count safety. he will wash his feet with it. sible to talk with them who so violate benevolence. and when muddy. their calamities they count profitable. but they do not seek to attain this by being benevolent. and then others will smite it. This is like a man laying hold of a heated substance. There was a boy singing. he will have no opponent in all the 6. and then others will despise him. to lose the people means . VIII Hencius " said.' Confucius said. " A A A When Heaven sends down calamities. water of the Ts c ang-lang is muddy. and not having first Now wetted his hands. and they have If it were pospleasure in the things by which they perish. " they wish to have no opponent in all the empire.

With those who throw themTo disown in selves away. by driving the people to him. " 5. The people turn to a benevolent rule as water flows as wild beasts fly to the wilderness. driving the fish into them. and birds to them. it is impossible to do anything. How You will only with it otherwise can you improve the empire ? ' go to ruin/ CHAPTER X who do violence to themselves it is impossible to speak. and righteousness is his straight path. and the hawk aids the thickets. so Kee and Chow aided Thang and Wu. " 3. driving the 3. he could not avoid becoming so. like. If have not been kept in store. Alas for them who leave the tranquil dwelling empty . and not " " to lay on them what they dislike. as the otter aids the deep waters. downward. his conversation propriety and righteousness is what we mean by doing violence to one's self. With those ' dwell in benevolence or pursue the path of righteousness. and they will be involved in death and ruin. all the other princes would little aid him. to get their hearts it is simply to collect for them what way : : they 2. Mencius " said. There is a way to get the There is a people get their hearts. driving the people to them. were one who loved benevolence. all their days will be in sorrow and disgrace. Although he wished not to become emperor. self away. the patient may all his life not get it. and the people are got. " This " ( is illustrated by what is said in the Book of Poetry. to cure a seven years' sickness. 331 There is a way to get the empire: get the people. The case of one of the present princes wishing to be- come emperor is like the having to seek mugwort it three years old. If the princes do not set their wills on benevolence. 6. " If among the present sovereigns of the empire there 4. and the empire is got.' is what we mean by throwing one's 2. " Benevolence is the tranquil habitation of man.LITERATURE OF THE EAST to lose their hearts. To say I am not able to 1. Accordingly.

was dwelling on the coast of the When he heard of the rise of King Wan. : by one's friends: if one do not serve his parents so as to make them pleased." " CHAPTER 1. he will not obtain the confidence of his sovereign. and men seek for it in what is difficult. XII those occupying inferior situations do not obtain the confidence of the sovereign they can said. " Pih-e. sincerity in himself. he will not be trusted by his friends. To think Never has there been one possessed of complete sinNever has there been one not move others. on turning his thoughts inward finds a want of sincerity. 3. and said. he will not give pleasure to his parents. that he might avoid Chow. and men seek for it in what is remote. he eastern sea. Mencius " When There is a way to obnot succeed in governing the people. XIII Mencius said. Therefore." " who did CHAPTER 1. he roused himself. tain the confidence of the sovereign if one is not trusted by his friends. If each man would love his parents and show the due respect to his elders. There is a way to make one's parents pleased if one. " 2. how to be sincere is the way of man. was When he heard dwelling on the coast of the northern sea. sincerity is the way of Heaven. of the rise of King Wan.332 THE SACRED BOOKS it. The work of duty lies in what is easy. cerity who had not sincerity who was able to move others. and do not reside in " do not pursue it ! and who abandon the right path and CHAPTER XI Mencius said. ' . the whole empire would enjoy tranquillity. that he might avoid Chow. There is a way to the attainment of sincerity in one's self: if a man do not understand what is good. he will not attain is There a way of being trusted . The path of duty lies in what is near. Why should I not go and follow him ? I have heard that the chief of the West knows well how to nourish the old/ Thae-kung.

we perceive that when a prince was not practising benevolent government all his ministers who enriched him were rejected by Confucius how much more would he have rejected those who are vehe: " ment till to fight for their prince ! When contentions about ter- ritory are the ground on which they fight. take in grassy commons. they came to follow King Wan. while he exacted from the people double the grain formerly Confucius said. Why should I not go and follow him? I have heard that the chief of the West knows well how 2. ' He is no disciple of mine. and next to them. When the how could the sons go to of Were any of the princes to practise the government King Wan. they slaughter men the fields are filled with them. drum and assail him/ Looking at the subject from this case. 1. When some struggle for a city is the ground on which they fight. children. any others? 3. Little paid." CHAPTER xv is Mencius said. Next to them should be punished those those who who unite the princes in leagues. it was fathers of the empire coming to follow him. and said." " K'ew acted as chief officer to the head of the Ke family. Therefore. This is what is called ' lead- ing on the land to devour human flesh/ Death is not enough for such a crime. to nourish the old/ " Those two old men were the greatest old men of the the empire. imposing the cultivation of the ground on the people. beat the 2. within seven years he would be sure to be givCHAPTER XIV " ing laws to the empire. When fathers of the empire joined him. whose evil ways he was unable to change. " 3. " . The pupil 1.LITERATURE OF THE EAST ' 333 roused himself. they slaughter men till the city is filled with them. Of all the parts of a man's body there none more excellent than the pupil of the eye. those who are skilful to fight should suffer the highest punishment. Mencius said.

The whole empire is drowning. as a drowning sister-in-law has to be rescued with the hand. be not correct. the pupil is dull. For males and females not to allow their hands to touch in giving and receiving is the general rule when a sister-in-law is drowning. all CHAPTER XVI Mencius treats " said. Shun-yu K'wan " said. Kung-sun Ch'ow " When The teacher must inculcate what is correct. and his lessons are not . you will not rescue it "A 3. Do you wish me to rescue the with my hand ? " empire strange it is that r> ! 1. The respectful do not despise others." " 2. Mencius answered. he inculcates what is correct. The economical do not plunder that others. How can a man conceal his character ? " eye. If within the If within the breast breast all be correct. " Listen to a man's words and look at the pupil of his 2.334 THE SACRED BOOKS can not be used to hide a man's wickedness. man 2." ceiving anything V' K'wan asked. being done. The prince who men with despite and plunders them is only afraid they may not prove obedient to him how can he be re: garded as respectful or economical? How can respectfulness and economy be made out of tones of the voice. How . " If a man's sister-in-law be drowning. to rescue her with the hand is a peculiar exigency. drowning empire must be rescued with right principles. " He who would not so rescue a drowning woman is a wolf. and a smiling manner ? " CHAPTER XVII 1. shall he rescue her with his hand ? " Mencius said. K'wan said. the pupil is bright. Is it the rule that males and females shall not allow their hands to touch in giving or reMencius replied. its Why is it that the superior " does not himself teach his son ? Mencius replied. "It is the rule. " The circumstances of the case forbid said.

the case is evil.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 335 When he practised. The ancients exchanged sons. he is offended with his son. but the charge of one's self is the root of all others. who. The philosopher Tsang. he was always sure to have flesh provided." CHAPTER XIX 1. left. Between father and son there should be no reproving admonitions to what is good. l There is. that father and son are offended with each When father and son come to be offended with each other. Such reproofs lead to alienation. If his father asked whether there was anything left. the pupil says. he would ask respectfully to whom he should give what was left. and he himself does not proceed in a correct path/ The ' My result of this other. But when the things were being he did not ask to whom he should give what was removed. There are many charges. were able not- withstanding to serve their parents. he was sure to say. then. " 3. This was what is called 'nourishing the mouth and body/ wine and . contrary to what should be. in nourishing Tsang Seih. and one taught the son of another. is. Mencius " said. Of charges which is the The charge of one's self is the greatest. he would answer ' No ' intending to bring them in again. when Tsang Yuen came to nourish the philosopher Tsang. " 4. That greatest? those who do not fail to keep themselves are able to serve their parents is what I have heard. and if his father asked whether there was anything left.' After the death of Tsang Seih. was always sure to have wine and flesh provided. There are many services. But I have never heard of any. At the same time. but the service of parents is the root of all others. " 2. And when they were being removed. " 3. he follows them up with being angry. having failed to keep themselves. and than alienation there is nothing more inauspicious. Of services which is the greatest ? The service of parents is the greatest. follows them up with being angry. master inculcates on me what is correct.

Let the Let prince be benevolent. and the kingdom will be firmly settled. CHAPTER XXII Mencius arises " said. 2. The disciple Yo-ching went in the train of Tsze-gaou " to Ts'e. can rectify what is wrong in the sovereign's mind." " Is it not with reason then that I thus speak ? My day was not arranged." CHAPTER XXIV 1. " It is not enough to remonstrate with a sovereign on account of the malemployment of ministers. yesterday." " Have you heard that a lodging-house ' Are you to see Mencius.' " 4." CHAPTER xx Mencius said. and everything will be correct. " " been ." CHAPTER XXI " There are cases of praise which could not be expected." Mencius said. and all his acts will be benevolent. and of reproach when the parties have been seeking to be perfect." simply from CHAPTER Mencius " said. why do Yo-ching replied. call the philosopher ' Tsang's practise nourishing To serve one's parents as the philosopher Ts'ang filial served his may be accepted as piety. Once rectify the prince. the prince be righteous. XXIII The evil of men is that they like to be teachers of others. and all his acts will be righteous. Let the prince be correct. He came come " also you speak such words ? ! How many days have you " Yester" I came here ? asked Mencius. who said to him. " " to see me ? Master. Men's being ready with their tongues their not having been reproved. nor It is only the great man who to blame errors of government.THE SACRED BOOKS We may the will.

this. When Growing." ing in those two things. and not departing from them. they repressed? When they grow.LITERATURE OF THE EAST scholar's lodging-house 337 visit his must be arranged before he I have done wrong. filial. . having learned the doctrine of the ancients. To regard the whole empire thus turning to him in great delight but as a bundle of grass only Shun was capable of 1. " The richest fruit of benevolence is this eousness " 2. The richest fruit of music is this the rejoic- they are rejoiced in. informing his parents. " CHAPTER XXVII 1. Yo-ching said." elder?" 3. " Shun married without 2. come to this state that they can not be repressed. the service of one's parents. then unconsciously the feet begin to dance and the hands to move. how can they be CHAPTER XXVIII Suppose the case of the whole empire turning in great delight to an individual to submit to him." 1. belest he should have no posterity. The richest the ordering and adorning those fruit of propriety is this two things. Mencius " said. " CHAPTER XXV Mencius." " CHAPTER XXVI There are three things which are unMencius said. The richest fruit of rightis this the obeying one's elder brothers. that you. Mencius said. XII. addressing the disciple Yo-ching. He considered that if one could not get the hearts of 22. . would have acted with a view to eating and drinking. and to have no posterity is the greatest of them. said to him. cause of this Superior men consider that his doing so was the same as if he had informed them. The richest fruit of wisdom is this the knowing those two things. Your coming here in the train of Tsze-gaou was only beI could not have thought cause of the food and the drink. VOL.

Mencius " It was kind. Chu-fung. in Peih-ying . Let a governor conduct his rule on principles of equal . said. " Those regions were distant from one another more than a thousand li. 2. was brought to find that delight. Ku-sow was brought to find delight in what was good. " 3. and that if he could not get to an entire accord with his parents he could not be considered a son. but showed that he did not understand the practise of government. " By called great filial piety. " When we the later examine the sages both the earlier and their principles are found to be the same. and died in Ming-theaou. on the " east. When Ku-sow was brought to find that the whole empire was transformed. This is 2. he would convey people across the Tsin and Wei in his own carriage. When Ku-sow delight. King Wan was born in Chow by mount K'e. " 4. Shun's completely fulfilling everything by which a parent could be served." BOOK iv. and the age of the one sage was posterior But when to that of the other more than a thousand years.338 THE SACRED BOOKS his parents he could not be considered a man. Mencius said. 4. and died man near the wild tribes on the west. removed to Fu-hea. it was like uniting the two halves of a seal. a 3. they got their wish. When in the eleventh month of the year the footbridges are completed. and carried their principles into practise throughout the Middle Kingdom. the people have not the trouble of wading. a man near the wild tribes 2. II When Tsze-ch'an was chief minister of the State of Ch'ing. PART I ii CHAPTER " Shun was born in 1. all fathers and sons in the empire were established in their respective duties." CHAPTER 1. and the carriage-bridges in the twelfth month.

a minister wears mourning when he has left the service of a How must a prince behave that his old ministers prince. This treatment shows him to be ' what we call a robber and an enemy.LITERATURE OF THE EAST justice. has gone. so that blessings ing have descended on the people. the remonstrances of a minister are not thus go into mourning ? " " and his advice is not listened to. they regard him as a robber and an enemy. 339 and when he goes abroad he ? may cause people to be removed out of his path. The king said. mourning will be worn on leaving his service. so that no blessings descend on the people. The admonitions of a minister havbeen followed. Mencius replied. . But how can he convey everybody if a governor will try to please he will find the days not sufficient for his work. "It follows that CHAPTER 1. the prince sends an escort to conduct him beyond the boundaries. " 4. only then at length does he take back his fields and residence. his ministers regard their prince as their belly and heart. He also anticipates with recommendatory intimations his arrival in the country to which he is proceedWhen he has been gone three years and does not return. and his advice listened to." everybody. According to the rules of propriety. This treatment is what is called ' a thrice-repeated display of consideration/ When a prince acts thus. they regard him as any other man when he regards them as the ground or as grass. ing. When for any cause he leaves the country. if for some cause he leaves the country. when he regards them as his dogs and horses. He also pushes him to extremity in the country to which he followed. across the rivers 5. and on the very day of his departure he takes back his fields and residence. When the prince regards his ministers as his hands and feet. may 3.' What mourning can " be worn for a robber and an enemy ? . III Mencius said to the King Seuen of " Ts'e. the prince tries to seize him and hold him a prisoner." " 2. Nowadays.

nor of his actions that . Chung-ne did not do extraordinary things. and then they are able to act with vigor in what they " ought to do. When the people are slaughtered without any crime." CHAPTER v Mencius said. and those who have abilities train up those who have not. " If the sovereign be benevolent. the great officers may leave the country. the great man does not do." CHAPTER XI " The Mencius said. righteous. then the space between brothers them those an inch. "Acts of propriety which are not really proper." so gifted and the ungifted will not admit CHAPTER VIII Mencius said. Mencius " When may remove. the scholars said.340 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER IV scholars are put to death without any crime. Men must be decided on what they will not do. and they who have abilities spurn those who have not. and hence men rejoice in having fathers and elder who are possessed of virtue and talent. great man does not think beforehand of his words that they may be sincere. who talk of what is not good in others ! they Mencius " CHAPTER x Mencius " said. and acts of righteousness which are not really righteous. all will be If the sovereign be righteous. all will be benevolent." CHAPTER VI Mencius said. If they who keep the Mean spurn those who do not." VII CHAPTER Mencius said." CHAPTER IX What future misery have they and ought said. >. " Those who keep the Mean train up those who do not. to endure.

It is impossible that any one should bethe whole empire. Abiding in it calmly and firmly." CHAPTER Mencius said." CHAPTER XVI Mencius said. he reposes a deep reliance on it.LITERATURE OF THE EAST they 341 is may be resolute. what he is learning with deep earnestness and by the proper course." XII is man he who does not lose CHAPTER Mencius " XIII The nourishment of parents said. u Words which are not true are inausobnoxious to the picious. " The great his child's-heart. hold of it in himself. he simply speaks and does what right." CHAPTER xv In learning extensively and discussing Mencius said. and the words which are most truly . not sufficient to be accounted the great thing. wishing to get hold of it as in himself. " Never has he subdue who would by his excellence Let a prince seek by and he will be able to subdue his excellence to nourish men. It is on this account that the superior man wishes to get hold of what he is learning as in himself. he abides in it calmly " Having got and firmly. he seizes it on the left and right. men been subjection of the heart. Reposing a deep reliance on it." CHAPTER XVII Mencius said. minutely what is learned. the object of the superior man is that he may be able to go back and set forth in brief what is " essential.. come ruler of the empire to whom it has not yielded the able to subdue them. meeting everywhere with it as a fountain from which things flow." CHAPTER XIV The superior man makes his advances in Mencius said. when living is It is only in the performing their obsequies when dead that we have what can be considered the great thing.

The mass of people cast it away. In the seventh and eighth months. how it replied. while superior men preserve it. "But suppose that the water has no spring. and did not forget of the distant. " 3. It rests not day nor night. but their being dried up again may be expected in a short time. Mencius " " said. It fills up every to praise. and loved good words. observed the relations of humanity.342 THE SACRED BOOKS into the shade name of inauspicious are those which throw men of talents and virtue. and 2. it. Thang held fast the as if he could not see 4. Yu hated the pleasant wine. King Wan looked on the people as he would on a man who was wounded. " 5. 3. he did not need to pursue benevolence and righteousness. when the rain falls abundantly. XVIII The ' disciple Seu " said. and employed men of talents and virtue without regard to where they came from. He walked along closely the path of benevolence and righteousness. ?J O water ! O water " Chung-ne often praised water. Mean. flowing on to the four seas. and then advances. The Duke Chau desired to unite in himself the vir- ." CHAPTER XX 1. ? Mencius gushes out! Such hole. " King Wu did not slight the near. " Shun clearly understood the multitude of things. is water having a spring It was this which he found in it ! There is a spring of water ." CHAPTER 1. the channels in the fields are all filled. Mencius said. What did he find in water to praise 2. ' ! saying." CHAPTER XIX 1. So a superior man is ashamed of a reputation beyond his merits. and he looked toward the right path 2. " That whereby man differs from the lower animals is but small.

Although I could not be a disciple of Confucius himI have endeavored to cultivate my virtue by means of others who were. self. Mencius " said. subject of the Ch'un-wuh was the affairs of Hwan of Ts'e and Wan of Tsin. they did. the Confucius make. and when he was fortunate enough to master the difficulty. " The traces of imperial rule were exWhen tinguished. and the imperial odes ceased to be made. Its righteous decisions I ventured to CHAPTER XXII influence of a sovereign sage terThe influence of a mere sage minates in the fifth generation. those founders of the three dynasties. " The 3. then the Ch'un-Ts'iu was 1." CHAPTER XXIII appears proper to take a thing to take it is contrary to moderation. Taou-wuh of Ts'u. " 2. he thought that in all the empire only E was superior to himself. " When and afterward not proper. 2. and so he slew 1. When he had acquired completely all the science of E." he looked up and thought about it. those odes ceased to be made. When it appears proper to give a thing and afterward not When it appears proper. were books of the same character." CHAPTER XXIV learned archery of E. he sat waiting for the morning. from daytime into the night. to give it is contrary to kindness.' ' ' said. Pang Mung . to proper it Mencius said. and the Ch'un-Ts'iu of Lu. produced. and its style was the historical. to sacrifice one's life and afterward not proper.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 346 tues of those kings. " The Shing of Tsin. 1. CHAPTER XXI Mencius said. that he might display in his practise the four things which If he saw anything in them not suited to his time. sacrifice it is contrary to bravery. The does the same.

and bathe. Kung-ming E indeed said. I am a dead man ' At the same time he asked his driver.' but he thereby only meant that his blame was slight. which sent Yu-kung Sze to pursue him. I Yu-kung Sze is the best archer I shall live ' ' of Wei. " In this case ' E also was to blame. 1. " 2. why are you not holding your bow ? Yu answered him. your wise men is their boring out If those wise men would only act as Yu . It would appear as if he were not to be blamed. he said. fast. To-day who again l ' ' and can not hold my bow. he may sacrifice to God. knocked science. business. who again said. Master. Though a man may be wicked. 2. which I dare not neglect. learned it from me.' On this Sze I learned archery from Yimkung T'o. on which he exclaimed. Now. off their steel-points against the carriage-wheel. mean by saying ? Yu Yu-kung Sze learned archery from Yin-kung T'o. CHAPTER XXVI Mencius said. ' To-day I feel unwell. " All who speak about the natures of things have in fact only their phenomena to reason from. THE SACRED BOOKS Mencius said. however. ( am business of to-day. shall live. " What I dislike in their conclusions." CHAPTER XXV " If the lady Se had been covered with a all people would have stopped their noses filthy headdress. and the value of a phenomenon is in its being natural. Tsze-cho Yu said. learned it from you.344 him. and returned.' ' The driver said. yet if he adjust his thoughts.' When Yu-kung Sze came up. I can not bear to injure you with your I feeling unwell. own The discharged four of them. * Who is it that is pursuing me ? ' The ! driver said. Yin-kung T'o is an and the friends of his selection must be upright upright man. in passing her.' ' ( It is Yu-kung Sze. Mencius said." 1. so that I can not hold my bow. The people of Ch'ing sent Tsze-cho Yu to make a stealthy attack on Wei. is the prince's He then took his arrows. also. How can he be held without any blame ? " " 2. what do you replied.

to observe this rule. a man who treats me in a perverse and un3." " Accord3. " That whereby the superior man is distinguished from other men is what he preserves in his heart namely. 1. there would be noth- The manner in which Yu ing to dislike in their wisdom. Mencius. . individuals may not change their places to speak with one another. 2. the waters was by doing what gave him no conveyed away If your wise men would also do that which gave trouble. turn round The superior man in such a cease will upon himself. pleased. loves others is constantly loved by them. said. we may. 'I must have been wanting in . thereby slighting me. so that he was dis" All the gentlemen have spoken with me. their knowledge would also be great " 3. go back to the solstice of a thousand sitting If we have years ago. ing to the prescribed rules. and said." CHAPTER XXVII 1. some called him to them and spoke with him. Mencius did not speak with him. having heard of this remark. The man of propriety shows respect to others. in court. There is only Mencius who does not speak to me. " Here is 4. while in our places. and Tsze-gaou understands it that I was " slighting him is not this strange ? : CHAPTER XXVIII Mencius said. and some went to his place and spoke with him.LITERATURE OF THE EAST did 345 when he conveyed away the waters. . investigated their phenomena. There is heaven so high there are the stars so distant. benevolence and propriety. " The benevolent man loves others. When this noble entered the door. The officer Kung-hang having on hand the funeral of one of his sons. the Master of the Right went to condole with him. them no trouble. " He who He reasonable manner. 2. nor may they I was wishing pass from their ranks to bow to one another. who respects others is constantly respected by them.

. am a man. while I is calamity. the principle of their conduct. are still the same. he says. dwelt in a mean narrow lane. utmost/ " 6. The disciple Yen. 2. having his single bamboo-cup of rice. Yu praised them. but still the perversity and unreasonableness of the On this the superior man says. and I also pire. then only will he stop. Confucius thrice passed their doors without entering them. And in what way is he proper anxious about it ? Just that he may be like Shun . Yu. He turns round upon himself. ' turn round on himself I must have been failing to do my turns round upon himself and proceeds to do his utmost. and his single gourd-dish of water. " 3. and is specially observant of The perversity and unreasonableness of the other. and his But Shun became an example to the emconduct was worthy to be handed down to after am nothing better than a villager. and Yen Hwuy agreed in distress. himself. He a man what Since he conducts himself so. propriety. a lifelong anxand not one morning's calamity. the superior man does not account it a ages. If there should befall him one not according to propriety." CHAPTER XXIX 1. superior man has. affected by it. that he has. As to what is matter iety of anxiety to him. ' This is other are repeated.346 benevolence 5. ' Shun was a man. I must have been wanting in propriety . As to what the superior man would feel to be a He does nothing which is calamity. Mencius said. in an age of tranquillizing government. ' should this have happened to me ? " He examines The superior man will again however. there is no such thing. morning's calamity. utterly lost indeed! is there to choose between him and a brute? Why should I go to contend with a brute ? ' " Thus it is that the 7. Tseih. and Tseih. THE SACRED BOOKS now and is specially benevolent. in an age of confusion.' This indeed matter of anxiety to him. other men could not have endured the but he did not allow his joy to be Confucius praised him.

without attending to the nourishment of his parents. between Chang and his father there arose diswhat agreement. the To urge one way of friends. It was on this account that they were so earnest. so chess-playing. any one in the empire suffered hunger. fighting be only in the village or neighborhood. keep company with him. 3. 4. without attending to The third is being fond of the nourishment of his parents. as to bring his parents to disgrace. 347 "Yu it drowned. if you go to put an end to it with your cap tied over your hair unbound. Although you should shut your door in such a case. and the philosopher Yen. the son. The disciple Kung-tu " said. was thought that if any one in the empire were Tseih thought that if as if he drowned him. But you. it was as if he famished him. your conduct will be allowable. Though you part them fighting: you ought 5. and selfishly attached to his wife and children. each would have done what the other did. and moreover treat him " with politeness. The fourth is following the desires of one's ears and eyes. bravery. apartment with you are people to part them. " another to what is good by reproofs is But such urging between father and . Throughout the whole kingdom everybody pronounces K'wang unfilial. you will be in error. Master. " Here now in the same 6. Mencius replied.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 4." CHAPTER XXX 1. without attending to The second is gambling and the nourishment of his parents. laziness in the use of one's four limbs. had exchanged places. your conduct would be allowable. reproving his father to urge him " being fond of his fighting and quarreling so as to endanger ? Is Chang guilty of any one of these things fifth is 9: The Now was good. with your cap simply tied over your unbound hair. parents. he. " If you and Tseih. " If the 7. The first is in the common practise of the age to be unfilial. I venture to ask why you do so ? " There are five things which are said 2. and being fond of wine. goods and money.

Repair the walls of my When the plunderers re- philosopher Tsang returned accordingly. so as to be observed by the people. He settled it in his mind that if he did not act in this way. appears to us to be improper. . and was not permitted approach him. " The philosopher Tsang and Tsze-sze Tsang was a teacher agreed in the principle of their conduct. " The " Tsze-sze why not leave this ? living in Wei. there came a band plunsaid. His " Since our master was treated with so much disciples said. When Tsze-sze was from Ts'e derers are to plunder. When the philosopher Tsang dwelt in Wushing. and drove forth his son. Such and to nothing more is the case of Chang. not lodge any persons in injure the plants and trees." CHAPTER XXXI 1. I am about to return. there were seventy disciples in our master's following. " Moreover. tired. You do not understand Formerly. and all his life receives no cherishing attention from them. and none of them took part in the matter. is THE SACRED BOOKS the greatest injury to the kindness. Tsze-sze was a in the place of a father or elder brother. which should prevail between them. sincerity and respect." this matter. " If I go away. he sent word to him. there : came a band from Yue to plunder it. he sent away his wife. child and mother? But because he had offended his father. when Shin-yiu was exposed to the Shin-yiu " outbreak of the grass-carriers. and then to return on their retiring." house. " The plunderers are coming why not leave this ? " Tsang on " this left the city. Some one said to him. for him to be the first to go away on the the arrival of the plunderers. did not Chang wish to have in his family the relationships of husband and wife." 2. Hing said. whom will the prince have to guard the Mencius said. lest they break and the plunderers with- drew. saying to the man " in charge of the house." Do my When house.348 son 5. saying. coming . Some one said to him. State with?" 3. his would be one of the greatest of crimes.

saying. and out. came to those who were sacrificing among the tombs beyond the outer wall on the east. meaner Ch'u said to Mencius. carrying his wife and concubine. along with the concubine she reviled their husband. And yet no people of distinction ever come I will spy out where our good man goes. here. he would get himself well filled with wine and flesh. they were sure to be all wealthy and honorable The wife informed the concubine." place. and they are all. she got up early in the morning and privately followed wherever her husband went. A man of Ts'e these are his ways " ! On this. wealthy and honorable people. and lived When their husband wenttogether with them in his house. Accordingly. " When people. and now contemplation. the king sent persons to spy out whether you were really different from other men. it seems. he is sure to come back having partaken plentifully of wine and flesh. and informed the concubine. and. satiated. Throughout the whole city At last. !N"ot being satisfied. and they wept together in the middle In the meantime the husband. the one would have done what the other did. then return. our good man goes out." The officer CHAPTER XXXIII had a wife and a concubine. " How should I be different from other men! Yaou and Shun were just the same as other men. and went to another and this was the way in which he got himself party His wife returned. " It was to our husband that we looked up in hopeful saying. himself proudly to this. with whom our lot is cast for life 1. I asked with whom he ate and drank. on his wife's asking him with whom he ate and drank. knowing nothing of all hall." Mencius said. . he there was no one who stood or talked with him. " Master.LITERATURE OF THE EAST minister in a 349 If the philosophers Tsang and Tsze-sze had exchanged places. and begged what they had over. he looked about. came in with a jaunty air.

. and advancement. as to the ways by which seek for riches. honors. there are few of their wives and concuhines who would not be ashamed and weep together on account of them.350 2. gain. THE SACRED BOOKS men In view of a superior man.

saying. Why He was asked Mencius. he does not murmur. ' I exert my strength to cultivate the fields. but I am thereby only discharging my office as a son. ' You do not understand that matter. the various officers. were multitudes who the scholars of the empire there The emperor designed flocked to him. and then to transfer it to him entirely. all to be prepared.THE BOOK OF WAN CHANG BOOK V.' Now. Of Shun should superintend the empire along with him. ' As to Shun's Ch/ang going into the fields. storehouses and granaries. saying. to serve Shun amid the channeled that fields. I have received your instructions. oxen and sheep. The emperor caused his own children. rejoices and forgets them his parents love him. To be delighted in by the scholars of the empire is what men desire. Kung-ming Kaou supposed that the heart of the filial son could not be so free of sorrow." Wan Chang " said. " 351 . nine sons and two daughters. though they punish him. Was Shun then murmuring against his parents ? " Mencius answered. The possession of beauty is what men desire. but I do not know about his weeping and crying out to the pitying heavens and to his parents. Wan Chang " into the fields. But because his parents were not in accord with him. PART I I CHAPTER 1. he felt like a poor man who has nowhere to turn to. " Seih asked Kung-ming Kaou. but it was not sufficient to remove the sorrow of Shun. 2. a son When his parents hate him. Shun would say. heavens. replied. " When Shun went he cried out and wept toward the pitying did he cry out and weep ? " Mencius dissatisfied. When not. What can there be in me that my parents do not love " me ? ' 3. and full of earnest desire.' Kung-ming Kaou answered him. 4.

how is it that a scholar." 2. to the end of his life. were not sufficient to remove his sorrow." mother. was that it could be removed only by his getting his parents to be in accord with him.' In both cases he is a common man. A plants. his desire is toward When BOOK V. and it is the rule of propriety that common men. should not presume to have interviews with the prince. When he comes to have a wife and children. PART VII II CHAPTER 1. " If a common man is called to per- form any service. but this was not sufficient to remove his sorrow. but this was not sufficient to remove his sorrow. he goes and performs it. Wan Chang said. refuses to go ? . beauty. Honors are what men desire. who have not presented the introductory present and become ministers. he burns within. when the prince.352 THE SACRED BOOKS and Shun had for his wives the two daughters of the emperor. row. Riches are what men desire. riches. and the empire was the rich property of Shun. and honors. calls him to his " Mencius replied. " princes ? is called 'a minister of the market-place and well/ and one t residing in the country is called a minister of the grass and Wan Chang said. wishing to see him. In the great Shun I see the case of one whose desire of fifty years was toward them. his desire is toward them. the possession of beauty. " It is right to presence. father and he becomes conscious of the attractions of young and beautiful women. and Shun had the dignity of being emperor. has his desire toward his parents. " I venture to ask what principle of is involved in a scholar's not going to see the righteousness " scholar residing in the city Mencius replied. " The desire of the child is toward his 5. When he obtains office. but this was not sufficient to remove his sorThe reason why the being the object of men's delight. But the man of great filial piety. his desire is toward his sovereign: if he can not get the regard of his sovereign.

" 3. " If because of his extensive information. he one day said to him. you are sovereign. Chang said. princes of a thousand chariots have yet been on terms of friendship with scholars what do you think of such an intercourse ? Tszesze was displeased.' What was it in the forester that Confucius thus approved? He approved his not going to the duke when summoned by the article which was not appropriate to him. would not call him how much less may any of the princes do so ? If because of his talents and virtue. did he not say within himself. when a prince of a thousand chariots sought to be on terms of friendship with a scholar. 23. Anciently. May I ask with " " With a skin cap." added Mencius. and said. How much less could he call him to his presence " The duke 5. it 353 to would not be right go and is it that " " the prince wishes to see the scholar ? Because of his extensive information. With reference come. such a person is a teacher. then I have not heard of any one wishing to see a person with those qualities. he could not obtain his wish. or because of his talents and virtue. once. a to this incident VOL." was the reply. you ought to make me your master." " said Mencius. With regard How to our stations. The ancients have said.LITERATURE OF THE EAST go and perform the service. ! him by a flag. be summoned ? common man should be summoned with a plain banner. The scholar should be served: how should they have merely said that he should be made a friend of ? When Tsze-sze was thus displeased. called his forester to Confucius said. . The forester would not and the duke was going to kill him. How may you be on terms of friendship with me ? ' Thus. During the frequent interviews of the Duke Muh with ' Tsze-sze. ' The determined officer never forgets that his end may be in a ditch or a stream . ' ' ( ereign? With regard to our virtue. when he was hunting. king of Ts'e. XII. and calling him to his presence. and I am subject. and the emperor " " on what account And. can I presume to be on terms of friendship with my sov' . see the prince. A Mencius replied. " 4." " what a forester should 6. the brave officer never forgets that he may lose his head.

but it is only the superior man who can follow this "When way. " Confucius was in office.354 scholar THE SACRED BOOKS who has taken it . Confucius received the prince's message calling him. the lower people see it. . and had its appropriate replied. " The scholar whose virtue is most distinguished in a village shall make friends of all the virtuous scholars in the villaga The scholar whose virtue is most distinguished throughout a State shall make friends The scholar whose of all the virtuous scholars of that State. broidered on with one having dragons emand a great officer. virtue is most distinguished throughout the empire shall make friends of all the virtuous scholars of the empire. and go out and in by this door. of Poetry. is the door. And 9. And moreover. virtue is summoned in a way which is inappropriate to his character 8. it is as if he wished him to enter his palace and shut the door Now. and does not take the proper course to get his wish. he would have died rather than presume to go. It is said in the Book " ' The way to Chow tread is level like a whetstone. of his office. " When the forester was summoned with the article 7. VIII Mencius said to Wan Chang. righteousness is the way. appropriate to the summoning of a great officer. officers it." Wan Chang "When CHAPTER 1. he went without waiting for his " Mencius did Confucius do wrong ? And so carriage. how could he presume to go ? when a man of talents and may we expect this refusal to go. And The straight as an arrow. ! a prince wishes to see a man of talents and virtue." said. with one having feathers office. and propriety against him. he was summoned on the business duties. suspended from the top of the staff. If a common man were summoned with the article appropriate to the summoning How much more of a scholar.

" 4. office of chief is ministers. " There are the chief ministers who are noble and relatives " Which chief " Are there any " ministers your name. remonstrate with him. " There are. You asked me." ters of the prince. he proceeds to ascend to consider the men of antiquity. 3. has faults. 355 When a scholar feels that his friendship with all the virtuous scholars of the empire is not sufficient to satisfy him." . and if he do not listen to them after they have done this again and again. He poems and reads their books. they ought to dethrone him. and I dare not answer but according to truth. " I beg to ask about the chief minisare noble and relatives of the prince. and. The king on this looked moved. The King Suen Mencius of Ts'e asked about the said. prince prince. they ought to leave the State." 2. differences among Majesty asking about ? them ? " inquired the king. The king's countenance became composed. Mencius said.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 2. and there are those who are of a different surThe king said. repeats their " men of antiquity. they ought to answered." was the reply." CHAPTER IX 1. to ascertain this he considers This is to ascend and make friends of the their history. and if he do not listen to them after who they have done so again and again. and he then begged to ask about chief ministers who were of a different " surname from the When the Mencius said. as he does not know what they were as men. they ought to remonstrate with him. "Let not your Majesty be offended." Mencius " If the prince have great faults. and changed counte- nance.

Man's nature is like the ke willow.THE BOOK OF KAOU-TZE BOOK VI. on your principles you must in the same way do violence and injury to humanity in order to fashion from it benevolence and righteousness Your words. you make it go over your forehead. and will flow to the east . and." " 2. Open a passage for open a passage for to to will flow to the west. Man's nature is indif- ferent to good and evil. The fashioning benevolence and righteousness out of man's nature is like the making cups and bowls from the ke willow. " Water indeed will flow indifferently it to the east or west. Mencius replied. If you must do violence and injury to the willow in order to make cups and bowls with it." CHAPTER 1. but are such movements according to the nature of water? It is the force 356 . you may force it up a hill. II The philosopher Kaou it it said. and righteousness is like a cup or a bowl. by striking water and causing it to leap up. Mencius replied. the east. make with it cups and bowls? You must do violence and injury to the willow before you can make cups and bowls with it. but will flow indifferently up or down ? The tendency of water to flow downward. leaving untouched the nature of the willow. "Man's nature is like it it water whirling round in a corner. and the west." 2. just as all water flows downward. just as the water is indifferent to the east and west. alas would certainly lead all men on to reckon benevolence and righteousness to be said. " Now 3. Can you. ! ! The philosopher Kaou " calamities. of man's nature to good is like the tendency There are none but have this tendency to good. by damming and may leading it. PART I I CHAPTER 1.

" " 2. all within the four . III The philosopher Kaou " said. Life is what is to be understood by nature. mean do. is not good." " " 2." pursued Mencius. " If a scholar have not faith. Is the whiteness of a white feather like that of white snow." "What then made you you could not sleep?" " 4. and was answered." CHAPTER 1. PAET XII ii CHAPTER Mencius said." " " 3. The love of what is good is more than a sufficient qualification for the government of the empire. XIII The prince of Lu wanting to commit the administra- government to the disciple Yo-ching. and the nature of an ox like " the nature of a man ? BOOK vi. " Is he possessed of much information \ so glad that " " No." life. He is a man who loves what is good. just as was Do you say that by nature you " " that white is white ? you say Yes. " Yes. their nature is dealt with in this way. Is the nature of a Very well. Mencius said. and the whiteness of " white snow like that of a white gem ? Kaou again said. is it so for the State of Lu ! " If a minister love what is good. I was so glad that I could not sleep. Mencius asked him. I " the reply." 3. " JN"o. dog like the nature of an ox. Kung-sun Is Yo-ching a man of vigor ? asked. how muoh more 7." " Is he wise in council ? " tion of his ChW " No.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 357 When men are made to do what applied which causes them. Mencius added. take a firm hold of things ? " how shall he CHAPTER 1." " Is " 5. the love of what is good sufficient ? " 6. " When I heard of it.

' self-conceited he looks 1. though the prince 3." . could not be expected at once to carry their words into practise. though he may wish the State is it to be well governed. flatterers. " The second case was that in which. calumniators. but not beyond what was sufficient die of want in my to avert death. then they took office with him. ished that he could not move out of his door. although there might be no remission in the polite demeanor of the prince. possible for it to be so ? " CHAPTER XIV 1. but I am ashamed to allow him to ' country . on hearing of his state. either morning or evening. What were the principles on disciple Ch'in said. But afterward. men will say. they would leave him. if their words were not carried into practise. flatpearance. "If he do not love ! what is good. if there was a remission in his polite demeanor. 8.358 THE SACRED BOOKS and will come ' seas will count 1. the assistance offered in such a case might be received. and three in which they left it. The " which plied. " Mencius rethe superior men of old took office ? " There were three cases in which they accepted office. I must fail in the great point i that of carrying his doctrines into practise. and sycophants. If received with the utmost respect and all polite observances. " 4. yet being received by him with the utmost respect.000 li but a small distance. they took office with him.000 He li.000 li off. and they could say to themselves that the prince would carry their words into practise. neither am I able to follow his words. they would leave him. The last case was that of the superior man who had nothing to eat. is saying to himself. terers. " 2. Afterward. and lay their good thoughts before him. How it. and sycophants will make their apWhen a minister lives among calumniators. I know The language and at a distance of looks of that self-conceit will keep men off When good men stop 1. and was so famIf the prince. said.

dertakings." . character. to teach a man. as inconsistent with my I rearts in teaching.LITERATURE OF THE EAST CHAPTER XV 359 from among the channeled from the midst of his building frames. Fu Yue was called to office . 5. It confounds his unBy all these methods it stimulates his mind. and set forth in 1. his generally come to ruin. and supplies his incompetencies." CHAPTER XVI Mencius " said. and subjects him to extreme poverty. their words. Shun rose fields. but I am only thereby still teaching him. and if abroad there are not hostile States or other external calamities. Kaou-kih from his fish and salt. reform. Thus. then they understand them. when Heaven is about to confer a great office on any man. When thoughts. They are distressed in mind and perplexed in their and then they arise to vigorous reformation. and his sinews and bones with toil. " 2. to the laws and worthy counselors. " Men for the most part err. Mencius " said. Kwan E-wu from the hands of his gaoler Sun-shuh Gaou from his hiding by the seashore and Pih-le He from the market-place. hardens his nature. and are afterward able to 3. kingdom will " From these things we see how life springs from sorrow and calamity. It exposes his body to hunger. There are many fuse. and death from ease and pleasure. things have been evidenced in men's looks. . " If a prince have not about his court families attached 4. it first exercises his mind with suffering.

TSIN-SIST PART I I CHAPTER 1. " To preserve one's mental constitution. 1. he knows Heaven. " He who has exhausted all his mental constitution knows his nature. " When the seeking is according to the proper course." way CHAPTER 1. one's nature. 360 . is the way to serve Heaven. II Mencius " said. " Death under handcuffs and fetters can not correctly 4. he may be correctly is ascribed thereto. IV Mencius said. 3. " who has the true idea of what Heaven's appointment will not stand beneath a precipitous wall. " All things are already complete in us. There is A an appointment for everything. be so ascribed. " Death sustained in the discharge of one's duties may correctly be ascribed to the appointment of that case the seeking is of no use to getting. 2. a When neither a premature man any double-mindedness." CHAPTER 1. Mencius When we get by our seeking and lose in that case seeking is of use to getting. and the getting is only as appointed-. " death nor long life causes he waits in the cultivation of his personal character for whatever issue this is the in which he establishes his Heaven-ordained being. and nourish 2. Knowing his nature. should receive submissively what Therefore. and the things sought are without ourselves." " said. man 2. by our neglecting and the things sought for are those which are in ourselves. Mencius said. but 3.THE BOOK OF BOOK VII.

A man may not be without shame. When is ashamed of having been without shame. and observe all forms of ceremony. Those who form contrivances and versatile schemes distinguished for their artfulness do not allow their sense of shame to come into action. of the able and virtuous scholars of antiquity. . " Are you fond. VII Mencius " said. tion be made Therefore. If they thus found much not in their power to pay them frequent visits. Sir. when he seeks for the realization of perfect virtue.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 2. one differs from other men in not having this " sense of shame. they were mitted to come frequently and visit them. procity. and were oblivious of the power of princes. Mencius said. 361 There is no greater delight than to be conscious of sincerity on self-examination. " 2. Mencius said to Sung Kow-ts'een." " CHAPTER v and to do so habitually without examination. " When CHAPTER VIII " The able and virtuous monarchs of 1. if kings and dukes did not show the utmost renot perspect. pursuing the proper this is the way path all the life without knowing its nature 1. To act without understanding of multitudes. " less could they get to employ them as ministers ? it how CHAPTER IX 1. The sense of shame is to a man of great importance. nothing can be closer than his approximation to it. " If one acts with a vigorous effort at the law of reci3." CHAPTER 1. And shall an excepantiquity loved virtue and forgot power." CHAPTER " one VI Mencius said. Mencius " said. he will afterward not have occasion for shame. what will he have in common with them ? 3. that they did not do the same ? They delighted in their own principles.

" . Scholars distinguished from the mass. a scholar. without a King Wan. and so you may always be Therefore. the way which is intended to preserve their lives." " CHAPTER XI Mencius said. they made the whole empire virtuous as well. if advanced to dignity. " If a prince acknowledge you and follow your counsels. 2. If he then look upon himself without being is far beyond the mass of men. Add to a man the families of Wei. be the same. " Poor and not letting righteousness go it is thus that the scholar holds possession of himself. they attended to their own virtue in solitude . they cultivated their personal character and became illustrious in the world. Kow-ts'een said. be perfectly satisfied. Prosperous and not leaving the proper path it is thus that the expectations of the people are not disappointed. does not let go his righteousness. beneIf they did not realize their wishes. What is to be done to secure this " Mencius replied. 5. " Honor virtue perfect satisfaction ? and delight in righteousness. and though they be Let them be put to death in toiled they will not murmur. Let the people be employed in the way which is intended to secure their ease. though poor.362 THE SACRED BOOKS of traveling to the different courts ? I will tell you about such traveling." " Han and he elated. and then they will receive a rousing impulse. If poor. and though they die. of antiquity realized their wishes." " 3. CHAPTER " XII Mencius said. perfectly satisfied. he does not leave his own 4. they will not murmur at him who puts them to death. fits " When the men were conferred by them on the people." CHAPTER x The mass of men wait for a King Wan. If no one does so. though prosperous. Mencius said. " path. 6. rouse themselves.

and when they are grown a know they to love their all little know to respect their elder brothers. parents. 1." Mencius wandering said. dwelling with the trees among the deer and swine. he benefits them. Good government does not lay hold much good instructions. people's wealth. leading all the princes. Under a true sovereign. while good 3.LITERATURE OF THE EAST CHAPTER " XIII 363 Under a chief. " Children carried in the arms 2. Mencius said. they do not think of his merit. Good government is feared by the people. transfor3. " Wherever the superior man passes through. society but in a small way " ! CHAPTER XIV 1. the difference between amid the deep and rocks. Good government gets the instructions are loved by them. From day to day they make progress toward what is good. they do not murmur." CHAPTER xv 1. while good instructions get their hearts. " Filial affection for 3. " Though he knowing who makes them do so. Mencius " said. his influence is of a It flows abroad above and beneath. the people look brisk and cheerful. without 2. wherever he abides. like spiritual nature. parents is the working of benevolence. How can it be said that he mends that of Heaven and Earth. mation follows. CHAPTER XVI "When Shun was living retired mountains. The having been acquired by the knowledge possessed by ability possessed by men without learning is intuitive ability. Mencius " said. they have an air of deep contentment. and them without the all exercise of thought is their intuitive knowledge. There is no other reason for those feelings they belong to all under heaven. and . Respect for elders is the working of righteousness. men " " as as a reputation for kindness. When slay them. Kindly words do not enter so deeply of the people so into 2.

they could carry out their principles throughout the empire. to act thus tells is all him he has to do. They are the friendly minister and concubine's son. Mencius said.364 THE SACRED BOOKS the rude inhabitants of those remote hills appeared him and very small. But when he heard a single good word. are those who are the people of Heaven." They rectify CHAPTER XX " The 1. who keep their hearts under a sense of peril. that is. proceed so as to carry them out. " 2." " " There are persons who serve the prince . and that the condition of his brothers affords no cause for anxiety 2. if they were in office. they served the prince." CHAPTER XVII Mencius said. and to be ruler over the empire is not one That his father and mother are both alive. On this account they become distinguished for their intelligence. themselves and others are rectified. judging that. There are those who are great men. " this is one delight. Men who are possessed of intelligent virtue and prudence in affairs will generally be found to have been in sickness and troubles. or saw a single good action. and let him not desire what righteousness his sense of righteousness tells him not to desire . for the sake of his countenance 1. of them. and find their pleasure in securing that tranquillity. " 2. There are ministers who seek the tranquillity of the State. and favor." CHAPTER 1. Mencius said. and flowing out in an irresistible flood. and use deep precautions against calamity. XVIII Mencius said. " There 3. superior man has three things in which he delights. he was like a stream or a river bursting its banks. " 4. " Let a man not do what his own sense of not to do. They. .

" BOOK " said. 5. without being told. " 2. and the character imparted to the four limbs. but the highest enjoyment of his nature is not here. beginning with proceed to what they do not care for. men " That he can 4. when looking third delight. " What belongs by his nature to the superior man are These benevolence. Kung-sun Ch'ow said. this is a second delight. but what he delights in is 1. righteousness. " 3. beginning with what they do not care for. Mencius " said. three things in which he to be ruler over the empire is not one of them. PART I II CHAPTER 1. Those limbs understand to arrange themselves. are rooted in his heart. 4. and. nor To diminished by his dwelling in poverty and retirement for this reason that it is determinately apportioned to him by Heaven. . Wide territory not here.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 3. Mencius The opposite indeed of benevolent was the King Hwuy of Leang! what they care for. VII. get from the whole empire the most talented individuals. " The superior man has and delights. a rich fulness in the back. below. stand in the center of the empire and tranquillize the people within the four seas the superior man delights in this." CHAPTER XXI and a numerous people are desired by the superior man. and teach and nourish them this is the " That. propriety. proceed to what they care for. and knowledge. he has no occasion for shame he has no occasion to blush before before Heaven. What belongs by his nature to the superior man can not be increased by the largeness of his sphere of action." " 2. their growth and manifestation are a mild harmony appearing in the countenance. 365 up. Those who are the opposite of benevolent. What do you mean ? " Men- The benevolent.

When he was executing it in the east. leading them to battle. Mencius said. he would engage again. Book of History than to give entire credit to it. Their cry was." is " ' Correction when CHAPTER III " It would be better to be without the 1. how could the blood of the people have flowed till it floated the pestles of the " CHAPTER IV ' " There 1. " The 3. benevolent man has no enemy under heaven. the sovereign of a State love benevolence. I am skilful at conducting a battle ! They are great criminals. " When Thang was murmured. are men who say. Do not fear. "When King Wu punished Yin. II Mencius said. king said. ' . he will have no enemy in the empire. and afraid lest they should not be able to secure the victory. " The King of territory. " In the ' Spring and Autumn J there are no righteous wars. Mencius said. When the prince the most benevolent was engaged against him who was mortars ? the most the opposite. I am skilful J at marshaling troops. and three thousand life-guards. the Completion of the War. the rude tribes on the north murmured. Sustaining a great defeat.366 THE SACRED BOOKS Hwuy of Leang. I select two or three passages only. which I believe. he had only three hundred chariots of war. the rude tribes on the west 3. Hostile States do not correct one another. " If 2. tore and destroyed his people. " The ' 5. better than another. Instances indeed there are of one war ' the supreme authority punishes its subjects by force of arms. ( ' CHAPTER 1. ' 7 " In 2. 2. urged his son whom he loved till he sacrificed him with them. executing his work of correction in the south. for the matter cms answered. Why does he make us last ? ' 4. Let me give you repose. This is what I call beginning with what they do not care and proceeding to what they care for/ for.

If he do not order men according to the right way. that other will kill his elder act. VIII Mencius " " said. VII From this time forth I know the heavy consequences of killing a man's near relations. and the two daughters of Yaou to wait on him.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 367 I am no enemy to the people! On this. the establishment of the to exercise violence. the lute to play." . like the horns of animals falling off/ ' " 6. when a man is kills another's elder brother." Mencius " A a man CHAPTER VI Mencius said. Shun's manner of eating his parched grain and herbs was as if he were to be doing so all his life. brother. was to guard against violence. When a man kills another's father. Nowadays. Anciently. they bowed their heads to the earth. and had the embroidered robes to wear. ' there for fighting " ? CHAPTER v said. it is CHAPTER IX himself do not walk in the right path. he was as if those things belonged to him as a matter of course. If a man children. carpenter or a carriage-maker may give the circle and square. he will not be able to get the obedience of even his wife and Mencius " said." frontier-gates 2." but there CHAPTER 1. it will not be walked in even by his wife and children. that other will kill his father . So he does not himself indeed do the only an interval between him and it. but can not make him skilful in the use of them. When he became emperor." " CHAPTER Mencius " said. what need is ing. Imperial correction is but another word for rectifyEach State wishing itself to be corrected.

of virtue and ability be not confided in. changed. he his place. "A man who loves fame may be able to kingdom of a thousand chariots. government great principles various business. next. " Without the of and their 3. a State will become empty and void. right. When a prince endangers the altars of the spirits of is the land and grain. who have got possession of a single State. ment in a nation to gain the emperor is the way to become a prince of a State ." CHAPTER XIV The people are the most important elethe spirits of the land and grain are the . but there has been no instance of the whole empire's being got possession of by one without benevolence. the sovereign is the lightest." CHAPTER Mencius " said. but if he be not really the man to do such a thing. there will not be wealth sufficient for the expenditure. to gain the prince of a State is the way to become emperor a great " 3. " Therefore to 2." " CHAPTER XI Mencius decline a said. the high and the low will be thrown into confusion. Mencius " said. officer.368 THE SACRED BOOKS CHAPTER X Mencius said. Mencius said. . gain the peasantry is the way to become 1." CHAPTER XII " If men 1. A bad year can not prove the cause of death to him whose stores of gain are large. an age of corruption can not confound him whose equipment of virtue is complete. and another appointed in . it will appear in his countenance in the matter of a dish of rice or a platter of soup. " Without the rules of propriety and distinctions of 2. XIII There are instances of individuals without benevolence.

" CHAPTER Mencius " said. 1 " being rinsed. the corrupt hecome pure. and all were warmed by them " ! CHAPTER XVI Mencius said. XVIII the superior man was reduced to straits between Ch'in and Ts'ae was because The reason why reither the princes of the time nor their ministers com- municated with him. When they hear the character of Hwuy of Liu-hea. and went away . is sage is the teacher of a hundred genertrue of Pih-e and Hwuy of Liu-hea. did they affect those who were in contiguity with them. Those two made themselves distinguished a hundred generations ago. he said. others appointed in their place. ' 1 will set out by-and-by . he the State of his parents. the spirits of the land and grain are changed." CHAPTER xv Mencius ations: this said." CHAPTER XVII When Confucius was leaving Lu. those who hear of them are fore Could such effects be produced aroused in this manner. the vessels all pure. " Benevolence is the distinguishing characteristic of man. 369 " When millet in its the sacrificial victims have been perfect. this was the way him to leave a strange State." VOL.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 4. XII. There- " A when men now hear the character of Pih-e. it is called the path of duty. As embodied in man's conduct. and the weak acquire determination. this was the way for him to leave When he was leaving Ts'e. the mean become generous. and the niggardly become liberal. strained off with his hand the water in which his rice was Mencius said. . if they had not been sages ? And how much more by them. and proper seasons. 24. took the for rice. or the waters overflow. and after a hundred generations. and the sacrifices offered at their if yet there ensues drought.

" Mencius observed. while they are themselves in darkness. The disciple than that of 2. King Wan. the wild grass fills them up. and by means of that darkness. 1. " CHAPTER XXII 1. " Nowadays. Mih K'e CHAPTER XIX Greatly am I from anything to " " It is said in the ' Book of Poetry." " The music of Yu was better Are the chariot ? ruts at the gate of a city " made by a single two-horsed . Mencius observed. as suddenly they are not used. Now. Mencius said." CHAPTER xx Mencius said. My I heart am disquieted and grieved. There are the footsuddenly they be used. 3. " There is no harm in that. men of virtue and talents by means of their own enlightenment made others enlightened. Because at the pivot the knob of Yu's bells is nearly worn through." " How can that be a sufficient 3.370 THE SACRED BOOKS " depend from the mouths of men. Anciently." CHAPTER XXI Mencius said to the disciple paths along the hills . it is tried. hated by the crowd of mean creatures/ is This might have been said by Confucius. Though he did not remove their wrath. if roads and if. to make others enlightened. " On what ground do you say so ? " and the other replied. proof ? Kaou said. Scholars are more exposed than others to suffer from the mouths of men." . they become Kaou. " ( And again. He did not let fall his own fame/ This might be said of King Wan. the wild grass fills up your mind. said. upon " 2.

Ch'in Tsin said " The to Mencius." " The tiger took refuge in a people all in pursuit of a tiger. but when they saw Fung Fu. but those who were scholars laughed at him. and the superior man does not say of his pursuit of them. the display of knowledge in recognizing the talented. people are all thinking that you. Afterward. does not say. When Mencius said.LITERATURE OF THE EAST CHAPTER 1. desire ease is It is 2." The multitude were CHAPTER XXIV 1. What sort of man " Mencius " is Yo-ching ? He is a good man. he became a scholar of repuand going once out to the wild country. the nose to desire fragrant odors. 871 XXIII Ts'e was suffering from famine.' " superior The man ' It is CHAPTER XXV " Haou-sang Puh-hae asked. " my nature. . famous for his skill in seizing tigers. the ob- servance of righteousness between sovereign and minister. man. corner of a hill. Mencius said. and the four limbs to there ' But and rest these things are natural. I apprehend you will not do so a second time.' The exercise of love between father and son. a real replied. and descended from the carriage. where no one dared to attack him. the appointment of Heaven. in reference to them. the ear to desire pleasant sounds. " For the mouth to desire sweet tastes. 2. There was a man of that name in Tsin. Master. Fung Fu immediately bared his arms. But there is an adaptation of our nature for them. the eye to desire beautiful colors." 1. and the fulfilling the these are the appointment of heavenly course by the sage Heaven. the rules of ceremony between guest and host. saying. the appointment of Heaven in connection with them. pleased with him. they ran and met him. To do it would be to act like Fung Fu. he found the tation. will again ask that the granary of Thang be opened for them.

3.' A real man ' ' " ? man who commands is our liking is what 4. they should at once and simply be received. the government and its business." 9. calamity sure to befall him. a real man. 5. Those who nowadays dispute with the followers of so as if they were pursuing a stray pig. " this great man exercises a transforming influhe is what is called a sage. he is what is 7. " is A A good man. they proceed to tie. THE SACRED BOOKS " What do you mean by ' The reply was. and CHAPTER XXVI 1. Mencius " said. " called a good man." . " There are the exactions of hempen-cloth and silk. " When the 8. and of personal service. " 2. deferring the other two. of grain. " The precious things of a prince are three the territory. and those who are fleeing from the errors of Yang naturally turn to orthodoxy. He whose completed goodness is brightly displayed is what is called a great man. the people. The prince reIf quires but one of these at once. Yang and Mih do CHAPTER XXVII Mencius said. " 6.372 2. sage is beyond our knowledge. is If one value as most precious pearls and stones. he require two of them at once. ence. " first characters. the leg of which after they have got it to enter the pen. Those who are fleeing from the errors of Mill naturally turn to Yang. Yo-ching is between the two below the four last." CHAPTER XXVIII Mencius said. part of himself is He whose He goodness what is called whose goodness has been filled up is what is called a beautiful man. If he require the three at once. then the people die of hunger. then fathers and sons are separated. When they so turn. " When called a spirit-man.

or jump over. and righteousness will be the result. being put to death. he was lodged in the sandal in the process of making had been upper palace. and you do not reject those who come to you. but for nothing more. If he can give full development to the feeling which refuses to break through." " 2. He was just qualified to bring death upon himself. All men have some things which they extend that feeling to what they can bear. placed there in a window. 373 Kwoh " Mencius " ! having obtained an said. " said. " Do you think that they came here to pilfer the sandal ? " The man the mind to learn.LITERATURE OF THE EAST CHAPTER XXIX P'un-shing Ts'e. do not go back to inquire into the past. the disciples CHAPTER XXX to Thang. Master. " 3. his benevolence will be more than can be called into practise. 1. Mencius . If they come with said. but had not learned the great doctrines of the superior man. can not bear which makes him shrink from injuring others. On this. and All men have some things which they will not do. you receive them without any more ado. "He is a dead official situation in man P'un-shing Kwoh P'un-shing Kwoh How did you know. saying. If a man can give full development to the feeling benevolence will be the result. extend that feeling to the things which they do. 2. When Mencius went A "I apprehend not. If he can give full development to the real feeling of dislike with which he receives the salutation. some one asked Mencius. But you." asked. and when the keeper of the place came to look for it he could not find it. his righteousness will be more than can be called into practise. that he would meet with death ? " Mencius replied. ' Thou/ . "Is it thus that your followers pilfer ? " Mencius replied. a wall." CHAPTER XXXI 1. saying. " He was a man who had a little ability. having arranged to give lessons. Master.

Principles which. and go to weed the fields of others." CHAPTER XXXIV " Those who 1. Weeping for the all " When dead should be from real sorrow. by guile of silence seeking to gain some end both these cases are of a piece with break- ing through a neighbor's wall. while their meaning is far-reaching. and that what they require from others is great. guile of speech seeking to gain some end. The words should all be necessarily sincere. Wu were so by returning to natural the movements. that shows the extreme degree of the complete virtue. Mencius said. " When a scholar speaks what he ought not to speak. Mencius " said. The words of the superior man do not go below the girdle. The principle which the superior man holds is that of sive. and not because of the living. give counsel to the great should despise them. but the empire is thereby tranquillized." CHAPTER XXXII are simple. The superior man performs the law of right. in order that he may wait simply for what has been appointed. are exactly what is proper. " 2. . 2. as held. but great principles are contained in them. Thang and virtue. Words which good principles.374 ' THE SACRED BOOKS Thou. in the countenance and every turn of the body. not with any desire to do what is right. " 3. while their application is exten1. Yaou and Shun were what they were by nature. The regular path of virtue is to be pursued without any bend. by 4. are personal cultivation. are compendious.' he will act righteously in all places and circumstances. and when he does not speak what he ought to speak. are good words." " 3. The disease of men is this that they neglect their own : fields. and from no view to emolument. and not look at their pomp and display. Mencius " said." CHAPTER XXXIII 1. while what they lay upon them- selves is light.

Here is a man whose few in some things he may not be able to keep his Here is a man whose desires are heart. Pleasure and wine. to be sure. and the dash of hunting. " For mince and roast sheep-meat there is a common liking. if my wishes were to be projecting several cubits I would not have. or sheep-dates ? " Mencius " Mince and roasted meat. Wan Chang i " in Ch'in. We avoid the name. and his 2." : CHAPTER XXXVI 1. Confucius. The scholars of my school are for advancing and seizing are ambitious but hasty. said." CHAPTER XXXVII 1. though my wishes were realized.' asked. 375 "Halls several times eight cubits high. saying. Why should I stand in awe of them ? " these.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 2. the name is peculiar. What CHAPTER XXXV Mencius ter than to sires are " said. could not bear to eat sheep-dates. Let me return. but can not forget their early ways. Tsang Seih was fond of sheep-dates. with beams these. rules of the ancients. son. I would not have." Which is best Kung-sun Ch'ow asked. I would not have. The sur- " - name is common . the philosopher Tsang. while he would not eat sheep-dates ? Mencius answered. saying. with thousands of chariots following after me were realized. Food spread before me over ten realized. They did their object. cubits square. but they will be few. and attendant girls to the amount of hundreds these." Kung-sun said. minced meat and roasted meat. when he was Why . Mencius " said. " Then why did the philosopher Tsang eat " mince and roast-meat. To nourish the heart there is nothing betde- make : the desires few. Ch'ow went on. many in some things he may be able to keep his heart. while that for sheep-dates was peculiar. but they will be few. though my wishes they esteem are what what I esteem are the I would have nothing to do with. but do not avoid the surname.

questioning." replied Mencius. he wanted to get scholars who would consider anything impure as beneath them. were those whom Confucius styled am" bitious. as K'in Chang.376 Confucius. Those were the cau7. were they styled ' ambitious ? The reply was. the true medium. found also that he could not get such as were thus ambitious. THE SACRED BOOKS when he was in Ch'in. he therefore thought of the next class. and Muh P'ei. think of the ambitious Lu ? " replied." " I venture to ask what sort of men they were who could 3. They are those who say. and their actions have not respect to their words. Tsang Seih. but being unable to assure himself of finding such. 6. determined to take the ardent and the cautiously The ardent would advance to seize their object. pursuing the true medium. compared with their words. but The ancients! Why do they act they say." Chang pursued his They are only your good Confucius said. and are so cold and distant ? should be of this age. Such. Why are they so magniloquent ? Their words have not respect to their actions.' to get ' men ' ' 5. scholars of 2. " When he tiously decided 8. " Their aim led them to talk magnilo- " Why ' " ' The ancients The ancients quently. Mencius replied. saying. * a class next to the former. so peculiarly. the cautiously decided would keep themselves from certain It is not to be thought that Confucius did not wish things. their actions. The ancients! Born in this age. " be styled The ambitious ? " " 4. when they pass my door without Your good careful people of the villages entering my house. decided. are the thieves of virtue/ who could be styled ' What sort of people were they Your good careful people of the vil- lages'?" ' " 9. to be good is all that is needed/ we . to Mencius Confucius not getting men pursuing whom he might communicate his in- " structions. careful people of the villages at " whom I feel no indignation. did not come ! ! ' ' ' But up to them.

" " 10. " 13. ful men of the villages. they saw those earliest sages. the masses are they are so aroused. In all their conduct they are so. I hate the reddish blue. " them. while Thang heard their doctrines as transmitted. They consent with an impure age. seeks simply to bring back the unthat. ? Wan Chang " virtue Mencius " replied. righteousness. Their conduct has a semblance of disinterestedness and purity. so that it is impossible to proceed with them to the principles of Yaou and Shun. 377 such are your good men How 11. If you would blame them. " I hate sharpness of tongue. ' ' The I hate a semblance which is not I hate the darnel. they saw Thang and knew his to King Wan . From Yaou and Shun down to Thang were 500 years and more. As to Yu and Kaou-yaou. being rectified. you find nothing to allege. forthwith perversities and glossed wickedness disappear. Confucius said. and so knew their doctrines." When CHAPTER XXXVIII Mencius said. They agree with the current customs. lest it be con- founded with sincerity. and so knew 1. lest it be confounded with corn. All men are pleased with them. Yin. you have nothing to criticize. lest they be confounded with the truly virtuous. was it that Confucius considered them the thieves of said. 2. thieves of virtue/ 12. On this account they are called. Their principles have a semblance of right-heartedness and truth. " From Thang As to E were 500 years and more. and they think themselves right. and Lae Chu. I hate glib-tonguedness. and roused to virtue. lest it be confounded with the true music. The superior 7 man changing standard.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Eunuch-like. I hate the music of Ch'ing. I hate your good carelest it be confounded with vermilion. flattering their generation careful men of the villages. Their whole village styles those good and careful. If you would criticize them. lest it be confounded with the the reality.

doctrines, while so knew them.



heard them as transmitted, and



From King Wan to Confucius were 500 years and As to Thae-kung Wang and San E-sang, they saw

his doctrines, while Confucius heard them and so knew them. " From Confucius downward until now there are 4. only 100 years and somewhat more. The distance in time from the sage is so far from being remote, and so very near at hand was the sage's residence. In these circumstances, is there no one to transmit his doctrines ? Yea, is there no one " to do so ?

Wan, and


as transmitted,




"Right principles have no invariable name. Having examined the principles of this religion [Christianity] we find them to be purely excellent and natural; investigating its originating source we find it has taken its rise from the establishment
. . .

of important truths; its ritual is free its principles will survive when the

from perplexing expressions, framework is forgot/' CHINESE IMPERIAL EDICT PERMITTING THE PREACHING OF THE NESTORIANS.

remarkable record of the fact that Christianity in medieval China is a huge stone about ten feet high. Carven dragons and a cross adorn its summit, and its main shaft is completely covered with some two thousand Chinese characters. It stands now in the- Peilin or " " Forest of Tablets in Sian-fu, this Peilin being a great hall specially devoted to the preservation of old historic tablets. Up to a few years ago the ancient stone stood with other unvalued monuments in the grounds of a Buddhist

THIS flourished

monastery, exposed to all the assault of the elements. Only European urgence has led to its being preserved in the Peilin. The Nestorian sect of Christians still exists in Western Asia and was in a thriving condition in Syria in the sixth
It sent missionaries widely over Asia. Marco century. Polo recorded having found Christian churches in China; and Roman Catholic missionaries of later centuries found there a few Nestorians still practising a debased form of their This much concerning the Nestorian half-forgotten faith. in China we have long known. Then, with the Christianity modern opening of the empire, the old Nestorian stone was found. It tells its own history, and tells it plainly, how the Nestorian monks came, how Chinese officials were appointed to listen to their explanations, and gravely approved of the new religion as having " excellent principles." Various em-

perors accepted, or at least included, Christianity among their religions ; and the faith prospered, and had many thousands of followers, and in the year A.D. 781 erected this stone

commemoration of



Xow, alas, only the stone remains. The record of the Nessect's decay has needed no stone to make it manifest.
torian Christianity, shut off from its mother land by the rise of the Mohammedan powers in between, proved unable to
resist the inroads of

ignorance and superstition and changing

political affairs.

It degenerated

and disappeared.

Behold the unchangeably true and




through eternity without origin ; the far-seeing perfect intelligence, whose mysterious existence is everlasting; operating on primordial substance he created the universe, being more excellent than all holy intelligences, inasmuch as he is
the source of






our eternal true

lord God, triune and mysterious in substance. He appointed the cross as the means for determining the four cardinal

the original spirit, and produced the two principles of nature; the somber void was changed, and heaven and earth were opened out; the sun and moon repoints, he


volved, and day and night commenced; having perfected all inferior objects, he then made the first man upon him he

bestowed an excellent disposition, giving him in charge the government of all created beings man, acting out the original

principles of his nature, was pure and unostentatious; his unsullied and expansive mind was free from the least inordiuntil Satan introduced the seeds of falsehood, to his purity of principle; the opening thus comdeteriorate menced in his virtue gradually enlarged, and by this crevice

nate desire


in his nature

was obscured and rendered vicious hence three

hundred and

sixty-five sects followed each other in


track, inventing every species of doctrinal complexity ; while some pointed to material objects as the source of their faith,

others reduced all to vacancy, even to the annihilation of the

two primeval principles, some sought to call down blessings by prayers and supplications, while others by an assumption
of excellence held themselves


and thoughts

as superior to their fellows ; continually wavering, their

minds and

affections incessantly 382

on the move, they never ob-

From a
medieval print.








eternity v


the far-seeing perfect in

on primordial substance he created the universe, more excellent than all holy in; inasmuch as



the source of all
lord God,





ur eternal


goverMi:-'iif of



out the o

principles of his oature, was pure and unostentatio unsullied and expansive mind was free from the L

nate desire


until Satan introduced the seeds of f


deteriorate his purity of principle; the metjced in his virtue grac 1,



oature was <lwi'v--



some ponTnl



rce of their fait



two primeval V by prayers and
of excell* ncv







by an asaumpti-

r to np as and thoughts continually w minds and affections incessantly on the move,



in clear day he ascended to his true station. a virgin gave birth to the Holy One in Syria a bright star . he established the new religion of the silent operation of the pure spirit of the Triune . By the rule for admission. announced the splendor came 2 as declared by the twenty-four holy men.LITERATURE OF THE EAST I 383 tained their vast desires. appeared in the world as a man angelic powers promulgated the glad tidings. " * The " three constant may perhaps mean faith. 6 Exactly the number we have in the New Testament. from dross 4 leased. "Persians. pended and the falsehoods of the devil were thereupon defeated. that the Magi or wise men mentioned in Matthew's Gospel were no other than philosophers of the Parsee sect. our Trinity being divided in nature. being the designation of an extensive sect then located in the Empire. " 2 The " denote the writers of the books of the Old holy men Testament. was then fulfilled. veiling his true dignity. hope. the bright sun to invade the chambers of darkness. 3 The " eight boundaries " are inexplicable . Thereupon. . some refer them to the and beatitudes. and Persians 1 observing the to present tribute. he susprinciples. and he laid down great principles for the government of families and kingdoms. it is the custom to apply the water of bapiPo-sz'. but being exhausted and distressed they revolved in their own heated atmosphere. and after long groping in darkness they were unable to return. . having thus completed the manifestation of his power. whereupon rational beings were then reing it . till by an accumulation of obscurity they lost their path. the illustrious and honorable Messiah. principles charity. and the name of a nation with which they had held commercial and political intercourse for several centuries. the ancient dispensation. dered virtue subservient to direct faith. he set in motion the vessel of mercy by which to ascend to the bright mansions. he fixed the extent of the eight boundaries. he ren- felicitous event. The statement here is in admirable harmony with the general tradition of the early Church. Twenty-seven sacred books 5 have been left. which disseminate intelligence by unfolding the original transforming principles. 3 thus completing the truth and free- he opened the gate of the three constant introducing life and destroying death." This name was well known to the Chinese at that time.

principles can not become expanded . they shave the crown to indicate the absence of inward affections. the fame of their is diffused abroad. they fast. . they do benevolence not keep slaves. Minister. uniting all without they strike the wood. sacrifice. and whose As in every direction. of the religion. to THE SACRED BOOKS wash away is reflected all superficial show and to cleanse purify the neophytes. worshiping toward the east. in order to perfect themselves by self-inspection. Observing the azure he bore the true sacred books beholding the direction clouds. among the enlightened and holy men who arrived was the most-virtuous Olopun. from the country of Syria. but as its meritorious oper- name are manifestly displayed. they preserve the they beard to symbolize their outward actions. they hold the cross. the world be. but put noble and mean all on an equality.384 tism. the sovereign investigated the subject in his private apartments when becoming deeply impressed with the rectitude and truth . by accommodation it is named the Illustrious Religion. 635 he arrived at Chang-an . carrying the official staff to the west border. seven times a day they have worship and praise for the benefit of the living and the dead once in seven days they heart and return to purity. influence distinction. . but cast all their property into the common stock. holy men can not become magnified but with holy men and right principles. in order to strengthen themselves by silent watchfulness. As a seal. Duke Fang Hiuen-ling. he gave special orders for its dissemination. . comes civilized and enlightened. Now without holy men. united as the two parts of a signet. hasten on the way to life and glory. they submit to restraints. the sacred books were translated in the imperial library. the illustrious and magnificent founder of the dynasty. In the year of the winds. In the time of the accomplished Emperor Tai-tsung. the Emperor sent his Prime A.I). to cleanse the It is difficult to find a true and ations to express the excellence of the unchangeable doctrine . they do not amass wealth. he braved difficulties and dangers. who. without principles. conducted his guest into the interior .

. None but Illustrious laws prevail. When the virtue of the Chau Dynasty rider on the azure ox ascended to the west Orders were then issued to the authorities to have a true portrait of the Emperor taken when it was transferred to the . we find them to be purely excellent and natural . the Illustrious breezes have come to fan the East. it is beneficial to all creatures . its ritual is free from perplexing expressions. XII. and has presented them at our chief capital. and night-luster gems. According to the Illustrated Memoir of the Western Regions. distant part. it is advantageous to mankind. on the east it lies open to the violent winds and tideless waters. of the kingdom of large. locality. the great Tang becoming resplendent. on the west it extends toward the borders of the immortals and the flowery forests. holy men have no invariable station instruction is established in accordance . 25. a felicitous influence. life-restoring incense. but the people enjoy happiness and peace. and the proper authority build a Syrian church in the capital in the I-ning May. we find it has taken its rise from the establishment of important truths. its principles will survive when the framework is forgot let . Let it be published throughout the Empire. wall of the church." priests. investigating its originating source. the the principles of .LITERATURE OF THE EAST 385 In the seventh month of the year A. which shall be governed by twenty-one declined. the dazzling splendor of the celestial visage The sacred traces emitted irradiated the Illustrious portals. on the north it joins the Gem Mountains. VOL.. bright moon-pearls. has brought his sacred books and images from that Syria. Brigands and robbers are unknown. and the historical books of the Han and Wei dynasties. 638 the following imperial proclamation was issued: " Right principles have no invariable name. the kingdom of Syria reaches south to the Coral Sea. with the object of benefiting the people at The greatly virtuous Olopun. with the Having examined the principles of this religion.D. The country produces fire-proof cloth. and shed a perpetual splendor over the holy precincts. none but the virtuous are raised to sovereign power.

looking toward the star (of China). gaining power. temporarily thrown down. The high-principled Emperor Hiuen-tsung caused the Prince of Ning and others. In the year A. and its literary productions are perspicuous and clear." radiated their intelligence. their bows and swords were still within reach while the solar horns sent forth their rays. lofty-minded . priests. and a gift of a hundred pieces of silk accompanied these pictures of intelligence. and ratified the honor conferred upon Olopun. In 744 the priest Kih-ho. raised their voices in the eastern metropolis in the year A. the greatly virtuous Kie-leih. . in the kingdom of Syria. spread slanders in the western capital. personally to he established the place of worhe restored the consecrated timbers which had been ship. The Emperor Kau-tsung respectfully succeeded his ancestor. was attracted by its transforming .D. the State became enriched and tranquillity abounded. some low fellows excited ridicule and . and celestial 6 visages seemed close at hand. In 742 orders were given to the great general Kau Lih-sz'. having abandoned all worldly interests who unitedly maintained the grand principles and preserved them entire to the end. These personages are the first five emperors of the Tang Dynasty.D. five princes in all. to In every province he caused Illustrious churches be erected. and the royal family enjoyed luster and happiness. Their portraits were so admirably painted that they seemed to be present. At that time there was the chief priest Lohan. visit the felicitous edifice. and their foreheads. or " horns of the sun. Hiuen-tsung's predecessors. Although the dragon's beard was then remote. their arms could almost be handled. and was still more beneficent toward the institution of truth. While this doctrine pervaded every channel. Every city was full of churches. and re-erected the sacred stones which for a time had been desecrated. to send the five sacred portraits and have them placed in the church. and others of noble estate from the golden regions. 699 the Buddhists. making him the great conservator of doctrine for the preservation of the State.386 THE SACRED BOOKS is The land broad and ample. 713.

came to pay court to the most honorable. and the imperial State became established. the priest Pu-lun. to perform a service of merit in the Hing-king palace. great benefits . openness of heart distinguished his devotions. and the tablets were graced with the royal inscriptions the accumu. and ordered the performance of a service of merit he distributed of the imperial viands. gems emitted their effulgence. seven in all. he bestowed celestial incense. re- The accomplished and enlightened Emperor Suh-tsung built the Illustrious churches in Ling-wu and four other were conferred. according to which he advanced or degraded the intelli- Our gent and dull. he opened up the nine categories. The Emperor commanded the priest Lo-han. cent in the dissemination of blessings. The accomplished and military Emperor Tai-tsung magnified the sacred succession. by cor- .LITERATURE OF THE EAST influence.e. while their sparkling brightness vied with the ruby clouds. is and what ticable may be related. on the incarnation-day. and felicity began to increase. whereby the benefits of life are extended. whence he is able to counteract noxious influences. . the transcripts of intelligence suspended in the void shot forth their rays as related flected by the sun . accomplished and military Emperor Kien-chung appointed the eight branches of government.. 387 and observing the sun (i. while . together with the greatly virtuous Kih-ho. and honored the latent principle of nature always. the holy man embodies the original principle of virtue. Emperor). by means of which he renovated the Illustrious decrees his transforming influence pervaded the most abstruse principles. Heaven is munifiplaces. nothing is beyond the power of the holy man. and that which is pracciple. sacred and sage-like. in order to shed a glory on the Illustrious Congregation. the bedewing favors were deep as the eastern sea. Thereupon the Em- peror composed mottoes for the sides of the church. and others. Nothing is beyond the range of the right prinpermissible may be identified . the bountiful gifts exceeded the height of the southern hills. Thus. great munificence was displayed.

which gives to the possessor a certain status in the capital. he came to visit China. the Imperially conferred purpleI-sz'. men sincere . the thoughts will produce their appropriate response. Associated Secondary Military Commissioner for the Northern Region. Our great 7 gown priest. eventually his name was inscribed on the military roll. he distributed the wealth conferred upon him. by which the bearer is entitled to a certain emolument from the State. his practise was perfect in every department . such is the laudable condition which we of the Illus- trious Religion are laboring to attain. and the eyes will be . the world will be at rest will be guided by principle. and the dead will rejoice. the distant city of Rajagriha. titular Great Statesman of the Banquet- ing-house. lating treasure for his private use 7 . the affections will be free. he made offerings of the for priests to occupy civil and military the State during the Tang and preceding dynasties. When the Duke Koh Tsz'-i. without any duties or emolument connected therewith. Secondary Minister of State and Prince of Fan-yang. he assumed march he was as claws and teeth to the and in rousing the military he was as ears and eyes. the cultivation of our doctrine gained a grand basis. the first is merely an indication of rank. and enlarged purity of principle. was naturally mild and graciously disposed his mind susceptible of sound doctrine.388 rect THE SACRED BOOKS . duke. at first conducted the military in the northern region. at first he applied himself to duties pertaining to the palace. and by gradual advances its influence was diffused. and Examination-palace Overseer. not accumutravels. his principles more lofty than those of the three dynasties. Of the three titles here given. . and the third is an honorary title. benefactor. he was diligent in the performance from . the Emperor Suh-tsung made him (I-sz') his attendant on his was a private chamberlain. and undeviating consistency in sympathy with others by extended commiseration rescuing multitudes from misery. inferior objects will be pure. the living will be at ease. . while disseminating blessings on all around. the It offices in was no rare occurrence second is his title as an officer actively engaged in the imperial service. If the winds and rains are seasonable. although he no distinction on the .

the white-clad members of the Illustrious Congregation. Profound. the naked came and were clothed. All bearing witness to his true original. . To save and to help without bounds. With power and capacity to perfect and transform. he spread out a golden carpet for devotion. such excellence was never heard now of. now he repaired the old churches. in order to set forth a eulogy of their magnanimous deeds. . and unchangeable. And the vessel set in motion for the living and the dead . and respectfully engaged them for fifty days in purification and preparation. and darkness was dispelled. the dead were buried in repose. he distributed his riches in deeds of benevolence . The Scriptures were translated. have desired to engrave a broad tablet. invisible. practising the discipline of the Illustrious Religion. accomplished Emperor. the sick were attended to and restored. When the pure. and churches built. The glorious and resplendent. Divided in nature. suppressed turbulence Heaven was spread out and the earth was enlarged. considering these men. He raised up the earth and established the heavens. Taking advantage of the occasion. anon he increased the number of religious establishments . he entered the world.LITERATURE OE THE EAST 389 jewelry which had been given by imperial favor. ODE The true Lord is without origin. every year he assembled those in the sacred office from four churches. Was introduced bright Illustrious Religion to our Tang Dynasty. even among the most pure and self- denying of the Buddhists. The sun arose. till they resembled the plumage of the pheasant in its flight. Whose principles embraced those of preceding monarchs. moreover. he honored and decorated the various edifices.

Overseers of the church were appointed in due form . Sacred as the moon's unsullied expanse. While all creatures were exempt from calamity and dis- tress. Covered the length and breadth of the land. Ebullitions were allayed.and earth Combined . Every business was flourishing throughout. While the whole land rendered exalted homage . The autumnal influences were long removed. tablets shot forth their effulgence. recti- His imperial And the celestial writings mutually reflected their splendors. Happiness reverted to the Imperial household. When He Hiuen-tsung commenced his sacred career. rich The imperial domain was And the people all enjoyed prosperity. applied himself to the cultivation of truth and tude . large and light. Tai-tsung the filial and just in virtue with heaven . While felicity was wafted like nocturnal gales. and risings suppressed.890 THE SACRED BOOKS Every kind of blessing was then obtained. And celestial dignity marked the Imperial movements. When Kau-tsung succeeded to his ancestral estate. who commenced anew. Palaces of concord. and luxuriant. And thus our dynasty was firmly built up. The people enjoyed happiness and peace. Then came Suh-tsung. And all the kingdoms enjoyed a state of peace. . He rebuilt the edifices of purity . The true doctrine was clearly announced.

! This was erected in the 2d year of Kien-chung. light penetrated the secrecies of men. of the Tang Dynasty (A. The And solar concave appeared in dignity. formerly Military Superintendent for Tai-chau. Written by Lu Siu-yen. to act ! We raise this noble monument To the praise of great felicity. while the Bishop !N"ing-shu had the charge of the congregations of the Illustrious in the East. his accomplished purity influenced all lands. The sovereign has the power While the ministers record. Secretary to Council. how expansive Its responses are minute . [The two lines of Syriac are in the Estrangelo character. And property formed the channel of imparting succor.D. all outer nations took And him for example. shed a vivifying influence through the whole realm of nature. And His vigilance extended to the four seas. on the 7th day of the 1st month. ! How To The true doctrine. 781). being Sunday. difficult to name it ! elucidate the three in one. With benevolence he dispensed his donations. . By fragrant mementoes he rewarded the meritorious. the lunar retreat was decorated to extreme. When Kien-chung succeeded to the throne. And to him the diversities of objects were seen as in a He mirror .391 By his liberal bequests the living were satisfied. He began the cultivation of intelligent virtue His military .

son of the enlightened Mailas. " Adam. and sixty-one are given in Chinese. In the time of the Father of Fathers.THE SACRED BOOKS and run down the right and left sides of the Chinese respecKircher translates this as follows :] tively. and the preaching of the apostolic missionaries to the King of China. Priest. is] The Priest Lingpau." is [The translation of the Syriac at the foot of the stone given here on the authority of Kircher :] " In the year of the Greeks one thousand and ninety-two." [After " this. the Imperially conferred purple-gown Chief Presbyter ' and Priest Yi-li. set up this tablet.] [On . the Lord John Joshua. the Universal Patriarch. Priest of Balach a city of Turkestan. son of Jazedbuzid. Vicar-episcopal and Pope of China. Priest and Vicar-episcopal." [Then follows:] " Adam The the Deacon." the left-hand edge are the Syriac names of sixty-seven priests. the Lord Jazedbuzid. Priest and Vicar-episcopal of Cumdan the royal city. Vicar-episcopal. Deacon. in Chinese characters. whereon is inscribed the Dispensation of our Redeemer. and Ecclesiarch of Cumdan and Sarag." [The following subscription : is appended in Chinese :] " Assistant Examiner the High Statesman of the Sacred rites. Priest. Gabriel. Lord Sergius. Sabar Jesus. Archdeacon.

LATER LITERATURE HISTORY AND DRAMA A somewhat curious sample of a very foreign literature/' SIR JOHN DAVIS. .


we have died in the year 85 B.HISTORY AND DEAMA (INTRODUCTION) historian of China. theme in Chinese 395 .C." is one of the best known of the Chinese dramas. declares it the best of the collection. the emperor Yuen-te having ruled in the first century before Christ. the Lady Chao-kuen. But his anecdotes can by no means be accepted entirely or with an exact literalness. The characters of the play are semi-historical. The drama given here. It is one of a collection called the " Hundred Plays of Yuen. though as this form of literature is regarded by Chinamen as wholly undistinguished. both for painting and for poetry. the noted scholar who translates it. The heroine. is a favorite art. so that already spoken. In the original its length is much extended by a sort of operatic form of chanting the lines. the " Han Koong Tsu. his records of Lao-Tze and the other sages approach near OF Sze-ma Chien.. with much repetition." and Sir John Davis. no record has been preserved of the author's name or the drama's date. the first He enough to their originals in time to preserve some resemblance to the living men.

and can only compare him to the dragon. setting forth his views on the Tao and its attributes. " The men about whom you talk are dead. yourself out gate. Moreover. Put away your proud air and many desires. though he have rich treasures safely stored. seeing the decay of the dynasty." On this. only their words are left. They are of no advantage to you this is all I have to tell you. of sight. how he mounts on the wind through the clouds." Con" I know fucius said to his disciples after the interview how birds can fly. . appears as if he were poor and that the . he mounts aloft but when the time is against him. in more than 396 . and the flyer But there is the dragon: I can not tell shot by the arrow. Lao-Tze wrote a book in two parts. when the superior man gets his opportunity. he left it and went away to the barrier-gate. leading out of Yin Hsi. and animals run. he is carried along by the force of circumstances. and rises to heaven. the chief to keep himself concealed and continued to reside at the capital of how Chau. Let me insist on your first composing for me a book. To-day I have seen Lao-Tze. superior man. and their bones are moldered to dust. is yet to outward seeming stupid. though his virtue be complete." runner may Lao-Tze cultivated the Tao and aim of his studies being remain unknown. fishes swim. But the : be snared. " You are about to withdraw said to him. the swimmer hooked. your insinuating habit and wild will. He its attributes. I have heard that a good merchant. the warden of the the kingdom on the northwest. but after a long time.HISTOKY A1STD DRAMA ANECDOTES FKOM THE HISTORY OF SZE-MA CHIEN Lao-Tze said to Confucius.

" to satirize "The Bobber and "The and expose the Khang-sang and the pieces where they occur are not Hsu and to be un- derstood as narratives of real events. The ablest scholars of his day could not escape his satire nor reply to it. of Chu.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 397 5000 characters. He was a superior man. He then went away. verifying the saying. and by his instances and truthful descriptions hit and exposed the Mohists and Literati. and promising also that he would make him his chief minister." Satchels. but preferred the views of Lao-Tze." taught that by doing nothing others are as a matter of course transformed. even kings and princes. having heard of the ability of him Chuang Chau. and to be a high noble and minister is a most honorable posiBut have you not seen the victim-ox for the border tion. however. and it is not known where he died. them. only laughed and said to A thousand ounces of silver are a great gain to me. Chuang-Tze had made himself well acquainted with all the literature of his time. dashing style. and thus it was that the greatest men. while he allowed and enjoyed himself with his sparkling. and ranked himself among his followers. " Parties whose prinLao-Tze ciples are different can not take counsel together. sent messengers with large gifts to bring him to his court. and clearly exhibit the sentiments of Lao. than ten myriads of characters contained in his published writings the greater part are occupied with metaphorical illusHe made " The Old Fisher- man. so that of the more trations of Lao's doctrines. and the Literati on their part condemn Lao-Tze. Those who attach themselves to the doctrine of Lao-Tze condemn that of the Literati." characters as fictitious. Chuang-Tze. But Chuang was an admirable writer and skilful composer. and that rectification in the same way ensues from being pure and still. Cutting open disciples of Confucius. could not use King Wei for their purposes. Such names and " " " Tze " are Wei-lei Chih. " . who liked to keep himself unknown.

I had rather quickly. When the time comes for it to do so." . and robed with rich embroidery that it may be fit to enter the Grand Temple.398 sacrifice? THE SACRED BOOKS It is carefully fed for several years. it would preGo away fer to be a little pig. amuse and enjoy myself in the midst of a filthy ditch than be subject to the rules and restrictions in the court of a I have determined never to take office. but prefer sovereign. and do not soil me with your presence. but it can not get to be so. the enjoyment of my own free will.

K'han of the Tartars. shining on the rude huts. grass. by the contrivance of the minister. The wild chase is our trade. the old inhabitant of the sandy waste. a bold and able woman. And The of night. until. The fore our Eastern tribes . the second emperor of Han. obey their leader. and The ancient title of our chiefs days my ancestor hemmed in with his forces the Emperor Kaoute . sued for our friendship. hears the lament of the mournful pipe the : moon countless hosts. The autumnal gale blows wildly through the amidst our woolen tents. Since the time of Hoeyte and the Empress Leuhow. 399 emblematic of Sorrow. 1 In Chinese Autumn is Hence this title was originally translated by Sir John Davis as " The Sorrows of Han. For seven Emperor Wunwong retired beWeikeang trembled at us." 2 The mother of Hoeyte. the sole ruler of the northern regions.THE HAN KOONG TSU OE AUTUMN OF THE PALACE OF HAN PROLOGUE 1 Enter Hanchenyu. reciting four verses. K'HAN. who ruled for her eon. battle and conquest our chief occupation. our tribes were in full power: numberless was the host of armed warriors with their bended horns. I am Hanchenyu. When the two races of Tsin and Han contended in battle. with their bended horns. has in the course of time been changed to that which I now bear. me as Our tribes are ten distinguished friends of the family of Han. 2 each successive generation has adhered to the established rule. and filled the empire with tumult. and the Princesses of China were yielded in marriage to our K'hans. a treaty was concluded. as Spring is of Joy. .

reciting verses. and the talons of an eagle. and its power was weakened until the tribes elected me as their chief. Within the precincts of the counsel.400 THE SACRED BOOKS In the reign daughters. until he places words he listens to . insinuation. my lucubrations Enter Emperor Yuente. profligacy. We have moved ing an to the South. The fineness of the season has drawn away our chiefs on a hunting excursion amidst the sandy steppes. claimalliance with the Imperial race. MINISTER. his whole delight in me alone. Enter Minister of Han. I command a hundred thousand armed warriors. attended by Eunuchs and Women. as without them. other than Maouyenshow. May they meet with success. Let a man have the heart of a kite. and oppress those below him. and seek all his pleasures amidst the Thus it is that I strengthen of his palace. Yesterday I dispatched an envoy with tributary presents to demand a princess in marriage. brothers contended Emperor Seuente. Let him deceive his superiors. but know not if the Emperor will ratify the engagement with the customary oaths. and ava- on his side. women power my and greatness. and approached the border. who is there but bows before me who is there but trembles at my approach : ? But : It is this observe the chief art which I have learned the Emperor to keep aloof from his wise to persuade counselors. for we Tartars have no fields our bows and arrows are our sole means of subsistence. a minister of the sov- them a By a hundred arts of specious flattery ereign of Han. and address I have deceived the Emperor. and he follows My my palace. and sought our alliance with its of the late I am a real descendant of the empire of Han. my with myself for the rule of our nation. in the midst of Here comes the Emperor. Let him rice enlist flattery. And I am no he will find lasting assistance through life. But. .

LITERATURE OF THE EAST EMPEROR [recites verses']. let us be prowell. Long have the frontiers been bound in tranquillity by the ties of mutual oaths. sir. 26. On the demise of our late were all dispersed. and will invest you with a written auSearch diligently through our realms. verses^ The appropriate to myself. Our But not through our personal the eight regions at rest merits . and slaughtering their race. the female inmates of the palace ! MINISTER. we have wholly depended on the exertions of our ! civil and military rulers. and thority. ancestor Kaoute emerged from a private station. EMPEROR. You say appoint you at once our minister of selection. and our harem is now solitary and untenanted . when you have selected the most worthy. [Exeunt. The four boundaries of the empire have been tranquil . And our pillow has been undisturbed by grief or anxiety. you may supply us with an occasion of rewarding you on your return. Behold in us the Emperor Yuente. Consider. that even the thriving husbandman may desire to change his partner. . ACT FIRST MINISTER [repeats VOL. as a means of fixing our choice. my race has alone possessed the four hundred districts of the world. We vided with portraits of each. and raised his family by extinguishing the dynasty of Ten generations Tsin. XII. then why not your Majesty. By the merits of your services. whose title is the Law of Heaven. 401 that During the ten generations have succeeded our acquisition of Empire. for the peopling of the inner palace. but how shall this be endured father. have passed away since he left this inheritance to us. huge ingots of yellow gold I . of the race of Han. whose possessions are the whole world! May I advise that commissioners be dispatched to search throughout the empire for all of whatever rank that is most beautiful between the ages of fifteen and twenty.

She was perfectly beautiful and doubtless unparalleled in the whole empire. relying on her extraordinary beauty. When I insisted on a hundred ounces of gold to secure her being the chief object of the Imperial choice. unfortunately. On arriving yesterday at a district pertaining to Chingtoo city. her father is a cultivator of the land. manner that Night. But no! [Considers awhile. with two female tendants. But. daughter of one Wongchang. I am a native of Chingtoo city and my father's occupation is husbandry. Though raised to be an in- habitant of the Imperial dwelling I have long been here without the good fortune to see my prince. they first pleaded their poverty and then. Thus I shall contrive to make her unhappy for life. .402 THE SACRED BOOKS I heed not the seas of blood which flow by perverting the laws. This beautiful night must I pass in lonely solitude. Their families were glad to invite my selection by rich gifts. life I am determined to have abundance of what care I for the curses of mankind after my death? Having received the Emperor's commission to search far and wide for the most beautiful damsels. With no companion but my lute to solace my retirement. . rejected my offers altogether. a maiden. not possessed of much wealth. Base is the man who delights not in revenge! [Exit.~\ I I have a better plan. I met with During riches . [He knits his brows and matures his scheme J\ I will disfigure her portrait in such a when it reaches the Emperor it shall secure her being doomed to neglected seclusion. Enter the Lady Chaoukeun. I have fixed upon ninety and nine. therefore left them. and the treasure that I have amassed is not small. The brightness of her charms was piercing as an arrow. at- CHAOUKEUN [recites verses']. My mother dreamed on the day I was born that the light of the moon shone on her bosom.

EMPEROR. then. gate. disfigured my portrait keep me out of the Emperor's presence and now I live While at home. and could play a few airs on the lute. I learned a little in neglected solitude. but beware lest you alarm her. . 3 I was just eighteen years of age when chosen as an inhabitant of the Imperial palace. this delay. she would have been less tardy forgive.~] ATTENDANT. from the wind. Had . and bid her approach our presence. Is not that some lady's lute ? [Hears the lute. ATTENDANT [approaches in the direction of the sound. . I hasten to advise her of your Majes- ty's approach. attended by a Eunuch. griefs. . Thus sormusic. but the minister pointed in the treasure which he Maouyenshow. lamp. see that the light 4 EMPEROR. Since the beauties were selected to grace our palace. and hold it burns nearer LADY [approaching] your handmaid but known it was your Majesty. let me practise one lute. this day of leisure roaming in search of her who may be destined for our Imperial choice. we have not yet discovered a worthy object on whom Vexed and disappointed. rowing in the of stillness of midnight. [Lady advances. * Instead of glass. EMPEROR. and The Emperor comes! speaks]. my songs to dispel my [Begins to play on the Enter Emperor. discover what part of our palace that lady pertains. What lady plays there? approach to meet him. to defend it Boding a short but fatal distinction to her offspring. Keeper of the yellow brightly within your gauze to us. we pass to fix our preference.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 403 but was soon cast low to the earth. disapdemanded on my acin such a manner as to count. hold! to Keeper of the yellow gate. carrying a light. No. It is.

who have nothing but their labor to contribute. attractions. That shall readily be done. by representing a scar under the eyes. [To the attendant. district. to behead Maouyenshow and report to us his execution. But with such uncommon has kept you from our sight ? LADY. I am ignorant of the ily. customs. he demanded of my father an amount of treasure which our poverty could not supply. manners that befit a palace. our palace. [Exit. EMPEROR. bring us that picture. . LADY. and personal service. salt monopoly. he therefore disfigured my portrait. My parents.404 THE SACRED BOOKS beauty such superior charms ? quarter come. tinction close the doors : I will retire to rest. that we may view it. and caused me to be consigned to seclusion and neglect. how has he dimmed the purity of the gem. this is a very perfect ! EMPEROR. Keeper of the yellow gate. our Imperial pleasure. what chance When I was chosen by the minister Maouyenshow. . Truly LADY. which last is the source of much oppression to the lowest orders. We create Approach and hear you a Princess of LADY. sir. 6 The principal taxes in China are the land-tax.] Transmit our pleasure to the officer of the guard. Let me are subject to the tax 5 in our native entreat your Majesty to remit their contributions and extend favor toward them ! EMPEROR. From what at My name is Chaoukeun: my father cultivates Chingtoo the fields which he has derived from his famBorn in an humble station. How unworthy ! is your handmaid of such gracious dis- [Goes through the form of returning thanksJ] Early to-morrow I attend your Majesty's commands in The Emperor is gone: let the attendants this place. [Sees the pictured} Ah. EMPEROK. bright as the waves in autumn.

[Addresses inform King Hanto somebody J\ Leader. of whom he 6 me one? The difference was of little Let me recall my envoy with all speed. escape though I have no home to I will take this true portrait of Chaoukeun my and show mand to the Tartar K'han. What person are you? Han. see how matters turn out. with of a princess in marriage . he not plenty of ladies in his palace. am a minister of is Emperor In the western palace a lady.LITERATURE OF THE EAST ACT SECOND Enter K'han of the Tartars. chenyu that a great minister of the empire of come to wait on him. of rare The honor of the Imperial alliance being the chief object. named Chaoukeun. who will no doubt be obliged to yield her up. and be guided by the Enter Minister of Han. and seclusion.~\ Command him to approach. Han is K'HAN [on MINISTER. consequence. himself to this spot. I contrived to to disfigure consign her to neglected me make it receive me. I of the 6 being informed']. for I must invade the South with our forces. obtained the truth. but the Emperor has returned a refusal. . yet too young. K'HAN. at the 405 head of his Tribes. under the plea that the princess is demand Had This answer gives me great trouble. But the Emperor fell in with her. in the selection of beauties for the palace. led the picture of Chaoukeun. and condemned me to lose my head. And yet I am unwilling to break a truce of so many years' standmight have sent ing ! We must event. MINISTER. The severity with which I extorted money. A long journey has brought me and from the troops of men and horses I conclude I have reached the Tartar camp. [Seeing Maouyensliow. persuading him to deher from the Emperor. I the lately sent an envoy to the sovereign of Han.

K'HAN. great king. [Stands opposite a mirror. sent. and I there- asked how he fore escaped with the portrait of the lady. met with Chaoukeun in the western we have been as it were deranged and intoxifirst cated and a long interval has elapsed since we held a court . [Hands it up. as they proceed on their way. but the Emperor of Han could not and surpassing charms. wishes are my complete. we waited . Immediately and my ministers prepare a letter to the shall an envoy be dispatched. Emperor of Han. this the Emperor would have beheaded me . I will presently invade the peace. she must certainly envoy be delivered up. The Palace PRINCESS. The Emperor's fondness for me is so great. Since we palace. Here is the portrait. rivers shall be exposed to ravage. which I pre- Should you send away an with the picture to demand her. Enter Emperor. and thus gradually entering the South: his hills and frontiers. this lady would have answered the summons. ready to act as may best suit the [Exit. great king. EMPEROR. I hear he is now gone to the hall of audience. A long period has elapsed since I had to thank his Majesty for his choice. that he has still neglected to hold a court. a princess. of Han. Enter Lady. For beauty. and will therefore ornament myself at my toilet and be ready to wait on him at his return. Our warriors will commence by hunting. on entering the hall of audience this day. . for the sake of a woman's to implicate the welfare of two nations. to came demand bring himself to part with her. could bear. demanding her in marriage as the condition of Should he refuse. to yourself. attended by females. Whence could in the world ! so beautiful a female have appeared If I can only obtain her. I shall be occasion. and refused to yield her I repeatedly renewed my bitter reproaches. and up.406 THE SACRED BOOKS When your envoy.

the goddess of the moon. when the audience was concluded. report this to his Majesty. the leader of the northern foreigners. and that he demands her the porin mar- If refused. who has retired to his western my palace. and an PRESIDENT [recites verses'}. and our rivers and hills will be exposed to rapine. . They should be occupied with government.~\ Re- flected in that round mirror. to propitiate them? why call for the princess i Changngo. peror. 7 Enter President. [Perceiving the Em- I report to your Majesty that Hanchenyu. he will riage as the only condition of peace. public cares in the hall of at the banquets in the But they do naught but attend palace. which are compared to the lunar crescent when only a day or two old. When have they employed a single day in the service of their prince? This day.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 407 not until the assembly had dispersed. [Comes close behind and looks over her. as the only condition of peace. but observe in secret what she is doing. but returned hither to obtain a sight of her. forth armies.] Let us not alarm her. gives her name to the finely curved eyebrows of the Chinese ladies. officers EMPEROR. sends an envoy to declare that trait of Maouyenshow has presented to him the princess. invade the South with a great power.'] Here I must enter. the Moon. an envoy arrived from the Tartars to demand Chaoukeun in marIt is duty to riage. [Perceiving the Princess. Ministers should devote themselves to the regulation of the empire . In vain do we maintain and send vain are the crowds of civil and military about Which of them will drive back They are all afraid of foreign troops? swords and arrows! But if they can not our palace ! for us these Tartar exert themthe selves to expel the barbarians. she resembles the Lady in Officer in waiting.

the K'han has a countless army of brave warriors. who now sends me. K'han. and report to us the best mode of tary retire. sends me.408 THE SACRED BOOKS PRESIDENT. his minister. the affairs of your empire are falling into ruin. The foreigners say that through your Majesty's devoted fondness for the princess. EMPEROR. . and be defeated. and subdue the country. Should your Majesty refuse. Well command . that he approach us. K'han of the Tartars. to save your people. on purpose to demand the Lady Chaoukeun. They declare that if the government does not yield her up. the Theodora of Chinese history. Our army is weak. and infamous by his debaucheries and cruelties. Should we oppose the Tartars. in concert with his empress Takee. causing the foreign troops to without yielding 8 Chow-wong was the last of the Shang Dynasty. to state before the great Sovereign of Han that the Northern tribes and the Southern empire have long been bound in peace by mutual alliances but that envoys being twice sent to demand a princess. OFFICER. and needs the talents of a fit general. and . Your servant 8 who lost his empire and life reflects. and will forthwith invade the South to try the chances of war. The envoy may retire to repose himself in his Let our civil and mili[Exit the Envoy. is a fit example to warn your Majesty. Hanchenyu. Maouyenshow. EMPEROR. they will put their army in motion. officers consult. The envoy waits without for an audience. Enter Envoy. and no other. what will remain to us? Let your Majesty give up your fondness for the princess. took with him the portrait of a beautiful lady. his envoy. ENVOY. ~] lodging. The late minister. I trust presented it to the your Majesty will not err in your decision. as the only condition of peace between the two nations. that Chow-wong entirely through his blind devotion to Takee. his requisitions have been refused.

women to keep our PRINCESS. Alas ! Sir.which Empress of them would dare to be of a different opinion? It would seem that.. and shall leave behind me a name still green in history. accede to ours? and then as it may. and give her a this PRESIDENT. ! . then. Were the tage Leuhow alive let her utter a word . we will witness her departure home to hate the traitor return Maouyenshow ! PRESIDENT. They take advanof the compliant softness of her temper. to the envoy. instead of men for ministers. for the future. we need only have fair empire in peace. Alas. Though I go into exile for the nation's good. To-morrow we will far as the bridge of Pahling. this may not be ! It will draw on us the contempt of these barbarians. and think of the security of your Dynasty. EMPEROR. but the envoy is instructed and from ancient times. how to insist upon her alone often hath a nation suffered for a woman's beauty! PRINCESS. In return for your Majesty's bounties. for the sake of producing peace. sir. But my affection for your Majesty. how am I to lay aside ! EMPEROR. I ! know too well that I can do no more than yourself PRESIDENT. sitions We have complied with all our minister's propo- Be it shall they not. Hasten. Let her repair as and be presented parting feast. is your I can cheerfully enter into this foreign alliance.LITERATURE OF THE EAST up the 409 princess to propitiate them. Unwillingly we advise that the princess be sacrificed for the sake of peace. I entreat your Majesty to sacrifice your love. to send the princess on her way! EMPEROR. day advance a stage on her journey. yet ill can I bear to part from your Majesty [Exeunt. it handmaid's duty to brave death to serve you.

without entertaining fruitless resentment at the effects of my own old that attractions. PRINCESS. ENVOY. Princess. To-day in the palace of Han I cease to wear these I shall be espoused to a stranger. beauty ENVOY. then. escorting the Princess. Alas! when shall I again behold your Majesty? I will take off my robes of distinction and leave them to-morrow behind me. vestments shall no longer adorn my splendid they in the eyes of men. Again us urge you. delayed but too long already! let we have EMPEROR. princess. seen and exalted by demand me. with a is There no remedy ! the invaders How threat of seizing the country. EMPEROR. let us urge you to proceed on your is way the sky darkens. let your thoughts forbear to dwell with sorrow and resent'Tis done ! . when you are gone. " Enter Emperor. who conies at the head of an army to who my of the treachery of Maouyenportrait. I. PRINCESS.] Can ye not devise a way to send out these foreign troops. I must be yielded up to propitiate shall I bear the rigors the winds It has been said of and frosts of that foreign land! surpassing beauty is often coupled with an unhappy fate. Lady. without yielding up the princess for the sake of peace ? [Descends from his horse and seems to grieve with Chaoukeun.410 THE SACRED BOOKS ACT THIRD Enter Envoy. attended ~by his several officers. with a band of music. till we have conferred the parting cup. This day we take bridge! [To leave of the princess at Pahling his ministers. and night coming on. Thus was show. in spite disfigured his Majesty." Let me grieve. to depart . but the traitor presented a truer likeness to the Tartar king.~\ Let our attendants delay awhile.

PRESIDENT. . Your Majesty palace : is entreated to return to the dwell not so bitterly. and they tremble at their hearts like a young The PRESIDENT. Sir. in observance of old treaties. but the real frontier was beyond it. The Emperor of Han having now. where I will sacrifice to it and tapers with their silver lights shall illuminate her chamber.LITERATURE OF THE EAST ment upon us! Monarch of the [They line of 411 I the great part. Did I not think of her. K'HAN. transmit my commands to the army to strike our encampment. [To his generals. The expression used is Peensih. [They march. tribes. Enter K'han at the head of his leading in the Princess. the border. is It may be observed that the great wall never once expressly mentioned through this drama. on her ! memory : allow her to depart EMPEROE. The wall had existed two hundred years at this time. Let your Majesty return to the palace princess is the already far distant ! [Exeunt. The Tartar Camp. deer. nations shall enjoy the benefits of peace.] And am Han? PRESIDENT. She is gone In vain have we maintained those armed heroes on the frontier. and proceed to the north. I take her as my rightful queen. or frontier. I had a heart of iron a heart of iron The tears of my grief stream in a thou! sand channels this evening shall her likeness be suspended in the palace. 9 Mention but swords and princess has this day performed what beto themselves : and yet they affect the semblance longed of men ! spears. Let your Majesty cease to dwell with such grief upon this subject! ! EMPEEOB. yielded up to me the Lady Chaoukeun in The two marriage.] Leaders.



Amoor. 10

Tartar army on






It is the River of the Black Dragon, the frontier of the Tartar territories and those of China. This

southern shore


the Emperor's; on the northern side

commences our Tartar dominion.
Great King, I take a cup of and pour a libation toward the South wine, my last farewell to the Emperor [pours the libation] of Han,
[to the K'han~].

this life is finished.

I await thee in the next!

[Throws herself into the

The K'han, in

great con-

sternation, endeavors to save her, but in vain.

K'HAN. Alas




so determined

this foreign alliance

was her purpose against she has thrown herself into the

'Tis done, and remediless Let stream, and perished her sepulcher be on this river's bank, and be it called "the verdant tomb." ll She is no more; and vain has The traitor been our enmity with the dynasty of Han

Maouyenshow was the author of all this misery. [To Take Maouyenshow and let him be delivan officer.] I will return ered over to the Emperor for punishment. to our former friendship with the dynasty of Han. We

renew and long preserve the sentiments of


disfigured the portrait to injure then deserted his sovereign, and stole over to me, whom he prevailed on to demand the lady in marriage. How little did I think that she would thus



In precipitate herself into the stream, and perish But if I vain did spirit melt at the sight of her



detained this profligate and traitorous rebel, he would certainly prove to us a root of misfortune: it is better
to deliver


for his reward to the





I will renew, and long retain, our old feelof friendship and amity. [Exeunt. ings



Or Saghalien, which falls into the sea of Ochotsk. Said to exist now and to be green all the year.

Enter Emperor, with an attendant.


EMPEROR. Since the

princess was yielded to the Tartars


have not held an audience. The lonely silence of night but increases our melancholy We take the picture of that fair one and suspend it here, as some small solace to our griefs. [To the attendant.'] Keeper of the yellow
gate, behold, the incense in yonder vase is burned out: hasten then to add some more. Though we can not see


we may

at least retain this

remains, betoken our regard. we would fain take a little repose.

shadow and, while life But oppressed and weary,


to sleep.

The Princess appears


him in a


PRINCESS. Delivered over as a captive to appease the barbarians, they would have conveyed me to their Northern country but I took an occasion to elude them and have

Is not this the Emperor, escaped back. Sir, behold me again restored.



[A Tartar

soldier appears in the vision.

SOLDIER. While I chanced to sleep, the lady, our captive, has made her escape, and returned home. In eager pursuit Is not this of her, I have reached the imperial palace.
[Carries her

The Emperor


from his



but alas, saw the Princess returned how quickly has she vanished! In bright day she answered not to our call but when morning dawned


on our troubled

sleep, a vision presented

her in this spot.

12 [Hears the wild fowl's Hark, the passing fowl cry.'} Can it know there is no screamed twice or thrice









worn out and weak, hungry and emaciated, they bewail
12 Yengo, a species of wild goose, is the emblem in China of intersexual attachment and fidelity, being said never to pair again after the loss of An image of it is worshiped by newly married couples. its mate.


at once the broad nets of the South

and the tough bows

of the North. The screams of those [Cries repeat ed.~] water-birds but increase our melancholy.

ATTENDANT. Let your Majesty some regard to your sacred

cease this sorrow, and have



My sorrows are beyond control. Cease to upbraid this excess of feeling, since ye are all subject to the same. Yon doleful cry is not the note of the swallow
on the carved

nor the song of the variegated bird upon the blossoming tree. The princess has abandoned her home Know ye in what place she grieves, listening like me to the screams of the wild bird ?

Enter President.
PRESIDENT. This day after the close of the morning council, a foreign envoy appeared, bringing with him the fettered traitor Maouyenshow. He announces that the renegade, by deserting his allegiance, led to the breach of truce, and occasioned all these calamities. The princess is no more! and the K'han wishes for peace and friendship between the two nations. The envoy attends, with
reverence, your imperial decision.


strike off the traitor's head, and be it preLet sented as an offering to the shade of the princess a fit banquet be got ready for the envoy, preparatory to

his return.

[Recites these verses.


the fall of the leaf, when the wild fowl's cry was heard in the recesses of the palace,
to our lonely pillow;

Sad dreams returned

we thought we

of her through the night:


verdant tomb remains

but where shall

perfidious painter's head shall atone for the beauty

which he wronged.
" Literally, dragon person." " seat." the dragon

The emperor's throne


often called


In addition to the works recommended for ancient China, the reader is directed to the following general histories:
D. C. BOULGER, "History


Its History, Arts

China" (London, 1900). and Literature" (Boston,

1902), 4 vols.

MACGOWAN, "History


F. Davis,

China" (London, 1897). "China, a General Description




(London, 1857).

R. K. DOUGLAS, "Society in China."

W. W.



Cycle of Cathay in China."

SOOTHILL, "Three Religions of China" (London, 1913).

EDKINS, "Religion in China" (London, 1893).

A. IRELAND, "China and the Powers" (Boston, 1902).

H. H. HOWORTH, "History of the Mongols" (London, 1888), 4 J. D. BALL, "Things Chinese" (London, 1900).
E. H. PARKER, "John Chinaman" (London, 1901).


M. BROOMHALL, "Islam in China" (London, 1910). H. A. GILES, "The Civilization of China" (Holt, N. Y., 1911). F. McCoRMiCK, "The Flowery Republic" (Appleton, N. Y.,
"The T'oung Pao," a Chinese
periodical published in


E. H. PARKER, "Studies in Chinese Religion" (Dutton, N. Y., 1910).



For Chinese


we have:

A. BAHR, "Old Chinese Porcelain and



N. Y.,



Flight of the

E. F. FENOLOSA, "Epochs of

Dragon" (London, 1911). Chinese and Japanese Art" (London,

R. L. HOBSON, "Chinese Pottery and Porcelain" (Cassell, N. Y., 1915).
SEI-ICHI TAKI, "Three Essays on Oriental Painting" (London, 1910).


R. TREDWELL, "Chinese Art Motives Interpreted" (Putnam's, N. Y., 1915).


LEGGE, "Chinese Classics" (London). LEGGE, "Travels of Fa-hien" (London).

For the texts themselves, we have:


L. GILES, "Laou-Tsze" (London, 1911).

G. G. ALEXANDER, "Lao-Tze" (London, 1895).

MULLEB, "Sacred Books of the East," vols. 39, 40. E. BACKHOUSE, "Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking" (HoughF.


ton Mifflin, Boston, 1914).

H. WADDELL, "Lyrics from the Chinese" (London, 1914). H. A. GILES, "Chuang-Tzu, Mystic" (London, 1889).


FEB 24197? H CO LO 00 H o o t- a .CT.