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Define philosophy and normative philosophy, and explain how they differ from theory A theory is a set of related principles that are based on observation and are used to explain the world. Philosophy includes theoretical studies of knowledge, truth, existence, and morality, but goes beyond theories to examine the way the world ought to be, which is called normative philosophy. To which part of teacher professionalism is philosophy most closely related? Explain. philosophy is most closely related to a specialized body of knowledge. All professions have specialized knowledge, and philosophy is part of this knowledge for professional educators.



Whats the major difference between Allies and Brads normative philosophies? First, Allie believed that essential knowledge exists, as indicated by this comment: Theres real, practical stuff out there that kids need. They have to be good readers, and they need to be able to write, and they need to understand this stuff, the science Im teaching. She also believed that students must study, and be assessed with respect to that essential knowledge. For her, study practice, and assessment are the ways teaching and learning ought to be. Brad, instead, believed that experiences with decision making and problem solving were more nearly the way teaching and learning ought to be.

2.1 Describe each of the major branches of philosophy. The four branches of philosophy are epistemology, which examines questions about how we come to know the knowledge we acquire; metaphysics, which analyzes reality and what is and is not real; axiology, which examines matters of right and wrong; and logic, which analyzes the process of deriving valid conclusions from basic premises. 2.2Allie said, Im not doing my job if I dont get them to learn as much as possible. This comment best illustrates which branch of philosophy? Explain your answer. This comment most closely relates to axiology. Allie is saying that it would be unethical if she didnt do her best to help her students learn as much as possible.

2.3 Two teachers are in a discussion, and one says, Everyone we know depends on experience. So, the key is providing lots of experiences in the classroom. If we provide them with enough experiences, theyll learn. To which branch of philosophy is this persons statement most closely related? Explain your answer. This persons comment most closely relates to epistemology. She is suggesting that ht way people come to know what they know is through experiences.

3.1 Describe the major philosophies of education. Perennialismis an educational philosophy grounded in the belief that human nature is constant, and a rigorous intellectual curriculum should exist for all students. Math, science, and literature are important, because they expose students to logical thought and ideas that have endured throughout history. Essentialismis framed in the belief that a critical core of information exists that all people should possess. Basic skills and academic subjects would make up a curriculum based on essentialist philosophy.

Progressivismsuggests that education should focus on real-world problem solving and individual development. Learner-centered curricula would be emphasized in a school grounded in progressivism.

Social Reconstructionismcontends that schools and teachers should take the lead in creating a better world. It suggests, for example, that issues such as racism, sexism, environmental degradation, and the exploitation of the weak by the powerful are all topics that should be addressed in the school curriculum.

3.2 because students must be able to function effectively in, and adapt to, a changing world, a teacher emphasizes the whole person physical, social, emotional, and intellectualin her students. She stresses and models physical fitness, involves her students in discussions to help them practice social skills and perspective taking, and involves them in problem solving about modern-day topics. To which of the educational philosophies is the teachers efforts most closely related? Explain. This teacher is basing her work on progressivism. Her emphasis on functioning effectively in a changing world illustrates a progressivist approach to education.

3.3 You visit a school, and you overhear a conversation between two teachers. One says, I love teaching Shakespeare. His work has been studied for hundreds of years, and its as timely now as it was then. Which educational philosophy is best illustrated by the teachers comment? Explain. The teacher is expressing views consistent with perennialism. Perennialism emphasizes thought that has endured throughout history, and the study of Shakespeare reflects this emphasis.

3.4 A teacher who wants her students to examine racism and injustice involves them in a unit on nonviolent noncooperation using a study of Gandhis struggles against racism in India as an example. She further illustrates the ideas with a study of Martin Luther King Jrs nonviolent protests against American racism. To which of the educational philosophies is the teachers efforts most closely related? Explain. This teacher is basing her work on social reconstructions. Examining issues of injustice and making attempts to eliminate them are consistent with social Reconstructionist philosophies, and using Gandhis and Martin Luther King Jrs works as examples to study this issue reflects this orientation.

4.1 why is a personal philosophy of education important? Forming a personal philosophy of education is important because your philosophy will influence the kinds of content you emphasize in your classes, the instructional decisions you make as a teacher, and the criteria you use to reflect on and analyze your teaching. A personal philosophy is also important because it will help you explain and defend your educational goalswhat you will strive to accomplish in your classroom. Your goals reflect the kind of teacher you want to be, and being able to explain and defend them means that youre knowledgeable and reflective, which are essential characteristics of professionalism.

4.2 what are the three essential steps involved in forming a philosophy of education? Forming a personal philosophy of education begins with a statement of beliefs about the purpose of schooling and the nature of teaching and learning. The second step involves examining those beliefs to ensure that theyre consistent with each other. The third step is actually articulating your philosophy in an internally consistent statement; the statement then gives you a concrete framework that you can use to guide your actions, and because its tangible, it can be modified when your professional knowledge expands and your beliefs change.

4.3 look again at Brads thinking, as indicated by his conversation with Allie. Based on this information, what is his philosophy of education? Explain how his philosophy is based on his beliefs. Based on his conversation with Allie, Brads philosophy of education can be described as follows:
School should be preparation for life after students leave the classroom, and the way to best prepare for life is to practice life skills, which are the abilities to make decisions and solve real-world problems instead of focusing on traditional content. For Brad, essential knowledge is the knowledge people need to make decisions and solve problems.

These views are based on the belief that the only way people learn to make decisions and solve problems is to practice both. Theyre also based on the belief that reality is what people perceive it to be and that it depends on the situation people are in at the time. In this regard, Brads views are most closely aligned with progressivism.

The 4 Philosophies of Education: Essentialismemphasizes essential, or basics; core courses. William Bagley; teacher-centered Perennialismemphasizes that students learn directly from Great Books of literature, reading, values character training; Robert Hutchins; teachercentered permanent; lasting, perpetual. Progressivismemphasizes democracy, experience, and relevance; John Dewey; pragmatic; The Laboratory School; student-centered Social reconstructionismemphasizes focus on reconstructing, society into a new and more just social order: social challenges and problems guide the curriculum; George Counts; student-centered

Philosophythe study of theories of knowledge, truth, existence, and morality. Philosophy of Educationa set of ideas and beliefs that guides teachers actions and provides a frame-work for thinking about educational issues. Theorya set of related principles that are based on observation and are used to explain the world around us. Epistemology [experiences]a branch of philosophy that examines questions of how we come to know what we know Metaphysics (Ontology)the branch of philosophy that considers what we know. Axiology the branch of philosophy that considers values and ethics. Logic the branch of philosophy that examines the processes of deriving valid conclusions from basic principles.

Perennialism Focus on classic ideas Develop reason and moral qualities Emphasis on Humanities and the great books Teachers set curriculum Focus on concepts rather than facts Little flexibility in curriculum Emphasis on Learning for Learnings sake

Essentialism Emphasis on academics Promotion based on mastery of material Academically rigorous Curriculum determined by Administrators and Teachers

Progressivism Education based on needs and interests of students Students learn by doing as well as from textbooks Teaching through field trips and games Emphasis on natural and social sciences Experimental learning Grouping by interest and abilities Social Reconstructionism Physical world as the basis of reality Learn from meaningful social experiences Focus on Social, Political, and Economic needs Learn by Reconstructing society Become intelligent problem solvers, enjoy learning, live comfortably in and reshape the world

Since educators cannot agree as the one correct way students should be taught. Different philosophies of education have emerged. Although there are some similarities between philosophies, there are also profound differences in the way leading educators define: The purpose of education The role of the teacher The nature of the curriculum and assessment The method of instruction

21st century Skillsa recent reform movement that emphasizes the development of students technological, analytical, and communication skills.

Social reconstructionisman educational philosophy suggesting that schools, teachers, and students should lead in alleviating social inequities in our society.

Behaviorisma view of learning asserting that people respond primarily to influence in their environment.

Constructivisma view of learning that asserts that to make sense of their experiences, students construct their own understanding of the topics they study instead of having that understanding transmitted to them by someone else.

Cognitive psychologya view of learners that suggests that theyre thinking beings who are mentally active as they gather information, organize it to make sense of it, and store it in memory for future use.

Humanistic psychologya psychological view that emphasizes the whole persons development, including physical, social, emotional, thinking, and aesthetic dimensions.

7.1Define philosophy and explain the difference between philosophy and theory. Philosophy is a search for wisdom. A normative philosophy describes the way something ought to be, such as the way educators ought to teach and treat their students. In forming a philosophy, a professional teacher searches for the wisdom to maximize learning for all students. Philosophy provides a framework for thinking and guides professional practice. Philosophy and theory overlap but are not the same. Theories are used to explain events and behavior as they are, whereas philosophies go further to suggest the way events and behaviors ought to be.

7.2 describe each of the branches of philosophy, and identify examples that illustrate each. Epistemologyis the branch of philosophy that describes how we know what we know. Its important for teachers because it influences how we teach and our choice of teaching methods. Metaphysics, or ontology considers what we know and addresses questions of reality and, ultimately, what is real. Our beliefs about reality influence our goals for our students, as we help them discover their own realities. Axiology considers values and ethics and examines questions and issues involving decisions about right and wrong. Axiology is important because schools play an important role in shaping students values and, ultimately, their moral behavior. Logic is the process of deriving valid conclusions from basic principles. Effective teachers help students understand the logic of different arguments and also how to think clearly about ideas.

7.3 Describe the major philosophies of education, and identify examples that illustrate each. Perennialism focuses on time-honored absolutes. Because truth doesnt change, a teachers responsibility is to expose students to time-tested knowledge and truth. A teacher having students read Moby Dick because it focuses on the clash between good and evil is an example. Essentialism suggests that a critical core of information exists that all people should possess, schools should emphasize basic skills and academic subjects, and students should master these subjects. A curriculum that emphasizes reading, writing, and a deep understanding of math is consistent with essentialism. Progressivism views goals as dynamic and emphasizes that learning should be experience based and relevant to students lives. A teacher involving students in problembased learning activities would be applying progressivist philosophy. Social deconstructionism sees schools and other institutions in need of restructuring, with margined people and their works elevated to more prominent positions in the content of schooling.

7.4 Explain why a personal philosophy of education is important, and describe the steps involved in forming one. A personal philosophy of education is important because it guides your instructional decisions and specifies criteria you use to reflect on and analyze your teaching. A personal philosophy also helps you explain and defend your educational goals. Developing a personal philosophy begins with a description and an analysis of your beliefs and continues with an internally consistent articulation of your philosophy. Developing a personal philosophy of education increases your professionalism by providing a concrete frame of reference for both action and reflection.

Blooms Taxonomies
In 1956, Dr. Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed levels of intellectual behavior important in Critical Thinking. His taxonomies (classifications) have three domains (areas, fields):

1. Cognitive 2. Affective 3. Psychomotor

(thinking) (feelings, emotions) (movement skills)

Memory device: Blooms 3 domains C.A.P. The Cognitive domain deals with Critical Thinking