Exegetical Group Project: Matthew 5:1-12

Donovan Neufeldt, Rabin Noz, Kyanah Negron, Jacob Nork Biblical Hermeneutics September 26, 2012

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Table of Contents
Introduction to Matthew 5:1-12 ............................................................................1 Significant Discoveries from Outlining and Charting .............................................2 Key Word Study Conclusions..................................................................................3 Historical-Grammatical Background Study ............................................................6 Conclusion of the Meaning of Matthew 5:1-12 .....................................................9 Comparative Commentary Study ...........................................................................9 Holy Spirit Emphasized Application .....................................................................13 Conclusion: Summary of Findings ........................................................................15 Bibliography .........................................................................................................16 Appendix ..............................................................................................................17 Passage Outlining/ Observation ................................................................17 Inductive Study Charting ............................................................................18 Key Word Studies .......................................................................................21 Journals ......................................................................................................75 Commentary Comparisons .........................................................................80 Short Praise and Psalm...............................................................................84

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1. Introduction
The passage of Matthew 5:1-12 is where Jesus taught the true nature and the virtues of the coming Kingdom of God to His disciples as well as the surrounding crowds. This sermon of Jesus reveals the revelation of the righteous principles of God to His people, who are supposed to embrace them by the living power of the indwelling Spirit of God through the faith in Jesus the Son of God. Jesus gives the beatitudes as His introduction to the Sermon on the Mount. These heart values overshadow the entire sermon. They are the foundation on which the rest of His teaching is built. The first four beatitudes (poor in spirit, mourn, meek, and hunger and thirst for righteousness) describe the heart of the person who is rightly related to God. The remaining beatitudes (merciful, pure in heart, peacemakers, and the persecuted) describe how such a person relates to other people. Each beatitude has a direct correlation with reward. Jesus greatly values the demonstration and formation of these beatitudes in the people of His kingdom that He promises them great and significant rewards which are seen partially now, but which will be fully realized in the age to come. Each beatitude is, in essence, the fruit of righteous charachter in one’s own heart.

2. Passage Outlining/Observation:
Jesus teaches His disciples eight blessings and rewards (Matthew 5:1-12)
Vs. 1-2: Jesus sits down to teach as disciples gather Vs. 3-10: Eight beatitudes and corresponding rewards Vs. 11-12: Reward promised to those who endure persecution for Jesus

Significant Discoveries From Outlining/ Observing:
The eight beatitudes begin and end with the same promise, “For theirs is the kingdom of heaven” (NKJV). This seems to suggest possible chiasm, although the middle section does not demonstrate explicit chiastic structure. This reveals that the statement is most likely the most central concept or reward, and possibly a summary of all the other rewards mentioned. Verses three to ten all follow the same pattern of “Blessed are… (character trait or virtue), for they shall… (receive a reward)”. The only variant is verse three and ten which say “theirs is” instead of “they shall”, which is a significant change from future tense to present tense.

2 In verse eleven, there is a sudden change from third person to second person, causing the tone to become much more personal.

3. Key Word Studies: Taught: #1321 ἐδίδασκεν edidasken, from didasko
“Then He opened His mouth and taught them, saying:” Matthew 5:2 NKJV Jesus was setting out from the start with the intention of instructing his hearers, and purposing to impart knowledge and understanding to them. In the context of the beatitudes, Jesus was teaching the attitudes or character traits that God sees as blessed and leads to true happiness and reward.

Blessed: #3107

ακ

makarioi, from makarios

“Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” Matthew 5:3 NKJV Makarios means to be extremely blessed, happy, fortunate, and or well off, but it is richer and fuller than just an ordinary happiness derived from fortunate external circumstance. In the context of Matthew 5, it is the most desirable, blessed, happy condition in terms of our internal character or virtue, as well as related to ones future rewards, as well as present tense possession of the kingdom of Heaven (Matt. 5:3)

Poor (in Spirit): #4434

ptochoi, from

“Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” Matthew 5:3 NKJV The poor ( ) are those who are needy, lack means of provision, are dependent on others, afflicted,

and lacking. The “poor in spirit” are those who recognise that they have nothing to offer, have no means to even provide for their own sustenance, are totally dependent on God, and are repentant or contrite.

Kingdom (of Heaven): #932

ασ εία

basileia

“Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” Matthew 5:3 NKJV A kingdom ( ασ εία) is the sphere of rule or dominion that belongs to a king or sovereign power. The Kingdom of the Heavens is in one sense, the sphere of God’s rule, and in another sense, wherever his rule is acknowledged and upheld. The Kingdom of God is both a present reality (which is partial, for those on earth who acknowledge it), as well as a future reality that is to come (when all creation submits to and acknowledges God’s leadership). The Beatitudes, and by extension, all of Matthew 5-7, is therefore the constitution, law, order, or acceptable culture for those who acknowledge God’s rule both now and forever.

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Mourn: #3996

εν

penthe

“Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted.” Matthew 5:4 NKJV Mourning ( εν ) in Matthew 5:4 is deep sorrow or grief, especially related to sin (one’s own sin or the

sin of others). Generally, it is used of sorrow and weeping too great to conceal, usually due to the loss of someone or something deemed to be exceedingly precious and valuable.

Comforted #3870

α ακ η ήσ ν α

“Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be comforted.” Matthew 5:4 NKJV Comfort generally consists of consolation and encouragement, whether by words or the presence of another to help in time of need. Synonymous words are console, help, give relief, cheer up, exhort, and fear not.

Meek #4239

αεῖ

Mildness of disposition, gentleness of spirit/meekness. Meekness toward God is that disposition of spirit in which we accept His dealings with us as good, and therefore without disputing or-resisting. In the OT, the meek are those wholly relying on God rather than their own strength to defend them against injustice. Thayer's. "Greek Lexicon entry for Praus". "The NAS New Testament Greek Lexicon".

Inherit #2816

κ η ν

ήσ υσ ν

To inherit means to assign inheritance (inherit) by lot. It is used in relation to believers claiming their earthly inheritance assigned (allotted) by the Lord. The Father apportions His possessions for the son’s gift of inheritance.]

Earth #1093

γῆν

The physical earth; (figuratively) the "arena" we live in which operates in space and time which God uses to prepare us for eternity.

Righteousness #1343

δ κα σύνην

Judicial approval, in the NT, the approval of God ("divine approval"). In a broader sense more widely applied in Matthew’s Gospel, it is the outworking of deeds that God approves, not just legally, but also existentially. The context of the Sermon on the Mount especially demand that righteous character, virtue, and deeds should be sought after, not just freedom from the penalty of unrighteousness. A righteous person is one whose works are approved by God.

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Merciful=ele-eem : When I looked up this word I found that it just means merciful as in to have
mercy on, to help one afflicted or seeking aid and to bring up the wretched. In context I believe it means that if you go out of your way or do something out of the overflowing of His love and your heart posture is in the right place then you will receive the same treatment.

Pure=Katharos: After looking at the many scriptures that have “Katharos” “pure” in it I realize that the
common theme was that Jesus came and made everything pure but that if you are pure in heart, pure in intensions, then what you think and do will be pure. We will be restored to the pure and spotless bride that Jesus deserves and what He died for.

In Heart=Kardia: This meaning could be a real heart such as the organ, or the core of your spiritual
and physical life. What over follows out of your heart, the things that have the purest of intentions and motives that guide your actions and behavior. Simply put as what you fix your gaze on.

Shall See=optanomai: I imagine it as when you first open your eyes after laying in the sun, you can
actually see the sun and feel the heat or power emanating off of it but, it is far off and beyond the earth, yet you still know it is there. With this passage it could mean to see with your actual eyes or mind, to perceive or know. Another definition would be to become acquainted with by experience, to experience, to look upon, I like this definition because you have to look upon Jesus to actually see Him you have to be willing to surrender all and just sit and look upon Him.

God=theos: “Theos” is used in this vs. as the God or as I figure the only One, it was not referring to just
any god or object it was specifically placed and meant God Himself. So, meaning the all-powerful God who made the heavens and the earth. It means the trinity; it ties a direct correlation to God.

Peacemakers= eirēn

i : When I looked up this word I would not have thought that it only

appears once. When I researched it and looked up its two root words I thought it was so interesting to read, one is talking about actual peace, tranquil and calming where there is no anger or frustration involved. Also, it mentioned how its salvation or God’s diving peace. When I looked up the other word I noticed that this kind of peace was described as preparing for someone or freely giving something. The difference was how eirēnē the first word just stated almost like a supernatural peace and poie , the second word talked about giving it freely and to do it well like a promise. I think this word it a combination so it would mean a freely given promise that you don’t have to work for or earn and with that you share that peace.

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Children=huios: The word children I found can be interchangeable with son. Also, when I was
looking into this verse I noticed that if you specifically look up this word it could mean just children (kids), or offspring if the lineage was used or reference, and the children of Israel.

Persecuted-

Found in Matthew 5:10 & 11. Pronunciation - dē-ō'-kō

Strong’s G1377

διώκω

Transliteration - diōkō

Word is a –Verb

The word persecute, or to be persecuted, is one that’s well known in Christian circles and is used and mention frequently through the New Testament, Jesus speaks about it almost as a part of the everyday life of those who follow Him. To be persecuted was a large part of the beginning of the church and still is today in that way out side of the western church, not to say that persecution today in the western church doesn’t happen but that it comes in political and social ways under the radar more, a more strategic way you could say, less abrasive. What I find interesting is the aspect of the “following” part of this word, which you can find in the word “pursue” which is to follow after someone, or to run after? There is a positive and negative here, you can pursue for good, or pursue to harm someone in a hostile way, which leaves me seeing it at its core, that it is a choice we make.

Revile-

Found in Matthew 5:11.

Strong’s G3679 ὀνειδίζω Word is a -Verb

Transliteration - oneidizō

Pronunciation - o-nā-dē'-zō

The word revile fits so well and relatable to the word persecute, the use of these two words together is seen and can be common in scripture, but to be revile, or reproached as is another translation or use of the word, is a response that one has towards another that is not pleasant in nature. Its would seem to have no end, but to only get worse, these state of reviling, would lead to a build up toward hate or such an emotional response?

Rejoice-

Found in Matthew 5:12.

Strong’s G5463 χαίρω Word is a -Verb

Transliteration - chairō

Pronunciation - khī'-rō

To rejoice means to receive something or someone with gladness, or to be in such a joyful state that one’s happiness cannot be concealed . To rejoice is a weapon, it’s a way one can press in through tough times and overcome them, and fight off one’s enemies, and love them. If it is said that Jesus rejoices in His spirit, then why not do the same, whenever we can, and find His joy.

Great-

Found in Matthew 5:12

Strong’s G4183 πολύς Pronunciation - po-lü's Word is a - Adjective

Transliteration - polys

6 The word great is a common word used that we may overuse. Great can mean large, or speak of the magnitude of something.

Reward-

Found in Matthew 5:12

Strong’s G3408 - μισθός Pronunciation - mēs-tho's Word is a -masculine noun

Transliteration - misthos

God created humans to be reward orientated, and respond to them, so to hear and read Jesus say it over and over in scripture taking about the rewards he gives, helps me look and appreciate rewards in a new way, even earthly ones. We need to meditate more on the eternal rewards and even the everyday ones was can receive from the Lord, then we will probably see how blessed we are more.

Heaven-

Found in Matthew 5:12.

Strong’s G3772 οὐρανός Word is a -masculine noun

Transliteration - ouranos

Pronunciation - ü-rä-no's

Who can contain the heavens, but Him who created them and holds them together by His power. Saying that, only God has the full understanding and scope of heaven, but as we fathom it, and the different levels and heights of heaven, and even the great throne room, we can sit back in awe still in the simplicity of wonderment. Interestingly enough, is that the words sky and air can replace the use of the words heaven, which we probably don’t thing on in our day to day lives much.

4. Historical-Grammatical Background Study Research1
The understanding of the origins of the Gospel of Matthew, first off, must be brought into view historically. It is important to understand the back ground first of the region and the languages being used. When looking at the languages being used back then in Palestine in that time period, somewhere before 70 A.D., you can find Hebrew, or Aramaic, and Greek used. The actual timeline of when the Gospel of Matthew was written is debatable, but could have been written in theory, sometime from 70-75 A.D. For scholars, determining the original language used in the writing of Matthew helps prove many things of importance, was the Gospel of Matthew written by the apostle Matthew, or just someone else named Matthew, or someone who later gathered together the apostle Matthew’s writings? Since some believe that someone else may have penned many of Jesus’ sayings during Jesus’ ministry, this is actually a huge question of interest to many historically. There has been a huge debate actually over what language the original writings were in, and that calls into question, the original source of the Gospel of Matthew. It has been debated whether or not the
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Information taken from: Joel B Green, Scot McKnight, and I Howard Marshall, eds. Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic, 1992), 737-744. Craig A Evans and Stanley E. Porter, eds. Dictionary of New Testament Background (Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic, 2000), 151-153. George Arthur Buttrick, New Testament Articles, Matthew, Mark. Vol. 7 of The Interpreter's Bible (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1951), 122

7 actual author copied his writings from the Gospel of Mark, which many believe the Apostle Peter to be the original source of. Since many believe Mark was Peter’s interpreter, the Gospel of Mark is attributed to John Mark, the cousin of Barnabas, an associate of Peter. So if Matthew was taken from Mark, that Marks account was really Peters account, and then still making the writer of Matthew’s account an apostolic one, making the original source Peter, or was the book of Matthew actually from the apostle Matthew himself, giving us His own account, in his own language? It is important to note as well that it is commonly believed that the time period of which the Gospel of Matthew was written was during the same time Peter and Paul were leading the church in Rome, and still alive. It is important to add even though scholars and historians have recently challenged the original authorship of Matthew, it still traditionally has been believed the author was the apostle Matthew even so, and the canonicity of the four Gospels was established by the early church in 2nd Century without contest according to Eusebius, passing the test of authenticity of authorship of apostolic authority and dating. Although the answers to the questions of the Gospel of Matthew’s origins appear to be locked away in the truth behind what the original text was in, was it in Hebrew, Aramaic or Greek, for today’s scholars. On an interesting note, Aramaic was probably the most common language spoken in that time of Galilee, which is arguably the most probable and appropriate language that Jesus would have spoken. There are so many sides to the debate it can leave you really going around in circles, but the one constant factor is the testimony of Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia (died c. A.D. 130) and the record of Papias’ statement about Matthew only survives in the writings of Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. 3.39.16). Who was an early church father and Roman historian, around 314 A.D. In what Papias’ statement about Matthew was saying is that Matthew had been collecting oracles (logia) in the Hebrew language and interpreted them as best as he could, and possibly many translations of his work were made from there. What is known clearly about the Gospel of Matthew is the Jewish style it was written in and the tradition that the first Gospel was written for Jewish believers and non. Matthew even quoted many Old Testament Messianic prophecies to connect a Jewish audience to the Hebrew Scripture, and connecting them to Jesus’ genealogy to Abraham, their patriarch. The passage our group as chosen to do, the Beatitudes, (Matthew 5:3-12) out of the Gospel of Matthew was during the time of Jesus’ public ministry in Galilee (Mt. 4:12-15:20) and is out of what is believed to be the greatest sermon ever given, which Jesus Himself spoke. The Sermon on the Mount, Jesus confronts Israel with His message about righteousness. It is believed that no other book of Christian scripture outside of the Exodus or Deuteronomy has been as devoted to ethics as the First Gospel, where the keynote of Matthew’s view is of discipleship and radical obedience to the teachings of

8 Jesus. Even though it shows the many times the disciples failed in following Jesus’ teachings, showing them mercy as He discipled them. It shows their human side, and the love of God in the process, even as Jesus rebukes them, it is still a comfort to many to see how Jesus leads them and still uses them and calls them forth into their destinies and callings. There are some differences between the two Gospels of Matthew and Luke with the Beatitudes; where Luke’s account seemed to apply to socio-economic conditions, with a lot of woes involved and Matthew’s where more considered spiritualized or ethicized. Matthew’s seems to depict “types of character that have Gods approval” and more personal with God that way, which is why it is probably so beloved. Then when one progresses through the Beatitudes, one starts to uncover the differences in styles of writings as well, which there seem to be many reasons for, including the original language of both, and how they were first translated, and what that caused in the ultimate outcome. It is also possible that the sermon was given on multiple occasions in different contexts and application, which would also explain the apparent differences in the two gospels. Interestingly somewhere either right before or during the Sermon on the Mount, is when Jesus would have chosen His twelve disciples, then after choosing them He led them away, with crowds following, where they would have heard Him deliver His manifesto or teaching which has become known as the Sermon on the Mount. It is interesting that the discovery of The Dead Sea Scrolls has led to some new trains of thought and concerning some Proverbs with the Sermon on the Mount and the Law of Moses. The Beatitudes text 4Q525 which is part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, is also known as 4QBeatitudes and has several interesting features for New Testament scholars, and is important in light of its markarisms. The style of 4Q525 has reminded many of traditional Jewish wisdom books like Proverbs and Sirach, and the opening section of this scroll it’s immediately noticed the striking resemblance to the already known Jewish wisdom literature. This all said, it’s very interesting to see this and look at some of the Proverbs for instance mentioned like Proverbs 3:13-15, 4:5, 7; 8:11, 10:20, 12:5, 12:18-19, 14:18&20, 15:33, 18:12, 22:4, to name a few that you can see Jesus was pulling from as He gave His message, that these same verses also speak on wisdom, humility to sincerity and the tongue. To see how God has already been speaking the same message to His people throughout the bible and Old Testament, gives us more understanding into Gods nature and how He never changes, and His consistency in speaking to new crowds, from Genesis to Solomon to the Disciples and us to future believers and generations ahead. Finally it’s found mentioned in this same scroll how it was a thought that Jesus was summoning up the Law of Moses with His own manifesto.

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5. Conclusion of the Meaning of the Biblical Passage After Interpretation
The Beatitudes are the beginning of Jesus' Sermon on the Mount, which is known as the greatest sermon ever preached. As we look at each beatitude in detail, we see all of the beatitudes as successive fundamental spiritual states that every Christian must strive to achieve. We as the believers of Christ Jesus must have the beatitudes lived out in our life fully and completely just as all the fruits (character) of the Holy Spirit must ripen within us in order to become manifest in our lives. The beatitudes are the main elements of Christianity that the believers are called to strive for every day, built upon faith in their Lord Jesus Christ and His enabling grace. In order for us to be able to do all these, we must come to the Cross of Christ where we will find a greater power, which can transform our hearts with even greater power than the natural sinful resistance of our heart to these values. Since Christian character is formed in us by the experiential process of being conformed to the image of God’s Son, we must turn our gaze upon Him who is the perfect pattern and example. Prayer and meditation in the Word of God will greatly aid such development of character. Our prayerful meditation will surely result careful application by the Spirit of Christ as the beatitudes promise great rewards with both present and a future fulfillments.

6. Comparative Commentary Study:
On the Beatitudes (Matthew 5:1-12) as a whole: Most commentators (especially Stott and Turner) saw a clear parallel between Jesus ascent up the mount to teach the ten beatitudes (and the rest of the sermon) and Moses’ ascent up Mount Sinai to give the law or Ten Commandments to Israel. Jesus is commonly seen here as the greater Moses, who was fulfilling the law. It is also noted that the structure of the ten commandments and beatitudes begin with a Godward focus, and end with a focus on one’s behavior and attitude towards other people.2 It was also recognized that the sermon was addressed to the disciples, with other of Jesus’ followers present, and therefore, is meant for the Christian (disciple) only, and is a call to be different than the world by faithful and sincere obedience to these central values of God’s kingdom.3 Each beatitude describes and commends one of these blessed values, and promises a blessing to those who
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John R.W. Stott, The Message of the Sermon On the Mount (matthew 5-7): Christian Counter-Culture(Leicester: IVP Academic, 1978), 20-21. David L. Turner, Matthew (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2008), 149. 3 John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 21. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, 1st Touchstone ed. (New York: Touchstone, 1995), 108. Bruce Barton et al., Matthew, ed. Philip Comfort, Life Application Bible Commentary (n.p.: Tyndale House Publishers Inc., 1996), 75. David L. Turner, Matthew, 149.

10 those who practice them.4 The beatitudes are given as a whole, each one being connected with those preceding and following5 Multiple authors agreed that the word blessed (makarios) in that context meant more than mere happiness, but that the blessed one in this context is is also favored and approved by God through His grace. Part of the blessing is the corresponding rewards, which have possible partial fulfillment in this age, but will be given in their full expression in the age to come.6 John Wesley, however, seemed to accredit the meaning of blessedness to little more than the mere happiness that all seek. Jesus was teaching how to pursue and obtain true happiness.7 Jesus’ sitting down to teach is the natural teaching position of rabbi’s at that time, and shows His intentionality in giving the message.8 The Poor in Spirit (v. 3): All examined commentators noted that to be poor in spirit means dependant on God. John Wesley, however, stressed conviction of sin and guilt to be the prime meaning of poor in spirit. Bonheoffer was the only one to really stress literal poverty and helplessness, whereas the others stressed spiritual disposition. The promised Kingdom of Heaven was acknowledged by all to mean present partial experience of kingdom blessing such as righteousness, peace and joy, as well as future inheritance of the Kingdom of Heaven with Jesus in the age to come9 Those who Mourn (v. 4) Commentators frequently described the mourning to be related to sin; either one’s own sin, loss of innocence, and righteousness, or the sin of others. Stott and Barton both said it is the sorrow of repentance for sin. Bonhoeffer emphasized mourning for the guilt fate and fortune of the world, while
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John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 23. David L. Turner, Matthew, 149. 5 Bruce Baron et al., Matthew, 76. John Wesley, Wesley's Notes On the Bible (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1987), 407. 6 John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 24-29. David L. Turner, Matthew, 149. Bruce Barton et al., Matthew, 73-76. 7 John Wesley, Notes On the Bible, 407. 8 Bruce Barton et al., Matthew, 76. 9 Bruce Barton et al., Matthew, 76. David L. Turner, Matthew, 149-150. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Cost of Discipleship, 107-108. John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 38-40. John Wesley, Notes On the Bible, 407.

11 Turner built a strong case that the primary mourning in view is that of the afflicted and persecuted based on Isaiah 61:1-2. The comfort is most frequently interpreted as coming through forgiveness of sin and fellowship with Jesus now and in the age to come, although Turner links it to the messiahs liberating work as described in Isaiah 61 (consistent with his interpretation of mourning).10 The Meek (v. 5) The most common interpretation of meekness is that consists of humility, gentleness, and selflessness, and Turner believes it is more specifically referring to those who have been humbled or oppressed by the ungodly. All identified primary application of inheriting the earth to mean ruling in government with Christ on the new earth in the age to come.11 Those who Hunger and Thirst for Righteousness (v. 6) Hunger and thirsting was consistently interpreted as intense longing or desire, but the interpretation of righteousness had more variety. Most acknowledged the righteousness of holiness (character and behavior that pleases God and agrees with His will). Many noted personal righteousness through justification or legal standing before God, and social just to be in view as well. Turner disagreed with this, however, stating that the narrower view of right behavior before God is probably the only intended meaning based on Psalm 107:5,9 and Isaiah 51:1-5. Barton et al., Bonhoeffer, and Turner all made application specifically to longing for the future day when righteous living will permeate society. The satisfaction that those who hunger and thirst receive is commonly understood to be related to their own holiness and that of society in partial measure now, then fully in the age to come. 12

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Bruce Barton et al., Matthew, 77. David L. Turner, Matthew, 150-151. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Cost of Discipleship, 108-109. John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 40-42. John Wesley, Notes On the Bible, 407. 11 Bruce Barton et al., Matthew, 77. David L. Turner, Matthew, 151. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Cost of Discipleship, 109-110. John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 42-44. John Wesley, Notes On the Bible, 407. 12 Bruce Barton et al., Matthew, 78. David L. Turner, Matthew, 151. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Cost of Discipleship, 110-111. John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 44-46. John Wesley, Notes On the Bible, 407.

12 The Merciful (v. 7) All commentators agreed that the merciful have compassion or pity on others, and act selflessly to bring about justice for them or alleviate their suffering. John Stott also clearly pointed out that forgiveness is also an important form of mercy in view, which flows from a revelation of the mercy one has already received from God. All agreed that the reward is God’s demonstration of mercy and forgiveness to us both now and in the future. Barton et al. made a biblically unjustified claim, however, that the mercy one receives is not contingent upon the mercy one shows.13 The Pure in heart (v. 8) All commentators were basically in agreement that the pure in heart are those that love God wholeheartedly, have a single minded devotion to God with a commitment and manifestation of obedience, are completely sincere and inwardly clean honest and transparent before God. Interpretations of the promise to see God consistently agreed on the future beatific vision of Jesus in the age to come, but varied greatly as to if and how one may experience this reward in the present age. Commentators said that one can see God now through faith, spiritual vision, the person and work of Christ, contemplation of God, and creation. Turner simply said that it is impossible in this life based on Exodus 33:20.14 The Peacemakers (v. 9) Most saw that the peacemaker is the one who seeks to bring reconciliation between different people, as well as reconciling the individual with God. Other nuances of forgiveness, voluntary suffering, maintaining fellowship when conflict occurs, doing good to others, and treating enemies well were recognized by various commentators. It is through partnership with Christ, reflection of the Father’s character, and eventual confession by God and man, that the peacemakers are called sons of God.15

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Bruce Barton et al., Matthew, 78. David L. Turner, Matthew, 152. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Cost of Discipleship, 111. John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 47-48. John Wesley, Notes On the Bible, 407. 14 Bruce Barton et al., Matthew, 79. David L. Turner, Matthew, 152. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Cost of Discipleship, 112. John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 34, 48-49. John Wesley, Notes On the Bible, 407. 15 Bruce Barton et al., Matthew, 80.

13 The Persecuted (v. 10, 11-12) All commentators that the blessed persecution must be due to just, upright, and righteous actions, which others do not like because it opposes the worlds value systems. Stott points out that persecution is listed as a mark of the normal Christian life just as much as the other beatitudes are. Turner points out that the repetition of “for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven” concludes and the beatitudes, showing that the chief marks of those under God’s rule are humility towards God and Mercy towards people.16 Persecution in Mathew 5:11-12 is unanimously seen to come from affiliation with Jesus as well as imitation of Jesus, and should be responded to with rejoicing, and a deep spiritual joy in identification with Jesus and the prophets who have suffered through history, and also in knowledge of a future reward in Heaven so great that the persecution will seem small.17

7. Possible application And Holy Spirit emphasized application
The Beatitudes reveals the heart of the Kingdom of Heaven, and how blessings can flow out, when we grasp and walk in these verses. These are principles of the Kingdom of Heaven and how we are to live and function in the Kingdom of God, as opposed to this world we are born into. What I feel the Holy spirit is saying through this passages is how we come and approach the Throne of God matters, and these are virtues we must learn to walk in, to have full access for ourselves and others to the Throne and to thrive and function fully in the Kingdom of Heaven. When we learn to embody them within, we can actually be victorious in the world and see Christ manifesting Himself in us. In the Jewish family, blessing one another was a key element in their daily lives, it countered the world around them and the curses and evil said against them all the time, as the world raged against them, Gods chosen

David L. Turner, Matthew, 152-153. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Cost of Discipleship, 112-113. John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 50-51. John Wesley, Notes On the Bible, 407. 16 David L. Turner, Matthew, 153. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Cost of Discipleship, 113-114. John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 52. John Wesley, Notes On the Bible, 407. 17 Bruce Barton et al., Matthew, 82. David L. Turner, Matthew, 154. John R.W. Stott, Sermon On the Mount, 52-56. John Wesley, Notes On the Bible, 407.

14 people and I believe God, by the Holy spirit inspired them to do that, because the Kingdom of Heaven brings blessings where ever it goes. So Christ was revealing, to be poor in spirit, and persecuted was actually a sign of those who are of the Kingdom of Heaven, and being like foreigners in a foreign land, facing a world that opposes you and still being of the Kingdom you’re going to carry a blessing with you. Your blessed when you mourn, because God comforts you, but your mourning ultimately because we are not of this world and the effects it has on our lives. The Beatitudes I feel are part of Jesus character and personality as well, like in the case of being meek, being meek is having great strength and authority but having control of it, as Jesus demonstrated on the cross and through is life in the first coming. I feel like the Holy spirit is also saying that these verses, theses Beatitudes, are also how you will tell Gods people apart from people in this world, maybe not by seeing all of these at the same time flowing, but a constant living out of them compared to the worlds ways, should be seen. As for being a peacemaker, if you’re called a Son of God by doing so, then others should notice a difference in you, as Gods peace flows out of you, revealing a nature of God to others who may not have noticed before, someone is taking notice somewhere? Righteousness is another sign of Gods mark on you, or presence in your life, it should be flowing out of you, as filled with it, as you are craving it, thirsting for it, hungering for it! Its interesting how wanting something that is not of this world can cause persecution and the darkness of this world to attack and come forth. Righteousness is mention twice in the B-Attitudes and I feel that implies its going to be a common thing displayed then with these virtues, and is more then we can see alone, the Holy spirit alone can show us what true righteousness is then. Since we have already received mercy from God, I feel it implies through the text that you must be merciful yourself to receive more from God, and operating in it is a posture of receiving it, it’s a choice here I feel. It’s something to obtain and decide you want it to be a part of your life, then you get it supernaturally then after you move in it on your own. I believe the Holy spirit is revealing a huge mystery with being pure in heart, you shall see God it is said, and what a blessing that is, but also I think in terms of approaching the throne, He is saying, God will then see you, pure in heart.

15

8. Conclusion
I realized that no scripture no matter how small or long it is, it what it seems. In Matthew 5:1-12 the beatitudes are our guide, how are we supposed to try and follow them if we don’t understand them? While looking at the beatitudes you can easily think that you have grasped everything that you need to know in just one read. You might not imagine that there is more to that passage than meets the eye. Well, there is while doing the research for this project we were required to go more in depth. It was a long process and what we have written barely touches the surface. This passage contains the very things that hold up Gods kingdom, He starts with being poor in spirit and ends with persecution. He lived out all of these attributes and only asks us to try and lean on Him for us to accomplish them as well. He tells us how to act but also what is to come, such as persecution. He gives us strength and encourages us to walk out the beatitudes on a daily basis and He also gives us rewards for doing so. He says Blessed are those who… He simply wants to encourage us and reward us for something that we cannot accomplish without Him in His strength and by His grace. Throughout this paper there have been many discoveries on all of our parts, there is a history that needs to be looked into just to try and grasp how the context of this scripture was supposed to be taken. There is an outline that has a specific place for each vs. that can be rewritten through different eyes. There are words that were explored and defined in depth. Throughout this paper there are different ways to look at this passage, and learn more about it than just what meets the eye.

16 Bibliography: Barton, Bruce, Mark Fackler, Linda Taylor, and David Veerman. Matthew. Edited by Philip Comfort. Life Application Bible Commentary. N.p.: Tyndale House Publishers Inc., 1996. Bonhoeffer, Dietrich. The Cost of Discipleship. 1st Touchstone ed. New York: Touchstone, 1995. Buttrick, George Arthur. New Testament Articles, Matthew, Mark. Vol. 7 of The Interpreter's Bible. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1951. Evans, Craig A., and Stanley E. Porter, eds. Dictionary of New Testament Background. Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic, 2000. Green, Joel B, Scot McKnight, and I Howard Marshall, eds. Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic, 1992. Meyers, Rick, ed. King James Concordance. 10.1.0 ed. Franklin, TN: e-Sword, 2000-2010. http://www.esword.net/(accessed September 20, 2012). Mol, André Greek Interlinear Bible (nt). 2nd ed. N.p.: Scripture4All Foundation, 2010. http://www.scripture4all.org/OnlineInterlinear/NTpdf/mat5.pdf (accessed September 20, 2012). Stott, John R.W. The Message of the Sermon On the Mount (matthew 5-7): Christian Counter-Culture. Leicester: IVP Academic, 1978. Turner, David L. Matthew. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2008. Wesley, John. Wesley's Notes On the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 1987.

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