Gerald Giuliano HWC 511 Research I Final Exam Professor Robert Marmo 1.

There are at least foue levels of measurement: ratio, ordinal, nominal, and interval. The differences amongst these four variables are that the four levels can be seen from lowest to greatest or highest precision which is in the order of nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Each level gives a particular type of information. For instance, nominal variables show that there is only a difference among the groups being studied. An example of nominal variable would thus be gender, ethnicity, or race. Therefore an ordinal measure would indicate a difference plus it can be ranked or ordered. An example of this would be polling a group of individuals their opinion on the death penalty from strongly favorable, favorable, not favorable, and strongly unfavorable. The third level is an interval measure which again be made up of different categories, can be ranked, but also indicates the distance between these categories. Thus, an example would be SAT scores or anything that can be weighed by increase in volume, etc. Lastly, is the ratio measure which differs from the other measurements in that it marks all four traits of measurement, it has to be of a different category, be in ranked order, have a distance between the groups being measured and have a true zero, a true zero is rarely found in social work studies, but is exampled by age which has a true zero at a person’s birth (i.e. 0), or money as a good example, for instance 0 to 1000 dollars.

Lastly. use a precise level of measurement by using indicators that hold more specific information such as looking at the different between those who make 20. two indicators come about – low student attendance due to illness. A sampling frame is a list of cases in a population.000 dollars a year from those who make 200. etc. the researcher would be able to say that someone making 20. . there will be a disparity between theoretical and operational definitions of a variable creates inaccurate measurement thus leading to invalid sampling. Then use multiple indicators of a variable such as low student attendance then within this variable.000 a year from there. The true reliability of a measure can never be established or perfected. by looking at previous studies to build on the measure you are looking at currently. It is seen as being important to the researcher because it is critical to good sampling. though there are many ways a researcher could improve or increase the reliability of their measure. Then.2. 3. First by clearly giving an operational definition of concepts removing any ambiguity such as information found in other constructs. This can be done by meeting 4 criteria which are clearly conceptualizing all concepts. or low student attendance due to criminalrelated behavior. If the researcher fails to take this into account. use a precise level of measurement. and usage of pilot tests.000 a year is less likely to have health insurance. use multiple indicators of a variable. the investigator can do pretests. or the best estimate of it.

and forces people to make choices they would never make in real world settings. As for open-ended questions. The disadvantages of closed questions are that they suggest ideas that the subjects would not otherwise have. the answers of different respondents are easier to compare. Researchers settle on the size of a given sample depending upon the kind of data analysis the researcher is planning to use. The researcher thus finds that the smaller the population. respondents without an opinion or knowledge can answer survey. the larger the sampling ratio has to be for an accurate sample. 5. becomes confusing if there are 10 or more choices in response to question. response choices can clarify question meaning for respondents. The advantages of closed-end questions are easier/quicker for respondents to answer. and on how accurate the sample is needed to be for the researcher’s purpose. and lastly replication is easier. or confused answers to questions. a misinterpreted question can go unnoticed. fewer irrelevant. distinctions between respondent answers may be blurred. less articulate or less literate people aren't at a disadvantage. mistakes or marking the wrong answer is possible.4. There are both advantages and disadvantages of open-ended versus closed-ended questions in a survey. subjects can become frustrated because their desired answer is not a choice. those surveyed are more likely to answer about sensitive subjects. on the populations’ traits. the advantages are they permit an unlimited number of possible responses. it forces people to give simplistic responses to complex issues. answers easier to code and statistically analyze. test-takers can answer in detail and can clarify their .

answers. but is more casual and a “partnership of equals. Ordinary conversation differs from survey interviews. An ordinary conversation also leads to less of a question and answer format with the interviewer taking the lead in moving the survey interview to the issue at hand. 6. questions maybe too general. and effort is necessary. Overall. and have a more concrete purpose. coping responses are difficult. . articulate subjects are at an advantage. and reveal answerer’s process of logic. and test-takers can be intimidated by the process. permit richness of detail. comparison and statistical analysis becomes difficult. But then you run the risk that the questions become too vague and the respondent going in all different directions.” and less likely to have a judgmental response from the interviewer than say from a friend good or bad. closed-ended questions are good for studies that are looking for at numbers where you can find more reliability that the study reflects a larger audience than the number of participants in a given study. permit adequate answers to complex issues. But the disadvantages of open-ended questions are that different test-takers give different degrees of detail. Then again. a greater amount of time. responses are written verbatim which is difficult for interviewers. unanticipated findings can be discovered. close-ended questions lead to lessen the possibility that a long-winded answer might yield new hypothesis for further testing. thought. responses can be irrelevant. in that survey interviews are more structured. which is then the advantage of open-ended questions.

Lastly. But common error ends up being the “fallacy of misplaced concreteness” which happens when someone gives a false impression of accuracy by quoting statistics in greater detail than is warranted by how the statistics are collected. The advantages to secondary data analysis is that its relatively cheaper and faster than doing an original study. you gain the benefit of using research from experts . such as finding data that supported an increase in unemployment for females in New Mexico because it was presumed that they were home-makers thus seemingly the researchers had data that seemed to show that the demographics of Spanishspeaking residents showed a lack of interest in finding employment opportunities. thus making the statistics less reliable.7. 8. in order to impress the audience of one’s command of the subject matter. There are advantages and disadvantages of secondary data analysis in research. there is representative reliability to be taken in account which is. equivalence reliability. and representative reliability. Furthermore. A researcher must be aware of the problems in reliability when using existing and/or secondary statistical data because the data in of itself could be tainted or biased. Then with equivalence reliability there is the issue of using data that comes from across different parts of the country might reveal data that found in one city was kept in an orderly fashion whereas another city showed poor management of the data. problems of reliability arise in three areas: stability reliability. Stability reliability causes problems when official definitions or technique of collecting information changes over time as in the fact that in the coming years paper questionnaires might become obsolete and will be digitalized.

Thus. The researchers would then give the participants pretests and then after an allotted interval after the text. 10. a researcher looking into the side effects of an antidepressant. an experimental group. you gain the advantage of sampling from large populations such as state or national level. would take say 200 willing participants and then random divide them into two the field adding to quality data. It is meant to attempt to control the researcher’s expectancy such as a researcher working for a pharmaceutical company who is studying the efficacy of a new experimental drug that will lead to a huge increase in sales if the drug works or money that is lost because it doesn’t result in a winning formula. is . A classical example of a double blind experiment. The control group is then the group that would not get the treatment and then there is an experimental group that would get the treatment (i. The elements of a classical experimental design are that it has a control group. A double blind experiment is that both the researchers and participants are ignorant of the details of the hypothesis. one control and one experimental. But then you must take into account that the disadvantages of secondary data analysis is that you cannot delineate sample of national populations and narrow them down to studying a subgroup such as transsexual drug addicts living in New York City. a post-test to measure the effects if any. and random assignment. and most research of large sampling involves large.e. a pretest and posttest. 9. cumbersome data files. with limited time and resources. drug). Secondary analysis can be manipulated to fit the researcher’s purposes.

.the studying of a new product line of hamburgers where both the one eating the hamburger and the researcher who is giving the hamburger are left unaware if in fact the drug is the new product line or in fact a generic hamburger or a competitor’s.

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