# Gerald Giuliano HWC 511 Research I Final Exam Professor Robert Marmo 1.

There are at least foue levels of measurement: ratio, ordinal, nominal, and interval. The differences amongst these four variables are that the four levels can be seen from lowest to greatest or highest precision which is in the order of nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Each level gives a particular type of information. For instance, nominal variables show that there is only a difference among the groups being studied. An example of nominal variable would thus be gender, ethnicity, or race. Therefore an ordinal measure would indicate a difference plus it can be ranked or ordered. An example of this would be polling a group of individuals their opinion on the death penalty from strongly favorable, favorable, not favorable, and strongly unfavorable. The third level is an interval measure which again be made up of different categories, can be ranked, but also indicates the distance between these categories. Thus, an example would be SAT scores or anything that can be weighed by increase in volume, etc. Lastly, is the ratio measure which differs from the other measurements in that it marks all four traits of measurement, it has to be of a different category, be in ranked order, have a distance between the groups being measured and have a true zero, a true zero is rarely found in social work studies, but is exampled by age which has a true zero at a person’s birth (i.e. 0), or money as a good example, for instance 0 to 1000 dollars.

Lastly. use a precise level of measurement by using indicators that hold more specific information such as looking at the different between those who make 20. two indicators come about – low student attendance due to illness. A sampling frame is a list of cases in a population.000 dollars a year from those who make 200. etc. the researcher would be able to say that someone making 20. . there will be a disparity between theoretical and operational definitions of a variable creates inaccurate measurement thus leading to invalid sampling. Then use multiple indicators of a variable such as low student attendance then within this variable.000 a year from there. The true reliability of a measure can never be established or perfected. by looking at previous studies to build on the measure you are looking at currently. It is seen as being important to the researcher because it is critical to good sampling. though there are many ways a researcher could improve or increase the reliability of their measure. Then.2. 3. First by clearly giving an operational definition of concepts removing any ambiguity such as information found in other constructs. This can be done by meeting 4 criteria which are clearly conceptualizing all concepts. or low student attendance due to criminalrelated behavior. If the researcher fails to take this into account. use a precise level of measurement. and usage of pilot tests.000 a year is less likely to have health insurance. use multiple indicators of a variable. the investigator can do pretests. or the best estimate of it.