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An Introduction to the Finite Element Method

Third Edition

Department 0/ Mechanical Engilleerillg Texas A&M Ulliversity College Station, Texas, USA 77843

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AI" INTRO D L'cnON TO TI II::. I-i r-I IT I Intc mational Edl tlun 1006

I~ L EM I::::r'T ~ I ETII O D.

rl ll RD EDIT I():-I

righh hy M..:U raw I-lill Ed llca tiu n (A,iaj. F nl;lIl uf:l..: tll rc ;lIld cxport. TIn, h\l\)~ l':1Il1l01 or bc rc-cx IXlr1ed fWlllt hc co unlry I n whiL: h it i, ~u l d hy f..1l;Graw- ll ill. The Inl ernati onal 1:<:<1 l1 ion I ' nu l availahk III North Amcri c~. Pu blished by M~,:(jmw- H I Ii . a bU~ IIIC"" unn OrnlC McGmw-l llli ('o111 I':lI1ie,. Inc. 1221 A~c n\lc (If the Ameri ca" New Yorl ,;..I Y 10020. Copyright ~1 99J, 19M by Th..: ~ lcG"'.I\\ - 1I 1 11 COI1l JXIIll e~. Inc. All nght~ rC~f\cd. Nt) r an of till., r ubllC;J\UHi lila) b..- rcrroduccd or di, trihutcd III any fonn or hy Hl ly nlCa ns, or stored in a d:ltnbase or relricl'<l1 'y,r.:Ill. wi thum the !,Tlor wri ucn co n,ent of The M<.-"Gnlw-ll ill Cumrnnie" Inc., incl uding, h Ili nol lim ited to. III any ne t wlJl"~ or olher t' lectron ic ,!Orage or tw n' lll b,in n. ur hroadc;I' ! fur di , I;1I1CC lcMnin g. Some :lIlciliaric\, IIldud iu ch.:t:lro nic and pri nt component', may not Ix- nv:t ilahlc \0 <.-"u' to me!' IMlt,idc the L' nlt<.'(1 Stale,.

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.I. N. Reddy is a Distinguished Professor and the inaugural holder of the Oscar S.


Endowed Chair in the Department of Mechanical Engineering al Tex."" A&M University. College Station. Texas. Prior to his current position. he worked as a postdoctoral fellow al the University of Texas at Austin. as a research sciemist for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. and taught <1t the University of Oklahoma and Virginia Polytechnic In stilUte and State University, where he was the inaugunll holder of the Clifton C. Garvin Endowed Professorship. Professor Reddy is the author of over 320 journal papers and 14 text books on theoretical formulations and nnite elemen t analysis of problems in sol id and structura l mechanics (plates and shcll s). compos ite materials, computational tluid dynamics and hellt transfer. and applied mathematics. Professor Reddy is the recipient of numerous awards induding the 1984 lValler L. Huba Cil'il Engineering RCJf!(/f('1I Prize of the American Society of Civil Engineers. the 1985 Alumni Research Award at Virginia Poly technic lnstitutc. the 1992 Won'ester Reed Warner Medal and the 1995 Charles RIISS Richards Memorial Award of the American Society of Mechanical Engineer~. the 1997 Melrill R. Lohmalill Medal from Oklahoma SllIte University. the 1997 Archie HiKdon DislillJ.:uished Etillcator Awwd from the Mcchanics Division of the American Society of Engineering Education. the 1998 Nalhall M. Newmark Medal from the American Society of Civil Engineers. the 2000 Excellence ill Ihe Pie/d of COlli ' posile.l Award and the 2004 ASC OIII.Iwnding Re.lcurc/1 Award from Ihe American Society of Composite Materials. the 2000 PacullY Dislingllislu'd Achiel'f'mf'llI Awordfor R('!iemch. and the 2003 Bush EX("I'{{('IICC Award for Faculty ill Ifllernaliollal Research Award from Texas A&M University. and the 2003 Computational Slflfctuml Mechanic.I Award from the U.s. A~~ocialion forComputationul Mechanics. He is it fellow urlhe American AClldemy of Mechanic~. the American Society of Civil Engineers. the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. the American Society ofComposilcs.lhe International Association of Corn put ational Mechanics. the U.S. Association of Co rnput ationa I Mechanics. and the Aeronautical Society of I ndia. Dr. Reddy is Ihe Editor-in-Chief of the journals Mechanicl' of AdI'(I/!Cl't/
M(l/t'fials (/I/(i S/rIu;/IIres. IlI lel"ll(//iollal )olll"llal of Cumpllltiliolla! Melho(fs ill Engineering Scient"(' (/I/(! McchallicJ and IlIIcl"lu/liul/(/{ )vlIl"llal of Slrur.:/II/"(i{ StabililY (/1/(/ Dynamio';

he also serves on the editorial boards of over two dozen other journals.


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 COllllllen!' Mnthematital Models Numerical Simulations The Finite Element Method 1.4.1 The Basic Idea I A.2 The Basic FealUrc\ 1.4.3 Some Remarks IAA A Brief Review of Hi~tory :lIlU Recelll The PTe~ent Study Summary
PnJblcrn~ Rcfcn:Th.:c~ G~ner~1


13 13
13 21


23 24
24 25

for Additional Reading


Mathematical Preliminaries, Integral Formulations, and Variational Methods

2.1 Gelleral Ifllroouctiull 2.1.1 Variational Principles and Method .. 2.1.2 Variational Forl11ulmion s 1.1.3 Neetl fur Weighlctl - lrHcgr;d Slatcl11ent~ Some Mal llcnwlical Concep!'> anti Formulae 2.2.1 Coordinatc Systcm, and the Dd OP<'.ralor 1.2.2 Boumbry Value. Initin l Value, and Eigenvalue 2.2.3 lutcgralldcmitic, 2.2.4 Linear and Bi linear FUlJ(:tion~1s Elemenl~ uf Calculus of Variatiuns 2.3. 1 Introductiun 2.3.2 Ylirialinnal Operator and Fir~l Variation 2.3.3 Fund(lIllcntal Lemma of Vari,llional Calculus 2.3.4 nle Eukr Equation~ 2.3.5 Natural and Essenti:ll Boumbry CumJi(iOIl\ 2.3.6 Hamilton's Principle

27 27



31 31 33 39

41 41 41 44







Integra l rormuliHion~ 2.4. 1 In troduction 2.4.2 Weighted-Integral nnd Wenk Forrmllmions 2.4.3 Linear and Bilinear rorm~ and Quadrmie runctiOl1l11, 2.4.4 Examples 2.5 Variational Methods 2.5. 1 Introduction 2.5.2 The Rill. Method 2.5.3 Approximation Function, 2.5.4 Examples 2.5.5 The Method of Weighted Re'iduals 2.6 Summary Prublems References for Additional Rendin g

58 58 64



76 77

97 102


SecondOrder Differential Equations in One Dimension; Finit e Element Models

3.1 3.2 Background Basic Step~ of Finite Element Analysis 3.2.1 Modell3uundary Vulue Problem 3.2.2 Di~cretil.ati()n of the Domain 3.2.3 Derivation of Element Equation, 3.2.4 Conncctivity of Elements 3.2.5 I mpo~ition of Boundary Conditi()n~ 3.2.6 Solution of Equations 3.2.7 Postclllllputatioll o f the Solution Sume RClllarb Axisymmetric l>roblem, 3.4.1 Model Equation 3.4.2 Weak Form 3.4.3 Finite Element Model Summary Problem, References for Additional Reading

103 105 105 106 10K 125 132 132 134

3.3 3.4

141 146 146 147 148

150 151 154


Second-Order Differential Equations in One Dimension: Applications

4.1 4.2 Preliminary COlllmel11S Di'nele Sys1Cm~ 4.2.1 Lincar Elastic Spring 4.2.2 Tor~ion of Circu lar ShafTs 4.2.3 Electri cal Re\istor Circuit~ 4.2.4 Fluid Flow throug h Pipes Heat Tran~fer 4.3.1 Governing Equation, 4.3.2 Finite Element Models 4.3.3 ~umcrical Exalllple~

155 156 15K



161 162 162 166




181 181 181 183

4.4 Fluid \1t:!;hanin

4.4.1 Governing E4uations 4.4.2 Finitt: Element Model 4.5 Solid and Structural Mech:mics 4.5.1 Preliminary Comments 4.5.2 Finite Elemem Model of B,lrs amI Cables 4.5.3 Numeri!;al Examples 4.6 Plane Trusses 4.6.1 Introduction 4.6.2 Basi!; Tru~s Element 4.6.3 Gent:ral Trw,s Element 4.6.4 Con>lraim Equations: Penalty Approach 4.6.5 Com,traint Etjuations: A Direct Approach 4.7 Summary Problems ReferelKe~ for Additional Readin g

184 185 194


195 202

2 11
214 215 231

Bea ms and Frames

5.2 Introduct ion Euler- B<:rnoulli Beam Elcment 5.2. 1 Govcrning Eqllation 5.2.2 Di~crctization of the Domain 5.2.3 Derivation uf Elemellt Equations 5.2.4 As,embl}, of Element Equations 5.2.5 Imposi tion of BOllndary Conditions 5.2.6 P<l .. tpf()(:e~sing uf th e Sulutioll 5.2.7 r>:urnerical Example, Timo"henko Bemn Elements 5.3.1 Governing Equations 5.:U Weak Form 5.:\.3 General Finite Element Mode l 5.3.4 Co nsi q ent Interpolatio n Elements 5.3.5 I{edueed Integration Element 5.3.6 Numerical Exa mples Plane Fnllllc Elelllcms 5.4. 1 11l1roduc1()ry COllllllent~ 5.4.2 Frame Element Summary Problems Refe rences for Additional Readin g

233 233 233

234 234 243




261 261




274 274

5 .5

2< 1 282 290

Eigenvalue and Time-Depend ent Pro blems

6.1 Eigenv:lIlle Problems 6.1.1 Introduction 6.1.2 Forrnui;ltion of Eigenvalue Problelll ~ 6.1.3 Finite Element Formu lation 6.2 Time-lJepcndent Problems 6.2.1 Introduction 6,2,2 Se.midi ~c n:te Finite EJcrnc.llt M[)dd~

291 29 1 292

3 14 3 14


COI'/'l1#1 ~


6.2.3 P;lrailolic E(IUalions 6.2.4 llyJX:rbulic Equation, 0.2.5 M!I~~ Lumping 6.2.0 Apillicmions Summary

Reference, fllr Additional Rcading

318 324 326 328 337 337 342

Comput er Iml}lcll1cntaliol1

J.IJ J.l3 345 346 347 348 356 356 357 359 363 365 367 370 370 370




7. 1. 1 B:ld.l1round 7. 1.2 Naluml Coordin<lte~ 7.1.3 Appm~imation of Geomctry 7. 1.4 l'IIP:tr:II11ctric Fonnulalillll' 7. 15 NUl11crit.:al lmcgraliol1 computer ImplerncllIation 7.2.1 Int roductory C()l11mcnt~ 7.2.2 GenemlOutline 7.2.3 Prcprocc,f>()f 7.2 A Calculation of Element Matnee.. ( Procc~),()r ) 7.2.5 A\).Cl11l)ly of ElcrncllI &Iuation~ (Proccssor) 7.2.6 Impll,itiun of ~oumJ~ry C((mlitions (Pnl(;e .. ~or) 7.2.7 Solv ing Equ:ltion~ and PlI"pnKe~~ing Applic:Ltioll' uf Program FEM I D 7.3.1 Geneml ComnlCIilS 7.3.2 lII uslrali \c E:\amplcs Sumrmll)
Problem ..


'0' 'U1

Rctcrcm:cs til" Additional Reading

Single-V;lrhlhlc l)mblcl1ls in Two Dimcnsions

S.I 8.1 IllIrodu..:tlon Bound ary Villuc Pmhlcm, 11.2.1 The Model Equation 8.1.1 Pinlte I;.lemcnt Di'crcti/.atiol1 8.1.3 Weal,. Furm 8.2.4 Finlle Flcmcnl '\iudcl B,2.5 Dcri~a\i()1\ o f Intcrpola tlon F uncl ion~ 8.2.6 Lval ualion of Elemclll f...l<l1 rke\ :md Vector. 8.2.7 A,\cmbly of ElemcllI r:.quiltions 8.2.8 1'1"lcumpUlations H.2.lJ AXi\Yllllllctric Problem, A Numerical b:amplt: Somc Cllmmcnt~ on Mc\h GCllcnLtion and Im position of Boundary ComJitillrl' 8.4.1 DI \crc li zation of a Domain 8.4.1 Gcner..lllon of Finite Element Data 8.4.3 Imp(Ntion of Boundary Condil ion ~


8.3 8.4

41 () 410 411 412 415 4) 7 425 436 440 4.t I 442 453 453 455 456





8.5. [ 8.5.2 8.5.3

Conduction and Convection Ikat Tr;.!nsfer F[uid Mechanks Solid Medmnics



Eigenv(due and Time-Dependent Problems 8.6.1 Introdllction 8.6.2 Parabolic Equations 8.6.3 Hyperboli (.: &iuations Slllnmary Problems Reference' for Additiona[ Reading

490 491

504 504


Interpolation Functions, Numerical Integration, and Modeling Considerations

lJ. 1 <).2
[ntroduetion Elemcnl Library 9.2. [ Triangu[ar Element, 9.2.2 Rectangu[ar Elemcl11, 9.2.3 The Serendipity E[ements 9.2.4 Hermite Cubic [merpo l,ltion


525 532




Numerica [ Integration 9.3.1 Preliminary ComTl1ent~ 9.3.2 Coordimlle Transform~tions 9.3.3 IntcgT<ltion over a Master ReetangU[~lr E lement 1).3.4 Integration over 11 M(lqCr Triangular Element Mode[ing Con~idewtions 9.4. [ Pn.::limillary Coml1lCnl~ 9.4.2 ElclllClll Geolllclries lJ.4.3 Mesh Generation 9.4.4 Load Representation Summary

540 543


561 561 562


567 569


RI.'Jercnces for l"\ddiliOlllll Reading



10.1 10.2 10.3

or Viscous Incompressible Fluids

577 577

Preliminary Comments Governillg EqU:llions Velocity-Pressure Formulation [0.3.1 Weak Formulation [0.3.2 Finite Ekment Model Penalty [0.4. 1 10.4.2 10.4.3 10.4.4 10.4.5 Function Formulation Preliminary Commcnts Funnu['ltion of the Flow Problem Lagrange Multiplier Model Pen:tlty Model Time Approximation

579 581 583



a Cunstrained Prublem

5K4 585





Computational A5pect~ 10.5.1 Properties of tl1e Matrix Equations 10.5.2 Choice of Element .. IU.5.3 Evaluation ()f Element Matrice .. in the Penally Mudel 10.5.4 I'ost..:omputation of Stres~es Numerical Examples Summary Problems References for Additional Reading

5llS 5llS

10.6 10.7

589 590 59 1 59 1
602 603



Plane Elasticity

(;]7 607 607 60R
610 oI2
612 612

11.2 Guverning
11.2.1 11.2.2 11.2.3 11.3
Weak 1 1..1.1

I 1.3.2 11.3.3 11.4

Plane S train Plane Stres~ Summary of Equations Formulations Preliminary Commcnt~ Principle of Virtllllll)isplacel11ents in Vector Form Weak Fonn of th e Gove.rning Differential Equations


11.5 11.7 I U;

Pinite Element Model I 1.4.1 Generul Model 11.4.2 Eigenvalue and Trall';ient Evaluation of [ntegml~ Examples Summary Problems


614 617 617

11.6 A,semhly of Fin ite Ele men t Equat ions

622 629

fl. eferences for Additional Reading

629 633


Bending or Elastic Plates

12.1 Introduct ion Classica l Plate Theory 12.2.1 Displa..:ement Field 12.2.2 Virtual Work. Statement 12.2.3 Finite Element Mood 12.2.4 Plate Bending Elements

637 637 638


642 043
646 646 648

12.3 Shear Deformation Plate Theory 12.3. 1 Di~placement Fidd 12.3.2 Virtual Work S tatemen t 12.3.3 Finite Elemem Model 12.3.4 She;lr Locking and Reduced Imegration
12.4 12.5 12.6 Eigenvalue und Tilne-Dependent Problems Examples Summary Problems References for Addilionul Reading


655 063 063





Computer Implementation ot' 'J\voDimensional Problems

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 IntnKlu(;tion Prcprocc'isor Element C()!l1p utation~
( Proces~()r)

669 669 67S 675 6HI

Applications of the Cumputer Program FEM2D 13.4.1 Im roduction 13.4.2 Description of Mesh Generators 13.4.3 Applie<Jtiulls (ll ilistrative Examples) Summary Problems References for AdditiollalRcading



705 709


14.1 14.2

Adv.lnccd Topics





14 .6

Im roductioll Alternative Finite Elemem Models 14.2.1 Introductory Comments 14.2.2 Weighted Resid ual Finite Element MOOeh 14.2.3 Mixed Fonllulations Three-Dimensional Problems 14.3.1 Heat Transfer 14.3.2 Flows of Viscous Incompressible Fluids 14.3.3 Elasticity 14.3.4 Threc- Dimen ~ i onal Fin ite Ele men ts 14.3.5 A Numerical EXamplc Nonline:lr Prublems 14.4.1 General Comments 14.4.2 Bending of Euler- Berno ulli Beams 14.4.3 TIle Navier- $tokes Equations in Tv.'() Dimensions 14.4.4 Solution Methods for Nonlinear Algebraic Equations 14.4.5 Numerical Examples Errors in Finite Element Analysis 14.5.1 Types of Errors 14.5.2 Measu res of Erron. 14.5.3 Convergence and Accuracy of Solutions Summary Problems References for Additional Reading

712 722

726 727

731 735 736 736 736 73K 739 740 743

743 744 745 750 751 753




The third edition of the book. like the previous IwO edition". represents an efforT to se lect rind present certnin a~pccl s of the finite element method that arc 1ll0~1 useful in developing

.. nd analyzing linear problems of engineering and science. In revising the book.


taking cour~es that might usc this book as their textbook have been kept in mind. Thi s edit ion is prepared to bring more c larity to the concepts being discussed while maintaining the necessary mathematical rigor and providing phys ical interpretations and engineering

applications at every step.

Thi s edit ion of the book is a revis ion of the second edition, which was well received by engineers as well as researchers in the fields of engi neering and sc ience. Most of the revisions in the current ed ition took pl~lce in Chapters I through 6 and 14. Chapter:; on error analysis from the ~el.:Ond edition i ~ elim inated and <I section on the same subjeci is added 10 Chapter 14. Chapter 3 from the second edition is now divided into two ch<'lpters. Chapter 3 on theoretical formulation and Chapter 4 on appliclltions. Chapler 4 on beams from the second edition now became Chapler:; in the current ed ition, making the total number of chapter~ in both ed itions the same. Another change is the inten:hanging of Chapters 10 and II 10 facilitate the naturaltrnnsition from plane e last icity 1 platc bending (Ch;lptcr 12). 0 New mnterial on thrce-dimensionallinite clement formulations and nonlinear formulHtions is added in Chapter 14. [n all the chapters. material is added and reorgani/ed to aid the reader in understnnding the concepts. Another change in thi~ edition is the removal of appendices containing the program listing of FEM I D and FEM21). which would have taken up over 80 pages. The program li stings. execu lablcs. and instructor resources are available on the text's website a1 www.m The suurce file s of these progranl" may be obtained from the author for a small fcc. Most people who have used the earlier editions of the book liked the "dilfcrcntial equations approach" adopted here. This is nntural because everyone. engineer or scie nti~t. is looking for a way to solve differential equations arising in the study of physical phenomena. It is hoped that the third edition of the book serves Ihe studen t even beller than Ihe previous ed it ions in understanding the fini te element method as applied 10 linear problems of engineering and sc ie nce. The author has benefited by tcading an introductory cour~e from this book for many years. While it i~ not pos~ ibl e to name hundreds of students and colleagues who have contributed to the author's ability to explain concepL~ in a clear rnnnner. the author




his sincere appreciation to the following people for their helpful comments on this edition:

Ronald C. Averi ll. Michigan State University Mahesh Gupta. Michigan Technological University H.N. Hashemi. Northeastern University Stephen M. Heinrich. Marquette University Paul R. I-/eyligcr. Colorado State Un iversity John Jackson, University of Memphis Mehdi Pourazady. University of Toledo Robert L. Rankin. Ari70na State Univel'ity N. Sukulllar. University of Ca l ifnrllia. Davh Kumar Tamma. University of Minnesota Chi-Tay Tsai, Florida Atlantic Un iversity

J. N. Reddy
Tejllsilll'illa l'(ulheeTlllIIllSrllll (May who/w(' s/udy be well srudied)

Chapter 1



all(: of the mo~t importalll things engineers and ~cicnti~l~ do is to model phy<;ical phe-

nomena. Virtually every phenomenon in mllure, whether aerospace. biological. chemical. geological. or Illcchanic:d c:m be described. with Ihe aid of the laws of physics Of other iiclds in terms of algebraic. di ffcrent;aJ, and/or integra l equations relating various quantities (If interest. Determining the stress distribution in a prc~surc vessel wilh oddly shaped holes and numerous sl in'cncrs and subjccted to mechanical, thermal. and/or aerodynamic lo,ads. finding Ihe concentration of pollutants in lakes and seawater or in the atlllosphere. and si mulating weather in an :llIcml>110 undcrsland and prcdici the formation of thunden>lOnm. and tomadoes arc a few examples of many importllllt pmctic.. l problems that engineers deal with. Analytical de~criptions of phy\ical phenomena and proce~~c~ arc called 1I111lilell1l1lic(ll II/odek Mathematical moJcl~ of a process arc developed u~ing a~~umption s conccrning how the process works ;md using appropriatc axioms or law\ governing the proces~. and they arc often charactcrized by very complex differential and/or integral eq uations posed on geometrically compl icated domains. Consequently, the proces'iCs to be studied. utltilthc advent of electronic computation. were drastically simplified so that the governing e(luation~ can be w ived analyt ically. Over the last three decades. however. computer; have made it po~"ib le. with the help of suitable mathematical models and numeric.. l methods. to solve many practic:.l problems of engi neering. The use of .. numerical method and a computer to evaluate the mathem:uic:11 model of a process and estimate its char<lcteristics is called a mll/wriea/ simll/oliO/1. There now exists a new and growi ng body of knowledge connected with the development of mathemat ica l moocls and u~e of numerical simulation s of physical \y~tems. and it is known a~ COIII{JIl/aliOl/a/lI1 echa llic.\ jl j. Any numerica l simu lation, such as the one by the tinite clement method , is not an end in itsel f but rather an aid 10 design and manufacturing. There are ~everal reasons why an eng ineer or a ~dentis t shou ld study a numerical method, C\I>Cc1ally the finite element method: I. MO\l practical problcm.~ involve complicated domains (both geometry and material constitution). load\, and nonlinearities that forbid the development of analytic1 solut ions. Therefore. the onl y alternative is to find approximate solutions usi ng numerical methods.

AN 1'(lRODlICTIU~TO TilE ~lNnh f_Uil\.IL~" \lh'llfOIl

2. A numerical method. with the advent of a computer, can be used to investigate the clTects of various parameten. (e.g .. geometry, material parameters. or loads) of the system on its response 10 gai n a better understandi ng of the process/system being 'H111Iyzed. It i~ costeffective and saws time and material resources compared to the multitude of physical ex.periments needed to gain the same level ofundcrstallding.

3. Because of the power of numerical methods and e lectronic computation. it is

to include all relevant features in a mathematical model of a worrying ahout its solution by ex.actmcans.


process without

4. Those who arc quick to usc a computer program rather than thillK about the problell1LO be analYlcd lIlay fiud it difficult tu interprct or explain thc computer-generated result~. Even to develop proper input data to the computer program. a good understanding of the underlying theory of the problem ilS well as the numerical method (on which the computer program i~ based) is required.

5. The finite element method and

it~ generalizations are the most powerful computeroriented method\ ever devised to analyze practical engineering problems. Today, fi nite element analysi>; is an integral and major component in many fields of engineering design and manufacturing . Major establi shed industries such as the automobile, aero~pace. chemical. pharmaceutical. petroleum. e lectronic>;, and communica1ions, a~ well as emerging technologies such as nanotechnology and biotechnology rely on the finite element method to simulate complex phenomenon at different scales for design and manufacture of high-technology products.


A lII(lthemmico/ model can be broadly defined as a set of equations that expresses the essential features of a physical system in terms of variables that describe the system. The mathematical models of physical phenomena arc often based on fundamental scientific law ~ of physics such as the principle of conservation of mass, conservation of linear momentum. and conservation of energy. Below we consider three simple examp les drawn from dynamic~. heat transfer, and solid mechanics to illustrate how mathematical models of physical prohlems are formul:tted .

E"ampld,2.1 (A Dynamics Pr(Jblcm) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

A simple pendulum (sU!;h as the one u~ed ill 11 doc") (;()Il~i~ts of II bob Ilr mllSs If1 (kg) attached to one end oj a rod of length t (01) alld the other end is pivoled to a fixed pailll 0, as shown in fiS. 1.2.1. to order lO dc:rive the govemiQg equAtioQ of the problem. WI! must make cer1a)n assumptions cOTIGerning tbe syst~m (the bob and rod) consistent with the goal of the ilnaly~is. If the goal is to study the s implest linear mQlilin of Ute pendulum, we assullle Ihai tJle bob a.~ well as the rod are rigld \i.e., not defort.nahle) and the nKl is mil..~~Ie.."5 (i.e., compared to thaI of Ihe bob). In addition, we-a,<;.$ur'rle that thtlre is IlO frictioll at the pivot puint 0 and lh!csistance offered by the SW'f(lUnding medium 10 the pendulum is also negligible. Under these n~~UmptioilS, the equ;ltion governing Ihe motion of the system can be formu hl\ed using IhcfJril!cipfeoj"Qnserratifm oJfineor irWini'll/14m (orstmply Newton',; sccontllaw).


11'1 l!OOl'CTIO~

, ,,


Figure 1.2.1 Simple pendulum.

wbich !>tuteS, in the prc~nt Cll~C. that the vector sum of exte:rnally olppJied forces on a ~ySt~m is i!qu:tl 10 the I~me r..\le (If change of the linear momentum in.t:ls$ tim<:s velocity) of the system:

F =-





where F i~ the vei;lQr ,wm of aU forces ilCting 00 the rystem, III is the ma~s of the~ystem, \. is the

velocity vector, i\od a is the acceleratiOIl vector (If the-system. To write theequulion governing the angular motion. we ~et up acooreJirl,ate sy~tcm, as ~hown in Fig. 1.2.J. Applyiog Newton'S M!<:ond hlW to the x-dircclion (note that the dyniullk equilibrium M forces in Ihe y-dir~tjon gives tbc rcactio!;l force R(N) in terms of the weight 1118 of tbe bob). we o!)/ain
. dv~ F~=I11,{,


where f. == - 1118 sin fJ, 1!~ = t'!} , {f L~ the angular di~ plaeemeru (rad i.:ln~), 1\ is the cllmponcut of velocilY (m/s) along the x COQfllinatc. and f denQlcs tilIlC (s). Thus, th equation for :ingular




F.qUluion (1.2.3) is nonlinenron aCC(tUnt of the term sin r(lfsmsll angular motions (consblent wilh the goal of I Sludy), sin 8 is appfOxim:noo as 0. TIlUS., lhe angular rtlOti\l1l is de~tribcd .he by the line<tr difft':renti~1 t:{jURlioll


-+-0=0 dl~ {

d ~(J

(l ,2.4)

Equlition~ (1.2.3) lmd (1.2.4) repre;;enl matheJllatical Illodcl~ of nonlinear and lineM mutions, respectively. of a rigid pentiululJl. Their solmion require., knowledge of cQnc:Jiti()!1 at time I 0 on 0 and ils time derivuliveO (angular velOCity). Thc..\C condition~ are known as the initial L'u/l{lition.l. TIIUS, the linear problem involves solving the JiO'erentiul equ~ltiou (1.2.4) subjected 10 the initial condition~






'n\e problem

by &Js. (1.2.4) and O.2.S)js caHed an ill/lia/val/It' pmblem. (:.q~. (I ,2.4) ll(ld (1.2.5) call be solved analytically. The general analy!ical solution of Ihe linear equation (1.2,4) (Ii +). ~fJ'" 0) j, give n by


linear problem described by

{J(t)=A ~inAt

+ B ct)~AI

( 1.2.6)

where .l. ~ um! A arld H art CO!lslanh to be dClcmlined \ 1.2 ..5). Wc otlluin


u~lng Ihe. in'ltial I:Ondilion& in


" A=T'
and the M)luuou


linear p!'(lblcllI is

O(,)~ ~Sin'.t+~ct).!,}.1
For zero initial velodty "nd ncu\l.ero initial l>osition


wc h(wc

which representS Il ~i01 p le har{l)onic mOlion. If we WCJC 10 ~In: the non cquOition (1.2.3) subjt.'CI to lhe conditions II) (1.2.!5). we may con.,idcr using a numerical method ~UM: it Is nOt p(lSliible to wive il eMctly fOr large values of B. Wt:- will revisit Ihis i~~uc in the:: ~ucl.

Example U.1 (A 11M Transfer PI:(lblc::.m) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

!lere WC wish t(l rJcrivc thl: governing equations (i.e., develop the mllthem:,ticu/ modd) (If \teady-state hel'I Ir.lJ1sf~ thmugh 1I eylindrical bar of tuJflunifonn cm\~ se<.:Uon. Tlli: bar is subject \(I 3 koown temperature Til (C) at the leO end and e.~p(),<d, bolh on the surface and at the right end, to a medium (~ueb as cooling QUid or air) at temperature T..... We as..\ume thattempcrature i" uniform at any t-CClicm (If the bar. T ::c:: T(.f). Due In tbe di(ference betwccn the temperature:, of the bar and the \urruunding medium, then: 15 CIJflve(:lh'e heat ltan'lfer aC((j~ tIN! /lUrf,ICC of the body and at the right end. 'fl:tc princip1c of (;flnsefY,ttlOn 01 CJM:rg)' (QI' ~he se(Qnli 1m" of thrtm(lifytmmin) can be used to derive the governing equlltions of the problem. TIle principlc Of con~n'atiQn of clll!l'gy requjre..~ that the rJtc of dlange (increase) of internal el\e'lY is equal to the.sum of beat gained by conductio(l, convection. and internal heat genC'rJlion (radiation tlQl included). For 01 steady proo..'CS~. the lime rJIC of internal energy
is tcro.

Consider a vol ume clement of length A.t and having an area of cros.~ so::cLion A(.f) (m~) noematlo the x axi~ {oree fig , 1.2.2,. Lf q denotes the heat flux (he~1I &w po!!' U(lil area. W/m~). then (Aql. is the net heal flow into the "Illume eicmell1 81 x. IAql.-+ ..., i, the net he.lI dow /)UI (If tbe volume elo.."fllCnl AI x !- box. and PP w(Tow' T) i~ the hea1 now through the surface of the rod into Ihe hody. H~>re p del)Qtt5 the fi lm (thai is formed bet ..... e('n lhe bI:>dy and Ihe m~1..h um (U'('und) conduclIlnce lWI(m1. q]. T"" i~ the temperorure of the sure rounding medium, and P js the pc:rlmclcr rm). W 111\0 a~umc Ihat there is a heat soun:e within the rod gencr.tting el)Crgy ..t a rate or 8 (W/m l ). ln practic(:, !;uch ~nergy ',ource can be due to nuclear Ilsskm (n' chemica) rtaclion~ takiog pJllCe withln the rod. or due III the (Klssage of electric cum!nt throilgh the olCdium (i.t'. , VQlllmc heating) . Then the energy balance

[Aq}. ~ fAq ~Ho~

+ f1 p 6x(r"'Co -


+ gA (}.x = 0



CUIWCClil}/J frQflllaterai

, ---+ 1

F"lgUN! J .2.2 Heat tnlnsfer in a bar.

Of. dividing lhrougbulit by


_f AQ1,t w- [Aq1.
nnd taking the 1i00it 6 .t

+ {JP(T<:<: -


O. we oblain
- dx (Aq)+/H'(T<:<:.-T)+A8=O


We Call r<:latc-the heal tlllx q (Wlml) 10 the Icmperollure gradient. Sud] a relatilJII is ptovided
by the Flmrier law

where k denOtes the! cQndncli\'ity t\V!(m 'C) I of the milteri;!j. The minus sign on the
right side of the cljuality in the above Ctjualion indicates thtu heat

from high tCOIpcraHlre

to low lcmperatu,rt'!. Equation (1.2.12) h kTlown as a COlIslilllliw' relmion because It contains a

malerial prQperry. Now uSin,g, the r'Qurier law (I .2. 12) ill (1.2.11). we arrive a,t the heat


whjch can also be.. wnlt(!1l as

d (kATx +fJP(T",, dT)



_3.. (kA ~) + fJP(T dx dx


= A$


Equation (L2.14) is a linear. (lJonbomogel\Cou~) se{;Qnd-OfQCJ diO'e~otiaJ eq:u.lljon, whle.h can be solved with krWwn condition); llI1 lemper:'lture. T (It heat Aq (not bOth) !It a boundary


poiO! (e.g., end.; of the bar). The kOQWn ern.! condjt)lIns for the case (,,-"Call the problem at lbe start this cX:llIlplCI can be f'){prt.'1oCd a.~


dr [ kAdx

+{lAir -

T",,) ]




These conditi(mS lire called f)ollndary conditions bcc:l.U~ they repre~nt conditions al the bounuary pOinl) Qf the bar. The 1i001 cundiMn in (1.2.1 S) is obviou<;. 11te ,;erond cQndi lion rcprcsc:nt:.~ lhe balance of heal due (1) conduction [kA(d7Id.t)1 Imd cQllvection [PA CT 7.",)). The problem deM'ribed by ~~. ( 1.1..14) and ( 1.2.15) i~ called, for obvious reason~. a IXJ/llIIklr)t.l"Olui' pmbf,."f. Thj ~ L'Omplctes the mathematical model development of the problem. Equations (1.2.14) and (1.1.15) Clan be simplified for \'ariQUs lopiat caloC'i. Firsr let

so IhUl Eq~. (1.2.14) il,nd (J,2.IS) can be wriuen liS heut transfer problem~) - - ud.\ d.\
8(O)=To- T.....


thalli and c ure always positive in

d ( dO) +cO=!
,19 ] =0 [ u-+{JAO dx " ...1_



Now if II and c are coMtant (c.g .. hOmogeneous bar of con~taOl intern:.! heat generation), Eq~. (1,2.17) and {1.2.Un bewmc

section) and g "'" 0 (no

--, + - 0 =0, d,'



where 0 <x< l.


dO -+-1:1 [IIx P] ,.,L "",0 k.

The gencr,l! SOluM!) of ( 1.2 19) (tJ- - 11I!O =0) i.s


where C! IlJId Cl are constants that can


siqh x "'" {I'r - e-')/2 and


determined uSing the b()undary cOlldiliom (1.2.20). (I''" + .... ,1/2. W~ ha\'e

C~ "" -(Iu [ coshml. + (fJJmk.)sinhml.

Hence. the soJutiOll of Eq~. (I ,2.19) lind (1.;Ub) become.~


+ (fi/mk)C()ShmL]


( t!x)=9(O)

OO~hm{1. - xl

OO'<h ttl l.

, + (flllllk) :)mhm- L

+ (MmJ.)\inhm(L -


( 1.2.22)

el!A!'I'!'R I


l<:xample 1.2.3 fA Solid Mechanic\ l>roblem)

1be la~t ~ampl~ is corn;eQlcd with the OllllhematiCll1 ({mnul,ttiorl of tbe axial deformation or il bar of variable cross .section. 111e tcml!N/r is ul;Cd in solid and struclunll mechanics to mean a Mroctural element Ihat carrie..~ only a.,ial k)ad~ (tensile as weill\!! compressive). PnK'licai c.o;llmplc!> of \be problem ilre provided by the defomlalkm of a .$Iender bod)' under ils uwrl "'eJght (uHf by a cont:retc pier \uppmting a bridge, In the case of the concrete pier, it may 00 tleatt:d iI~ a Ih(eedimcn~!onal problem. The weight of the bridge as weI! a~ the weight of vehicles on the bridge! i~ carried by the piep" The piers lit the ends of a bridge \.lke-S\ightJ)' difTerentload than the ones in the interior. fn a pn.:Jin\lnnry dc.~ig/l of strui,;tUfl.'$, we often try to obtain the ordersor-magnitude of the Signif+ !cam dcforrumion and stress compononN in a Iypical pier rather than determine the detailed thn.:e.-dimCJ1siOnal deformation ilJld wcss nel&;. With tM former in uijnd, we make. SIlveral simplifying assull1ption~ 10 reduce i/le p(Qblcll) 10 a one.wmensioOliI problem thai atl!)w~ u~ 10 detenninc the eOl1)rHl:~sitm and a&S(lCi,m:d fn a lYpical Plcr. First, we I;.now that (he signilicant IUjd taken by a pier ill vertical (along the height Mlhe pier). So the a.o;jal defOf1l1illiun (compression) and stress will he the signlJicant qu(!nti!.ies, and tlle latera} deformation due to the PoiSSOn effed may he neglected. Second. we. wish to co1\~idef the ~tatjc case (as if all (If the traffic VII the bridge Is sl,lnding ~li1l-like during heavy rush hOur) \\' II mltgllitude of the li:\ial Load 10 reprc...~ent the worst case scenario of heavicM tra.ffic as weli as snow fall (a quasi-~tatic elIse fl)ay be included by magnifying the ~latic lo.,dS). We may lllo;o take into aecuont [he weight (whicn h !J volume force, calLed txldy force) of Ihe picr llstl(. The govcm,ing cquati\ms {)fthi~ sinrplifjcd pn)blem call b(l obtuillcd us.iog Newton 's ~cundJnw and il uniaxial ~tre~-strain (con~lituti\'e) rt:lation (nute the simllarity in the (lerivlItion of tlle equatiQn.~ of thi~ ~o!id mech;lnics prQI)lem with the heat trJ.ns(er problem di;;Cus~ed earlicd. Fi~ure 1.2.3 shows al) element of length Ax with axial fQrCes acting at 00th ends or the clement where (1. dCfJo(c~ stress (1.1,'., forte- per unit area; Nlm~) in the .1:' direction, whkh is 13ken po~itive downward. and g{x) dt:llot~ the b<xly fnfllemeaSuti.-d per voJumt: (N/m3 ), I leo!:!!. [A07.fl~ is the net tensile foreeon the voLume elt:mcnt at x and fACT L<+&> h the nt;t

T .,
Bod)' turee, g("

It' igure 1.2.3 Axial (lefomliltilll)



A N INTROIllXT IO:-; TO ni E rI~ l n; ECn.1 K'IT ~wnIOl)

tensile- forte 31 x + A.t. Tben seiling the sum of the forces 10 zero (Le.. applying s..--cond law in the x-directi(lrV ytc.ld~


+IAC':.jH (l..t + gA6x::= 0

+ Ag(.r ) ""Q

where 81,t) i ~ the body f,lIl:e (i.e .. weight of the bQdy). DiViding throughollt by Ll.x and wking thelimi! 6x ...... O. weobillin


- (M~)

which rerrc..~el\.l~ I!).c equl1illriurn of forces in Ibe .l-.:iin"elion, .. The sttcS,\ C1, can be rtjiltcd to the axial di~placel))ent osing


( 1.2.23)


e.. ::=dx



whqt: E is Young'~ modulus (N/m1). IJ r.Wn()tc~ Ihc.axial dbplacemeot (m), and fiJ i ~ the axia.1 (m/m), Ag:\in. we see that Eq. (1.2.24) i,~;j constitutive equallon. ,Note t\.lat;t ~ys te.m can hll\'e scveml consti tutive-relalio!\), each depernling (m tht' phenllfnenon \,x!ing studied. The /<wdy of heat lffinsfer in ;i bar (with nbnuni{oml temperature) required us t(} employ Fourier'S law \0 reillte tcmpef'JJure gradient 10 heat flow. alld the study of deJormation of the ~ame. bilr (~'U bjecled to axial f,)rces) requires us 10 u ~c H(lOke'lj la\\' IQ cmmcct Stress til dL~placcmcnl gradicm. Now using Etq. (1.2.24) in Eq. (1.2.23), we!lrri\'e at the equilibrium equation in terms of the dispJac.emctll

-d ( EA- +g A ""Q,


a") dx

( 1.2.25)

This$CconU-<lrderequ::tlion can be iiolved tlsing kllOytil boundary conditions ;l.t..t "" 09.nd;( <= L. The boundary conditions of Il. bar involve ~pecj fy ing elthf'r the displncementll or the force A"~ at a boumury point., The knOWn boundary conditions of the problem at hand tire {see fiig. j ..'2.3)
= - p ( 1.2.26) dx ~ 00(1 where P is the- IVild carried by the pier (i.e .. weight of the-hoUge-and the lOad it carries divided by the, Qf pier~ supp0l1ing the bridge). The ~cond boundary condition in (J .2.26) represeill~ the force equilibrium ;11 .'('= L. EquatiOns (I.2.2S) and (1.2..26) nlily not admit ao an::tlytical solution when a ::=(I{x). (Cquiring us to ~ek approximate solutioM \lSins. numert..,'lll mClhod,\. The anJl!yticaJ SQl u\ion bf Eq. (1.2.:25) subject. 10 II.le boundary cOl)diliol)~ i.n (U.26:> Jf\:ly be (ound for the Simple case ~n which (I __ A and J SIS AS are cOll~ta\1l (homogenetlus and unifonn cross-sectional, pi~r). The general s.oluliQn of ( 1. 2.25) in thi:-; ca~e is given by



! , II(X) = ;I ( - iX-+Cl .l+C:)

Useoflheboundary CQllditlons.( 1.2.26} sh'e C! =


... P and C"1 ,:;: J r;'1./2 - Pl.. :lnd the ~()! uti oll


01"1'11:11, I I~'TRO\)UCTION


While the deriv:nion of the governing equations for most problems is not unduly dirticult, their solut ion by exact methods of analysis is often difficult due to geometric and m<llerial complexit ies. In s\l(~h cases. numerical methods of analysis provide :J iternative means of finding solutions. l3y a IIIl11laical ~'illltilaliofl of a process. we mean the solution of the governing equations (or mathematical model) of the process using a numerical method and a computer. Numerical methods typically transfom! differential equ:nio11s governing a cont inuum to a set of algebraic equ<ltio11s of a discrete model of the continuum th:n arc to be solved using compu ters. There exist a number of numerical methods. many of which arc developed to solve differential equati ons. In the finite difference approximation of a differential equation. the derivat ives in the latler are replaced by difference quotient~ (or the function is ex panded in a Taylor series) that involve the values of the solution at discrete mesh points of the domllin. The rcsulting algebraic equations afe solved for the values of the solution at the mesh poims alier imposing the boundary conditions. These ideas are ill ustrated with the help of two examples. one for an initial -va lue problem and another for a boundary-value problem. In the solution of a differential equation by a classical variational method, the equation is put into an equivalent weighted-integral form and then the approximate ~o luti on over the domain is assumed to be a linear combinati on eLj Cjj) of appropriately chosen approximation function~ j and undetermined coefikients c; j ' The coefficients Cj arc determined such th at the integral statement equ ival ent 10 the original differential equati on is satisfied. Various variational methods. e.g .. the Ritz. Galerkin. collocation. and least-squares methods. differ from each other in the choice of the integral form. weight functions. andlor approximat ion functions. A more detai led discussion of variat ional methods will be given in Chapter 2. The classil:al variational methods. which are tru ly meshJc~~ mctlmds. are powerful methods that provide globally continuous solutions bU! suffer from the disadvantage that the approximation functions for problems with arbitrary domains are difficult to construct (the modern mesh less methods seem to provide a way 10 construct approximat ion funct ions for arbitrary domains). Here we consider two examp les of numerical simu lations u~ing the finite difference method to g ive the reader a taste of numerical methods and. in the process. introduce the finite difference method. The examples discus~ed here are based on the problems introduced in Examples 1.2.1 and 1.2.2. The bar problem of EX<llllple 1.2.3 is mathematically the same as the heat transfer problem in Example 1.2.2; therefore. its numerical solution is not discussed here.

EXample 1.3.1 (Pendulum Problem) Here we consider the numerical solution of Eq. (U:.4) it ~jmpl e penduLun~. To intrDduec the finite ditTercuee method. we cotL~ ider the. firSI-order difTerc(l1illJ lXjualioo






.. ~ 1!'I l ltOUI.ICllONTOTII[ Fltlon I<. U .H II "

I \II TII(~}

""here f ;~ a known fU IlCtiOn Mlhe unknown. Equlltion ( 1.3. 1) must De ~ol \'ed for I > O,ubjcct to the (initial) conditiOn UIO) == 110' We approximate the deri\":Iti\'c 111/, by

( ~) I ~ '.-1,

1I(1,_l ) - 1I(/i )


NOIe thut we replaced the dcri\ltl1i~e lit I "" /1 b) it.\ dcfinili{)11 except Ihat wc did not take the limit 4.1 !IS '/-1 - 1 __ 0: Ihal i\ why it i~ an A , pproximation. f'or increa.'>.ingly ~m:tll I>'lllues of 61 , \.\e e.~pect the apprQtimillion tv ha\e dl!Creasingly smal l error. Suh,tllutmg ( 1.3.2) inw ( 1.3.1) :11 t = 1 weobiain "
( 1.3.3)

Equation ( 1.3.3)can beMlh'ed. ~Inning from thd:nown value "0 of /I(t) at 1 = O. forUI "" u(/ll 11(4)/). Thh pl'QCes~can be repeated todC!emline the \'alucl'of II 1II1imeSI "'" tJ.1. 24.1 , ' ." II at. Th;, is known as Euler',f ('xfllirir \~'hell)(' (or fif~HlI1ler Runga- Kuua meUlOcl). alw known as thejorward diffl'n!IU:l' s,i'lwmc', Of cuurse there are higher-order !\nih.~ difference M:hcme ~ thlll are more accurate ihall Eulcr's ~chcme , and we will nUl di<;C\l,~ them ali they are oul~ide the M,'ope Qf this ~tudy. NNe that w~ ,tre able 10 conven the ordinary dil'l"tcntial equation (1.3.1) to an algebrJic e41.l~ltilln (1.3.3) th3t IIced~ tf) be evaluated at different time~ to conStruCt the
time hj"tClry of u(t) .

W IIOW apply Euler', e.'(pticit '<Chemc to the sec;ond..orderequatinn ( I:2.4) "ubjected to the: e initial conditiOns (1.2.5). To apply the procedure dc:,cribed aDo\'e (() IIlIl equal/on !It hand, we rc~rile Eq. (1 .2..1 ) "'~ a pair of coupled (i,e" one cannot be 501\00 without the other) first-order

di = I',


"""":'- 1. q

. l,'






~ '5 .... 1.0





- 2.0

Figurr I ,3.1 An~ l ytlcaJ ~nd numerical solutions 9(1) of the simple pendulum.

CIl,\PTER I 1:-rffi()DC CTIO'l


where).1 = 8/t. Applying the sdl~Ole of Eq. 0.3.3) to the ~UiltiQ!I:> l!l hand. we O!}lain

The expression!i- lOr 81"1-1 <Ind viiI in E4. (L3S) are repeatedly c{!mpultd u~in g the known oollliion (0" 'It) from the pre\' ii)U.~ time ste p. AI tilUe I ",,0. we. usc the knnwn initial \'ulucs (~. 1\1). lllU~, one needs a computer lind a cotnputer langui.lge IlkC Fonra\1 or C++ to iOlplemc(!1 the logic. of repcatedJy computin!! iJ, ~t and V,.1 with the help I)f' BG.. ( 1.3.5). The. numerical ~ollltionS"of equation (J .3.5) for threedifferellt lune steps, III = O.O.'i. 0.02.'i, :lnd 0.001. alons. wilh the exa.:t linear wlu~io!l (1.2.9) (with t "" 2.0, g ::::: 32.2, ~ "" ~ /4. an{l

arc prcsenled in Fig. 1.3.1. The. accu11lcy of the


solutions is dependent on

the size of the Hme step; the solution ill more m:cufllte wilh smaller time ~tepS. For lurge lime ~ICpS, thc sql ulion e\'Cn diverges from the true iolution.

Example 1.3.2 (Heat Tran~fer Prohlem) we COnsidc.r the boundary-v:llue PfQbJCIII of Example 1.22.. Tilt finite difference appfOlIiOlation of a boundary-value problem differs fromlMt of an initi;t.1 value problem. Fin>l we dhide the domain (0, /..) itllO a finite set of N lnter;als of equal length Ax, as shown in rig. 1.3.2. The ends of each iUlCrval is called a mesh point. Thll.\l. there tire J mes h jX)inls in the Then we approximule the SCCQndderivalive. directly lilting the ceJ)lc(Cd ditTereuce scheme where the error is of order O(llx?

N ""

('!!.) "(6

1_ 1 -

( A x)

"lB, 2 +

0;-0-1 )


V~jJlg the

;jbove aPPCOxi(Outioo in Eq. 0.2.19). we obtain

-($,~!- 20,+OIiJJ+ (IIIA.t)~8;"'O


-{h_ I+ 12+(m';'\x)1101 -Oi -l- 1= O


o INth :l.t x ::::: .1', .,. 1 and x = XH!'

JX!lnt x = .1'(. i = t, 2, .. .. N , aod il cOotains values of Note that Eq. (1.3.7) is nOI used at mc~h jXlitll x =.G)", 0 becu(l\C the tempcruture is known there h(.."C Eq. (1.2.2{)]. Ho ....'evCf, U\C of eq. (1.3.7) ;tllllcsh pojntt ""x~. "" L requi(CS the knowlerlge of the tklilklUS' value 6,\'+I (oli! we fiCC in the~c4ucl, Equation (1.3.7l b vaUd for any

.'igure 1.3.2 Heat Inlfl~fcr in :\ bar WId a typical finite difference




we never have tD deal wilh such tlc[jliQUS val\le~ in the finitc clemtnt mt(tuJd). The for\\'lIrd finite dirTerence apprWlimation of the second boundary condition in ( J.2.2tl) ;11 mC!;h point X"" L give!>

from which we have


( fin",) ~
I - -,-



Applicati,l1l of Ihe formula (I .3.7) [0

mc~h point~ aI XI. X1, ...

x,.,. yields

-Ou+VDI -~=O

-0 1 + IJfh -03 = 0

-ih. + Df!) - O.

"'> ()


whcre D = [2 + (m.6.xP); Cq. ( 1.3..9) cQnsist~ oJ N equa.tions in N unJ(I;l()wns, 0) . 02,""0,v . As;l :lp.,"'Cifi!;: example, clln~jdC! aSlec[ mil of dlamehlr d=O.02 m. ICllg10 /"=0.05 m. aod ttu!rmal conductivity k = 50 W/(m!'C). Surpo~ that the lCmper:uure al the, left end iii. T{I = 320 C, ambient temperature is 1;..,= 20-C and 61ru conductance (or hCill tn!Jl~fer tocffi~ cient) tJ= 100 W/(m~ ~ C). For thi~ data, we ha\'c



subdivL,iQ:u of


intc.rvilb (N

=- 4).

we ha\c .6.x =- 0.012.'1 111 ill)d D po 2 + (20 x

O.OJ 2Si = 2.0625. For this C(l'iC. there are; four cquations in fOur OnkrlQwll)(":


-&, +2.06259:>


+2.0625$\ -8J

= 300 0 = -0, = 0
+ 1.087SB~


The abovc tridiagonal sy.stemof illgebraic equ;l.tiOI1'lClln be Solved u,ing the Gau~s dirninatioJI methOd (thi~ i.s where wc neeJ :"I computcrl). TIIC SQlution is given by

10)=1245.81,206.98,181.10. J6652)
'rhe llOalytical ,Olu.llon ill the S:"ItllC points i.~

V"J"",{24R.75. 21].13.190.90. lSQ.66)l The ma)l:llllUrn crror i~ about 7.8 pcrceol. When the rwmber (!f mC$h polols i.~ dQuQled, thc 1\\,!xiJnum error goes 01;11'.'0 tl) 4,2 percen!. and it i~ J percent when the number of meSh point~
;~ incrcilS:ilit 10 32.

LlllIl'lhR I

I "T~OlJLn l"~



1.4.1 T he Uasic Idea The finite clement method is a numerical method like the finite difference method but is moregcneral and powerful in its application to real-world problems that involve complicated physics. geometry, and/or boundary conditions. In the finite clemelll method, a given dom:.lin i~ viewed as a collection of subdomains. and over eaeh subdomain the governing equation is approximated by any of the traditional variational methods. The main reason behind seeking approximate solution on a collection of suhdomains is [he fact thai it i~ easier to represent a complicated function as a collection of simple polynomials. as can be seen from Fig. lA.l. Of course. each individual segment of the solution should tit with ib neighbors in the sense thaI the function and possibly derivatives up to a chosen order arc continuous at the connecting points. These ideas will be more clear in the sequel. 1.4.2 T he Uasic Features The method is endowed with three distinct features that account for its superiority over other competing methods. First, a geometrically complex domain r.! of the problem. such as the onc in Fig. 1.4.2((/). is represented as a collection of geometrically simple subdomai ns. calledjillite elements Isee Fig. 1.4.2(b)J. Each finite clement Q lFig. IA.2(c)] is viewed as an independent domain by itself. Here the word "domain" refers to the geometric region over which the equations are solved. Second, ovcr each finite clement, algebraic equations among the quantities of interest are developed using the governing equations of the problem. Third, the relationships from all clemcnts are assembled (i.e .. elements are put back into their original positions of the IOtal domain) as indicOied in Fig. IA.2(d). using certain interelcment relationships. These statements may not make complete sense to the reader ulltil some specific examples 10 ill ustrate the features arc discussed in the coming pages. Approximations enter engineering analyses at scveral stages. The division of the whole domain into finile elements may not be exact (i.e., the assemblage of elements. Q'l> docs noL match the original domain r.!), intnxlucing error in the domain being modeled. The sccond stage is when element equations arc derived. Typically. the dependent unknowns (lI)ofthe problem are approximated using the basic idea that any continuous function can be
N 0

1Ij,(X) = L. "Z(t)


Figure 1,4, I Piecewise approximation of a function.


A.'l l ~!'lI.omJCl'l()~ "IX. "I!!; n~111~ EI.E.I.1ENT METIIOL> l



Boundary, r


Ck\main. n~
Inter-clement flu .x

,, ,,

11 '
."igurc 1.4.2 Representation of a
I~terals. two-dimcnsion~1 dom~in


by a collection of triangles and quadri-

represented by a lincarcombination of known fun ction s 1>; and undeterm ined eoefli c icnts c, = L Cii). Algebraic relations among the undetennined coefficients ("j are obtained by satisfying the goveming cq ulltions. in a weighted-integral sense. over each element. The approximation functions 1>i are often taken to be polynomials. and they are derived using concepts from interpolmio n theory. Therefore. they arc termed illlerl'olalionjlllU:lions. Thus. approximation errors in the ~eco nd stage are introduced both in representing the solut ion 1/ as we ll as in eV:.llu:.lting the integrals. Finally. errors are introduced in solving the assembled system of eq uations. Obviousl y. some of the errors discussed above can be zcro. When all the errors arc zero. we obt:.lin the exact sol ution of the problem (which is not the C:.lSC in most problems). Next. the basic ideas and some teml ino logy of the finite elementlllcthod arc introduced via severa l simple examples. The reader shou ld try to understand the basic fea tures rather than to question the use of an approximation method to sol vesuch ,I simple problem (which can possibly be solved exactl y wi thout using the finite c lement method).
(u ~


Example 1.4.1 (Approximaiioo of the Pwimcler.of a.Circle)

This d!se.uss\OIl js ~Il expanl'oiO/l of an ;'Jrticie wtillcn by the author III 1978 for a student m;lgazinc at the University ofOkJahom3 (R~dy. 19713). Consider Ihe pr\lbkm of determining the pcrirncl.Cr (quaJlljty of j IllC(CliO of a cirdll of radius R lsee Fig. 1.4 ..)(a)], We pll!.tclld

(, fl" l'rE ~ I INTKOIJUCI'ION






, ,, ,

,--- ...

Figure 1.4.3 Detefi'ninstiol) of the


~rimetcr of s

cI rcl e.

thm. we uo not know Ihe formula (P = 2JrR) for the perimeter (circumfereucc) of a circle. Ancient mathematicians eStjmated th e value of th e perimeter of a cirele by appro);imating it by (sirtlight) line segments. whose Itlngths th ey were II.Ole to measure. TIle appro~in\:ne value of the circumference is obTained by summjng the lengths \lflhe line segments used to represent it. The three basic fe~tures ~}f the finite element methOd in the present case take the fo llowing ronu. Fjr~t, the div~jon \If the perimeter of a circle into <l col lection of line segmentS. In theory. we neeJ an infinite num!)e:r of suc h line clements II) rep~nt the perimeter; otherwio;e. toe va.luc oompured will have s()me error. S\"'Cllnd. wriling an equal!()!) for the quantity of iniere"l (pcrimeter) over an element (li ne segment) in this case is exact. ~ \\-e:.ha l1 see. Third. ,*sembly of clements amount~ 10 simply adding the element lengths I() obtain the total va lue. Although this is a trivial eXllmplc. i, i!1uStra1e~ several (but not all) idea/> and sleps inwIJved in the \ioile ~lemefl1 ana lysis of ~t problem. We Qutline the sleps involved in computi ng an IIpprQ);imate value of the perimeter of the cirde. In doing so. we introduce cetlUin Ie:rms th,lI :"Ire u~ in the finite e.lemcnt an<lJ),si .. of any problem.

J. Finite elemenl discretization. PirM.lhedomain (i.e .. thc pcrimclerofthedrclel is rcpresented

as a collection of a finite number II of subdomains. namely. line .scglntUJIS [Fig. 1.43{b)l. This is called discreth,ati(.", of the dOrlU(/II. E;')cb subdOlllain {i.e., line segment) is called an dell/em. The cOnceli(ln of dcmcnt~ is caJ led the jiffile elemem mesh. The clement... an: COllnr..-c tl,.'u to e<lch olher at pcinl$ c,uJed ni)(h;.s. In the present ca'-C, we disc.reti:l;c the perimekr int(l a mesh of live (/I = 5) line ~gment$li'ig. l.4.)(c)l. The li.He scgmellt~ em! be or dilTerenl lengths. WI)en ailine clements Me of the same! Jenglh. the mesh is \~id 10 be uniform; otherwi~e, it i~ called a mlllimiform mesh.

2. Elementeqll/J./ic)/l$. A typica.l element (i.e.. linel-cgment. n ~) is i~(lla\cd a~ld its required propenies. i.e .. length. nrccllfllputed by ~olllellppf(lprinte. ~n~. LeI II" be the length of element


in the.mesQ. For a typiCilI

cli:m~t n~.

h, is givc(1 by l.$Ce Fig. 1.4.3(d)1



wtJ.ere R i~ {he radius of the tjrcie and ff~ < 11: j, the 'logle ~uhlended by too li.n~ ~gmel:1t The othovi:< equutlons art called element i'qJJaTiOlI$. Ancielll mathemllli.dans m.QS~ likely rrlllde measuremeJ1L~, (ather t!.tan using~. (1.4.1). to lilld h, ithey did not know rr). J. As.~embly oj efet1u;m eqlU/tiOlls and solwilln. The approximate value tof the perimcter of the circle is QQtained by puuing together the element propertic., in a llIeattingful Wily; this process i~ L'.ftHed the assembly of th<.l-elemc/"!I e.quati.ons. It is bil~ed. in the present C:!SC, Qn the simple idea that the. tOliU perimeter Of the polygon n~ (assernhly of elcrocnl$) j<;" equld 14 tM \um M the lengtb~ (If indhidual clell1ent,~:
(1. 4,2)

Then p. represc.nts an apPrMimation 1(1 tl:!e actual perimeter. P. If the mesh is ucifonn. Clf h, is the .same for C,ICQ .of the elements in the mcsh, tht::o 0, = 2Jrjll. lind we have
.(J .4.3)
4. Comergell{"('. (/lid ("ro'" <!.~ti!lum>.

For this .simple problem. we kn.ow the exact wlutjon: P = 2:1 R. We can estimate tht. errOl" in theapPIVximalion and ,4how that the approximate ~(lluti{)fl p. c(lOverge.s to the exact vaJue P In the ijmit a~" ~ 00. C(lIl~idcr a typical dcme(l! n,. The error in theapl)f'O)lirmt1jol) il> equal to tbedilTcrene,e between the lcu.gth ofthet>e<.:lor and that of the tine segment Pi. 1.4.3(dj]



where S~ = R{)~ is the length of tbe );cctor. Thus. the error eo;timate for an c.lemem in the mesh is given by

. rr) (" -2sm ....



'''e tOial error (Utlled glob{Ji error)


given by multiplying E, by II:

( 1.4.6)

We now ..!IOW !h;lt E


to zerv a.~ n -4 00. Leningx ~ lIn, WI< have

P~=2Rn~i n -=








l>i!l:rX) Jim ( CO.'o)1:X ) ::;::21t R ( 2 R.\. - ::I:: ~>O 2rrR - 1

(1. 4.7)


tn goes to 7,ero ll$" /I ...... .00-. 11~i, completes the proof of convergence.

(1tAI' I1-~! ! NT~O"UL'llON


Example 1.4.2 (Geometric Centroid of an Irregular Body) It should be recalled. from a first course 00 ~tatil!j of rigid bodies, Ihal [he calculation of lhe ma."s C~Ah':r or the geo(llctric centroid (quantit)' of inlCrt~l) of:1II irregular volume m8ke~ u~c {'If the so-called mClhud of comp()~lIc bQdie~. in which 8 Ixllly i ... t:onvcnientJy divided (m~h di-.creli7.atioo) inlO *,veral parts (clCt1J-CJlt:;) of simple !Jlapc for which the m;l~~ and thc.cCntcr uf t1la~~ (element propcnje~) can t>c c()1llpull.'d readily. The cen ter of 1l1:1SS of Ihe whole txxl), is Ihell obtained u~jng the. moment principle- (}f V<lrigtlOn {a b;l~i~ for the as!\embly of element

equadons); ( 1.4.8)
where X is the x-c()(lroinlite of the centcrof mass Ofl00 whule body, 11I~ is the mass!)! the e-th ~n. !Iud .to is the). -oooruinale of the CCnter of mass of the t'th part. Similar upressklO\ hold for the y and;: coordinates of the center (If mass of the whole body. Anal()gous reilitions hold for cornposite lineS, aI"C3S. and volume\. wherein the ma~'>Cs are replaced by length~. areas.. and \'Qlume~. nlspt:ctivcly. When a gh'en body is not \))lprc.~~ible in term~ of ~illlple geometric shapes (deme!1I~) for whi ch the mai~ lIJld the center of the mas~ can be represented mathematically, it is nece~~lIry to uS<;: a rnetil(x1 o( Ilppfl)_~il11ation to reprcsenlthe "propcrlie~" of an clement. As an e.,;unptc, cOll~iderthe problelllllfflll(jing thccc.ntroid (X. Y)()fthe irregutarregion sh\:)wn in Fig. J.4.4(/l). The region can bedlvidcd illlo a flnhe numbe.roftr.tpe7..oid:11 ~ui~ Idt:II'IC[lts). II typical clement





,' ,

," ..r-----::
,, , , ,
b, "

rt ; ,

, ,

'. ,: ! -.. h.1+....


Ih) 1.4.4 Iktentlinati(ln of Ihe centroid of 8n irregular region.


width h. lind heights b, and b... ! [sec Fig. 1.4.4(b)J. The afCll of the .. th strip i~ t;ivcn

I Ar= ilt~(b~ +b~tl )
( lA-I))

1'hc area A, i~ afl. appfOximaljllll of the truc area of the demenl because (II, +bM-l)/2 is an estimatlXl ~\"eragc height of the element. The coordinates of the centmid of the region are obtained by (tppl ying the !lIt)menl principle:

L. A,x,


L-. A~

( 1.4.10)

where.!, and 5, u.rc the coordinates Ill' the ccnlr(lid Mllleeth elclTh!nt with respect t(. the coonJi, nate sy... tem 1I.,cd for the whole Ix>d y. It J.hlluld be nOled !hilt the accuracy of tl~ appro,-imation wij l be improved by increasing the number of litrips (i.c., dC(:rea ~ing their width, h,). When th e ce nt er of mass is requi red, A, in Ihe above equ:ltions i~ rcphlced by ~he ma~s III , =p. A ~, p. being the lJlass dcn~i t y of\ hc /,th clement. For a hom(lgcooous body, p, is the ~an~ for all elemcnll), and there fore Eq. ( 1.4.10) also give., the coordioatcs of the center Ilf

mass of a homllgeneous body.

The two exalllp!e~ considered above illu strateli how the idea of piecewise approx imation is u ~cd t{J 'lppruximate irregu lar geometry and calculate required quant ities. Thu~. subdividing a geometrically complex domain in\(} parts that allow the evaluation of desired quantitie\ is a very natural and practical approach. The idea can be ex tended to approx imale func tion ~ representing physical quantities. For example. the temperature variation in a two-dimensional domain can be viewed as a curved <;urface. and it can be approximated over any pllrt of the domain. i.c .. over:t <;ubdomain. by a polynomial o f desired degree. A curved surface over 11 trial1gular ~ubregion may be approximated by a planar surface.

True ,..,lutIOl1 surface


the demenl domam

..... ':"" ,........ ,



07 V
l ',) "


I Approximate S<)lunoll aplane(lmcar) OIer the ck-mcll1 domam

(finite clement)

... --<- Original


Dl'i,(n:llzcd domain

fo' igure 1..1.5 of a cu rved su rfllce by u I'llm:lr surface.

{'I!A!' l l' ~ I INI ~UIJULTIUN


as shown in Fig. 1.4.5. Such ideas form the bas is of tinite element approximations . The next example illustrates thi s idea for a one-dim e nsional continuous system dcsc ribed by a differentinl equation.

li:umple 1.4.3 (SoLuti(lIl of a DitTerential Equation) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Consider the ICmperJture variation in a (:{J"1po~ite cylinder consisting of two coaxiallaycrS in perfect thermal COlltact. as shown in Fig. 1.4.6(1I). Heat di~sip:ttiOll from a wire (wilh two insu\:ltions) carrying an e\ccuiccurrem and beat flow acrmos 3 thick-wlil/cd compo:..itecircutar cylindricallUbc are typiL,'ll1 examples. Betllul\C of the axisYI.nmclric geomclI-y, bou(!dary conditions, material and loading. the tcmpcrJlure T is indcpcmkot of the angular coordinate 8, i.e... every mdial Hne has the same teOl~ralUrc T ut any moial distl.U1c~ r. t = 7(r). TIu!tcfore, il is sufficient to CQfl.Iiidcr an arbitrary radial line and detennine tcmlXlriltllrl:o [dong il. We wish to determine lIJl approximativn 1~(r) 10 1"(r) over the radius of tbe cylinder. The equation governing the axi:;YlI\metric heat transfe.rcan beformulatcd u.~jf1g thl;'. principle ofcon$erv';)tion {If cnc.rgy (as wa.~ (lone in Exrul.lple ! .1.1):
I - - - rk -

r dr

d ( dT) =8(r) dr


_. ___ :t

" = T(r)


1-+- - , - ,

. - - -"""-'I-,'-t---- ,



Figure 1.4.6 (II) CoaxJaI cy linder made of two different materials. (l Typical cro~~ section of !he e{lmposite cytiodcr. (c) Finite clement di:.crelil.ution by li!)c SCgm.cnUi (linllar




FI~rrh U.l"~11 ~T \1FIHlIl

8qumion \ 1.4.11) is~ubject to uppropriatc boundary co nditiQn~, fore.)(;lOlple. insulated lit r <'Ind subjl,'cled to II temperature Tu at r f$. R(j:
,IT kr __ =O

= R,



r ~ Rj:




( 1.4.12)

Here-k denQtes the thermal to!lduClivity. whitb \'aries f['<)1n I,[yer to layer, R, and Ra are the inner ,1I1d outer ra<lii of the cylinder !fig. 1.4.6(b)), ,md 8 is the rule of energy generat~on tn thc medium. When il is difficult to oht;!in an exact ~lutinn of Eq$. OA.I J) and (1.4..12), either bttausc Of complex geometry and l11alcrial properties or becaul;c ,~(r) is a complicated function thaI ctoe~ nO! allow cx:\Ct cv![lumiOn of its integral, we seek: an lIPproxim<ltc One. [n the finite element method. the dam;!in (R r. l4;) is divided into N subintervajs IFig. 1.4.6(.:)1, and the approximatesolulion IS ~ought in the funn
T, (r) ""

L ,., T)fi ~ 1jJ;1)(r). R, "S r "S R + h



(fl~t imerval]

T1 {r)


L r}1I",?'(r).
j 'O J

Ri +hl S r .5 Hi + h, + /1 2 (se<:ond int(!ryal)

T...,{r) "" L:Tt"tlFtl(r), Ri + h 1 ++ltN... ,:5.r5 H.ij(N thI;1Ii!rval) (1.4.1"))

1 -'

where h, denQtes the length of the / i!1lcrv;Jl, Tj (the. clcl1)ent label "If" is omitted in the interest of brevity) is the v:liue of the tcmpetJtuI'C T.(r) at lhe jth geometric point (tailed the nQcle) of the eth intel'Vl'll, ""ritre the interpolatiOll pol ynollli;jt~ 011 the etll inten'a! (fi nite e\cm,ent), ;jnd TJ nre termed the nOde.' v;uues (Which are wun(>wn). Thus. the cQntinuOus function T(f) is ;1pproxim'1tcd in c;lch fittitc element by a desired degree of inlt!rpolalioll polynomlaJs. and the pOlynomial is e.\prl:~....ed in tCfm$oftbc vlllqcs of the function at a selected humberof poi!l\!j jlJ the inte(V;j1. 111e nUIl)\)cr Of points is equ;u to the number of paramcters in the iX'lYl}omiaJ. Fw example, 11 Ijnear polyn(Jmial apprc)ximati(Jn of the tcmpe.rature Ovcr the interval requirc..'1 two v,dUes, and hence twO points. are idcmified in tile interval. The eodpOinl~ (It the lotcr'>'(d arc. selected for this purpose bec;ulse the two pojnts. cjl1Jcd nodes. illso denne the lerlglb of the intervtll (~I!e Fig. I A.7). Por higher-utdc( polynomial ilpproximatioll$, additional nOdc..~ arc





Tt Ti

(bl f'jgure 1.4,7 (a) linearapl){t)~tll~atio:n T~ (f) of a fl1.nClion Tlr) ov(\r an clc!l)Cnt. (h) Qu..'u1t;ltic appffl~ i ma6Qn T, (r) of Tcr ).

iill>nlificd inside the elemen( domain. TIle. importance of Ihese gCOfllClriC poinl~ (i.c .. nodc$.) is Ihal they are lhe ~o;e poiOls rcqum~d 10 define the inlerpolfttion IXllyno)miat~ . Ttle nodal values 'I j :Ire Uetemllned \uch tlmt T~ (r ) ~alisfies the differential equation (1.4.11) and boundary conditions 0.4.12) in SOffle sen~c, oft~n. in integral sense ov('r c;!ch clement:

0=f' r.


[-:.!!.. (rktl!..) - 11"(r)J ,d, rdr dr


for :111 indepc{ldcllI c hoil:e~ (If the wcight function. k . Often we select IV = '/Ii (i "" I. 2. .. ,) to obtain 'I rci:lli(1o" among !he 11 unkno ...."Ils. Th('\e ideas .....ill be. discu$SCd in more oclail in Chapter 3. The piecewi~ (i.e. elcll1eotwi,<) awro~imation of the ooIUlloO allows us It) include lIny discontinuOII~ data, sU(:h as the material prI"'(lertiC-'>, and 10 u'-C mc~he~ of many lower-order elemenlS or a ll1e~h of few highcr.order elementS 10 repn."-Cnl i:lrge gradients of Ibe solution. P(.lynomial appro\iillUlion~ of the form (L4.13) can be derived ~y sterllillically for any as~umcd degree of \';Irialion. Th~ Mtlisfaction of the differential equation in a weighlcd intcgraJ sense leads. f()r ~leady-SIAte problems. to algebmic relati(}n~ amt)n~ nodal tempeNltures Tj and hcal~ Qj of the clement. The :tl~cbmic equations of all clcmc!ll~ arc I\~~cmbkd (i.e., (elated to each <Hher) '>ueb tlU!! the lemperature is contiuuous ilnd the heat~ are balanced at nQde\ common to ejcmenh. 1l1tn the a\scmblc<l C(JlI atioll~ are ~ohed for tile nodal values of tempcratufe.~ and hea~ after imposing the boondlll)' conditi{ln~ of the problem. More del8iH of lbh example will be p~cntt'd in Chapter J.

1.4.3 Some Remarks In ~ umrnary. in the tinite eleme nt mcthod 1I given domain i~ divided into ~ ubdoma in s . called Ii nite c!c mcnt~. and an approximate ~olulion to the problem i~ developed over cach e lement . The subdi vision of a whole domain into pans ha.~ two advlllliages:
I. Allows accur.uc represe ntation o f complex geometry and inclusion of dissimilarmaterial propcnies. 2. Enables ea ~y repre)'cntation oflhe total solut ion by function.. defined within eat'h cle ment that capture local e freeb (c.g . large gr.J.di e nt ~ o f lhc \Olulion).

The three fund amental examples are:

~ t e ps

of the finite e le ment method Ihal are

illu~tr.Jt ed

via the

I . Divide the whole domain into pans (both to represent the geometry and solution of the problem).

2. Over each pan. <;cek an approxi mation to the solution a~ a linear combination o f nodal v alu e~ and approximat ion funct io ns. and derive the algebmic relat ions among the nodal val ues of the solution o ... er each part. 3. AS'>emble the pan!> and obtain Ihe '\Olutl0 n to the who le.
Although the above eX;lInple~ illustrate the ba ~ic idea of the lilllte element method. there are !>everal other fea t ure~ that are either not prese nt or not ap pare nt from the examples. Some rell1ar k ~ arc in order.


... " l'-ntocxx."u,'1 '1'01111:. 1 1'1111; UJ 'IEl'n


I. We can d iscrct il.e the geometry o f the domain, depe nding on its ~ h ape, into a me~ h of more than one type of elcment (by ~ hape or order). For example. in the appro ximation of an irregular domain, we CHn u ~e a combination o f rec t a n g l e ~ and triangles. However. the c le ment interfaces mu st be compatible in the sense that the solution is c ontinu o u ~. 2, If more than one type of c lement is used in the representati on of the domai n. olle of each kind shou ld be i ~o 1:lled and ils equation s devc loped . 3. The goveming equations o f problems considered in thi ~ book are difTerential equations. In most cases, the equation.. cannot be solved ovcr an clement for two reasons. Fi rst. they do nOI perm it the exact i>olution. II is here that the variatio nal methods corne into play. Second. the discre te cq uation ~ obtained in the variational methods cannot be sohed independe nt of the remaining elements beca u ~e the as<;cmblage of thc clements i~ subjccted to cCllain continuity. boundary. and/o r initi ,.l condi tions. 4 . There arc two mai n dirfe re n ce ~ in the foml of the approx imate soluti on used in the Ii nite element method and in t he c lassical variational m e th od~ (i.e .. variational method s applied lO the who le domain). Fi n.t. instead of represent ing the ~o lu ti on II a~ a linear combination ( 11 h = L J cJJ) in It:ml S of arbitrary panulleters ci as in thc variatiollal methods. in the fini te clement methCKlthe solut ion is often re presented as a linear combi nation (lIh = Lj c JtPJ ) in tenns of the values II i of Il h (:md possibly ils de ri vati ve~ a ~ well) al the nodal po ints. Second, the app roxi mate funcl i o n ~ in the finite clement method are o flell po l y llo mi a l ~ that are derived u ~i n g intcfjXllation theory. However, the fin ite element method is not res tricted to the use o f approximat ions that arc linear combinations of nodal va lues II j ilnd interpolation func t ion~ 1/1J that arc algebraic polynomials. G ne Ill ay usc n udcle~s variables and no npo lyno mial funct ion .. to approxinHlte a fun ction (like in tll c~ hl ess or clement-free meth()(b ). 5. The num ber and the locmion of the nodes in an element depe nd on (a) the geometry of the cleme nt . (b) the degree of the polynomial approx im:nio n. and (e) the weightedintegral fonn o f the <-,({uations. By represent ing the rt."q uired ~oluti o n in temlS of i t.~ values allhe nodes, we directly oblain the approxi mate ..ollLl ion at the nodes. 6. The a~~c mb ly o f cl e me nt ~. in a gencral casco is ba~ed on the ide:1that the solution (and po~~ ibl y its de ri v:lti\e;, for higher-order equation<,) is co ntinuo u ~ at the interele ment bou ndaries. 7. In ge neral. the assemblage o f finite clements is ~ ubjecte d to boundary and/or initial con d i ti o n ~. The d i ~crete eqmtl i o n ~ a<,~oc i atc d with the tlnite c lement mesh arc ~() I ve d onl y aft er the bOlllldary and/or initi al condi tio ns have been illl po~c d . 8. There arc three sources of erTOr in a tlnite clement -.olut ion: (a) those due to the appro~imat io n of the doma in (this wa.. the o nly erro r present in the iirsttwo exaJllpl e~): (b) those due to the approximation of the solution: and (c) those due to numcrical computation (e.g .. numerical integmtion and round-ofT errors in a computer). The estimatio n of these erron.. in general. is nol simple. I-Iowe\<er. under certain co nd i ti on ~. they can be estimated for an clement and problem. 9. The accu racy and eon\<crgence o f the fi ni te elcment ~ l ut io n depe lld ~ on the differe ntial equation. its integral form. and the element used. "Accuracy" refer.. to thc d ifference between the exact sol llli on nnd the finite cle mcnt ~o l u t io n , while "convergence" refers to the accuracy as the num ber of cle m e nt ~ in the mesh i~ increased.

I<igure I A.8 Fini,c clcmcn, discrc,il:l,ion of a cOl1nC("ing rod and


10, For timedependcnt problem ~,:1 two ... t:lge formulation is u... ually followcd. In the finol ~ t age. thed ifTcrenlial C<luation... arcapproxill1ated by the finite e lemcnt method looblain a ~el of ordinary di Iferential eqUal ions in time. [n the second. the di ITerential c4uation~ in lime arc ~ol\'ed exactly or further approximated by either variational methods or nn;te difference method~ to obtain algebraic equations, which arc then solved for Ihe nooal value~ (see Chapter 6).
II .

arc more powerfu l til.mthe sUI>ercomptuen; that ex i.,led when the fini teelement lllethod wa~ l1.-.;t implemented. Consequent ly. the anaJy"is lime i~ c()n~idc rably reduced. provided Ihe me .. h u"ed to model the proble m is adequale (a finit e elemcnt mc~h of a connecting rod and pi ~lO n i<; shown in Fig. I A.8). Evcn the ;)utonwtie mesh generation programs cannot guarantee 1T1esh c~ Ih:lI lire free of irregularly shaped elemelll<; or h:,ve ~uftlcient number of c1emenl~ in a region contai ning high gradiem s in the solution. both of which rc~ u1t in lo..,s of accuracy or. in the case of nonlinear problems. noncoll\ crgencc of <;alutioll". 12. Element-free me l hod~ Ihal require no a~:,cl1lbly (becau~e there :Ire no clemems) arc being developed. Such l1le t hod~ have applic:tti()n~ in fracture mechanics and wave propagation problcl1l~ where re rne~hing i, nece~~ary.

Thc dc~kl o p computerl.oftoday

1.4.4 A UricI' Rc,'icw of l-lislory and Recent l)c"clo pmcnts

The ide.. of repre'>Cnting a gh'en domain ;L" a collection of di<;ercte pan~ i.., not unique to the (inite clemem method. It was rcr'orded that ancient mathem:uici:m, est imated Ihe value of if by noting that the perimeter of a po lygon in'>Cribed in a circle approximate!> the cin;umfcrencc of the Jalter. llley predicted the v.due of rr to accuracy of almost ~O significant digit~ by representing the circJe a~ a polygon of a linitely large number of ~idc~ (Reddy. 11)71( 1993). In modern till1e~. the idea found a home in aircraft ~tnlc tural analy~is. where. for eX:l1nple, wing., and fu ~c lages arc treated as assemblages of ~tringer~. sk in~. and "he:lr {Xmcls. In 19~ I. HrcnikolT [l94J J introduced the ~o<"alled fmlllework method in which a plane ela"tic medium W:IS rcpre'>Cntcd as a collL'Ct ion o f bar. and beam~. The use of piecewi~econtinuou s functi()n~ defined ovcr a subdonl1lin to approximatc an un~n ow n func tion can be found in Ihc work of Courant (1943). who u..,cd an a ....emblage of triangular elcments and the principle of minimum tota l potential energy to study the 51. Vcnant torsion problem. Although certain key features of the finite clement method can be found in

the worb of Hrenikoff (1941) ~nd Couran t (1943 ), its formal prc~entation is attributed to Tumer. Clough, Martin, ~nd Topp (1956) und Argyris and Kelsey (1960). The term "finite clement"' wai> first used by Clough (1960). Since iti> inception. the litemlUre on finite e lement application~ has grown exponentially, and today there are numerous joumals that are primarily devoted to the theory and ap plication of the method. Additional informat ion on the hi~tol)' of the tinite element method can be fou nd in the review article by Babtli>ka (1<)94) and in Ihe early book~ on the finite clement mcthod le.g" Zienkiewicl :lIld Cheung (1%7), Oden (1972), Strang and Fix ( 1l)73), and Odcll and Reddy ( 1976)1. In reccnt yea!'!>, extcnsiom and modifications of thc finite clemcnt mcthod have been proposed. These include the plIrlil;Oll of 1I11;ty 1I/('lh(l(/ (PUM) o f Mclenk and Babu~ka ( 1996). the /'-11 Clolld me/hod of Duarte and Oden ( 1996) and lI/e.\'IIIess ml'lltm/l adv'lIlced by Belytschkoand his colleagues (1996). Al l o f these methods and numerous olher method ... not nallled here are very clo'\Cly related.


This i .~ a boo" on the tinite clement method and it;. upplication to linear problems in engineering and applied <;eienees. Mml introductol)' finite clemenl textbooks wrillen for u.<.e in engineering sc h ool~ arc inlended for ~ ludc nt.s of solid .md <;lructural mechanic~, and these introduce the method a~ 1m offspring of matrix methods of structural analy~k A few texts th'Lt treat the method as a variationally b'L~ed technique leave the variational formulations and the associated methods of approx imation to an appendix. The approach taken in this book is one in which the finite ctemcl1t method is introduced a~ a numerical technique of ~()Iving classc!> of problems. each class having a common mathematical slruelUre in the form of govern ing dilTerenlial equat ions. Thil> approach!> lhe "ludenl lInden-tand lhe gcncr-llity of the finile clemenl method. irrc!>pcctive of the ~ lUden "s subject ~,c"ground. It al'io enables the student to see the mathematical strueture eummon to variou .. physical problems. and thereby to ga in additiunul insight into variou~ engineering problems.

Scientist" and engineer> develop conceptual and malhematical models o f phenomena and ~y~lems that they wish to under~tand . The undcr1>tanding may be uc;ed to develop and improve sy'iteJll~ that contributc 10 human convenience and e(}lll fon. Mathenmtical mode)., are devctoped using axiollls or laws of nature that govern the phenomena. Mathematical mooch eonsi~t ofalgehra ie. dilTerential. and/or integral equations. which are often difiil:u lt 10 solve for the de"ired variables of the sy~leTll for a varielY of input parameter~ (called data). nece"sitating Ihe u"e o f numerical simulations of the phenomena. In a nUlllerieal , imulation of phy~ica l proces<;c<;. we employ a numeric.1I method and computer to evaluate the mathematical model of Ihe proce~~. The finite elemcnt method i" a powerful numerical method of solving algebraic. di fl'erential. and integral equation ... and it i~ dcvi~ed to ~ tud y cumplex physical rroccssc~. The method is characteri/cd by three features: I. TIle domain (If the problem is repre~enled by "collection of simple subdoJll:l in ~. called tinite element~. TIle collect ion of finite elements is called the ti nite elem('nt mesh .

ClIM'I[K I :

I l'iTRODL'rrIO~


2. Over cad finit e e le ment . the physical process is approximated by functi o ns of the desi red type ((X)lynomials or otherwise), and algebraic equations relating physical quantit ies at seleet ivc points. called nodes, of the e lement are developed. 3. The clement equatio ns are assembled using continu ity and/or "balance" of physical quantities. In the finite element method, we seck an approximation

of II in the form

~ 1/10 =


II ) Vt)


("j tP )

j= 1

)= 1

where II ) are the values of Ilk at the c le ment nodes. Vt j are the interpolation functions. Cj are coeft1cients that arc I/ot associated with nodes. and tPj are the assoc iated approximation fun ction s. Di rect s ubsti tut ion of such approxi mation ~ into the govern ing differential eq uations does not a lways resu lt , for an arbitrary choice of the data of the probl em, in a necessa ry and suffic ient num ber of equat ions for the undetennined coefficients II j and Cj. Therefore, a procedure whereby a necessary and s ufficient num ber of equat ion ~ can be obta ined is needed. One s uch procedu re is prov ided by a weighted-integral form of the govern ing diflerential equation. Chapter 2 is devoted to the study of weighted- integral formu lations of differential equatio ns and their sol ution by variational method s of approximation. There is on ly one method of finite elements that is characterized by the three features stated above. Of course, there can be more than one finite demem model of the same problem (i.e .. governing eq uations). The typc ofmode l depends o n the differential equations. methods used to derive the algebraic equations (Le .. the weighted-intcgwl form used) for the undetermined coeffi c ients over un element, and natu re of the approximation functions used. Although the Rit z-Galerkin methods and polyno mial approximat ions arc used frequently to generate the tinite cle ment e(luations, any app'rop riate method and approx imati o n ~ can be used, in principle, to generate the al gebraic equation s. In this spi ril, the collocat ion method. s ubdomain method , boundary integra l methods. etc .. can be used to generate the algebraic eq uations among discrete values of the primary and secondary va riables (see Chapter 14). The basic theo ry of the finile e le ment method can be found in more than three do zen textbooks. For the beginner, it is not necessary to consu lt any of the other books on the tinite clement method as the present book provides complete details of the method as appli ed to linear field problems, with e}lampics drawn from flu id mechanics, heat transfer. and solid and structura l mechan ics.

1.1 Newton's second law can be
ex pre~scd a~

F =: 1II1I


where F is Ihe nel force acting 0 11 the body. III mass of the body, and a i ~ the ,KeelcrUlion of Ihe body in Ihe dired ion of the nc\ force. Usc Eq. (I ) to dctennine the malhematical model, i.e .. governing equation . of a free-falli ng body. Consider only the forces due 10 gravity and Ihe air resist,mee. Assurne Ihat the air resi~ lancc is linearly proportional 10 Ihe velocilY of Ihe fal~ ling body.

1.2 A cylind rical ~t()ragc I<l nk of diamete r /J co ntains a li(j uid al depth (u r head; II Ct . I). Liquid t, suppliL"d 10 the la nl. ;1 a mit' of q, (ml/day) and druined .. l a m lc t)f qo (IllI/day). Usc lhe \ print'iplc of Cllll';Cn'mioll of l11a~~ to arr iw lit til e governi ng eq llation uf the flow problem . I..l
Con~ idcr

the Mlll plc pendulum of I:xflmplc 1.3. 1. Wrlle a com pUicr progr:llll 10 nUlllcric:tll y 'olvc lhe nunlinear CljlliJliun (1.2 ..l) llsing the Euler method. Tab\Lt ~t e th e fllull cri!.:al TCWltS for \"0 different lime _h!P' t:.1 = 0.05 alld 6.1 = 0.025 :do ng wi th the 0;:.\:1 li near wl utioll, (:1 An impruvc rn cnl of Eulcr'~ mctln...:l is provided by Helll)'s mcthnd. which u.. cs Ihe a\'cr:lgc of the uCriVall\'($ <lIthe [..... 0 end .. nf Ihe interval 10 cstim:uc the s lope. Applied \0 the C(l uuljoll


-, =/11 ,11)


Ikun'). M,heme has the form

II ,


,,, 1= 11 '+2 rf(I"III)+/(lrl l ,

" ll f~ l) J,11,-,-1 "" 1I,+IlI/(I"II,)



Equali011 (2) i\ c:J!led the IIInfictorcquatllln, nnd Eq. (I) is (:Lllcd the /lJI"fl'rlfJrcq u!uion. Apply I !cUll '., methud 10 Eq\. (I.J.4) nlld obt:lill the nUJ1]eric:l1 wi uti ull for III == 0.05.

REFERENCES FOR ADDITIONAL READING Rt"lt'",,11 /)i,.", /w/l.< in GJIIII"'Wlimru/ }ok"'"",,,',. Nation~1 Acadc lII}' Pre". Wa .luri glOn. DC. 1991.
Arg)fI~. "ppCilr~d

J II and KcI-c). S,. 1:11t''K.I' Tht'IJ".",.' 111111 SIrUClllm/ in Airrmfr f"~,,,(,,"i"K. 26. 1 95~ imd 27, 1955.
A fter.~


BUlleO'onh. London. 1960; tirsl


Babu,J..a. I '"Coordnt Element: Bef"rc and


~t .

alld I'/cill:Lanrniil.:i.1'. leds 1,It, I milt' leJ""","1

M,'IIu/<!.I: Hfll Yetll'.' of lli e CO/mUll E/cm,nI. Marcel Dd l.:el. I<)().l.

Bd}'l"," h ~u. T.. Krollgau/. Y. Organ. D . Fleming. M, alld Krysl . P.. "'Mc,tlle..' \tcIlIOd.: An Overlie" and Rc(em Oe"clopmelHs: Cm1!lllIIfr Mellu>t/, lit A/'II/inl Muhm,ir, 11111/ t:,,~IIt"''i"/i. 139. 3-47. 1996, 5. Clough. R. w. 111c I-in lle H en>e:nl Mcthod m Plane S1ri:" Anal)'si< Jmm'lIl '1 SlruCIIlrt'} DiI'i.I'i{!ll. ASCI:. I'nI':rf'dm.~' Ilf 211d C"'ifrn'lrre'/li i:'I"r/nmrr Clml/mla/iml. \45 _'18. 1960

6. COllmm,

Ie Varrational Metho,h f"f tlie Sollllion of l>roblem, uf F..ljuil,bnUln nnd Vibratiun,: /J"I/nm Ih .. A",n;(/111 ,\I"I/It'"",I;m/ SOCl,.S,. ~\t. 1- 23. 19JJ


7. DUUll .... (". A and OtIen. J. T.. 'An /1-1' Adapli vc Mc!hod U'IIl !; C lnuJ ,: Oll/lpM{'/" M". "'min 1111// 'I/lillt'l'rlll~. 1311. 237-262. 1996.

III Al'plird

Ilre l11koff. A .. 'So lution of l'n>blc m, rn Ela,Ir.:, ty by the 1 rame Work Method: Joom",/ 'if AI'l'linf ""t'ell/min. TTYml(.nuH" rifllll' AS'\II-:. K. 169-175. 1<).1 J

'J. Melenl.:.J. M. and B:lbt"kil. J.. The l'aniliunofl,; ,lIly Fi nite 1 !lemel1l Method: Ba>leT'u:"ryand Appl ic;'!T(ms.:emll/'Iller Ml"I/r{)(/, ill A/,t'lIl'd 'un/uIII!(".\' 1/11</ t:"~mf'('rin>(_ 1311. 289-31~. 1')')6
W. Wen. J. T.. "'111/" /.1I'IIIem.' ' ifN{)II/lIIf{l' COil/illl .... M.Grd ... -H,ll, Ne" York. 1972, \

I J {)(kn_ J. T and Redd). J. N .. An hUro</lI(lWII 10 r/w ,\I,u/lI'lIImiclll nlt""r\' (If Ib ,ir~ EI"IIII'trI.". John Wiley. :-/e" Yor~ . 1976, 12. ReJu). J N . Ttt.: Finite I: krncill Method: A Clu ld uf Ihe Compu ler Age:' So",,,, S/mmrod (e ll gillccnllg ,(udem mugah"", ult he lIlII,erilly of O~laho'llal. 23-26. 1 all 1978

U. Reddy, J. N .. AII /lllrod",.li"" 10 rile FillilF f.lemelll M ,'I/t{l{/. 211(1 cd., r.1cGm .... Ilrll. New Y<vk, 1993
ChJpt(,r I),


t 4. Slrang. G. lind Fi\. G .. An A",/lI'.,I.' Ofl/II' P;mle E/t'lIIfllI Mel/rOiI. I'rent lce B all. Eng!C\loou ChlT~. NJ. 1973. 15, Turner. \ 1 J . Clotlgh. R w,. ~bnin. 11 C .. Dnd Topp. L. J. Sliffness lmu Deikction AnaJ~,i' OfCOUlP!cX S!ruClu rc~: Jmmw/ "1 AemulU<lim/ S,i'lIo-e. 23, 805--823, 1956.
Zlen~ie ... iCl. O. C. alld Cheung_ Y. K .. 11le hllit" Elrm""1 Mn/'ml ill SlrtI{'/lIml (//1(/ C"trlillllllm ,\I('("llIlIIin. McGrJ,,-lhll. Lnndon. 1%7,



2. 1. 1 Va ria tionall'rincipies and Methods
This chapter is devoted 10 a review of some mathematical preliminaries that prove to be usefu l in the sequel and 10 a study of integral formulations and more commonly used variational methods s uch as the Ri lL. Galcrk in, collocation, and least-squares methods. Since the finite clement method can be viewed as an clcmcntwisc ilpplication ofa variational method (sec Section 1.4), it is useful to Icnrn how varintional methods work. We begin with a di scussion of the general meaning of the phrases "variational ll1ethod~" nnd "variational formulations" used in the context of fini te element formulation s. The phrase "direct variational mClh(xb" refers to methods that make u~e of variational principles. slIch as the principles of virtual work and the principle o f minimum total potential energy in solid and structural mechanics. to determine app roximate solutions of problems lsee Oden and Reddy (1983) and Reddy (2002)1. In the classical scnse. a I'tIr;arioll(l1 prillciple has to do with tinding the extremum (i.e" minimum or maximum) or stationary values of a functional with respect to the variables of the problem. The functional includes all the intrin sic featu res of the prob lem. slich as the governi ng equations. boundary andlor initial conditions. and constraint conditions. if any. In solid ,\I1d structural mechanics probl ems. the functiona l represent~ the total energy of the sy~tc m, and in other prOblems. it is si mply an integrnl representation o f the governing cqua t ion~. Variational principles have always played an important role in mechanics (see the references at the end of the chapler). Fir~t. many problems o f mechanics arc posed in term s of finding the extremum (i.e" minima Of maxima) and thus. by their nature. can be formulated in terms of variational statements. Second. there arc problems that can be formulated by other means. such :tS the conservmion laws (as illustrmed in Chapter I). but these can also be formu lated by means of variational principles. Third. variational fOf11lUlat ions form a powerful basis for obtaining approximate solution~ to practical probleJl1~ , many of which

arc intractable othcrwi<>e. The principle of minimum IOtal potcntial energy, for example. c;m be reg"fded :.\ :I ~ubstitute 10 the equution~ or equi lihri um or an e1:.~ t ic body a!> well liS 11 basi... for the developmcnt of di<;placement finite element model s that can he used to determine approximate d isplacemcnt and slres:-- fields in the body I Reddy (2002 )1. V.. ri:ltional ro rillula ti o n ~ can also <;erve to unify diverse field .. , suggest new theories. and provide a powerful mcans to <;rudy the ex i\\e nce and uniqueness o f solution<; to prob l em~. Similarly. Hami lton 's principle (sec Reddy (2002) 1can be used in lieu of the equation:-- govem ing dynamical systems. and the variational forms pre<;ented by BiOI (1972) replace certain equ:ltions in linear continuum IhemlOd yn;ullics.

2.1.2 Variational Formulations

Thc das<;ical usc of the phrase "vari;lIional rormulations" rcfcrs to the const ruct ion of a funct ional (who'\C meaning will be made clear ~ honly) or a varimional principle that is equiva lent to the goveming equations of the proble m. The modem use of the phrase refer; to the formulation in which thl! governing cq uati on~ arc tran ~lat ed imoe(IUivalent weightcdintegral statc ment ~ thlll are not ne(:e~' y equi valent to a variational principle. Even those prob1clll~ that do nol admit variati onal principle~ in the classica l ~e n ~e (e.g .. the NavierStoke~ equ(ltions governing the fl ow o f v i .~cou s or invi<;eid flu ids) can now be formu lated using weighted-integral ~ta t eillents. The iml)()nanCC of variational forlllulati on~ of physical laws, in the modern or genem l '\C '\Cnse of the phr.lse, goes far beyond ils U as si mpl y an alternate 10 other formulations IOden and Reddy (1983) 1 In i:1ct. variationa l forms of the laws of continuum physics may . be Iheonly nalUral and rigorously correct Wlly tothi nkoft hl!m. While all sufficientl y :-.l11ooth ficld~ lead 10 meaningful va riational form ~. the converse is not true: There ex ist physical phenomena which can be adequately modeled mathematically only in a variational setting: they are non<;ensical when viewed locally. The starting point for the discussion of the finitel!lemenl method is differential equation<; governing the phy,ical phenomena under study. A" s uch . we sha ll first di ... cuss why integra l statements of the dilTe rential equations arc needed. 2.1.3 NCl>d ror Weighted-Integral Statemenl'i In almost all approximate ll1ethod~ used to determine the solution of difrerential ancUor integral equations. we seek a sol ution in the form

11(11: ):::::: U N ( 1I: ) = L


cAJj( X)

(2.1.1 )

where II represent:-- the solution of a particular d ilTerential equation and a<;soci ated boundary condi tions. and U,\' i~ its approximation that is repre:--cnted as a linear combi nation of unknown parameters ('j and known function<; (/Ij of posit ion x in The domain n o n which the problem i" I>o:--ed . We ~ h a lJ shonly d i<;euss the conditions on (/Ir The approximate ~o luti o n UN is completely known only when ('j are known. Thu~. we must fi nd a means to detcnnine c J such that UN satisfie... the equmions goveming II. If . . omehow we can find UN Ihat satisfies Ihe differential equation at every point x o f the domain Q



and conditions on the boundary [~ of n. then UN(x) = II(X). which is the exact solution of the problem, Of course. approximate methods are not about problems for which exact ~o[utions can be determined by some methods of mathematical analysis: the role of approximate mcthods is to find an <lpproxim<lte solution of problems that do not admit analyt ical solut ions. When the exact solution cannot be determined, the altemative is 10 find a solution UN that sat i sfic~ the governing equations in <In <lpproximate way. [n the process of satisfying the governing equations approximately, we obtain (not accidentally but by planning) N algebraic re lations among the N parameters CI, C2,. eN. A detailed disclls~ion of these ideas is given in the next few paragraphs in connection with a specilic problem. Consider the problem of solving the differential equation

_.'!... [a(x)duj +("(X )II =

dx dx


1"0rO < x < L


to the boundary conditions 11(0) = 110.

(2. 1.2b)

where (I(x). ('(xl. and lex) are known function s, 11 0 and Qo <Ire known pammeler~. and II(X) is the function to be determ ined , The set a(x). c(x ). lex). 11 0 , and Qil isca[1ed the problem data. An example of the above problem is given by the heat transferin an uninsulated rod (sec Example [.2,2): here /I denotes the temperature (8). lex) is the internal heat generation per un it Icngth (Ag), a(x) is the thermal resistance (kA), C = f3 P, 110 is the specified temperature (00), and Qo is the spec ified heat. We seck an approximate ~olut i o n ovcr the entire domain n = (0. t) in the form
UN =:

L L"j j (x) + 1>o(x)

j ;: !

(2. 1.3)

where the r j are coefficients to be determined and j (x) and <Po(x) are functions chosen such that the specified boundary conditi ons of the prob lem are satisfied by the N -paramcter approximate so lution UN. Note that the part icular form in (2.1 .3) has two pans: one containing the unknowns ('C j <Pj ) that is termed the homogeneous part and the other is the nonhomogeneous pan (<Po) thnt has the sole purpose of s<ltisfying the specified boundary conditions of the problem. Since <Po ~at i sfies the boundary conditions, the sum L Cj j must satisfy, for arbitrary Cj . the homogeneous form of the boundary conditions (1111 = Ii is said to be a nonhomogeneous boundary condit ion whcn Ii =1= O. and it is termed a homogeneous bou ndary condition when Ii :::: 0; here 8 denotes some operator). Thus, in the present ca~e, the actual boundary condit io ns are both nonhomogeneous ( 8 = I and Ii = Ull at x = 0, and B = a(x)(d/dx) and Ii = Qo at x = L) . The particularfonn (2.1.3) is convenient in selecting 1>0 and <pj . Thus. 1>0 and <Pj satisfy the condi ti ons
B<Po = li. 8 j= 0 forallj = 1.2..fI
(2. 1.4)

To be more specific, let L = l.uo = I, Q() = 0, a(x) = x. c(x ) = I, lex) = 0, and N = 2. Then we ehoose the <lpproximate solution in the form U2 = CII+C22+o with 1>0 = [ , <P1(X)=x 2 - 2x, <P2= x J -3x


A'II"TlH)IlIIc-nO~ ro1 III n~l'I1: EI.LMLVI' MF1'IKIIJ con dition~

that satisfies the boundary


(2, I ,2b) of the problem for any values of CI ;Ind


n(0) = I,

(.\ "<Po) .'=" 1= 0: dx

t/ 2V 2

oP, (O) = 0,



= O/ or J= 1. 2 (2.1.5)


To m:lke V2 satisfy the differential equation (2,1.20). we must have

- -tlx

(I V2

--' --~


+U2 = - 2cl(x - I ) -

3C2(X -

I ) - 2clx - 6C2X

(2. 1.6)

Since ,h i~ expression must be zero for any value of x. the coefficients of thc various powers o f r must be zero:

r +2(', +3C2 = 0

- (6c 1 + 3(2) = 0
C', -

9('2 = 0

= 0

The above relations arc inconsistent: hence. there is I/O .w/urioll 10 the equation ~, On the other hand. we can require the approximate sollllion VN to satisfy the differential equation (2.1,211) in the weighted-integral ~en"e.


w(x)R(/x = O


where R denotes the le ft side of the e<luality in (2. I ,6) and is called the , dVN d 2UN R = - - - - x - - + UN 2


and Il' (.\) is called a weight fimctioll. From (2. 1.7). we obt:lin :IS many linearly indel>cndent equations as the re are li nearly independent function" for lI'(x), The number o f linearly independent choices of \I' must be restricted to N = 2 so that we have exactly the ~a me number of equ:l1ions as thc number of unknown cocflicic n t~, c'j' Por example. in the present example, if we take II' = 1 and IV = x, we ohtain


t l Jo I Rdx = (l +2ci(- & '1 - )t'2) + ]'(cl 1 +3('2) + 2

I 9(2) + 4'C2


x' Rdx =- (I +2cl +3('2) + - ( - & '1 - )C2)+ - (CI - 9(2)+ - {'2

- CI

2 J



= I,

- (:1

3 4


31 I ('2= 20 2


which provides two linc:lrl y inde1>cndem t:qualiom;. for ci and ('2 (who~ solution is ( 'I = 2i] and ('1 = - i~) The above discussion d early dcmon~lratc s the need for weighted-intcgral stateme nts of the type in (2, 1.7): they provide lhc mcans for obtnining as many algebraic equations




rOl<M lIlATIO~ S. A,~1) \lAIlI ATIO,~AL MhTIlOUS


as there arc unknown eoefticients in the .rpproximate solution. This chapter deals with the construction of di fferent types of integral statements used in different variational methods. The variational methods differ from each other in the choice oflhe weight function \\' and/or the integral statement used. which in tum dicl:ltes the choice of the approxi mation functions j . In the linitc element method, a given domain is viewed as an assemblage of subdomains (i.e. , finite elements), and an approximate solution is sought over each subdomain in the same way as in variational methods. Thereforc, it is informativc \0 study variational methods beforc we st ud y the finite element method. Our goal in this chapter is to illustrate the basic steps in the weightcd-integral formulations and associated approximations of boundary value. eigenvalue, and initial value problems. Toward this goal, we. first introduce the necessary terminology and notation.


2.2.1 Coordi nate Systems and the Del Operator
In the analytical descript ion ofphysicaJ phenomena, a coordinate system in the chosen frame of reference is introduced, and various physical quantities involved in the description are expressed in terms of measurements made in that system. The vel:tor and tensor quamities are expressed in terms of their c01nponents in that coordinate system. For example. a vector A in a three-dimensional ~pace nllly be expressed in terms of its compom::llts (al. a 2. (1 3) and basis l'eClOrs (el. l'2. C3) (c, are not necessarily unit vectors) as'
(2.2. r)

When the basis vectors of a coordinate sy~tem are eonstant~. i.e .. with fixed lengths and directions, the coordinate system is called a Carles ian coordill(/(e system. The general Cartesian system is obi ique. Whellthe Cartesian system is orthogonal. it i~ cal led rectallgular Carlesian. The rectangular Cartesian coordinates are denoted by

The familiar rectangularCartcsian coord inate system is shown in Fig. 2.2.1. We shall always lise a right-hand coordinatc system . When the basis vectors are ofunil lengths and Illutually orthogona l, they are ca lled orlhonormal. In many situations an of/hOllorma! basis si mplifies calcu lations. We denote an orthonormal Cartesian basis by

(el. e2, e) or (e,. e,.. c;)

For an orthononnal basis, the vector A can be written as



where Cj (i = 1,2,3) is the orthonormal basis and A, :JTe the correspondingpilysiml compo (i.e .. the components have the same physical dimension s as the vector). Although the analytical description depcnd~ upon lhe chosen coordinute system and nmy appeardiftcrent
' Vectors and mal rices in Ih;, book arc wrillen w;lh tx)ldfacc ktler>;.


... ~ IN"R()DLt"lIO~ TO nil


I.U"'II: ~ r


l<"iJ.:urc 2.2.1 A rectangular Cartesian coorLiinale sy~ttll1. ( I,. x~. Xl) = (x. v. z); (e,. e2. e l) = (e,. i\. e ) (Irc thc unit ba~i~ \cctor;.

in another type of coonJinate sy~tem. one must keep in mind that fhe 1(l1\"S ofl/afllre Me il/dl'{If'llllent of Ihc I"I/Oice of coorilinale sy.l"fcm. [t i~ u~efulto abbreviate a summ:l(ion of terms by understanding that a repeated index mean .. summation over all values of that index.

TIIlI ~.

the summation

can be .,hortened to

LAiC ,

A = A,c,
The repeated index
i~ a dUlllm), illrie.f and thus can be replaced by ha.\" lUll already been I/Ied. Thu ~. we c:m abo write
1II1 )'

Olller symbol thm


:0.0 on. The "dot product" sy~tcm arc defined hy

c, ' Cj and "cro!.s product" e x cJ ofba.~e vectors in a right-handed ,

e , Cj E O'j=


. 1 0'

ifi :f.j I.if; =}


C, x Cj =E'Jt " t
where Ii,j

the K/Vllecker delta and


is the {//tel"lltlting symbol or (Jl'rIIllllmio/l symbol


- [.

if i. j. k are in cyclic order :lI1d not repea led (i :f. ) :f. k) if i,}, k are nOI in cycl ic orner :md not repealed (i :f. j =1= k) if any of i. j. k are repeated








Figure 2.2.2 Cylindrical coordinate systcm.

Differentiation of vector functions with respect to the coordinates is common in science and engineering. Most of the operations involve the "del operator," denoted by V. In a rectangu lar Cartesian system. it has the form v = c - + c . - + c. -

" ax'ay

' 11:;


It is important to note that the de l operator has some of the properti es of a vector. but il docs not have them all because it is an operator. The operation V(x) is called the grtu/ielll of a sca lar fun ction whereas V x A(x) is ca ll ed the curi of a vector function A. The operator VI = V . V is ca lled the Lap laceoperator. [n a 3- D rectangular Cartesian coordinate system , it has the form (2 .2.9) We have the fo llowing re lations between the rectangu lar Cartesian coord inates (x. y.:') and cylindrical coord inates (r, fI, 2) (see Fig . 2.2.2):

x = rcosO, y = rsin O. z=;:

cr=cos(} c.,+sin (} c y.
ct! = - si n () c~+ cos(} c "

(2.2.10) c;: =c, (2.2 . l [) (2.2. 12)

ac Mr

= - Sill 0 e ,


~~ + cosO cJ = eo, -aell = dO

- cos& e , - slI1 & ,. = - e, e


and all other derivatives of the base vectors are zero. For more on vector calculus. see Reddy and Rasmussen ( 1982) and Reddy (2002). among other references. 2.2.2 Boundary Value, Initial Value, and Eigenvalue I'roblellls The objel:live of most analy ses is to determ ine unknown funct ions. ca llcd depelldelH )'(Jriahles. that arc governed by a set of differential eq ualions posed in a g iven domain Q and some conditions on the boundary r o f the domain. Often, a domain not includ ing its boundary is called an open domain. A domain Q with its boundary r is ca lled a closed domain and is denoted by = Q U r. A funct ion 1/ of sevcral variables (x. y . ... ) is said to be of class em (Q) in a domain Q if all ils part ial derivatives with respect to (x. y .... ) o f order up to and indudi ng In ex ist


,\N IVTIIO[)l,1C""TIO" Til Till' FINITE l;l JiMk"T \1i"rIlIllJ

and are ("o",il/l/(/I/.I' in r.!. Thus. if 1/ is of cla~s CO in a two-di mens iona! domain Q. thcn II is continuous in Q (i.e .. iJII/iJX and iJII/f))" ex ist hut may not be continuous). Similarly. if II i~ of c!as~ C 1, then It. iJll / i)x. and 011 /0)" cxist and arc cOlltinuous (hence. 2 u jiJx 2. iJ211 / iJ)" 2, and 0 2 /1 /ay;)x ex ist but may not be eo ntinuou ~). When the dependellt variables are function~ of one independent variabl e (say, x). the domain is a Iinc segme nt (i.e .. one-dimensional) and the end poi nts of the domai n arc cal led boundary points. When the dependen t variables are functions of two inde pendent variables (say. x and y). the domain is two-dimensional and the boundary is the closed curve enclosing il. In a three-dimensional domain. depende nt variables arc function~ of three coordinates (say x. y, and ;: ) and the bou ndary is a two-d imensional ~ urface. As d isc u s~e d in Section 1.2, a differential equation is said to describe a boul/dary Fallll! pmbll!ln over the domain Q if the dependent variable and possibl y its deriVaTives arc required 10 take specified val ues on the boundary r of r.!. An illititt/ mIlle probll!lII i~ one in which the dependel1l variable and poss ibly its derivmives arc speci fi ed initially (i.e .. at time t = 0). In it ial val ue problems are generall y time-dependent probl ems. Exampl e~ of bou ndary and initial val ue problems were discussed in Section 1.2. A problem can be both a bou ndary value ;md ini tial value problem if the dependent variahle is subject to both boundary and ini tial co ndition ~. Another type of problem we encounter is o ne in which a differential equati on governing the depende nt un known also contains an unknown parameter and we arc required to find both the dependent variable and the parametcr such thaI the dificrcntial equati on and associated boundary conditions are satisfi ed. Such problems are ca lled eignll'alll l! {JlOblems. Examples of various types of problems we encoun ter in ~cience ;1I1d engineering are given below (the mathe matical classi fi cation of differential eqUal ions into ell iptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic i~ of no interest al the moment).

Uou nda ry Valuc Problcms. Sfl'ady S/{lfe lIem .,hlll.Ver in 1I nn and Axial Deformation of a IJar [Fig. 2.2.3(a) [: Find u(x) thilt satisfi es the second-order difi'crential equation and /Joundary conditiolls:

-- adx dx

d ( dU ) +clI=f
11(0) = 110


0 < .I" < t


(2.2. 13a)


L =


RelltiillK of Elastic Beamx IInder Transrerse Load: Find /I (x) that silli sfi es the fo urth -order differential equation and bOllndary collditio/1.\:

d -d' , ( 1, - ,
dx '" dr

/1) +cll = f

O < .I" < L

(2.2. 140)

11(0) = 14 0 '

(-dU) ... dx

= d()

d dx 'u)] [dx ( d ,/1, -2

2 hd

( dx 2


= 110


Steady Hem Conduction in a 1im -DimensiOlllll Region and Trall.wers/! DeJlectiom of a

M ellliJrallc [Fi g. 2.2.3(/))1: Find II(X. y) thai satislies the second-order partial differential



O = (O, L)

f---' "

A one-dimension;!! domain



r=r" ur~

(h) A twodimcnsional domain

,,'igurt' 2.2.3 (a) One-dimensional


(b) Two-dimcnsiomtl domain.

equalion and boundary (:ondirions:


a [ -fix

("u) + -a ( au)] + C// = !

{/t :--





in r2


II =



iJ// ( 01 :-- 11, (Ix

+ (/1 - 11 "

au) =qoon



where (n..- . fI,) are the direction


of the unit normal vector Ii to the boundary Find 1I(t) that

r 'I'

Initi<1I V~luc Prohlems. A Geneml Fir.I't -Order Equation: first-order differential equat ion and illitia/ cundiliulIs:


(l -


+ ell = !


0 < 1S T


11(0) = liD

A Geneml Second-Onle/' Eqll(//ion: Find 11(1) that sat isfies the second-order differential equation and inilia! colldil;oll.\":



+b - l +cII = ! dl dl

d 2/1


O< / .:::: T
= 110

(2.2.17,,) (2.2.17b)

= 110.

(b -dU) dl

/ = ()


A.~ I~TROIJUCTION 10 'l'lIll'lNITI, n. I~\II;~T \1FTlfOfJ

Boundary and Initial Vlllue I~robl cms. Vl/stulliy Neal Trall.~rer ill (I Rod: Find u (x . 1) thilt satisfies the partia l differential equation and inilial and bOllmiar}, ('OIIlJitions:

a ( au) au ux a ~ +p -;-= /(x.1) dx ,)1

( a dll)


O < x < L. O < t ::: T

II (X,O)=1I0(X)

(2.2. I Sa) (2.2.ISb)

11(0,1) = do(t).

= qo(t),


Unstcady Motio/l of a M embrane: Find II(X, y. t) that satisfies the partia! d ifferential equmion and initial and bOllndary ('{Jndi/iollS:

a [ -ox

(au) +-;- (au)] +P '7""2=f (x.y,t) a (/r ;a 'u al ox ily iJy 01

( al
011 II x

inQ,O < I =:J



+ (/ 2 :)11 1/,, ) = qo(t) on r 4

li(x. y.O)=vo

(2.2.19b) (2.2. I ')c)

II(X.),.O) = (/0.

where the superposed dot indicates a deri vative with respect to tillle

Eigenvalue Problems. Axial Vibmliom of a Bar: FinulI (x) and A thllt sati~fy the differemial equation and bOllndary cOlldi/iIiIlS:


d ( (1 -




0< x < L



((I~:; ) '=I. = 0
( a2 ~ au)]


TrallSI'Crsc Vibm/iofIJ of a Membran e: Find II (X , y) and)., that satisfy the partial differential

equation and bOllmlary conditions:


a (/1-;[-;- (au) ,Ix ax


a + -;oy

in n

(2.2.2 1a)



(2.2.2 1b)

The values of A are called eigell!'(l llIes. and the associ ated function s
fi lllcliOIl!J.

arc called


TIle set of specified function s lind parameters (e.g ., a, b. c, p, f . 110. do, ((f). Vf). and so on) are ca lled the data o f the problem. DitTerential equations in which the right-hand side f is zero are called hOl/lvg('IIeolis differential eqill/liolls. and houndary (initial ) conditions in which the speci fi ed data is zero are call ed homogeneous boundary (initial ) conditi ons. The l'xact solmioll of a differential equati on is the fun ction that identically satisfies Ihe differential equation at every point of the domain and for allt irnes I > O. and sati sfies the ~pec iti e d boundary and/or initial condit ions. 2.2.3 Integral Identities Integration by parts is freque ntly used in the integral Connu lation of d itTerential equat io ns. [n two- and three-dimensional cases. integration by parts is carried o ut with the help of




the gradient and divergence theorems. [n this sect io n. we derive somc useful identities for future use.
Integration-by-Parts Formu[ae. Let II, v. and w be sufficient ly differentiable fun ctions of the coordinate x. Then the following integration-by-parts formula holds:

" 1

w~dx = d"


(2.2.22) dx web) v(lJ) - lI'(a) v(a) " dx Thi s identity can easi ly be estab lished. First. note the following ident ity from the product rule of differentiation: d dll' dv = V -

l' 1 " " + 1

wdv = dw

vdw + [wv]~


~ (wv)= - v+lI' ~




d dll' - " dx dx dx Integrating both sides over the imerval (a. b). we obtain the identity in (2.2.22)
II' ~ =~ (I\'u)


h 1


du dx =


l' [ ~(Wv) "dx d " dx

" 1i1 1 - (wu)dx - " " tix = Iwvt, - 1h

dll' -vdx

dw dx

v] dx
dw vtlx " dx

Next. consider the expression

h 1

d2u dx = d 2 w ~ "dx "dx

W -


(till) dx = 1h dv dx

w -



where v == ~; . Using (2.2.22), we obtain


W -2


dx = -



vdx " dx
" dx dx


+ web) v(b) -

w(a) v(a)
- lI'(a) -

= 0'


du dl!' - - dx

+ w(b) -

dil l

d" dx a


', 1

till dw d 11 - - dx = II' - , dx " dx dx "dx-


+ 11'(0) (111 1 2

- lI'(b) -

tix "

tilf I dx b



& a dx 1


dx -

- 1&.:f.... ti
v ,


"dx- dx h d211
V -





,\1'1 l'fllI.Ollt nlO" TO

nil. I'IKm-UJ.M[xr \tlTtlUIl




'!/-!t. Using (2.2.23a) with



= v. we ean write the right-hand side as

We u'\C (2.2.23b) wi lh


" d .l' dx = /I and /I =




+ v(b) -till I

till - 11(0) -

- lI(a)-


Jl!1 ,, -~

h -


+ lI(a) -



dx " dx " 10 wrile (2.2.24a) as

- 11(/) -

h ,

dil l + hl l di ,
lI(b) (/2 11" /tlx 2 2

dil l. h

(2 .2.24/)

and. Fmally. repl:lcing


/J 1/J -d (/~v I d " I d~1I'2 I -d" I " ax t/x ' {/x 1 ,,--(iI" = "dx- - -2 t/\+ - - -dx " - - - h dx h

by its actual value II =


we arrive at


d'l\' + !.(b)--

ax ' h

dx ~


('\~'I - V(tl) - -

(/x l"


Gradient a nd IJivcrgcncc TheofCms. Le t V and 'V 2 denote. rc\pcctively. the gradient operator and the Laplace ol>ermor in the two-dimensional Canesian rcct:tngular coordinate
~ys t cm

(x. y) :

V= c , - + c . - .

_a _a
ax ' oy


where c<and c, denolc the unit basis Vl,.C1 along the x and y coordin:lles. re!.pective ly. ' 0rs If F(x . v) and G(.L y) are scalar funct ion ~ of chlss CO(n) in the tv. odimcn.'.ional domain Q shown in Fig. 2.2.3(bJ. thc following gradient and divergence theorems ho ld.

Grudie/ll Tlleorem


gradFdxt/y =:


VF dxd\. =

I, II j,.



aF OF) C, -.-. + c, -.- dxdy =




(II "

ex+ 11 ,. c,. ) r


The second equation implies. because two vectors are equal if and only if their components arc equal. that the foll owing relatio ns hold:



tlrdy= ,l" , Ftls.


l oy

OF -.- dxlly=



F tis


/Jiverg4!lIce T/'l'lJrelll


divGdXdy= l

VGdxd), =

I, " Gds j,.

(2 .2.28(/)

(2.2.28b) (1I". G,+II,G,,)ds r Here the dot denotes the 'iCalar product o f VL"CtOrs, n denote.'. the uni t vector nonnal to the ~u rf;l ce r of the do mai n S1; II < and II \ (G_, and G.,,) are the rectangular components of II (G): and the circle on the boundary integral indicates that the integration i., taken over the entire

-+ de 1(-de, -.--,)
ax iJy


boundary [see Fig. 2.2.3(b)1. The direction wnllcn .. "


cos ine~ II ,


II ,

of the unit vcctor it can be

= cos(.1. n) = c,' n.

1I " =co!>(y. li) = c,, ' Ii


where cos(x. n). for example. i, the cosine of the angle between the positive x direction and the unit vector il . The following id entitie~. which can be derived u~ing the gradient and divergence theorems. will be useful in the sequel. Let IV and G be ~,tlar function" defined in a two-dimensional domain n. Then

and where D/iln

(VG)II'IIXd\'=- l(VU')G'IXIIY + n


r li wGds
1. ~G Yr. all



(V 2G)


llxlly ==


VII" VG dxdy -


the nurmal derivative operator.

-== li .V=I! ~- +II,






(2.2.3 1)

The following component form of (2.2.30a), with an appropriate ch:lIlge of variable:.. i.. u\Cful in the ~uel:

&I\I;ltio n~

(2.2.32a) and (2.2.32b) can easily be

1 a~ 1


(I.HI), =


iJG (/xII.\' == iJy

-1 -1~

all' ax

G llXlI.\'


'frG llxlly + 1. II " II' G tis J;.


+ 1. II, II' G ds

(2.2 .32a) (2.2.32b)

by means of (2 .2.27b).

2.2.4 Lineu T und Uilin('ar FUllctiollals

Consider the inlegml expression of the form

1(11) =


fl(x.II.II ' )llx.

11 = 11(.1') .

11 '= -



where the integrand P(x. II. Il' ) i" a given function of the coordinate x (i ndependcnt variable), dependent variable II. mId its derivati,'c dll /l1.L For a given real function II = II (.l). I (II) is a real number. Therefore. I ean be viewed as an operator that tr:lnsfonns functions 1/(.1') into real numbers. ,md such operators :Ire ca lledjilllctiOlwl.l'. We shall u..e the term "functiona l" to describe fun ctions delined by integral, who~e argument~ lhcmsclvc~ arc functions. TIlliS, l oo~cly <;pca~i l1 g, a functional i~ a "function of functiuns:' A formal dcti ~ lIilion from functional analysis is that a functional i, an operator I mapping functions 1/ from a linear vector space into real number fie ld. Thc follow ing integrals qualify as functional:.:
1(11 ) =
I(u. v) =

l ' (dU 1(
p (x) "

+q(x)// ~



d.\ + PII(a)

du d" /1(X,y) - - +q(X.Y)1I ) (Jxdy+ dXlix





"" "l1tonUCTlOr'n 0 1HL FI'III1o IoIJ,\II ....' "lillion

where II and II are the dependelll variable" and all OIher parameter:. are ei ther constanlS or function ... of JXlsition. A functional 1(11) i" "aid to be lincar in II if and only if it sati<,ties the rchllion

+ fJ1)

= al(lI)

+ fJ/(u)


for any real numbers a :lnd fJ :lIld dependent variables II and u. Examples o f linear fUl1c tiollah arc provided by
1(11) =

11> f(x)


tix +q ll(b) .

1(II .v)=



Note that the functionals

1,(11) =



II -

d .I.



12(11) =

11> [(x)

(Ix +c, c is a constant

do not qual ify a~ linear functionals (why?). A functional 11(11 . Ii) i ~ ~aid to be hilincar if it is linear in each of its arguments and u:
IJ(all ) + /J1I2' v) = aB(1I1. 11)+ {l fJ (1I2.


linear in the fir ... t argument



+ /J1J2)

= aB(II. vd + /J fJ (II. 1.'2) linear in the -.(.'Cond argument

where II. II,. 112, (I. VI. and 1!2 are dependent variables and a and f3 are real numbers. Note thai a bilinear functional nccc",arily cOnlains two arguments (dcpendclll variables). and it mu", be linear with re"pect 10 c:lch argument. Example" of bilinear forms are
B,(II. v) =

B2 (1I . v) =
BJ( u . v ) =

l' + l' (P(.,)\I . v+



" "

tix dx

rllI~) dx + kll(lI)v(a)

'1(x) tl u . dx

v) dx


10 (p(X)1I .

+ q(x) V u . V' v ) d x

TIle fUllc tionab

I,(u . v) =

[' [


+ q(x )

dx dx dx


' 2( 11 , v) =


(P(X) lI '


+ q(x) dv

. rlv) (ix


/ ,(11 . 1 = 1)

L[p(x,-,,) (~:;y v+q(.l..y)u}IX(/)"


are nOI linear in their argulllent". A bil inear fom, IJ (u. v) i" "aid to be symmetric in
IJ('I. v) = B(v.lI)

argumenlS II :md v if (2.2.39)

for all II and v. Examplcsofsymmctric bilinear forrns arc provided by B, (II. v) and /1,( 11 , ,.) 1i ~led above. Note thaI Ih(u. v) i ~ nOI symmetric.



A quadratic fun ction<ll Q(II) is one til<lt smisties the relmion (2.2.40) for all real numbers a..


2.3.1 Introduction
Calculus of varia tion ~ is a branch of mathematics that deals with extrema and stationary behavior of functionals. As discussed in the introduction to this chapter. there are many prob lems that can be posed only as finding the extremum of functionals [sec. for eX<lmple. the Bmchis/oc/mme problcm. gcodesic pmblem. and isopcrimclric problem discussed on pages 129 <llld 130 of Reddy (2002)J. The field of solid and structum l mechanic~ heav ily depends on the use of energy principles th;lt <Ire s1tltcd in terms of finding the extrema or ~tationa ry value~ of functionals to construct finite element models (e.g .. the prim:iple of minimum tota l potential energy. the principle of maximum IOtal complement<lry energy, <lnd the Hu- Washizu and Hellinger- Reissner mixed variational pri11(:ipIes). The direct v<lri<ltiorwl methods like the Ritz method use v<lriatiolla\ principles 10 obt<lin approximate solutions directly, bypassing the derivat ion of the governing equations. In this sect ion we study the concept of variat iona l operator and its properties, first variation of function;lls, and Euler equat io ns resulting from the condit ion of vanishing of the fir~t variat ion of a functional. In the interest of keeping the scope of the study within reasonab le lim its, only ncees~ary concepts are covered. Although the mmerial covered in this section is not absolutely necessary fo r an understanding of the finite element method, it is deemed useful. at least for those readers who have sol id and structural mechanics background, to understand the concepts from calculus of variations. Other readers may sk ip the sect ion and go directly \0 Section 2.4.

2,3,2 Variational Operator and Fi rst Variation

Consider the function F(x, II. II '). For an arbitrarily fixed value of the independent variable x, F depends on 1/ ;md II'. The change lOt! in II, where is a conslanl and v is a function, is called the 1'(lrillliOIl of u and is denoted by tiu (see Fig. 2.3. 1):

== 11

(2.3.1 )

Thc operator 8 i ~ cal led the mriatioll(l{ opemlor. The variation 811 of a function II represents an admissible change in the function u(x) at aji.xrd value of the independent variable x. If Ii is specified at a point (usually on the boundary). the variation of /I is zero there because the specified value cannot be varied. Thus, the varimion of a function 1/ should satisfy the homogeneous fOnTl of the boundary conditions for II. The variation 8u represent~ a I'irtll(l/ but admissible change in u. Associated with this change in /I (i.e., when II is changed 10 1/ + v), there is a change in F,



+ fV, /I' + ('v') -

r(x, II. u')


"'II I"'I"ROIlL(:'nOl' TO lll1: HMTf fU tdf'T \lIT1tOO


UIX) '"


11(.l) t a'tA)



Figure 2.3. 1 The vurimi()n, of 1/(.\").

Expanding in power, of fi give .. (Ireating



+" IJ and II' + fU ' a.. dependent fU1Ktions)

,a F
(fill)! ;)2F

dF = F(x.II . u) + fil l -

au +'" - + ----, a,,' 2! iJl/" (H)(H') iJ l F (EV' )! a ~ F + 2! o/lau' + ---., +. - F(x.II./I ') 2! au of

iJ F


fim . ~()RI

ill/ VI/' (fi) = O. TheJir.\lwlriarioll of F is defined by

. F(X,U +H'. I/'+U' ) - P(X .II. II ')] [lin [ ._0
= f

= f V- + fl, ' _ + fi R1 (f)



IIm - ,0





or ar + II' ilF) = - / j u + -Em '

iJ /I

01/ '


the lir~t variation of r can be written in term" of the variation" of the dependent v.triable II and it~ deri vative~. Note that in the 8pccial Cll.<,e when F = II. Eq. (2.3.3) give .. the re~ult ill Eq. (2.3. I ). Funher. note the analogy between the liN variation. (2.3.3). and the lolal differential of P,

II F = - d.r + - till + - till' (2.3.4) ih iJlI ill/' Since x i)' /101 mrit'11 during the variation of u to /I + dU. d r = 0 :lIld the analoy between Jj P .tIld (1/: becomes apparent. i.e .. Ii (Ic ls us {/ tiifferl'IIlilll nperalor Willi respect /I) dept'lllll'lH "lIrillhles. The above discu~ sion can be extended to two dirnen ~iun~ and to functiom F tlml depend on more than one dependent variable in two or more dimensions. Lel F = F(x. y. II, II. !/ II,. II,. I) ,,). where II = u(x, v) and II = 11(.\. v) are dependem variable"






and u, =

iJulox, II, =

au loy. and so on. The first variati o n of F is give n by


of of = -ou 011


aF ! H -~ u,

au, '





+ -0/1 " + - ~u ,'





II can easily be verified that the laws o f varia ti on of "urns. products. mtios. powers. and so fo rth are completely ana logous to the corresponding laws of di fferentiation. For example. if F, p] (II) and IS F2(1I). then

o(F] F2 ) = of , o lS o(F] F2 ) =o F] r2+r]~F2

') (F -_


of] F2 - F] or} , Fi

o(FJl n =

n ( F 1)n-l oF ]

If G = G(II. V. 11') is function o f several depe ndent variables II. v. and w (and possibly their derivatives) . the tota l variation is the sum of the partial variat i on~:

=8" G +8" G + 0", G


Furthermore. the variational operator can commu te wit h differential and integral operatON (as long a s the coordinates x and yare the fixed coordinales):


- (~l1)= - (EV)=E- = EV


! 111 (X) dx =



l' ~II(X)

,=011 = 0 (d") dx

(2.3.7a) (2.3.7b)


The first variatioll of a fUllctionnl can now be compu ted readily. Cons ide r the functiona l in Eq. (2 .2.33). The fi rst variation of 1 (11) is h 81(11) F(x. II. 1/ ') dx o f(x. II. II ') dx

= 01


1 ( ~ F O+ ~~Oll') dx " il
" ,) 1/



More specific fun ct io nals arc cons idered in The next example. f2xa mIJle 2.3.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Consider the

in (2,2,34). We whh to find their fin;t variations. We huve

/H(II) =
8/ {1I. I))

/," ' ( <I'" dx

[[P (x. y) J~

p(X) -+ 2q(x)l/~1/

) dx+P5u(a)


(~!.!. + ~~) + q(.t, ,\8VJdxdy dx dx dx (Ix


Note that funCliQ.I'!S of po~i tlon, p and q. do not lI11lietgo variati,.I!l becau,.;e They an:: not functivns of th e depcmJeot variable~.


"" 1 '~TlmmJ{TION

I() f il l i"lNrn' h[,L\lIONI


2.3.3 Fund a mental LCllInla or Va riational Calculus

The fllluioll/cllfal felllil/{/ of('(//clllJ,.\ of ml'imiollscan be :.tated as
/llIIelioll G (x),
fo l low~:J(Jr{IIIY illft'RmlJle

if lilt' SftUt'III('1/I

holtls for WI.' arbilrllrr rmllilll101I5 fllllUioll '1(.1'). for all x ill (a. h). 111t'1I ;1 fo/lo\\'.\ Ibm G(x) = 0 ill (ll. b). A simple proof of the lemma follows from sc ui n~ '1(.1'). which b arbitrary, equ<l 11O G. We have

', 1

" G(x) I/(.X) dx =0


1i>IG(X )1 2 dx = 0
Since an integral o f a po,ith'c func tion, C!. is po.o.itivc. the above qatement impJic, that
G(x) = 0 in the domain Q = (l,. b).

A more general ~ta t eme nt of the fun damental lemma in {/ < \ < band I/(d) i.. arbi trary. then the ~tatemcnt

i~ a~

follows : If I)(X) i.. arbitrary

im p li e~

G'Jdr+ B (ll)I/(lI)=O

(2.3 .1Ia)

G=O in (I <:r < b and lJ (ll)=O

(2.3. l lb)

bcC:IU...e 1/(.\)


independcru of 'J(ll).

2.3.4 T he Euler [(Illatio ns A" "tated in the introduction. certain probJem~ arc formul:lted a~ o ne of seeking the ex tremum of functionals (i.e .. functioll'i o f dependent unknown" of the problem). For exam pie. problems o f solid mechanics can be fOrinu ialL'<i a ~o ne of minimi Ihc 10lal potential energy of the sy~ lcm (Reddy. 2002). Typically, the total polential energy (functional) i~ written in t erm~ of the d( .. placement field and applied 10:I(.Is. Then it i" UM:fulto derive the different ial eq uation .. t hat govern the di"plm.:ement fie ld from thi~ minimum principle. Ilcre we outline the l>teps in obtaining such equations. Consider. for example, the problem o f finding a function II = II(X) such Ihat
lI(a) = II". lI(b) = IIh

(2.3. 12(1)

I (II) =


F(.\. II(X).

/I '

(x (Ix

(2.3. 12b)

is a minrmum. In mwlyling the problem. we are nOI interested in all funct ions II but only in those fu nctions that ..atisfy the stated boundary (or end) condition ... The set of all such function~ i, called. for obvious reason~. the set of compt'tillg/lmctiol1\ (or "et of adrnis~iblc fUllction,,). We shall denote the set oy C, The problem is to seek an clemenlll from C \hal render. I a minimum . If li e C (the symbol e means 'an elemenl of).lhen (II + r:v) eC for every v ,atisfying Ihe conditions 11(a) = v(b) = O. The ~ pace o f all such elements is called the space of admissible variations, a~ already mentioned. Figure 2.3.1 ~hows a typical competing function ii(x) = I/(x) + fV(X) and a typical admissible variation vex).

U1AI'n.R 1: MArlinlArI<:AI.I'RU. I \l l~ ,\RII~~. IVTl'GRAI_IURMJ.:I.ATIOXS. AM) V,\WIATIO,\AI MHllom


Let I (II) be a differentiable functional in the



dl(u+V,Ui+V i )


<I, and let C denote the space of competing functions. Then. an elemen t II in C yicld a relalil'e minimulII (maximum) for I(u) in C if
l(u) - I(u) :,: O





If I (il) assume~ a re lat ive minimum (maximum) at /I E C re lative to clements u E C. then it follows from the den nition of the space of admissible varilllions 'h and Eq. (2.3.13) that I(U+EV) - I(u) ::: O


for all v E 'h. IIvll < e, and Ii a real number. Since 1/ is the minimizer. any other function E C is of the form ii = 1/ + v, and the actual minimizer is detennined by setting = o. Once II(X) and vex) are assigned. I (ti) is a function of alone. say I(E). Now a necessary cond it ion for I (ii) = I(E) to attain a minimum i~ that dl() d (2.3.15) - - = - 1/ (u +V) I= O d dE On the other hand, I(ii ) attains it~ minimum at II, i.e" =0. These two conditions together imply (dl ()/d) I. ",o = O. which is nothing but (2.3.16) Annlogous to the suffic ien t condition for ord inary functions. the sufficient condit io n for a functional to assume a relative minimum (maximum) is Ihat the second variation 8 2 /(11) is greater (less) than zero. The second variation 82 1 (u) of a fun ctiona l I (1/) is given by 2 8"/(11)", 2 [d z / (U + (2.3.17)


V) ]


for nil VEC and real numberE. It is clear thm any candidme for the minimizing functional shou ld ~atisfy the end conditions in Eq. (2.3. 12(/) and be sufficient ly differentiable (twice in the present case. as we shall see shortly). The set of all such funelion~ is the set of ,ldmissiblc functions or competing functions for the present cn'>e. Functions from the admi~sible ~et can be viewed as smooth (i.c., differentiable twice) functions passing through points ((I, II,,) and (b, 11/, as shown in Fig. 2.3. 1. Clearly. any elcment u in C (the set of competing funct i o n~) has the form

where ~ is 11 ~ma ll num ber and v is a sufficient ly differentiable function that satjsfie~ the homogeneous form of the cnd conditions (because it must sat isfy the specified end conditions) in Eq. (2.3.12a)
v(a)=II (b) =O


and II is the function Ihm minimizes the functional III Eq. (2.3.12b) . The set of all functions v is the set of admissible vnriations, 'h. Now assuming that. fo r each admi ssible function U. F(x, ii, iii) exists lind is continuously differentinble with respect 10 its arguments, and I(u) takes one and only onc real value, we seek the particular funct ion /I(x) that nmkes the integralll minimum.


A~ 1~nl.UJ)V(:flO_"lO'IIlE rl.~n'E ELE\lI:NT MmlOI)

The neccssary condition (2.3.15) for I to attain 11 minimum gives


dl("+''') 1

[d J' F(x,t/,il)dx ,] -I

<= 0

where ii = u fV. Intcgrating the ~econd lerm in the last equation by parts to transfer diITerentiation from v 10 II. we obtain

" -- -J ("Fa" +an,,') +


iJu OE

iJu' ilf



J' (aF ill')


,, +-u'dx 0/1'



" au " J [aF




d (JF)] dx+ ("I'" ) I' Oil' all'"


(2.3.21 )

The boundary term vanishes because v is zero at x = a and x = b Isee E,([. (2.3. 19)1. The fact Ihal v i~ arbitrilry inside the interval (ll. 0) and yet the equation should hold implies. by the fundamental lemma of the (;alculus of variations, that the expre~sion in the .~quare brackets is lefO identically:

ilF --fJlI dx

d (ilF) = Oinll < x < b all'


Equation (2.3.22) i~ called the Eufa cqllalioll of the functional in Eq. (2.3.l2b). Of all the adrni~sible functions. the nne that sati~fies (i.e .. the solution 01) Eq. (2.3.22) is the true mini mizer of the functional I. Next consider the problem of linding (II, v). defined on a two- dimen~iOl1al region Q. such lhal the following functional is to be minimized:
1(II .u)= l ';(X,y. lI.u . II . v.

II )" V~)(IXdY


where II, = iJlI/UX, II , = ull/ily , and so on. Fur the moment we assume lhat II and u arc specified on the boundary I~ of Q. The vanishing of the tirst variation of I (II. v) is written as

v) =

8~/(u. u)

+ !i,./(u. II) = 0

Here !i" !i I =


!i,. denote (partial) variations with respect to II and u. respectively. We have flF -,-!ill Oil aF [JF aF iJF iJP) + -,-~II ). + -,-~ u, + -,- 8d -,- !iv, + - -!iv, dxdy ,


du "





The next ~tep in the development involves the use of integration by parts. or the gradient theorcm Oil the ~c(;ond. third. tiflh. and sixth terms in Eq. (2.3.24). Con5ider the second term. We have


AFa!" - - dxdy = n au x ax


n Ox

(OF ) - --;a -, -!iu 1)11 , ilx


(ill') ]dxdy

};. au"


F01111" d.I' -1 ~ (D F) 811 duly iJx ilu .,

J iJy


Using a simi lar procedure on the other terms and collecting the coefficients of !i ll and!iv separately, we obtain

"" 11[iJ; Q



(i1F) a;;:

(i1F)] !iu ~

Since (II. v) arc ~rccificd on r, 1511 = 81.1 = 0 and the bou ndary c:<p rc~sions van i ~h. Then. since all and 01} arc arbitrary and independent of each other in Q, the fundamcnwl lemm:1 yie lds the Euler equation~

l + [( i -.

ap + - - -"(OF) - -a (OF)] tiv au ax ou. &y iJv ,.

ill' II ,

dxdr .

+ -.- \ II, iJlI



OF)] + (ap II, + -.- , II, 81.1 tis aI', ,111

a;; 01.1 :

of 0 (aF) iJy ("F) = 0 iI ~ JI/ , ill' "("F) a.\' ~ = 0 "(aF) ~

iJx j)x



2.3.5 Natural and Essential Boundary Conditions

First. consi der the prohlem of Illi ni mizi I1g the functional in Ell. (2.3. 12h) subject to no end conditions Ihence, an clement tJ of the set of admissible variati on is arbitrary even at the end points, i.e .. v(a) = () and 1I(11);i 01. Then the functional I (II) hll~ the fonn
I (II) =

lb .

P(x. II(X). I/' (x dx - Q" lI(lI) - Q b lI(h)



where Q" and Qh arc known values. The yields Id. Eq. (2.3.21)J

condition ror I to attain a minimum

o ~ l' ,,["F _ dx ;)/1 ~(iJ~)]dx + (iJ~")I" " d" ;)""

Now suppose that ::~., and

Q" "(,, )- Q,,,,(b)


arc ~elcctcd ~uch that

v = Oforx=a,

or ) . ( - -- - Q" iJu'

("I' ) au'
- - Q/J

v = Ofor:r=b


l hen using the fundarncnt:lllemma of the calcu lus of v:uiat ion .... we obtain the ..ame Euler equation .... in Eq. (2.3.22). Equations in (2.3.30) arc ~tti),ficd identically for any of the following combinations:
(I) t'(a) = 0.

lI(h) =0

(2) v(a) = O. -

ilFI, -QI



(3 )

- iHel .. au'
-T""7 "

Q,, =O. v(b) = O


The requirement that v = Oat an end point isequivalelll to the requirement that" is ~pecitied (to be some value) althat point. 11,e end conditions itt (2.3 .31) arc classified into IWO lype.;:

"1 '"

Qa = 0. -.;) If '

"F I, -

Qh= O

(2.3.31 )



eHel/fia/bollndary condiriol/s. whidl require v (and poss ibly its dcriv;Jtives) to vanish at the boundary. and I/mllm/bollndary ('ol/dition.l'. which rcquire the l.pecitication of Ih(' ('o('fjif'if'11I

of v (a nd possibly its derivatives). Thus, we have

Essentia/ BOllndary COllditi olH:

speci fy v = 0 or Natllra/ BOll ndary Condilion :>:


= Ii on the boundary


JF spec ify - - = Q on the bound;Jry , (2.3.32b) dll' where Q = - Q" <It X = (/ and Q = Q/J at x = b. [n a give n problem. only one of the four combination s given in Eq. (2.3.31) can be specified. Problem~ in which ;JI! of the boundary conditions are of the essential type arc called Dirichlel houndarY-I'(lllIe pmh/clI/.\'. and those in which al! of the boundary condit ions arc ofthc natural type arc c;J1 led Nf'wl1(J1111 boutJdm),willi' pmb/em.l'. Mixed bOllndarY-I'a/lle pmblems arc those in which both essential and natural boundary cond it ions are ~pccitied. Essenliat"boundary condi tions are also known as Dirichler or geomelric boundary condit ions, and natural boundary cond it ions are known as Neumanll or (1),1/(/lllic boundary conditions. As a genefill rule. the vanishing of the variation 11 (or !ill) at a point implie~ that /1 i .. ~pc(;ilied there (in gencT;JI. to be non7cro). The specification of II on the boundary constilu t t:~ the es~ent iaJ boundary condi tion. Vanishing of the coetlicient of the variation I! in the boundary expression conslitUies the natural boundary condit ion. This rule applies to any functional in one. two. and three dimensions. and 10 integT;Jnds thai arc functions of one or more dcpendent variables and their dcrivat i ve~ of allY order. Next con~ider the function~ll in Eq. (2.3.23). and ~u ppose that (11. I) arc arbitrary on 1 for the moment. It is easy to identify the natural and c~sen tial boundal)' condil i o n ~ of the problcm from Eq. (2.3.26): In each of the pairings 011 boundary [~ . specifying Ihe first clement (which contains no variations of the dependent variables) con~titu t cs the naluT;J1 boundary (;ond ition, and van ish ing of the ~cco n d e lcmen t (or. equivalently. specifying the quantity in front of the variat ional operator) constitutes the essenti;JI boundary condition. Thus. we have either

= iI (spccified) =

~o ~o

thai /ill = 0 that



ov =o


r r

(2.3.33a) (2.3.33h)





fl,. ~ O

r r


- 1/ .+ -







Equations (2.3.33a) and (2.3.33h) represcnt the cs~entia l boundary conditions and Eqs. (2.3.34(1) and (2.3.34h) the natural boundary conditions. The pair of e lemcnts (II. 1') are called the prill/ar\' I'ar;ah/es and


== -,-

1/ <

all ,

+ -,- n,


and Qy ==

- 1 1 ,.


+ -n,




are called the secundary va/"iable.\. Thus, ~pccification of the primary vllriables constitute essential boundary conditions and ~pecificat ion of the secondary variables constitute natural bound<lry cond itions. In general. one clement of each pair (II. Q ,) and (11. Q,) (but not both elements of the same p<lir) may be specified at any point of the boundary. Thus. there are four possible com bin<lti ons of natural <lnd essential boundary conditions for the problem under discussion.

esample 2.3.2

an el;tJitic bat (If length 1-, mOdulu~ o( elasticity E, and area of cross. s.ection A, that it is fixed at the leO: cnd, spring ~uppvrtcd at the right end, and wbjecled to di~lributed axiallO<ld f(x) (~ee Pig. 2.3.2). TIle total po1en[ialo::ncrgy functional n"" +V I,If the bar is (here we a~umed that one. knows hO\l- to write the lutal putef)lial en~rgy of the



l ' [EA ("")'

Q 2 d.r

- ill

] d.t + -111(L)j, k 2


where II denotc~ the axial displaecn.lenl of the bar. The fiNl tcon in O(u) represents the stnun encrgy U .stored in thcbar.lhc second tcon dcnotc~ the work done Von the hurby thedi$.trihuted load f, lind the 1:1$1 term denotes the ~train energy $!ored in the linear chi.Mic We wj~h In detenninc U1C Buler equation of the bar by requiring tbat O(u) be a minimum sllbjer.:llo the gc()melfir.: boundary condition u(O) = 0. The stalCJl1ent 1m ",,0 if; known as fit/'. principle (If minimulli filIal (I()femia/ !'I!ergy. The tits! variation of n il, gi\'en by

<"mu) =

'(, , , , , , ) 1

Ii.A - - - flul dx ,h



'.I'hcrc Oil is ilrbitntry in 0 < x < J~ and 111 .r ;=< L bl.!.t smisfies the conditiun l!ll{O) "" O. To lise the fundamental lemma of variational caJeulu", we tnU~t relieve Oil of any dit'fercnti(ltiOIl,



lI (l.,)



, .....--04 "!IlL)


...I ,



____ '

)<'igIlTC 2.3.2 Elastic bllT problem discu..~ed in ,xnmp[c 2.3.2.


\:>II.V I'ROI .... ,cn OIn OTlIL n 'l lll, U 1.\11 !<II MFlllOl >

Imegrtlling the first term by pan~. v.c lOCI


= =

f. ,[ <I ( "") ] -I 1' [ <I ( <I,,)]


11 _ _ /



/Judx+ A ....... 811 d.r

[<I"]' +ku(/....)/Ju(L..}

1511 -d - fA--:
.\ d\


dl +811{L) (;;A - +.l.II(L) d.1 ~"t


- 611(0)

[I:.'A rf!.]


The laM leon is ;r.em becau'>C /JufO) = O. Setting lhe coc.fficiem~ of lJII in (0. L) and /Ju at x ... L I(ll.cnl ~cparately. we t)blain the Euler equ3ti()n and the n!lturoJ (or f(lrt:l') boundary condition of the problem:

Hiller Equation:



EA (. "")

- f~O. O<,r<L


Nalurol Boundary Co"ditilm:

d/l E,1- +ku( L) =O at x= L d.t

TIllIs.thl' solution /I of Eqs. (2.3.36a) and (2.3.36b) th<11 S3l j,fies rdO) ",,0 is the mjnilll~J:er of the energy function:,! n (l<) in Eq. (2.3.3$). Equati(Jf\~ (2.3J6a) and (2.3.36b) can be .)bmined direCtly from I~. (2.3.22) and (2) of Eq. (2.3.3 I) (wilh Q/r """ ~kll( /..) :I~ shown in Fig. 2.3.2) by ~ub\t ituling
F(X.II.U } = r : -

, EA (d")' 2 d.

- j(x)III.t).

a;; =-1.


[)F du - = ,11 _ lJu' ax


F.:xamph: 2.J.J

The 10ta[ ptlte!)tial t(lCTgY of a linear ... !a.~tic hQUy in three dimension~, ~ uhJ e.:tl.d 10 body force r ( Illea~ured per unit v(llulllc) lmd ~utf:1<:e traCtion i (mt:asurcd per unil area) on portion Sl of the \urf,lce I~ec Hg. 2.3.3(a)J i~ given by (~ummatiOn (In rcpe,lIeu indice~ is implied)
n {U)

1(~(J'Aj - /,/1.) i
lH' -

i,'I / ,I S


whereu, tkoolethe di ~placemc1lt component', (1<1 are the ~tres~ CQrnponen\S l",-'c Fig. 2.3.3(b)]. nnd ell are wain compoocntJ.. It i, a.S~UIlll!d that the body i,~subJCClcJ 1 ~peci fied displacements 0 on the ~mainJng portillO S, ofthc \urfoce. and lherefore the ... ;ttulII di\pla('"eillents vanhh




+ O' _' + (1~. J")'''



(II) A 3. D dQrnain

(b) StrCl\SCOnlpQncnl&

"'igure 2.3.3

(iI) An e!a.~lic Ihldy with specified dlsplaccrnl!nt~ and tractions. (I The st.rcs~

components al a typical PI)in! inside the bvdy and on thO! bQundary.

(n Bq. (2.338), and in the following di~("ussiQn, ~tln1rz}atioo 00 repeated indices is R!iSUined. Usc

of Ule inde:( notation anI,! the summation convention in the 3. 0 cast saves considcrnblc Space (Le., the explicit form QfEq. (2.3.38) and sub:>equeut maniplllatiQn~ would take consiiJerably more space). 'fhe first tcnn under the volume illlegraJ representS tbe strai.n energy dt:nsity of
the el;~~lic b(Kiy tinct the t>(:cQod term reprc..\cnt,\ the work done by Ihe INdy force r; aod the surface illlegral denotes lhe work dOlle by the specified [melion l

For an iSOtropic body the slressslrain rcJlluOns are given by (the generalized Hooke's Jaw)
t 2JAO)

where II and A are the




(2.3.4 J)

The liTlt'ar ~Irain -displacernenl relatiOns

or the Ijnear Illl.'ory are given by



A ~ 1N"1'R< 11>UCT1" N TI l IlIFHMfIl U.LMloNT \WIWlO

S ubstitutin g Eq$. (2.3.41) and (2.M2> inlo Eq. (23.38). we obtain

n (u)




+ 111.1) (Ill.} + uj./ ) + ~UUljl.~ -

II II,] d\' -


i, II , tiS

Now we wi, h to derive the Euler equations aSM)Ciated with ~he functional in liq. (2.3.43) uMng the principle min imum 101&1 potential energy. Ii -= 0 (i.e., nlinimizc flnd &UI '" 0 on SI. Selting the lirst varildiQn of n to I.Cro, we ohtain



0 ""

Iv [ ~


+ &U1.1 ) (II,) + u).,) + )Ji1l,., IIt "


/ill, ] dV -

i{&u, (I S

wherein !he prodUCI ruleof van lilion is used and similar ICmlS :ire l"Omhincd. U~ing inlegnation



where 0 )

ou,./ (u . j

+ II j. ddV "" _ f


liu ;(ul.i'" " I,') .) dV

+ 1. OIl ; (U ,.) + u JJ)n ) dS


deflOlCS the jth direction cosiue of the unit ooJJrnti to the ~urface. we obta in


1[ -~(U,., + .
~ 2

Uj,l ),l olI , - iCII ,.)

+ "),, ).. & 1 11



111111/] dV

i[e(u,.J+ II /, , )(Oj lill, + 0,lill ) +AII

{ - Jt(u,-} + 1I).d "

O;&II; ]dS

-1 +i


oll i t, dS

~ AIIU, -

,1;11111, dV

0 + II j.; ) +l.vU&/j1 , &11, dS -




In alTiving allhc 18Sl 1\tep, a change l)( dummy indica is made In combine lCnm. Recognizing that the e(pttMoion inside the square brackccs of the Cbed!OWfillCe iruegral is ",lChing hut (1,/, and (T'I " !"" Ij by Cauchy's formula !which ill nothing but a Stalcmenl Qf the equilibrium Qf fCJrCe!\ 011 the lClrahcdraI clemenl~ see Fig. 2.3 ..l(b)J, we CIlD wnw

i ,,6u, dS ; {"AII , dS t Ts ls,

0 ""'


{ 'I &t.,dS = {"h,dS


The integral over S, il; 7.Ctu by vil1ue of Eq. (2.3.39). lienee. we t..w

Iv [.-

Jt (11,./ + 11,.1).1 - ArtUI ..

h] &1I,dV +

""I (1/

.. il )dS

Using the fundammtallcm .... o( cakulull of varUition5.. we lid the coeftk.ients 0( 611, in V and

on S:! 10 7.efO separar.ely and "blain


+ II 1.1, ) + Allt, l, + A "", 0 in V

'1 0 1

(2.3.46) (2.3.47)

-' ;I "" OnnS:!

(1)1'1 = 1.2,3.



Equations (2.3.46) are the well-kllown Navier's eqllat(on.\ of eqllilibrium of threed.irncnsiomlj elastiCity. :lnd (2.3.47) ~IIC tbe ttaction OOllndary condition~. 1bc explicit forms of Eqs. (2.3.40), (2.3.42). (2.3.46), and (2.3.47) in a rcctangll l ~r Car1e~ian coordinate system {x, y, Z) illt g iven below {XI =.t. Xl"" y. -I) ""':C;, 11:= f~, f! ;::. f), b "" f " I'1n =l1u , On =

= ":'"

and:>tJ on).

StressStrain ReMtions (HQQke '~, lAW for an Ortholropic. Material):






et! e n



material by

0 CD C11 CJ..' 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 C~S 0 0 0 0 0 0 eM


0 0






Whefe y,)- = 2e~t, Yq ",,2e~, aJ](! y .. -= 2sf ( are the engineering shc:lr strains. The clastic

coefficients Cfj are knOWn in terms of the cngirn..'cring material c(mStanlS


+ Vl l Vu =


+ VIlVl)

t ,A.
1- vn\!;ll
EID~ A '
1 ~ VltV:!1 riEl!::. '


en ""


!lUV"'!1 -

li:!)il-Jl - 1'31 110 - 2V,IV~2VI3

1:: 1 2 '
Here eh e,!, and ) are Young'~ m(X1uli in I, 2. and 3 material directions, respectively; v<J are Poisson's ratio~. defined a~ the ratio of transverse stmin in the jlh direclion 1 the 0 axial str3in in tbe-Ith direction when stressed in the ilh direction; and G n , Gil. and G I1 are sbear tnvdl.lli in the 2 ), 13, and 1 2 planes, respectively. In addition, the following reciprocity
rcJaliml ~

among the cngint:efing Conslanlll h<,ld: (2.3.49)

For the isotropic ca:>e, we have i 'l "'" fl = E J "" , G I2 = Gil "'" G n = G, and I'l l = lilJ = V:!.l c:: v with G = O.5E/(1 + v). 1llc Lame con~tanlS ~ related to the engineering constants by

where K is the bulk modulUli.


A" INlkOl)l. CTIO~

TnnlE ~u..n Ef.LE\lr,.T \1111I0l)

Slraill -Di.\'PwcCmenl R elnliQI/s.'

t' .. .,. ~:



I t:...""';;

(au "') : 8"""1"I (".. +a,) ; .. -+:- itt QY 8.r Ql.

i}0'" (jq,. -1--


-+'("" '''') 0::



where (il.


\1') arc the d~splatcrtlc nts of II p{lim alollg the (x.


t ) coof{! jnatc~. re~pccTiv(:ly.

Stress Equilibrium EquQlilHU:

ax ily

+ -'a~ + ),= 0 ' ot

-:;-+-, +-;"':'+f1~O .,.t Y "z





---- + --:;. + - n + f- =0 ' ax ily 0::

Siren 7'roclim, Relnlions



f(lnu ula; SI.'t F'ig. 2.3.3);

+ 11,,11 . + <1.<:;:11, "" I,


"n l1 ,+"",I!. +<1,.,.n "" 'r

o,~n, +C1t-II.

+fT,,,II . ""

2.3.6 Hamilton's I'rinci ple The princip le of minimum total pote11lill l energy is limiTed to staTic e(lui librium of ,o lid~ . Hlimi ItOI1'S principle is a generalization of The principle of virtual di~p laccments (<;ee Rl..-ddy. 2(02) 10 dynamic, (i.e .. lime-dependent re~pon se) of solid". 111 princi ple a ""um e.~ that Ihe e system under cOINderat ion is characteri}ed by two energy func tions: killelic l'1Il'ry:y K and IWlelU;a/ ellery:y n. For comill/fOlu !>ys t e m ~ (i.e .. !>y~l e m ~ that cannot be de<;cribcd by a finite number of generalized coordinates), thc cnergies can be expressed in terms of the dependent variables (which arc f un{:l iOIl~ of position) of the pr0b lelll. Newton'" second law ormolion for a (:olltinuolls body can be written in general terms as
1<' - 11111 = 0


where III is Ihe ma)o~.:t the accelewlion veclOr, and F is the resultant of a/l forces acting un the body. Thc actulil p:lth u = u (x. I) followed by a material ~Irt id e in position x in the lxxJy is varied. c{) n~i~tent with kinematic (eSM: lltial) boundary conditions. to u + O . where ou il is the adrnis~ibJc variat iOIl (or virtual di~placement) of the p.. th. We suppose Ih:lt The varied path dilTcr)o from Ihe actual palh exccpt III initial and fina l times, II and '2. rcspeclively. Thu'>, an admissible variation ,s l! sa ti s li c~ the condition~. ,s u = O on

r .. for all I

(2.3.55(1) (2.3.55b)

,su (x. ' 1) = Ou (x. '2) = 0 for all x

CllAl'flk l - ~1,\ I 'tlHIAI'ICAI.I'R[\. 1 \11~AkI1;S, l"ll'GkAL l<JI<MLLATIOJ\S, AM) \',\1<11\1 I()~AI. MFI'I\OI)~


where ru denote~ the portion of the boundary of the body where the displacement vector is specified. Note that the ~caJar product of Eq. (2.3.54) with ou gives work done at point x, because F. 3 . and U afe vector function~ of position (whereas the work is a scalar). Integration of the product over the volume (and surface) of the body gives the total work done by all points in moving through their respective displacements. The lI'ork dOllc 011 Iht, body at time I by the resultant force in moving through the virtual displacement ou i~ given by

l v r'O ll dv+lr. i."Uds - l v ;;:/iEdV


where f is the body force vector, i the specified surface traction vector, and C; and are the stress and strain ten"or~. The "double-dot product" has the meaning;; : Of = a;j8j;. The last tcrm in Eq. (2.3.56) represents the virtual work of internal forces storcd ill the IlOdy. The st rains "8 are as~umed to be compatible in the sense lhat the strain-di"placement relations (2.3.42) arc satisfied. The work done by the inertia force 1II11 in moving through the virtual displacement /i ll is given by

a2 u P- , v 01-



where p is the mass density (can be a function of position) of the mcdium . We have the result

l "[lp3U .'SU dv+l(r.!U - ;;:'8')dv+l1.!UdSld' ~ O v v






In arriving at the expres~ion in Eq. (2.3.5S). integration by pan~ i~ used on the tir~t term: the integrated terms vanish because of the initia l and tinal condilions in Eq. (2.3.55b). Equation (2.3.58) is known a~ the general form of Hamilton's principle for a conlinllou~ medium (conservative or not , and elast i.: or not). For an ideal elastic body, we reca ll from the previous discussion~ that the forces r and I arc conservative,

ov =- ([ r./iUdV+
and that there

t,i'''U dS)


a strain energy density function Uo = UO(E;) su.:h that

oUo(t'ij) = - - OE;j = a'jOE,)




Eqs. (2.3.59a) and (2.3.59b) into Eq. (2.3.58), we obt<tin

" ! 'lI K _ (V+U)lll =O

where K and U are the kinetic and


01 , UndV

K= r !!..Oll . au dV, u =i

l v 2 aT

(2.3.61 )

Equation (2.3.60) represent!. 1 lamiltol1s principle for an clastic body. Recall that the of th~ ~trail1 encrgy and potemi,11 energy of extcmal forcc~. U + V. i~ called the total pOlential energy, n. of the body. For bodie~ involving no motion (i.e., forcc, are 'Lpplicd sufficiently ~It)w l y ~uch thm the motion is indel>cndcllI of time and the incrt ia forec~ arc negligible), 1 lamilton', principle (2.3.60) reduce .. to the pri nciple of minimum total po tential energy:

8W+V) $ s n = o


The Euler equa tion,. known as Ihe Euler- ulgrallRc N/U(l/;om. a:.,ocialed with Ihe L"lgrangian L = K - n, can be obt:lined from Eq. (2.3.60):

o = 8 ('I IA u , "Q u , iI) (It


"[Iv (p ~:~ -

<liv;; -

f) .8u

d II

+ [ . (1 - i) . ou tis] (It


where integration by part:.. gradient theorems. and Eqs. (2.3.55(1) and (2355h) were uscd in arriving;ll Eq. (2.3.63) fro m Eq. (2,3.60). Recause 8 u is arhitrary for 1./1 < 1 < t ! . for x 111 V, and al~o on 1\., it follow, that
iJ~ 1I _ p- divn iJr !


in V

1- 1 = 0



Equations (2.3.64) arc Ihe Eulcr-Lllgrangc cq u:ltinlls for an cl:1<,1 ic body Icl". Eq. (2. :t46)1Next. we con,ider a specific example of applil:lItion of Ilal11illOn's principle [see Reddy

Example 2,3.4

Consider the allia! ml)lion tlf an ela!;l!!.: O:lr of Ie.ngth L, arc;! of cr(>;..~ ~lion A, modulu<; of . 3IJd ma~' tkn,ily p, and loubjec\c-d 10 distributed force j per unit fenglh and an end 10lld P. We wi~h to delemline !lIe CQUntillllS of mOlion t'i)r th e bar. 111(; kinelic and towl potential energies of the ~ySlem are


wherein /4, Q . . , and E" arc assumed to be
U{O, t) "'"


of x only. and

0 (bill" i~ fixed at \. =-0)


= -


(strain.diloplal:crncnt rel;lIjon)




SubStituting for K ~(Id

n from


(2.3.65(1) and (2.3.65b) into Eq. (2.3.60).

we obtain


" 1 11."[
'I "

AParT! - A(1 b (",,) ax a" ""

+ jr,u J + P5u(O dx


(A(1~~ - P)1. . . 1. 5U([.) } dl


where 5u(Q,t)=O and QU(x. 1t)=5u(x. 11) ::; 0 are used to simplify the expression. The Eulrr~ Lagrange equati{)n~ Itre obt,lined by sctting the coeftkient~ of fjJj in (0. l,) and at _f =- L to lero ~epar:udy:

(2.3.67a) (2.3.67b)
for all / , 11
< I ..:: t :\. f"tlT

linear elastic materials, we baye (J~,,= E6u=E(fJuliJ.x). and

E-qs. (2.3.67a) and t2.3.67b) beC(lm~



"( a,,) a ( ''') f ax (A::) ~"L - P

pA [jt

- -









Now ~uppOse [hat the bar also c;t:pcriellccs a nOllCont'<TValive proportiunal to the velocity.

damping) fon:e

;" F = -1-' ___



where Ii- is th e dilmping coefficient (n constant). Then the Euler-Lagrange cqualion~ from

Eq. (2.3.58) are given by

--(pA- - - ( EA"'""- ) - 1 + 1(.- = 0. ' "") I) , "
ill ill





( '''')
Af. -;iJx

- P = f)

. ",,1.


\\ I~ 1~UlJl. ClI()\

Hl 1111, 11\1 r L LLI MI:"!' \Wrlll )l)


2A.! Introduction RCC:l1I from Section 2. 1.3 that the motivation for the lI~e of weighted-integral slatement~ of ditTercnti:l1 equations cOll1e~ from the fact that wc wish to have a mcan~ 10 determine the unknown parameters Cj in the :lpproximate ~olu ti on U,\' = Lj t"jj' The variati ona l r11ethod~ of approx imat ion. e.g .. The Ritz. Ga lerki n. least-squarcs. collocat ion, or. in general. weightetl- residual methods to be discu,sed in Section 2.5 are based on weighted~integral statement~ of the governing equat ions. Since the finite c lement method is a technique for con~tnJcti ng approxi mation functions required in an element wise application of a variaTional method, iT is necessary to s tud y the weightcd- integral formulation and Ihe soelilled weak formulation of differential equation~. The weak formulaT i on~ also facil itate. in a natural way, the chl.~sification of boundary conditions into natural and essen tial typc~ . As wc shall see short ly. thi~ da~s itil'ation play~ :l crucial role in the derivation of the approx imation functions and the ~clect i on of The nodal degrees of freedom of the finite clemen t model. In this section. our primary object ive will be to con~tnlct the weak form of a given differential equatiun and to class ify the houndary condit ions associated with the equatiun. A 1I'{'(lk form is detined to be a we ighted-integral statement of a differential equation in which the dil1"erentiat ion is transferred from the dependent variab le 10 the weigh! function ~u(;h that all natural boundary conditions of the problem arc abo included in the integral statement. These idea~ will be more clear in the sequel.

2.4.2 Weighted-Integral and Weak Formulations

Consider the problem of sol ving the differential equation


[a(x)dll] = f(X) dx


0<x < L


for 11(.1'), subject to the boundary

( = Q/ _ "=1Here (I(x) and lex ) arc known functions of the coordinate x: 110 and Q, are known values: and L is the size of the one-dimensional domain. When the specified value~ are nonzero (110'" 0 or QI- '" 0), the boundary conditions are said to be nonhomogeneous; when The specified va lues are l.ero, the boundary conditioJ\~ arc ~a i d to be homogcneotls, The homogeneous form of the boundary condition lI(O) = 110 is u(O) = O. and the homogeneous form of the boundary cond it ion (adlt/dx )I.: , = Q, is (adll/dxl IA I- = 0. Equations of the type (2.4 ,10) arise, for example, in the "tudy of axial heat conduction in <l rod (e.g .. heat exchanger fin) or radial heat conduction in a long axi~ymmetric cylinder. In the former case. a = kA. WiTh k being the thermal conduct ivity and the A The cro~s sectional area, the L being the length of the rod. For the axi~ymmetric case. a = 2;1 Lkx . .\ being the radial coordinate rand L the length of the cylinder. In both cases, f denote~ the heat generation term, JIll is the speeitied temperature. and QJ. is the ~peci l ied heat. Other physical prublcms arc also described by the "ame equation bu t with different mea nings for the variable~. Typical examples of field problems with a de~criptioJ1 of the variablc~ arc prc~ented in Table 2.4.1,
11(0) =

(a dll) I dx



Tu ble 2.4. 1 Some examples of engineering problems in which the second-order equation (2.4.1 (/) and its boumhlry wnditions (2.4.1 b) arise.

- - ( (/ "") =/ for 0 <. \ d

dx IIx
Primary variable

< f.;




Sourcr term


I. Cables

Transverse defleClion


Di'lribuled "enicat force Di,triflulcd axial force Inlernal heal generalion Flow "lUIT" Pressure gradiem Fluid nux Charge den,ity



2. Ban.

displacement T.'mperature 4. Pipe flow 5. Vi",,,u, 11m", ~. Seepage 7. Ekctro,t"tlc,



A.\ialload Ilc,l( flux 110w rate Stres, Fl"" Eleclric


Hydro,lali,' rres,urc Velocity Huid he;,d Ekcuical potenlial


_~ /l'

, "

= Youn{ , moxlul"" A = ,m:a "f er.", ""d,ul!. /) = ""nTleah,!.I}'; anJ , .. dIelectric constant

dla'''''lerofll\e pi",,: k = Il\eOllat cunJuc-{l'lly, /' '" 'J"'O'lly: T


Resid ua l Functio n_


lhat we seek an approximation of II (x) in the form


1/(.1') """

U,\' (x) = L>A.lj(x)

j =t

+ u(.r)


and determine Cj <o;uch thaI U,\'(x) <o;atisfies the differential elju:ttion (2.4.1(/). Substitution of UN into Eq. (2.4.1a) yields

d dUN] - - [ (/(x) - - = I(x)




O< x < L


Since the left side of the equality is now an approximate value. we cannot expect it to be equal. in gener.lI, to lhe right side of the equality. The difference
R(x,c ' ) = - - a(x) - j


d [ dU,,] dx



O< x < L


is called the rl'Sililla{ of approximation in the differential cqumion. It i~ a function of x llnd Cj . Any approximate method (espei.ially a variational method) ~eeks a set of N equations among Cj by making R equal to LeTO. Since it cannol be made zero idemically alt:vcry point of the domain (as explained in Section 2.1.3). we must find an alternate way 10 find lhe neee<;sary relations among L'j such thaI R is zero. If we require R to be lero at N selected points of the domain. we have

R(x,Cj)=O for X = Xi. i = 1.2.,N



AN .,.... n<OUUlTlONlUl1H nNm, U 1'\11#1 MFIlIOD

which i\ known as the ,'o/l(H:(lli(Jl1ltu'lhod. Another way 10 m,l~e R l.cro i<; to minimi/c the integral (,flhe square of the residual ( N i\ squared to make it JXlsitive) wilh respcctlO (';:
&l Ed


R 2 dJ. = Our -.i]c)

, l'



The method bOl'iCd on (2.4.5) i\ c:llled the's ml'lJIl)(I. Equation\ (2.4.4) and (2.4.5), each, give N e(IUmions that can be solved for par:lllleter, Cj. Wcigh h.'d-RcsidUlII Mcthod . Yet another way to determine the 1"1 i\ tu requ ire R to v'lIli.~h in a "weighted-residual" scnsc:

where 11', (x) arc a sct of linearly independent runction~, called 11','iglli jimcliOlI.l, which in geneml C:1Il be dirlerent from the approximation functions 1J, (.l). Thi:. method is known as the 1I'('i~ltfed-re'\'idual method. Indeed. the s\:Itement in (2.4.6) include~ (2.4.4) a\ well a~ (2.4.5) :IS speeial cascs. When 11', = 1J" Eq. (2.4.6) is known a~ the G(I/ed.. illlller/u)(l. Thus, we have the following ~pecial cases of (2.4.6):
Pe/ml'-Galerkil1 method:

', 1 "

1I',(.t) R (.lJj) dx = O (i = I ,2..N)


Gaferl.ill's mel/lOd:

11'; 11';

= l/!;f.1J, = 1Ji
= .!!.... (a(x)dl/>,) fix dx

Li'lHt .~quare.~ /IIet/u)(l:

Coflo('atiofl /IIethod:


= 8(.1' -x, )

!-Iere Xj is the ilh collocation point of the domain of the problem and dO i" the Dirac delta funclion defined ~lIeh Ihat its value i~ zero for allllOnl.ero values of it~ argument,:
d(x - xo) = 0 when x- xo,


[(x)o(x - .to) dx = [(x,,)


Due 10 the dirferelll choices of U',--even when Ihe 1J1 u\Cd in (2.4A), (2.4.5) ,lIId (2.4.6) ,Ire the same-the system of algebraic (.'qua'ion~ will have different chilrac l cristic~ in diO'erent method. For linear differential equations of any order. only the l eas t-~quare~ method yields a ~yste m of matrix equation!> whose coefficient matrix is symmetric. One Olher method that ha ... the symmetry property i~ the Ritz melhod. which uses the weak form of even-order (second. fourth, lind so on: called self-adjoint) differential equations with w, =1/>,: the Rill method is /10/ a special caseoflh e weighted-residual method. As we ~ha l l sec shortly. the weak form of a ~clf-adjoi nt differential equation alway~ contuins the same o rder derivativcs of both the weight funct ion II' and the dcpendent un~n own II. and the order is equal to half that of the original differential equmion. In the following pamgraph-.;. we discuss the weak ronn development. I)cl't.'lopme nt of Weak Forms. 'n,ere arc three step~ in the development of Ihe weak form of any differential equ'ltion. These steps arc illustrated by me,lIlS of the model differential equation (2.4.1 (I) and boundary conditions (2.4.1 b). Step L (Weighted-integral statement.) This qep i" the same as in a weighted-residual method . Move all tern,,> of the differential e(luation to one side (\0 thai it reads ... = 0), multiply the enlire equation with a function lI'(x), and integrate over the domain n = (0, L)

of the problem:

l' [

d du - - (a - )



- ! ] ,I x


Recall that thc expression in the square bmd::ets is not identicall y zero since /I is replaced by its approx imation. UN. Mmhel1l:ltically. in (2.4.9) the error in the differential equation (due 10 the approximation of the "lIlution) is made I.ero in the weighted-integral sensc. The integral statement (2.4.9) allows u, to ehoose N linearl y independent funct io ns for II' and obtain N e(luations for CI. ,'2 ..... eN of (2.4.2). Note that the weighted-integral statement of llny dilTerential equati on can be readily written. 111 weighted-intcgral lotatclllcnt is equivalent o nly to the d ifferential e(luution and e does not include any boundary cond itions. The weight function II' in (2.4.9) can be any nonzero integmble function and has no differentiability requirements. Step 2. Wh ile the weighted-i ntegral stateme nt (2.4.9) al lows us to obt:lin the nccessmy num ber (N) of algebraic rel utions among (" j for N JilTerent c h oice~ o f the weight fun cti on 11' , it rcqui rc~ that the approximation functions,pj be sllch that UN [sec (2.4 .2) J is differentiable as many times as called for in the origi nal differenti al equati on (2.4. 1(1) and sati sfi es the speci fied boundary condition". If this is not a concern . one ean proceed with the integral "'atement (2.4.9) and obtain the nL'Cess:.ry algebr.tic CClu;lt io ns for ("j (using anyone of the choices listed in Eq. (2.4.7) for 11' ...... 11',). If we plan to U the approxi mation funct ions,p, for 11''-'" w" it rn a ke~ ownse to shift M! half of the derivatives from 1/ to II' ~o that both arc differentiated equally. and we have fe wer (or weaker) conlinuity requirements on ,pj. The resulting integral form i ~ known as the weak form . Of course, weake ning the JiOc rentiabili ty o f 1/ (and hence ,pi ) i" purely a mathematical (and pemap" comput:ltional) consideration. As will be <;Cen lohorll y. the weak fomlUlm ion has two desi rable char.tcteristic". Fir..t . it recluircs weaker. a!> already indicated. continu ity of the dependent v:.r1:lble. ,1I1d for self-adjoint equat iom (as i" the case with problems stud ied in this book) it al ways results in u symmetric cocfli cient matrix. Second. the natural boundary condition ~ uf the proble m are included in the wcak form . and therefore the approximate solution UN is re(luired to s ;Jti ~ fy o nly the essential bound:.ry conditions ofthe problem. These two features of a weak form play an important role in the development of fin ite clement models of a problem. A word o f caution is in order. Differentiating the weight function inste:1l1of the dependent varillble (in addition to the weakening the continuity requirement'> on (/J,) i!> also dictated by the need to inc lude physically Illeaningrul boundary terms into the weak fonn. regardless of the eOcct on the cont inuity requirement s. Therefore, thi s trade-off should not he performed if it result ~ in boundllry tcrm s that arc not physically meaning ful. Returning to the integral state ment (2.4.9). we integrate the fi rst tcrlll of the expression by parts to obtain


l 'I [ d 1"( dwdu


- - (a -


dU] - wi ) dx


a- - - II' ! dx ax

) (i .I - [d"]" dx
1\" (1 -

(2.4. 10)


A" 11'1110111 nlo" TO flil !~"lTlin.EMI "T \11 -I IMID

where the interatio n-by-part\ formula Isee Eq. (2.2.22) 1


Wl/V= -


v,JW+ [I" IJI~

b, used wi th v = - lullf / l/X o n the firM terl11 to arrive at the <.;econd linc or (2.4. 10). Note that now the weight runction II' i\ re(luin.'d 10 be dirrerentiahle at least oncc. An imponant pan or Step 2 is \0 identiry the two types or boundary conditions as~ociat ed with allY different ial eq uation ; II(//urll/ and cX.\"t'lI/ia/ . The d l"ifkation is imponant for both the vmiational rnethod~ of approximation considered in this chapter and the tinite c lement formulations presented in the ,ub-;cqllent chapter... The fo llowing ru le is used to identify the natural hou ndary condilion\ and thei r form. Aflcr tr.:adi ng between different iating the weight function I\' and the variable /I of the problem. ex amine all boundary term" of the integml ~t ;llemcn t. The bound<lry tenl1', will involve both the weight fu nction <lnd the dependent variable. Coeilicients of the weight function (and I)()\"ibly its derivativcs for higher-orJer equations) in the bou ndary ex pre ss ion (~) are termed the .1t'Col/tim y mrillh/t'.\ (SV). For example. for the problem at hand the coe ffi cient of II' in the bou ndary term is a(dlljd.r). which is the ~econdary variable. Specification of a M!condary variable on the boundary co n ~ t itutes the Ilfl/umi boul/dary ("(J//(Ii,;o/l (N BC). The dependent variablc of the pl"Oblelll (u). ex prc~.;ed in the W/Ille fimll :t, the weight function (II' ) :tppc:tring in the boundary ternl. i)' called the primary I'(Ir;ablc (IlV). and its specification on the boundary con~t itut e~ the e.~.Ielllitll bOlllldary COllditioll (EBC). For the case under conlo ideration. the weight function appears in the boundary elip res~ion [see (2.4.10)[ :I~ II' (in higher-order equillion ... it may appeur :... \11 in one boundary tenn and a ~ l/II' / c/.r in other). Therefore. the primary variable j, /I (for higher-order equat jo n ~. the primary variables may incl ude II as well:t' (/u j dx). and the e"l>ential boundary condition in\"Olvc.; 'pccifYlllg 1/ at thc boundary points. The \CCondary variables alway), ha\e physical meil1l ing and arc often quantities of il1lere~t. In the ca<.e of heat transfer problcm),. the secondary variahl e represents, heat, Q. We ~h, ill denote the secondary variable by

Q (a dll )" , = dx

(2.4. 11)

whcre n, denote' the direction cm.ine. i.e .. n, = co"in.; o r the angle between the pol>iti\'c .\ axis and the nonnill to the bound;lry. For onc-dimcll\iolllll problelll';. the nonnal :.t the boundary point~ is always along the length of the dOnlai n. Thu ),. we have II,. = - I lit the left end and II, = I at the ri ght end of the domain. It shou ld be noted that the number and form of the primary and secondary variables depend on the order of thc di fferenti<ll equation. Thc /lumber of primary and '-Ccondary variables is alway!> the .....l11c. and with each primary variable there i.. an :.~<;()Ciatcd ~econdary v:.riable. i.c .. they alw:.ys appear III pairs (e.g .. di"placcment and forcc. temperature and heat. and \() on) . Only one of the p:lir. ellher the primary or Ihe <;ccondary vari:lblc. may be ),]>Ccified lIt a point of the boundary. Thu ". a given prob lem can have it~ ~peci1icd boundary co ndit ion~ in one of three cillegorie,; (I) all specified boundary cunJition~ Hre EBC: (2) some of the ~pecified boundary conditions are EBC and the remaining arc NBC; or (3) all specified boundary condition~ are NBC. For a single secondorder equation. a)' in the pre<>cnt case. there i, one primary variable /I and one ","'Condary variable Q. At:. boundary

point. only one of the pair (II. Q) can be specified. For a fourth-order equation. such as that for the classical (Le., Euler-Bernoulli) thcory of beams. there arc two of em;h kind (i.e" two PVs and two SVs). as will be illustrated later (see Example 2.4.2). In general. a 2l11th-order differential equation require 11/ integration by parts 10 transfer //I derivatives from II 10 \\' and therefore there will be III boundary terms involving III primary variablc~ and 111 secondary variables. i.e., m pairs of pri mary and secondary vari;\bles. Returning to EC]. (2.4.10). we rewrite it u~ing the notation of (2.4.11):



dw d" a - - - wf ) dx - [dUj'" wa dx dx dx ()



l' (a

dw (/11 dx dx
dx dx


f)dX -

(1\'(1(/11",) I dx

., = 0

(wadllnx ,I r) d

dll' dll - \\'

f) dx -

(wmo - (II'm/.


Equation (2.4.12) is called the weak form of the differential equation ( The word refers 10 the reduced (i.e .. weakened) continuity of II. which is required to be lwice-differenti<lble in the weighted-inlegral S1alernent (2.4.9) but only once-ditlcrentiable in (2.4.12). Step 3. The third amI last step of the weak formulation is to impose the adual boundary conditions of the problem under consideration. It is here that we require the weight function I\' 10 vanish at boundary points where the essential boundary conditions aTe specified. i.e" w is required to sati~ry the /!OIlIORCIICOII.l' form of the specified essential boundary conditions of the problem (recall Section 2.3). In weak formulations, the weight function has the meaning of a virtual change (or variation) of the primary variable 11' ..... ~II. [1'11 primary variable is specified at a point. the virtual change there must be lero. For the problem at hand, the boundary t:Onditions arc given in (2.4. f b). By the rules of classification of the boundary conditions, II = 110 is the es,ential boundary condition and (adlljdx)1 ,,,,I. = QI. is the natur;11 boundary condition. Thu".the weight function 1\' is required to satisfy w(O) = o because II(O) = lIo.Sincew(O) = Oand

Q(L) ~ (a (ix " ,.)

Eq. (2.4.12) reduces to the

"= /.

~ (a"") I ~ Q," dx
<= /

o ~ 1'

(a dw rill _ dx dx

II '


dx - w(L) QI.


which is the weak form equivalent to the original differential equation ( and the naturill boundary condition (2.4.1"). This completes the "teps involved in the development of the weak form of a ditrerential equation. TIle terms "variational form" :lnd "weak form" will be u,ed interchangeably. The weak form of a differential equation is a weighted-integml statement equiv:.dentto the differentia! equiltion alld the ~pecified natural boundary condition of the problem. Note tlKlt the weak form exi~t~ forilll problems- linear or nonlineilr- th<lt arc described by second- ilnd higherorder differential equations. When the differentia l equation h linear and of even order. the


It~ 1~ ''''IUJm i(jI()' TO 1111- I I ~r rr EI.I.ML"T MITII' 'il

rc~ ult i ng weak form wi ll have a ~'vmll/('/ ri(' bilinear form in the depende ru variable II and weight function 11'. a<., we shall <;ce sho nl y. In ' tun mary. thcre are three step" in the development of a weak form. In the fi rs t ' tep. we put all ex prcss ion ~ of the ditTercnti:l1 equation on one side (so that the other side j" equal to Icro). thCll multiply thce nti rccqu:ltion hy a weight fun ctio n and integratc over the domain of the problem. The res ulti ng e x pres.~ i on i, called the weighted-integral form of the equation. In the '>Ccond step. we use integr.Jtion by pans to di'lribute differenti,rtion evenl y between Ihe dependent variable and the weight furlction. and u~e the boundary tenns to identify the form of the primary and ~ec ondary variables. In the third ~ t e p . we modify the boundary t ertl1 ~ by rest ricting the weight fun ction 10 sati ~ fy the ho m oge n eo u ~ form uf the ~ pec i tied es,ential bou ndary condition, and replac ing the secondary variable, by the ir specified values. It ."ho uld be rl.'Called that a weighted-integral statement or the weal.. fom lof ad in"crential equalilln i, needed to ub tain as many algebraic equations as there are unknown cocnicients in the rtp proximation of the dependent va riables of the equat ion. For diO"erent c hoi l"e~ o f the we ight runction. different al gebraic e(luat ions can be obtained . Because of the restrictions placed o n the weig ht function in Step 3 (w ...... Ii/I ) o f the variatio nal formulation. it mus t belong tu the same sp<lce of function.. as the approxi mation functions (i.e .. II' .... 1/1,).

2.4.3 I.inear and nilinear Forms li nd Q uadratic FunClionals

It i ~ informati ve. although not necessary for the u ~e of va riat ional methods or the !in ite e lement method. to M:e the rd ation between the weal fo rm and the mi nimum of a quadratic functiona l a'isocialed wilh Ihe d ifferential equatiu n. The weak form (2.4.1 3) conta ins IWO types o f ex pressions: Ihu'>C involving !xlth the dependent variable II and thc weight function w, and IhoM: involvi ng onl y the laller. We shall denote the!'.C two types of cxp re~s i on s by LJ (w, II ) :Ind l ew ), re~ pec tivel y:
B (w. II ) =

Hence. Ihe weak form (2.4 . 13) can he ex pressed in the rOml


(Jw d ll

lI - - l/;{. dx tI.r


= (



J (f.:. + w( L ) QI.


0 = B(II' , u ) - I (II')


B(w. II) = 1( 11' )

(2.4 . 15 )

which i... tcnncd the I"(I rimiOlwl problem aSI;(x:iated with Eqs. (2.4. Ill) and (2 .4. 1b). Using the definit ioos o f linear and bilinear form" from Section 2.2.4, it can be verified Ihat B ( 1\' . 1/ ) i" bilinear and symmetric in w and II and Ihat few ) is linear. The variat ional problem associated with (2.4. la) and (2.4. 1b) can be stated as one of findin g the solut ion II (from a suitable vector ~ pa ce. I-J ) ~ u e h that

(2.4. 16)

holds for any w (i n /-1) th<ll satisfi es Ihe homogeneous form o f the specitied essent ial boundllry eondilions and continuil Y conditions implied by Ihe weak form . TIle fun cti on w can be viewed as a variati on o fthc iJctual solution III = ou. and Eq . (2.4 . 15) can he written <IS
0 = IJ (oll. u ) - / (o u )

(2.4. 17)

If B (.) is bilinear and symmctrie lind

/0 is linear. we have
( (/i ll)

1 B(8u. 14) = lO [ !l eu. II ) ],

= li[f (u) [

(2.4. 18(/)

('\IM'n,N ! ,




so that (2.4. 17) ca n be ex pressed as

0 = 8(811, u) - 1(811) = 2"8 [ 8(11. II) [ - 8[ / (11) [ == 81 (II )

(2.4. 18b)

1 (II) = 2" 8(11. u) -/(11)


The result in (2.4.18a) can be verified for the problem <It hand:
8(811,11) =


dOli a~- dll dx=8 dx dx



a - (dll) ' dx 2 dx

= -0

1(811) =


111. a - - dx= -I 8[13 (II.II)[ dll


dx dx

() 1511


+ /lu(L)Q,.

= 8



+ II(L)QL] =8 1/(11 )1

Now we can restate the v<lriational problem (2.4. 16) as one of minimi zing the functional 1(II):
81 = 0 = IJ(8u. II) - /(8u).

8 2 / = 8 (8u. 8u) > 0 for 8u



Thus, the fun ction u th<ltminimi zes 1 (II) is the solution of (2.4. 16); conversely, the sol ution of (2.4. 16) minimizes the functional. Mathcmatical proof of thcse assertions can be found in Redd y (1986. 2(02). Note that the key step in the de ri vation of the functiona l I (II) from the weak form is the bilincarity and symmetry of the bilinear form B(w , II). Thu s, whenever 13 (11'. 1/) is bilinear and symmetri c, <lnd I(w) is linear. the functional <lssociated with thc variatio nal problem (2.4.1 6) is given by (2.4.19). Whcn 13 (w, II) is not linear in wand II. hut is sy mmetric, the functiona l I (II) can be derived. but not fro m (2.4.19). The interested reader may consult the books by Oden and Reddy ( 1983) <lnd Reddy (1986). For solid mechanics problems, 1(11 ) represents the total potcntial energy functional. and 81 = 0 is the statement of the principle of the min imum total potential energy: Of all admissible fun ction s II , the one that makes the total potential energy I (u) il minimum also ~a ti s f ies the differential equation(s) and natural boundary condition(s). In other words, the weak form of a di fferential equat ion is the same as the statement of the principlc of minimum total potential energy. For problems out~ id e solid mechanics. the functional 1 (u ). if it exists. may 110t have any physical meaning. but it is still useful for mathematical ana lysis (e.g .. in proving the ex istence and uniqueness of solutions). As noted earlier, every differential cquation admits a weighted-i ntegral state ment, and a weak form ex ists provided the equation is of order two or higher. When the bi linear form is symmetric. we will also have a functional whose first va riation set equal to l.ero is equivalent to the governing equati ons. Recall that we can always conslnJct the leastsquares fun ctional associated with any set of governing equations. However. the traditional varimionalmethods and the finite clement method use on ly an integral statement or a wcak form of the equation(s) to be solved.

2.4.'" Exa mples Here. we con~ider ,Ollle repre'ientati"e examples of diffefential equations in nne and two and develop their weal fonm. These examples ure of primary intere~t in the swdy of the tinite clemcnt method in thc corn ing chapter~. All problel1l~ considered hefe corre'pond to one or more phy~ical problems of science and engineering.

,, yltmp!e 2.4.1 (Model Sel'iJml-Ordcf Equ:ltion in One : Conl>idcT the differential equation

Dllnen ~i(}n)


((/dl/) +('11=/ tiT

for O<x<1.

(2.4.2 Ia)

to lhe b(Jundary condilion

( (ldll)+fJ{If-,I",)=QU alx::::L d:r

The data of the problem


oonsi,t~ of specifying 4(.1'), c(x). f(.r). Ifo, tJ, II"". and Qo. Pollowing tbelhree ~tcp~ outlined above for the con~truction of variational slatemenL" we obtain

Sup I:



i' ( d,.. d,


dx dx

) - [wad']'


From the boUJIdary term. It I~ clear lhat thcl>pocification of II i~ iln essential hound:U"ycondition. :ll\d Ihespedlkation of 1I (ill/d.t is a natural boundary condition. Since I<" = 0 at x- ~ 0 (bccau~ II b specified there) and
{J-=Qo-/1(II-lI,,,J at.t".L

d. d.

we obtain



i ' ( "'"



d. df


) d:<-





Problem and QlIlJdmlil" Fun('fimllll: EljuOItion (2A.23u) can be e.xpressed in the

8(w. u) "" 1(,.,)



= ((a~~ +"WII) clf +/lw(l.}u(L )




dx- (/;,;


wf dx

+ {jw(L)u", + QIJII(I.)

CltA i'r1"R 2: MA'I'It~MArtCAL t~ELt.~IL'IARI ES, 1~I'EGKAL FOK_\lL U.T10~ S. "SU VARtAT1 0'lAL Mh,ItOl>S


1"1 is dear !bH! since BXw, u) i~ linear and symmetric in w ilnd /1. RQd lew) i~ linear in w, we call compute the quadr:ltic function:ll from (2.4.l9):


"".!. Jo , [a (~)l + ell"]dx + ~~[U(L)J~ _ Jf) ' /11 dx _ f;l U(L)U"" _ rl dx ( 2 ~.


(2.4.24) Equlltions of the type of (2.4.21 0) mise. f()r c-1.arnple. ill the sluuy of the axial t1efonnation of a bar or flow of h\!at in a !)ar. Tn the former case. 1/ deMtes till! a. ... ial displacement. tl the product of modulus of elasticity (E) a.nd area of C(OS$ section tA). aJld c lherc!tiSlancc otl"cred by an ~tcrn(\1 medium to thc a:o;jal defonymlion (often, c == 0). In tbccascofhcat flow,li dl!notcs the !I!mpcrature (T). a the pTQ{!uct of Thermal condudivIty <k) times the aTCa of cross ~clion (A) ofthl! bar, and ~ is the prod!!!:! offilm conductance (j3) times the perimeter (P).

The next example illustrates the variational formul atio n of a fo urth-order differential equation governing bending of elastic bemns according 10 the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory [sec Reddy (2002) [.

Example 2.4.2 (Euler-Bernoulli Beilm)

COli!iidcr thc pr1)blem of l'inding the funClit)rl w(x) thai

1 d', [h(X)d Ix" dx


the differential (.'tjuillion


W Jlt, _ q(X)=O ,]+C

for 0 < ;1.-

This equation arises in the \tudy of Ule elaStic beoding of beams (under the Euler Bernoulli hypothesis thaT plane ~ections perpc-ndku lar to the axis ufthe beam bcfnrc dcforl1\ation remain plane :lncr defonnlltion), ""here w dcnot<ls [he Ir-lfls\'erse deOliol) of the bean), 4- is the length of the beam. hex) > 0 i~ the flcxurtll rigidity of the beam (i.e., the product of modulus of elasticity E and secolld mQment of ine(tia 1). {;, i.i the foundatiO\l modulus, and qC-rj is the tr1UlSverse distrihlJleU load. a" shown in Fig. 2.4.1. At the moment. we dQ nQt have to cQII~jder any sptxifk boundary conditions of the problcDI.

Figure 2.4.1 Camilcytr beam with a SCI of l~lads.

Sinn~lhccqu:lli(jn contains a f/)unh ..{)r<icrden\'aliv'C. we should imcgrftlcillwicehy p3rb to dhtribute Ibe dcrivalh'es equally hetwccn the depcnd<'nt \ariable w and the wdghl function I'. to Ihi~ case. IJ must be twice differentiable and ltatisJy the hom(>~<eneou\ (onJ} of M SBC. Multiplying f2.4.25) by I,', and integraling the lirst tcnn by p~rt$lwice wilh rtlSpccllo.t. we obtain



r~ 11) "

2: 0* f

[( -:~~) :f (b~ll~)

[:; (b~) + crill' - til dx d.l dx

+Cjl'I" -


vq] dx+ [II :, (/,~lt~ )

IJdx 1

l ' (d'"


--.b~+cllJK'~ tq

d'~ dx 1

v - "'"'j' ) d_t+ [d- (d'"') - d" b tlx



From tile 101" line. it folluw~ lh:Jt the specification of w /lnd dw jdx {geometric or Malic} boundary condition", and lhe spcdficali,JO of


the essen/ial

-" (b-, "'W) d_1 dx





--"'2 (d" )

(bending moment)


conStitutCS the natural boundary C(lflc.iilions for the 1:!tIler-Bernoulii bcilm theory. Now ooo, jder iI ~pecilic beam problem. let lJ~ clln~ider II beam fixed II! the left eod and subjCCted Ii) l1itn~ ..erse force and bcnthng mQmcnt at ;t' =- L, us ~hOwn in rig. 2.4.1:

(-dW) I ..,0. J.I ......u

[:x (b~:~)l~I.=
"'O)=("~) d.1


Mo is the bending. ITlI,tneOI and Fo i~ the tran.werse. load. Sinl."e K' and d'lo,/dx (both are primary \-ruiable.~) are sp:cilied at x::co 0, \\o"e requu-e the weighl functiQll I' IlOd its dui"alwe dlJ/d ... to ilezero there


I ="

'11c remaining two boundary coodilions in (2.4.28b) are. natural boundiu)' place no resrricLion\ 011 II and IV. deri"atl\i,:!.. Thll~. f"%!. (2.4.27) becomes





r(bdl~d2: +i:j I1W-lrq)dX- I'{l.l f o+("')1 ,. I M. dx d:t d.r


Var;miQIItlI Pmhlem {Ind QuoJrlll;r; FunCliMdl: f:qualion (2.4.3Oa) can he writlCn in lbe form


8(11. w) 1(1!)

l '(

1, hd'w --:; dx' d.f

---r + ' :1111'1 ) d:r

=- ( . vq dx + uU.)fQ JIJ

('!!) I
d .t



, .. I


~_ MArllr.MATI("A l PRrU\II I\A RI I;S, l .m :GI<AL FOIl.\1U.ATIU % . A .'JJ VARI AlIU:-iA I. ~l hTH()I)S


The functiona l, Io.nO\\n as the total pott'n1jllJ energy of the beam, Is ubtained using (2.4. J 9):
(2.4.31 )

Note that for the fourthorder equ<.ltkm. the CSliential boUJldary conditiOJ\S jnvoJv<:c nOt Gilly thedependent variablc but also it.~ first deriv;ltive. A~ pointed put earlier. alllny b(Il)l1dary point. only \lne of the \WO boundary conditions (e~~ntia.l or naturtl!; can be sped1ied. For e.\ample. if the u,lIlsverse deflection i~ spccifled at a bound.try pobn. tben Oile cannot ~ped.fy Ihe shear force V at lhe ~ame pOint. and vice \'crsa. Similar CIlO\mCQ1;; apply 10 Ihc sloJ'C d .... /dx and the bending momcnt M. NOle that in the prcM!tlt Cll~, lot' :tlld dw /dx nrc the prinlllry viUiable~. and V and M arc the f>econdary variables.

The nex1 example is concemed with the weak-form deve lopment of a pair of secondorder differential equations in one dimension. The approach used for a ~ing le equatio n is fo llowed for each equation of the p<li r. However. writing the variational problem and the associated functional is a bit tricky.
Example 2.4.3 (fimos!)cnko Seam) ___________________

the fo!JQWlng pair of coupled differential equatioll~ governing bending of the

'firnol'hen\.::6 be~m:

~ ~[S(dW +$)l + l~f ~t'~ q dx dx


- ~ (f)~) + S(~ + ,) = 0 d.~ . dx . dx


where S is the s hearstitJne~~ ($ =: K. G A; K, js the shear comcllo!) coetJicic(1I, G is lhe sbear mOdulu~, and A is the area of the cross section). 0 "" If I i~ the bending stiffness. II' is the u'ansver,~e deftectj(lil. I/!~ is lhe rota~i()n. k is the foundation modulus. and q is the di.~tribUlcd transverse load. We shall develop the weak form of the above equations using the three-step pr<x;cdufC. Steps 1 mid 2: Multiply the Ml equation wi~h weigh! functi(in V alld lhesccond (Jne wilh t weight fmlclion V and lmegrate over the- tength of I/\C- bearo: l
Step La:

$II:J! 2a:


[s(~: +!fr,)L,j)



AN IN'lKOmnlOl'. TOnllHMl bUJ.M I ...T\IETIIOU

Step Ib:


Ii - D-+,p. dx (I:r 1" t'l [-(Ix (dO.) +S (Ii" )] d:t [ d," dO (dK' )] [ dO]' 0= d:r (Ix 1" 0 -:'-,' +I.I:!S -,-+11>. dx- I'1D---2. [ Ii", d (d"')] "" d.r d.\' dx 1" D --!+tI:S -+ . dx







- t'2(L)

[0 dO.] d.t


+ t':(O)

/) -

(I f


Note integration-by-part... \\ a~ ui>ed Such Ihat the c\prchiou k' . + . i.. preser\"(~d. as it entc!':) thc boundary lenn rcprc~enting the ~hc.'lr forcc. Such considerations call only be: U);l'd by kn<lwing Ihe mcchaniq; of 1he problem at h;lOd. Also. note that the pair uf weight funeljon~ (v,. 1i2) ~<uisfy the hQfll\lgent.'Qus form of specified essential boundary condiljon~ on the pair (w. ~) (with the CQrrespondence tt, .... w .md l'1 - rJ!~),
Stl'.PS 3: An exnroinaliOIl of the boufl(iary ternl .. shoW'li thaI W"" 1'1 lmd 4>, primary vari;lbles.. omJ lhe ~~'QOdilry variilble .. ilre given by Ic:f eq, f2A.28a)]

..... t'~

arc the

S(~: +.)
t) drp.

(shear force)


(bending moment)

d.' To finalize the ..... eak i't>rOlS. "C lIIuSt Wl>:e care of the bouodru-y terms by ~pccific beam problem. U~ing the beam of Fig. 2.'1,1. \\e see thaI


l2.4.35} and hence. becomc




Consequeutly.the wCllk fomls (2A.3:WJ lHld (2.4.33/1)




[d'" 0-, +17S (d... ", -I .r





d.~ - t;1.(L)M~


(II' .1/).)

Huiatimwl Pmblelll 'mil QMdralic i-ul1C'tilJlUl/: Til writ;:' the \-ariati(lll({1 problem of fil\i.lil\g ~u('h that

holUs for ,III (I'J. ill). we ml.lSl combine the




11110 iI Singh! cxpl'C$sion

dX - I 'I(L) l-n-~'1(L)M(I


o 1"

[(dO', +t'l) S (oJ'" ) -. -+rP.,

d .t d.t

(h, ,/. + - I) - + " , I I I I I ' - l ! j ' 7 ]




CllA I'IU' 1 MAIII,,-\li1T ICAL

I'!I.U _I~lI"ARn:S.




l'hu~. thc bilinear and linear forms ()f l~e prOblem are given by

8 l(I',. l'l). (1<', tP,)) =




l' [s 11


+ L':! ) (~+ ~) + f)1S:.. 4... + Cf ~'III'] dx dx d,l dx


(2.4.390 )

I't q dx +

+iJ:!(L.) Mf)


Clearty, 8((1Ij. 11;1), (II' , .p,)) is ~ymme.lri c in h~ argumentS (i.e, il1lcrchange of til witb. IV alld V! with I/J, ~ic!ds the ~aflle exprc~'Sjon). Hence tbe functional is given by

~ = ~

l' [s (~+ t/J,)"+




(<!:P!..)~ + ~W2] d, dx 1

- ({-w q d,; + w(L) Fit + 4JA(l.) M o )

The last example of this ~ec t ion is conccmcd wi th a second-order differe ntial equat ion in two dimcn~ions. The cq ua tion ari ~es in a number of fields. including heat trans fer, "trcam function or veloc ity potential formulation of inv iscid nows, transverse deficctions of a membrane, torsion of acy l indri cal member. and others.

Example 2.4.4

(Po is~ o's

Cqwt!ion !11 Two Dimen sioo ~) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


the prob1cm of deterrnining the ~llllltillrl u(x, y) to the partial

(..'qllstin n.

_2. ((ll~) -;. ((J,f!.!! ) + o{)I =:!'/ I}x Ih it)' oiJy



in a closed two-dinJc.nsiOllld domain n with tXlIllidary r , as sbown itt Fig. 2.4.2. Here llO' (11. and f ;Ire knOW\1 function,S of pOSition (x. y) in Q. The function II is requirC1:l to satimy, in addilioo to th e differcntial equation (2.4.41). certain boundary conditions on tbe bOulidary r of n. The weak fomwlation to Ix. di:-'cu~sL-d ne.~t will revea l the precise fuml of the e~~cn(jaJ and naTural \Xlundur), conditions of the equatiun.


Figure 2.4,2 A \wo-rljmcosional domain

n with b<lunt.{ary r.

TIle IIm.. step pf'i}!.'lX!ure applied 10 Ei). (2.4A I) n:;.u1t;; in the following equatiQn~! "t!

$11 '1,1:


1'" [.. i. ((JI~) - ~ (lIl~lI) +a"ll - t]dXdY 1(







(l1 ",-+ U2-.--+Unll 'lI~wf itx I))," ity i)1'

ihv tlu

ilK' ilu

d.l d\'

_ h' w("'aa~".+(J;~U'h) d' ,l ily



v. hcre we used intc~rJtion by pans ror the gr.ldicnl und divergence theorems, Eq.<;. (2.2.27b) MId (2.2.28b)110 lran\ler diffcremi:nion from u \0 w ~() (h ill both /lund w ha\'t: the ~amc order deOV.llivcs in n. TIle OOu tldary IeI'm , hows that II is the primary variable while

h Ihe SCcondtU')' vaOElblc,

Slep 3: The lasl ~h'! I) ill Ihe procedure h to impose the ~pedlicd boundary c(lI\dition~. SUPfM,l'le thalli is ~pcciried on pnrtjnn r, and the natural boundar) condition i~ ~ptX:ihcd on
the remai ning portion r ! or the boundary II!> ($CC Fig. 2.4.2);

Then <0


is arbilmry (In


sod t.'qual 10 1.ero on

r ,. OlnS(Xlucnt!y. q. (2,4,43)




iI. no '''' ao ( / ) - - tU3--:--+ilOWil-W! ) d,J;{ly-

()x 1:1.\

iJy ily


(2.4.45 )


Ikr;miofl(ll Problem (/lId QII(I(lmti(' FUllct;OTUlI: The " e<l). Slah::mellt (2.4.45) can be c.\prcs...etJ
a~ /J(OI. /I) "'" ((11'). where

the bilineill' fonn and linear fOlm arc

B(w.II} ""


ill\' au ilw Ju ) (11-, - +(J~-:- +i1()h/1 dxdJ.

,faX a,l' ;j,I'

(2.4.46(1) (2.4.'1fih)




d _td y

+ w.Y 1


the a~oocjated qL!Mr3I1c functiOf)al

f(Jj) ."


~i[Il' ( :.';y +(11(~y +(I~u!]d,rdY

In the case of

u[ !}xlly




Irtlfl~verse defkctiQn~

or a membrane, H,,) rcpres.::\ltS the tota.,l pot.:ntial

energy. A<; a-!>pe<:ilic e.\ample of Iht Poisso(1 equation. con:.iJer stendy he;)1 conduction in [\ twOdimenxional dOnlain n. e nc hl ~ed by IinesAB. BC, CD. DE. F. FG, (iii, lIIJd UA. as inrJicmed

CHAf"IH( 2: '1 f\ 111I~'1 A'I I U\L 1'1H'Ll Ml:'A~IE,';. INTh(iKAL FO~~ULATI()NS, A :'O VARIATION " i \lrT!lOIlS



.I:.xposcd 10 nmhi~nt tcmpcratuTIl, T... k : :+ 13fT - 1'. ) ;<d)

~~;::===-;:.:::;=======C:;t.L-_ X ,



~ ax


tcmp;;ratufl!, T 1'of.t}

Figure 2.4.3 A


heat transfcr problem with ;J VOlJiCIY of boundary c(mdilion~,

in Fig, 2.4.3, The goveruingequation is


tPT 8)T) ( - +oyl =&0 axz


whcre gn i~ the unlfonn hdut gcnerution, k is the. conductivity of the isotropic ll1!:1teri3.i of the domain, arld l' j~ the t(:Jllpt:raturc. At the \cl.:Qnd $t(;P of lhc weak-form development, we nu\'c


i [(

'WaT k --+~ax ax Sy By


- ll'go d.rriy-



('T 'T) ds


11<+ -11,



III order w gimplify lhe boundary expression. we fir~t recogni;':e the fUl.:l that the bOundary r of the domain con.~ists of ~c\'eraIIiTle~gments, and they are subject to different types of boundary condition:; as shown in Fig, 2.4.3:
['I "'" AD: II" "",~I,


ht'1l1 !lux be ~pecificJ q-=q(y)




== - 1; tcmpcT'.j(urt i~ spcl.:ifiCd T = To(x)

::::: 0: boundary t:xposed 10 ambicnt temperature 1"""
(convcCtion) k -:-- + /1 (T - T",,.):::::0

= CO:

= I,





lfl.,uh\tet! boundary



=0 tJ1C bound~tJ)' informal ion, the bOundary integral in (2.4.48) C.111 be simpJifkJ as follow;, (notetJlIll w =0 on portion of the lxJundary whcl'\:ver T i~ specified. 1'2):

J.(k G" [W~dt + J~O(k ~T )d' Tr ~)~ = Jr! on fl - { , wf/1(T - 1:"'JJ ds + 1.~ 0 ds


11'(0. y)q()') dJ -

/3 10

w(a, )') IT((I, y) - T-",Jliy



AN I~ODlJCIlON TO TIlE !'INITE R F.Mhl--I' \u,'II!()lJ .

SUbstituting. (2.4.50) imo (2.-t.+8).......e oOlai(l the weak form

0== i~ [, (~~,T +:w ~T) _ SIl] d).' dy + i(j i.! ""{O, y)i{(.I'lJy { { Qy i)y


l} w(<1.Y)rT(<1,)'}~T;,.ldy

<IX <.f

(2.4.5 I)

Collccling lelms involvin& bQth II' and can write (2.4.5 t) as

r inIQ B(, .), and those involving onl)' W [nIl) l{.), wc

B(II',7) =1(11')


where 8(w.

rk (~w ~T + CW ~T) dx dy + ~ Jo r ax OJ /(\\.') "" ir t r ll iii Jo


i f)


y)T(o. y)dy



wgi)rJ.rdy -


W {Il.)')r",dY


The qUlldralic functional is givcn by


k( [('T)' + ('T)'] ;h

dXd y + I

P' l

1 r (o,)')dy

- LTlfllt!XdY+

1!.! T(O. y)t;{y) dy-fi { ' T(a" y)T""d,I';tLl/lC bouJ1dary integrals in this e~amplc lire defined al(>ng the y (Ir x axes, i)t."C;\o;;t: the hound aries are paralleltu eilher the X Of y-axis..


2.5.1 Introduction Our objectivc in this ~ection is to study the variational method~ of approximation b~cau~e they provide a b:lckground for the development of finite clement models. The methods \0 be discu~sed inc lude the Rit, and weighted-residua! (e.g .. Galerkin, Petrov-Ga!crkin. leastsquares. and co llocation) methods. In nil these methods. we seck an approximate solutioil in the form of a lincar com hi nation of suitllhle approximation functions I; and undetermined parameters Cj: L j c jl j . The Ritz method uses the weak form, wheren~ the weightedresidual methods use the weighted-integral form (Step I of the weak-form development) tu determine the parameters { 'j. VariollS methods differ from each other in the choice of weight function II' and approximation fUl1ction~ j. A~ we shall ~ee in the coming chaplers. the finite clcmcntmclhod is a elementwise application of the classical variational method~.
2.5.2 The Ritz Method

In lhe Rill method, the cocflicicnb Cj of the approximation are determined u,ing lhe weak form of the problem, and hence, the choicc of weight functions i\ restricted to the



approximation functions, W =j (w "' II). Recall Ihat the weak fOnll contains bOlh Ihe governing dilferential equation and the natural b()undary conditi ons of the problem. and hence it places weaker continuity requirements on the approximate solution than the original differentia l equation or its weighted-i ntegral [Onll. The method is described here for a Iincar variat ional problem (which is the same as the weak form). Cons ider the variational problem resulting from the weak form: Find the "olution II such that
B(w ,u) =/(w)

12.5. 1)

for all sufficiently di ITerentiable function s II' that satisfy the homogeneous form of spec ified essentia l boundary condit ions on II. In general, IJ(. -) can be unsymmetric in I\' and II. and it can be even nonlinear in II I B(-.) i ~ always linear in 1\"1. When B(,. ) is bil inear and symmetric in II' and /I and 1 is linear, the problem in (2.5.1) is equiva lent to minimi,l;1Ition of the quadratic functional [see &1. (2.4.19)]
/ (II) = '211(1/, II) - /(11)


In the Ritl method, we [sec Eq . (2.4.2)]


an approx imate solu ti on to (2.5.1) in the form of a finite series


UN(x)= I>"ij(X) +o(x)

r ", 1


where the constants C'j. called the Rit z ('(lejjic iellls. arc determined "uch that (2.5.1) holds for each I\" = , (i = I. 2..... N). i.e .. (2.5.1) holds for N different choices of \1', so that N independent nlgebraic relations among Cj arc ubtained. The function~ rPj and rPo, called approximation junctions. are chosen such th at UN satishe" the specified essential boundary conditions [reca ll that the specified natural boundary conditions are nlready included in the variational problem (2.5.1) and hence in the functional /(/I)J. More details on this will be discus~cd short ly. The ith algebraic equat ion is obtained from Eq . (2.5.1) by substituting w = rPi and UN from (2.5.2) for /I:

II ,

f / jj
J"" I



U = 1.2. . N)

Since B(. -) is linear in

we hnve

L B(;. jk, =/I;) J", I



LKijCj= lj,
j= 1

i=1.2 .... ,N

The algebraic eq uations in (2.5.40) can be ex pressed in matrix form as IKll d={F] or Kc = F (2.5.5)

As stated cltrlicr. for

~y ll1m ctric

bilinear forms the Ril7 method elm abo be viewed a"

I,ccki ng a solu tion o f the foml in (2.5.3) in which the P"IrlIlIlCICr'i Cj arc dC\Cmlincd by rn ini mi/ing the quadrati c functional I (II ) in (2.5.2). After ~ub'li!Ll1in g. U 1\' from (2.5.3) for II into (2.5.2) :Jnd i Iltegrati 11. the functional I (II) becomes an ordinary funcl ion o f the panlmeter... ('I. ('2 ... {'N. The n the nccc,~ary conditio n (or the minimi/ <llion of / (CI. C2 . .... ('N) is that ih parti al d e ri va ti ve~ with respect to each of the parameters be !.em:





= 0,

;) I





Thm" there are N linear algebraic equation" in N unlnown ~. c) (j = I. 2 ..... N), Thc-.c equations arc c)tactly the lolllnc as tho"c in (2.5.4) for all problcms for "' hich the variational problem (2.5. 1) is equivalent to M =0. Of COU N!. when 1)( . ) is not symmetric. we do n01 h.\Vc a quadrmic functional. In other words. (2.5.4(1) i ~ more general than (2.5.6). and they arc the same when IJ ( . . ) is bi li near and sy mmet ric. In all problems of intere~t in the present study, we shall have a ~ym m elric bi linear form . 2.5.3 t\pproximatioll Functions Return ing 10 the " pprox imation UN in (2.5.3). we wi\ h to discuss the <,elect io n o f the approximmion runction\ 41/ and 410 for the RitL method. Fir\t. we note that UN mu\\ ~a \i s fy only Ihe specified e\~e ntial boundary conditio n!> of the problem. "i nce the specified n:ltunll bou ndary condili o n ~ arc incl uded in the variatio nal problem (2.5. 1). The particular form of UN in (2.5.3) facilitates satisfaction of specified boundary condition\. To 'iCe Ihi~. suppol-le Ihal the approximate \ol llt ion i~ 'illught in the form


= l:'> jcf!j(x)
j= 1

:md 'uppose that the 'peci/ied e~scntial boundary condition i\ II (.'0) = 110. Then U,\' :tl~o sati"fy the cond ition U,y(.lo) = 110 at :t boundary poi nt \ = .ro:


L c 4I (xo)=lIo

Smce Cj are unknown parameter.. to be determined. il is nOI e a ~y to choose rPj(x) such that the above relation hold~ . If 110 = then we can ~elec l all rPj ~u ch Ihal ) (xo) = 0 and ~a!i~fy the condition UN(xo) = 0. By writing the app rox ima1e ~o lulion UN in Ihe form (2.5.3). a "lim of a hOlll oge n eo u ~ part L Cjj(x ) and:t nonhomogenC()ll~ part ..l(X). we require o(.r) to <.atisfy the "peei/icd es\ential boundary l,;ondit i (J n~ while Ihe ho moge neous pill'! vanishes at the same boundary po int where the essential boundary condition is "I>ccificd. Th i~ follows from


UN(Xu) =

L C/4JJ (xo) + n(Xo)


li n

+11 0 .... LCjrP,(xo)= O
j I

= L ('jrPj(XO)
j 1



satisfied. fO/' arbitrary

by choosing rPj(xo) = 0.




If al I specified essential Ixlundary cond itions are homogeneou s (i.e., the speci fied value
110 is zero), then cPo is t:lken 10 be ... .,ero :lnd j must still satisfy the same conditions, j(xo) == 0, j = [ ,2, .... N. Note that the requi rement that w be zero at the bou ndary

points where the essential boundary conditions are spec ified is sat isfi ed by the choice


[n su mmary, the approximation functions ,(x) and cPo(x) are required to satisfy the following conditio ns:
I. (a) i must be such that B (j. ,pj ) is defined and nonzero. i.e .. i are sufficiently ditTerentiable and integrable as required in the evaluation of IJ(,p" j). (b) j must satisfy the homogeneous form of the specified essential boundary condit ions of the problem.
2. For any N, the set {j )~ 1 along with the columns (and rows) of B(,p,. ,pj) must be = linetlrly iruieperuienl. 3. The set (<Pi ) must be complele. For example. when ,pi arc :llgebraic polynomials. complet.e ness requires that the set Ii) CQnt:lins all terms of the lowest order admissible, up to the highest order desired.

4. The only requirement on rAl is that it satisfy the specified essential boundary conditio ns. When the specified essential boundary conditions are zero, thcn rAl is idcntieally zero. Also. for completeness re:lsons, cPo must be the lowest-order function that sati sfies the
specified essential boundary conditions.

2.5.4 Examples
I-Iere. we considc r ;1 few examples of the application of the Ritz method to equilibrium, eigenvalue. and time-dependent problems.

Example 2,!.1
Consider the differential equation (sec Example 2.4- I: set != _ x 2 )

= I. c = - I. t = 1. and

_ _ _ u+.(2=0 for O< x < 1 d<'

We consider two sets of boundary conditions:


&11: u(O) =0.

Se12: 11(0) = 0.

u(l) =0


- 1 dx ~,.,I -



Boundary Conditions Set 1. The. bilinear fann and ~ linear functional aSMlCiatoo with
Eqs. (2.5.7) and (2.5.H) are]sec (2.4.23c)1

l ' (dW d.

-dx dx





\1'> I "1KOIII. e l K'" 10 n

ne~lMll' 1.1 H

I! 1'>1 \U;:I II(H)

and K'f and F; are given by

11lc boanlC result as in (2.S.1 1) can be obltlincd by mininliling the-quadratic functiQllnllsct a '" I, ('so- I, f -x~, L = 1, and u<l) ",0 in Eq. (2.4.24)1


for u ~ U~ frQm (2.5.3). wilh I/Jo == O. intll the al)l)ve funClional. '""c obt.;nn



condition for Ihe minimum of f is that

"" L

= LK'j('j-fi fori ::=-I.2 . ... ,N

, ,.,

j ... 1

, [I' ( d.

"I ~-fJ-~'~Jd'(CJ+

) 1 ['


Clearly, 1\/i and f~ are the samc as those defined in r::q. (2.5. 11). Equslioos (2.5.12) I:t(lld for any choice of admh~ible approximalio(l function~ IA. Next, we di'iCu~s the choice of t/J, and tAl. Since both ouundary conditions u{O) = u(l) == 0 arehomQgl!l1cou, Il!1U ofthee~senti!lIIYpe. we.tuket/lu =() and WICCI.p, in the NpnrameterRil7r appr<Jxirnation to .. atisfy Ihe conditlons.p, (0) =rp,{ I) = O. Clearly, the fUllctlon (0 - x){ I - x) vanishes at ,{ '=' 0 and x 0;: I. olnd Il' lin.t derivative i~ IlIIntcfO. Hl'nce. we luke f/lJ t:O: x( I - .rl. The nexl fum:tiOIl in the lICtjuencc i~ obviously f/12 = \ 1(1 ~ _ \)(or r/J) "" x( I - A"f). Thus, me foUowing ~I of funclion.~ arc admi~~iblc:

The appwxim:ltion

equiv-.uenl In
(2.5. 14b)

11 ~h()u!d he noted thai if we selecl. I'll! e)(umple. the functions IPI "" x!{ I - .d. f/ll <:It.f '< I - X). ilnd so on (ntll including x( I - J )(, the completeness retjuiremenl is violsll'd. occuuS<! the set cimool be.ui.Cd In generate Ihe linear li."fII1X j)fthe e)(uct ~uluti<l1l, ;fthe IiOluliOn nil' web a tern]. A, a rule, we OlUS! Man with the lowe--HmJer :It.llllis~ib le fUncti{lll and include all admi,.. ible, hig/ler-ordcr fUOCl io05 up to tile ,jC~if\!d degree.



Forthe choiceMapproximUI(On flinCliOll~ III (2.5. I 3), the OlmN coefficients KIJ
and vcctor coefjlci<,z)(~ PI "" l(ih) c~n be computt!.d as foU{lw!':


Q(q". <Pj)



{[i.\.l-l - (i

+ 1)..r; J(jx/~l (i


+ t)x i I 2

(.t l - XI+ 1)(x I - x)-I} f dx



nw +j)~ -!1


+ j+ n{i +j +2}(i +j +3)

+ 3)(i +4)

I--~ == for i. j

Jo xi(x' _,t1t1)dx ""' - (i


l2.5. 15b)

== 1.2 .... N.

the Qne--, twO--

to il-

how Ihc Ril7. solution CWlvcrges to the cuet ~!ution of the pro\)l..:m

For N


&In I

. .d



== I, we have

The (me-parameter Ritl. solutiOn


given by

For N = 2. we h<lve

Solvjng the linear equali()l1~

'[12663] 1 =-60" 3 ") '1 )



( 2

u~lng Cro1mer'~

rule. we obtaIn
C2 =-ffi==-O.1707

The tW(lp:trameter Rill ~oluli{)n is given by Ul



10 = c]c/'! +'2th.- :::r--(.t 123

123 = -0.08 I3.1; - O.OS94x2 + O.1707x1

'"' 21 ~ ~ x-) - - ( x - X')

Fllr N = 3. we ha\'c


I [756 378

3JS 237 312 228 237:!06

22~] ("} "" --:;0 (21 ) I l4 ('1




NOle Ih;11 the preVil)Usly computed coefficients Kij and f; ror i. j == I. 2 remain unchanged and we only need to compute KJI , i = 1,2, 3, and ,...,. The solution of the ;jbove cqualion~

c] ""


<2"" -0.1005,

r!.l "" .... 0.0702


..." 1"- i'IIOOl;c:-T IO'\ TO nil' fI"rrr U JJ>IIJ\ r \11,1 110D

Tahtc 2.5.1 Comparhon of rhe Ri tl and tx<Kt S(lI Ul iQn,~ 01 the cqutlli(m dl u - - l - U+fl =Ofor O<x<l: 11(0) = 11(1)=0

Ri\.(. ~(lr\l';on,
R;I~ co.!!lkicm.,!

N ",, "),


00 0' 02 0.3 0 .. 0.0 0.1500 0.2M7

N= '
0.0 0.088J 01847
(J.27SJ 0 .3590

0.0 0.()9.'i.'i
o. rs~

,v .." I :

'"I"" . 0.1667

00 0.0'}5-I

0.27( O.lS20 0,4076 0,4J4O (1,4200 0.3529
0,2 1S3


=0.l)g11 {' PO - 0 1707




". ",, 3

OA I67
0.4-410 0.ll!1

1:1 "" - 0.09.'i2 C:l '" ~O. I 005 C !=-O.0702

06 0.1 0.' 0.' 1.0


0.3500 0.2667 0.1.'i00


0.4076 0.4342 0.4203






The ,hreeparameter Ritl ;.olulion



givcn by

-= C"JrPl + ("2tP! + C'ltPl "'" - O.cI9S2(.x - x 2J - O. J005(\ ~ = -O.0952x - O.OO5~ , 1 + O.0303.r.l + 0.070b4

1) ~ O.0702(J:J - .t~)

TIle ~'aluc~ of the Rill coefficient.). 1.",. i "'" 1.2 .... , N for Yari(lU~ values (If /II clIn be (lnt<lined by M)]ving the m3trix equ"tion I Kill.") =::: FJ with 'he c(lCt1icicnISt)f K'i ;uld given hy (2.5. 15a) and (2.5.15b). '111e Rir;r, e()effieicnt~ and u compari~ull ()f Ihe Rill ~olul ion with the


e.\uci sol ution (2.5. 16) i~ presented in Table 2.5.1 lUlU Fig. 2.5. t. If the CXacl solution (2.5.16)
i, expanded in :l ,cries in hml\~ of poweK of .... \I.e 1I0le Ihat i, is an inlinite seri~. However. lhe Ihrec-par.unetet Ritl ~olUllon i, a l ~ady a good approximalion of the e~uct loQlution.:I-' can he <;ccn from Fig. 2.5.1 and Table ~ . 5.1 .


Condilion~SeI 2. Forthe -.econd set ofbou nd J.ry cond l 'ion~ (2.5.9). the bilinear the <;4i.1T\e a" lhal gi\en in (25.10,. Thc linear fonl! is given by

'(II') =:- 1 ' 1\'.\:"2 dJ. +11'(1)


Therefore. we ha ... e

F, :oc- il) ~ dI. llx

+ ~.{ 1)

(2.5.1 Ii)

A~ for the oppro'linlarion fonct i(ln~. tPo i~ ~Iill/ero and t he~, mll'l be selected 10 sall)'f), the CQrIdition r/I, (0) "" O. Clearly.,pl (.( ) = or. tP! = .r ~ . and Ml On mttllhe requirement. TIIU ~. we havc

(2.5 .191



N 2 N" 1

* "
, ~







, "- ~.~


!OJ IIII[!!! ililti

P'!1 i Ii i q





Figure 2.5.1
Com~ri'nl1 of the Ril l ~()l uti(m wi th the~1 ~IUljQn orEq~, (2.5.7) aml (25.S). The three-parameter Ritz wl ution and the exact solution do 00\ difTcron the scale

of the plot.

TIle coefficicl1L~ K'J and I'; Clln be computed using

I+j+ l

ril=- t ,rl~l dx + I =_-2-+i




Fut example. f(lr N

=2 we have

~[:~ ~ Jt ~~ } <=~ {:~ l

Solving the lincar equal iQn~
(.'\ e:::
u~ing ('ml\lCr"s

rule. we QhWUl
~)=--"'-U. 1 5I t

IgO _ - 9 ::0 1.2950, 13


21 139

The two_parameter Rill solution is


U, "" C'tl/!,

+ ('21/12 <= 1.2950x -

0.1511 x 2

n,e C'1Hiel sol ution forthi~ ~ is

(2.5.21) "" I A cCllnparu.on of ihe Rill. Mllull\lll~ \\i th the cltac\'!'()luliofl is preloCnicd in nthle 2.5.2.
II(~)~ 2CO~(I-x)-sin ..r

'fable 2.:'1.2 Comparison of the Rill. and exact

SQJUl il)n~

of the equation

- - , - u +.ll=OforO<x < I;


11(0) '" O.

(~) I ~,.I = dx

Kill <:oeOicicnlJl t

0.1 0.2

RIll: <;oluliQl1, U



Exact 'i(llut;Of1
0.0 0.1262 0.251;\ 0.3142 0.4944 0.6112


0.1125 0.22.xl 0.3315 O,4S!Xl 0_%25 O.67,SO 0.7!l75 O.90()() l.Om I 1250

0. 12!sU 0.2530 0.3749 0.493R 0,f0097 0722(1 011325 0,9]93

0.127 1 0.2519 0.3740


C) ""

1.2951} <'1",-0.15 11 1.2831

03 04 OS




<"[ ""


l'l'" -0. 1142



0.9 1.0





.. ::.umple2.S.2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
COfl~idtf the problcm of lim,hng tlk' tJ'UIIWCI'$C dcflection of a camile\'cr beam unclcr a uniform Inlnwc.-.e load {If intensity I/o per unit lenglh and ~ubjccled 10 point l\l:ld 1'0 and bending mQl\Jent Mn :'It the fn..'C end (sec E~llmplc 2.4.2). 111e gflvcm;ng e<jua!ion~ accurding to the

Eulcf"Bernoulii beariJ theory <ll'e

0 <..1' < L

1 EI >O


'''O)_(dW) I

.. "",


(/';)1 =-M,. [:!..(Id";)l l

(Il "",/ d.t d.t .'

=1 ',

1bc weak. fonll of (25.22) a.nd (2.5.23) (which includes the spt.'Cified NBC) wa~ derived in Example 2.4.2. and is givcn by (2.4.30(1). Wenowc()n~lruct ;tn IV -parumeter Ritz w lulion using the lIari31iollol form, (2.4.3Ob).Sim.-e Ihc"pecilicd l:::BC~ w(O, = O:lnd (dw /d't)[,..,.o archomogcnCt)US. wcsetq,y zO. Next, we select aJgcl'f'aic approximation function~~, thai salisfy Ihe continuity conditions and humogellCOUl. fQrm oftbe specified EBCs. The lowcst-ordcr algt;b"Iic function 1001mecl..( these conditions is <PI "'" xl. The next functiOn in the SC<lucnce is 4'l-:=s x'. Th ll ~, "'f' have (2.5.24)



The N~pal"'J..metcr Ritz approximatiOI.l i:;

W,..,(x) =

r>:",,pj, ,.,
IS I {i

4>1 =XI'> 1


SubstitutiQg (2.5,25) fOf


mid u= -PI LnlO (2..4.30a) with

f!., "'" O. weob\;l.ill


K ;} >= B(I/!;, ,)-=


+ I)i,tl-J (j + I)j,'(!-~ dx

""'E /(L)'~j-l ij(i+J)(j+i)


- I)


F/ =I(I) ""


{ Lq(j,.{(,.,1 dx + (L)I't 1fa~ (i + I )(L)' MQ

=.qQ(L )"t1.

~2 +(1..)'-<'1 fiJ ,+

(i + 1) (1..)' Mo


For N ~ I. Eq. (2.5.260) gives

For N "'" 2. we. have


Solving [OfC! and

C2 ,


"I = 24'El (5q!)L~+ 12F;JJ~ and



(2..5.2.5) beWrne$


"'" 3. we obtain Ihe matrix


The ~olu\jon

<Jflhe~cq uations


~ubsti tulcd

inl() (Z.5.25) for N =:), gives


..... hich coiocides with the t)lilCt solution of Eq... (2.5.22) und (2.5.23). NOIe thaI the (ll\epilrameler solution is exact when the N>i1m is subjected to clod t'll(JmCnt Mo only: the tW(Jparameter solution is exact when Ih~ Ileum is subjccted to both fo lind Mi.). If we try \(1 eompUie the four-parametcr Sl)lution with(lut kJlowing lhm the three-p;trJ.nliltclr .~()lution is cxJCt for;, htmll ~ubjccled 10 distributed IO<ld q(h poulIlootl F</. and bending nloment M'l. the parameter. c j U > 3) will be lcro.

The next example dcal<. with two-dimen<;ional he.. t conduction in:l square region. Note that the dependent variable. nlllnely the temperature. i.. denoted by T . con~il>lenl with the >;tandard notation u-;ed in heat tr,lIl,fcr book<;.

Example 2.5,3

the Pob.on eqIHllion govcOling tw(Hjimen~ionaJ heat trJllsfer in II square rcgion


8'T) -:-("'T + -, = ilo) ih1 fly7 ",,0


(2.5.31 )

with the following boundary co]1c..htions: on sides.x = I

and 1'=1



0 onsidesx:=O



",here gil is thc rate of uniform hellt gene ... .J.tion in the regio.n. Equation (2.5.31) is called PoiJ;M)Il's d,lU;ltion ( _kVlr = gil). The variatiunal problem is 01 the ronll l!Oee Example! 2.4.4; set II = r, (11 "'" til -= k.l41 =0.

and J=Kol
lJ lw. T )=/(w)


where the bilinear and linear funetiOn,tls are


TJ ""


I(w) =


t 10 iJ.x ar + ~Q!)d.rdY r\(~1O' a.t "-v iJI'



We comJdcr an /II -parumClcr approlumatioll of the form

T!I= L ("t'OSIl';.I co~aiY'



Note that (2.5.34) invOlve~!l unuble ~Unlmlltiofl. Sil'lCc the boundary condilkms arc homogewe have tP-f:= O. IncidenHllly. tPl also sali~fic..' the natur~l boundary condition., of the

C II AI' IEI!. 2: MAI 'IIEM A rlC,\L l'~lLL\1 I "Al!.l hS , I~TE(;IiA L I~)I{MUI..J\TI()~S. ANI} VAIl IATIONA! MI'TIIODS


problem but thut is not nccessary to be adl1\i.\~ible. While the. choice tP;j "" :;.in in x sin JJI")' lnt."Cts (he essential boundary conditians, ~,j is IWt complete beC3u~c il CIU1 nOI be used to gent'rate Ihe Solution that dues lIor vanbh on lhe side~ x = 0 and y = 0. Hence. ;PI) are not Ildmiv,ible. TheCQCfficten~ k u and f j can be computed by SubStituting (2.5.3>t) imo (2.5.33b). Since the clouble Pouricr series ha..~ tWQ ~ul1\mlltinn s. we introduce the nOlation

f(1"jX~l) ""

kit 11

rfu/ sinu/x cos Ci jy)(:t.\ sin U/;X cos (:tl)')

+:tj COS(:t,.x sino! Y)(OI/ cos I1.kX sin (:t/ .V)) dx dy


fii} ""S&

Ir t

i fi~korji:-l
ifi :: ka nd j = t


(2.5.35a) (2.5.35b)

ill lp

COSOItXco$(:t.;y dxtly=.3i...,.in ll',sin a / OI,a,

In evaluating the integrals. lhe fQII()wing Or1 hngonaliry conditions were used

Owing \() the diagon;11 form of th e coefficient matM (2.5.35a), we can rc;!Jily ,olve for th e cOt'fficients c;,:

The onl:.- and two-par.lme!er Ritz M)lutio nl; arc (th e ollc-pllramcfcr SOlution has one tenll Qut the tWo<-paramcter solution has. four lcnllS)


= ............. COS - Jrxcos - ny . ,


3280 br




i Jt'x CQS 2 11"Y 1

I 3 O.021(j(cO!; 2'u cos iny


+ C(l~ 2',u' ern; 211"Y) + 0.004 I CQ$ 2nxcos Iny]

(l -x)(I - y) <= ( I _ x l )(l _ y2),


If algebra ic polynomials are.1.{I be us...'d in the approximation of T, we can ch oo~e fIJI = both of which ~ti~fy th e (homogeneQus) cs~n lial bnundary conditions. Howeve r. the choice </I! "" (I _ .t 2)( I _ yZ) abu meets (he natural txJUndary cIl ndit ions of the proble m. The one-parameter Ritz solution for th e choice </II"'" (I - .1'1)( 1 _ ),2) i.~

' ( ( ) x , ) = - - x)l -y ') Y 58<)(1 "





~1~ITIl ELI;~lI;"T Mt-rHOI)

The e)(act wlutiOn (If Eq;;. (2.5.31), (2.5.32l1), and (2S.32b) is

T(.t. y) "" !!..


[0 . . . +4 f.


..... ,

c~a~y cOllha~.t"

cosh a~

where 11. "" ~ Oil - 1)11". The Ritz. s{)lutiQn~ (2.5.37), (2.5..38), ;uld (,2.5.39) are compared with the exact ~[ut.iI).o (2,.5,40) in Fig. 25.2. rhe analytical !iolutklll is e.vaJu;ltcd ul>ing; 50 terrns of the series in Eq. (2..5.40).





I ,



Ritz !/(Ih/tiOfl {l.s,J?} "nalytk'al

NO ' }

<> If... 1: (4) t. N.j (9)

..RlusolutiOfl (25.34)







"FIgure 2.5.2 CompIlriSOQ pf tJu~ Ril'!. l>olmiorls witlJ the anal)'liclll !>QluJion f)f the Poisson equalilm!< (2.5,31), (2.5.32a) and (l's ..)2b) in two dilJlcn~ions.

The next examp le deals with an eigenvalue problem. namely axill l vibration of a bar Isee Exmnplc 2.3.4 and Reddy (2002)1.

xamplc 2.5.4
COI)$ider a IJnllbnll ctoSs--se<:li;)n bar of lengllt L, wilh the [cft end fi~eU 8l.ld the right end connected to 11 rigid s uppo(t vi;! a linear elastic ~pring (with spring <:onst!l.nt k), as ~hown in Fig. 2.5.3. We wi~ to de[em~ine t~ flJ't two natural axial frequem.:ic~ of the bar u ~ing the Ritz

U 1AI'l'tR 2. MAH1 EMM1CA I l'Rl Ll \ll )'''AHTl~~ , I'IllX;RA I r"-'R M l"l-"T I()~\. A ~ I} V,' R1 A:rl() ~ ,\1. MH IIOI}S




}'Igun' 2.5h' A unironn bar WillI :1.1) end spring.

The ~t;tr\(ng point IS" 10 con~l1"uctlhc Lagrangian function L "" K - (U + V) (!iCC Sc('"tivn "Z.3,O). 'nle kjnetic energy K and the stmin encrgy U associatoo with thc axial mOliun of a bar


" 1

pA -:k - ("") ' dx, U "" -eA ("")' dx +- (u(L,t )l , -:; u2iU "2,,x 2

1 "


Fnr potcl)tial energy due t() applied loads, V "" O. Subslituting fllr K and U from EI.j. (2.5.4 1) and I' "", 0 in

prindpJe (2.3.60),

we obwin l5il IX. 11) :::0 51. IX, 1 ~ 0 and &1/(0. f) = 01 2)



~ (K - U)dl

"" " f)

"" ""

I ,[/,"( ,,, "" I "~ [1" (""


' iii (I r" [("")'

2 }(>

- EA

(''')'] dX ..i1.r

il"u(L.r)1 k


pA - - - t ' A- - ; - d.\' - ktf(L , r)l>u {L,I) dl


"" a,,,)

;j" - pA. -y ~u - EA :;---:flt vX ifx


dX - k.II(L , I)f)u(1. ,t) df


The Euler-Lagrange eqIHltions as,ociateo Wilh (25,41) are giveJl by

0 <. .1' < 1.

Natural vibration l'i noth lng. bUllhe periodic motion of the form
1I(.t, f) = uu(x)el"" ,



whert w i~ thc.frequency,)f na\IlI1lJ vibmtion and II Q{X) is lheamplitude. Substituting Eq. (2.5.44) i.nto &j. (25.42), weobwin


"N I'<T~()l)llC I10N III Til" FI'<11ll f ..L1'-\1b'<T METIIOI)

where (iQ})~ '='" _0;2, and f,;~ e'$ox dl, being l1()il~Cf(l. h factored Out. E.quatiOil 0.5.45) is the form of the equatiOns g()ve~ing natural vibration Of a bar with left end tlxed and the right end spring sl.Ipponeti. The-Euler C(JuatiQ!l and n:l~l.Ir:l1 boundary tondilion n~~tx;iated with Eq. t2.5.45) arc

d -fix


, EA ~ ) - pAw uo "'"




EA - + kll(j""O aL>: =L dx


Theesscmial boundllf)' condition is "0(0) = 0. COllvCl"l<cly, we call u~c-thc three Step procedure t(1 obtain the weak fnon (25.45) from Egs. (2.5.400) and (2.5.46b). Next, we seek RN -par'.l1netcr "Ritz ilpPf{)ximation (obviouii-ly. r/Jr, "" 0)

uQ(.r) R:: U,~.(x) "" I:>II$,'(x)

Substituting, il1lo &j. (2.5.45). WI! obtain



where A. "'" w 2 Becau~e of the independe.llt Jl;1(ure.M 6':i, we obtain

and in matrix form

(/Al - },fM) le):<: 101

or (A -

}"l\f}e ~ O



Equoltioll (2.5.47/J) rcPrei;Cl.1t:, a m:urix eigenvalue prublem, aod we obtain N eigen.valuc~, il,. ; ::c I,2,. .N , Forthc prohiciltat hand, the approximation funr.:ti(lllS rPl (.l)!tfC required to beditlercntiablc ooce with respect IlJ x ,md vanish at x "" O. Hence. we ChO(hC

Substitutiog rjJ, frtll.n (2.5.4!iu) i[1to (2.5A7c), we oblain

(2.5 .4$b)

C HM'T[~





\1L'l II O\JS


Since we wish to ucte.rmjnc tl>.1) eigenv:' lu ~ , we take N "'" 2 [OlU oblain

mn""'-. m(:z=-, mll=-- 3 4 5



p AJ,..

'::0:: -

[, and tbe matrix eigeu\':iJue problem (2.5.47b) becomes


rl r~,=-





( ~[3+3u 3[., 3+30






where i:i = k [ / A, The aJgebraic tligcrl'/alue pnJblern (2.5.49) must be ~olved for A. = q? and [bence. tOf the mOde shape lIo(X)l. To ('arry Out the remaining ~teps to obtain the numerical valu;;s for the natuf:!l frequel1,cil'S, we take a:=kf,/h.'A == l. Then. for a nontrivial solution {i.e., (;1 ,#0, 0.;fO). we SCt the dete.rmin;;1\1 of the coefficie~lI matrix in ctj. (2,5 .49) to zero:

2- 7 3


The qUlldratic cqumioo


twO roots

)'1= 4.1 545 , ).1=38.51 2 .....

<Vl=-,f- '
l, ~p







The eigenvectors (Qr mode shapes) are ~iven by




,m,: +(/il Xl2 I, ~ /.

lI.' hert tl and ~.)' ate calculated from the e(iua!iotlS fsee Ell,. (2.5.49))

[ 2 -A, -


The llbove of o.'qulItions is linearly dependent. Hence. one of the twO equations can be used t(J \ktennine C2 in terms M c! (or vice ver~o1) for each value of "A. We ohtain


u~tl (x) = I - 0.6399 ~:


-+ U~ (x)"""

x r - 1.4207 V

Plots of the tWi) modc Shapes are shown ill. Fig. 2.5.4. 10c C)(llct values of >. arc the rootS Qf the trarlsce(ujenlal equation (the reader may verify




"'I"-"TIO:OllUcrJO'TO lllloll'l1l rUMI 'T'IITIlOU






, ... --------~~

&010 ..,

............... ,

t ::;:-010 ....Q.20

000 _ :-




-0.30 _

t;1= _'' '<;;J=-,=-,=-,='''..!.I.I. ' '-' __ -.

~lod;: ~1!ap.l-2, ui:l)~x)

-050 "TmTMTInn~mTnnnnTm~MTInnnnmTFI 00 0.2 004 06 08 1.0

Figure 2.5..4 Fir51 two mode ~hllpe:> obiuillC(/ hy the Ri tl method for the ll<lIl1rallon&itudin:ll vibmlions o f a ~priilg~upported bar.


4.91318 L VP



N.)!c thallhe fir~1 appm,xim:.lIe fr~lucllcy is closer 10 the e,xl1tl tha1l1hc <oecQnd. If ..... esclcctfJr, and ~, I OSRII~fy Ihe n;ltllr.U boundruycondilion aho.t hedcgreeofpolyn()mi. als will ine\jrob]y go up. FotclI;ample, Ille IOwc..'L(lI'der funlllon Ih;rl \atisl1~ the h(lJl1(lgcneou~ (onn (we ,till howe u == 0) of Ihe natural boundary ct)nditio n rt'(]) + 11( 1) =0 is

;'1 ==.b _2."(2

'Ille one' parilmeter solution wilh Ihe choice of <[" ==3.\" - b': givc..~ "I "" 50/ 12= 4.1667, which i~ no better than the twopammctcr s('Ilution cc:,mpul t d u~ing lPl = x and l = .(1. Of courl>l!, solutiOn CII would )'icld a more accurate value. for AI thlll\ Ihc w lutiun Ctl . Although t')~ I and Ct4l. + i:)r:P-; ate of the. \;jmt degrt."'C (fXllyoomials). the laner gives beller accuracy for AI becau~ of the number of pammcten is greater. w hich pnlVidcs greater frtt(lom to adju\t the pa,.. nlC{Cfi ~'I in sathfying the ""cal. fOM. .. Tho;! e igenV:llu~ and mode shapes detconined throuj!h eigcn\o]ue anaJy~ is :Ire "J>tO useful in rJelcrminin8 the tramienl re\pllnsc, The gcnet'31 homogeneous ~Iu l jon 10 the transient problelll is lsee Eq. {2.5A4)J

..... here<'l} and <'lj are Cons\:lnts to he dctenniJled using Ihe initiul c()nditions.

D1JlPrFJI ! MAntnlo\Tl('Jll. 1'kt;Lt.\ll"AKlhS. l:vTELKAI

r(lIi.MlI.ATI()~S. "'''U V"' KIA110~AL MI:TtIOll'<


2.5.5 The Method or Weighled Residua ls As noted in Section 2.4.2. one can always wri tc the weightcd-integral form of a d iffcrential cquation, whether the cqumion is linear or nonlinellr (i n the dependent variables). The weak form ca n be developed if the L"<I uatio ns are secondorder or higher. even if they an:: nonlinear. However. it is not alway~ pos~ible to construct a functional 1(11 ) whose first variation i ~ equal to the varimional fo rm. 51 = B (li ll . /I) - /(lill) = 0. The RitL method can be appli ed to all problems. including nonl inear problems, that have weak form s. The weighted-re,idual method is a generalil<ltion of the Rit:l method in that the weight functions can be chosen from an independent set of functions, and it requires only the weighted-integral form to determine the paramete ..... Since the laller form does not incl ude any of the speci fi ed boundary conditions of the problem. the approximation fu nc ti o n ~ must be selected ~ u ch th m the ap proximme solut ion <.atisfies both the natu ral and essent ial Ixmndary conditions. In addit ion. the weight functions can be selected independe mly of the approximation func tion". but arc required to be linearl y independent (so that the relOulting algebraic equations arc linea rly independent). We di sc us~ the geneml method of weighted res idllal ~ first. and then consider certain spcci:11 cases that arc known by speci fic n3mes (e.g .. the Galerkin method. the colloc:llion method. the Jeast-sq uare~ method . and so on). Although a limited usc of the weightedresidual method is made in th i~ book ( Chapter 14). it is informati ve to have a knowledgc of this class of methods for u'\(! in the fomlU lation of ccnain nonlinear probl e m ~ and non-<>elf-adjoint problems (i.e., which do not admit a funct io nal formulation). The method ofweightL-d residual... can be de'iCribed in its generality by considering the operator equation
A (u) = j


where A is:\I1 oper:ttor (linear or nonlinear), often a differential operator, acting on the dependent variable 11. and j i ~ a known funct ion of the indepe ndent variab les. Some exampl es of ~Llch operators are givcn be low.
(I) A(Il ) = - -



A (Il) = -

tlx l

, ' ( ",,,)
/, -

" ( "")


+ 1:11

tlx l


A (II ) = -

J (",,) [ -:- k. ax ax

+ -" oy

( k, -;fly

a,, )]
ay ax

(2.5 .53)

(4 )

A(u) =- .:!... dx
A (U.I') = II -

(Utili) dx
1)y 1)x 2


au +V-+ - 11 - (1)11 av) all 01+ 1) -+ilx

For an operator A to be lil/ellr in its argume nts. it must !<oat i.. fy thc relatio n

+ /1 ,,) =a A (u) + {:IA ( I')

( 2.S.S4 )


AI' 1",1I00nTIO" TOTllf HNIH.\II.'"


for any M:alars a and fj and dependent variable). 1/ and tI. It can be ea.<ii ly verifi ed that all operatorli in (2.5.53). except for 4 and 5. arc li near. Whcn an opcmtor docs not s:ni .~fy the condit ion (2.5.54). it i~ ~a id to be nunlinear. The functiollll is nOI o nly required 10 sati sfy the operator equation (2.5.52). it i~ a l~o required to satisfy the boundary conditions associated with the operator equation. From the examples considered so far, the bou ndary conditions a~~ocialed with the operalor~ defined in 1.2, and 3 of (2.5.53) arc obvi()u~ (see Examples 2.4.1 - 2.4.3). In the weighted-residual method, the solution 'I is .tpproximated, in much the same way as in the Rit.l. method. by the cx pre:-sion
U,..(x) =

L cJtPJ(x) + 41o( x)
l' I


except that the n.."quircl1lel1l~ on 410 find rPj for the weighted-residual method arc more ~tringent than those for the Rill method. Substitution of the approximate solution U,.. intn the left -hand side of (2.5.52) gives a function A(U,..) that . in genera l. is nOI equal 10 the speci fi ed fun ction f. The difference A(U,..) - j, cll iled the residual of the approximation, i~ nonzero:
R s A(UN) - j = A

( t C +o) JtPj
J' I

- 1# 0

(2.5 .56(1)

Note that the residual R i:. a fun ction of position a:. well a!> o f the paramete .... l' j . In the weighted-residual lI1ethod, li S the naille sugge:.t.s. the parameters Cj are detenni ned by re(llliring the residual R to va ni ~ h in the weighted-intcgral sense:

Vt;(x)H(x. ej l dx dy =0

(i = I.

2.. N)

(2.5.5 6b )

where n is a two-dimen~ional domain and Vt; are weighl fi mclio/H. which. in geneml , are not the same as the approximation function s ,. The set 11/1, 1must be a linearly independent "Ct: otherwise. the cquation\ provided by (2.5.56b) will not be linearly independent and hence will not be solv:tble. The requirements o n 410 and tPj for the weighted-residual method are d ifferent from those for the Rit7 Illethod. which is based on the weak (integral) form o f the dio-erenlial equation. The differentiability requirement on t/lj in the weighted-rc<;idual method is diet:lted by the integra l state ment (2.5.56b), as opposed 1 the weak form in the Rit ~ method . 0 Thll~. rPj must have 1l0lUcro d e ri va ti ve~ up to the order appearing in the operator eqU<l1ion (2.5.52). Since the weighted-integral fonn (2.5.56},) doc~ nOI incl ude any of the specified (ei ther es"emia l or nalllml) boundary cond itions. we must also require UN in (2.5.55) to satisfy all speci fi ed boundary conditions of the pro blem. Consequently. 410 is required to satisfy the homogeneous form of all specified boundary condilion" of the problem. These requirements on tPo and J will increase the order of the polynomial expressions used for Ihe weighlL'd -rc\idual method . In geneml. the j used in this mcthod arc higher order fun ctions than tho ~e used in the RitL method. and the fUl1ction.. used in the latter mlly not sati sfy the continuity (i.e .. d ifferentiability) requirements of the weighted-residual method. Various special cllsesoflhe weightcd-rcl>idual method a re di sc u s~e d in the follow ing paragraphs.





T he I~ctrov-G al e rkin Method. TIle we ighted-residual mcthoJ is referred to as the PelrovGalerkill me/hud when 1/Ii ;;j::. i. When the operator A is linear. (2.5.5 6b) can be ~ i mp lif ied to the fo rm

t[l ~'A(,)d' lCj~ 1~, l f-A(,,")J dx

,. I


) z!

A ij e) = Fi

(Ac = 1<' )


Note thai the coefficient matrix I A 1is not sy mmetri c:

A ' j=

V;-i A() t!x ;;j::. Aji


T he Gale rk in Method. If lhe weight function 1/1; ischoscn to bccqual to the ap proxi mation functio n <Pi. the weightedresidual method is beller known as the Galerkin method. The algebraic equations of the Galerkin approxi mation are
Ae = F


(2 .5.59b)

Once again, we note that Ai) is not symmetric. In general. the Galerkin method is n OT the same as the Ri tz method. Thi s should be clear from the fact that the former uses the weighted-integral fonn whereas the laller uses the weak (or variati ona l) form to determ ine the coefficients c ) . Consequently. Ihe approxi mati on functions used in the Gal erkin method are requi red to be of hig her order than those in the Ritz method . If the equation permi ts. and o ne wi shes, di fferent iation from the depende nt variable(s) can be transferred to the weight functio n w = ,. thereby obtaining the weak form. TIlen there is no diiTerence between the Galerkin mcthod and the RilL method. Thus. RitL and Galerkin methods y ie ld the samc so lutions in two cases: (a ) when the specified boundary conditions of the probl em arc all of the esscnti al type, and therefore the requ irements on i in the two mcth(xls become the same and the weighted-integral form reduces to the weak foml; and (b) when the approx imation fun ctions of the Galerkin mcthod are used in thc Ritz method. The t east-S(luarcs Method. In least-squares mcthod, we deteml ine the parameters Cj by minimi zing the intcgral of the squarc or the residua l (2.5 .56(/ ): - .


"1 ' 1

R (x, c) t!x = O


Rdx = O




AN 1~()')lJ(TION TOTIII, FlNln, ELEI>1r>NT MlnllOll

Comparison of (2.5.60u) with (2.5.56b) s hows that 1/Ij = A(,), and (2.5. 600 ) becomes

1/Ij =

iJR/iJci . If A is a linear operator.

) =1

t [1

A(, )A(j )




A(,)lJ -

A(o) I dx

Ac = F


(2.5 .60c)
Note that the coeffic ie nt matrix AU is symmetric, but it invol ves the same order of differe ntiatio n as in the govern ing differential e quation A (u) - f = 0.

The Collocation Method. In the coll ocation method. we seek :111 approximate solution UN to (2.5.52) in the form of (2.5.55) by requiring the residual 10 vanish identically at N selected points xi = (x'. y', z j) (i = 1,2., . . . N) in the dOI1l<lin n
(2.5.61 )
The se lect ion of the points Xi is cruc ial in obtaining a well-conditioned syste m o f equatio ns and ultimately in obtaining an accurate solution. The collocatio n method c an be s how n to be a spec ial case of (2.5.56h) with 1/1; = 8(x _ x j). where J(x) is the D irac delta fun ctio n, w hich is defined by

f( x)J(x

- ~) d x = f(~)


With this c ho ice of weight fun ction s, the weighted-residual state ment (2 .5.56h) becomes


1 "
F:xampl~ Con,~id(, 'T

0 ( X-X ) R(X,L'j)dx = o

R(x', Cj) = 0

(2 .5.63)

We consider an example to illustrate the use o f various types o f weighted-residual me thods.

tbe differential equution (ste !3xamplc 2.5.1 with Set 2 buundary condiliQn~):
~-;J;i- 'j+..r


= 0,

11(0) = 0,

,1'(1) = 1


fr;>r Il we igbtcd-rc.sidua1l.llcthOd. tPo :md IP, sh\luld ~atisfy thc following comlitjOn:l~
lPu{{) ",.0. tPl(O) = 0,

(salisj'y <lCLua! hi)UI1d.'11)'


di;{ 1) == 0 (satisfy homogeneous form of tile ~pec ifioo OOtmdary c';lJ1ditiQn~)


~U.l\1 1 I>A~ IIi.S, l~ll:G~Al. FOI<MLl-"IIU~~. ANll VARIXIlUNAL MnllOI)S


"or a choice of algebraic poJynlll1\iah. we a.;sume n{x) '-">' u +bx and use the tv.o <.:QQditiOn~ on rAJ to dctemlitu;,: the const(tl1l.~ (I and I). We obtain

Since there are twu homilgeneous <.:QnditiolL.\, we rnu..\t aSSUlne at !east (t three-parameter polynomial t\l ohlain a nonlcro funcTion, 'Pi = a + IIx +(.. the conditions on <PI, we oblHin ..,2.

'-">'i-x{2 .....x)

Thc con~ta!U

th. \~C CaJl

aS~ume one

ClUl be-set equal to unity because it will be ab~\Jrbcd into the paramcICrc\. For of!.h\: forms tpl'-">'tl+bx+dx1 or tP2=a+o 1 +dxJ

with d ",0: l doe~ (l()l contaio allorder terms in either ca~. but the approximate solution is Cilrnplcie bec.ause (I. <hI c(> all tcrm~ up IV degree three. filr the second choice of t/lz. we obtaiJ,1

2=Xl(I - ~.t)
The re!tictual in the approximation of the equation is


T he Petnn'-Gulerkil) Method . Let the weight functi\)l\s be

1/11 :x.

1/J~ ~x1


lIXRdx ~O.



('I+ -

C. - - = O








Solving for (..'j, we ObtMn c, : ~ and C2 = - ii~: the solution ~CljJl)e~

UN; ... 1.302053x - O.173()2Ix' - O.014663x .l


The Galerkln M et hod. T.tking 1f1 =<$;. we h<lve

LlX{Z - X)RdX :O.

llx2 -3x xe:O (1 )Rd




+-C1- -=0






~'< INIlUJllllCH(J,< 1"1) 1111'

111\'1'1. 1LI ~1I:>r \WnlOIl

HCIH;~. {he SQJution beCOI.llC~ (wilh "1""" 4~' 1"" ~).

Uli "'" 1.2894.r - 0,1 39!1x t - 0.00315x 3


The LCilislSquares Method. T.tking "', = ~. we have

kl(2 -2x+X~)Rd.1'= O.

( _2+ 4.l' _'Tl+jx1)Rtl.r S::<O

47 2~3 1 --Cr+-Cl--""' O

--.', --c.- 28 15 47 90 Uu

13 60 ",, 0.





The leasl-5quafl.'s olutiOil i~ gi\clI by (wilh (I ,",,~,



1.2601.~ .... O.08017.l'l- 0.03325.\'


The Collocation Method. Choosing the puinh.\ >= and .t ~ as the-l'()IIOI.'3li()n points. wc e~;\ll1ilte the residual!> at Ihc.<.e points and ..ct them c(J'ualto (em:


RG) (5) ""






-341= 18

The <;Qiulion is given by (1:1'" 1710/9468. Cl "" 4~6J94ilS)

Uc = 1.3614 -0. 1292hl -0.03422.1'1


For this problem, the PetfOv-Oa!crk,in met/lOll

11lC (our OIpproX il1101tc solutions are cOO1pared in Tahle 2.5.3 \\' ilh the CJ(act ~Jl1Iion (2,5,2 t ). gi~'c~ the most accurtl\c SOlution.

Tallie 1.5.J

of tile Rit~. we i~htcd-re.~idllal. lind CXOC't MlIUlioll"f of lhe boundary vah,1c problem in exrunplc 255.






O.<XXXI O,I2f15
O,2S~b OJ1~4

0.<XXXI 0.1275



0.1180 0.2529 0.374<)


Oj742 0.4943

0.00 O./3.t8 0.2668




0.3741 0.4932



0.72<14 0.11:)40

0.6 0.7 0.9

0.6091 0.122"






0.60!'i8 O.12m 0.$314 U.<H91






I.(}4JI 1.1439

1.0424 I /4.17

1,0448 \. 1463



In this chapter. we ha\c "Iudicd '''''0 major lopic)' thai arc of immediate inh::rc\' ill the ~ Iudy

of finite clement method in the fonheoming


I. Weighted-integral and weak formulations of differential equation" 2. Solution of houndary value problems by the Rill, and weighted-residual (c.g .. the Galcrkin. I cast-S{IU arc~. and collocation) rnelhod~ The weighted-integral ~tatemcnt" arc required in order to generate Ihe ncccs<;ary and ,ufiiciclll number of algebraic equations to solve for the panllllclcN in the approximate \Olulioll. Thu .... the algebraic equation ... arc t=quivalent 10 rninirni/mg. in a .... eigilloo-integr.ll ~cnse. the error introduced 111 [he approx imation of the differential cquiltion.


In \!udying the two topic ~. a thrcc-~tcp procedure for developing the \\e:lJ... foml of (Ii rTerential equations i~ pre<.entcd. and mcthods for obwining algebraic equation~ in tcrm ... of the unknown pammeter, in the approximate solution arc developed. These topi c~ arc immediately applicable in the linitc element Illcthud, which i,:tn elemcntwi~e application Of:l vari:nionalmcthud. Thu". the material covered in thi~ chapter form~ the (;Ore of the finite clement method. A few remark-. arc in order on theclassical variational method" "tudied here. The tmditional variatiollal method" (e.g .. Ritl., Galerkin. and Ica~t-\l.juares) pre'\Cnted in Section 2.5 provide a ... imple mean" of finding ~patiall y c()ntinuou ... approximate ...olulions to physical problc ms. The approximate solution ... obtained via these method~ arc continuou" function:. of position in the domain. The main limitation of classical variational method .. th:1I prevent ... them from being competitive with traditional tinite difference rnethod~ i ... the dirftcul!y encouncered in constructing the approximation function~. The construction proces, becomes more diHicult when the domain is geollletricnl 'y complex. The ~o -c alled "mesh les, methods" are a return to lhe cI:lssical variatiunal methods but with a procedure to COlhtruct the approximation functions. From the preceding di\Cu~sion. il is apparent that the variational methods can provide a powerful means o f tinding upproximate <;()Iut ions. provided one can fi nd :I way to systematically con:.truct approximatio n functions. for almo~t any geometry. that depend only on the differenti:.1 eCluation bei ng solved ,md nOl on the boundary condi tion ... of the problem. Thi~ prot)Crty enables one to develop a computer program for a particular class of problem ( problem in the class diffcr~ from the others only in the d.lta ). i.e .. a ~el/l:ml-PUlP().\e computer program. Since the functions lTlU~t be con~tructed for a geomctrirally complex domain. it seems that (reca ll the di~cus~ion of the method of cO lllposite~ for the determi nation of the center of ma~s of an irregu lar shape from Chupter I) the region must be repre~ented (or approximated if required) as an a~semblage of simple geometric shapes for which the construction of .Ipproxlmalion funclion<; become" simpler. Thc finite clemen! method to be discllssed in the forthcoming chapte"" 15 ba.,ed on the ...e ideas. In the finitc clement method. a given domain i<; repre\clllcd (discrelized) by a collection of geometrically ~i mpl c ~ h ape<; (elemellls), :lIld on e:tch element of the collection. the governing equation j,,/ormlllllll'</ usi ng anyone of the variational method:.. The approximation fUllction<; arc systematically generated for each (typica l) element lI~ing the


AN INllIotlH'1'1(>N 10 llil. FlNrIl! 1.1 1'.\11 N'l MlillflHl

e~\Cn tial boundary condition~ . The clements :Ire COllllccll'l1 together by imposi ng the continuity or the dependent variables across the interele ment bo undaries.

The remaining chapters of thi ... book are devotcd 10 Ihe introduction of the finite elemen! mcthod and its u~e in the analy~h or ~everal model diffcre11lia l c qu,,!ion~ representing mathematica l ll1odcl~ fo r many physical pn)Ce~~e,.

111 Problems 2. 1 2.5. COIl;(rtlel lhe weak 2.1 A Iloilline:tretjll:ltion :

and. whenever po,sible. quwJralic

flln(;!i{)l1:tl~ .

(/ I'

d ("d") +J~O d, ( d.r = 0 d")

1/ -

fo, 0 <.1 < L "

/1(1) ""



2.2 The Euler-Ikn loulli-Ion


K anll~ n

nonli near Iht..... ,ry of beam ~: for

d (EA [d" + -I2 (d"')']1 J d.l d.1 " (Ix ( ,'''' ["" (i{ (/x

O< r < L

,, -

-+ -I ("'" 2 (/ r

"2 dx


11 = 11' = 0


)" = 0. I.;


- 0' 1, 1 1 - '

'''') ( d

= Mn


where 1: A. E I . f, and q :Irc fll nc t jnn ~ of .1'. and Md i... a cOll<.;lanl. Ilere displacement and w the Iranwc"c deflecti on of the beam.
2.] A sct.-ond -ordcr equati on:

denotes the ;Ixial

whe re (II) "" {/j. (i. j = I. 2) lItHJ f arc give n functions of f'O,ilion (\. y) in a lwo-dit11cn~i()nal domain n. and 110 and IU arc ~n own function, on portinn~ fl and 1"2 of the bou nd:\ry 1' :
rl + I~!=r.



t.'< lu:uions for two-dimensional flow of viscous. incompress ible tlui ck



CH ... rl1i1l. 2, M...TII1'\tA'IK""" l'U.,IJMI'IAIUES. lNIT;GII. ... 1. l'fIKMUl.A110l'lS "'1'11) V... II.IATIONAL;\IHHOIJS



2.5 Two-dimensional furmul<llion):

fl ow






function- vonkity

Assumc thai all e,senll:d bound,lry !;Onditions are sp.!cificd to be lem. 2.6 Compute tht;: coefficient matrix and the right.h:mu ~idc of the N. par.ulleter Ritz <lppmllimatiiln of the eqlwtion

_.:!... [(I+X)dU] =O fur dx (Ix

u{O) = O. u(I) = 1

0 < \'< 1

UM! algebmic ~lynomiah for the approlli lnution fu nctions. Spcci<llilJ.: your TC.\ull for N::: 2 and compute thl: Rill eodlicienls. AIISM'u: CI = 1\'1 and Cl = - I~I'
2.7 Use Irigonomc lric fune.iulls for lhe IWO'par,ulIctcr approximulion of the equatioll in Proble m 2.6 <lnd obtain thc Rill coef1icie nt~.

2.1$ A ~ teel rod of diametcrd = 2 em. lcnglh L = 25 cm. and lhermal condllelivily k = 50 W!(m C) is cllposcd to ambient :Iir T"" = 20"C with <I heaHnln,fercocfficient fJ = 64 W/(m ! . ' C). Givcn lhallhe left end of th e rod is IIwintained at a It;:l1lper,tlure uf 'fi) = 120 C and the other end i~

exposed to the <llIlbienl tempera ture. detennine the tcmper.llUre di~trib\llion in the rod u~in g twoparameter Rill. approxi l1l~ti()11 with polynomial approximation funclions. The C(lu:llion governing the problem i~ given by

d'O --+CO= O for 11.,2

O<.l <25cm

whcre 0 = T - 1;"'. l' is Ihe tcmpcf'.lturc. and (. is given by

c: = -


~--- ~


!rr /Yk




P being Ihe perimcter und A Ihe <Ire

cro~s.<;CCl ion:t 1


the rod. Thc boundury conditions

O(O)::T(O)-T =IOOC. ....

~: +fJO) 1,.1.=0

AnsM'er: For L = 0.25 m. ('2= 2.667.261 .

= 100.


=.f' , lhe Rill cocfficicnN are

= -1 . 033.3K5 "nd


A'i 1 ~'TNOI)lJCT10" TOTllI, f ll'o lll: I'lJ.MI:' iT MI "nlOIl '

2.9 Set up the equation ~ for the N -parameter Ritz approximUlion of th e following cquation~ dated with a ~imply supported beam and subjectcd to a uni form lransver~e load q =qn: for
w = I:'I-- = O at dol'
(a) Usc nlgebraic polynomials.


O < .r < L
x = O, L


Usc IrigO)lOtl1Clric functions.


Com parc lhe lwopanmlclcr Ril z sol utions with th c exact solution, Answer: (II) (24EI)andc,= O.

= qnI. 1;

2.111 RepC<l1 Problem 2.9 for q = qo ~in(;r .f / L). Anl'ln'r: N = 2: /;1 = ("~L = 2quL ~ /0 f. l;r 1). 2. 11 Repeal Problem 2.9 for q = QuJ(x - ~ L). where (j(x) is lhe Dirac delta function (i.e .. a point load Qo is applied at the ce nt er of the beam). 2.12 Develop the N -parameter Rill. ~o lution for a simply su pporled beam under unifonn transverse load using Timoshenko beam tlleory. The governi ng cquat i o n ~ arc givcn in Eqs. (2.4.32(1) and (2.4.32b) . Use Trigonometric funct ions to approximate wand <V.

2.13 Solve the


equation govcr nin g hC1l1 conduction in a 'quare region :

-kV' T = go
T = O -:- = 0

x= 1


)" = 1


(insulated) on sides

x= 0


y= 0

using a one-parllmeter Rit z approximation of the form

= ~. 2. 14 [k!crmine <Pi for a lwo-parameter Galcrkin apprllximation with algehraic approximation func tions for Problem 2.8. 2. 15 Con~ider the (Neumann) boundary value problem

c';n~,,~(~:) I .~, ~O
Find" two para mete r Galerkin approxima tion of the problcm u,ing trigonometric approximalion functions. when (I) f = /" cos(rr x I L) and (b) / = /0, Answer: (a) <Pi = cosU;r x / L). ('I = [oL 2/rr ! . c. = Ofori # 1. 2.16 Find a one-par.J.meler approximatc solut ion of the nonlinear equati on for 0 < 1" < 1

subjecl tu lhe boundary co ndit ions u(O) = 1 and II( I) = O. and co mpare it with lhe exac t Sol ulion 110 = I - x ". Use (II) the G"lerkin method. (h) Ihe least-squares melhod. and (e) th e Petro vGalerkin method with weighl functio n w = I. Aliswer: (ul (ell l = I. and {clh = -3.





2.17 Give

~ one-p~nll11cter

Gulcrkin solution of the

-,;;;:.-211 = I

11 = 0

(= unit sqllare)


Usc (a)


and (h) trigonollletric approximation functions .


Answer: (h)(",j =~li{j+A

odd).I/J,, = ~iniJrxsinjJT)'

2.18 Repeat Problem 2.17(1/) for an equilater~ltriangular domain. Hinl: Use the product of equations of the Jines representing Ihe ~ides of the triangle for the approximation function .
AIISI\'j'r: r l = -~.

2.19 Con,ider the dillcrential equation

subject to the 1"01l0"'il1g three

(I) 11(0)=0.
(2) 11(0) =


of Ixlundary conditions:

11(1) = 0


(:1';) I

~ ~I


(:1';) I




('1;) I


(b) the Ie~sl- square~ method. and (e) collocation lit x =


Determine a three-p;lrameter ~o luti on, with trigonometric functions, using (a) the Rill; method. _ ~, and ~,an d compare with the exact

(I) lIlI=Jr - 1(cosJrx+2x - I)

(2)1111=1T ~(cosJl'x- l)




A/lIlt'er: (1(1)('i = ~ .

2.20 Consider a cantilever beam of variable ncxural rigidity, 1 =(lu I2 - (.IlL)!] and carrying II distributed load. 'I = qo! I - (x/ L). Pind a three-parameter sol\llion using I/J, = X IHI J and the . collocal!on meth ad . AIl,n"!'r: ("I = - 'iU!2 . ('2 = 'JfJl:.. . and c} = 0 . ",-, I ~, 2.2 1 Consider the problem of finding the fundamental frequency of a circular mcmbrane of wdius a, lixed nt it\ edge. The governing cquation for axi,ymmelric vibrmion is

r ilr



- AII = O. O < r < a

where A is Ihe frequency parameter and u b the deflection of the mcmbrane. (a) Determine the trigollometric approximation functions for the G.tierkin method, (h) u~e one-parameter Galerkin approximation \0 determine}.. and (e) usc two-parameter Galerkin approximation to detennine A. Answer: i, = 5.832/r/2.

2.22 Find the


two eigenvalues associ;lled with the dilferential equation

--~= ).1I.0 < x < 1

d 1u

r/x -

11(0) = 0. u(l)

+ u'O) = u

UM! the l ea~Hquarcs me thod with algehr~ic polYllom ia b. Use the operator defin it ion to be A = _ (d 2 / dx l) 10 avoid illc rea~i n g the dcgrcl' of the c ha racterist ic polynomia l for A. AIU~Il'r: AI = 4.2 12 and A1 = 34.188.
2.23 Repeat Prohlem 2.22 u,j ug t he RitJ" method wi t h a lgeb raic pul ynOllll a l ~. AIl5l1'er: Al and A2 = 38.5 12. 2.24 Con,ide r the Po isso n equation

= 4.1545

_v 2,,= 0.

0 <.1' < 1.

O <y<oo

u(O.y) = u(l .y)=O for y>O

1I (.\ . Oj=x(I -.l).

11(\ ,00) = 0.

0:;:.1" :;: 1



of the form
"(.l, \j=c,(\'j.\(I -.I)

lind the differe ntial equation for {", (y) :md solve il ex actly. An.fII'N: V, (,\". yj = (x _ x 2)r-Jill',



R.. Vl',/or".


",,,I IiiI' /lmic Eqllilliolls 0/ FI"iII Medwllic.(. ()lwe r PubliCHlion~. New Yort. I9!N

2. Bt.-der. M . Th" f'mrf"i/'/l'J ulld Apl,/iartwlll 'if\~rillli'mill Mnhfld~. \ I IT Pre<;\. Cmnbridge, ~ I A. 196-1 ,. l:IiOl. M A .. \ imlllr",,,,I I'rim 11,11" III HI'/II Trwufl'F. C I:.rcndoli. London. 1972 . .j. ~ ornty. M. J., Vllrlal'!)I",1 CII"""I,,," ill SCI/""', WI/I E"I<"INril1l<. M... -Grnw- Hill. New Yort. 1%8.
5. Gan/lnaehN. FR., 1979,

n,/' n'mn' "j /llmrirt'. Cileisea. New Yor~.


6. GmhJIIl. A .. M,,/flx 11r~n'{JfIIl "'ppliClt/ionsfor Mllil!rrn mul Mlllhl''''(l/l<'ilJlU. Il al'Md rrc~s. Ncw Yor~.

7. 1l ,IJcbrand. F Ii .. M..,IInd,' of Applinl '\/mIU'lIIl1lin. 2nd cd ..

8. Jc:ffrc}s, II .. GIrI"sI",r Tenron. Cambndgc Lnl'efJ;ity


11;,11. Ne ....



LaOC1.o,. c.. \'arimionll/ I'ml<'iplu "/ "'"ehilmcs . .jIll t'<1 . 1111' Un i,cr.;.ty or 'lbronto Pre". Toronto. 1970: reproduced by Oo\'er 1'I'bIiC3Iions. New Yor~. 1986.



lAmdon. 1%5.


H. L. . I'"ul(.Y M I'IIII"I. ;" Applied .\I('(iuJllicJ. John Wiley. New VorL 1%2.

Le'I'IIoIl. II .. D'"c/ \'''''11/,011<11 "'1'I1",,15wIII Ei~ ..mll/ul' Pmhl..",J", ""l(,"urjl/~. Noordhoff, Lc)dcn. 1 977,

12, Lippmann. II E.wwmm, <l<ul " III;lIIjl)l1ll1 f'rinr'pln '" /II,ciumir,<. Sprlnger-Vertag. New Yorl.: . 1972.

11 . \ l lkhltn. S. G .. V,,,imiolllt! M rl/",J.I' III Mm/r"lIlluicull'II,',lic.'. PergmllOI1 Pres<;. New

1- 1 1~h lm.


S. G .. 11,1' NII"'l'ficull"'r/"'7naJJcr oj" \nriall,mll/ M~lh""5. Wolte/s-Noordlloff. Gronmgen. 1971.

15. Oden. J. T. aoo Rood). J. N. li/ri(uw/U!I M rrl""ls", 71'I'II""c/l1 MulllmlcJ. 2nd ed . Springer-Verlag. NC"" Y"r~. 191\3.
16. Reddy. J. K.AI'I,I,,',I P""climlul A",IInl, mid \'''';''''01'''/ ,lin/IVa. /11 ElIl<lIJl't'fllIX. McGraw-lll lL. New 19li: Krieger. Mcilloume. 11_. 19'))
Yor);.20()2 .
Yor~ .

17. Rt-dd). J. N .. l:.1I1''1I.,I'rincilllr< mill \brim/mUll MnhQ/l. '" tlPIII'l'd Mr, IWJllc(. 2nd 00 .. J"tin Wiley. New UI. Redd}. J. N and R~,rnu\.scn ..\'1 1... A"mlla" FlIl<lIlr""III< Alla/,:;I1". John Wi ley. New Yur~ . 1982: Kriq:cr. Melbourne. 1'1.. 1990

19. Re~!(If)". K.. '~,rimi"n(l' Mrllmd, ,n Mmill''''/Ilin. SciCIICt' lI"d e"8"'''l'r",.I:. Reidel. Bosto1l. !977, 20. Wn,hi;u, K.. "~"i(l/i",,,,1 M e/I"HI.I' III EJ.mi";II' I1"d PI<II,I('iI,". }rd cd .. I'crgrulloll Pres'. Ne\\ York. 1982.
21. Welll'lock. R.. Ctd('"III.T 'if \'im(l/uml" M.,h Applicall/m.< 1(1 Phulu
Yor~ . 1 95~.
Utili"' ...."lIg. McGrJ,,11111. Nell'

22 Wrede. R C .. IlIImdll< Ii"" w "rr/or ",,,/7i>II"or Alwl),.,;,', Dover Pullll cililOIlS. Ne\\ YorI.:. 1972.

Chapter 3


The traditional variational method" (e.g .. the Ri lL. Galcrkill. and leasH;quare,,) dc'>Cribcd

in Chapter 2


to be effective because of a !tCriou" "honcoming. namely, the d iOi-

cully in construct ing the approximation functions. The approx imation function", apart frOIll <,alisfyi ng continu ity, linc:lf independence. completeness. and cs!.cntial boundary cond i-

lions. are arbitrary; the selection becomes even more difficult when the given domain j<, geometrically complex. Since the quality of Ihe approx imati on i~ directly atTected by the choice of the approximation fun ctions, it is discomfol1ing to know that there exists no systemalic procedure [0 con~lnlcl them . Because of Ihis shortcoming. despite thc simplic it y in obtai ning approximate sol ut ion~. thc traditional variational lIl eth(xl~ of approximation were llC\'er regarded a~ competitive computationally when compared with traditional finite difference schemes. The finite element method overcome.. the ... honcomings of the traditional variational me lh od~ by providing;. sy<;tematic way of con... tructing the approxi m:.tion functi ons. Ideally speak ing. an effective eompulational method .. hould have the fo llowing

I. It should have a sound mathematical a~ well a .. physic;1l b"" i.. (i.e., yield convergent solulions and be applicable to practical probJcm ~). 2. It should not have lirnilali{Jn~ with regard to the geometry. Ihe physical compo'lil ion of the domain. or the nature of the "loadi ng."
.~ houJd be independent of Ihe "hapc of the domain and the "pedfic form o f the boundary condition~. 4. II ~ hou l d be flexible enough to allow different degrees of approximation without reformulating the elllire pmblem. 5. It shou ld involve a ..y .. lelllatic procedure that can be aulomated ror u ~ on digit:.1 computers.

3. TIle fOfmu lative procedure



InlilL n'lll~ II 1'\ILNl


The finite clement mcthod is a tcchnique in which a givcn domain i... reprc~cntcd as a collection of ~imple domain~, c:lllcd /il1i/(' clell/ell/s. so that it is po, siblc 10 ~y~tell1atica ll y ... ctln\truct the apprmdmation fum;tion~ needed in a varialional or weighlcd-re!-.idual :lpproXimation of the <,oluti()n of n problem over each c leme n!. TlllI~, the finite element melihx[ differ; fromtne tradilional Rill , Galcrkin. Icast-... quarc!-.. collocation, ,lIld olher wcightedre ... idual methods in the manner in which the approximation functions arc constructed. But thi ... difference is rc ... pon ... iblc for the following three Ixl<,ic featu re<, {If the finite clement method: I. f)il'i,\irm of \\'Iwft' dOll/aill il1lo slI/Jdoll/(/iIlS that enable n ~y!-.tcillatic de ri vation of the approximation fUI)(;\ ion ... as well a~ repre~entation of complex domain ....

2. lJail'(lIiollo/II1',lmrillltlliollfiIllClif!l1.I over each elemen!. The approximiltion function ... :ITI: often algebmic polynomials that are derived u ... ing imerpo];lIion theory, However, approximation function ... need not he polynomi:lls (like in mc ... hlc!-.s form of the finite elemclll method). J. A \ \'ellJh{\, o/dell/rllls i~ based on eOlllinuity of the solution and b.1lanee of intcmal !luxe... : the a~-.cmblilge of element~ rc ... ult~ in a numcrical analog of thc mathcmatical modcl of the prohlem being analY/ed.
These three fetlturc .... whidl cOlhtitute three major step ... of the finitc element funnulation, are closely relatcd. The geometry of the clements uMXI to reprc,enlthedomain ofa problem ... hould be ,uch Ihat the approximntion functions can be uniquelydcrived . The approximation function, depend not on ly on the geometry but abo on the number l1l1d location of points, callcd Illxks. in the clement and the quantities 10 be interpolated (e.g .. solution, Of ~olutioll and Its derivatives). Once the approximation function, h:wc been derived. the procedure to obtain algebraic relations among the unknown coefficient ... (which givc the value ... of the dependent \'ariable :lIthe nooes) b exactly thc same as that u~ed in the Riv and wcighledre,idual mcthods. Hence, a ,tudy o f Chapler 2, CSpeci'llly the weak-form development and Ihe Rit7 method, make~ the pre~ent study c'l~icr. The hnite clement method not only oven:ome~ the shortcomings o f the traditional vanatiollal method .... but it is al\o endowed with the klltures of an effective compllllUional technique. The basic "'Iep... ill\of\ed in the linite clement analy ... is of a problem are given in Table3,l . l . In Ihe ... cctions thM follow.ourobJcc ti \e j"to introduce many fundamental ideas that foml the basi~ of the finite clement method. In doing ~o, we p()~tponc wrne is~ uc~ of practical and theoretical e011lplcxilY to later ~cc ti on ... of this chapter and 10 Chapter-. 4-14. The ba~ic step ... of a tinite element an;l!y~i ... ;lfe introduced via;l model '-CCondorder difi'erential equation.


3.2.1 Ml)del Uoundllry Value I'rohlCllI
C0I1,idcr the problem of finding the function
/I (x)



the d ifTcrcntinl cquill ion

(H I )


" ( "")
(1 -




O< x < L

(f1.~1'1"1I. .': SlC0NU_UI{ULK UlrI i:llE"'TIAL E()~'\TIIJ'IS 1'1 U'>!! DI\1I:NSION . !"I\lHT FLHII~\ll MOIJI,LS


Table 3.1. 1 Step~ involved in the

t. Di'l'relil.alion (m


element analy.,i~ of a l),pi(;al probkm.

r<"prc~<"ntation) of thc given domain into it collection of preselected finite clcll\ent~. (Thi, step can be postponed umil th~ tinite c\emelll fonnulmion of thc equ~l;on ;1> ~"1l1plctcd_) (Ill Con~truct the finite clcmcnt mesh of pr('"seiected clelllelllS. (IJ) KUlilher lh~ n()<lc, and Ihe element" -) Generate the geoll\ctric prop"rt;c, (e,g_. ~oordin"tei> ;Ind cross-s~..:tional areas) needed for the prohkm, 2 De rivation of e lement equations for all typical clemerlt, in tht llIesh. (Il) Construu the var;ati unal formul;!tion of the ghen differential equmion over the typiral clelll(,"rlt. (Ii) Assume that a typical dependcnt variahle" i, of the form

"""L",t, ,d
and ,uhSlitUie it into Step 2<1 to obtain clement


in the form


5, 6.

Select. if nlrc;ldy ;lv;lilable in the literature. or der;\'e ekrntllt imapolat;on fum:t;"", t, and COn1pUIC tile clement rnatricc~. f\s';embly of ek ment equation, to ohtain tile equal;om of the whole prnlliem. (al Identify tile interdcmcnt comim,ity conditions ~1II0ng the primary variables trelat;on,l"p hclw~en tnt I",;al degrcc, of fre('"dmn and t he gl"bal degree' offrccdom----<;onneetivit y of elcments) hy re.lati ng c kmcn! nodc, 10 globa l nodes. (b) Identify the "'cqllil ibnum" conditions lllllong the secondary \arillbk~ (re latioll,hip b<;lween the local ,ource or for<:e ~omp<)lIcnt' ;md the globally 'p"citkd wurce COlllplJllCnb). k) A"~lIIhlc cil'rnelll C'l"ations using Step> Ja and 3h. IIIIIXl,ition of tl,c boundary condition, of the prohlcm. (a) Identify the ,pecified glob;1 1 primary degrees of freedom. (b) Ide"tify the I>p<:~ificd glob;11 -ccondary degree, offrecdorn (if not already done in Step 11J). Solution of the as,embled c'Iual iorl'. I'o,tproccssing of the resu lts. (ll) CIln1I'UIC the gradient of Ihe ,0IUl;O" or <"her dc~;rcd <Iuantitic, from the primar> dcgr~n of freedon1 computed in Step .~. (b) Represcnt Ihe rc,"lts in tabldar mid/or graphical form.

llnd the boundary condit ions

(,,"U) I_, dx

~ Q,


where (/ = (/ Cl). /. = c(x). J = I(x). :mrJ 110. and Qo arc the data (i .c .. known quantities) of the problem. Equation 0.2. 1) arises in connection with the analytical description of many phy~ic'l l p rocc~ses. For eXllmple. conduclion and convection heal tr<ln~fer in <l plant: wall or fin [sec Fig. 3.2.1 (a) [. Ilow lhrough channel s and pipes. transverse dellection of cables, axial deformation of bar~ [set: Fig. 3.2.1(/)) 1 and many other physical proce~se s are de, scribed by Eq. (3.2. 1). A l i~ 1 of field problems de~cribed by Eq. (3.2.1) when c(x) = 0 afe presented in Table 3.2. I [see Reddy (2004) J. Thus. if we C<tn develop a numerical procedUre by which Eq. (3.2. 1) can be solved for all possible boundary conditions, lhe procedure can be used to solve all tield problem~ li~ted in Table 3.2.1, a~ well llS many others. Thi s facl provides u~ with the motivalion 10 use (3.2. 1) as lhe model ~ct:otld-order equali on in one di rncn~ion. A slep-by-slep procedure for the formulat ion ~ol ulion of (3.2. I) by the


,\N I"T~OI)LCTIO' '1'0 '1liE I L~II 'l ElB1b'fl METlIO!)

.l.1ainlaineti al

tcmp'cmlu re.


'iE~~~~~~~=::~j~~lirfacc. II(X) x to ambient lemrcr:,turc. ,jI--..-...-_ ___ ___


h~at g~ncmllonJ(x)

Con'~~l i on




Subject,'J tu lond. P


Specified ____ dispiaceme"l. "0 /

___ ____ ___

C 2:+-

1--- ,


_____________ (d" i

ufO) '" "0

f:= ,



"d;"J1"-L= Qo

FiIlUN.' 3.2. 1 (a) Heal transfer in :1 fin. (b) Axial deformation of a bar. (c) Mathell1~tie:11 ide:t1i7ation of the in (I) or (b J.


finite clement method is summaril.ed in Table 3.1. 1. The mathematical problem consists of ~ol\'ing the differential equation (3.2. 1) in one-dimensional domain Q = (0, L) subject 10 a suitable set of ~pee ifi ed houlldllry conditions at the boundary points x = 0 and .1 = L. as shown in Fig. 3.2.1(,). As already -;hown in Ciwpter 2. the type of boundary condition ~ as-;ocimed with a differential equat ion emerges in a natural way during the weakfoml development of the differential equat ion. A detailed di~cu-;sion of these ideas is pre~ented next.

),2.2 Discretization ort he Domain

In the finite dement method. the domain n of the problem [Fig. 3.2.2(a) [ i~ divided into a set of wbillterv<lls, i.e., line elements. c<llledfillile e/emell/s. A typic<ll element i~ denoted nr and it is located between points A and B with coord inates x" and Xb (i.e .. of length II" =Xh - x,,). The collection of tinite elcment~ in <l domain is c<l l1ed the }illil(, efe/lll'lli mesh of the domaill[-;ee Fig. J.2.2(b)[. The reason for dividing a domain into a set of sllbdomain~. i.e., finite clements. is twofold. Fir-;!. domains of most -;y~tems, by design. arc a composite of geometrically aneVor



Table 3.2.1 Some examples of engineering problems governed by the second-order equal ion (3.2. 1) (see the footnote for the meaning of ~ome parameters').
Priluary field of,!udy Hea! tran,fer Flow through [X'l"\)u, medium Flow througt, pipe_ Flow of ,"i",o", ~uid, Elastk cables
Ela"i<; bar;

Probtem data



Tel11l"'ralure T -T"" Fluid head Pre-surc

Thermal condUClatKe kA Permeability Pipc resistance "

Surface convection

Heal generation Hca! Q


0 0

ln ti llract;on Point source

gradient -dPldx Tranwcrse force

Point source

' fR
Vi<;<;o,ity Ten,ion " l' AAia l stiffne~,

S h ~ar

Velocity Di,plac.'mcnt Di,placeTllCll! Angte of twi,! 8 Elc.;trical potemial




Axia l force

S hear 'liffne,,,


Tor<ion of bar, Elc.;lroslalics

Point force I' Po int force I' Tor(juc T Ele<:lric



' k = ,herma l conJuclulKe: fI "" conwCli,e film conJlICla~: 1' '' perimeter: P = pr."ure or force: T" ,... ambient lCntp"r:lIL"" of lhe '\HwunJ ,ng Huid n>eJI\'m: Ii= 128/,1,/1,,,</'1 "m il /' bc' n ~ the v,,,,,,,,ty. II the lcng1h. "nd (i It...: d,"mcl~r oflhe pipe; f: =' 111"Julu,: ... '" are. of ,.,..", ""'Clio": J '" pol.,. mometll of ,nel1ja.

,",o n,tam

Charge de n'ity P

0.. E

materially different parts, and the solut ion on these subdomain s is represented by different functions that are cont inuous at the interfaces of these s ubdo rnai ns. Therefore, it is appropriate to seek approximation of the solution over each subdomain . Second, approxinllltion of the sol ution over each elemen! of the mesh is si mpler than its <Ip prox imation over the entire domain . Approximation of the geometry of the domain in the present case is not a


End p<)int, of an

n, n, u,
fl= 0

", .,
(mc~ h ).

Figure 3.2.2


Whole domain. (h) Finite elemc111 discretization


AN 1"''ROD\X l lOr< TO 'l1lE I-L~ITI: EU: ~lI;.\'T W ;TlI()O

concern, si nce it i~ a strai ght line. We must, however, seek a suitable approximation of the solution over each subdom<lin (i.e .. finite element). The number of e le ment s into which the tot<l] domain is divided in II proble m depe nd ~ mainly on the geometry of the domain and o n the desired accu racy of thi:: sol utio n. In the \JI1e-dil1len~ional problem at hand. geometry is simple cnough to represent it cx act ly. Sincc thc ex act solution is not known (/ priori. we Ill<ly begin with a number of elements th:H arc c[) n~i dered 10 be reasonable. Most ofte n. the analyst h<ls knowledge of the qua litati ve behavior of the so lution, and this help~ to c h oo~e a starti ng mesh. Whenever a problem is solvcd by the finit e element method for the nl""t time. we are requi red to investig<lte the convergence o f the finit e element solution by gradually reji/I iI/X 'lie /IIesh (i.e .. i n cre a~i n g the number of elements) and comparing the sol ution with those obtained by hixher-nrder clements. The order of an element refers to the degree of polynomilll used to rcpresent the so lution over the element. Thi s is made clearer in the sequel.

3.2.3 Derivation of Element EqulItions

Next. we develop the algebraic e(jlHllions amo ng the unknown parameters. much th ~ same way a" we did in the Ritl and Galerkin m e thod~ discussed in Chapter 2 Isee Eq . (2.5 .5) 1. The main differe nce here is tha t we work with a linitc clement (i.e .. sutxiomain) as opposed to the tota l do main . Thi~ ~ t ep res ult ~ in a matri x equ ation of the form 1K"lk") = 1P), whit:h i~ called Ihl' !il/ile eil'lI/em model of the original equa tion. Since thc elemcnt is phy~ically m nnected to its neighbors. the re~ ultin g algebraic equati ons wi ll contain more unknowns (c ' ~ as well as F's arc unknown in the e lement equations) than the number of al gebraic equations. Thcn it becomes necessary to put the elements toge ther (i.e .. assembly) to el iminate the extra unknowns. This process is di scussed in Section 3.2.5. The derivation of tinite element equations. i.e., a lgebraic eq u ation~ amo ng the unknown parameters of the ti nite clement approximation, involves the following three

I. Construct the weighted-residu al or weak fo rm o f the differential equation. 2.

A ~sume

the form of the ap proximate solution over::l typical finite c lement .

3. Derive the finite e lement equ atio ns by substituting the approximate sol ution into the we ighted-residual or weak form. A typical element no = (x". Xh) [see Fig. 3.2,3(a) j, who~e endpoint~ have the coord inates x = x" and x = Xh. is i ~o lated from the mesh. We seek an approximate solut ion to the governing differential equation over the c lement. In princ iple, an y method th at allows the derivation of necessary algebraic relatioJ\~ among the nodal values of the depende nt variable can be used. In th is book we develop the algebraic equations using the RitL method , which is based on the weak form o f the differential equat io n. Other methods. ~uch as the lea~t <;quarcs method. may a lso be u~ed to construct the fi nite element equations. Ap<lrt from the method used to derive the algebraic equations, the ~ teps presented in th i~ book for the Ritz (or \\/ea k-fonn Ga lerkill ) finite element models are the sa me for other methods. The th ree steps in the derivmion of fi ni te clement equatio ns associated wi th the model differential equati on over a Iyp;ca ! e/CIIII'III of the mesh arc discussed next.

Elcml.'t1t n .,," !X... fb)


Q" . (I

tI -

"") ,lI'

,. = X~


.'gu re 3.2.3 Finite clement d l/>Cretil ation of a onedimensiomll domain fur the model proble m in (3.2.1). (l/) A typica l fi mlC ciemerll frum the fin ite clement me~h . (b) A typital cleme nt. with the defim tlon of the pri mary (II) and -.ccondary (Q) \'ari ables at the element n()dc~ .

SICI) I. Weak .' orlll and MinimuI11 ora Quadratic Functional

In the finite clement method , we .;eek an approximalc .;olulion to 0.2.1) over each lin ite cle ment. The polynomial approx inwt ion of the solutio n within it typical tin ite element r.!. is ass umed to be of the fo rm

Ij~ = Lll jiftj(X)




where II} are the valucs Ilfth e solution u (x) at the nodes or the fin ite e le ment r.!e. and iftj are the approximation function)' over the clement . The pitnicular form in 0.2.3) will be derived in the next sect io n. Note Ihal the approxi mation in <3.2.3) diffcr' from the one u<;cd in the Ritl. method in that c)1J)( ), ) is now replaced with I') iftj (and tAl = 0). and II) plays the role of undeT errnilled parameters and iftj' the role o f approx i11laliOil fun cti u n ~. As we ~ h a l! ~ee latef. writing The ilpprox inlUtion in tc rms of the nodal values o f the so lutio n i ~ necessitated by the fact that the cont inuity of 11(.\') between clements C:1Il be read ily im po~e d. Thc cocf/ic ic nr.; I I ~ are de termined ~ uc h that (3.2. 1) is .satisfi ed in a wei~ ht ed -i nr egra l ,ellse. A~ d i'CUN!d in Chapter 2. the ncce"ary ,lI1d ~um cie nt num ber of algebraic relation.. among the II~ can be obtained by recasti ng the differential equation 0.2. 1) in:t weighted-i ntegral form:

---:f " [ "((1 "u)

II' --

+("11 - /






where w ( x) dcn ot e~ the weight fu nction and r.!~ = (xu . .1,,) i ~ Ihe do main ofa typical cleme nt I~cc Fig. 3.2.3(1)1. For I/ :Z:::: II;; and cach independent choice o f w, we obtain :HI indcpcmle l1l

J J()


j~'1<.0I)lJ("1l0N TO

j'UE F1Nnh U.hME'''''101E'I' If()!l

a lgebrai c equat ion relating all !lj of the element. A Total o f II independent equ:lIions are requireJ to solve lor the parameters j = 1,2 .... , II. When II' is selecTed to be '/If and (3.2.4) is used 10 obtain the ith eq uation of the required n equations. the result ing tiniTe element model (i.e., system of algebraic equations among the nodal values) is termed the Galakin fillitt, deml'lIt model. Since (3.2.4) contains the second derivative of u. the approximation functions '/Ij must be twice diOcrcntiable. In addition, if the secondary variables are 10 be included in the model. '/It must be at least cuhic. Similar arguments apply for case~ of the weighted-res idual methods discussed in Chapter 2. For details of the weigh ted-residual finite element models. see Chapter 14 rllld Reddy (1986). To weaken the continuity required of the functions 1/I;(x). we trade the differentiation in (3.2.4) from II to IV such th nt both It and IV are differentiated equally-once each in thc present case. The resulting integral form is termed the weakjorm of (3.2.1). This form i~ not only equiva lent to (3.2. 1) bu t it also contain s the natural boundary CCln diti on~ of the problem. The three-step procedure of constructing the weak form of (3.2. t ) was presented in Chapter 2 and is revisited in the next few paragraphs. The first step is to multiply the governing differential equation with a weight funct ion I\" and integrate over a I)'pical demNlt. as given in (3.2 .4). The second ~tcp i~ to trade d iO"erential ion from u to II' u~ing integration by parts:



f "(dWd"

1/--+cwlI - wj dx dx

) dx - [ d"]" dx x.
11'([ -


The third and last step is to identify the primary and ~econdary variables of the weak form. Thi s requires us to classify the bou ndary condi tions of each differential equation into ('ss(' lIlial (or geometric) and natuml (or force) boundary conditions. The cla~ s ification is made uniquely by examining tire boundary term appearing in the weak form (3.2.5),
[ wa

dll ]" dx

As a nI le, the coefficien t of the weight function 11' in the boundary expression is called a secol/(/ary mriable. and its specification constitutes the IWlllral or Neumann boundary condit io n. The dependent unknown 1/ ill I/le .\"II/I/e jorm 1I.~ Ihe weiMhl jUllction \\" appearing in the bou ndary expression is tenned a primary l'arillble. and its specification constitutes the i!.Iselllial or Dirichlet boundary condition. For the model equati on at hand. the primary and secondary variables are
dx The primary and secondary variables at the nodes are shown on the typical element in Fig .3.2.3(h). In writ ing the final form of the weighted-integral statement (i.e .. weak fonn) we wish to usc, we must address the fate of the boundary terms. For a typical line clement , the end points (nodes I and 2) are the boundary points. At these points we have tire following four condit ions (none of them specified at the moment)



a- = Q


CUM' lUI. ~1:CON[)..()I!;Ol.K 1)lln. Ku.. n .<l.I.IOQI.IAl1ONS I.'" 0'11. [)lMIJ<.SIO"- l1"1m' f1 F\II;NT ~lurn1..s



Ifwe !>Clcct /I~(.I.) in (3.2.3) such Ihm it automatical ly sm;"lies Ihe end conditions and II h .t"h) = 1/2' then il remains that we include the remaining cOl1(lition~ (
Ql =


( "u) I




in the


fomt (3.2.5). With the notmion in (3.2.6), the weak form becomes


f ' ( ".. "" +

(1 - -

ell'll -



dx dx

til' - W(X,,)QI - W(Xh)Q2


111 i~ cotl1p l ete~ the three-~tep procedure of con~tructing the weak form of the model equation (3.2.1). The finite element model based on the weak form (3.2.7) i~ called the lI'e(lk [onll GlIlakin jil/ill' dell/e/ll model. It is clear thllt the weak form (3.2.7) admits approJlimation functions Ihllt are lower order than the weighted-residual <,tatement (3.2.4). Student '! of engineering recogni/e that Fig. 3.2.3(b) is the[ree-body diagram of a typical clement. For axial deformation of bars. /I denotes displacement, dll/dx i~ the strain E, EE is the ~tre~~ cr, and Au denotes the force, where E i~ Young's modulu~ and A is the area of cro,~ ~ection of the bar; hence, Q A (dll/dx) (/(dll/dx) ha~ the meaning of force. The quantities Q~ and Q 2 arc the reaction forces at the left and right ends of the mcmber; i .. II compressive force wh ile Q; i~ a len~i l e force [algebraically. both are positive. "" "hown in Fig. 3.2.3(bJl. For heat conduction problcm~. II dcnote~ temperature. du/dx is the tempcrJture gradient. - k(dll/dx) is the heat flux lJ. and Aq denotc~ the heat. where k is the thermal conductivity and A i~ the area of cross section of Ihe bar; hcncc. Q =kA(III/(I.rl=lI(dlljdx) has the meaning of helll: Qj =-kA(dll/dx)" i~ the heat inpill at node I, whi le Qi = kA(du/dx)/J denote the heat i" PIII at node 2. Thu" the arrow on thc sceond nude ~hould be for heat tran~fer problems. For additional details on heat transfer. M!C Section 3.3. 1. The weak foml in (3.2.7) contain .. two types of expressions: tho~ contailling both II' and II (bilinear form) and those containing only IV (l inear I"orm):


/1 ' (11'.11) =

" f (

(/ - - + ("11'11 ) (Ix <i ... "" (Ix dx


The wcak fonn ClU be expressed I

(3.2.9) which is ca lled the 1'(lri (lliOIl(l1 pmblf!1II associated with (3.2. 1). As will be ,cell hlter. the bilinear form results directly in the element coefficient matnJl. and the linear form leads to the right-hand-\lde column vector of the fini te clemcnt cquations. Derivation of the vanat ional problcm of the type in (3.2.9) is possible for all pmblelll~ de<;cnbed by differential equations. However. the bilinear foml Il' (w,lI) may not be linear in II. and it may nOI be "ymmetric in itl> argullIcnls IV and u. Those who h:lve a background in applied mathematic, or ~olid and structural mechanics will appreciate the fact that the vlLriationa l problem (3.2.9). when W(W,II) is ~y111metric nr(lI'. Ii) = S '(lI, 11') and "(II') is linear in \1', is thc samc as thc statcmcnt of the minimulll

11 2

III' IVl~OIJ(;CT ln~ TOTII E n.~II'E EIM E.- .r MHflOU

orthe quadratic functional 1"(11), 8r = 0, where

1' (1/) =

~ tJ'(IL 1/) -


= 2"

a '/'" [(d")' 'J

~ +CII ~




ufdx - II(X,,)QI-II(Xb)Q2


Thus, the relationship between thc weak form and thc mini mum of lluadratic functional I" is ohviouN Icf, (3,2.9)1:
O=81" = IY(W.II)-I'(II').1I' = 811

The Slatement

8r = 0 in solid and


is also knuwn


the principle

oj minimulIl {ola/ (JOIcl1Iia/ energy, When (3.2.1) describes the axial deformation of a bar. ~ W' (1/, II) represents the elastic strain energy stored in the bar clement. I r (II) represents the work done by applied forces. and 1' (11) i~ the lotal potential energy (n ~ ) of the barc lemcnt.

the finite element model C;Jn be developed using either the statcmcnt of the principle of minimum tota l potenlial energy of an c lcmcnt or the wC;Jk form of the governing equ'l ti on~ of an demcnt. However. this choice i~ re~tricted to those problems where the minimum ora quadratic finctiona l 1"(11) corrc~ponds to thc governing ell uations. On the Olher hand, we can a lw;JYs con~truct a weak form of any set of d ifferential equa ti on~. linear or no\, of order 2 and higher. Finite element formu lations do not require the exi~tence of the functional 1"(11): they only need weighted~ integral ~tatetne11lS or weak forms. However, when the functiona l 1" (11) exi~ t s with an ex tremum (i,e .. minimum or maximulll principle). ex i~tence and uniquenes~ of solutiun \() the vuriationa l problem and it~ discrete ana log C;Jn be eslab l i~hcd. In all problem~ discussed in th is hook, the variational problem is derivable from a lluadratic funct ional.


Step 2, Approximate Solution

Recalltlmt in the traditional variati ona l methods, approx imate so lutions are sought over the total domain n = (0, L) at once. Consequem ly. the approximate solutionlu(x) ~ UN (x) = (' j j (x) + tA-,(x) I is required to satisfy the boundary conditions of the problem. Thi~ places severe restrietion~ on lhe derivation of the approximation functions j (x) and oCr ), especially when discontinuities exist in the geometry. materi,tl propcnies, and/ur loading of the problem (see Chapter 2 for detail s). The fi nite e lement method overcome~ this ShOt1 ~ corning by \ecking approximate ~olution (3,2.3) over each element. Obvious ly. geometry of the element should be ~impler than that of the whole domain. and the geometry ~hould allow a system;tt ic derivation of the approximation f uncti{)n~. as we ~ha ll see ~hort l y. To put the elemel1l~ b<lck together into their original posit i on~. i.e .. connect the approximate solution from each elemelll to form a condnuou~ solution over the whole domain, we require the solution to be the same at points common to the elements. Therefore, we identify the end points of each line clement a~ the delll('l1/ /lodes, which play the role of interpolat ion points (or base points) in constructing the approximation functions over an clcmcnt. Depending on the degree of polynomial approximation used to represent the ~olution, additional nOOes Illay be identified inside the elemelll.


Sillce the we:lk foml ovcr an element is equ ivalent to the differential equ ation and the natural boundary condi tion~ 0.2.6). i.e., condit ion ~ on Q ~ of the element. the approximate ~olulion II /, of(3.2.J) is required 10 ~ati s fy o nl y the end conditions III: (x,,) = III and U ~(Xh) = II;. We sed the :.tpprox imate ~u luti o n in the form of algebraic polynolT1ial~, although this is not always the case. The rea~on ror this c hoice is two-fold: First. the intcq>olation theory of numerical analy!.i~ can be used 10 develop the approximation function~ sy~ t e mat ical1y over an element: ~ond . numcrical cvahmtion of integral .. o f algebraic 1 >olynolllial, i, easy. As in ci a"sical variational methods. the approximation sol ution II ~ l11u~t fulfill certain condit ions in order Ihat it be convergent to the actual ..olution II as the number of clemet1!s is incre'lsed, TIlCse are:
I . [t shuuld be continuous over the c lement and differentiahle. as required by the weak form.

2. It shou ld be a l:olllpfele po lyno mial . i.e .. include lIlI lower-order tenm up to the highc ... t order used. 3. It ,lIould be an interpolant of the primary variables at the nodes of the finite clement (at lea't the nodes on the boumltry of the clement so that the continuity of the ...OIUliol1 can be i1T1 I>o~e d across the im erelelllent boundary). 11le reason for the !lrst condi tion i~ obvious: il erhurcs a noru:ero cocfri cien\ matrix. The second condition is neceSS:lry in order to capture all possible states. i.e .. constant. linear. ::lnd soon. of the acw al -.olution. Forcxample. if a linear polynomial wilhout theconMant teml is used to reprcloent the temperature di stributio n in .. one-dirnensio nalloy"tern . the approximate ~o lmi on can never be able to represent a unifo rm lotate of ternpermure in the clement should ~ uch :r state occur', The third condition is necessary in order to enforce continuity of the primary varinble\ at points common to the elements. For the we:lk form in (3.2.7).thc minimum polynomial order of II;; is linear. A complete linear 1 >oIynorniai i<; of the form (J.2. 11) where and ("~ are comtanllo. The phraloc "complete polynomial" refers 10 the inclusion of alilenll" up to the order de,i red: omi"sion of f'~ would muke it an incomplete linear poly1l0rni;!I. Similarly. ci + c Jx 2 is an incomplete quadrati c polynomial bccau\c the linear term is missing . The expre,sioll in (3.2. 11 ) meets the first two condiliom of an approximation. The third cond ition is sati ~ l ied if (.~ and c~ rlIL'Cllhe conditions 0.2.12) Equation (J.2.12) provides two relations between pressed in rn:llrix form a~


kr. ("2) and (Ii i. 11'2 ), which can be ex(~

Invening (3.2.13). we obtain

": = ':1 1 1 [' .<"] 1


(3.2. [3)



11 4

\:>II.'I'lltOlJl (110:" Tlnll h

FIMrr IJJJol E.'a ~l1"ntOO


where h ~

=x - x" and (a r = x". ,, ~ = - x" . fir = I. and f1~:::: "

,, ~= (-() j xj . fJ,~'=( -() J ;

x f= x" .

.(= Xb

(3. 2.15)

In (3.2. 15). i lind) permute in a natur;I( order:

ifi = I

then ) = 2:

ifi = 2

then j = I

Thc ,,; and are introduced 10 show the typical form of the interpolation function s. Sub,tiwting ( '~ and ('1 from 0 .2. 15 ) into (3.2 .11). we obtain
/I "


"() = - I I(" '(' x , I I/ I


+ 0'2 11 ~ +

~~ )

(U~"l P l li

+ l'l " l


~ Ix I

= - ("I

r~ + fl 1x )1I ..1

I e , + - (,,~, + fJ 2 x )I' 1 II,

= !Jr~(.t)I/ ';

+ 1fr2' (X)1I 2=
"'~ (x )


L !JrS(X)II :


I x - x" = - (O'~- + {J-~ x) = --fi r XI> - ,'u

CU.17 )

which are called the linear jillire dell/ellf lIppro.,ill/a/iollfilllcrioll~. The approximation functioll~ 1/I: (x ) have ~ollle interc~ting properties. First. lIote thm

impli e ~

IJIf (x,,) = 1 ::I1d !Jr2' (x,, ) = 0. Similarly. l

112 e II ~ (x,,) = IJI f (x,, )u ~

+ 1J12' (x,, )us

gi \'e.~ !Jr r (x,,) = 0 and I/I; (x/ = I. In other word~.IJI; is unity atlhe ith node lind Lero atthc other nude. Thi ... property i~ known a~ thc interpo lation property (i.c .. II~ i,,:m interpolallt of I/(x ) Through nodc~ I and 2) of 1/I,r (.~) and they arc abo called illlelpo/OIj()lIfiwl"tiUlis. When they lIrc derived to interpolate function values only and not the derivative ... of thc functIOn. they are known a" the ul!:mll~e illte'7JO/lllioll filllclimu. When the func tion and its dcri\'ativc~ arc interpolatcd. the rcsu ltillg interpulat ion functions llrc known;l~ the fierll/ite Jall/ify nJ illfl'rpnflllitm JIIIICliOlH . Thcse will be di .,cu,,~d in connection with beam finite cle ments in Chapter 5. Anothcr propcny of '/Iiex) is that thcir sum i~ unity. To see thi~. con"ider a c on~tant "talC of IIh= co. Thcn thc nodal vlIlue .. "I and 14 ; ... hould be {:qUlll [0 each othcr and both equal to the c()n~ t ant Cu. Ikncc. we havc

II~, (.I')

= !Jr~ (X)II ~

+ '/12' (X ) II ~ = Cll
I/I: < ) = xj


1 = '/I;' (x)

+ 1/If(x)
we havc 0. 2.18(/)

Thl ... propeny of IJI,~ (x ) is known 11" thc Pllrtilioll of unity . In


I if j = )

L, ,,;(x) ~ ..


0.2. 1Xh )

1I"(.I" ) :o ("I+ C


True o;olullon. u( r)

= "~'f',\r) + "i " ; (.1")

" 'I IX



.1" =.1".= .1",-


.I"=:r~ =





(b) Lillear tillile cleme nt apprOXinJ:llioll.

"' igure 3.2.4 (II) Linear illlerpohLlio n 1 \lIlclions.

whcrcxi = x" and \'f = XI> lsee &1 . (3.2 .15)1. The fUllc tiom "',' are);hown in Fi g. 3.2.4(a) and 11/;(:1') is );hown in Fig. 3.2.4 (b). Although proper1i e~ (3.2. 1Ra ) and (3.2. 1Rb) are veri li ed for the linen!' Lngrange imerpolntion fun ctions. they ho ld for Lagrange interpolation functions of nil degrees. The element interpolalion functions 1 in (3.2. 17) were derived in tcnll', of the 1:1(1)(11 /1,' ctxm:li"ate x [i.e .. the coordinate lIppc:lring in the goveming differe ntial equation (3.2.1 )1. but they are defined on ly on Ihe clemen I dOll1l1in Q~ = (x". XII)' If we choose to express them in terms of a coordinate j' (convenient in evaluating integrals of "'t). with the origin fixed at node I of the clement Q ,. the runc tion ~ 1/1; of (3.2.17) in terms of


0/ 1 (x )=

, _

1- - ,





(3.2. 19)

The coordinate i i~ termed the !OI:al or dement cOI)/'{/ill(/fc [see Fig. 3.2.3(a) I. The interpoilltion func tions l/Ii lire derived ,>ystem:l[ically: Slarting with an assumed degree of a complete algebraic polynomial for [he primary v:lriable II and detenn ining the coeffi cients of the polynomi;ll ;n tenns of the values iI; of Ihe primary variable /I :ltthe c lement nod e~. Ihe primllry variab le i ~ finall y expressed a~ a linear combination of approximation fun ctions l/It(x) and the nodal values which arc called [he clement lI(x /al (/egrccs offreedolll. The key point in th i~ procedure is the <;elect io n of the number :lnd the location of nodes ;n the clement so that the geometry o f the e lement j<; uniquely defined and imerelement continuity may be ell~ ily imposed. TIle number of nodes must be suflicient to allow Ihe rewriting of [he coefficient s in the assumed polynomial in terms of the primary varia ble ~. For a linear polynomi:tl approx imation. two nodes with one primary vari:tbl c per node are sufficient to rewrite the po lyno mial in term" of the vllllle" o f the primary variable at the two nodes and :11\0 define the geometry of the clement. provided the two node" are the end points orthe clemen!. The degree (or order) of the po lynom ial approximation can be increased 10 improve the accuracy (sec Fig. 3.2.5). To illustrah.: the derivation o f the inte'lXll:ltion funclion~ of higher order. we consider the quadratic approxi mation of II(X)



II ~ (X) =

cr + ci: x + c~x!

(3.2.20 )












Figurt' 3.2.5 (a) Linear approx inwlion. (b) Qundralie approxim:ltion.

Since there :tfe three parameters (i = 1. 2,3). we mu~t identify three nodes in the element so that the three parameters can be expressed in terms of the three nodal values uf. Two of the node~ arc identified as the endpoints of the eleme11l to define its geometry, and the third node is taken interior 10 the element. In theory, the third node can be placed at any interior poi nl. However. the midpoi nt of the element, being equidistant frOIll the cnd nodes. i~ the be~t choice. Other choices are dit:tatcd by special considerations (e.g .. to have a certain degree of singularity in the derivative of the solution). and we will not discuss <;uch special case~ here. Thus. we identify three nodes, two at the ends and one in the middle, of the clement of length h, [sec Fig. 3.2.5(b) [. Following the procedure outlined for the linenr polynomial. we e lim inate by rewriting 11%(.\") in terms of the three nodal va lues. (1I~.II;. u ~). The three relations among and uf arc





== ll~(Xf) = Cr +c;xr +c~(..r r)2


or. in matrix form.



xr (i =

xi =


+ O.5h e. and x~ = x~).

1.2.3) is the globu l coordinate of the ith node of the element Inverting (3.2.2Ib), we obtain


(x] = x".

"', = IJ'LIYjll,. 1",,~


, ,
= IY'



'C' R" L~illj ,=1


", -

yt = - (x; -


rtIAI'Ti" R I SI:("()NI)ORIJI-R l)lnT RP' fl AI_I:Qt;AlK)),IS

I~ 0'>" I)I.\ILNSION 11'111: EI.I MI"TMO!HC\.S


whcre Dr de not c ~ the determinant of the matrix in (3.2. 2Ib). and a~, Pi, and r,r are defined in (3.2.22) in terms of the nodal coordinates. The "ub~cri pl ~ u<;cd in 0.2.22) permute in a natural order:


; = 1.

then then then




For example, a2". P'j. and

; = 2. i = 3.

j=J and j = 1 and



rr are given by
fJl = (x f )2- (x;>2.
r; =.t~ - ri

a 2 = .I"~ (x!) 2_ xf(xj) 2 ,

Note thai if .1"]" i, very close to either x~ or x~ (i.c .. node 2 is placed c lose to nodc 1 or nIxie 3), mak ing the row~ o f the cocflil: icnt matri x in (3.2.2 1) nearly the <,arne. which Imlkes the matrix nearl y singular and not invcrtablc. Substituting fo r from (3.2.22) into (3.2.20 ) lmd collecting the coe ffi c ients of 1I'j . 1 2 4, and /1 1 <;C]Xlrately. we obtai n


11; (.\") = "'r(x)II'j

+ "'; (x)u 2+ "'Hr)u'1 =


, L, Vt"; (x) lI j ,


where y,; are the qU(I{lrlilic UI!{rlIlI!{e inlerpo/miolljllllc fio lls,

I Y,;( f) = IY (a ~

+ p~.r + r t x )

(i = 1.2.3)


Oncc again . the quadratic intcIlXllation functio n' can be exprc ~ ~e d in tcnm the quadratic inte qXllation functions arc given by

or thc ImlI l

cO()lllilWfe f. When the interior node, node 2, is placed at a distance .f = all" . 0 < a < I.

y,'(i ) =

ljI~(i) =

.f ( .) ' --.- ~ (I - .!.~)

a(l - a) "

1- II


( [ - 0')11


For a = ~ , i.c. , whcn node 2 is placed at thc midpoint of thc c le ment, the interpolation functions in (3.2.26) become
t l('\') =

, ( i)( h . ll) h

t/li (.f)

= 4-

., ( .i)


(3.2 .27)

y,l (i ) = - - 1 - " " II Plots o f the quadratic interpol:ltion functions arc g iven in Fig. 3.2.6 . The function "',~ iSC<lual 10 I al node i and :tcro :1 the othcr two nodes, but varies quadraticlllly betwcen lhc nudes. 1


( '")
_ I

11 8


nlF 11NnE E1.E.\lENT MlTIllOD

2 h,




)<"igure 3.2.6 Que-dimensional Lagrange quadratic clcmcnt



its intcrpolation


gcomctry of the ciclncnt; (b)



The interpolation properties (3.2.18(/) and C3.2.1Sb) can be used 10 construct the Lagrangc interpolation functions of any degree. For example. the quadriltic interpolation functions (3.2.27) can be derived using the inteq)Olation property (3.2. 180 ). Since '7:- (.i') must vanish at nodes 2 and 3. i.e .. at j ' = ~h , and x = he . respectively, '7 r(.\') is of the form I J/I~(.f) = C 1 (.r - "2i1,.)(.r - h, ) The constant C 1 is detennined such that

Vri" is equa l to I at.r = 0:


I I = Ct(Q - "2h , HO-h , )

C, = 2/1I ;

This gives

J/lfU) = 2 (i _ ~h f )(j _
II ;

II . ) =

(I _


.r) (I _ 2X)

which is idcntical to that in (3.2.27). The other two interpolations runction~ can be derived in a similar manner. Although a detailed discussion is presented here on how to construct the Lagrange interpolmioll function s for one-dimensional clements, they arc readily available in books on numerical analysis, and their derivation is independent of the physics of the problem to he ~olvcd. Their derivation depends only on the gcometl)' of the element and the number 1md location of the nodes. The number of nodes must be equal 10 the number of Terms in the polynomial. Thus. the interpolation functions derivcd above are useful not only in the finite element approximation of the problem at hand but also in all problems that admit

Lagrange interpolation of the variables, i.e .. all problems for which the primary variables arc the dependent unknowns- not their derivatives.

SteJl 3. Finite Element Model

The weak form (3.2.7) or (3.2.9) is equivalent to the ditrerential equation (3.2.1) over the element Q e. and it also wntains the natural boundary conditions (3.2.6). Further. the finite clement approximations (3.2. 16) and (3.2.24) arc the intcrpolants of the solution. The substitution of (3.2. 16) or (3.2.24) into (3.2.7) will give the necessary algebraic equations among the nodal values uf :lnd Q:' of the element Q,.. In order to develop the finite clement model based on the weak form (3.2.7), it is /101 necessary to decide {/ priori the degree of approximation of (I ~ . The finite element model can be developed for an arbitrary degree of interpolation:

" ~ lIh = L:> j 1fij(x)

ieo {

(3 .2.28)

where 1fi'j are the Lagrange interpolation functions of degree" - J. For /I :> 2. the weak form in (3.2.7) must be modified to include nonl.ero secondary variables. ifany. at interior nodes. This ll1l>dification is discussed next. The intcgratil>n by parts in Step 2 [see Eq. (3.2.5)] of the weak-form development for . an element with interior nodes is carried out by intervals (xf. x}"). (x 2 T~ ) .... , (X; ~ I' <):


, _, ,' (h ----:-, da L (f ':" (a -dw. (h +




) dx - [w(x)a (h ) dal':~' ----:x'



"( dx dx ,;

a - - +clI'lI - lI"/


du {/ )dx - w(x , ) (I) ' f - wCr~) () dx dx





- lI'(x~ )

( dU) x; dx
- (/ -

- I\'(x; ) a -

( da)
dx x\

- w(x;)

(a -da) dx


f "(

dll'du (1 - - + (;II'I/-II'!) dx dx
{/ ---:
(1 -

dx - lI'(x " ) ( 1

- (1 -

dll) dx ",
a(1 -

II" (x2)

, [( da) ,; + (da)] d); dx



, [( dx ,; + ( "a) ] ,1,,) dx .,;'


"'-I\"(x;, ,)

[(a -<1") dx


+ (da)] - aI


," ."

(a -dU) " dx




A I<.






where '< and.< .... denote the left and right sides. rc~peetively. of node i. lind
Q~ =

dU) dU) ( (/x. ; .0; = [( dx. ; + (dU)] (Ix 'i- 0(1 (1 w

(3.2.29h )

dU) - a[({/- .:, + (dU)] . Q"= (dU) ~= (Ix (Ix x;, " dx
(1 -

TllU~. Q i = 2.3 . .. . . II - I. denOle~ the jump in the value of the sccond:lry variable in f. going from the left 10 the right of the ith node. Thi'l value i" zero If no external I(ource i<: applied at the node. Thu~. for an element with II nodes, the weak form becomcs


" ( ( dw ---: I - du / _t~ d.\ (I.~


" d.\ ~ / " 1I'(ldX~L\r(x; )Qj

j' I


Note thm Q~ = Q~ and Q: = Q ~ reprc-.cnt thc unknown point sources at the end node". and all other Q~ (i = 2.3 . .. .. /I - 1) arc the specified poinl ,,(\urcc~. if any. at Ihe i11leriur
n()de~ .

Ncxt, v. c develop the fini te clcment model of Eq . 0 .2.1) when the (II - 1htdegrL"C Lagrange polynomials arc LI~ed to approximate lI(x). Following the Rill: procedure developed in Section 2.5.2 , wc "ub~ t itllt e (3.2.28) for /I and II' = tPl' II' = tPl' .. . , ". = tP; in!() the wea" fom1 0.2.~O) 10 obtain /I algebraic equations:



" " [0--. (Lll j_-.i + ctPr (Lll j 1/l; Cl) ) ~ V/U ] dx ~ L r ~ (.l; )Q~ d.p' " d.p,) , ' d .1 I"" d .l ,,

( 1st equation)


~ " d"" , /'.-"[CI ',,"' (Lll j-_1 ) + c\lli (L> j \ll; (.l')) - 1/IU ] dx (Ix

(2nd equation)

dx (ith equal ion )

L , , \IIr(xj )Q j

o ~ / " [a d,,;

(1'\ 1

(t u;""'J)+ c.p; (t u;"'J (' l) -"'; /]

I (/.\
J ,

Ifx -

L 1/r;(.l jl Qj
j .,

(nth equal io n)

The ith algebraic equation of the

sy~ lem



can be wril1en as 1. 2 . .... 11) (3.2.3 1t1 )


" L Krj ll ; i",1

I;' - Q~ U=

K,~. = IJ' ( 1/1,~. 1/1,") =


! '.(a d

,Ix ,1.1

1/1,' 'N; + C1/I"1/I,,) ,/.l


!A~ 1"11,' dx
Ll ~ed

Note that the interpolation property (3.2.18a) i<;

to write (3.2.32)

" L "':(x;) Q~ = Q~ i:o


Equatio ns (3.2.3Ia) can be expressed in


of the coefficicnts

It. and




In matrix notatiOI1. thc linear algebraic

c 4uati on~

(3.2.33a) can be wrincl1



The matri x K' is callcd the coeDicielll IIIalrix, or .\fijJl/e_H IIIlIIrLr in <;truClural mechanics appl ications. The column vector r" is the .mIlTt/! l 'I!("IOr. or lon:1! I'ector in ~ tru ttura l mechanics problems. Note that Eq. (3.2.33) contains 211 unknowns: ( II ~. II ~, .... II ~) and (Q~, Q:;, ... , Q~,). called primary and ~econdary elementllodal dl'grees olireedolll: hence, it cannot be so lved without having an additional II condit ions. Some of these life provided by the boundary conditions and the remaindcr by "balance" or cquilibrium of the secondary variable<; at nodcs common \0 .<;cvcral elements. 111is balance c:m be implcmented by pUll ing the clcmcnts togethcr (i.c .. a~<;cmbling thc clemcnt equations). Upon a ~<;cmb l y and imposition of boundary l'onditions, we shall obtain cxactly the same number of algebraic equations as the number of unknown primary and <;ccondary degrees or frcedom. The ideas underlying lhe assembly proccdure arc discusscd in the next section. Thc coefficient malrix 1K ~ I, which is symmctric, und SOUfce vcctor If'] can be eva luated for a givcn clement and data (a, (', and Forelementwiscconstant value<; of (/. c, and I (s.1y,a~, c" and I .. ) thecoefficicnts K~ and f," can easily bcevalualed for a typic .. l element. as discussed nex t.

Q :


Line:lr EI('ment. For a mcsh of linear element~ , thc element g loba l nodes Xli =x~ and XI! =XH I ]see Fig. 3.2.2(bJl. I-knee.
K ~.

Q~ i~

located between thc

!"" ( "'V

' dr

--' __ J

<II>' +c 1//1/1~ ) dl' ,Ix ~'I . ,


Ai'> INnOIXKTION m Till. HNI"Il'



or, in the local coordi nate ),ystem .i'. r/X . where .,. = XI +.f and

dx = d.f .



(Ix = di

"'i ca n be ex pressed in ten11 S of X as 1~ee (3.2. 19)1


We can compute


!,' by evaluating the integrals. We havc

lie - -

1', [ ( ') ( ') + (



c, I - -


.i ) (

I - - ) ] tlx .f

fi t 1 = II.. + -('h , 3 t

. 1."[ (') ' + ( .f) ' ]

t2 -






I- -



= -h..


I + 6 c.. II .. = -

K ... ,

(by "ymlllctry)


1-II .. Thus. for co n~[ant I,.. the total ~ouree 1.. 11 .. is equall y di.... tribuled to the two node .... The coefficient matrix and column vector are

1."(" " ) Jt= ', If ( ') 1.

(l, --+ (",~~

h .. h ..

h, h,

dx = -



+ - c,li,

[ K'J ~'"
[I' fI


[ ,
- I

- '] + c.h.
, 6

- I



IJ'I ~ I .h. 2



=atx and c =Cr , the coefficient matrix 1K' 1can be evaluated as

IK'I~ '"
II ,

(x.+-,.+, )[ ,

- ']


[2 ~]


The reader shou ld vcrify th is. Note [hut when u is 11 linear function of ,1", this j ~ equivalent 10 replacing (I in thc coeffi cient matrix wi th its ave rage value [compare (3.2.34) wilh (3.2.35)1:

CUAI'TUI " ~RONI).(lItlll..lC IIIHtlCf.!';nAI l:QUAnO'lS l'II)SUlll\tLN~1ON FI"I1l' n.l;l.I!''lTMOIlt:l.~


Arc3 of
CTOS!i St:Cllon. Ao

- -+-,
.4 .. '" .4 oP

A A ,Q .
- (x,.II.)).


A~+ A~.I

A... I '" ,1012 - (x.'. 1/1.)

I"ij,:ure 3.2.7 A pproximat Ion of an clemen l w ilh linearly ..... ryi ng men! of conSliml eros!> M!t.~llon .

!;Cllion by an equi ..... lenl elc

For e)(umple, in thc stud y of bars with linearly varying c ro~~ section (see Fig. 3.2.7)

a = i\(.r) = E

(A ,+, - Ax_ ,)
A~ +


Ihis amounts to replacing the linearly varying cross section with a constant cross ~ct i o n with in each element. the cro!>!>S/..octional area of the constant.o,eetion being the average area of Ihe linearl y varying cle ment Here A~ denotes the cross o.;eclional area at x~ and A ~+I i .. the area at x = X~+l' Qumlratic Element. For a mesh of quadrmic e leme nts, clemen t g lobal nodes..l"" = X Zr 1 and X b = ~kt I. Hence,


is located between


(3.2.36b) I~ dx = I, (I.r II .' l. I where "'rCr) (i = 1.2.3) art: the Lagrange quadratic inteqXJlation functions in (3.2.27). Evaluating the integrals in (3.2.3611) and (3 .2.36h ), we obtain
f.~ =

j "., 19

1 ",r "

3 4. 3 ;) II; 1"! (-- +-<) (--+ -4



II ;

+ c, [ 1 7


II ,


(i)'J[ )[ + ()'J I '


I- II ,



= - - + - cll

2 15"

K ,,

, 1" (--+- - - 8') ' 3 4-')(4 =



,, ~

,, ~


= --J II ,


+ - (.'~ h , =

K 21

K22 -

-')(4 1', ' (4 8 8i)



- - h, ,, ~

- - h, fl ,


[4 (I - -')] [4 -' (I - )]1d.'

i II , h, II. i hI'

= - - + - ch 3 I" 15 (' ('

7 (l r



on. Similarly.

1', it' [

I - 3i ,;.

+2 (

-' II ,


f ; = fi'

(by symmetry)

Thus, the clement coeffi cient matrix and

vector for 1I quadrati c demenl are


I K ' I =~
3/1 ,

[ -8 7


_~] + c;~, [~
7 - I


1 - 8



lf'l =

f,~', ~


O. 2.37b)

Note that. for quadratic elements. Ihc total value o f Ihe source i.Ii, h nOI distribulcd equally between the th ree nodes. The di stnbution i<; 1101 cquiva1cnllo that of two linear clemen" of length { hr _The compUialion o f it <;hould be based on the inlcrpolmion func tions of that element. i 'he sum of /.' for allY dell/elll ,hould alway~ be equal to the inTegral of fix) over the element:

' f: =

. f"f(x)d"


CI1I11'11,1{ J- SI.C'ONll_ IJI.I{ IJlflTRn;TIAI. f'(.X'ATJO'lS J)<; O)<;E [l1\1 ENS ION - fir-In; ELlMPSJ' MOllEU OI{


In summary. for elcmcntwise-eonstant values of the dat.1 (/, c. and f, the clement matri ces of a li near and quadratic cleme nts are

Ullear Element
", [ 1 ( h,. - I

-1 '"" [2~ ]) I::I~ j,;" ]


I:I I~; I


QlIadratic Elemellt

-8 -8 ([7 311" I
(/ "

16 -8

-:] + [ ~ ';~'


- 1


fch ~

1~1 + 1~!l
K r

When the coefficient c" = 0, the corresponding contributi on to the above equations should be omitted. When (/. c. and I arc algebraic po lyno mials in x , the eval ua tion of and II i~ j straightforward. When they are complicated function s of x. the integrals in IK ' ) and If' J are evaluated using numeri cal integration. A complete discussion of numerical integra tio n will be presemed in Chapter 7.

3.2.4 CUllllccth'ity uf Elemcnts

In deri ving the element equations. we iso lated a typical element (the cth element) from the mesh and formu lated the variat iuna l prohlem (or weak form) and developed its fin ite element model. The finit e element model ofa typical clement eontain slI equa tiun~ among 211 unknowns, (ur. 1I2. _ II ~) and (QI ' Q; , .. . , Q~). Hence, they e;mnot be solved wi thou t ... usi ng the equatio ns from other clements to get rid of extra unknown s. From a physical point of view. thi s makes sense because we shou ld not be able to solve the element equations without con~ id e rin g the complete set of e lements and the buundary conditions of Ihe total proble m, To obtain the finite element equations of the total problem. we must put the ele ment ~ back into their orig inal positions (u ndui ng of what was done before formulating the discrete prohlem). In pUlli ng the e lements with their nodal degrees of freedom back into their origina l po~i tion s, we must requ ire that the sol ution 11(.1:) i ~ uniquel y defi ned (i.e .. If is continuous) and the ir sou rce terms Qf are " balanced" at the poirlb where elemet1l s <Ire connected to each other. O f .:ourse, if the va riable /I is nOl continuou s, we do not impose its cont inui ty: but in all problems studied in thi s book, unless othe rwise stated expl i.:it ly (l ike in the case of an im ernal hinge in the case of beam bending), the ptimary variab les arc assumed to be conti nuo us. TIle continu ity of the primary variahles refers to the si ng le-valued nat ure of the



I~ IKOI}lJClION TO Tilt. fiNITE r.u~\lIXr .\1lflllOO

solution; balance o f .,econdal)' variables refers T the equilibrium o f point source1>. TIlU", O the assembly of elements is carried out by impo~ing the following two condilions: 1. If the node i of clemen t Q" is connected to the node j of e lement Q and node k of / elemel11 nl(, the continu ity of The primary vari able /I requires
(3.2.4 I )

Whe n clement ' arc connected in series, as shown in Fig. 3.2.8. the continuity of" requi res
II ~

" = 11"+ 1 ,


2. For the same three cle ments. the ba lance of secondary variables :11 eonnccting nodcs require"

where I is The globul node number as~ig n ed to the nodal po int that i ~ common to the three clcment~. lind QI is the val ue of externally applied source, if any (oTherwise zero). at t hi~ node It he sign of Qt must bcconsislent with the sign o f Q~ in Fig. 3.2.3(b)l. For the case shown in Fig. 3.2.8. we h'lYe if no external point "Ilurec is applied if an external po int ~ourec of magn itude QI is app lied

, , ", , , ,

"- ,, , .....--;, , /, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ". ", , , ", , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Q; Q',


, ".\.r)"" '<" "j"lf, ,.f) L





i~ Q. ~ -- ""
t 2

, , , , , ', ' " ,


~ lUIr


(r) "" L uj

(... 111 ... 11




: I

I 1


I ,


" ...

It-I ......... tmcr ior nodes


Etcmcnt nodes

m-I m

.. ~Q ~.I Ifi_, Q~_~-<"''''''''''''''''''''-C>-''O,,_ _ Ol~ 0,:'1

I _ ''" ,' I J


" -, ,"'--_-..,-,-_ _ _ _ _ _ _-,1

I ' +0..,




Figu re 3.2.K A~scl11b l y uf two Lagrange elelllclIIs: {(j) co ntlllllity of the prim<lry vari<lble: (h) balance (lft hc set:ondary variab les.

111e balance of secondary variables can be interpreted as the continu ity of a(duldx) (not a(du ~ /dx) 1 at the node (say. global node I) com mon to c lements r!, and Q e+ 1 when no change in adllldx is imposed externally:

' (a "")' :::: (d" )'+

(1 -




({/ "")' + ( "")'+'

(1 -



=0 -+


If there is a di scomi nuity o f rnag nitude Q/ in in goi ng from o ne si de of the node 10 the other side (in the positi ve x d irection), we impose

a:: :

The i nterelement cont inui ty o r the primary variables can be impo sed by si mply re nmning the variables of all e lements connected to the common node. For the conncct ion in Eq . (3.2.41). we simply use the name
(f) (/J (x) _ II; :::: lI j :::: 11,

= U,


where 1 is the global node num ber at which the three c le ment s are connected. For exa mple, for a mesh of N lincar fi nite clements (11 = 2) connected in seri es lsee Fig. 3.2.2(bl]. we have
11) =

' u1.112= 11 ) = u2. 11"=111= u, .. 11 2 I N = N. " N =11 ) U 2

U" = :.

U N+)

Figure 3.2.9 shows the connected /lnite c lement solut ion. II I., composed of the c lement so lutions IIJ,. Fro m the connected ~o luti o n . we can identify the g loba l illlerpo lmiolljwU"liolls <1>,. which can be defi ned in tenllS of the element interpo lation fun ctions 1/Ir corres po nd ing to the global node I . as shown in Fi g. 3.2. 9. To enforce balance of the secondary variables. it is clearth:tt we can set Isee Eq. (3.2.44 d + Qj1l + Q1/:"1 equal to zero or to a speci fi ed value Q, on ly if we h'lve such an ex pression in the finite clement equati ons. To obtain such expressions. it is clear th at we mu st add the ilh equati on o f the clement Q , . the j th equation of clement Q f . und the kth equati on of cleme nt Q e . For the case shown in Fi g. 3.2.8. the 11th equation of cle ment Q e must be added to the tirst equmio n of the c lement $1,'+ 1. i.e .. we add


" L K~j ll j =!,~ + Q~p

i "" l



"~IN"r~I!(l(lcrtQ~ IOT llf n'< II1.iJoL.L\I INI MLU fOI)

IjII "



.. JI-II "' 2 (1" )

~< ~

...--"h (... .. L." .... 11jI .e , l(.-)

1-'1 1 /




3.2.9 G lobal inlC rptl)alion function) for the


linear elel1lcn1 s :md (b)

q U:l u ml ic eJ emc nl ~.

to obtain

" "(K ~J /I"J + K r+l l/r+l) = L.... " I} J



( f"

+ [ I.. +I + (Q'~ + Q'+O ) I


= In.. +(r+'+ Q I ( . I

This proces~ reduces thc number of eq uat ion ~ fro lll 2N to N + in a mesh of N lincar clemcnts. The fi rs! equation of the liril element and the last e<llI3tion of thc last elcment

will fCmain unchanged. except for renaming of the primary variable... The left-hand side of 0.2.47) can be wrinen in term .. of the ~ l obal nodal values as

' '+ ~~ 2'" (K ~I "I K' 1I '+

') ~tl r+l + K'IIn " " + (K~+I " ~+I + K ~+I li ~+ I + ... + K III lin ) II I I~ Z

=( K,:IUN+ K;zUNII+ +K;'"U""+II I) +(K~tU"" + 1I I+Kr~IUN+n+ ... +K~;IUNI-2J'


= K:IUN+ K;'~UN'I++ K:(n IIUN+n-2

where N =

+ (K:" + K ti')u,.,.."
2). we have

+ K~tUN+" + ... + K f: I U \'+1l!_2 (II - I )e + I. For :, me:.h of N linear elements (II =

K II1U 1

(3.2.48 )

+ K I12 UZ =

f,' + Q:

(u nchangcd )

K~ IUl

+ (K~2 + K ~dU2 + K ;2U, =

+ f,~ +

Q + Qf l


+ (K ~~ I +

K ~ )UN
K 5. ,UN

+ K i~V'\'_1 =
N + K nVN+ 1 =


1+ fi" +

Q~' I

+ Q~

N f2N + Q2


The:.e <Ire called the lIssemb/l'tf el/lIll1ioIlS. They eonlain the ~urn of coefficient'> and <,Ourcc tcnns at nodes common to two clements. Note that thc numbering of the global ec[uation, corresponds to the numbering of the global primary degrees offrcedolll. VI. This eorre"ponlienee carrie~ Ihe symmetry of element matricc<; 10 thc globa l matrix. Equation~ (3.2.49) can be expressed in malrix form as

K b
K n+ I




, Ki2+ K il


U, U,

+ I? If + / 13


Q + Qf 1



It - I + Ii'"

Q ;-

+ Q '~




AN '''TNOI)\;CT'O~ TOTIII, rJl>iT!: ~:L1J,II;:'<'I' METHOD

h, = !;t\ .. h, = 4ft .. " 1= 6ft ..

Rigid member (eon,lnl)ncd 10 move horizontally)

II, = 0.5 In ..



in ..

"a = I.Oin .. I:.:,=30XIO"p.;;.

E,, = 14x I06 pSI Eo'" lOx IO"p,i.

~ (Hob,,' ",00, number


"' igurc J.2. IU The geometry and finite element mesh of a three-bar Slru\:lurc.

Note Ihal the discussion of assembly in Eq~. (3.2.49) and (3.2.50) is ba~ed on Ihe assumption that e lements arc connecled in series. In general, severa l elements can be connected at a global node. and the elements do nol have 10 he consecutively numbered. In that case, the coefficients comi ng from all clements conneCled at that global node will add up. For example. consider the S\nlcture consist ing of three bar c lements shown in Fig, 3.2.10. Suppose Ihat the connecting bar is rigid (i.e .. not deformable) and is canst ruined to remain horizontal at all times. Then the continu ity and fo rce balance conditions for the structure are (3.2_5 I ) To enforce these conditions. we must add the ~econd equation ofcJemenl I. the first equation of clement 3. and the second equation of element 2:

We note the following correspondence of local and g lobal nodal values (sec Fig. 3.2.10):

'-u I,

11 2

; = U4

Hence, (3.2.52) becomes

K~1 V, + Ki l v 2 + (Ki2
= =

+ K (1 + K i 2WJ + K~2V4

Ii + I? + 122 + Q~ + Q+ Q~ ':

Ii +/I~ + f i+2 P

CIIM'l'1'.Il '. SeCON!) UKutiR UIfTEREI'o"TlilL




The ot her equations remain unchanged. except for renaming of the pri mary variables. The assembled equations arc

KI 2

Kf, Kfl i, K k o K i,

+ + Note that all are zero forthe problem in Fig. 3.2.IObec<luse where k = there is no distributed ax ial force (f = 0 for all clements). The coefficients of the assembled matrix can be obtained directly. We nOle that the g lobal coefficient K /J is:l physical property of the system. re lating g lobal node Ito global node J. For axial deformation of bars. K /J denotes the force required at node I to induce a unit displacement at node J. while the displacements at al l other nodes are zero. Therefore. K IJ is equal to the sum of all K ~ for which i corresponds to I and j corresponds to J, and i and j arc the local node~ of the element np Thus, if wc have a correspondence between clement node numbers and globllJ node numbers, then the assembled g lobal coefticients can readily be written in terms of the element coefficients. The correspondence can be expressed through a matrix [B [, called the ('OIl11erlil'ity matrix, whose coefficient bij has the follow ing meaning: hi) is the globa l node number corresponding to the jth node of element i. For example, for the st ructure shown in Fig. 3.2.10. the matrix [BJ is of order 3 x 2 (3 e lements and 2 nodes per e lement):

Kil Kil K il'


This array can be used in a variety of ways- not only for assembly. but abo in the computer implementation of finite e lement computations. The matrix [11 [ is used to assemble coefficien t matrice~ as follows:

Ki , = K 11 Ki2 = K n

because local node I of element I corresponds to global node I. because loca l nodes I and 2 or element I correspond to g lobal nodes I and 3, respectively

and so on. When more than one element is connected at a global node. the clement coefficients arc to be added. For example. global node 3 appears in all three rows (i.e .. elements) of the matrix [B], implying lhat all three elements are connccted to a g lobal node 3. More specifically. it indicates thm node 2 of element I. node 2 of element 2. and node I of e lement 3 arc the same as global node 3. Hence,

,,' "' 22+

K' 22



Assembly by hand can be carried out by exam ining the tinite element mesh of the problem . For the mesh shown in Fig. 3.2. 10, we have

K23 = K12

because globa l node 2 is the samc as node I and global node 3 is the same as node 2 of e lement 2.


"N I""I"II;OUI /TIO' T0111~ Fi'lTf CU..MI' 'iTMnIlOO _

K24 = 0 becau ~c global nodes 2 and 4 do not belong to the K \l=K~2+ Ki2+ K i\

~alll e


and ~o on. The problem can al~o be solved by numbering global n od e~ I and 2 to be the <,amc node . Thi ~ Icad ~ to a 3 x 3 global sy~ tem of cq uati o n ~ . In summary, asscmbly of finit e clements is carried out by impo ~i ll g intcrelemCl1l continuity of prim ary vuri:tbles and balance of secondary variables. Renaming the primary varia ble~ o f an cleme nt in terms o f the global primary variable~ and the corre'po ndence between the local and global nodcs allows the assembly. Whcn cen ain primary nodal va lues are not required to be COntilluOU ~ across clements (a ~ dictatcd by physics or the vari:lIional formul:ltion of the problem), ~ u c h variable: may be C()I/('l'I/.~e(/ out at the element level before a~~cmbl i n g the elements. 3 . 2.5 Intl)Osilion The
d i,>cus~ i on

or nuundary Conditions

in Section 3.2. 1- 3.2.4 i ~ valid for any differential equatio n that is a "'pecial of the mode l equati on (3 . 2. 1). Each problem ditTers fro m the other in the spccitic:Ltion of the dat:1(ll . C, f) and boundary condi tio ns on the primary and secondary variabJcqll. Q). Here we di sc u ~\ how to impose the bOUll(hlry cond i ti o n ~ of a probkm ol1thc assembled set of fin ite elemen t (algebraic) equ ation~. To this end. we usc the problem in Fig . 3.2 . 10 . The boundary cond itions of the problem arc evide nt.. at least for an engineering ~t ud ent , from the <;tnlctu re shown . TIle known primary degree,> of freedom (i.e .. di splaeemc nts) arc

1I]=V1= O .
The known '\eeondary
d eg ree ~

ro rce~ )

U~=V4= O


or freedom (i.e ...

Q~+Qi+ Q 1=2 P


111C rorces Q QT. and Q~ arc un known (reacti on forces). and they can be determi ned after the primary degrees of freedom are deteml ined . hlllx>sing the boundary condit ions (3.2.5411) and (3.2.54b) on thc assembled system of equations (3 . 2.53) wi th It = 0 . we obtain



,, '



Thi ~ contain, four equations in four unknowns: VI.

Q: .

Qi . and Q~.

3 . 2.6 Solulion of EClulitions

As a .. tandard procedu re in fin itcelement :malyl>i..... the unknown primary degrees of frccdo rn are determ ined fi rst by ('o/l side";//8 Ihe aIRI'brai(' equ((lio/B CO/'l'l'.\poJl(Jin t,: 10 th e unknown primary I'""if/hles . Thus . ill the present case, we conside r the third equation in (3.2 . 55) to solve for V3:



1'1 0'1 1 UIMI I\\IOl\ Il 'lm '

1~.E\tFNr MOUbI$




Equation (3.2.56) is called the ("()I1(Jenseti eq!wtiml for the unknown V ). The term in parentheses on the right-hand side is 7cro bec au~e all speci fi ed di ~ placeme nt s are l ero in the present problem. l ienee. the solutio n i-; g iven by



Z + Kn +



' 111C unknown ~econd ary vlIriables lire determined by considering the re maining equations o f (3.2.55), i.e .. those that contain the unknown second:lry variables:


K Ill

" o

K i1


Ki l

becau se VI. V 2, and U4 arc I.ero. 11 i ~ possible, although not commo n with commercial fini te clement programs. to move alllhe unknowns to the left-hand side o f (3.2. 53) and solve for them all at once. But th is process destroys the symmetry o f the coeffic ient matrix and require!> more compulmional lime in praclic:ll problems. To obtain numerical values. we U!>C the geometric and m:lterial data shown in Fig. 3.2. 10. We obtain

EbA b = (14 x 1f1' )(Jf(IU 4 ) =87, 693 Ib-in .


8 x 12 4 x 12


" "

_ ' _ E$ A , _ (30 x 106}(rrd}/4) _ I 2' 7 ISlb. In. _ _ ~,

11 2
Ea A a

K' =

(1 0 x 1f1' )(Jl d;/4) = 109 , 083 lb-in.


6 x l2

The d isplacement of nude 3 is V,l =0.0 1878 in .. re:lclion at node I i\ = -I. 647 lb.,. = - 2. 305 lbs and reaction at node 4 is Q~ = -2. W9 Ib ... I-Icnce. the stres<;es in elements 1,2. and 3 are 0 I = 2. 739 p!>1. 0 2 = 11. 739 psi, and 0) = -2. 609 psi. re ~ pec ti vely. [n gencraL the a " ~e mbl ed finite clement equati o n ~ can be p.u1i tioned according to the scts of sl>ccified and unspcc iticd displacements ir\to the following form:



K" [
K 21


where U I is the column o f known (i.e .. specified) pri mary v;triables. U2 is the column o f unknown primary variable!>. F I ;\ the column of unknown MX:ond;try variable!>. and F! is the column of known secondary v:triables. Writing (3.2.59) as two matri x equatio ns. we obt:tin

(3. 2.60/)


..,N INlItOl)IJ("Tl( I'I n.lTltI; Il)<lm, hLE\KNl MEIHOO

From (3.2.60b). we have

u' ~ (K"r' (r' - K" U')


Once U2 is known from (3.2.6Oc). the v(:ctor of unknown secondary variables. Fl. can be computed usi ng Eq. (3.2.60{/ ). In most finite clemcnt computer programs. elemcnt matriceS are assembled a" soon as they are generated and they are not stored in the memory of the computer. Thus. element equations arc not available for postcomputation of the secondary variables. Also. due to the fac t th<lt the assembled coeffici ent matrix i" modified (when opcnltions me performed to invert a matrix) during the solution of equation". Eq. (3.2.600) c:lI1not be used. Therefore, secondary variable:-. C,m only be computed usi ng their definitions. a~ di\Cussed next.

3.2.7 Poslcomputalion of the Solution

The ~olution of the fini te element equat ions gives the nodal values V, of the prim<lry unknown" (e.g .. di splacement. ve locit y. or tent perature). Once the nodal values of the primary variables are known. we can use the fin ite clement approximation 11;;(.\') to compute the desired quantil ie~. The process of computing dcsired qUlllltities in numerical fonn or graphical form from the known finite e le ment solution is termed pIIslCUmplIl(I(io/l or IW.wpr(){:essillX: these phmse .. arc me:lIlt to indicate thaI further computations arc made aner obtaining the solution of the finite clement equation.. for the nodal values of thc primary variables. Postprocessing of the solution includes one or more of the followi ng tash: I. Computatio n of the primary and secondary vtlriables at points of interest ; primary variables are known at nodal points. 2. Inlcrprctation of the results to check whether the solution ll1ak.e ~ sense (an underst:mding of the physical process lUld cxpcrieru:e arc the guides when other solutio ns are not available for cmnparison ). 3. Tabular and/or gr.tphical presentation of the re ~ ult s. To determine the So lulion 11 as a conti nuous function of po'\ition x. wc return to the approximilllon (3.2.28) over each ele ment:

" II!<X) = ~::>~~)(x)

) ~ I

II~(X)= LII;1/t}{x )
II(X ) ~
)= 1



uf(x)= L II71/tj(x)
J- I



~1OM) ,OIlI)UI HIll""ItE"lIA!. EQUATIOI\S 11\ OM, I)IMI~~SIO~ nl<m; I.l:t.ltST MOUl'LS


where N is the number of clements in the mesh. Depend ing on the value of x, the corre sponding element equat ion from (3.2.61 ) is used. T he derivative o f the solution is obtained by dilTerentiating 0.2.61);


duf = tIlNd!/!:


Notc that the derivative illlVilx of the finit e elcment approximation III; bu!'.Cd on L:lgrange interpolation is (Ii ~co ntinu ous, for any order clement, at the nodes connecting different elements becau~c the continuity of the derivative of the finite c lement soluti on al the connecting nodes is not imposed. In the case of linear c lc ment.s. the derivative of thc solution is constanT within each clement (see Fig. 3.2.1 1). The secondary variables Qj can be computed in two dilTerent ways. In Eq. (3.2.58), we determined the unknown secondary variables Q:. and Q ~ from the assembled equations of the problem in Fig. 3.2.1 0 . Since the assembled equations often represent the equilibrium relations o f a system. the Q~ compUled from them will be de noted by (Q~)CtJUlI. The Q~ can also be detenn ined usi ng the dc finition s in 0.2.6). replaci ng II with U. We sh:lll denote Q~ computed in this way by (Q~)<kf . Since ( Q /)d<f arc calculated u,ing the approximntc ~o lutio n II h lhey arc not as accuTlttc as ( Q i)C<juti. However. in fin ite . clement computer codes. (Q~ )def are cakul~tl ed in stead o f (Q'i )c"tju,l. This is primarily due to computationul reasons. Recall that. in arriving at the results in (3.2.58). we uscd part of the assembled coeffici ent matrix . In the numerical solution of si multaneous algebraic equations in a computer, the ori ginal assembled coefficient matrix is often modified . and therefore the coefficients needed for the determination of the secondary variable;, rm! not :lvail:1ble. unless they :Ire 'iav(."<i in:ln additional For the problem in Fig. 3.2.1 0 . we

Q r,


[Jiscontin luly



Figure 3.2.1 1 Gradient of the finite elcmcill solution.


1t""-1l10f)l':<'TIOr.TOnllHr.m lu-""" r ''''THOO




( EA - ) I (IU~



U4 - U, CA J = - - U ) =K2I UJ 111 hI

where II I and i l l arc thc lengths of clements I and 3. rc,;;pcclivcly. The 'iCcondary variable" computed u"ing the definition .. (3.2.63) :Irl~ the same as tho..c derived from the a<;l>emblt-d equations for the problem in Fig . 3.2.10. Thi s e{luality il> 110/ to lit> ('1"{Ieeted ill gelll'm/. In fact, when the source vector J i" not/ero. the secondary v riablcs computed from the definitions (3.2.6) will be in error compared wilh those compllIed from the assembled equati ons. The error decreases lll> Ihe number of clements or the degree of interpolation is increased. l11is complctes the basic ~Ieps involved in the finite c lement analysis of the model C(luation (3.2. 1). Ncxt, wc consider an example of ap plic:llion oflhe finite c lement method. Addit ional applicat ion.;; o f the method to one-d imensional pfOblc m ~ of heal transfer, fluid mechanics. and solid mt"Ch:mic<;. :Ire presented in Chapter 4.

I<:xample 3.2.1
We; wish to u~e the l'inite element methvd to -SQlve the problem de~crilx..-d by tbe following differential equ<ltion and bount!ary conditions (see Example 2.5. 1);

- - - 11+.\'=0 for O<x<1 l







The differential e<fu;\uon in (3.2.64) i:> a special case of the model equation (3.2. 1) for the follo....>ing data: (I <:I: t. c = - 1. and f(x) :::= _Xl. lien:. the coefficient maulx is gi\cn by




f '" (doJir d>/Jj _ J/!'y,.) dx

dx dx



t (-x'J)'Id dx

Fin.t we con~ idcr 8 mel>h of f!lo r lincar elemenl$ 80d nelll a mesh of two quadratic elementS 10 solve tbe problem. Linear Eitrnenl'>. Theelcment cocOicie-nt matrix i~ given by lsee Eq. (3.2.34), with 0, "" I, ('~""- I.h <=t l

I [ 94 -97 ] [},9167 IK'l""i4 - 97 94'" -4.04/7

_4.0417] 3.9 167

The coefficie.nt~ it are evaluated as

it =< - ~< [~ (.~-~:) - j (x: --.x;)]


-~ [~ (4 _ X4} >..:! (xi h,4 3


_Xl)] ..

t:lement J. (Ill <:0: i ,.t~ = Q. -Go 0:::: hI =t):

Ii ::o:.-Q.oon02. fl = ....O,CI03900
Element 2. (h~ = ~, X<l = h\ ;:l ~ ..n "1$. 1/1 + h~ =


f? "'" - 0.014323,
f~ ::!:> -0.042969,

f l"#-o.02,2J35

N <= - 0.05599

f: =--0.0&724, Ji == -0,10547
ll1C as!;Cmblcd

of equ;ltif}J1S is
0 0 0 7.lUl3 - 4.04 17 0 0 () - 4.0417 7,R333 - 4.0417 -4.04 17 7.8333 - 4.04 17 0 - 4.04 17 3.9J67 0 0

3.9167 - 4.0417 0

- 4.0417


U, U,


U.00130 0.0 18'23 =- 0.0651U 0.14323 0.10547

Qi+ Q~ Q;+ Q i +

Qi 'r- Q'I

Sim::e OJ "" 0 and U~::;<: O. the CIlJldcJlsl.'"(\ equations are oblaineu by omitting the rows :U1d columns pf the assembled l..'qlHltion!>. The conJenseU e4ualjOl1.,~ are

lind fifth

- 4.0417


7.8'333 - 4.0417

-40417 0] IV . '
...... 4.0417 7,8333

=: -

O.065W 0.14323


'fhe SQJulfon is (jbla~fled using a cpmpllter)

U1 = O,O. 1.h =-0.02323. U1=-O.()4052.


Uy= O.O

The secondary vari:lbles can be computed either the definition t>r from the element equ:ujom. We ba~e

(QDd~/. (~1I dill!) 1 '" ~ :0.09293 (X ~01 ~


({lilt) ! U,-U ," 0.15676






(Q:l"".iI '" Kl1tUI + K II:Ul ~ 1/ ... 0.09520

(Q~).qw'" ~tU4+ KtUs- ft,..O.263R6

Quadralk Elements. The elClTIllllt coefficient fIIatri x is given by !S1,."c Eq. (3.2.37{j). with
a(= 1. c,, =-I, 1I..


LX" I,.. 66 -322 624 -322 276 41 -322

I [



41J = [4.6000 -5.3667


- 5.3667


10.4000 -5.3667

The l"()C(ficienl,~ f/


e""lu1IIOO as

h. - , ") Ii := -(;0 (h; + 111..1;

!l ~ - ~I; (3h~ + Io.~ + Io.\;h.)

h, "' II "" -00 (9h + 20x~ + 20'\,lh, ) :
Elemenll. (h,=~,.t.. ~O,xl>~hl=!.)~

It' =0.00208,

11 = -0.02500. III = - 0.01875

I!:ll:ment 2. (h 2 ", !,.'~#hl=!.X.="1 +111= I ):

112 ... -0.01875.1=-0. 19 167.1;=-O.01U25

The ;lsSclmbled <;(:1uf equntiOtls are

4.6000 -5.3667
-!S.3667 0.6833


0.6&33 -5 .3667






9.1000 -5.3(167
-5.3667 0.6833


10.4000 -5.3667 -5.3667 4.6000






QJ 0.0:3150 + QI+Q; 0,19167 Qj



10.4000 -5.36(>7 [

-5.3667 0] (U =- [0.0"'(0 ) '

9.200v -$.3667 -5.3667 10.4000 U) [14,

0.03750 0.19167

The IWluliorl is

v! to.o,

Ut =-OJJ2345, Ul= ....0.04078. U4

"" ....


U~ =0.0

The SOCO!,Kiilry variables can be- conlPut.ed IJ.Sing either the. definition or from Ib.e element equations. We have

(' Q)



(d")1 -adx


"" .... -

[U,( ...3+4- + -v,(4 - 8- U,( _ I +4 x)] ....o ") ') ____ II



;;Ul --hUl +hU, =0. 1 0602 4 ')

Tabfe 3.2.1 Comparison t)f the linile e1emell! results with th e e,::l.ct solution ( -IOu) of eqs. (3.2.64) and (,3.2.65).
Rit1. t




0.00)() 0._ 0.1149


O.os8 1
0.[ l62

D .{lOOQ
0.(60) 0.1193
0.1711 0.2337









0.18 16 O;ZJ4S

O.t776 0.2339





0.3347 (D7S7





0.:3620 O .40S2

0.4490 0.4)3g


0.3345 O375S .. 0.4076






O 9 .l"'1




0.33 18

O.] 1J.J2 0.3421 0.2591


O.435(} 0.4246 11,3942





0. 1%0

0.245 [







Thf\'epo.r!l!)\<:l ..... Rlt>..~fuliop fro,,\ tl~~mpk 2.5.!. I ~"ml.>tin bold _ ~!Ii!<Il!t VlI!~,* ~ ~ lbt- i,~<:<p(>.Ia'W :!.lUi'> {41_'" 4 !;n<:~r~.:m<~~ 2Q "" 2

quat!!lIIi;;cktmlll":4Q .. ,,"r,).C k",


I\~' Ii'HII()DUCTI()~ TOTIIr FINn"!' U .E.\11;NT MIiTllon



4Q} FF.M 2Q '"


1<: ....Q.02










CoonHl1i1t<!, ~.

Figure 3.2.12


Of the finite-e lement ~oJutIQn:- lib wilh !.he exact and Ritl ~()luti(lnli.








0.00 -i).OS
-0.10 .....


0.4 0.6 Conrdjrm!e. .f


1?igure3.2. L3 CompJriS"on OJ the finite elemeo.t solulions dlf ~Jd.c with the exact and Ritl

') dO;) ') V, (Q)'Mli5! (a - - I = [V, (.... 3+4 ') + -U, (4-8- +- (- 1+ 4 ')]
~ "' I



') ~ ( QJ c~.1{ "" K !~U)

11 + Kl.,U + K~)V., - Ii~ =0.2652J


Thble 3.2.1 contains a compa.ri~un of the finite clement te$ultS against the three-parameter

Ritz ~olution ~lOd the exact solution (sec EXample 2.5.1 find Table 2.5.1). The fOUr linear~ elemen! and tWO quadratiC-element /i<.)lutions are not as accumle as the three-parameter Ritz solution. However, the four quadrmic--element ~()Iutio)l at the nQdes (details II,TenOI givc.n here) is virtually Ihe $Hme as the eX'HO! SQlulioll.. Plots of Ij~ and dUIo/dx are shown in Fig~. 3.2.12 and 3.2.13, respectively. Note that the fin ite e1emen! Solulions for Ihe derivadv<:. (poslcornputed from 1110 (x) j are disttmtiQuous betWeen the elements: the value of the di/Terence in dUhld_( bclween cJemenl~ reclilc~ ~l!i we moVe from Hocar to quadlillic c!emems. :lOct from C(l(lrse to refined meshCfi.


A few

are in oruer on the steps described for the model equation.

Remark 1. Although the Ritl. metholl was useu to set up the c lemcnt equat ions. any other method. such a~ a weighted-residual (i.e .. the least-squares or Galerkin) methou coulu be used.
Rcnmrk 2. Steps 1---6 (sec Table 3. 1. 1) arc common for any problem. The derivmion of interpolation funct io ns depends only on the e lemen t geometry and on the number and position of nodes in Ihe element. The number of nodes in the element and the degree of appro:<irnation u~c u arc relatcd. Remark 3. The finite elemem equ<l1 ions (3.2.33b) are derived for the linear operator equat ion
A(u) =



A = -dx

d ( dx + r d)
(j -

(3.3. 1)

Hence, they are valid for any physical prob lem that is described by the operator equation A (II) = .f or its spec ial cases. One need only interprelthe quantities appropriate ly. Examples of problems described by this operator are li sted in Table 3.2.1. Thus, a computer program written for the finite c lement analysis of (3.2. 1) can be used to analyze any of the problems in lllblc 3.2.1. Also, note th:lIthe data (J =a(.r), (" =dx), and 1= I(x) can be different in different elements.


....'11\ 1'1IOOl1(.''IION1UUU: ~lNrrhlJ _EMu.T \-IEIllOO

Re mark 4 . Integrat io n of the clement matrices in (3.2.31") can be implemented on a computer using nUlllerical integration . When these integrals arc :llgcbraically complicated. we ha\'c no other choicc but numcrical imegration (scc Ch .. ptcr 7). Remark 5. As discu<"scd in (3.2.45(1) and (3.2.45") the poi nt sources at the nodes arc included in the lillite e lemem model via the balance of sources at the nodes. Thus. in constructing finite element meshes. we s hou Id include nodes (l\ the lOCations of point sources. If a poim source doc~ not occur at a node. it is possible to "distri hu te" it to the ele me nt nodes. consistelll with the ti nite c lement tlpprox lmation. Let Qo denote tl point source at a point .r = .fo. i~ :::: .ro :::: where i i" the local coordinate. The point source Qo call be represented as a "function" with the help of the Dimc della func tion


f(i) = Q0 8(.f



where the Dirac delta func tion 8() is defi ned by

! ().)

F (i)8(i

~ io) di =

F (.fO)

(3.3. 3)


l llecontribution of the fun c tion fer) 10 the nodes of the clement Q~ from [see & 1 (3.2.310)1 .

(.f l ill) is computed

where 1/1; arc the il11crpol:ltiol1 functions of the eleme nl Thus, the point sourcc Q o is distributed to the clement node i by the value Qn\ifr(io). Equation (3.3.4) ho ld ~ for any element. irre;.peetive of the degree of the interpolation. the na.ture of the interpolation ( i.e., Lagr.mge or He rm ite polynomials). or the dimension (i.e., o ne-dime nsional . twodimen,jonal. or threc-dimcn~iona l ) of the c le me nts. For one-dimemional li near Lagrange interpolation func tion ,. Eq. (3.3.4) yields


f( = Qo
Note that

(I - ~:). fz, (io) It~

= Qu

Ir + f2 = Qo.

Whe n .fo = h~/2. we have

Ir = f{ = Qo/2, as cxpected.

Remark 6. There are three sources of error that may contribute to the inilccuracy of the finite clement sol ution of a problem:
I. Do",aill ll{Jproximalioll error. which is due to the approx imation of the domain.

2. Complllatiullal ermrs. which arc due to inexact cvaluation o f the coe fficients Krj and [,~ . or arc intnxluc(.'(1 owing 10 the finite arithmetic in a computer.
3. Appmxilllmiol/ error. which is due to approxim.. tion of the solution by piecewise polynomials. For the structure shown in Fig. 3.2.10. the geometry of the problem is exactly represented and the linear approxi ma tio n is able to repre"Cnt the exact solution at the nodes when {j is a constant, (' = f i~ arbitrary Isee Reddy (1986). p. 403; also. <;ee Sec. 14.51. Therefore. the fir~ 1 .. nd thi rd type o f crror.. arc 7.ero. The o nl y c rror Ihat can be introduced into the final nUlIlerical results is possibly due to the computer evaluatio n of the coeflicients K ~ and [''' lmd the solutio n of algebraic equations. However. in general. comput<ttional a~ well

CIIAI'I~It.1 SU_~I).{)ItI)"1t IJIHt.ItI.N1IALEQl:AnO"~ I,.. o,,~ 1)I\'h.'ISKN. RI<ITF i" lr).II " r \100.1.5



approximation errors exist even in one-dimcnsional problems. Additional di~cu<;sion of the error>; inlhe tinite c lement approximation can be found in Oden and Carey (1983) and Reddy ( 1986): al~o, sec Sec. 14,5.

Remark 7. The :!pproach used in matrix melhod~ of ~tructura l analysis 10 ~()I ve the problem in Fig. 3.2.10 is not much dilrercnt than that pre'>CnteJ here. The difference lie~ on ly in the derivation of the clement equations (3.2.39) for the C3<.e c~ =0, In matrix mcthods of structur.11 analysis. the element cqulltion<: arc obtained directly from the de1inition~of :.trei>S and strilin lllld their relat ionship. For example, cOIl,ider the free-body diagram of a bar eJemenl Isee Fig, 3.2.3(b)]. From a course on mechanics of defonmlble so l id~. we have
~tnlin, f:

= eiongatiolllorigina l length

stress. (1 = Young's modulus x I>tmin load, P = stre'>" x area of cross "'-'Ction The strain defined above is the average (or engineering) strain. Mathematically. !>Irain for one-dimensional problems is defined a<; I' = (I/lldx, If being displacement. which includes rigid body motion a~ well as elongation of the bar. Hence, the compressive force at the left end of the b;\r e lement i~ P, = ..... here Et is Young's
A ~l11

modulu .~

IIr II" or the bar clement. Simi larly, the force at the right end i"

A r E~t:1

::: A ~ E~

II I- II ~

A ~ E~ ~ ~ - - (III - u~)

P = -he (112 ; A,Ee In matrix form, these rela tion, can be expressed a~
Ar Er [

II ~)

I - I


which j, the same as (3.2.39) obtained ror a linear finite element with li p = A ~E~.('r = 0, and P = Q ~ + Jr. Note that in deriving the element equations, we have uloed knowledge ufthe ;" mech;tnic~ of materials and the a~sumption that the stra in is constant (or the di'placement is linear) over the length of the element. If a higher-order representation uf the di~plaeement i~ requi red, we cannot write the roree-dil>plaeement rc l ation~ (3 .3.5a) directly, i.e .. the clement equalions of a quadr.lIic tinite clernent~ cannot be derived using the argurnent~ presented above. A ~imi!ar appro.teh can be used to develop the rehtrion~ between the temperatures and he:!ts at rhe end, of an insulated tin. From a cour~e on ba~ic heat tran~fcr, we have temperature gradient = difference in temperature/length heat flux . f/ ::: conductivi ty x (-temperature gradient) heat. Q = heat nux )( ltreil of cmss section Then, if the temperature i~ assumed to vary linearly between the ends of the fin and there is no internal heat generation, the hem input at the left end orthe fin i~

rr - T{

= . -(1, -T2 ) li p

A,.k" .,'

where k~ is the nnal conductivity o f the fin. Similarly. the heal in/JIII;It the li ght end i~
A 2=~' Q '~=~q C A ' T{ fI ,

rt = - - , - , A ~J.r ('r' ', 'C) fl ,


In matrix form. we have

A,k,. [

- I

-I] (T rj (j=(Q



wh ich arc the ~amc as those in (3 .3.5(/ ) with E, replaced by At. 7;' by 1I ~. and P t by Q~ land reverse the arrow :ll node 2 in Fig. 3.2 .3(b)l . Equations nf lhe type (3.3. 50 ) can .1 1 be derived for discrete sy~ l c m s (as opposed 1 a "0 0

continuum) consist ing of 'pri ng cle ment s. pipe-fl ow e le ments. electrical n.: ... i,tor dement;.,
and so un . Thc ... c ci cmcnb wi ll be di ~c u ., ... ed in C haptcr 4 using physical pr i n c ipl e ~. Il owcvcr. s uch a di rec t approach cannoloc u..ed whe n the element data i .. not COIlManl or when higherorder approximation of the dependent unknown ~ is used . Rell1:lrk 8. Another interpretation o f (3.2.39) for c, = 0 can be gi\ien in term" of the fi nite difference appro ximation . The ax ial force at any point x j" g iven by P (x) = EA dll / lf.1. Using [he forward diffe rence approx imat ion. we :Ipproxi mate the deriv:ltivc rill /t/x and write

- prE

P( x)I.,

E'~ A e l ll (x~ + I ) - II C\~ ) II h ~

0.3.6(/ )

(3.3,6b )
which arc the same as (J.3.5a ). with II ~ = a (.Ir ) and "! = // (Xrf d. Note thai no explicit approxi mation of 11 (.1') i t ~e l f is a~~ um ed ill writing (3.3. 60) and (3.3. 6b ). but the fact that we u,ed \'a l ue~ of the funct io n from two con<reeutive po ints to define ils '> Iope implie" th:.t we a~ ,urn ed a linear llpprox imation of thc function. Thu~ . 10 compu te the value of /I at a point other [han [he nodes (or mesh poi nh ). linear interpolation mu, t be u ~d . Henmrk 9. For the model prob lem con,idered. the element tl1atri ce, I K ~ I in (3.2.3 I b ) arc '>Ylllllletric: K;j = K;,. This en:.bles one 10 (:omputc Kfj (I = 1,2 ..... 1/) for j :5 i only. In ot her w ord~. we need compute o nl y the diagonaltcrills and the uppe r or lower diago nal term ... Becau:--e of the symmetry of the clement matrices, the a ~se l11b l ed g lobal matrix w ill al<,() be !<Iymmetrie. Thus, we need I\) store onl y the up per triangle. including the d iagonal. of the aw.!mbl cd matrix in a finite element compute r program. Another propcn y ehar:tc t e ri~t i c o f the iinite clc ment method is the .~'Par,~e"es_~ of the as~e mbl ed matrix . Since K IJ =0. if globa l node .. / and J do no t belong to the same finit e clement. the g loba! coeffi cient matrix i.. IXlI/riell, i.e .. all coe fficient!> beyond a cenain distancc from the diagonlll ilre l.em. The max imum of the d i~tan ce~ between the diagnnal clement. includ ing the laller. of a row and the I:I ~ t 1l00llero coe ffic ient in that row i~ c:llIed the /wlj./xuu/lfitllh. When a matrix is banded and symmetric . .....e need to :--tore on ly entri es in the upper or lower band of the m;llri x. Equation ~ol ver' wrille n for the solution o f banded ,>ymmetric equations are avai lable for u-.e in , ut h case" (see Chapter 7 for addi tio na l discll"sion ). The ~y ntm et ry o f the coeffi cient matrix de pc nd~ o n the type o f Ihe ditTere ntial equatio n. its variatio nal form, and the num bering o f the finite clente nt equa tion... The "pllfl>eneSS of the matri x iS :I re'>uli o f the fini te c le ment inte rpolation fun ctions, whi ch have nOll7e ro value, on ly over an clement of the domain (i.e., <,()-Glilcd "l'ompac tnc~," propc n y o f Ihe approximation funct ion,,).

Remark 10. Tile balance (or "equilibrium") o f tile secoodary variables Q,/lItthe interelcment boundaries is expres\l.-d by (3.2.43). TIli!> amounts to iml>osing the condition that the 'iCCondary variable lUlu / llx at the node, whcreu is the actual solution. be continuous. I-Iowever. Ihis does not impl y continuity of lUlu'i.ldx, where !II; is the finite c lement solution. Thus. we have
Q ; +Q~++ = O



(3.3 .7)

dU;+< (a"";) I + (-adx ) I ,,0 dx

A. A.



In most blx>ks on the finile clement method. this po int is not Illude clear 10 Ihe reader. These boo~s consider Ihe quadrillic form or weak form of the total problem and o mit Ihe sum of the interelement contributions (for linear clemenls),

in the qU:ldratie fOTm (or functional) of the problem. However, this amou nt!> to irnpo~ing <.:quilibriulll conditions of the form (3.3.8). When the secondary variable is specified to be nOn7CI1) (say. Qo) at an interclemel1l boundary (S.1Y. at globOlI node 2), we have

Q~+Q~ = Qo
In other book!.. Qo is included in the functional as QUU2 , where U2 is the value of /I al globa l node 2. To fully understand the difterenee between the direct usc of the g lobal stateme nt versus using Ihe :lssernbly of clement equations, consider the model problem described hy &Is. (3.2. 1) and (3.2.2) with l.' = O. The variational form of these e(luations over the e ntire dOl11:lin is given by

0 = ( I. (a dv tlu _ vq ) ll;r _ v(L)Qo llx dx



Whcn 1/ is approxim:llcd by functions that are defined 'lnl y on a local interval (which i:o. lhe case in the fin ite cle ment mcthod), usc of the above va riational form implies the omiss ion of the sum of the interelernent contributions of (3.3.9). Consider iI mcsh of threc linear ele ments. Since 1/1[(' = 1,2,3) is lCro in any element rJ., for e f J. the (global) finit e c lement solution for the entire domain is given by (3.3. 11 ) where /(x) ( I = 1.2,3.4) are the piecewise-continuous x1o/)al illferpolofioll fimCfiOlu' Fig. 3.2.9), for x/ +5 x 5 x/
forx/ 5 x :::: x/++




"''' 'NTROIJlI(''( ~~TU TIIi 11"'n'~J~\lENT~II,"OI'


Substituti ng 0.3. 11) for" and II =

into (3.3,1 0 ). we obtain

- ~ Jq


l ' [ d</> , (~d"', )



L.U, - J=I {Ix

(1r - ~I(L)Q(l


Since <1>/ is non/,ero only betwee n .\'/ _ 1 lmd .\'/ -t I. the integral becomes


f ",[

(/~I {/ - - (


, - - + U' - ,


d~1 +U/-rl - ,"~I-t-!)


- ~Iq

dx - CI)/(L )QI)


and we halle

1=1:0 = 1= 2: 0 =

d</>' U, -f " [ d</>, (d</>' +U2 -- ) 1 f" [a d_/< >_' (U' + U2 _d_"'_~ + U.1 __I< >_' ) - d.\ _ d llfl
( j --





- ~ ,q

d _ '_1 _"
d .I'

" 0

d .I'

d .f


(3.3.15) These equation">, upon performing the imegration. yield (3.2.50). with the la:-.t colum n (comaining Qs) in the laller replaced by

Althoug h this procedu re. known as the direct ,I/ifjile!ir m('fllOd in ~ trLl ct u ra l IIlcchanic~. gives the assembled equat ions direct ly. it is algebraically complicated (especially for twOdimensional problems) and not amcnable to simple computer implemcntation,


3.4.1 Model Equation
The e(lu atio n ~ govcrning phy:-.icnl processes in a cylindrical geometry are de"Cribed analytically in tern,,,> of cylindrical coordinates (~ee Fig. 3.4. 1: al">o ~ce Fi g, 1.4 ,5), Whcn the geometry. loading. and Ix)undary conditions arc independent of the ci rcum ferential direclion (i.e .. O-coordina te in Fig. 3.4.1 ). lhe problem is '<lid 10 be nxi~ymmelric and thc gO\cming equat ion, become two -dimen~i()n,tl in tcrms of,' and ;:. TI,e eq uations lIrc futlclions of on ly

("IIM'fI:R' SI)('()~I)-ORI)[R 1J11'H , RIiN'IIA L hQlJ"' IIU~S IN UNE IJIM E. SIU:' 11NlTIi 1;1J~\lINT MOilELS "


d,, : rdOdr dz

d~' ~

Figure 3.4.1 Volume element and computatiunal domain of an axisymmetric problem.

the radial coordinate r if the problem geometry and data arc independent of l. Here, we consider a model sc(;ond-ordcr cquation in a single variable and formulaic its finite element model. Consider the differential equation I an analoguc of (3.2. I) I
- - " [a(r) ",,] =/(r) I I" dl" dr



< 1" <:


(3.4. 1)

where r is the radial coordinate. (/ and 1 arc known functions of 1" . and 1/ is the dependent variable. Such equations arise, for example, in connection with radial heat flow in a long circular (;}'Iinder of inner radius R; and outer radiu" Ro. The radially symmetric conditions require that both (/ = kr (k is the conductivity) and 1 (internal heat generation) be functions of only 1". Since the cylinder is long. the temperature distribution at any section along its length (except perhaps at the ends) is the same, and it is sufficient to con sider any cross section away from the ends, i.e .. the problem is reduced from a three-dimensional problem to a two-dimensional one. Since (/ and f arc independent of the circumferential direction O. the temperature distribution along any radial line is the same, reducing the two-dirnen~ional problem to a one-dimensional one. as described by (3.4. I).

3.4.2 Weak Form In developing the weak form of (3.4.1). we multiply it with a weight function w(r) and integrate over the volume of the cylinder of unit length (see Fig. 3.4.1 )


= 2Jr

1 1[ l 'l"' f" [ld(<I") 1] - f1 f ' [

II' --I d

r dr

(",,) (~ -








rdrdOd z




--I d


(",,) (1 dr





where (r", ril) is the domain ofa typica l elemenl alo ng the radiill direction. Next. we carry out lhe re maining two steps of the weak formulation :

0 = 211'

0= 2JT

f"( dw d" f"(


a~ -- rwl

tlr tir dr dr

) tlr - 2JT [dul"r. wa tlr


dw till a~-

- ril'l ) tlr -

- w(r/;Q~


Q = 211" ;
3.4.3 Finitc F.ICl1lcnt Model

dr ((/ dU) I

T ..


The finite c lemen! model is obtai ned by s uhst ituting the approximation
u(r) ;:::::

" L uj1/lj( r)
j= 1


and w =

1/11, 1/12, ... , 1/In

into (3.4.3a). The finite-clement modd is given by (3.4.5(/)

K ~.


= 2JT

" dy,' dy,' f'.

dr dr
rb - r

a- - __ dr, ' J

It = 2JT




and 1/It arc Ihe interpolation functions expressed in terms of the radi:tl coordi nate r. For example. the linear interpolat io n functions areof the form (11,. = rb - ra) [see Eq. (3.2. 17) [

1/I1(r) = - , - .


The explicit form s of the eoeHic ienl<; K~ and It for (J = a,r and I = I~ are given below (ra denotes the global coordinate of node I or the element).


Unea.- Element



~ 2~f,h,

13'"+ 2h, I + h, 3r"

h ,+2r" ] + 16r.,) lh~ + 14r"


Quad.-atic Elcment
2 JTa~

IK " I =~-

3h~+14r" - (4h ,+ 16ra ) 6"~ [ h .. +2r.,


+ 16r,,)

16I! ~

+ 32r"

- ( 1 2h~

- (12he

+ 16r,,)


("IIM'IUI I ~t("ON\) OIWUII)I~l'l'I!.Io.';rI A I EQIJAriONS IN ONlll>l.\tLNSION flNnl EIJ:MI~VI M(H )I:I~~




Equll1i{)!1 (3.4.1) g{)\'ern~, for cxampk, Icmper.iturc di~tribution u(r) in II /on8 :.olid cylindrical har of radius H lind thermal conductivity t (i.e., (I(r) ""- rk) that is healed by the pa!',~gc of 3n electric curren t, which generales heal energy Jo. Ileal i, di'~ip.lled from the surface of lhe bl,r by ("Q nvection into the ~ulTounding mt-dium at an ambient h:mpcrolturt: of u"". We wi~h to Udennhte the Icmpennuro distribution as II funellon Qf the nadial ili'UlIlce. The boundary condllion~ for this C3'ie;lre

- = 0 at r "'" 0 (symmetry), k dr or
u~ con~idcr



+fJ(u -

u ...,) =

0 al

r ""

Ru (cnnvcction)


the fol1l)Wing data for numerical t'OmpulatlUn.,,;

R -= 0.05 m. k so 40 W/(m . C), Jo =4 x IW W/mJ ,

f3 =400 W/(m' . 'C),

" "" "'" 20 C (3.4.10)

For Ule unifOl1n mesh of f!)ur linear eicmclllS (h factor 2n) the following cuellicient malrice....

== 0.0125 m), we have (omilling the common

EJement I.

(r~= Oandrh=h):


111'(0.0125)2 6 2

I' 1

2. (rd =: h .md


... 2h);



4 x 1()6(0.0I25)2 14 1

IflElement 4. (r" =Jh and rh = 4h):

4 x 1(1'(000125)2 1' 1

The 3sscmbkd equations are

20 -20

80 0 - 00

- 00 100 100

0 0 100 0 240 - 140 140 140

0 0

U, U, U, U. U,

Q~ +

6 = ICM.I66 12 18


Q~+ Q~





,,1\ INTRODUCI'IO" TIlTII!; 1'1:'1'1'1' hUMI~"'l' MhTllOU

The boundary and balance condi ti()ll~ require

Q:=O, Q~ + Qf=O. Qi+ Q:=O, Q~+Qi""O. Q~=- RIj/J(U,- # ~)=-20(U,-20)

The coodcn~u equations:lre (here, Ill) equ,ltion, arc ciiminated)

20 -20 -20 80 0 -60



0 0 0 0 - 60 0 160 -100 0 (1 - 100 240 - 14<J 0 0 -14() 160

V, V, V, V, U,






vn luc~


solution of these equa tions (with the hclp of a computer) is

TIle unifoml meSh (If two qU1H.lrnticelcmcnll> yields the rnldal UI




=328.:'19. U, "'" 316.87. U4 =297.34. U, =270.00

(3.4. J 1)

A "YMemat ic "tml y ort hestep~ involved in the finiteelcment fonnulation ofa model secondorder differential (.'<juation in single variable is pre'\Cnted. The basic "Icps of the fonnulat ion and analysis of a typical equation :Ire out lined in Table 3.1. 1. The model equati on i" representative of the equat ions :lrising in various fields of engi neering (sec Table 3.2. I). Couple of numerical examples arc presented to illustrate the ~ te ps in the finite element analysis of second-order differential equations. Additional examples. e~pecially those ari"ing in hem tran,rer, fluid mechanics. and solid mcchanics will be presented in Chapter 4. The finite element model i~ developed following three steps: I. Weak (or variati ona l) formulation of the differential equation over an element. 2. Finite cleme nt interpolation of the primary variables o f the weak fomlU lation.


Finite clement model (i.e.. a "Ct of lligebraic (."qu:llions relating the "primary" and "secondary" variables) development over a typical clemen\.

The weak formu lation it~elf invol ves a three-step procedure. which enab les iden tification of primary and secondary va riable!.. The primary variables arc required to be continuous throughout the domain. inc luding the nodes at which elements are connected. TIle secondllry variable... are included in thewellk form . The finite element inteqXllation function"have been developed systematica ll y on the hasi s of continuity. completeness. and linear independence. The tinite clement model has been developed by sub~ titulin g appropri:lte imerpolation of the primary variable into the weak form of the differential equation.



For Problems 3.1 - 3.4,

out the following lasb:

(a) Develop the wcakjol"ms ufthe given differential equation(s) over ~ typical tillitl: clement. which is ageOilletric subdoll1~inlocated between x =X u and x = Xb. NOle that there arc 110 "specified" bOllndary conditions iH the elemellllcvel. ll1erefore. ill going from Step 2 to Step 3 of the weak form de~'clopl1lenl. one must ideTTlify the secondary variable(s) at the two elllls of Ihe domain by some symbols (like Q; and Q2for lhe lirst problem) and complete the weak form. (b)

an approxin1nlion(s) of the form

II(X} =

Lu j 1fFj(x)
j~ 1



where 1/ is a prim,lry v;Jriable of the formulatiun. 1fF j (x) are the illll:rpolation functions. and II} ~re Ihe values of the primary wriable(s) m the jth node ufthe clemen!. Subqitulc Ihe expression ill (I) for the primary variable and 1fF; for Ihe weight function into the weak fonn(s) and derive the finile clement model. Be ~ure to dc/inc all c(~ftil,ients of the mooel in terms of the prublem data and 1fF: . 3. 1 Develop Ihe weak form and the finite clement mooel of the fO llowing dilTerential equation uver an element: -dx

" (",,) +- ( "''') + ('11 = / ",



b -dx !


X~ < X < Xb

wherc (/. h. Co (lnd j arc known fllnction~ of po~iti!Jn x. Ensure thm the clement cocmcielll malrix 1K ' I is symmetric. \Vha! i~ the nature of the interpolation fUliction' for Ihe problem'!

.t2 Conqruct the weak form and Ihe finite elemelll model of the differential equaliUI1


d (dll) - b -dll =j.

(j -




O< x < L

over:l typical clement Q . = (x" . .l"h). Here (/. b. and / arc I..nowli functions of .r. and II is the depcndelll vari~ble. The na tu ral boundary (;ondition shou ld /10/ involve Ihe fUII(;tioli h(x). \Vh;lt type of illlcrpolation function~ may be llsed for u? 3.3 Develop the weak form~ of the following p~ir uf coupled second-order differential equal ions over a typica l elemcnt (.1"". x~):




(11+ -dx d,,)]


= /(x)




d(d") + (de) +h(.l"} -


II (x)


= q(x)


where u (1I1d v arc the dependent variables. and (/. h. I. and q ~rc known functions OI.L Also idclllify Ihe primary and secondary variables of the formulation.

3.4 COIl,ider the following weak forms of a pair of coupled



( Ib)


liN IVI'R()I)LC'TIO~ TIITilF H~nli RUti ~I' \Ihi li oo

" here c(x) il> a known funelion. "'I and "' ~ are wei gh1 fll nclions. II ,lIld .' :lredependclll \ari ables (primary variables). and PG Q~. ,lIld Qb arc the M.'(~ondary vari ab le~ of the formul allon. UM! the fin ite clement appr01d rnation~ of the rOml

"/1 .

u(x) = L " j 1ftj(x). o{.\") :::: Ll!;l{Jj(.\")



fOrlll~ .

and WI = !{I, and Wz = I{J, and derlvc thc fin ile ele ment cquuliollS from lhe weak fi nite clement L'< luations shou ld be in the fonn



Define the coeffic ients K,~I. K ,~l . K,~I. Kt 2, koown dala. and MX:ondary variables.

p .lIld "l /

ill tcml ~ oflhe inter polalion function~.

3.5 Derive the Lagrrlllge cu bic inlerpol'llion funclions for a four-nooe (one-dime nsion al) clemen! (witb eq uall y ~p ..eed nlxles) using Ihe aliemal ive prtK.'(."<lurc based Oil inlerpo lalton propc nles (3.2. 1&1) and (3.2. 11111). Usc the local eoordinat e .r for si mpli city. 3.6 Evaluate th e element m:H rice~ lI(.r) ill Problem 3.4.

IK II I.I K 12 1. and IK 21 1forlhe linear interpolalioll of 11(f) and

3.7 Ev:llulile the following coefficie ntma lri ces and source \'L"Ctor using lhe linear Lagmngc inler1 )OIaiion fUllcl ion ~ :

K ;=

f '

(tl~+(/;r) -'--) t1 x. (i): tlx

{hfr'd1ft ~


{j~. tl~.

toc7. g, and g arc eon1> tall[s. '

d' O - , +dJ = O. ,Ix
O(O) = 1f) - T..., .
O < x <: L
= (l

3.11 ( f "'III Irtlf!41!r i/l ll/l!tf) '1lC governin g ditTerent ial equmioll and eonvcctJ(m boundary eunditi on

arc of the fOrlll :





wherc8 = T - 7;"'. e = JjP/ (Ak). fJ isthc heattransfer coeflieiCnl . P is the perimeter, A is the arca o f cml>S MX:tion. and J.. is the conducli vity. For a mesh of IwtJ linell( clemcn[s (o r equa l icngth). give (tl) lhe ooundary condi [i(jn~ on the mxl .. 1 variables (primary <IS well a~ -.ccundary va riables) and (b) the tinal conde n ~ed finite clement cq umi ons for the unknowns (bu th primary lind SL'Condary nodul vllriahlc.s). Usc the fullowin g d;lla: 'f f) = 12.0 C. '1'.., = 20"'C. L = 0.25 m. (. = 256. Jj = 64, and J.. = 50 (Wilh proper ulli[s).
3,9 ("f dejormlllillf!

olll btlr) 11lc govemi ng difTercnlial equ ..tion is uf Ihe fonn

( '~

and A .. re

(I )



Por the minimulll number of linear clements. give (a) the boundary conditions on the nod:ll variables (primary as well as secondary variables) and (b) the final condensed linite c lement equations for the unknowns.


~S;"";';~=t~ ;;;r:"''!-500kip, 1+t2 in. 8 in. _____ 10 in. ----.\ Ste<:t. E,

)0 x lOb psi

200 kips


lOx tOOp,i

Figure )'3.9

R e~()lve the problem in Example 3.1.1 using the unifonll mesh of three linear tinitc clcmcnt~. AII,\\tw: V 2 = - 0.01999. V, = - 0.04257, (Q:)J'I = 0.08998. (Q ~ )d'! =0.12771. 3. 11 Sol\c the diffcrential cquation in Example 3.2.1 for lhe mixed boundary conditions

3. 10

Use thc unifonll mcsh of thrce lincur c lcmcnts. Thc

u(xJ =


solution is

2l:Os( l -x)-sinx 2 +x -2 cos( l )

AII.IIt'{'/": V I = 0.4 134. Uj =0.7958. V~ = 1.1420. W:><kf = - 1.2402.

3.12 Solvc thc diffcrcntiul cqu:l1ioll in Example 3.2.1 for the na/uml (01' Neumann) boundary conditions

c:~) I,~, ~ I c:~n_, ~ O

Use th e unifonn mesh of three linear lini te elements to solve the problem. Verify your solution with the :lIwlYlical Solu1ion
u(x) =

cos( 1 -x) + 2cosx +xl_2 sin(l )

AIl\'\\w; VI = 1.0280. U2 = 1.30()2. U 4 = 1.4447. U~ = 1.482 1. 3.13 Solve Ihc problem described by the fo llowing equations
(/ 2/1

- - , =eusrrx.O < x < l: dx

11(0)=0, 1/ (1)=0

Use the uniform mesh of three linear clcmcnts to soillc the problcm and compare ugainstlhc exact solution

lI(x)= 2 (cosrrx+2x - l)


J. 14 Solve Ih e tlilrerential equation in Prohlem 3.13 H{O)=O.

u~in g

Ihe mixed boundary comliliOl1s

("") 1 = 0

U-.c the \Il11fol"m mcsh of th ree linear clements to solve the prnblem and com pare ug:unstthe
I H{r)= 2


(Ct)~JT.I' -


J. 15 Solve the differential equati o n ill PrtJblem 3. 13 using th e Ne umann boundary condi tion s

C:H ,,=O (;:':) 1, ,=0

UloC the ulllfnml mesh of lhree lineal" clements to
c~ aet


the problem and l'om p:lre against the

.'>Ol uliul1
11(.1') = -- COS If.\


Noll': Fl.)/' Neumann bound,lry condi ti ons, none of the I)rirnary de~IlIJcn t v:lriab l e~ arc ~pcxj fietl, ,Iud therdon: Ihe ~ol ution l';m be detel"mi ned wit hi n an :Irbi eonst;lI1t fOl"thi~ equatio n (i,e" when the CHleml is not prcM:llI. the cocfficielll m,lln~ i, ~ in g ular and ca nnot he in\'encd ). In !ouch CllM!!o. onc of the Ui shou ld Ix' hCl equal to ,I COI1"lIin t It) rcm()\'c Ihe "rigi d-botly" mode (i.e" 10 dC1Crmlfle the arbilmry co n,tanl in the ,olullOn),


I, Cr.lIldaJl, S, I I" I:il~;nt't'rin/t Ami/HIS, I\kGrJ\\ -HilJ. New Yorl< , 1956. 2. Ilol man,1. '~.lIr<ll"'",,,,sft~, 7th l"d, McGm\\lI ill. NC\\ Yor~, IC)l)() ,. Krcnh . I :md Il<lhn, M. S., I'rill("ll'l"l "I " ,,"1 Trm'.ift'r, 51h ed, We". f'ubhshin); C",n pan~, S! Pau l. MN, 19tH. 4 Milthhn . S, G .. \\mllli",wl Mrl/uxl., 111 Mm/rn,wli("(l/ I'ilni,.,'. Pcrga'n(Ml Pres'. Ne" Yor~. 1\/04. 5. M.khlin, S G., n ", Numeric"//''''!'''''''''',,,r pf V(lrillli"m,/ Motho,I.;', Wollc,,Noordh(lff, Gro,\i ll gc n. 197 1. 6. Oden. J. T UlKl C:ore)', G. 1'.. I';II;le ~:t,..m'IrIJ. MUI/r em,,'i~'{i1 A If""'/\', \\,/"'" .. / V, " ren t,ce Il ull, Englc"ovd Clifrs. NJ. 19lB. 7. Ode n, J. T a,Kl Reddy. J. N.. \\lrIlllimlll/ MrI/",ds in Thr,m'lim/ M r rht",i,.s. Springer Verlag. r\e" Yor~ . 1976; 2<1"d ., 198J 8, Ozisl I< . M N.,IIMI Cmu/u("IUm, 2nd l"d., lohn Wile}, NL'W Yur~ , 1993.

1I. Rl'ddy. J . N., /:IIrr)O' Principle. liml V"nmumal M e'/IfNi>' ill "!,!,!ird },fec/",nic,I, 2nd ~"d., John Wiley. New Y()r~ . 2002. 10. Reddy. J. N . A"l'lird F,m<'I;",wIAllttl\'.'i.,' m,d \\m',,/;(m,,/ MetIIlHI, ill /:IIgmuwl/:.l\kGraw Ilill , New Yor~ , 1986: Krieger, Melbourne. FL. 1991. I I Reddy, J. N. and Ra~mus"" n, M I... Aill"tlnci"d n/tmrumg A'III/I'lil. Juhn Wiley. New yon.. 1982; Krieger. Mciboumc. I'L. 1990, 12. Reddy. J. N.. All ItUrtHlurlil"1 10 Nmi/ill,..II' Hllilr E/r",,..,,, Amt/H;I, Oxford Uni~eNny ,,...,,,, Oxford, UK,




I'am,',,,,,,,/ MrtltQtI, in MIII/remm;('.I'. Sd,..ncf rII,d E",~I11""ri"g, Reidel. IJo,wn, 1')77.

Chapter 4



In Chapler 3 we developed weak (onns and fini te clement modeLs of continuum problem, dc'\Cribcd by a fairly general second-ordcr differential CCluation. For discrete systems. such a~ II network of spri ngs or e lectrical c ircuits. no dilTcrcnl ial equatio n" ex ist and the wC:lk form concept is nOi appl ic:lblc. Therefore, an alternate approac h based on the law~ of physics must be used \0 develop !inite clement mode ls (i.e .. relations between the causc and effec t) of stich ~ystc rm. Physical principles can also be u~cd to develop finite element models of continuum probl ems (as discussed in Remurk 7 of C hapler 3) but the approach
cannot be used to derive Ii Il il e cl ement mode ls w ith higher-order approx ill131ion of the Held

variable, The objective of thi" chapter is two-fold, Fi rs t, we derive finite element moocl" of ).omc ty pical discrete system". Finite element moods of discrete system$ arc developed u... ing physical laws familiar to most e ngi neering and applied <;eience majors, and the approach req uires no concept of weak form, Second, we prese nt numeric'll examples of applicatio n of finite element mode ls developed for both di<>erete systems and continuum syMcms, We will eonsidcrsevcral examples to illustmte the steps invol ved in the finitecle rnent ana l y~is of o nedimensional second-ordc r diO'eren tial equatio ns arising in heat tTOln~fer, fluid mechan ics, and solid mechanics. The example~ preserlled here make u ~e of the clement equations ulrc<lJy developed in Chapter 3. While the 110tlltion used for the depe ndent variables, independent coordinates, and data of problems from field to fi e ld is din'erent, the reader shou ld keep the cOlllmon mathematical :.tructurc in mind and not get confused wilh the c1111nge of nO lalion fro m problem to problem and field 10 field,


"N INlllOI-"1CTION 1'O 'nlllllsm 1~ .tMI~,{1 MnllO!)


4.2.1 Linear Elastic Spring
A lincar c lastic spring is " discrete c le ment (i.e .. not a conti nuum ) whose load-d i... placement relationship can be ex pressed as (4.2.1 ) where F is the force (N) at the right end. 8 is the displacemem (m) of the right end of the spring relative to the left end in the dircction of the force, and k is the constan1 known as the .vprillK COI/SIaIll (N/IlI). The spring constant depe nds nil the clastic modu lus, area of cross section, and number of turns in the coil of the spring. Often a spring is used to characterize the clastic behavior of complex phy.~ i cal systems. A relatio nship between the e nd forces (Fr. Ff) and end di ... placeme ms (Sr. o~ ) of a typical spring elemcnt 1 Fig. 4,2. 1 )1can be dcvelol>cd as discus; in Relnarl. 7 for a sec (1 har clement . The force al node J is cqua lto the spring constant multiplied by the relative di splaccmcnt of node I with respect to no<le 2, 05:


or -

p = k,(87 - oD = k..o~ - k, 8~ r
Similarly, the force at node 2 is c(lualto

= k.. (<5; - of) = - k,Sr

+ kr 8;

Nole thatlhc forec equilibrium, Fr + /;2 = 0, isautom:Lticatl ysatis ticd. The above equations can be wri tlen in matrix fonn as


-:JI:; H ~ 1


Equation (4.2.2) is 'lpplicable to .my spring e lement whose fo ree-di,placernent relation is linear. Thus a typical spring in .1 network of springs of d ifferent spring consta nts obey Eq. (4 .2.2).

COOMder lbc 5pf1ng IWiefBblage!!hown in Fit- 4.2. Hb). We wish todetennine the: displacement of lhe rigid block and fOfCClo in the Ii{Jfingt'. AI>hllnte that the rigid block is required t~) remain vertical (i.e., no tilting from ilS vertical position). Since the rigid bluck mUSI remaJn vertic~j!, all poinbl on it WIll move horizont/ilily by the same lUIlOUnl; ~, all global node ~ on the block must have the same node number. say 2. Elt..:h spring in the a'-SCn.blagc hrui the force-displaccmenl relarionship as in Eq. (4.2.2), exl'epl thal clement number will be different for diffcrcnl elcmcnll1., The Ihtec cicmentl; lire connected aloode 2 through the rigid block. lienee. the CQnlinu.ilY QnrJ equilibrium conditions at node 2 require
~I)="F) =O)JI f~1l



+ Ff21 + FI)) :cr f !



TheeqUllibrium (;(}rldition (4.2.3b) suggests lhal we must add the second equation of clement I. the first equation of element 2. and lhe hN equation of element 3 together to replace the MIIlI of three unknowns forces r ill + F,!1l + Fiji with the known foree Fl . Thus. we have fOUf cquation.~ : the first equation of clement I , the 5U1n !If the three c;quations statoo Id)Qve, the second equation of element 2, IlfuJ the!oC\.'Ond eqlJMion of clemen! 3:

KjU] - k 1U1
- A:1UI+(kl+1t.2+kJ)Ul


(4 .2 .40)

k2 Uj- k)V~,.. F2

k1U1 + k l U1

- k l Ul +k.l U~ '" F ~

(0 '


~---------- --------~ , , , ,

F - -~~----*~: F ~--f~I--- I' o' , ; , , , , ,



.'gllre 4.2. 1 ((I ) A ~pring linite element. (b) lbrec.~pring as:;emblagc:.


AN u,'I1WUUC1'IOf'l'l'Ol'Hhtl'1l1l



In rrlalri.x 1'(100, the above!


can be cxprct'-'-<!d as

- :: ',+ o - Xl

~:'+k' -:, -~,] ~:

k2 0 0






Nl!xt, we idcnlifYlhi" I)oundaryconditionsunu impoM! them un Eq. (4.2.4b). From Pig. 4.2.1, it is: clear thai t.hc.displaccmenl,~ of nodes 1,3. and 4 an: "Cr(}, and the f()rec at node 2 is \pecified lobe P:


'flatt', there are f()UfunknOWns (F! = Flltl . U~, FJ =- F~ll, FA = f~I)) ;lnd fOlJ r equati(lns. Using the M!COmiIlq1l3ti(,n in (4.2.4D). we dctemline U2 (condcno;ed equ~tjon for the displacelllent)

fQrtc.. ~

+ kl + *,) U~ = P or UI



XI +k2+k,


1 FI, and F( can be calculated using etjuatiom. I. 3, a.nd 4 of (4.2.40). 1lte :)_

coodens.."'d equations for forces are


4.2,2 Torsion or Circu lar S hOirts

Another problem that ean be di rectl y formulated a" a discrete clement is the torsion or circular shan ... From:. course o n mechanics of deformable w i ids. the angle o f twist of a constant cross-section circular cylindrical member is related to the torque T (aboutlhe axi s of the member) by Isee Fig. 4.2.2(a ) 1

T = GJ 0 L

(4.2 .8)

where J is the polar moment or are:., L is the !englh, and G is the shear modulus o f lhe material of the shaft. The above equation c:m be used 10 wri le a rclalionship between thc end lorqu c~ (Tr. T{) and the end twists (Or. 02) of a circular cylindrical member of length h ~ Isec Fig. 4.2.2(b) l:


h')lI ~TI()~S


DI~tI;NSl m'L



'~"''''~ nv

TI~' 8 1'

T2 0; ,




~'i g u re

4.2.2 Torsion of a circular shaft.


G, J~

- I

-1 ' 11T ]1 '1 O~='/~



4.2.3 Elect rical Rt.'Sistor Circuits

There is a direct analogy between a network of ll1 ec hani c~ 1 springs and a direct cu rrent electric rcsi~tor network. Ohm's law provides the relationship between !low of electric cu rrent I (amperes) through an ideal resistor and voltage drop V (volts) between the ends of the resistor
V = IR
(4.2. 10)

where R denotes the electric resist,mee (ohms) of the wire. Kirchhoff's ~ 'olrage rule states that lhe algebraic su m of the voltage changes in any loop mu st be equal to zero. Applied to a single resistor, the rule gives Isee Fig. 4.2.3(a)1
I ~ R,

+ V{

- Vr = 0,

R ~



R~ s n


VI =200V
R = 5(l


R ~ Ion

Ulobal node numbers 2/R - S H I I VI ~ 200V 22 Element numbers R lo a Element nndc nu mbers 6 /' 2 2 V6 ~ OV

R ~ 5n


R ~

10 0





R m 150

R - 20Q {,

R ~ 15 0 5

R - 20 0



Fig u re 4.2.3 (a) Di rect curre nt electric c leme nt (c urrc nt fl ows ff()lll hig h to low volt<lge). (h) A resistor circu it. (c ) finit e cleme nt mesh o f the resistor circuit.



or in matrix fo rm (4.2.1 1)

Thus, once again we have the same form of rci:Jtiollship /)ctwee n volt;lc<; and c urre nts as in the ca!>C of spring... The quantit y I / R~ is known as the eJeclri.:al {,(}/U/U('UIII(,'!, The as<;Clllbly of re"istor equations is based o n the following rules:
I . Voltage is single valued .

2. Kir'f:hhofJ wrT('111 TIlle: The :-Ulll of all c urrent .. clilc rin g a Iltx lc is cqual to ,-cro .


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

the resiSlOr circuit ~hown in Fig. 4.2.3{b). We wish to delCrmine the currents in the loop!> aot! vollage ;ltthe nodes. The elemem numbering, clement n(K1e numbering. and global node nunlbcring (Ire indicated in Fig. 4.2.3(.:). The c lement node numbering i ~ imponant in :t.~mbhng the clCIIIC1lt equlltions. FrOIll the elemellt f1otalion ifldic~ted in Fig. 4.2.3(1), it is clear thaI current flows from node I til node 2 of the dement. 'illc clemc(1t nude numhi:ring in Fig. 4.2.3k ) indietllcs the aSl;umcd dift'(.'II()n C)f the currents. The as.,..cmhlcd coefficient rn3trix is gi\cn by 2 3



K h
Kll+ K1+ Kb


K i,
Ki, + Kb


IKI ~ymm .

Kli + Kt!

" 0

0 0


K ~2

Kiz + Kll + K rl


K' n

- 0.2

- 0,1
0.1 +0.2


0 0 - 0.2
0.2 + 0.1.)667

0 -0. 1

0 0


0.(1667 + 0.1

+ 0.05 - 0.05

TI\C I'Ioundary conditions are VI "" 200 V and V6 = 0 v. The Ill)ndensed equations for the nodal vollage~ arc obtained by omitting !he fiN row and last row ofthc system, and then moving

the tC(1}I}J involving VI and Vo I() the right. We obtain

0.4 - 0.1 - 0.1 0.3 0.0 - 0.2 [ - 0.1 0.0

- 0.2 0.2667
- O.()()67

-0.1 ]/V\ ' -0.0667 V

0.0 Vj

O.2VI )




The! ,nlution of these equatioM

given by iobtained with thc aid pf a computer)

Vl=169.23 V, VI '" 153.ij5V. V4=146.15V, V =I23.08V of

The.' l:onclensed cquations fOf the unkno..... n CUfTCnts :It nodes 1 and 6 can be calculated from etlu3ti.m, 1 aod b of (he sy!;lc.>m. We ha~'c

1;11 "" O.2V, - O.2V~ :::0:40 .... 33J1-'6 .., 6. 154 A

Ij61 = - 0.05 Vl + 0.05 Vo =- -6, 154 A

1lJC Ilc!:lativo:: ~ign on

It I indic;ue~ that the currt'nt i~ Ililwing Qut of global node 6. TOe. currents through each element can be calculatcd u~ing the element CCluations (4.2.11). FQ/" example. the nodal current' in re~istor 5 are gh'en by


J/}" l ~[

0.1 -0.1

-0.1] J 0.1 \1 69,23

123.0' 1= I-4.615 1 J 4.615

whith indicllle5 thm tl~ net CUITCn! now in mil.tor 5 h from it., node 2 to node I (Of global node 2to globa.! node 5). and its value i,~ 4.615 limps (which iEo the same as 6. 154 - 1..'39). The finite element solution., for the \-oltagc~ and eurrenlS are , hown in Figure 4.2.-'.

R"' 100

R ~ Hl


It'lgure 4.: -4 'Ole ~oluti(ln for curre nts iUld vohagc~ vbt'li ned with tbe finite element melh<xi. Z


" ~llIjd

Flow through l'jl>CS

Another example uf a discrete clement is provided by ste:ldy. full y developed, Ilow~ uf viscous incompressible Iluid, th rough circu lar pipes. The velocity offully developed laminar


R" - ,

128 !Ih" !rd.

--'_ ._ ._ .







Q ;

Ii'igurc 4.2.5 Flow of \liscou~


through pipes.

flow of viscous Iluids through circular pipes is given by

li x


4~L~: [1 -(~;'r]


where dP/dx is the prcs~urc gradient, d is the diameter of the pipe, and}I is the viscosity of the fluid fscc Fig. 4.2.5(a)l. The volume rate of flow, Q, is obtained by integnlting \Ix over the pipe cross section. Thus, the relationship between Q lind the pressure gradient dP/dx is given by the equation

The negative sign indicates Ihm the flow is in the direction of negative pressure gradient. Equation (4.2.13b) can be used 10 develop a relationship between the nodal values of the volume rate of flow, (Q~. Q; ) and the pressure, (pr, P{), of a pipe element of length he and diameterd~ . The volume rate of flow entering node I is given by (see Fig. 4.2.5(b))

= ___ (p~ '_ 128/1h t _


_ pr)

Similarly, the volume rate of flow entering node 2 is

Q' = _

rrd1 (pC_ 128/1h e I


Thus, we have

The constant, f?~ = 1 28I-Lh ~ /7rd;.1 is called the pipe resisiallce, in analogy with the e lectrica l resistance (see &1. (4.2.11)].


4.3.1 Governing Equations

The equations governing conduction heat transfer were discussed in Example 1.2.2. Here we briefly-review the pertinent equations for our usc.

The Fourier heal conduction law for one-d imensional systems slateS thm the he:u flow q(x) is relate the temperature gradient aT/ax by the relation (WiTh heat !l ow in the positive direction of .1')

l/ =-kA -



(4.3. 1)

where k is the thenlml conductivity of the mated:ll. A the cross-sectional :lre:l, and T the tcmperature. The neg:llive "ign in (4.3. 1) indicatc" thm heat flows downhill on the temperature ~c al e . The balance of e nergy requires lhat


"(kA -Of) + ih

aT A,i: = pt..A -,-



where,i: is the hem energy generated per uni t volume, p is the density. c i~ the ~peci fi c heat of the material . and t j" time. I~lumi on (4.3,2) governs the tr.ltIsienl heal conduction in a slab or fin (i.e .. a one-dimell',ional sy<;tem) when the heat now in the normal 10 the x-directi on i<; ,,"ern. For a plane wa ll , we take A = I . In the case of radially symmctric problem s with cyl indrical geo metri e~, (4.3 .2) takes a different form. Considcr a long cylinder of inner radius ROo outer radius RIJ and length L. Whe n L is \'ery I:lrge compared with the diameter. it is asslimed that heat flow ~ in the radi:ll di rect io n r. The tr.ltlsiem mdially symmetric heat flow in a cylindcr is governed by

1 -r ilr

a ( kr -aT) +g = pc -aT


A cylindrical fuel clement of a nuclear reactor. :1 current-carrying electric:11 wire, and a thick-walled circular tube provide examples of o ne-d ime nsional radi:ll <;ystems. The boundary conditions for heat conduction involve <;peci fying e ither the te mperatu re T or the he:!1 flow Q at :I point:
Q :::=-kA - = Qu

aT ax


[t is known that when a heated surface is exposed to aeo(lling medium, ~uc h a~ airor liquid, the <; urface will cool fas ter. We say that the he:!t i~ convected away. The COlll'et"fioll helll lra".~fer between the surf:lcc and the medium in contact is given by Newto/l ',~ /(111" ofcooling:

Q = PA(T, - T,..J


where 7~ is the ~urface temperature, Teo... is the temperature of the surrounding medium, cil llcd the tllllbielll temperamre: and fi is the ("ullveltioll heal trails/I!/" ('olifici('llt or jillll nmdllc fllllce (or film coefficient). The heat flow due to conduction and convect ion at il boundary point must be in balance with the applied fl ow Qo:

HA -


+ fi AtT -


+ 0 0= 0

(4.3 .6)

The sign of the first term in (4.3.6) is negative when the heat flow is from the fluid at T",", to the surface at the left end of the c le ment, and it is po~itive when the he;ll flow i\ from the fluid at T"" to the \urrace at the right end.

Convection of heat from a surface to the surrounding fluid can be increased by attaching thin <;trips of conducting metal to the surface. The metal strips arc calledji/ls. For a fin with heat How along its length. heat can convect acros~ the lateral surface of the fin [see Fi g. 4.3.1(1)1. To account for the convection of heat through the surface. we must add the rate of heat loss by convection to the right-hand side of (4.3.2):



( Ak -. - +Aq = pcA -.- +Pfj(T-T",,) aT) aT



where P is the perimeter and in the alternative form

f3 is the fi lm coefficient. Equation

(4.3.7(1) can be expressed

ilT D il pcA -.---;- ( kA - T) + PfjT = Ag+Pf3Too ill ax ox

The uni ts of various quantities (in metri c systcm) arc as follows :



"C (celsius) W/m 3

J/(kg . 0c)


W 1(111 . 0c)


kg/m) W/(m 2 "C)

For a steady state, we set the time derivatives in (4.3.2). (4.3.3). (4 .3.7a). and (4.3.7/) equal to 7.ero. The steady-state equations for various one-dimensional syste ms arc summarized below [see Fig . 4.3. I(b) and Cd; see Eqs. (1.2. 14) and ( 1. 2.17) 1 . 1'laneWull IQ =k(dT l dx) 1
"' in

d (k -dT) = A.r; dx

(4 .3.8)

IQ = kA(dTldx)1 -(Ix

d (kA- + cT = Ag+c'!"rx, . dT) fix

I - - d ( kr r lir dr



Cyli ndrical System I Q = k(dT 1(lr) I

dT) = g(r)

(4.3. 10)

The essential and natural boundary conditions associated with these equations are of the form

'1" = 1'0.

Q+f3A(T - 7"""' )+Qo=O

Equations C4.3.8H4.3. IO) are a special case of the model equation (3.2.1) discussed in Section 3.2, with a 0= kA, c = Pf3 . and f _ Ago + PfjToc . We immediate ly have the tinite clement model of Eqs. (4.3.8) and (4.3.9) from (3.2.3 10) and (3.2.31 b) :

I K' IIT' I ~ I f'I + IQ'J

(4.3 . ll a)

l'~posed to

t all'm l surfacc Jnd right cnd pre amblcnt !cmpcrJlure.


Cyhndncal fin x

Body from v.tuch hcJt


to be cxtmctetl

Cross !iCCtLon of the wnll

t' um;Lce


Figurc4.J.1 Hcallnln,fcr in (a) tin,. (b) plane w(lli . and (1') r([dially

~ymmclric 'y~lcm .


K~ =



d~ ' _J kA_i "V'' d.\ dx

+ P/3t/1'Vt J~ ) '


Q, ~ (-kA dT) I dx

Q~~ (kA"T) IA dx .

(4.3.! II)

where Q ~ 1 Q denote heat now ill/a the element at the nodc~. ll1d ; Equation (4 .3. 10) is also a special c a ~ Oflhc model boundary val ue problem. Howcvcr. in developing the weak forrn~ of (4. 3.1 0). integration must be carried over a typical volume c le ment of each sy~ tcm . as di scussed in Section 3.4 [see Eq. (3.4.2)].


'\N lVJROIllJ(1lON10Tlt E n;<lftl' ElE'1ENl M!:lIlO1l


SurfaC<' area,
j( =I )


R, _




1r~ "Yl
1', T2 Tl 'I
h eClllrnn~fer

Rl =


I' igu~

4.3.2 Onedimcn\ionaJ

through composite .... a ll~ :md their theml:ll circuih .

4.3.2 Finile Elt'mcnl Models

It is interesting 10 note the an:llogy octwecn Eq. (4.2. 11) o f an electric resistor and E4:1. (3.3.Sb) o f o ne-dimen~ional heal 1r:lIIsfcr (see Remark 7 o f Section 3.3):

- 1]jT,' I ~ j Q; 1 1 17 { lQ 2
If we identify thel'lI/a! rl'sis/(Illce

(4.J. 12)

R;h = k~A~


(4.3.1 J)


(4.2. 11) and (4.3, 121 arc the same with the following corrc~pondence: (4.3. 14)

Thi, :il lows


U~ \0 model complicaled problems involving bolh series and pamllellhennal Typical prob lems :md thei r e lectrica l analog ies arc shown in Figure 4.3.2.

4.3.3 Numerical Examples

Example 4.J.J

A ,,'On)po:;ite wall conllhLS of three materials, as mo..".o In Fig. 4.3.3. 11lc inside wall tcmper:lture lit ZOO C ;Iud the oul\ide air tcmper.ttu~ is 50 C wilh a coovcctitlfl ooelTk':ient of IJ = 10 W (1I1!K). We wish It) detenllil~ the temperature along the OOlnpOsite w(lil. F'lfSk we (lote thill the prohlclIl b fovcmed by the eqt41tion
(JlT ....kA- ""0, .. d X"

0 <,1: < L

(4.3. 15)


~l(ONlJ_OIU>F.R 1>lIl'EKE'<T1AI. fcQ{IA1'IONS 1:-1 Cl"<t lJIML"SIO/'l. AI'I'UCAnON~


Matenal 1..1:=Makrial

kl '" 10 Wf{m X)

;:;::;:;"'.,.'~. 3, k\

t~ 0 40 WI(ITl K)

it,"" ZQ Wf(ffl'K)

"j .. 2cm
" 1",Z,5(;m

/1,04 em

r..... 5{)"C

, 2

.;igure 4.3.3 Ileal tr.. n"rer problem diSl,;usscd in &ilI1'1ple 4.3.1.

and h ~ubjccllxltQ ute boundary cunditions

(4.3.16) :::<:0 ,,./. where A i~ the area of cross 5e<:liQn (Cll(I be taken tn be equnJ 10 \) and k IS the (;~md UClivity. TIle duta i$ disconfinuou$ (i.e., differen t ,'alucs of b, .,. k.A. and h, fordiITerenle!cmenLs). TIle source [elTl'l /"'" 0 and lhefcf~ tf}t~) "" (OJ for l' = I. 2. 3. for a mesh or thl\,"C Ii.ncar elements (minimum needed), we h,l\'e
IKJ'lj ==

T(O} "' T~,

IT [ kA~+f3A(T ... Tt.'< dx

~ [ _I1 - II] ~~ [ _ 1 fl, 0.02 1


fl.qW=~[- I "1 I
0l klA lK1 = - [ I
/1) - I

-'H 3~ -'] =o:ozr -'H '600 -'600] ,",x,[,




- I

- 1600

- IJ] =~[ I 0.04-1


-'J=[ ,00
I -500

-~ ]

1be assembled c4uDuons are

o -3500 3500+ 1600 - 1600 o - 1600 1600 +500 -500 [



u, 0] IU'


The boundary Ilnd hahmcc conditions are

Hence. the coudenJ.ed equ:lti{ms (!btained by omitting lirst row and colu mn ami modifying the right-hand sjde) for tbe unknown ICWIXr:ltllfCS are

3500+ 1600 [



1600 + 500 -5(10

O IU' J Ul



"000x 200
- IOU.+500


AN t 'fI IlOO'-"C11Of<I10 Till. I~NrII, U 1-\11....,. \lFIllOll

5100 - 16()() - 1600 2100 [ o - 500
The Mlilltion is given by
~5 00

0IO O] lUll' X'1 '





The condcn~ eqllalion~ fur the Ul'lknown helltl> (per unilllrea) are
Q ~I)

= 3500U I - 3500U1 a3SOO )( 200- 3500 x 199.58354 = J457 .6 W/m~(heat hl)


Q~ll "'" _ JO)( I (U4

50) ,., - lOt 195.76 - 50) "" - 1457.6 W/lIl z (heat


II CM be s.hown thai for Ihi~ problel1lthe finite c1cment $(llulion for the nodal Ie.01pcrmllre,\ and hems coincides with the eXIlCl ~oluliun (see Re.mark 6 nf Ch~I)\Cr 3), which il> given by
A.+ Al.C
T~ ... (x) =

0 <:.1"<. 11.
h l<.~ < h. + " l II I+ h~< x <. I'I + " l+ h !,,~ L

B.+ B1,r, C. + C1.1",



ExampIe4.J.2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Rcctllngular fins are used w remove heat from a heated ~\lrface r~ee Fig. 4.3.lta ) [. TIle (in~ ~rc CJ/postd to ambient air m 1'...-. The hcuttf"Jnsfer cocffidentllwx:iOlleU wilh fin mll\(;rio ll1luJ tbe air is fj. A~~U01illg i/ml hellt is C()lIuuclcd Hllmg the length ofthc tin lind Unif{ln~1 along the widlh alld thld:ne.\~ direclions, v,c: wi~b ttl detem.tlne tbe tempcrnturc: distributiun along the tin :lnd heat loss per fin for twO dill'erertt setS Of boundary condilion$. TIte gQ\cming diflerel1ti:t1 equlltion :100 bouod~ry c{)ndllion.~ of the probJelll arc

,Pr -kA-,.". +fi P(T-T,)=O. ,

SrI I: nO)

0 <.\ < L.

(4.3. 18)

= ?i"

[kA dT dx

+ /.I A (T -

r",, )]


(4.3.1901) (4.3.1<)11)

OI .\I' IEI(" ~IO'I)-()III)ICIt DIFff:RENTIAL F.Ql'All')'S I,.. Ilt;f. 1)1\IF'I~11lN API'U CATIO,..S


\\ hcre r is tbe Icmper:uure. k the conducthity. fl i~ tht heal tt:lllsfcr coc.fliciel)(. P is the perimeter. and A h the area Qf cro~s loeCoon. CQmp.'1red 10 the model equation (J.2.11. we h ll \'e the following data:

Rlr thb casco c =F O. and the tinite t!lemen! SOhlliOn lit the nodes OOOS nO! coincide with tht! exact MJil.lOon. We consider II unirorm mesh (i.e., hi "" h! = h, = h.. .-. L/4) off(JUf lineat clemcnl.~ (sec Fig. U.4). The element matrices are

(Kl"'=~ [ If.
1 - I

TItc lI$~embled Sy.\olClll of (!(Iu:ttion~ is given by (h J = 112 ,..h, =: h .. "" h "'" L/4)

0 0 0

-I -I


- I
0 0


0 0

0 0


- I

2 -I

+6 -


0 0 0 0 ()


0 - I

1 4 1 0 0 0 1 4 1 0 0 0 1

V, V,


Qj+ Q:
Q i+Q~


Ii + Itl + Il+/t


Q ;



SCi I Uounda r y Condltit.rtS The oounJ<lry and balomce conditions are

Fin'~ !at~r61

as weI! as

tIM: ~'f1d x'" L arc ~J[pot;t:d to amblCtlt lempernnlre. T..

nO) ~ To


,/0 , 0

0 ,

Figure .1.3.4 Finite element mes.h of a recUlngular 1111.


,\N 1~T1WIJUCl'lON 'I OT II E FINn 'E hl.1~\lLNI MEI1l00

Hence, thecondc.ns1::(l C!l.ualilins are

(~ [-~

- I

- I

- I

0 0

, ~] + ~~{

4 4

- I


- I



( ~ - PP") t,

IJAr"" Ql= - f!

+ !'.P.!:J.! 1 + 1 '+

{ 1+1


,(kA PP") T(}-+ (kA /JP") U: + T+T -h+T

Qi::<;: -P,W~ + IMT.....

where"" =- /JAj(fJ Phj6"J =6 Aj Ph .

For the choice of the data (material or thc fill i$ copper).
It "" 385 W(m, ' C), {J '<:< 25 W(m ~ . 0 r il=< lOO"C, T<'q<::: 2ifC q.

L = 100 mm . 1'<:< I mm, b : S mro

we have



38.5:x 5 x 10- 6
25xlO - 3

077 fjPh

_ 0. .

6 =

25)( 12 x HrJ x 2.'i x to..,J 6 =0.00125


= 25 x
A Ph

12 x Hr" x 20)1 25 X \O~J ;:;< 0.15, (JAT"" = 25 x

6)( 5

x 1O~1t)( 20=0.0025


11 x 25

The condcnS#l equ3tions: fQr the unknown nod<llle.mpcrature:s bet:ome

- 0.077

0 0154 - 0.077 O.l54 - 0.017 o ..... 0.077 0.154

- (J.077

J~: ~ 1(0.0

l u~

- o.Crn +
77 -

0] [0.005 0.0.005 0.00125 00125 o o 0.OOl25



0.15 0.15

0.005 0.0012..'; 0.002625

o ]) 0,00!25

'~OO25) 100

0.15 }

25:x5x 10 -6 )( 20


The ,olution of lhe!.c cqumioGS i~

UI =- 100,(y C. Ul = !!,2.283 'C. U1 = 7Q,732 'C. U4 =64.204' C,

The Qcal inl?ut at nOde J is

Ql "" -0.Q75+ (0.077 +0.00(5) tOO + (-o.on +0.OOJ25) 82.28) == t.642 W

The total heat

ffQm the \uct"<iceof the till tan be cah.:ulatcd uSl"~

= O.OCI75 (O.5U! + U2 +U3 + U~ +0.5V., :>:0

4T,..,) +25 x 5 x IO~"(62.053 - 20}

1.6368 + O.00:52(i:= 1.642 W


lbe ~:lct solution of &Is. (4,3.18) and (4.3.19("1)

Tex) - T<$ -= [COShm(L '" x}+ (tJlmk) i\{L - X)], m~ = if P TIl~T<;Q coshmL+(p/mkhin/lmL Ak


~kA dT


( 1(1

~ Too>-)M [.sinh.m.-+ (j3lmk)~hm/~]. M2 "" j3P Ali.


EVllJU;!tlllg the ailCI
~oluti(ll"l ;It

the nodes. we obl.ain

1'(0.025) >=:.~2 .414'C. T(O.05) = 70.958'-C, T(0.075) =64.5U5~C, T(O.l) ",,62.422C

and Q{ "" 1.62995 W. Next, \lic consk1er a mesh Qf two quadratiC elemcQts IU ilJlaJy:r.c the problem desi;ribed by Eq~. (4.3.18) and (4.3.Ii:Ja). The ~ssemblet! c.qUiltlons of two quadratic elements (hI::::' /1 1 "" l./2) is

The OI)undary and balance cO~ldilion~ arc: 1 boundary C{lndilil)n~ in for

EG. (4.3.190))

VI"'" '1;). Q~ =0.

Q; + Q~ =0. Qi = 0. Qi= -fJ AU, + jiA 1:"


Hence. the oondcn...ed equation" arc




0 -8



+ fjPh



- I


- I



-8 =

2 4+



((- i'~')T'

"~ u """/M/(fj Ph /30) "" lOA/'>II.


~ol Ulion

of the condensed equation~ for tile unknO"f1temperalUrt.' h

= 62.2.u) C

VI %I 100.0 C. U: :0. 112.374 C. U, =70.8S4 C. V 4 =&UI;O C.

The heat input at oodc I

Q: = -0.05 +OJt9IR33 x 100 - 0.10167 x ~2.J74 + 0.012333 x 70.81M= 1.633 W

The totnl heHl

frurtllhe. surface of the fin can be cakulated u\illg


fl 6Ph (VI +4V!1- 2U~ +4U4 + U$ -

12T...,) ... /.(,2756+0.00528 = 1.6.13 W

Set 2 Boondllf} Condlnons FO( Set 2 boundary conditions (4.3.19b). the onite elemem lxIuncl,uy and mtl,U1';e CQndition~ for the rnc~h of fQUf linclIr demenL~ (lit:

and the finite clement



The heal' at nodes I and 5 nrc



- 0.Q75 + (0.077 +O.OO2j) 100 + (-0.077 +0.00125)73.955= 2.273 W

Q: .. - 0.075 + (-0.077 + 0.0(125) 35.S42 + (O.077 +0.(025) 20:=-1.2 W

Thll\, the be;,!1 IIrtS from the end of tbe fin is o\'cre,timated by as ~uming thaI the cod .\' == I,. L~ 31 the ambient tl:mpcrntllrc. 11lc tOlll1 heat 11;0.\ from the latcral surfoce of the fin is given hy


L Qr : ,.,

0.0075 (O.5U, + Ul + Ul + U, + O.5U. - 41:"') ;; U)73


'/~ )

'nle eXIiCI soluti!)n or Eqs. (4.3. 18) and (4.3. 19b) b (01

h -


and 00 = To PI'

..~= [01. ,

~inhlllX +l\.sinhll!(t - \')]


, /1/ : : : -


0(0)=-1.. /1;-= M


[~C(lShml.- -.;. .M"= fjPAk 81] . h Sill 1111,.

(4.3.2 Ib)

Evaluating the exact Ml!ution:lt the oodes, we

"1'(0.025) = 74 C. T(0.05) :::: 53.3 C, nOm5) '"" 35.A7C, T(O.I) = 20' C


0: =2.268 W.

The next e xample is cOIl(,:em cd with heat tmlls fc r ill a rod and comparison of finite diffe re nce and finite c le me nt anal ys i ~ ste ps .

........ 4.3.3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A Slccl rod of di ameter /) = (1.02 m. length I. = O.05m. ltnd thermal conductivity k '"" W/(m "C) is cxpc~ 1 amhient air at T"" = 20"C with a hcat tr.m~fc.r coefficient fJ == 0 100 W/(m ! .' C). The left end of the rod is maintained at telllpcruture "0"" 320"C aoo thc.oth<!r end i ~ in:wlattd. We wish 10 determine the tcmperJlurc di,tribuuon and the heat input ~II the left end of the rod lsec Pig. 4.3.5(0)). 1begovcmingequatioullrtheproblem is theo;;amcas In Eq. (4.3. 1S), We rewrite Sq. (4.3. 18) In the nondimcn~ional f(KI1l

CQIJ\IC(:IlUn ' - ' I....,~r

. ., .




MC5h poinls

I'ichtious point

i- I

t.. 0.05. C' 400.1'1




"" 1+;+;-1

(1111 WIth pmpt'I" unns)

t""rr 0.5

(a) Heat lTan'lfer in a rod. (b) Finite t1ilTcrencc me.,h.

\\hcre (j =T ~ T"",. T being the temperature, and m l i" g.iven by


IH' p:r 0 4ft =_0:;:.--..=_





The boundary conditions of the problem bc\:\lnle

0(0) "" 1'(0) - T.... =

300 'C.

('(Ix I !!!.)




Tbeexact solutio!) h given by jM:e Eq~. (4.3.2Otl) and (4.3.2Ob)1

6{x)= 0(0) co"h INCL. - x) , Q(O) = fJ{OJJ p P At

~inhm l.
cOih 1111.

l'O;;h III!.


Fvr the sake of compnriS(lI1, we will consider both finite difference rind finite element

(lrthe prohlern.

Finite DifTerence SoIutiOfl$

The second-dcrivati,,'t: may be appro.:<.imattd with Ole ccl\.lcrc<i finite differencc formula (see


dii ~ hi (fJ.~1 -

d 20

W, +O'~I)


Substitl.l!ing tbe above fonnulu fOf the ~ond derivative into &j. (4.3.22), we tLlTh"e ilt

which i!> vtdid for Bny point where (J is not We choose 8 l\Iesh oflhrec poillb (h "" 0.(}?-5), two end point!> and Ofl(l in lIle middle lnote thaI there I}; no concept of clements in the finite difference methOO: instead. we identify the number tJf me..~h polrm; (or nodes) in the domain at which \\~ apply the fonnula (4.3.27). i.e.. v.c 81Th"e at the glob;d L'qua\Jol\s dmtly!. Applying the formula 14.3.27) at nodes 2 and 3. v.e
t/buU{lllf,l =4(0)

wtu~re 81 "" 0(0) "" 3(JO C'. NOlc thaI f/~ is the value of 0 at the fictitious node 4, which is Ctlosidcrcd to be a mirror image because (If the boundary (!Imdition dO /d.\ == 0 l!oCc Fig. 4.3.5(b)). To climimllC 04 we can U~ ,)nt: of the following forl1l11.1:L~:


dO) 04-~1 ==0 (centered) (dx. ,.() 211


The lutter is of order O(h l ), (.'Qfl~hten! with thl! CC!l!creti diflerence fonnuJa (4.3,26). U~ing (4.3.29/)). we 1tC! O. "" CIt in (!q. (4.3.28), equations (4.3.281 elln be written in !fllltriX form as



(the cOefficient matrix i~ nO! symmetric)

2.25 [ -2

- I 2.25

l lO' I= 10 (h


The l'oluti(ln of these equations i~

~=220.4 I ( C,

O:\ =-I IJS.9rC

T he heat al node I (.l # 0) can be computed using the dcJi.nition Q(O)=kA

d8) (_......

dx .. II

=kA-=50.01 W


Nc;c:t. we u~e l.IlJ)esh of fi"e point.~. Appl>'ing Eq. (4.3.27) al nodt'J> 2. 3. 4, and 5, and lL."iog

Bt. ""f:}~ . we (h ".. O.O!25)

TOe solution of I~C- cquatiOns is

- I

- I


- I



- 2


The heat at nQdc I (x = 0) is

Finite Element Solutions


For the cboice of two linear elementS, the ussemblcd at toe Ith glubal !I()de)


of equation..;: is (V,



43.333 -38.333 li6.667 -38.333 [


Ul=3(WC, Qi1)+ Q:ll=O.
Q ~ll= O

Tbe bounda.ry (;Otldition~ arc

Hence, we have



-3S.333 l IU'

~ 138.333 x 3(X)


A~ INlIt(II>lC"l l(m "1, ,1'" n NITt; [ t E.\tl _ Mlill fOO N"!

Tht: M)IUlion of I he~ equations h

U~ ""2 1 7.98C,

U1",, 192.81C

TIIC hcat al Ilode 1 (.~ ,,", 0) coin be computed




equ;ltion of the HN elcnH."nt

Once we have the nodal \':.Ilue~ V" U). and Vl. vtllu($ at other point/> nocle~) can be computed usi ng the interpolation

(i ntcml\~d ialc t(l


In. =Lo;,,;(.U, n
whercO: = V,. OJ

, ,.,

O "-' .i' ~ h ..

0:;: V2 :r:(J? and O "" U" J Por the thoice of four linear clements" Ihea~:.<.!llIblcd sy~t e m of equati on.~ is

81.667 - 79.167

- 79. 167

- 79.167 163.333 - 79. 167

- 79. 167

0 0
-79. 167

0 0
- 79.167



U, U, U,


+ Q~) + Q\41

0 0

Qf' + Q\')

- 79.167

XI ,667

(4.3.3 1)

'111e hQundary


:m: (f'= 1.2,3):

Ikncc. we


- 71,1.167

- 79.167

- 79. 167 31,667 - 79. 167

- 79. 167

o o

'fhe 1>l)IUliolJ of these equ:lti(ln~

The he.1I at niXie J (x >=" O) is

Q(O) :::: tAQ\'1 ""kA(II I.b67U, - 7(). I67U:) :: 7:2.07 W

A eompan!ion o)flhc nUlllerical rCliull~ wi th the exact <;olution is presentoo in Tobie 4.3.1. The fin ite element solution is tbe best <;olulion in the \elll.:': that it giv~ the mmimum v3J ue tlf the inlt"graJ or tl\e !>qutlre or III - If~! over the d0l11ah1. The e~acl \'alllC of QW) is 7 1.78 w.

CHAt'rEl< 4 ,KOKI)-(lRIH'1<

DIIH:I<I~'lTIAI EIJUAllONS I:' O,<L lJIMlcr-SI()N. AI'11 .1CAT I(),\S


Table 4.3.1 Comparison oflinilcdilTcrcnce a,nd finitcelement solution~ with the C;(:k:\ solutiO!) d 2{j df:J Of - - +4000",,0,{;I(o) =300.-(0.05)=0. , d.t d x~


bact ,o1UtlQjl

1'11.-1 1 w!UliQn \
N e<2

fDM .ol\1liQn
."1 ", 4


N ~'


300.00 ZS 1.1 1 219.2.3

300.00 258.99' 217.98


0.0375 0.0500



300.00 25!.S2218.92 200. 1(. 194.03

2(ilUJo 220.41 2OS.17'

300m 2S[.89 219.53 200.89


VaJ~ w"'ptllcd by i"te'l">l~liO",

FE,\1. finil"elcmenl mCI!>Qd: ru:>l.

diRol\:1li:e mel""".

The l<lst example of heat tran~fer deals with radi<llly symmetric heat transfer ina cyl indcr.

f':xamp le4.3.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ CQnl'idcr a !on~. bOJllogcn~Qus. SQlid cylinder of radius R~ [sec Fig. 4.3.1 (c)l in whf,;'h energy 11' gcnermed at 11 conStant t,11C 8(j (W/m'). The boundary ~urt':Jce al r = Ri) js maiolained at (l constant temperature To). We whh tu calculate the tcmper(ltut(' diStribution T(r) ;uld he;!1 flux q(r) "" -hIT /dr (or heat Q = AkdT /dr). The governing equation for thi~ problem is given by (4.3. 10) wlth X""gu . The boundary


= 71).

("'h'!r.) I dr




The -zero-flux boundary condition at r 0 is a result of the radial symmetry m r = O. If the cylinder is hOI1\IW with inl1~r l",ldiu,~ Rithen the. bOund,lf)' condition at r = R; Clln be II spedfied ternp.:ralure, specified hefIt Ilux, uf ~)fIvection bound:lf)" condition, uepending on the situation. The finite elemcnJ solution will oot be eXllC! ,lI nvdts because a h not constont. TIle finite clement model of the g!)vo.:roing equation is l~ee Eqs, (3A.Sa) and (3.4.5b)l

I K'JlT'1 = If"

+ IQ'J


it=2n- I
Q; = -2rrk (,. 'IT)





and (r",


arc the global coordinates of typical elemc!J\ 0, = (ru' rh).


\~ l'II 'MOOllC l'I()'1


l 'llh liloom: nnu ~ l' \11:1110D

For interpohUiOil of 1'{rl. the element I."tjuation!i fOl a typlc;)1 element are i-i\'CfI by Eq. (3.4.7). The cleml;'nt equations for individual ell;'menb; arc ublaincd from the~ by ",iving the. clement length h~ arId lhe global coordinalc..~ of the clement nodes. r~ r" and



=r/;. flc)r the meJ\h (If one linear dement. we have ra "" r! = 0 30d ' 1 "" h~ "'" Ro. and

"' [ , JIV' j=
- I




I"1IQ: I +


llIe tx.uu,l(.!ary condition!' imply



7'0 31lt!

0: '"" O. lienee the tcmpcrJlure at node

and the hca.t at r "'" Ro is

1be negative sign indicates that heat is rClilo\ct! fmm the body (because dT/dr < 0), The Qne-cicll1cnr ~oJulinn a~ u function of the rJdifli cool\limltc r j,

and the heal flux iJ;

q(r) !IiI-k- =-giI Ro 3 d,
flo.)r30l~hoflwolinearcicments.wel;U.:ehl .. h1r#!Rf). r l= O. rl=1I1""5RO> and


="1 +hl =<: Ro. The Iwo-.elemem assembly

1+] -3

-I 0] I I


u~ U, Ul

=1tR~~ 1~2

'I' II I
i +2
oi+ Qf Q: Q i

Imposing the bou1Jdary eondi llon~ VI "" To. for the ul\kllt)wn tell1pertUure.~ arc

Qt + Qi ""' O. and 0:"" IJ. thecondcnsetl equation"

"' [ , -'J IU'j =""R 6 j+<' IO 4 12 ll' JTo I



The nodal

\'".l,lue~ a.rt!

From cquiJibrium.

Qi is OOfllput~1 a.~

CUll t'l Lll . M (l)<II) .(}IIllICI( 1)1 FFIUiNT IALI:QUII:IIO"~ 11'1 0 1'11' IlIMH.S lot., At1'I ICAlIO"S


The finite elemeot :.ollllion become

' ."R,j , - - ( .5-3- ) +Tt). 18 I.: Rtl

7 Ko Rn ( , -) / - - 1- No +To 18 k

forO<r < -Ro - - 2

The e:xllCtltoli.llion of the probkm


q(r) = isor (W/ml),



(hrkrT,) L., ""-ll'SOR~



The tempeffilure at t~ ecnlct of the cylinder according to the exacl \QIUliofl is T(O) = RoRJ/4t + 10. Vo'herea.~ il is llo RJ/31.. + To and 58uRUISk + To according to the one- and tW(l-Clement model:., respectIVely. The:: finite element Mllution.. obIainoJ lIsing ooc, two-, four, and c ight-elemcm meshes of IillCaf elements are compared with the ~1 wlution In Thble 4.3.2. Convergence of the finite element soi lltion.~, t = (T - TI)k/RoRJ, 10 the exact MJllit ion wilh an increasing number of elements is dear (~e Fig. 4].6), Figure 4.3.7 ~'s plol" of Q{r):= Q(r)/2:r Ro#o and Q(r) = 2Jrkf(IT /dr, VCrlll~; "" r / Ro. as tOfllputed in the finite element analysis and the exact Mllution.

18bk 4.3.2 Compari(ln of the linile element and exact

~(ll ution~ for heat tl""Jnsfer in a radially ~ymmetrie cy'linder Ro =0.0 1 m, 80"" 2 x I~ W/ml. k =20 WI (m C). To"" 100 C.

Tc",peflllure T(r)t

0 ..... 0.125 0250 0.375 0.500 0.62S 0.750








41LP J')1,67 JSO.OO }o!D3

266.67 225,00



0$7' UJOO

18),)3 141.07 too.OO:

3:;0.24 335.11 .l]S.;!:!! 294.44 245.83 197.22 t,.g,6 1 tOO.O!)

J 1!!.48
ZR7.95 2S:."!,6!\


3)7.90 313.59 289.29 249_70 7 tO.12 155.00

J47.42 ~lU1

:tSO.O() 346,09
334.3!S 314.84 ;!:87.!'i(J

2>2.34 209311
158.59 ]00.00


158_68 ]00.00

t The tKKkrlincd "'"'" an: I!O<IlIt .,.IIQ olhd 0Ihq$ ore ;f\ferp<>IW>:I ~41~


AN 1 N'I1oiOl>lJCnON HI '!'IIE rlsrl'l EU M I ' ~I ' MI"nlOIJ




0 0

8 eknlcl\l~ 4 ekmerlL~ 2dcmCfliS

I clemen!

," 0.20 " , ,










Coordil\llU', l'

Jo'Igure 4.3.6 CI)mpari"<lfI oflhe tinilCclc.l1Icnl WlultOlh wiU1ihc ex~1 solution fM!leallr-,Ulsfer in a mdially symmelric problem with cylindriC"dl gt!Omelry.

0>0 ""'IlrrmnTrlHII""1111 I II tllll""" Ii II,I II ITTrI







Ylpre 4.3.7 Comparison of Ihc fintlC clemeaI !MJlUliIJII with the CJ.act IOtUlion for Ibc temperature gradieOl in a radially ,ymmetrK: prublem with cylindrical gcometf}'.





4.4.1 Governing Equations
All bulk matter in nature exi~ t s in one of two forms: solid or fluid. A solid body is characteriled by the relative immobility of it~ molecules whereas a fluid state is characteriled by relative mobility of its molecules. Fluids can exist either as gases or liquids. The field of fluid mechanic~ is concerned with the Illotion of fluids .1Od the conditions affecting the motion (see Reddy and Gartling, 2(01). The basic equations of fluid mechanics are derived from the global laws of conservation of mass. momentum, and energy. Conservation of mass gives the continuity equation. while the conservation of momentum results in the equations of motion. The conservation of energy, considered in the last section, is the tirst law of thenmxlynamics. and it results in Eqs. (4.3.8H 4.3. I0) for Olle-di mensional systems when thermal-fluid coupling i~ omitted. For additional detail~. see Schlichting (1979), Bird et al. (1960). and Reddy and Gartling (200 I). More details are provided in Chapter 10, which is dedicated to finite elementmooels or two-dimensional flows of viscous incomprcssible fluids. Here, weconsiderso-callcd parallel flow. where only one velocity component isdifferent from zero resulting in all the fluid particles moving in one direction. i.e., 1/ = u(x, y, z ), where II is the velocity component along t.hex coordinate. We assume thai there :Lre no body forces. The z-molllentum equation requires that u = !I(x. y). The conservation of mass in this case reduccs to
- = 0 iJx


which implies that


=II(Y). The y -momentum equation simplifies to

-~ O


which implies that P = P(x), where P is the pressure. Thex-momentum equation simplities


The energy equation for this problem reduces to

pcu -~ k


(U'T + - - iI'T) 2
iJy 2


(dU)' dy


l-tere we are primarily interested in the tinite clement analysis of Eq. (4.4.1).

4.4.2 Finite Element Model

Equation (4.4.1) is a special ease of the model equation (3.2. 1) with the following correspondence:
dP j = --, dx
(~=I.l=con sta nt .

c = O,

x= y


ThCI"<: I"I)I\:. Ihe linite ek ment lIIoJd III (3.2 ..1 1/1 J ami (.~.:!:.,ll b I " \ a liJ


Ih" pn1hklll"

1I\ ' IIII'J=If'Jt-I Q 'J



K ' II'

f' + Q'



. \"

'\'" 1

dif'," d\"'/'



dl'. .
Q'. ~


dl') if<


(,:''') I/, dl

Ne\l. \\e ("OIhiJer an l'\;IIuple

1!I::nnpl e 4.4.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Con~ider paril!lcl

flQw bet ..... een IW\llon); flat walls ~paral1.. h)' a di~tal1cc 21. I~,--e Fig. 4.4.1 ((I ) I. -J We whh 10 determine the velocit)' dislribuli'.n u(),), - '- < ,I' < I .. for a given pn-ssure grndicnl -dPjd.(. u~ing thc linilc cie11lem method. For a two-e1emcm me,h of lirtcardemcnt$ (I! = L). we have

I " -o "

- I

We \."Qnsider two $Cts of boundary conditiuns (see ri g. 4.4.1 (bl I

Sell : 11(- 1.)=0. u(1.)=O
11 (- 1..)
(tw(l\tatiunufywnll~ )

Scot 2:


11(1..) = VQ

(OOUUI11 wall Sllltionary and top wall moving) (4,4.5)

For tht.o lirsl Cil)ie, we m:Ly U lOymnk':lry and mudd domain 0 < x < 1... Here ....<e con~ider the .... full domain for the two scts of boUlldar} conditiOl1s. Por Set L we have VI = VI =0. nle finile element ~Qluliun b given by

1 1:=-.
For set 2.

fllLZ ltl


fl)L 1 )' 21t '-


haye VI .., 0 unu UJ


= UI). The

finite element



u,,(y)-= -+-Vn .;... . ~ 2 I..


) ,.

For 8 ()I1c-elemcnt mesh or the quadnnic denk':nI (II = 21..), we have


7 16 -8 -8 -8
I -8

U, U =J;L 2 U3

0 Q{



" L



Figure 4..&.1 lei) I':')ow between parallel plaIts. (b) Finite element mesh: u{L) = 0 for '>et I and u(l~) "" Uu for SCI 2.
nnd lhe finite clement wlu,ion, for the IWO SCL~ of bouodmy l'Olldi l iQn~ arc

U2 ....



Ul"" - - +-(In 2/t 1-


forScI 2

Although lite nodal va l ue~ predicted iTllhc lilll.:'lf- and qU(1(,lwLic-elemclll meshes;lfe Ihe ~"'c,

they vary linearly and (IUndrJ.ticaUy Ih'cly.

The exact
~l ul i{ln:.


nodes c.)f IIhcar ,!lId Quadratic eiemel)ll). n::~p.;:c


for Ihe tWQ <>eb of boullll3f)' C()1\(.h (iilQ~ in (4.45) un: (-/..


for ScI I u(1')"



(I +L) + loLl (1 _1.,2 ),1) 2t2/l

(4.4.\0) li)t Sel l

NVle 11I:ll lhc fil1ilC ellllllcm ~lulions ,J! the nodes arc eX:lCI, lh expected.l1,c qu;\dratic-demen\ SQlulion asn:~ with lile eXllel SQI UliQn~ (4.4.10) (or every value of y.


".5. 1 ,Jrclilllinary COllllllents
Solid mechanic" is that br.mch of mcchallic~ dealing with the motion :lIld deformation of solid,. The Lagrangian description of motion i.. ust."<i loexprc .." the global con~ervation laws. 1lle cOIl<>ervalion of mas~ for solid bodie" i .~ lrivially satisfied bcc:Lu..c of Ihe lixed Illalcrial vicwl>oint u~ed in the l":lgrangiall de~criptio n. The conservation o f momentum i~ nothing bUI Newton\ second law of motion. Under isothermal conditiom. the energy equ:ltion uncouple .. from the momentum equation". and we m.-cd only consider the equations I)f motioll or equilibrium ( Example 2.3.3).

Unli"e in fluid mcchanic~. the eqllation~ governing ~nlid bodie~ umkrgoing differc111 fonm of ddimnations ,Lrc derived Ji rectly wi llJL)ut ~pecialiJing thc three-d i111en .. ional elasticity equal ion~ to one di1l1en~ion. Various t ype~ of load-carrying member<, arc called by dilTercnt name... e.g .. bar". bcam~. and pla l e~. A IXir i ~ .. MruclUrai member that i~ ~ubJectcd to only axial load" (),ec Examples 1.2.3 and 2.3.2). \\ hill.' a h('alll i" a memher that is .. ubjected to loads th:11 tend to hend it .. bout an ax i... perpe ndicular to thc axi .. o f the member (~ee Example 2.4 .2). The equation" governing the motH,n of ~uch !'otructural ekmellt~ arc not deduced directly from (2.3.52). hut they are derived either by con .. idering the equ il ibrium of an elcment of the member with all its proper forc e, and llsing Newtlln', "eeond law (Example 1.2.3). or by u.. in an energy principle (Example, 2.3.2 ami 2.4.2).

4.5.2 Finite Elcmcnll\lodcl or !lars ;md C.'lblcs

The equation of motion govcrning axial dcfornlation ofa bar i" (see Example 1.2.3)
iJ2 a pA -. -, - -:rJtih 11

( EA iJlI) =/Cr.1) ;d.\


For ..tatic problems. Eq. (.l.S. [) reduces to

- :!... (EArllI) =.f(x ) d\ dx


It should he recalled Lhat Eq . (4.5.2) is dcrived under thc assllrnptionthat all material points on the line .\ = constant (i.c .. all l)Oinl" on any cross ~ectinn) move by the ,ame amount ,,(.... ). Thi, i, equiva lent to the :I"sumptio n that the stress on any cros~ ,eetion i ~ uniform Equat ion (4.5.~) is the sonne " .. the model equation (3.2. 1). wi th 1I = A :Iud c = O. Hence. the fin ite clement model in (3.2.J la ) and (3.2.31 IJ) i, valid ror bap,. Thc avcrage tran~vcrre defl ection u{x) of a cable made of ela'tic material i~ also gm' erued by an equation of the form :

d (T (lx d") -



where T i.,the uniform tension in the cable and / i., the di ~t ribulcd lran .. \cr-,e rorce. Again. Eq. (4.5.3) is a special case o f Eq. 0.2. 1>. with 1I = T and c =0. [n .. tructural mlo,.'hanks problcrn~. the quadrmk fun ctional of 0.2.1 0) ta" e~ the special meaning ur total potent ial energy. no'. wh ich can be expressed in the form

="2 / I

" e.IO"A~ dx - / " u/dx - LI(Q~

,. .,

where /I i., the di .. placemcnt. the .. train and u the sire". The finite clement approximation (3.2.24) of If can he wri1ten:l'

= N" u ~


L' I(A I'(,,"~ 4 ~LCOM}.OMUlK (lUH' ~FSTIAl. f.QIJATIQ~S




and the




take the form

dll d _ = _ (Neue ) := Bru' dx dx u = Es = E,. B ' tI ~

<lnd the expression for the total potential energy becomes

where the c lemen t label on B and u is omiued for brevity. Then the principle of minimum total potential energy, oS W = O. yields the tinite elemem model

~n' =ouT[(LT' ArEeIlT8dX)U- f:" B - Q] =O TfdX



u= -



TIlcse are just matrix form of the equations already presented in (3.2.3la) and (3.2.3 1b).

4.5.3 Numerical Examples

In this section we
con~idcr <I

number of examples of !illite dement Hrwlysis of bars.



A bridge is supp()nw by sevcml concrete pierS. and the gel)fl1etry and load~ of a typical pier are I> hown in fig. 4.5.1. TIle load 20 kN/m1 rcp(cscnL~ the weight of the bridge. and all assumed distribulion of the tr.lmc un the bridge. Tbe. concrete weighs approximately 25 kN/m' llnd its moduluS is C "" 2S x t<t' kN/m 2. We wish 10 analyze the pier for di~place mcnL~ and wes!>C.~ u,~illg the fillite clement method. The pier is intk:t:d it thrCC-dimensional struCture. However.....'e .... il'h to ;\pproxilllate tM dcfoml,ltion allli strt:$S field~ in the pier as onedimensiOnaL We represent the distributed for.:e <It the top of the pier as <I pOint form


((l.5 x 0.5)20 =: 5 kN

The weight uf the .:oneret.: is represented as the body ror.:e per unit length. The tOlal fOrl:e at
any dbtantc x is cqual to the weigh! (If the co ncrete al,xwe that point. The weight at a distance is e41.HIl (lJ the product of (he volume of the bvdy above .{ and the specific weight of the

W(x) =:05

0.5 + (0.5 + 0.5x) 2 x x



20 kN_m~







l llif"l\:M elCtllcnN

figure 4.5.1 TIle ge(lmetry and hlading in tbe COIk.Teh~ picr problem of Example 4.'s.1.

nle body force pcr unit tt!nglh b computed from




This COmplch!S the 100I.I rcpreM!nt:luoll of the problem. 1Oego~cnling differenlifl l equmion fOl: the pmblcm i.'> gl\'CO by (4.5.2), with "" 28 x Iff'

and cro~~..eclional area A(x);

Atr)"" (0.5 + O.5.~)O.S "" 4(1 +.1)


the Cl)nCrcte picr problem is



Iltlcdil11cnsionnJ pmblem whose. Miu) dj\-


is governed by the equ:ltiol1

--E{I d ['4 +.f}- a-6.25(1 + \) d"] dol



to the boundary ~ondili()lls

~E(I+.l')dl~]1 :::; [ .. 11I,.oQ

Equtllion (4.5.5a)
corrc~pondiln(;e: I~




Il ,peeiul


M the model eql,lation (3.l.n with Ihi:: following


For a lypicallinear denlCnL. Eq. (3.2,)lb). We have

Lh~ ~tjffll(,<.S

matrix and rorce vector Call be compuleO using



4/:. 1 + i{\.,+x"d


][,I ',]


~ . 2-'~ ((') +~ ('''' +1'. )) 2 1 3 +


Let u~ consider a tWQ-element (lle$h wit.h hI =h~ "'" I m. We have


c:! [

1.5 - 1.5

- 1.5].

f 1

4 167 ""'~ P+I)= 1 ..20~ ) 6 13+2 15 6.25

lK 1 ="4 -2.5
The as.wmblM equati(ln~ are

, e[2.s -2.5 ].

If I


(34 ' )"" 18."3 1 3+5


7 292 . )

0.375 -0.375 -0.375 1.000 -0.625 [ 0.000 -Q.625 0.625


0.00] [U' Ul

I[4.,67) [ I
12.500 K.333

+ Ql Q: Q~ +

The boundaty lmtJ equilibrium

The condensed equations for the unknown displacements and



E[ 0.37$

- 0.375] 1 .000 Uz

(V, )_\ 9.167 ).

1 2.500

{1 = -0.6255Uz - 8.333

_'t"be ~OlutiOn is given by (positivedispl'lI.:emenlS. ht!cause of the-coordinate SYSIC[l] used, indicate

that the pier is in cmnprcs.sion)

Hence. the ~Ircs~ at the tixcd end




Q~I A:::::: -30/0.75 = -40 kN/r:n~

The four-clemcnt rnode! gives 2.008 x IO'~ Tn ami 1.228 x 10 f< m. rc~PCCt!vc!)". The exact sOlution of Eqs. l4.5.5o) aud (4.5.5/J) is
u(x)=-g 56.25-6.2511 +.>.)'-7.5 In



('+X)] -,-




of II at J1odc~ I aod 2 are

The Jioile clement \olutiol"l at the


is flot exaCt because (1 -= t.: A is not n conStant in this


f;xample 4.5.2 cO(f!p!lsiIC bilr consisting of a tapered steel bar fMtcned W an alumimnlt rod of uniform cross ~cction and subjected to loads us shown in Figure 4.5.2. We wish to determine the dh'PlacemcH! field in Ihe bar USj\l~ t.he tinite-element method.
COfl~idct th~


la, h,tf,(J.)j
,\Jummum (al
,o.;.....j.. )

I Jetnt.'I11


Global nOOl"

j / numbcr

';'::;~~f!i;~~?:=~-~ f'. ~ I 21"'--.. - -,,--14--,--<-1 Elcm;''1l111<'<le




96 in., II!

lW in

figure 4.5,2
l\~iaJ deronnalion 01 II !.'olllposile clemenl rl!p~nt;uion. mem~r (tI)

GeomL'Ir)' and

I\ (h)


'Ille governing cqu:l tion~ arc

gj ~cn


-I -

I 'x I~, A '- :::: 0, (,t-

d ( , d")

_:!. (Ix

(f;. A" dll) : : 0, dx

"a~ !O


...... here the sub.;cript ":;' refL'1"S h) steel and We consider the fl)lh' ...... lng data:

aluminum. 111C boundary

CQndi tion~




30 x Hi' p,i,. A, =kl

+ E" ~ 10'


A.. = I in?, hi ",,1)6 in., L=2!6 in., 1'1}= 10, 000 Ib '!lIe fini le c lemCIIl cqutlliul1\ for :1 Ull ifonJ1 bar elc.ncill wilh COIl\lallt E,A, and f(x) = 0

arc !,lIVen by l,ee Eq. (3.3.5n) 1

-']1"; I ~ l Qi l or III


Q; are the end forec~

or = [-F.A d"] ,
dx .. A,:::: (cDl +


d"] [EAdx


For the presclll problem, A, is not cunSI3J1I. hoi

r:.q. (4.6.l lu) i ~ Mill \,;, lid YJilh


~ (c;l(xt + ,I.'; +x~x/o) + c';fi<-II> + Xd )




this, we calculate


for the problem u\jng the 100:11J COOrdill;IIC.i (.t

+ x,,).



C"l1,\PTEW 4 SH.l)Nf>-QRI'I:W Din

lWl~nAL vu",no~s IN (J.'ih DIMhN~ION. AI'I'.ICAT IONS


K :1 = Kfl =. - K ~I and K~ = Kil' where we have used the algebraic L"qualitics, a1 _ b1 = (a - b){(i + b) and 0' - /J ] = (0 - h){a1 + h~+ ab) to simplify the expressions. For two linear cleJl1entS or JCflgth~ hi =' % in, and h l = 120 in .. we. h:wc .::1=1.5, c~ = - 0.5/96. <'r = 1. = O. and the clement stiJfnc"s JI1atrk"Cs bcc()mc

f K1 j

= 4.75 X 107 [ 1
96 - I

-1] "'" 10 1

4 [

49.479 - 49.479] - 49.479 49.479

- I] "'" Let [ 8.333 1 -8.333

- X.333] 8.333


49.479 - 49.479 - 49.479 57.812 - 8.333 [ 0.000 _ 8.333 8.333

0.000] IU ' U~

II a: I

Q1 + Qr

The boundary conditi()ns imply

Hence, the

conden~<!d equatjon~

arc 2PO ) . Q:"",_ J()'I X 49.479U2

10' [57.RI2

-s.333] IU ~ 1 ,)
8.333 U)


whose w \ution b

Uz = O.06063in .. U,=0. 18063 in .. Q: =-30, OOOlb

The negative ~igJ\ indicates that the rC;lclillfl i.~ acting away frum the end (i.e .. The JI1;)gnitudc ()f Ql is COT)siStenl with the ~Mic equilibrium of the forces:


lbe axial displacement at any !lOin! x along the bar is given by

o :S x .:S %

96 $ A 5 216



I. LLM I . ~I' \l!'nlO!)



firS! derivati\"e iR givctl by

~= I O.~3,

0 :S.x $ % ;::21 6


Thccxatl ~O l lltioll
II(Q) ",,0,


EQs. (4.5.9) su~ect !(lUll'. boundary coucliliQOs


d") [(a <I") .~"'" - ( ilx .... J=2Pij, (a <I") dx


dx ~..lIO

= Po

given Py

j O.128lX/(2HS-X)l, O.ex)! (x - 32).

O:;:x :$. %

96 ,:S x ::;2 16
O:$.X .:s;96

~ = 136.864/(288 _ _ t)l, dx O.O(IJ,

%;5.x $216

In parti(.:ular, the exact solution at nodes 2 lind 3 is given by

11(%) =0.(>64


11(216) ",,0.1 840 in,

'rhus. !.hI.' tWQ-clclllcnt solution ii> about j.8 pc.I'Cent off from the maximum displacement.
Next con~ider ,I two-element roc$ of quadratic vector Jot elc.lnent I lU"e

The elenlenl matrix <lJld fOrce


142.[9 - 159.:n -159.37 266.67 [ 17. 18 -107.29

- 107.29 ,


The a~scmble.d stiffness matrix is of order 5 )( 5, and il j~ of the form

" Kit
[KJ =


0 0

K/ KiJ

0 0

0 0

K~1 + K;t




Kh K' Kj,

Krl K i~

Aftcr ill1pMing hQundaryccUlditious (VI "",0, Q~ + Q1 <= 20. 000, ing the resulting 4 x 4 equation,;. we


Qi:=:; 10, (00), and Ji(llv-

Ut =0.02572 in.., U~ =0.06392 in., U, =0.1'2392 in., U$ ",,0.18392 in. The two-element solution obmtued usiJlg the quadratic el~n\ent i~ very IIccur:He,. ;1., can be seen from it (..'O(Ilp~rison of the finite clement ~(Ihlti(ln with the CJ(act solution rrc~eJllcd in TabJe4.S.C

Table 4.5.1 COtnp.u1f.(\{1 (If the finite element problem in E~!lmple 4,5.2.


wit h the elt9Ct solution M Ule bar Qu,adrauc




(I. I}i

(2. I)





12. I)

" 32 " '"






0",-"" 0.03657
004267 0.04923

0.02553 0.03638

0,02557 0.01652




t ("..


0.06400 0.12392



OJ)b359 0.18]59



0,0(;.117 O,12J17 o IK317

O.06.WO 0,12.190 0,1 W\<JO

0.06..W2 0,12392

0.06199 O,I2.."W9

n) "",all/; '" ek-,h<:nllo I~ Ill<! 101<1".111 (0,%) <IJ>Il" ek."..,nllo j~ II~

IOIC ....'ul {'J6.21t: all dCHI(Il;t:< I!).t:o:<h inl~nr.tJ are

of 1M 'I'lnle


C(ln~ider a hollow cin:utarcylindcr with inner r:ldius a. \lUh!r mdjus /J, and length L The outer surfuceof Ihe hollow cylinder i~ a~,umed 10 be fi,o;oo ~lnd ils inner I>urface ideally bonued 10 U : rigid circular cylindrical C{m: of mdiUI> (1 and length f.. a~ 'hown in Pig. 4.5.3. SUPPUI>C that IU1IQ.i'II force P is applicu 10 the rill!d core along its cClllroidnJ :lxis. We wlsh 1 lilJd thc axial 0 disp l;ictfficnl 8 of the rigid wrc by a~.. un'ing that Ihc displacl!1l1t:0I field ill. the rn)lIow eylindl!r is of the fonn




, +


J, '

to. ,

+ + + + +

Hgure 4.5.3

Axi~)mmctric dcfQrmu\ion of a hollow cylinder fixed at the OUter surface and pulled by a ri[!id (:ore at the inner sorface.


A"II'H I(OIJl 'CTlO'l10THI n.'1nll ~ I\U..NT ~u nllll)

T he equ <lt ion t;0"'erning U(r) C;l1l be determined a..

ro llllw~ .

FiNt, we note Ihal

(4.5. IJal


= a (Ir



where G i!) the shear mooulu\. Of the three stress-equili brium eqU:lIi(IflS in I.hc cylindrical coordin:lll!.\. the twO equilibri um equotitln~ as)\OCiatcd with rami 0 direct ions ate' trivially 'illthficld (in the nb!>ence of fOfCC$) hy tDe Mre~~ fie ld. The third equilibri um equaliOn
1.111"$. -I [ -jJ (m,. ) +-":;'+ r au" = 0 r iJr <10 a:;

the equ:ltio n

r (Ir

(rG1.!!..) =0 dr
(.rG dU) ,.... =P dr 2.'1 l.


The boundary

condi tion~

nn VCr) are

(4.5. 1.51

Thi~ (:olllplet.:s the theoretical formulatioll .)f the problem. We wi~h 10 ao,llyJ'c the pr(lblcm lI,ing the fin itee lentent method. The finite e leme nlll10del of Bq. (4.5. 14) Id. Eq. (3.4.1)1 is given by Eqs. (3. 4.$11) !lod (3.,I.:lb) wi th <7(,) "'" rO and f # 0. OtiC linear element in the dOll1 uin yie ldli (,." = tI iliid It = b - a)

"'G Ii

( r .. +-II [ I ') 2 - 1

ood wi th U2 = Onnd

Qi "" PI L, we obtain
P (b /I) = --l1LG{b+a)

(4.5. 16 )

The exoet w lUlion of f.qs.14.~.14) aod (4.5.15)

gillCll hy

U (r) =-1.1([G l()g(rlll), U{(I) :.s: ,1 "" ~ 10g(lI/a)



The (Inc elemertt <;(lJutioli in Eq. (4.5. 16) CO!TCSp(loo_ 10 the li rsl tenrt in !he loga rith mic ~ritS of 0 li.c., lo~(a lb)l. lhe o f (}fie quadratic clement P; I\-C.\ (11 := 0 - a)


3h + 140
- (4h

- (4h + 160)

+ 100)

h +2(1

1M + 3211 - (l2h + 16a)

- /l10+2" 2h + 160) ]
l lh + 14{l

IU' U,


Q: 0

1 45. IS)


U~jng the boundary eondi liun~ U~,.,Q and equatiOils in V, and UJ:

Q: """ P/L. we obwin Ihe following ~"(lnden~eu lUi

2rrG [ 3h -+ 14(1
\\ hose sollltion

_{ 4/,


-(41)+ 16al ] J1I,



I1 I
~ JPic



:0:; -

11 GL

h+2lJ u,,;-:;:i:i';-:;;:, 31,l + 2Uah + 2&1 2

14 ..5.20)

JhP h +40 =-lfG I.I2i,1+8OiIh+l121,l

The finile elemenl soluliol)


A compariwn of the Ilnile elemctll o,olutions obtained with linear lind quadrmir.: eJcment~ Wilh lhcanalylical solulion 11> shown in Fig. 4.5A. The fl,JUr-clemc nl me.\ h of Quadmtic cknICl.lIs "inu,IJly gives Ihec~tlC l o,olulion.

0 0 0

Analytical II linear t:1~mem~

4 qUlldmlic dClllcms


.. lin~i'r c!cmclIl~

.,. '"


2 quadrJlIc clements





(,oonlinalc. ,.




4.5A Comp;lrhon of fin ile elemcnt solutIOns wilh Ihe ana l} lic .. 1<;()iuti(lIl for

metric dcform:lli(ln of a hollow c}linder fixed at the outer ~urf:lCe and (>lIl1ed by a rigid core at the inner ~urface.


,I' 1I"rlI.!JIJlrrll)>; H)TIth n>;IW FIJMFVf MFTUOD


4.6.1 Introd uction Consider :l ~tructure con"isling of several bar clel1lenl~ connected to each other by pins. as ~hown in Figure 4.6.1. The members m:ly rotate freely about the :txi" of the pin. Consequently. each member carries only axial rorce~. The phlllar structure wilh pin-connected mel1lhcr~ (i.e., all members lie in the same plane) is called apful1(, Irt/.\'J. Since each member i~ oriented differently with respect to a global coordinate system (x, y), it is necessary 10 tran~ronn the force di"pillcement relations thilt were derived in clement coordinate system (i . .\") to the globill coordinate system (x. y) so that the structure stilTness can be assembled from the cleillent stilTness referred to the same global coordinate sy~tem.

4.6.2 Basic Truss Element First. we consider a uniform bar element with eonst:lnt E A and oriented at an angle Of' measured counterclockwise. from the positive x-axis. If the member coordinate ~ystcm Cll" S',) is taken as ,hown in Figure 4.6.2(a). and (iif, Dn and (tf. 0) denote the displacements and force" at node i with respect to the member coordinate system (i e S',). re~pectivr.:ly,the clement equations (4.5.lla) can be expressed as (we now usc the not:ltion

(X + l '/= P:)
E,A, [ II,. - I

0 ;) 0

- )



0 0

~ :~ ll"' l=~2

We wish 10 write the force-deflection relations (4.6.1) in terms of the corresponding global displ:Jcements and forces. Toward this end. we first write the transformation relations between the two "cts of coordinate systems (x. y) and (i" y~) (see Fig. 4.6.2)


0' Ik'IWI ~ II"1

(4.6.1 )

.\'. = x
x =

co~e ..

+ y sinO... y~ = - x ~inO, + y cose, cos 0,. - .v, sin 0" y::;;: .f r ~iJl (J, + y, cosO,.

F igu ~

4.(,. 1 1\ plUllC



ntAPll ,N 4 ~t;t'O"I)-()Nt)I'.11 [)I1"'HtFNflAI. r,(}'-''''TIO''~ INI)"~ I)I~II"'I~IO" "'PPI.K'ATI()"~



U ,



, '" "


", "

"' "

_e ;,-

.... ,






/'2:' II;

-, , "

pr ,



" "



4.6.2 A bar element oriented:ll an angle with re!>pcc[ to the glob..11 coordi nate

s}'~lc m

C,. r).

Forces and t.lhplaccmenls in the clement coorth n:llc~. (h) Forces and<, in the global court.l inut c~.

or. in matrix form. we have

(4.6,2 )

where Or is the angle between the positive x-axis and po<.,itive I,.-ax i<;. measu red in the counterclockwise di rect ion. Note that all qllantitie<; with a b.. r over the m refer to the member (or local ) coordinate sy<;tem (r,.. ,\'r )' whi le Ihe quantities without :I bar refer to [he glob.. 1 coordinate <;ystcm (x. y). The above relation ship al so holds for the displacements and fort.:c, of the two coordi nate ~ystCms. We have


, 111

sin O~ cos (Jr


0 0
cosO, - sin O,



0 0

0 0

o sin Or ] o
co, (J.





16'1~ IT' II"' I


where 1iS.' J :md 16' 1dcnote the nodal di<;pl:lcemeJll veclllr.; in the member and structure coordinate system.;. re~pcctive l y. Similarly. we have

~ystc rns. re ~ pccti ve ly


Ilere I prj and I PJ denote the nodal forc e vectors in the membe r and structure coordinate (sec Figure:-- 4.6.2).

4.6.3 General Tru5.'i Element

Nexi. we derive Ihe rclation~hip bel ween the global Eqs. (4.6.3b) and (4.6.4) in E.(l. (4.6.1). we oblain
di~p l acelllcnl~

::and global forces. U... ing


I R'IIT' II"'I ~ IT' ll p' J


"'~ 1~"rM()I)llnln~

'rOTIII, rT>;l'l'r I:I,I'. MF'H


Premultiplying both side~ of the ahove equation with I T" IT and noting that I r I I = I r r lT, we obtain (4.6.6) where (4.6.7) Carrying olltlhe indicated matrix multiplicmions. we obtain

[ co,, 0,.
I K"I = E,.A,
II r

I '2

" Sill


- cu,,2 0,
-~ sin20r

-~ ~in20~

~ sin:8t

~i n 8,.

~in2 0,.


/.: I
F' 2 F' F' ,

O r

-~ ~in28,.

- i s1n - r - sin 2 0,

I ,.

cos O~

~ ~in 20r

4sin 20,

sin 2 0,.




I;' are computcd u~ing Eg. (3.2.3Ib) lal~o scc Eq. (3.2.34)1

Equations (4.6.8) and (4.6.9) provide the

to compute the clement stiffness matri x.

I K e I and force vector [,,"'l. respectively, both referred to the global coordinate system. of
a har element oriented at an angle (Jr ' The assembly of elements with their ~tiffncss matrix and force vector in the global coordinates folluw~ the same ideas a~ discu~~ed before cx.cept thaI we must note that each node now has two displaccment degrees of freedom. These ideas arc illustrated in the following example.

Examp!e 4.6. 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Consider;} thJ\':e-mcmbertruss ...hown in Figure4.6.3(a). All mcml)ersofthe truS's have identicul areas of ,,'ros~ se<.::tion A und muluh,l> The hinged Supporu. ;ujoinb A. B. and CnJ10w free rnt.1tion of the members llbout the ;:-axis (raken pO~jtj"c out of the plane o!"rhe p:lpcr). We wbh to detcmlinethe hurimJllul and verticlll di~plao.;cmcnt.~ lit Ihejoiot C lmd forces in each member of t.h~ structure.


Finite Element Mesh

We IlSC three finite eJcroent~ 10 mood the st(uctliIe. Any furt her ~ulxlivis.ion 0.1' tbe nlcm!leflo.

not add to the accuracy b<,~u~e the tinite element SOlutiOns for dhptat":~men t $ ;tud fOrCe..' althe hades are exile! r!)r all tru$~ pn)blcms. The global node numbers (1m,! element numbers tire s.hown in Figur<! 4.6.3(b). There arc two displacemertl degrees of freedom. horizootri\ anlJ


200 IN

2(> - 200 kN





O:C;"""- ,


Figure 4.6.3 CL"(lmetry lind finite clemcnt represeJ1wtiotl of II plane t(U~~. (ll) Geometry and applied londs. (b) Element num~riug and reacti(111 f()rcl!~. vcnical

,,' cach node of the dement. The demeot MiffneMi matrix in the 11)(;111

coon.linalc sy~lem i ~ shell by Lq. (4.6.1) y. hile the MiO 'nCSli mlltrh.: and force \'CCI(lr (with Jt "'" 0) in the global e()(lI'\.hnJle S}" IC.1Il is gMm by Eqs. (4.6.8) and (4.6.9), re~pcct.ivdy. The

element dltla and eOmlel'ti\ ity


ghell in the folJOWiJIg 100ble.

t,;lemc,nl nUlIll:>cr


0100.11 llOOc<



A.II\ <>= L II. hpd. A. hI, >=..Fit.

HI = 0"




", = 90
If?, u 45

.:lemcnt Malricc.';;
The clement stiffness JII'lIriccs urc given by 1I/(2./i) .;<O 0.3.536)

IK J = -



( 0 -( 0] 0 0

- I 0

[:"A 0 . JK) =-J




- 0.3536 0.3536 -0.3536 -0.3536 lKJl = !:.A [ 0.3536 I. 0.3536 03536 - 0.3536 0.3.536 0.3536 - 0.3536 - 0.3536 0.3536



(4.6.1 I)

where{U,. V,) !lnd{F/ F" )dcnote .he ,t andyeom()(lnelll~oflhedil>placemcni aodcx tcrnal (Ot\:es. respectively. at the global node I.

Boundary Conditions
The specilie4 di'pJucemcrl! and force degrees of frced('Hn are

The first tWO boundary cooditioo$ cOlTC$ponu to the OOrilOntUI and \crt ical displacemenb lit node J. the nell! IWO correspond to the: horizllQlal and \'cnicil l Jisplocemenb at node 2. and [he
I:!st correspund [0 the lon.."e boundt.lty l'Ondition.~ 81 nude 3. The unknown~ are:: thedisplaccmeoh (U). V) 1of!1Ode 3 lind hlrcc~ (Fl" Fl .) at node- I and rorce~ (fh. F. ) I[ node 2.

Condensed Equations
Thc conden:.ed equ:lIions for the unknown di~lacement.~ (U). V ) are obtained from the l:ht l IwO equmions of the. system. ll~ indicated by thedoucd line .. in (4.6.13)

~ [0.3536
:md the condensed the ~!i'tem)


0.3536] 1.3536

[U,).J1-2P) I'


for the unknown reaction..,

(from Ihe firM four equations of

F" /



[-0.3536 -0.3536


=~;;::] 1v) I
- 1.0

U., )




Solution of the f inite Element Equations

Solving Eq~. (4.6. 18) for U~ IIml Vb. we Ohl3io

U,=(3+2J2) PEL =-5.828 ,'>1.. V)=

.A A
:lnd lhe reaction forces are cornpulcd u5ing F.q. (4.6.1 9)



l'ost computJltlon

The stress in each member can be .;:omputC{.i from Ihe rei;lIion

where P~ :ind

iI; can he dctcrmiol-d from the clement equation,

-,] ["' ) jj;




\' "'ltIIlIl.O("ll()'1 1f)1 IU

.-.'1111 H I-\U "" Ml;.llklfi

and the el<:lJ\cnt db.placelllcFlIS Wi ' u1)are-determine,1 from the IrnFl~f{)rm:ltion relation (4.6,311 )

-, '. = [ - =", ,:'0, ii;'



0 0
COl' Of


B) dc61111ioll
r~ Eq~ ,

(4.6.14)J. wc hlll'C

- ,inl1,



,,; 1

II ~



"l ""



r.; I'L ' ) 3Pl. == UJ ;::: (J + 2" ,!)'jfA' t't "" 1'1 = V~;::: -!fA


l ienee. Eq,. (4,6,22}-(4.6.251 give (4,6,26)

Ii: .".

Iir "'" II:crn. 9:z + " ~ \infJ! =0

iii "'"


il~ =

ul ~,\Sf.l1 + t': -..inR, =0 II~ c()~l'l + vi sin OI =0

+ V1 \infh;::: vl==-'EA

at = llic\)~o\ t-vllsinfh:::O
If l

I "'" U_IC()~ &l+ V' 01= hiU,1+ ,,,n

v~ l =l0f 2ft


ThU\, lhe member iorccs are


The allial !>Ir~s

i.n Ute m~fl1bcrs Jt\!

3P (112'= _ _


lntuprdation and Verification of the



An e."un nt'ltion of Ihe<:lure and the M'nsc of loads IIpplicd mdicOItc.!.hal the uj,pJa('cmcnls V,) are qualil11liveJy correct (po~ili\'C V, ami nct=atilc V,). Also. the gwmeuy of the ' truC"lure il1dicalc~ Ibal it ha.\ relathcly more l;tilTne..\',~ in tlJc vertical di~lion (member 2 lakes lIlu('h of thc load dlftctly) compared IQ the horil,Onla! dU'CClion, '-"hich e.\pl:iin~ the relulh'Cly

large dl'placenl<'lll il1 lhc horizont1\1 direction. The (nrcc' in Eq. (4,(1.21) can be verified toy applying the melhod of \CCtion~ to the freeobodyuiagf'..tlll in Figure 4.6.3(h) , Scction~ AA. ~8 , and CC' (~ee MQ:ure -1,6.4) yield



/ /


Stclil)!1 BO

HJ" 4~~ _ _ _ ,...,1/





6~,," 45~





, R

/ ' 63,," 45~ I I ,


Figure 4.6.4 Method of sections 1 determine the member force~, 0
the rcl:'ltjnns (/-I "" Q)




whkh yield

Q=-3P, H=..lZP, F; =3?, F,I = - P. f~J ",,_ P. fJ=f"! =O


Note thm the Illember force.' cQmputed using the method of 'icClinns ~Igree with thOSe computed -I -1 ~l in the finite elemen! methOd (P I -= fI, PI =- Q. and f' , "" - R), It ShOllld be nOied tbill lhh exercise ;$ only for ('hecking purposcs, and the finite dement method cal) be used 10 dClcmline the member forces Q. N. and H. a, discussed in the poStcomput:lIiOIL This C('lmp!ctc~ the


,\\ I~TN()Tll!CrlO'l romE rI'IllT. ElLML'IT METIIOIJ


11/ '" II cosa-t )'SIno: ". = --11 SlIIO: + . coso:

FigUrl' 4.6.5 Tmnsforlll;lliun of ~pecit1cd boundary condition~ frolll giobalcourdinatc ~ystcm (for an indincd ,upponj.



to the

4.6.4 Constraint E(luations: Penalty Approach

It is not uncommon in ~tfllctural ~y~tcm~ to find that the di ... placemem comp(lnent~ at a point arc related. For example. when the plane of a roller ~upport is at an angle to the global coordinate ~y~tem (~ee Fig. 4.6.5). the buundary condi t ioll~ on di~placements and forces at the roller aTe known on ly in terms of the normal (to the \Upport) componenl of the di~placeme1ll and the tangential component of the force
u~, = 0.

Q; =



where u ~, i~ thc normal componcn t of displacement lind Q1 is the t,mgentia l component of the force at node I of the c lement Q'": QII i~ any specified tangential force . Theseconditions, when expressed in terms of the global componen ts of di~placel1lents and force~ by mean~ of the lran~f(lrmation of the form (4.6.3/) and (4.6.4). become

- 1I';s in(l' + II ~COS(){=O Q~to~a

(4 .6.32(1) (4.6.32h)

Q;' =



where (IIi. u:;) and (Q';. Q;) are the x and y component'> of the di~placell1ent~ and forces. respectively. at the ~upport. Equations (4.6.32a) can he viewed as constraint equations among the glob:!1 disp lac ement~. whith have a companion relation among the as~ociatcd forc..:: ... namely Eq. (4.6 .32b). Here. we pre ..cnt the penalty function method through which con~traint equat ions of the type in (-1.6.32(1) and (4.6.32b) can be included in the finite clemen! equation,>. The penalty function method allows llS to reformuJ:lte a problem with constnJ ints a~ one without cun~traints. The bllsi\: idea of the method can be de~cribed by con .. idering an algebraic constrained problem:
mil1imi:e {ill' fiU/uioll f (x. y)

{O Ihe cOIIslmim G (x. y) = 0

[n the Lagrange multiplier mcthod thc problem is rcfonnu lated as aile of determining the stmionary (or critica l) point~ of the modified function I- L(x. y).

Fdx . .I") = I(x.


+ A.G(.\". y)


subject to no con~trai nts. Here A. denotes the Lagrange multiplier. The ~o lution to the problem i~ obt:lined by selling pan ial de ri vati ves of FI wi th respect to x . y and A. to lero:

-ax - 0 . -


- ~ O.


- 1= 0 iJ.l..



whi ch gives three cquations in the th ree unknow n ~ (x, y . .l..) . In the penally func tion method. the problem j<, reformulated minimum of the modified function P",

one of linding the

Fp(x, .1') = f(x, y)

+ ~!G(X' y) Jl


whe re y i!-. a preassigned weight para meter, called the pelllli ry P lII(I/IU!ter. The f:lctor ~ in Eq. (4.6.35) is used forcoll\eniencc: When Fp i<, differentiated wi th respt.."'Ct to i t ~ argumcnl~. the fac tor will be cancelled by the power on G (x . .\") . The :.oiulion to the modifiL-d proble m is given by the fo llowing two equ a ti \ll1 ~:
-~ O.

a" F a.l

-~ O

iJF " i)y

(4.6.360 )

The solution o f Eq:;. (4.6.J6l/ ) will be a funclion o f the penalty pan.,neler. (x y Yv). The larger the value o f y. the more exactly the con straint i ~ sati slied (in II least-squa res ,ense), and CIy Yy ) approaches the actu:d solution (x. y) as y --+ x. An approx imlltillrl to the Lag range mult iplier is computed fro m the equation.

We cOIl l,i der a spccilic example to

illu ~ trat e


i d el!~

presented above.

EXlimple4,6.2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Minillli/.e the '!u(Ldrmic function

wbjoctto the oon~traint


y ) & 2.1"

+ 3) <:: 0

Gcomctrically. \\C 'iCd;. the inJlt!Clion point l)f the \urface f(.~ . y ) thut i~ 011 t.hc line 2x + 3.\' = 0 . We soh'e the problem using the LagrJllge mulupher method and the penaJty fUliction


lAgrange Multiplier Melhtx/, The modilied functional is

fl (1". y ) = [ (.t. y)

+ ;.(21: + 3y)



1'l"lR(llllrcnoN1o TIlt ,w n, 111\"."" \lHIlOU

whell! ;. is the Lagrange Illuhiplicr to be tlelcrmincd. We ha\'e

- , =lu+2y+6+2,,::<O



aF, -..:. = - 6)' + 2..~ - 3 + 3). .,. 0


- = b'"+3y "" 0 DA
Sohing the three algebrllic !!Quati!)ns, we obtain
r= -3,,\'= 2,A=7


i't!flO/ly Function Method. The modified functional

Fp(.r .I'} "'" {(.t. y)


+ I(2x+ :\)')1

"nd we have
"'- =!U+2v+6+2y(2x+3y)=O J




=-6v+2r - 3 +3y(2x+,h) '"' 0

The solution oflhc~e et!uatioru. is


IS - J6y 18 +24y ,>'y= -26 + 12y 26+ f2y

The Lagr;\J\ge multiplier b given by

Clearly. in the limil y ...... 00. tlle penally fun..::tion Jl'olution appro;lches the ClIDC! solution:

r ......

lim .t.=-3. lim y,=2. hili Ay "",7


r .......

An nrpro'ioJ!ue solu!ion to the problem can be obtained. within a desired ik,"1;ura<:y, by selecting a finite value: of the penallY par.lnlC!er (see T::Ible4.6. 1). Thi~ C(lmpletc\ the example.

Tllble 4.6.1 O)nvcrgence orpcnalty funcli()n


~\l l ution

with inr..'tc;lsing pcn"hy p:ltameler.



0.(00) -6O<XXJ 8.9J62 7.1550
7.O t ~2

/:"y ... hy+J,Vr 3.2308 6.1).:00 0.8936 0.0716 0006ll 0.000II


J-'OOl - 3.6702

-1 (00)
2.7447 20S96 2.0058 2.Il006 2.000)


- 3.00.51
~ 3.(XlO5


7.00IS 7.0000




n)lJATIONS IN UNE lJ IMENS ltJ.'; . A1'11JC"'1'I0NS


Now we tum our <lttemion to constraint equations of the form


with bar elements


where {JIn' {In and {J",,, are known constants, and 11m and u" are the mth and fllh displacement degrees of freedom in the mesh. respectively. The functional tl1<lt must be mini mized subject to the constraint in (4 .6.37) in this case is the total potential energy of the system (see Section 4.5.2)

n =

The penalty functional is given by

nJ> =

1 ~1

A EuTUTUu dx

2 n


-1 -1

" TB TI (ix _uTQ


II TUTI dx - uTQ

+ ~ ({Jmll", + fj"lI n -


The functional n" attains a minimum only when {J",II", + /3"11,, - {J"", is very small. i.e., approximately sati~fying the constraint (4.6.37). Setting ~ n" = 0 yie lds

(K + K,,) u ~ r + Q + Q"
where Isee Eq. (4.5.4(/) 1




U Idx, Q I'=


Thus, a modificat ion of the stitTness and force coeffic ients associated with the constrained degrees of freedom will provide lhe desired solution to the constra ined problem. As illustrated in Example 4.6.2. the value of the penalty parameter y dictates the degree 10 which the constraint condition (4.6.37) is mel. An armlysis of tile discrete problem shows Ihallhe following value of y may be used:

where N is the order of the g lobal coefficien t matrix . The reaction forces associated with the constrained displacement degrees of freedom are obtained from

Because of the large magnitudes of the permlty terms, it is necessary to carry out COlnputations in double precision (hand calcu lations do not give accurate results).

":umpw 4.6.3

Consider the S[Jllctu~ "hown in Fig. 4.6.6(1). The. rigid oo.r AUF. i'i IoUpported by defonnahle h;lr~ AC and BD. Bar AC is made of aluminum (E. = 70 CPa) and has cross-sectkmal area of ,\. =- 500 mm": bat aD is maile of sted (E, == 200 GI~I) and ha~ II crrn.~i'C<!tionlll arta of A, == 600 mm 2 The rigid bar carric..~ load~ of Fj ;:<: 10 kN and tl :0:: 30 kN at pointS 0 and It respectively. We wish to determine the dbplacemcno. nf poin!.!> A. B. and E, and Ihe~tn:S~ in the aluminum and su.:el bars. One may note thai tJli~ is a \lalically dclcnninale prol)ll!'m, i.e . the forces at poino. A and B Cilll be readily determined fmln italics.. Using the frL'1:-boc.Iy dillgrum of the rigid bar ABE lsee Fig. 4.6.6(b)l. we obtain












110" --v,


Figure 4.6.6 (a)GivcnstruClurc. (h) I'reetxKly diagram. k) Finiteelement me.<Jl. (d)Modified .structure. (r') F\\.'Cbody diagrtllll of the nw)f.iit1<td MruClure.

which yield die wlues

F~t:o:2.5FI -2 Fl:o:-15kN , FB(J"" -I.~ Fl +3f~=15kN

If we U~ IWO linear finite elcmtnls to rc~1 the bi1r~ AC and 1:11), the ussembltx! matrix "flhe ~uucturc i~ given by lsec fig. 4.6.6(..:)1


I, 0 [

0 42

" 0 0 -41 ]


Iu, 11 Q;







E.A. k, _ - -


= 116.6667 )(

JIl N/m.

10: 2 "", E.A, .~""J( "

The ooundary condition~

.,f the prohlcm are

01 =- f'~c=35kN.


x l O. N/m



35 \
wbOM! solution

Ul=O.30x W 1 m:o:O.30mm. U!=-O.25 X 10 'm:.::-O.25mrn

U!'in~ the principle of .!>imilar triangles, we can Uelcnnioe the di~placcmcnl

of point E. We ha\"~


fhLl.,\, end A of the bar AC l00\'CS up by 0.3 mm, end IJ of RO ffi()\'C,> down by 0.25 nUll, ond poml E! I1l(lVe:. down by 1.35 mm. TIle ~lresSCfo. io ban; AC and 110 arc


F"c A. =- 500 3510;; x


-70 MPa.

(fNO "'"

A.:;:: 600 x In



& "'"

125 MPa

NC.\I. consider the CIi$C in wh ich !)Vinl 0 j~ pin connected 10 ;1 thed, imrllo~'able part. ll~ shaY. n in !-ig. 4.6.6(d). Tben the problem becOlTlClo a ~Ialically indeterminate one. Of COUNe. the hnite element method eM ~Iill be ~ to w lvt the problem. The a!i5Cmb1eJ cqu:.lI.ions (4.6.43) a~ ,liII \'wid for thl~ calle. n~'eveT. fOf"(;t$ Qland are n(>l \>nown (becau-.c \\e cannot ~Ive for I-AC and fsfl). In addition, point.~ A and B lire (Qn:;.lr9I1lcd 10 rnm'e a;, the rigid ~mber ABE h roraled about point O. This geOTTlL'trie t.:{'m'ttaint i.\ t.-qui\al~ntlo I.he following condition~ among lne displllCCm~flIs VI. U1 , and U~:


VI U~ -=~
0.3 0.9

.... 3VI





U. 0.9

-+ 1.8Ul ,V.I=O



"N l'fIllOIJlJrllOWIUTlH n .. m I~ .I \II"'ITMIOlK,1)

Thc.."C COI)slr.:IiJlts bring, in an "ddilional degree of f~m, o'l.Inely U~. inlo the cquillia nf-. Hence. I)'IC. aSl)CmbJcd equlI!ion$ before including Ihe oXlO"troin! COllthlioll\ are



0 - 11 6.67 0

0 300


0 0

J 16.67

-300 0
300 0

V, V,

Q ;
= Q'


- 300

0 0


0 0



Q i

The 111$1 row and COh.II111111[ Ihe aoo\'e ct.jualion are adtl ... tt) ["cilil:'!!e the addition of peo"hy >d [Crfll~. Wilhout the addition t)f the penalt y l,:oOlfibul ion ~ Ihe 1:t~t cqUlttlOIi i'i Il!)n sen~ical. U~jog the procedure de\'clopcd in t hi ~ MXLiQIl, wecan include thecot1\tminLS. 3Ut - U~ =0 and I.KU2 - Us =0 into a~:.clUbkd cqualiolt'l (4.6.43). The vu lue 01 tht' penalty parameter ii ieJcctcd to be y",(.100 x 10")10". The $t it1'llc~s addi,kms due to the 1..... 0 o.:;on\lnLlnt:; are (/II 0= 3, Ih =- 1.8, ffs I - t. and /f). :::: ff>..J. =0)


I [ (,Wy


3( - I)Y] :::: 10 10 [ 27(lO.OO - 9(Xl.OO] { 1)ly -900.00 3(10.00

(- I)


~ (-l)-y

1.8Y] =10 ,, [

972.00 -540.00]

-5 4().()()


The force


are {em ,In (lCCl)llnl of f-i!, "'" i3"s # O. Hence, the 111\li.!j(icd finit e elcm~ nt

cquutions become

27.()oO.1 17


0 - 116.67 0

9.720.300 0 -300


- 117

- 9.000.000


- 9,000,000 0 -300 -5.4{10.0(lO t) 11 7 0 I) 300 0 I) 0 6,(X)().OOO 0

V, V, V, V, V,


Q} Qi



9. n() ..300 -5.400.000 6.000.1))0 -9.000.000 -5.400.000


_9.000.000] IV' U;


0 0



x t0 1

whose! Mll utioll (u ~j ng an equJ.liQII \ulvet'l is h lefia:tion'> are in the dire.::tion oflhe forte)

VI :::;0.09474 (mill). VI ... 0.15789 (mill).


O,2X4:!2 (mm)

(4.6.49 ... ,

The force~ in the hars AC and SO can be calculated


Eq. (4.6.4S)

? lQ

Q: )~lo'[116.6667 0



IV' I"'" 10' 111.053 )N U~ 47.367


The stresses ure u,,(, s:. 22.1 1 MP;\ and UBI) -;; 79 MPa. Allemath'c!y. from Eq. {4.6.42) we have (one mU~1 Include ~ignillca nl number ()f decimal poultS ~n th e computation)

wl)1' = - 900 x 10' (3 x 0.094739 10 -J _ 0.28422 x 10 .1) = 11.053 kN W;),. = -54t)x 101 ( 1.8 x 0.157$9 )( l(r-1 - 0.28422 x 10 ' ) ",,47.368 kN

Nex t, we co n ~idcr a plane lruss with an inclined support. The I>cnalty approach is u ~d to include the conslmim condit ion among the di"pl:icement components :lIthe support.
i-:xllmple4.6.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Con,idt:f the tlllSS shown in Fig. 4 .6.7((/), We wi,h to de tenlline lhe unknown displacements of node..~ 2 and 3 and the reoctilms assoc iated wi th ilie~ di~placemcnlS. The element stifTne~s matrit't.."'!; are




" 000


0.000 0.000

0.126 0.000 O.QOO 0.000

- 0.000] 0.126

0, 126

0.000 - 0126 0.000

1:.''''210 GPII for 1111 members

1---- 1 .

- -11

L"t< 1 m,A ,""'2,,"AQ" 6x IOm1 A) .. .JiAQ

m ),

Po: IOJ kN


---:; ,<;>------,l..-- f '

" p




(.'igurc4,6,' fa) Given


fb) Reaction forces.


AN I:-lTKOIlUC llON 'IO T ll b FINITE 1;.t\H ,NI


0.126 0.1JIlO - 0.126 O.IJIlO]

(K11 = HIQ

0.000 0.000 - 0.116 0.000

0.000 0.000 0.126 0.000

0.1JIlO 0.1JIlO

0.1JIlO o.1JIlO

[K ' ) "" 0.63 x

I.n -I.n



[- 1.0


1.0 -1.0 _ I.(} - 1.0

- 1.0 - 1.0



equlltiuns before including the cunSlnlhll conditions are



0.6:1 1.89 0.00 0.00 10' 0.00 .... 1.26 0.00 - 0.63 - 0.63 - 0.63

0.00 - 0.63 - 0.63 0.00 0.00 - 1.26 - 0.63 - 0,63 L26 0.00 - 1.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.16 - 1.26 1.89 0.63 0.00 0.00 Q.OO 0.63 0.63
- II sinQ:

V, V, V, V,

Q! + Q.i

Q i

Q Qi 1+ Q! + Q~



The constr.lim condition at node 3 i$

u~ ~

+ IIcosa "", 0

_ - 0.707114

+ 0.7071 \! "", 0

Comparing lhi~ COIlS1r.lillt equation to the gel1eral cons:w.aint equation (4.6.37), we lind that /31 =-0.7071, {h "", 0.7071, and {J12 ;:=. 0. The value ()flhc penally parameter is ~elccted tLl be Y =(1.89 x 1@)10". The stilTl,lcss adllili()I1..' due to thc cOJIstraint are


- (0.70 71 (0.707 Ii

[(_ 0.707t}l Y - (0.7071)"

)2_ I...,'9 ]_


[ OJ - 0.5

'The a$5cmbk. d equations lifter inl.:)udin.g the con~lra.illl cOQditioQS are (the numbers si,J()wn are truncated !luI more accur'.lle Ilumbtmi are used in actual ~)mpulatlon ill a C\lmputc)

0.63 0.63 0.00 10' 0.00 0.00 - 0.63



0.00 0.00 0.00 - 1.26

0.00 1.26 -1.26 0.00 - 0.63 -1.26 0,00 - 0.63

- 0.63 -0.63 - 0.63 ~O.6~ 0.00 -1.26 0.00 1.26 0.00 O.{X) o.on (1301.8 62.1J9.1 0.00 6299.2 6300.5

V, V, V,

Q: + QI

U, V,

QA +Qf Q,~ + Q i

Q ;


Inlpo~ing the bouJldllI)' und force C<luilibrium conditions Vj we obtain Ihe ctlndCll$cd eqlHllion$

= U2 = U4 ::o O and Q{ + <It = p ,

1.26 - 1.26 0.00] lOt - 1.26 6301.8 6291.).2 [

IV, II 0> I = '


0.00 6199.2 6300.5



The whll ion 10 Ihese C(jualions (as I..~mputed in double prcd~OD in .. computer) is
U) ... 11.905

10- 3 m. U_~ =3.9688 x 10 -) m. U, ..,3.9680 x 10 -1 m

and Ihe reaction ... al !lOde 3, as computed using (4.6.50) are

Fl , = -500 kN.

F1r "'" 50tH.N

The reactions of the whole \tructure (1m ~htlw n in rig. 4.6.7(b).

4.6.5 Constraint Equations: A Direct Appruach

1 len:. we present an exact method by which constmint equations of the type in (4.6.32(1) :md (4.6.32b) can be included in the asscmbled equations for the unknowns. The melhod itlVolves expressing the global displacemcnl degrees of freedom :LIthe node with a constraint in temlS of the local displacement degrees of freedom so Ihat the bounda!)' conditions can be readily impo~ed. Recall from Eqs. (4.6.2) and (4.6.3(/) that the displacements (Ii , fl), referred to the local coordinate system (x. y) al a point. arc related to the displacements (II, II). referred to the g lobal coord inates ystclll (.I". y), by

', ) -- [ ,o.,p 1 , -SlIl fJ



s;oP] 1 ")



Ur = All,.


;md the inverse rclation is givcn by where


,"sp [ - sin fJ

(4.6.5 Ih)

where the ~ubscript "c" refers to the constrained degrees of freedom . Since we wish to express the glob:L1 displ:lce rnenLS at a givcn node in tenns of the local di!.placements at a speci fi c node. we conslrucllhe lransfonlUltion oflhe whole (global) syslem as

IT[ ~

III 101 101 IAI lUI [ 1 01 101 III

0 11]


Thus.111 displ:Lccment degrees of freedom Ihm arc not constrained arc unaO'ected and only g lobal displacements that are constrained are transformed to the local diplacemcnts. Further. note th:L1 the tram,fOnll:Ltion matrix I A I is placed in I TI in such a way Ihm only lhc constrained degrces of freedom :Lfe transform ed. We hilvc



A"lmIUII)II-lIll"To -nlllI"IThU_Hl r"rWIIiOD

where I and 6. 2 denote vectors o f the glo bal displ:lcemenl component" ahead and behind ( in terms o f numhcring) the conslr.tined di splacement degree!> o f freedom u, ;n the me~ h . We al ~o note that the transformed di splacemcnt vector A eon t ain~ the g lo bal displacement vecto rs a I and 6. 2 and the local (c on ~tra ineJ ) displacement vec tor fi r. llie remai ning ste p), of the procedure are the !.ame as that described in Sections 4.6.2 and 4.6.3. Thu". we obtain

where the tran"formed global sti ffnes~ matrix Ii:: a nd global force vec tor F a rc known in te rms o f the :I'~rnbled global stiffness matrix K and force vec tor'" as [sec Eq. (4.6.7)[

Since the eonstmined d i ~pl;lce ments arc a p:u1 of thc global "yMem of e(luation", we may impose the boundary cond itioll" on the m di rec tl y (suc h a" Ii" = 0 at an incl ined roller ~ u pport, where 1/ denotes the coord inate l1ormalto the ro ller). [n su mmary, we may introduce a tmn "formati o n of the di~plaeements that faci lit:ltes the i l1l po~ il ion of boundary cond ilions or inclus io n or cons lminls on Ihc d i~ pl acc l1lc nl s. Once the tmnsform ation T is ide ntified, we may usc Eq . (4.6.7) o r (-l.6.55) 10 obatin Ihe modified C(luations that havc the dc~ired effcct. We revisit the problelll~ of Exampl es 4.6.3 and 4.6.4 to illu~trate the i<lea~ described here.

Exwm pie 4.6.5

As 1Il.l example to i!lustr.lte the direct appru.1Ch. The a~semblcd cquilliom. are
C"(m~ ider

the struct ure :.hown in Fig. 4.6.6(4).

1 1 ~67


-"0.67 - 300.00 ] IU' 0 o


-1 16.(,7


t 16.67




l11e geometric l:on'ttraint belween the di~pJacelncnt s VI and Ul

(4.6.57) In thi~ca;,e. wecan introduce a lransfonnation l' be,wccn(VI, U1 U~. U. )and (U). V1. U4 ) (i.e., climm::uc VI by me:lns of lhe ~)nStrJm l equaliofl VI "" O.6V2) (I~

u' u,

U, U,


1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 [ 0.0 0.0 1.0

".6 0.0



U2 ! or.6 = T.6 .

CI.AI'ITJl.4 SECO"U.(JKUUI IllIlHIIC'ITI"l 6QI.!Jin()N~ IN ONI: mM"'i~Kl' "11~.IC"IION~


Hcnce, the transformed equlI!l(!fIS lite



in explicit form. 342.0


v, u,

U, U,

- 70.0



_ IV,:>= 6Q:Q1+ Qi l 300.0] u, 110.


Q i Prom lhe free-body i..Iia.groln of the b3rOABE. we lind thaI 0.61-.. . . (' + FIII) :r:. ! .Sf"J: therefore.
we havc 0.6Ql + Qi =: 1.81-1 = 54 kN and the condensed equation fur the unknown
(UJ,= U4 = O.Q)


342V: == 54, Ul ,.,0. 15789 (mm). VI .,.. O.6Vl = 0.09.174 (mm)

f1)rce~ iJlI~ ban;

AC and

no are calculated ul>ing Eq. (4.6.56) W t =- U~ := 0-0)


1Q11=loJ[116.6667 1Q! 0
1bc slresse~ are


] fU'I =!01/l,.05.3 1 12 U 47.308

= 22.11 MPOl llnd 0Pf) "" 71) MPa.

Examplt.' 4.6.6 Bell,! .....e !;onsider the (nM in Pigure 4.6.7(1). The a~scmblcd global cqumion~ arc gj\'en by Eq. (4.6.50). The trtlnsformalion Oel\\.een the glonal degree, of freedom (V! "" U2 '= UJ = I' :!. U4 "" l 'l. U~ = 11 ). U6 = V\)i\fld (V! = I,,, U2 "'" VI. UJ "" Ill. U4 "" 1 ~. Ii, "" "/. ill =II~) is given by ILe.. q. for the problem <It hand Iltj.;cs the fonn]




]) ])



]) ])

0 0 0 0

U, U, U,



0 0

U, U,

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0

0 ]) cosO'



~in 0'


a, a,


AN , .... ,ltOUU(110Nl0TIlE ANII'E FJ.f_"1I.NT Ml'nlOO

where Q' ; 4.5 . Using Eq. (4.6.55). we obtain the Irflnsfl)mlcd


0.000 -1.26 -0.89 1 0.00 -0.89 1 0.891 1.260 10' 0.000 0.000 1.26 0.000 -0.89 1 -().891 -0.891 0.00 1.890 -0.630 0.000 0.000 0.891 0.00 -0.630 0.630

0.630 0.630 0.630 1.1:190 0.000 0.000 0.000 -1.260


0.00 - 0.891

0.000 0.000

V, V,

a: + Qt

v, v,

Ql+ Q; Q1+ Qi fr,





where Fl< and P)., are the reaclillO fOf'CC$ 81 node 3 in the utngenlial and normal dircclion~ respectively, Now nppJying the bounuary .;;ond ilion~

we obtain the following condeJl:>td equations:

0' [ -0.89095 -0.8909' ] 1.26000 1.88990

IV' I 10' I '



1llc x component of dispklCCmcnt at node 2 lind the tungential dispJat'Cmcnt ih of m)(Je 3 are
Ul"" 11.9(J.S x 10 1 m,
U~ == 5.6122)( 10--3 nl

The lInkJlown reacliol;l$ can be cakliJated from Eq. (4.6.SSb) as

FI> =-500kN, Fir =-SOO kN. Fl,= OkN. FJ.<,=707.1l,.N



(Ire the same as thmoe obtalned by


penalty method in Example 4.6.4.

In this chapter. tinite clement models of discrete systems have been developed :md applicatiuns of finite element models to the solution of problems of heat transfer. fluid mechanics. and !o>olid mechanics have been presented. To aid the reader, a brief review of the basic tenninology and governing equation~ of each o f the three field s has also been given. Analysis of plane l ru.~scs and inclusion of cOI1<;traim relations between primary v:lriables by two different methods is also discussed . It has been shown that the secondary variables of a problem can be computed using either the global ulgebraie equations of the finite element mesh (i.e .. condensed equati ons for the secondary variables) or by their original definition through finite clement interpolation .

The fonllcr 111ethlxl gives more accura te resu ll". which will s:lth,fy thc <..'quilibriurn al inte rclement nexlcs, whereas the 1;llIer gives les" ilccurate result .. that arc discontinuous at the nudc~. The second:Lry variab les computed using the linear clements :tre clemenlwi<;c eon"Ianl. while Ihey are e le mentwi"e linearforthe L1gr.lIlgequadralic e le me nt'>. The magnitude of discontinuity elm be reduced hy refining the me,h (II or p refinement). 111C di~coL1tinuity of the ~econdary variables a t nodes is due to the ract tha t the ~cco ndllry vllr illble~ arc not made continuo us aero,><; the elements. In c1o"ing Ihi" chapler. Ihe reader is remindL-d Ihal the finite e le ment method is :1\XlWerful tool for engi neering anllly~is. The power of the method lies in tran~rorming the tradi tional variationa l lllet h od~ (e.g . Ritz. Galerkin. le:l~ t-'\(juare~. and other weighted-residual metho(l\) into a powerful computer-b:I:'l..-d technique by developing s uitable approximation fun cti ons for complex problems. Without a good understanding of the method :., well a~ the engineering background behind e:lch problem. o ne i~ ill-equipped 10 an:tlyzc the problem.

Many ,,(the fulluwing. problem!> are designed for hand c .. kul:uion whIle some arc Intended ,pcdlic:llly for cnrnpliler calculalions using the program FEM I D (\ec Cha pter 7 for details (111 how to Ul>C Ihe program). The problem "1:1 sh"uld give the l>lLIdent deeper unde rstanding of what i, invohed in Ihe sclling up of the linlle clement (:quation~. imposition or boundary condition!>. and identifying the conuen...:d equations for the Ulllnnwtl primary and secondary V(lfiabk~ of a givcn prohleill. When the number of equmioll\ to be solved is grc:tlcr than th ree. the .,tuLlen! shou ld opt for II computer ;.tllution uf the equations. TIle calculatitllls call be verilied. in rnmt ca...:s. by solving the ,;ulle problem ming FEM I D.

Oiscn!tc Elcments
4. 1 C011',itlcrthe sy~tCln of1incarcla~tic springs shown in Fig. 1'4.1. A~~mblc the clement equations
10 ubWin the forcc-disphLl.:cment relation, fur thc entire syQCI11. U1>C the boundary 10 write lhe conden<;cd equations fur the unknown displaccment:. :lJ1d fnr.:e:..


!!O Ib




- 150 Ibrill


"1'0 IJ'ITROUlCI IOI'o lOllll

IlNm' UJ'" NT \lli:nlOLJ

4.2 Repeal Problem 4. 1 for lhe


of linear sprillgs show n in Fig. P4.2.

Figure N .2
4.3 the direct {:urrenl c leclric network shown in Fig. 1'4.3. We wi~h t(] determinc the V and currents I in the network using lhe tinite c1ementll1ethod. Set up the algebraic equatinn\ (i.c .. conUcn.\.Cd equatinn~) for .he unknown voltages :md currents.


" .- 10 V

t' igurc N .3
4.4 Repc:11 i'rub lern 4.3 for the dire..::t "::UTri:nt electric network ~hown in Fig. 1'4 .4 .





20 n


'" ,


8 - 100

4 R

'" 40 V

Figure 1'4.4

4.5 Writc the condensed equation~ for the unknown prc~~ure~ and fluws (use the minimum number of cicmcnt_) for th e hydraulic pipe network shown in Fig. 1'4.5 . Al/swl'r: P, = ~ Q(/, P2 = 1fQa.and 1'1= :~QlI.

Figure 1' 4.5 4.6 Consider the hydraulic pipe network (the flow is a~sllmcd to be laminar) ~hown in Fig. 1'4.6. Write lhc condensed equations for the unknown prcssure.<; and flows (u'>C rlIInimum number of

Q ~ S)(


10 ~11\\/s




L ~ 70rn

---'~'{i::::i:,::::'::::;:;::::,::::::::::::::;:'::;:~~;2--- Qf -; 2



V "' 10cm

1 - 50m . V 7.5 ~m

f) ~

50 m 7.5 em

SSm Scm

L '" 60 111 V ~ 8cm

f) ..

70m Scm

I' igurc J>4.6

4.7 Determine lhe maximum shelLf SlresM':S in the !.olid , tee} (G, = 12 Msi) and aluminum (Co = 4 Msi) !.hafts shown in Fig. P4.7.



Al um lllulIllu!x:

Z.5 1l

" "' I.S in

T - 20() lb.fI

d ~ lln

2ft Figu re 1'4.1i

f' igure " 4.7

4.8 A steel

~ hafl and an ai uminuill lube arc connected tn a fil>ed support :lIld 10 a ri gid disk. as in Fig. 1'4.8. If the tOl"{IuC app lied at the end is L"<I lI al to T = 6. 325 N III. deteml inc the shcar Mrc~scs in the ~ t eel ~ haft nnd aluminumwbc. Use G, = 77 OPa nnd Col = 27 G Pa.

Heat Transrer
4.9 Consider hem tran~fer in a pla ne wall of w tal thickness L. The left su rface is maintained at tcm perature 10 :lnd the ri gh t surface is el>po~ed to al1lbient tel1l perature 7:'" with heat transfer coefficient fi. Determi nc the temperature dbtributi on in the wall and heat inpu t !II the left su rface of the wall fort he fll llowingdata: I. = 0. 1 m. k = 0.0 1 W/(m C). fJ = 25 W/(111 2 . C). 7ij = 50 C. and 1",., = 5 C. Solve fornooal tem pemt ures :lI1d the he,ll :ttthe left wa ll usi ng (1I) two linear lin ite cleme nts and (b) one quadrmic clcmen!. AnslI"l'r: {a} V~ = 27.59 C. V, = 5.179 C. = 4 .4112 W/III~ = - Qi.

Q :

4.10 An in~ ulatin g wal l is constructed of three ho nHJgencou~ luyers with co nd uc tivitics "I. " 2. ,lI1d '" ill intimatc contact (see Fig. P4. 10). Under stead y-stale: condi tions. the tClllpcr:lIures of the Illedi:t in CO IU:ICI at the left ;JIld right surf:tccs of thc wall are al ambien, t cmpcr;llll rc~ 1"/.. and respectively. and film coefficie nts Ii,. and #",. respcclively. Delenn ine the tcrnper<JlUre, on the left and ri ght ~u rface as well <IS at the jnlerfacc.~. Assu me that lhere j" no internlll heat ge nera tio n :U1d th at the heat flow i~ onc-dilllcnsiorw i (ilT/()y = O). Am'Wu: VI = 61.582 C. V! = 61. 198 'c. If. = 60.749 C. U~ = 60.612C.



Air allc llll)Cmlurc. T:: ~ 3S<C Film coefficient. (JR '" 1S WI(111 2. Q C)
T~ ~ 100C


10 W I",,' ' CI

kl ~ 50w/II11 ' C) "1 -=30W/(m '0(') k ) 1 70 W/( I11 ' C)

h l - 50 nun 1I] "35 n1ln " )..-25 m",

FiJ;un.' )'4. IU

.1.11 Rectangular fi ns are used to re move heat from the su rfacc of a body by conduction along the tins and conn:clioll from the surf:l(;e of the fins inlo the ~urround ings, The fi ns are 100 mm long. 5 mm widc. and I mm thick. and Illade of aluminu m with thcrm,,1 co nductivity k = 170 W/( m .' C), The natural co nvection heat transfer cQt:flicient (lSsocialcd with th e ,ufTOunding ai r is # = 35 W/(m 1 . C) and the ambient tempem ture is T..., = 20 C. ASSUming that the heat trans fer ili ouc dimensional along the length of the fins and th .. tthe heattr.lI1~ fer in each ti n is illdcpe ndent of the others, dctemline the temper.l\ure distribu tion along the fin~ and the hem removell from each tin by convection. Use (a) four linear ele men ts. and (b) two qWldr(ltie elemenls. 4. 12 Fiud the hea t transfer per unit are:1 through the composite wa ll shown in Fig. 1'4.12. one-dimen,ional heal flow.

>, >, >,



JOW,'(m 0(') k) - 70 Wr(m 'CI

50W/(m 'C I 25mm

h, h, h,
T,",f"", ~

50 rum



"'jgure 1'4. 12 4.13 /I. steel rod of diameter /) = 2 em,lcngth L = 5 CI11 . and thermal conlluet ivit y k = 50 W!(m C) is cxposed to ambient :liT at T"" = 20 C with II heat tmnsfer eoefticient # = 100 W!(rn 1 C). If the left end of the rod i ~ maimained ,It telu pcrJture Tu = 320 C. determi ne the tempemtu rcs at distances 25 [mil iUI (I 50 mm from the left end. alld the heat nt the left end. The govenung eq uation of the prohicm i ~

- - + 111-()=0 for O < x < l.. l

d .l


where 0 = T - T"". T i~ the temperature. and", 2 = # I' / Ak. The IXllI nliary cOlldilion~ arc 0(0) = T(O) - 7..... = 300 C,

("e + ~o) I
dx k



USC (tI) 110.'0 linear elements and (h) one quadflilie clement 10 ~olvc the problem by the fini1e elemelll lllet hod . CUlllpare the linite clement n odal t empcra tu re~ again~tthe CXllct val u e~. AII.m U: (a) V, = 300 C. V ! = 211.97 C. VI = 179.24 C. 3.521. 1 W/m'. (b) VI 300 C. V2 = 2 13.07 C. V, = IW.77 C. = 4.569.9 W/m?,


Q: =

4. 14 Filld the temperature dhlribulion in the tapered lin ~hown in Fig. P4. 14. A,~ume that the tcmperature <ltt he root of the fin i ~ 250 F. Iher.:onduetivity k = 120 Btu/(hf\.' !,). and Ihc fi lm coeflicient (J = 15 BtU/( h'ft" F): u,e three linc;lr c leme nts. The amb ient temperature at the top and bollom o f the lin i ~ T"" = 75 F. Allfwer: TI (lip) = 166.23 F. Tl = 19 1. 1 F. T, = 211Ul9 F.


AI< 1 "'TRUlJI.-nIO" ron !!. H .... nT," . J-.T \lEIItOI)

4 .15

T_ - W'

~ 25O"r

3 111

Figurcl'.l. 14
Con ~idc r stcad y he:l! conduClitm in :. wi re of cin.; ul;lr cross . ..celion wi lh lUi electrical heat "ouree. Suppos.e lhatthe r~diu~ of th e wire i ~ Ro. its ell:ctrieal conductivity i ~ K , (f.! I{cm). and it i~ c;lrryi ng an electric curre n! den~ilY of { (Afem 2). Duri ng the tr.lnsm i ~sion of :m elet:tric curre nt. so me of the clectrierl e nergy i.\ convened iruo Ihemml energy. The ra te of heM production per unit vo lume isgivCll byq, = ( 2j K, . Assume Ihatthe temperature ri~e in the wire is ~uHi dcnlly 5mlllllh,1I the dependence of Ihe lhermal or electri c conductivity Oil tem peratu re ea n be neglected. Thc govern ing l."'<jum i ol1 ~ of the problem itre

_ ~ Ifr (rkdT ) = q, ~ r dr
the exacll>o lution


O::: r ,:5 Ro.

(, , '-'T)I

T~ O

= 0.

T(Ro) = 7q

IXlerrni nc the di~lri bu l i"n of tempcrlliurc in Ihe wire using (a) lwo li ne:l r eleme ntl> and (b) one quadratic c lement. and co mpare tile finile cleme nt sol uti on al eig ht eqlHlI imervllb wi th

Also. delcnlline the heat How. Q = - 2]1" Rok(dTjdr)III~. at the surface using 0) the temperature field .mJ (ii) Ihe bal ance eq u<ll ions.


Co n ~ id er

a nuclear fuel ele men t of spherical fonn. co nsisting of ~ sphere of "fi~~ionab1c" material surfl)lInded by a spherical shell of ;llu minllm "cladding" ;l~ shown in Fig. 1'4.16. Nuclear fission is a source of Ihen nal energy. which varies nonuni formly from the eCl\1er of lhe sp here 10 th e interface of the fue l clement and the chldding. We wish to determine the lempc nll ure di.~t ributi()n in lhe nuclear fue l clemenl :llId the alum inu m clllddin g. T he gnvcmi ng equal i{)n~ for the two regions arc the same. wi lh the exception lhat there is no he:ll ,ourec term for the aluminu m cladding. We have

1 d - -r 2 dr


dT!) r kl ell'


where sllbscripl~ I and 2 refer ) Ihe nu clear fuel clemcnt and cladd ing. respectively. The hcat gencr.. tion inlhe nuclear ruel clemenl is assu med to be o r the rorm

where flo :1I1d .. arc conSlants depending on lhe nuclear material. 1111.' bound ary



dTl " 2- = 0 at



T1= T,


r = R/. lind T2= Tu

r = Rc

CfIM'T!:M 4-



Use two linear elCI11CiHS to dct<.:rminc the finite c lement sulutiun for th e tempera ture dislribution, and compare thc nodnltcmpcratures wilh th e CX'I!.:t solution

T, - T" =

";2 1 -(;, )']+ ,> [, (;J] )+ q;2 (, + ~,) (, - ~; ) [,

cladding Fissionab le


Figure "4,16

Fluid Mechanics
4.17 Consider the fl ow of a Newtunian viscous fluid on an inclined flat surtit!.:e. a_~ shown in Fig. 1'4.17. Examples of such flow ca n be found in wcttcd-wllil towers and thc app li!.:atiun of cOlltings 10 wallpaper rolls. TIIC momcnt um equlIti on, for 1I fully developed steady laminar flow along the z wordinll tc. is given by



dx -

= pgcusfj

where w is the z componc nt of the vcI CK;ity, /1 is the viscosity of the fluid. p is the density. R is the accelcrlltion due to g r~vity. and fJ i~ the angle between the inclined ~llrface nnd the vcnical. Thc boundury condi tion s ~~s{K;illted with the problem are thm the shcar stress is 7..cro at x = 0 lint] the velocity is ..:ero ~t x = f.:

(dW) I, ~II -_ 0. dx



(a) twu linear finite elements of cqun l length :lnd (b) one quadwtic finitc clcmcnt in thc


(0. L) to solve lhc problem lind co mpare thc two linitc elemcnt

s(J llJt ion~:lt

four points


"'~ 11'o" Il(QUlJ( ' nn,' I IU 'I'IIEFl~rn ' E.LEM hN'r Ml mtOO

Velocity distnbulloll w(x)


Dircclioll of gro"ity

Figure 1'4.1 7


o. t L. f t, and

~ L of the domain with the elt:tct solution

W pg L' ".p [ 1 - (" )' ] ,= 2/1.. L

Evaluate the l>hea r strc);~ (rT~ = - It (Iw/dx) at the wa llll~ in g (i) the velocity fiel tl.\ and (ii) the equ ilibrium eq uati ons. and cOll1p,lre wi th (he exact value. AlIswn-: (a) V I = ~f, .. V 2 =

i/u f, )= (pgcoslnt 2 / p. . .

4.11:1 Consider the ~teady laminar flow of a visc(IU nuid throu gh a long circular S The govcrning eq uation is
I d ( -- fP. l'ell'

cy lindric~l1ube ,


~ ---~ !o

" 11 - 1'.1.



is the axial (i.e .. :.:) cumponcnt ofvelocity./t is Ihe viscosity, :md 10 is lhe gradi ent of (wh ich includcs the cOl1lbi nt:!d effcct of static pressure :Uld gHlv it;tlion:11 rorce). The boundary cond itions llrc

(,""') I til'


~ O,

",( Ro) = O

Using the sym metry and (a) two li ne:tr clements :md (I,) o lle qUlulmtie clement, determine (hc velocity field and compure with thc exact solution ~I the nodc~:

w, (r) =~ [ 1- ( -" ) ' ] H'



4.19 In the problem of the now of a viscou~ fluid through a circular cylinder (Problem 4.111), assume thai th e flltid slips at lh c cylinder wall; i.e .. ins tead of assuming thm w = 0 lit I' = Ro, usc lhe Oounda ry condi tiol1 thaI
liw kW =-/J -



r = Ro

in which k


the "coefficient of sliding friction." Solve Ihe problcm with tWO linc:lr e l c tnetl1~.

4,20 Consider the ~t eady I~ m inar flow ofa Ncwtol1 ian flu id wi th constant densi ty in a long lm nuln r reg ion be(ween two coax ial cylinders of Tlldii HI :md No (sec fig. P4.20). The diffcrenti:tI

('IIAI'll,R ~ ~I ~n()RIJl.R 011 I I.Rt:r--rlAI rQl_ATI()'I~ I'll 0'11- 1)I.\lI.N~IO'" AI'I~ l('ATIO'll$


cquation for this ea.-.c i, given by

-- -

I ,/ ( dW) r/!rdr (Ir

~ ---. f.



where W is the velocilY along Ihe eylindcrs (i.e .. the z CIJIlll)l)llcnt ofvclocity), /~ is the viM:usity. L is thc Icnglh of the region along Ihe cylindcrs ill which the flow i~ fu ll y devcluped. and PI and 1'2 arc the pres,ure~ nI z = 0 and z = L. rc.,po::clivcly (/'1 tilld 1'2 represent the combilled effect of static pressure and gravitational force). T he boundary e\)nditi()n~ :Ire
w = O at r=Ho



Solvc !lIe problelll using (a ) two linear elelnents and (b) one quadmlic clement. and compare the finite elemcm soh.nions with the euct solullon atlhe node.\:

foR,; I w.(r)= - - [ 1- ( -, ) ' -+ - -k' I. (-' ) ] 4/' No In(! /k) HI!




Veltoclty V- d.Slnbulion


Fi);u re P4.:W where k = R; / No. DCh:r11line th e shear stress f " = - Ii dw /d,. :llthe wall- using (i) Ihe velocity licld and (ii) the equilibrium equations. and comp.1fe wit h the eX:lct values. (Nole \hn\ the steady laminar now of a vi"Cous Iluid through a long cylinder or:1 circular tuhe can he oht:lined a~:1 limiting C3.-.c of k ...... 0.) 4.21 Consider the steady Imninar now of two im miSl;ible incompressible flU ids in a regio n oct ..... ec n two parallel stationary plat ts under the intluenL"C of a pre~sure gradien t. The fluid rates are adjusted such tha t the lower Iml f of the region is filled with fluid J (Ihe denser and more vi\Cou~ fluid) and the upper h:tIf i~ filkd with fluid II (the le~s dcn~ :U1d Ie.~s viscous fluid). as \hown in Fig. P4.21. We wish 10 determine the velocity diS1ributions in each region using the linite c lement method.


AI'o II'o"lKOI)l:CT IO,\ TO Ill E Fll\lTf FlU.1E"f ~u-nIOIl

The glJv.:: rning equations for the two flu ids are


f(O = (Po - PI

)/ L

is the pressure gnldicnt. The boundary

condi ti() n ~


Solve the problem using four linear c lctll cnts. and compare the tin ite clement solutions with thc exact ~ohili on at thc nodes
11, =

fub"[/J I2'1i 2 + 1 1+1 2 2/1, +/l

Il l -

t I 2 .\'

h- h


U = I.2)

Less dcn>e and


\'iscu lI~


Interface III Dcnscrand mure vis<;u us 11 ,,;(1

Figure 1'4.2 1
4.22 The governing equation for tlte differential eq uation

unconfined aqllifer wi th tIow in th e radial direction is givcn by

the rccharge. ~nd II th e piewmetric heaJ. Pumping is considereJ to be ;t negativc rechargt:. Consider the foll uwin g problem. A well penetrates an aquifer anJ pumping is performed at r =0 at a rate Q = 150 mO ll1C pennca bility of /h. the aquifer is k = 25 111 '/h. A constant head 1111 = 50 m e~ist~ m a radial dis11lncc t = 2(1) m. Determine the piezomctric head at radia l distan<.:es ofU, 10,20,40, RO, and 140111 hee Fig. P4.22). You art: required to sct up the fin ite e lement equations for the unknowns using a nonu nifumlll1esh of six linear c lemen ts.

r dr where k i~ th e coefficient of permeabi lit y. f

_ ~~(rkd!/ ) ~ J


\ 23



Figur{" J>4.22
4.23 Consider a slow. laminar Ilow of (I vi~cuus sub~ t an<.:e (for example. glycerin ~o l u t ion) th roug h a n:lfrow chanoc1 under controlled prc,~ure Jmp of 150 Palm. The channel is 5 III long (fl ow

dircction), 10 em hig 50 cm wide. Tho.: uppe r wll il of the channel is mainillined (1\ 50 C while the lowcr wall is maintained al 25 C. The vi~os ity alld de nsity of the subsl:mce are lemperalure dependent. a... gi\cn in Table P4.23. Assu ming thai the flow is cM.entially olle dimensional (jusillied by the dimensions of the channel). detennine the velocity field (lIId mass flow nHe of the nuid through the channel. Ta hl e 1'4.23: Properties of the viscous substance of Problem 4.23.
.r (m) 0.00 0.02 0.", 006 0.08 0 . 10

Iemp.( C)

Viscoo;lIy lkg/(m 'lJ 0. 10 0.12 U.20 U.211

Density (kg/Ill I)

., " "



3S 30

1250 125J


Solid ;U1d Strucl uru l Mecha nics

4.2-1 The equation governi ng Ihe axial deformation o f un clastic bar in the presence of applied mlXha nica lload.~ / and P and a tCmper.Hure chll1lge T is

- - EA

d [(d" - aT )] = / ,Ix


O <x< L

where a l\ the thermal eX p;lI1S10n coefficient. E the modul us of elasticit y. and A the cms...sectional area. U~ing three linear fin itc eleme1ll'. determine the axial displat""t!ments in a nonuni form rod of lengt h 30 in .. fixed at the left end an d subjected U1 an axial force I' = 400 Jb and a temper:lluTC<.:h.mge of6(J" F. Take A (.!") = 6 in. E = ) 0 x 10" Ib/in. l . and 0. = 12 x JO /(in. " F). 4.25 Find the strcssc~ and compressions in each section of the composite member shown in !--.g. P4.25. Use E. = 30 x lri' psi. I!. = 107 psi. E/> = 15 x 1(1 psi. and the minimum number of lincarekments.

to.l 2

Aillmlllum (II" ~ 6 111.1) Figore P4.25

4.26 Find the th n::e-clement fin ite clemen! solution 10 the stepped-bar problem. See Fig. P4.26 fUl"" the gcometl)' and d:lla. Ilim." Solve the problem 10 \Ce if the end d. ~Jllacel11ent excct'tis the gap. If it does. resolve lhc problem wil h mod ifi ed bou ndary condit ion at x = 24 in.

Steel.E, JOXIO'>PSI. Alunnll um,Eu IO x l()'> p51



4.27 Anal)'/e the ~t<,ppcd b. f wi th its ri ght end suppurl ed by a linear axial spring (s...'C Fig. i>4.27). 1 The bou nd:try cond nion at x = 24 in. is
dll f:'A - + h= O
d .l

Steel. E," )Ox 10'> psi.

A I"m illum.F.~-"' I O x IWpI!l

"'iglil'1' 1'4.27
4.28 A solid circular hr..tss cylinder ~ = 15 x II!' p~i, db = 0.25 in .) is encased in it hollow circ ular ~l eel (,= 30 x 10" psi.d. = 0.2 1 in ). A load of 1' = 1330 Ib comprcssc~ th e asscmbly, as shown i n Fig. P4 . 2~ . De tcrmine (a) the n. and (b) comprcs~ i ... e force... and stre!>.'>Cs in the steel ~he ll and brass cylillder. Usc Ihe mi nimu lTl nu mber of li llear fi nile clcmellls. Assume th at the Poisson clTect is negligible.

1)30 lb



S t~ 1

4 m.

.' igure 1'4.28
~ .29 A rectangular ~tecl b:lr (E, = ) 0 x 1(1' psi) o f lengt h 24 in. ha.~ a slol in the middl e half of i t!.

length, a~ ~ h own in Fig. 4.29 . Determinc the displacement of the ends due to the aXlit! I' = 2000 lb. Use the minimu m num bcr of linear elcmenL...

load ~

0IAI'lhM ~ S1:CONI)-UlmL~


i:()IIATlONS I~ (l~ll l)IM ENS I()N M~' ICATIO:'S


Plole lhrclmess ' In . 0.25 in.





In .

800 Ib
(a) A~lualplale

(Ii) IdcaliwJ plate

Figun! 1'4.29

Figure "4.30

4.30 Rep<.!ut Problem 4.29 for the steel bar ~hown ill Fig. P4 .3{J. 4.31 11K! al u mi num a nd s tee l pipc.~ s hown in Fig. 1'4.3 1 are fustened to rigid ~u j)ports al cuds A a ud B :lnd 10 a rigid pl:ue C at their Ju nclion. Dctennine Ihe di splaceme nl o f po in I C a nd )i.!rC~~S in th e aluminum :nlll ~lcc1 pipes. U~e lhe minimum number of linear finil c c le me nts.

4.32 A steel har ABC b pin. s upportcd al its upper end A to an immovable wall and load ed by a force 1', at its lower e nd C. as shown in Fig. P.j .32. A rigid horizolllal be:un BDE i, p rnned to the \'c rt ical b.1r lit B, su pported at poim D. aud c arries a lo,ld F: aI end E. Delermine the disphl CC lll cnts u 8 and U ( ' 'II points B :md C. 4.33 RepcU l Problem 4.32 when point C is ~upporlcd verticu ll y by a "pring (I.: = 1000 Il>/in.).

50 kN

- Steel (~ 200 CPa. A. a (,()mm1) 10em

20 ill.


AI ~ 0.4II1. 2


30)( W" psi

~C~!;r -rAlumrnum (1:.-. _ .....


')I::=~ o~=p L
30 in. Rrgld member A2s O.25 111.2
Fl~ 6000lb

_ 1 - -25 rn.--I

70 GPa.

600 mm 2 )

P t - 2000 Ib


4.34 Consider the s h.. column (~ lypie:11 COIU11111 in a rlluhi -storey buildirlg st ruc tu re) ~hown 111 Fig. -cl 1'4.34. HIe lo~d ~ ~hown are due 10 the l oud~ of different fl ou rs. ll1C l11odlllu~ uf cl~Slicity is = 30)( IrP psi <lnd cross-sectional llrea of the col umn is A = 40 in.!. Dete rmine the vertic;11 displacc rncn ls .. lid .. xia l s tresses in Ihe coili mn at v:lrinus floor-column connt.'C lion point'.


A" ImlI.()I)lClIO" lOTI .. , ~,...-m. nr.M('T "'FTHOII


32,000 Ib

12.5 ft .

12.5 ft

12.5 f1

12.5 ft

figure "434

4.35 The bending momelll (M) and tntn~vcrM! deflection (II') in a beam according to the EulerBcrnoulli benm theory are relntcd by

d"w 1- = ,


For ~l:I1ic:lll y detcrmin:l!C beams. we can readily obtain the exprc,sion for the bending 1l10nlCnt in term, of the appl ied I()ad~ . Thus. M(x) is a known function of x. I)ctenllinc the maximum deflectioll of th e simply supportcd beam undcr uniform load (see Fig. P4,35) using the finite clcl11cnl method ,


~o)nSlan t



Figu re "",.35

4.36 Rcpeat Problem 4.35 for the c:mtilever beam


in Fig, I'-U6.

4.37 Turbine disk s are oftcn thick ncar their hu b and 13pcr dowil to a smaller thickncs .. at the periphery. The equation governing a variable-thickness I = I (r) di,k is
,I, (rtO",) -

tO"II+ 'pw' r = 0

where 00 1 is the angu lar '1X.'Cd of thc disk and

a, = c ( do. dr

+1' ") .



c ~-



(I) Construct the wCllk intcgml form of the governing equati on suc h that the bilinear form i,

.. ym mctric ~lId the nalurn l boundary condition invol\le~ 'pccifying the quantity 11'0,. Develop the Hnite clemcnt model associmcd with th c wcak form derived in part (I).

4.38-4.44 For the plane trus .. ~t ructures~ how n in Fig". N.3K- P-I.44. gh'c(/) the lransformed e lement matrices. (b) the a"em bled clemen t matrices. and k) the cIJndc n:..ed malri)!. equal lOllS for the unknov.n dl ~pl acc mc nt s and forces.
20 kips




tQI<lflS I:

30m'" tS m.l
20111. 2 l S 111.2

JO "'"


3m 2 4m 1


12 ft .


"' igui't' 1'4.38

8 kips

10 n.

.A.:-- ~ kip,

f----'''''-~_0 '<='__4<

All members: I:. JO)( t()lopsi A J in. 2


'. R-- I'

All meillber.;
f:A '"

FiJ.:urc P4.41

1--100. - +-100
Figure 1'4.40

I-- Ion.
UI. l

All members:

t6 kips

29)( l(lto lb.oml

Figure P4,42

F"rHII mcmhcrs: t: 207 OPa. II 5 cm z

t' i gu ~



I. - I


For all members: Ii 2070Pa. II Sx10~m2 P 10J kN

4.45 Determine the forces and c lo ngation" of eac h bar in Ih e st ru cture A I..o, ddermillC Ihe ven ical displaecl11cIIIs of plJinls A and D.


ill Fig. 1'4.45.



10 ft.


ll'z'" 80 kips

Figurl' 1'-1.45
-1.46 Determinc th c fon.:es and c longation~ of eac h bar in Ihe Mrllcilirc when end A i ~ pinned 10 (I rigid w(LlI (and PI i~ removcd).
~ hown

in Fig. P4.45


I. Bini. R. B . StC\\arI, W. E. ,md I 'Shiro" E. N . 1'mmpurl Plle'II"""/I(" John Wiley. "row YOfl . 1960

2. 1101011:111. J. I',. Ifrm ,/ ,.",,,I,,,,1Ih rod .. f.kGrnw-HiIl. New Y,orl , 1990.

J. Krcilh . E ami Bohll. M. S.. l'r;,I(',I'/') 0/1, ..", Tmn;/a, 51h CU" We,( PUbl"hing CompmlY. SI. P'IlJi. f-IN. 19')l 4 OZI'II:.. M. N . II.w Cm,d"r/im'. 2nd ErJ .. John Wiley. New Yurk. 1'1')3. :'i. Re,kly. J. No. ell"t'}I, "';"('11'1,-,1 IlIIII lilr'(IIi()lw/ Methuds ;/1 Applied Mt'chllli/o. 2nd cd .. John Wile).
New Vorl. 2002.

6. Redd). J. ~. and G"rcl"'ll. I) K . C'Re j'n:ss. Boca Ralun . I1_. 200t

n,,, Film" Elemem Melh"J



'("'fllt,if'" wuJ Plui" /)mwmt'S. llKI cd.


1. SlauJ;hler. W S.. 'nil' UII"'lri::J'/1 ThI'Orl' (if Elmliei/I. Bukhau.'II:r.


8 Schlichllng. H ,lJmllll/lIr), f.J/I't'r 11'1'11,.,- (Irunslaled by J KC5lin ), 7th ro .. McGraw -HilI. New Yor\. ( 197"').

.... Tilllcll'>hellko. S. P. 311.1 Qo.;x.hcr. J :-.I. 'Thl'vn' "I Elmjl,II'. MeG,,," Ihll. Ne" York. 19711.


Here we con~ iJ cr the tinit e element formull1tiol1 of the one-di mens ional fourth -order differential equation Ihu\ arisc~ in the Euler- Bernoulli beam theory and the pair of onedimensional second-order C(luations associated with the Timoshcn ko beam theory. The ~upc !lx)sit i o n of the beam and bar clements give The 10 frame c lements that Cilll be used \0 analYlc pl ane frame Slructllr!,!S. The formulations of a fOUl1h -ordcr equation as well a~ coupled second-order equations (sec Proble ms 3.1 and 3.3) involve the same steps as dc'>Cri bcd

in Section 3.2 for a second-order equatio n. but the mathcm:lticaJ details are somewhat
different. eSJX"Cially in the finite clement formulation of the cqualioll .. ,


S.2. 1 Governing E<loa tioll
In the Euler-Bemoulli be:1I11Iheory. it i~ assumed Ihat plane cro~s ~e("t i o n s perpendicular to the axis of the beam remain and perpendicular to the axis nner deformation. In thi ~ theory. the transverse dc nection If of the beam is governed by the fourth-order differcnt inl equat ion


d! (

/ --, +Cjw= q(x) dx-

(/2)1 ')




(5.2. 1)

where E / = E(x) I (x). Cf = Cf(x ), q = q(x) arc given functio ns of x (i.e .. data), and II' i~ the dependent variable; E denotes the modulus of elasticity. I the second moment of area ahout the y ax is of the beam. If is the distributed tran sver~e load. {'f the clastic found ation modulus (if any), and IV i ~ the \l'allSVerSe detJection of the beam. The ,ign conventio n used in the derivation of (5.2. [) i~ ~ h ow n in Fig. 5.2.1. [n lIddition to ~atisfying the differe ntia[ equation (5.2. 1). \I" must also satisfy app ropriate boundary conditions: ~ince the equation is o f fourth order. four boundary conditions arc needed to solve it. The weak fomm lation of the equation wi ll provide the form of these four boundary conditions. A step-by-step procedure for the finite element :lIIa[y .. i~ of (5.2. 1) i ... presented next (1)ee Example 2.4.2).


A~ lJ.mIOIJU l'Il)'1I'Olllht'I'Irn' I,Uc\ILNT MHIIOl)

Beam ..,ross S<.~lIon

1--- - - - [

Forc..,s :md Ihelr , nlerrc!iu;onsh,ps at a poinl in Ihe beam



- -



+c{ II' -= 'I.


FiJ,:un! 5.2. 1 (a) Ty pical bc;nn wilh distributed Jood tIC\') lind IXlillt force '''0 :mtl moment Mil. (b) '1,c shear fl)rce-bending mome nl -dcllt:<.:tion re lal ions and lht: .. ign Clll1\Clltioll.

5.2.2 Disc retizatioll of the Oomain

The domain nt = (x". XII) = (.fr -~h-l ) uftheslrnight beam (see Fig. 5.2.2((/)( isdivided into a ).cl of N line element<;. eilchelement havi ng a tl ea ~t th e tWO end nodes [see Fig. S.2.2(b)(. Although the e lcme nt i~ geometrically the same as that u~ed for bar~. the number and foml of the pri mary and secondary un known), at each node are dictated by the variat ional fonnu lation of the differential equati on (5.2.1). In most practical problems, the discretization of a given struClUre into a mini mum number of clements is often dictated by the geometry. loading. and (\Huerial propenie<;.

5.2.3 Derivatioll ()f Element Equations

We i~o l ate ,I typical element Q~ = (.~" . x ,.+ () (~C Fig. 5.2.2(b)] and construct Ihe weak form of (5.2.1) O\'er thc clement. The variational fOl'mulalion provides the primary and ~ccondary variables of the problem. Thcn sui table approxitl1at i on~ for the primary variilb lc ~ are -.clcclCd. inlcrpolmion funcliOlls are dcvc1o]>cd. and Ihe clement C<IUi.lIion<; arc derived. Weak Form. The weak forms of problem)' in sol id mechaniesl'an be dcyclol>ed cilherfrom the ptineiph:: of virtllal work (i.c .. the principle of virtual di\plllCell1ent~ or vinual forccs) or from the govcrning differential equal ion<,. 1 lere we "[;111 wjth :t given differential equat ion and use the thrce-"lcp proccdure 10 obtain the weak fOnll. Following the thrcc-~tepprocedllre

Clt.'IPTl:R '

1l1:A~IS ......U FRAMES



, ,

I 2 I' l' + I N N+ I I" - I" - I" - I" - I - - I 1r, h2 Ir. Ir\ I Ir\,


I (}
" 'I

,- , ""l!.,

!- "--i , ,
"l; ~ l

~ '. en

Or; "'~

Q 'If J.

Q;. q:


.-.D 2

Q <\ ;.

I'rlmary ~arlab1cs (generalized dl;;pla~'t:mcm,)

r- '.

-1 Q ;


revi~i t cd

Sc<:ondary _anablcs ( forces)

FiJ;u re 5.2.2 (a) Geoilletry and loads on a beam. (b) Finite clement discretization. (c) displaccments and gcnera li led force.,> on a ty pical clement.

iliuMratcd in Chapter 2 (sec EX:llllple 2.4.2) and

in Section 3.2.3. we write


f "

v - ., dx

[<12 (<I'''') +C/ lt' -q ] dx 1- dx 2

(Ix dx dx 2
+C/ I1II' -

~ f~" '.

[- dv .!!. (/-1_'_) '"

<I ( <12",)],,, , [ 1 - - .'. (ix <I (t/ - - ) - dv / -2_(PII' - d 1\"]"'" dx+ [ dx dx d .r2
1/ -


1) -




where vex) is a weight func lion Ih:lt is twice dilTerenti:lblc with respcct tox. Note thaI. in the pre\ent casc. the firs t term ofthcequat ion is integrated twice by pans. 1 yield twodilTerent i 0 ations to the weight fu nction IJ while relai ning Iwoderivmivcs oflhc dependent vari able. 1\' : the res ul t is that the differcntilllion is diMributed equally bclwecn the weight funclion V and the dependent variable IV. Bcc au ~c ofthc two intcgr:.llion by parts, there appear two boundary ex pression s (sec Example 2.4.2), which are to be eva luated at the two bound:lry poinb


,\/. IN"IKOOI. n



H"m' I .U~'"

r 'IUIIO!)

hcam element

Beam clement after defom~'IIO"

0 ) <,.(''' 0 )' d ... :=_(''' .



Fi;:ure 5.2.3 Deformation of a bc:Ull clemenl.


= x" = x~ ::md l" = XI> = X~-tl' Examination of the boundary terms indicates that the e ..scntial boundary condi1ion~ involve the ~pccifica ti on of the deflection wand slope dl!' ldx. and the natural houndary condition, involve the ~pecification of Ihe bending momelll E / (/ !I\'I(/x 2 and ~hear fon: e (d l d.l)( E J (/2\1" /lI1 2 ) at the endpoint, o f the element. Thus. there are ,\\.oessential bounda ry condi tions and two natural boundary conditions: therefore. we mil" identify II' and tllI'l lix a" the pri mary variables at each node (so Ihat the c,o"cntial boundary condition, Me included inthe interpolation). The natural boundary conditions alway~ rcmain in the wcnk form and end up on the righI- hand side. (Fr I. nflhe matrix equation . We introducc the following notation for the <'ccnndary varia bl e~ that i" con si~ l enl "ith the ..ign convention in Fig. 5.2. 1(1)) (0 = - (III" I(/.r: ~e Fig. 5.2.3):
Q~ =:

[" ( "''' )]1



1 -,


=- V(x r )


--, ( 1 " ' ''') 1 (Ix-

=- M (.l~)

= V(X,'+I)


(1; ",,-

[ -dr ( 1::/ --, d dx-

Q~ =: - (E/~~~' ) 1,. , = (!.t

"''' )]1 '..

M(Xr+ l )

where Q~ and Q denote the shear fOfl."es. and Q ~ and Q~ denote the bend ing moments ; Isec Fig. 5.2.2(" 1. The ,ct IQ~. Q Qj. ml is often referred to as the ~el!emli:.(!dforct's. ;;. The corresponding di'placcments and rotations lire entled the gelll'mli: n/ disp/acemenrs. Wi th the notation in (5.2.3). the \loca l.: fann (5.2.2) can be ex prc<;,ed as


I ', '(

d v 1- d 11' '--2
dx dx

+ C rV II' -



IJ(I! . 11') - f(v)


eIiAPrEll ~ IIF.AM~ At>n I'llAMES


We can identi fy the bi linear and linear forms of the problem as

l3 (v.w ) =

I(v) =

f". ( f "..

Ei -'--2 dx dx

d', d' w

+ Cj!J1\'


I'l( (Ix


+ I'(X, )Q, +

( dO.) I





Equation (5.2.4) i" a -;tatcmel11 of the pri nciple of vinua l di<;placements (where /I denote" virtual di<;placemcl1I ow ) for the Euler- Bemoulli beam thcory. Thequadratic functional. known a" the 101lI11)()l elllilll energy of the i-.olatcd beam elemcnt. is given by J\Ce Eq. (2.4.3 1)J
n ,.(w)

f '' [EI (d'''')'




I +_ Cj Il' 2_ lI'q ]

d_t - w( .t,)Q~- IV( .(' +I )Q 'i

-(-dW) I'. Q' - (dW) I'." Q' (Ix dx

2 4


Thc first term in the square brackct!. represent" the cJ:l ~ ti c ~tm in encrgy due to bendinB.lhe second i;. lhe ' train energy ;.tored in the cla"tic foundation, and the th ird i;. the work done by thedistribu tcd load: the remaining terms account for the work done by the gencrul il.ed force<; Qf in mov ing through the re ~pec ti vc gencraliled disp l acement~ or tile c le ment. Conversely. we may go from the total potcntiul energy fun ctiona l (5.2.6) 10 the weak fo rm (5.2.4) by u;.ing the principle of minimum potential energy. one= o. I nlt'f"polatioll Functions. The variational form (5.2.4) requires that the interpolation function;. of an c lemc nt be cont i nuou ~ with nonzero derivati... es lip to order two. The approximation II~ (X) of lI'(x) over a lini te clcment <;hould be such that it i~ twice d ilferentiable and sati sfi e, the interpolation prope rties, i.e .. ~ati~fi e~ the followi ng e~~ential "boundary conditioll'" of the clement Isee Fig. 5.2.2(ClJ:

the essential bo undary condi t io n ~ (5.2.7). the approximation automatically the continu ity condit i o n ~. I-Icnce. we pay allent ion to the <;ati,faction of (5.2.7). which form<; the b;.lli i ~ for the de ri \lati on of the interpol:ltion funct ions of the Euler- Bernoul li beam elemen t. Since there arc a total of four condition s in an clement (two per node), (l four~ parame\cr polynoll1ialll1u~t be ~e l ected for 11';; : In
sati s fi e~

sati~fyi n g

(5 .2.8)
NOle th:!t the conti nuity conditions (i.e .. the ex i;.tence of a no nzero !.Ccond deri\lative o f 11";; in the element) are automaticafly mct. The nex t ~ t ep invol\le, exp rc~~ing l'~ in terms o f the primary nodal variables (i.e., generalized d is place m e nt ~)

.1'-.2 =: - dll';; -dx


.I'-.;=: Wf, (X.... I)

.I'-..t = - - (Ix , <,.,




A'I I ~ UU)OtK-n o.,, -m l1 u, n ." lI1' I) .\If.HT MI' IHOO c() lldi[ion~

such th:llthc

(5.2.7) :Ire satisli ed:

= C' + c'2', r +l 1
.t. "

+ c"3x r~ ' + (4 x r'+ 1 ' "

- {.~

- 2c'jxr

+ - 3c;xrt ,


6 '2 6;


- I
X~ ~ 1

x' ,
- 2.<,


, X ] c',, l - 3x;

X; t l

x' ,+,
~ 3x;+I

c' 1



- I

- 2I:r + 1

Inverti ng this matrix equation 10 ex press the result into (5.2.8). we obtain

ci in terms of ..:l~ ..:l2. 6 ~ , and 6 ~ . and ~lIbstituting

1I'~(x) = 6~r + 6.~; + 6.~~ + 6.~~ =

where (with

L 6.jj ,.,

(5.2. 10)


+ II . )

z = - (x - x r ) 1 - - - h~

X -


(5.2. 11 )
- - - -'

1= 3

, (X -- -2 (X -')' -Ii. X ')' - X h.

- (x - x~ )

; =

-X)' X-X ] [( X II. Ii.

- -'

Note Ihatlhc cubic interpolation functions in (5.2. 1 I) are derived by interpolating II' as well its derivativc tllI'l tix :11 the nodes. Such polynomials arc known as the Hermile fillllily of illferpo/aliol1 flll1{"liol1.~. and in (5.2 .11) arc callcd Ihe Hermite cubic illlcrpo/mioll (or nlbi(' spline) filll(,liul/.l. Plots of Ihe Hermite cubic interpolation functions arc :.hown in Fig. 5.2.4 . Rccalllhatlhe Lagra nge cubi c interpolation functions are derived to inlerpo illte a fun ction. but not its derivatives. at the nodes. Hence. a Llgmnge cubic element will have four nodes. wilh the dependent vari able, nOI its derivmive, a~ the nodal degree of freed om . Si nce the ~ I ope (or deri vati ve) of the dependent variable is :L1so req ui red by the weak form to be cont inuous at the nodes for Ihe Euler- Bernoulli bc:lm theor)" the Lagmnge cubic

CHApn:w~, I\!:"\ M ~


FIlt.~lr ~









I<'igure 5.2.'1 Hermite cubic imcrpolations fU nction!> u!>Cd in [he Euler Bernoulli beam clement. interpol<llioll of w, although it mccts the continuity requirement for IV. j" //0/ admiuihie in the finit e clement approximation of the Eu ler-Bernoulli beam theory. The interpolation fun cl io n ~ ~ can be expressed in t e rm ~ of the local coord inate .f =

x - x,:

(5.2. 12l

The first. second. and third deriv;llives of q,i wilh

re~pcc l

1 i arc 0

d ; 6 ' d; - = - - -( 1- - , - = - [ 1 +3 dl h ~ h, h" ell lit'

.f )


- 4 .f ] h,.

(5.2. 13l/)

(5.2.1 3b)

(1.'[1 d


d.r 1

q,: =



Plots of (I ~ I d., are

~ hown

in Fig. 5.2.5.





!!!i. <Ii
J~; di
1.0 05




0.0 - 0.5 -1.0




dl/J~ liH.

Figure S.2.S Pl(1{s of the firM derivati ves.

of the Hennite cuhi c IIltcrpolat ul1l<'

fUllctio n ~.

The Hermite cubic intcrpolalion fUll ct ions (5.2.1 1) or (5.2.12) sati sfy the following interpo lations prope rti es (see Fig,. 5.2.4 :md 5.2.5):

q,;(fr)= O


q,; C" rH)= O (it3)

ix')I.. ~
.t (tj)=.5'J'

::)1,. ~ O



( _d~: ) 1 .. -_I . ( _ d~r )1 '". -dx (/x

These c:m be lotatcd in COnlpact form as (i. j = 1.2)

q,~(.\j)= O.
= 0.


= I

( d~2.

') I

( d~l' ) 1
- --


(5.2. 14b)



where .f I = 0 and \2 = h. are the loe.d coordinate, of nooes I and 2 of the clemcnt r2" =
(x r Xr+I)' The finite element ,olution

= L\~4>r(.I)

+ L\24>2(.r) + L\~IP~(x) + L\~4>~(r)

is iI linear combination o f fou r terms. which is shown in Fig. 5.2.6 along with the actual function . II ~ hould be noted thai the order of the interpolatio n functions derived above i ~ the minimum required for the variational formulation (5.2.4). If a higher-order (i.e .. higher than cubic) apprnximatiull of II" is desired. we mu,t either identify additional primary

llMPOJI S: III-A MS Mil I'll \M[S


Fil;Url' 5.2.6 Finite clcmcnI solution over an element

unknowns at eac h o f the two node .. or add addi tio nal nodes with [he [wodegrce .. o f freedom
(\I'. - dll' / (I x), For exa mple, if we ;)dd d 211' /(1x l 35. the primal)' unl.. nown at each of the

two node ... or add a third node with (II'. - ll)\' / d x) at each node. there will be a tntal of six condi tion5., and a lifthorder polynomi:.1 is requi red to interpolate the end cond ition.. (-.ce Probleill " 5.4 and 5.5). However. interclcrncnl continu it y of d 211'/llx 2 (curva tu re) i ~ 110t req uired by the weak form (5.2.4). Finite E lclI1cnl Model. The finit e clemcnt mod el o f the Eu ler-Bcmoull i beam i... obtai ned by "ubstit ut ing the finit e cleme nt intell)olation (5.2. 1 for \1 ' :lIld the 4>~ for the 0) weight function II into the weak form (5.2.4). Si nce there arc four nodal va ri able ... D.1, four d ifferent choices ure used for u: 1I=f. ;. ~. and ~. allow ing us to obt:u ll a -.ct of four algebraic equation .... The ith algebr.tic equation o f the ti nit e clement model is (for II = ;)

0 = 2:

, [I""(E I -f---f.+(jij ) d.\ ] 1 :- I"" tq(ix - Qj d'~' d'~' d.\ dx "

I '.


"K r J L... IJ D."-"-~ = O or IK"HLlf l=IF") ,
i" I

(5.2. 15h)


A'i -



', , ( I '", I'.


1. 1-.-, -.-2 +rjrP"j d.1 d.1

d'' d'~' '1', J


1 .1




<5.2 .161J)

Note that the cocrficienl" written a~



~Ylllilletric: K,~j

= Ki" In 1ll1tlrix not<l1ion , (5.2.15/J) can

K '" Kf. [K f' K 22 ' K{2

Kl l

K r.




K '"

Kf'] O! , K ,,; ' " K'




q~ 'If + Q:i -




(5 .2. 17)




Thi" represents the liui le clemerll model of (5.2. 1). For the ca-.e in which E I and lJ are con:-.t:ml oyer an c le mellI . the clemcn! stiffness malri x I K ~ J and force \CClOr I P 'I havc the following :-.pccilk foml' I:-.ce Fig . 5.2. 2(e) for the c1el11elll di splaccl11cn1 and force degrees uffreedo m l

(K '!

~ 2~;', [-~~'
-311 ,

-3 11 ~


- 2211~

- 1311,. -31, ..

211 , 2
3" ~ 112 ,


+ ('f h ~

[ 156

-2211 ~

- 13" ~ -311 , 2



2211 ,.


2211" 411 , 2



- II .. I>


Q, Q, + Q, Q,

(5.2 . I 8)

II can be verified thaI the gencmli/cd forcc vcctur in (5.2.18) rcprc<;cnt" the "staticall y (:quiv:llent" force<, and moments al nodes 1 and 2 due to the uniformly distributed load o f interhity 'I .. over Ihe clement (see Fig. 5.2 .7). For any given function q(x). (5.2.16/) providcs a straight forward way of computing the c(JIl1[>Oncms of thc gcner:tl izcd force \'(:ctor 1((1


Umromlly dlslnoolcd toad

" q" .

1' ' ' '' ,.. "" \ ."


:" col!1puwdby J:q.(5 .2.J9 )

0"''' 'ood,

5.2.7 Gcncrali/oo nudal forces due hl urufonn ly dhlribuu:d load.

When a tr,lIIwerse point force Fe; is applied at a point Xo inside the clement, it is distributed to the clementllOOCS by the re lation [see Re mark 5 in Chapter 3; Eq. (3.3 .4)J:

wh ich contains both transverse forces (q f and ql) and bending moments ('Ii and 5.2.4 Assembly of Eleme nt Equa tions The as~clllbly procedure for beam elements is the same lLS that used for bar elements except that we mu~t take in to account the two degrees of freedom at each node. Reea llthat the assembly of clements is based on: (a) interelement cOlllinuity of the primary variables (dencction and slope) iUld (b) imerele rnent equil ibrium of the secondary variable (shear force and bending mo rnem) at the nodes common to clements. To demon<;trate the assembly procedure, we select a two-element model (see Fig. 5.2.8). There are three global nodes and a total of six g lobal generalized displacements and sill generalized force~ in the problem. The continuity of the primary vlLriab les implies the fo llowing relation between the c lemen t degrees of freedom .6.1and the global degrees of freedom Vi (see Fig. 5.2.H):
q~) .


= V I,


.6.1 =.6.r= U)
(5.2.2 1)




I:lcmcnt node number;


Global node numbers

element . r fl~ 1----., ---1----element , to',

ft h

0 ;'


I.) Q;tQ{ ,uu



C; o
Figure S.2.H


Q' ,

~( ~r Q r
Q; Q - Fo' ;+Q(


0' ,

A~,embly of two Euler Bernoulli beam fini te c leme nts. (J) Continuity of ge nerali.r.ed displacemen ts. (b) B:II:U1ce or the generaliled forces.


AN INTHOI )l~-IIONTOTlir I~Nrrf.1.I l'lln.,. III' I IIOU

clcrl1cnt~ Q~

In general. the eq uilibrium of the genera li/ed forces at a node between two connecting and 0. j rCl.ju ircs that

Q~ Q~

+ Q{ = + Q{

applied external poim force (5.2.22)

= applied ex ternal be nding mo ment

If no ex ternal nppl ied forces arc g iven, the ~um ~hould be equated tn ICro. In equating the , urns to the applied generalil.ed forces (i.e .. force or moment), the sign convention for the clellle nt force degrees of fr(:edoml ~c Fig. 5.2.2(')1 ~ h ould be foll owed. l- rces are Taken as o po~ i tive when they act in the direction uf po~ iti ve z- axi~, and moments arc taken as po~itive when they follow Iheright-hand ..crew mle (i.e .. when Ihelhumb is alo ng the PI"itivc y- a xi~. the four fin ger.. show the directiun of the moment ), With re'pcct to the coordinate ~ys l em used in Figs. 5.2. 1 and 5.2.2,/u/l't's {/('(ill~ dowm\'wy} are POSilil'c and cOIIli/Nclod.. wiJC

IH).lilil c.

the equ ilibrium of force s in (5.2.22). it is necessary to add the third and fourth eq uatiuns (;()ffespondin to the second nooe) of element Q ~ to the fir~ t and second equat ion.. (corre .. ponding to the first node) of cleme nt 9/. Consequently. Ihe g lobal stiO'ness pamrneten; K 11 , K14 , K41. and K44 associated with global node 2 ;Ire the ,upcrposition of the clement ~tiffn esse~:


= K44

, + Kn ,

(5 .2,23) In general. the lIsscmblcd ~ti fTnes'1. matrix and force veetor for beam clements connected in have the forms Biven in Etl ~' (5.2.24a) and (5.2.2 4h ): Global nooe I
KI I K41

se ri e~

G loba l node 2

Global node 3

K I12

K~1+ K ~,

1 K I4


K' 22 K' K'

K~ K4~ I

" .,

+ K ~2
+ K"' 22

K f) Ki,

K ;4 Ki4



Kl i

+ Ki , ,

12 13



" K2 "
Q : Q i
Q~+ Qi


" " K 2 K' ..,




lJ i
[l'l ~


qJ + qi

Q! + Q~

(5.2 .24b)

q J

Q ', Q ;

5.2.5 ImlHlSition of Houndary Condi tions Allhis step of tile analy,is. we must impose the panicular boundary conditions of the problem being analyzed. The type of essential (aho know as .'-:1'0111'11';(') boundary condit i on~ for a ~peci(jc beam problem depend (In the nature of the geometric support T"ble 5.2. 1 contains a li<;t of commonly used geometric suppons for beam ... llie n:ltur.ll ("Iso called force) boundary condition" involve the "pccification of gcncralill.xl force~ when the corrc'ponding primary variab les arc not con~traincd. One must bear in Illind that onc and only one element of each of the following pair-. must be ~pecificd :Lt every node of the linite clement mesh:

d( d [EI -'w]) .
11'. -


rit Z

dW d'w) ( -(ix ./ -dx 2


At an interior node. we irnpo!\.C the continuity of generali zed di~p l acements and balance of gencrali.lcd forces a.. discu<;scd in Eqs. (5.2.2 1) and (5.2.22),
Tuhle 5.2. 1 Type~

of cOlllmonly


sllppllrt conditions fllr bea ms and frames.


Type of suppon

L't",d >1i on,


"'"',, : 0

c()nd>1;on, All. as spec lti cd



RoHcr (VCtllCll1)

Rollcr (lllJfllOntal) ", = 0

Tranwcr"" f()rcc and mom!;n! arc ,pccificd

J lorizontal force and bending tllumem an: 'IICclfied

Fixed (or clill11ped)

" ",, 0
". ~ u

None specified

d ... / Jx = O

Elu5ticaUy rc~l""l111Cd

I: 1(J'lIld.l ')

+ Je ... =

Qu. Qu 'l1<!cified


"'N 11nlI0I)UlTlON1o nlh 1"1:-'111' FJJc\IE.VI' MI'I'IIOI)

There are two alternative ways to include the effect of:t linear e l a~ ti e spring (ex t e n ~iona l as we ll as torsion:tl). (I) Include the spring through the buundary condition for the ap propriate degree of freedom (see Table 5.2. 1). (2) Incl ude the spri ng ;I" another fin ite clement. who.-.c element equat ions are given by Eq. (4.2.2). In the former C ll ~e. aft er a~~embly of the element equations. the secondary variable in the di rection of the spring action is replaced by the negative of the spring constant times the assoc'iatcd primary variable. Let Q' . and Q ~ denote the ~eco ndary v:Jri ables associated with the transverse and row1ional degrees of freedom at a node. Then. we have. re~pcc ti vely

Q" + kw

= 0 or


= - kw

for vertical spring with spring constmlt k

+ IlO =

0 or QiJ = - llO for torsional spring with spring constant JL

Note that Q" is the shear force and Q/J the bending mument. In the second case. Ihe .. pring elemeru Illay be assembled along wi th beam c leme nts by noting that the :Jxial dis pl acement of the spri ng is the same as the tra nsverse d isplacement of the beam. For example. consider the case of a beam clamped al the len end and supported by a spring at the right end. as shown in Fig. 5.2.9(a). Usi ng one-element mode l of the beam. we obta in Isci l'f = 0 in Eq. (5.2. 18)1

21[_;L ~~~ ;: -:2L] ~~





- 3L














~ Q;



t0u, cff"






~igu rc

5.2.9 (a) A spring supported cantilevcr beam. (h) Spring ~I ct i on. (c) Finite clement mc, h of
beam and


The obvious boundary conditions arc VI V 2 Q4 = O. The elreet of the spring is that Isee Fig. 5.2.9(b)l it exerts a force of kV3 upward on the bellin. Hence. Q3 = -kV). Thus, we have

= =

2E' [ L3 -6


- 3L
2L 2

- 6


- I} 3L 31.

qu L 12


I. '

- 3t


U, U,

Q, Q,
-kU 3

and the condensed equmiol1s for the unknown displacements U3 (deflection) and V 4 (rotation) become

whose solution is

Ii'll +k

'f,4] (u, ] ~


qoL ( 12 L


U 3 = w(L) = -8--'

'(- - ':',-,.7, ') I+


Note that when k 0. we obtain the deflection VJ tlnL 4/8E I and rotation U4 = - qoL 3; 6EI at the free end of a cantilever beam under uniformly distributed load of intensity qu. When k -+ 00. we obtain the deflection U 1 = and rotntion V 4 = -qoL~/48E 1 at x = L (where it is si mply supported). Alternatively. the assembly of the beam and spring elemcnts bee Fig. 5.2.9(c)] yields the result

01-."1 -~ I.'
I -" 6FI -~ I.'



- ~


I. -"






6EI -". I. 2EI

0 0








T -k

T 0


U, U, U, U, U,

- I.
~ ~-

Qi Qi



+ QT


Using the boundary conditions. VI = V2 = V~ = 0 and tion Qj + Qi = 0, we obtain the condensed equations

Q! = 0, and the equilibrium cond i(

'f4] (
4EI I.

U, ]

~ '1oL 12


which arc identical to those obtained earlier. 5.2.6 Postproct'ssillg of t he Solution Once the boundary cond itions arc imposed. the resulting equations arc solved for the unknown Il(xlal di~placell1cnts and force~. The solution is then g iven by Eq. (5.2.10) in each

cleme n!. The slope of the deflection at an interior poi nt


_ cllI'i; = _ elx
computed from the form ula

2:: u, /~;
4 A



(5.2.26 )

Similarly. the bend ing moment 31 uny po int in the clement

n" nf the




M (x)=

n, :.(IA = 8

ll 12

(T,:. d z= - IJI~

ll 12

- 11 .'2

:~--~ I//! (1.1' -

~ (1 2W

(/:=- 1 --,
dx -

d Zqf

= -

r: I

'"'" !: '/ - - : L... : J (Jri' I .


where IJ i~ the width and /-I iii the height o f the beam (for a reclangular clUlos,scclion beam). The bending <"Ire\\ j" given by
0-, (.\.:)

= - - - = E :.--~ = L z '"" fl. ,

M (x) :

_ d 211'


1: 1


d \J>j().') ,



The Illa~imum Icnl>ilc SIres); oceu ..... 1l11he bollom (;:

= 1-1 / 2) and

the m ax imum c omprcs .... ive

Slres, :II the top (;: = - 1-1 /2 ) urlhe beam. We d o,c Ihis ,celion with a nOle that whenever the fl exural ri gitlity E I il> a constant in each demen\. Ihe tinite de ment so lution for the genera li zed di'phlccments at the nodes is cxact fo r any :lpplicd l ra n ~verse load 4. Further. the o:.olution is exact at all poinl ~ if the distributed lOild is , ueh that Ihe exact "olUlion is a cubic.

5.2.7 Numerical Examples

Example 5.2.1

cantilever beam of length I. and subjected to linearly varying dl~tributcd IOlld q(x), point lOad Ffj. lind JI1(mWIl\ Mo. as ,hown iJll~ig. 5.2. to. We wish I{) determine the displacelllem field and hl::odin~ mOment inlhe beam u~ing tWO elemcnb (II "" LI Z). First Vol' note thm q(x)= qofl - f / L). There. we mUst cvaJu:lrc it\ .:..'omribiltion il,llhe clement load \'ector by computing [sec Eq. (5.2. /9)1

Con~idcr a

1. (')

1 - - q,;(x)dt c::c

1 ( '+x) "
(fo , .... l!

---!. L


where IP;(X) are ~iven in

eq. (5.2.12). E\'aluating the imcgrals..


, q"h. (ql =:;.12

'+30' 6]+ - 1-1%+ "



11,(211, 5x.) -(2 111, + 30.(.)


- h,<3h.

+ 5:.:,)

CHIIP1H! ~ IlEAM~ 1It'll nt ,\Me>


I<'jllure 5.2. 10 The cantilever beam problem con\idi!red in Ex:nnplc 5.2.1.

and ~peci!lliling thcabove ve.,.-Iors to clement I (x~ =0) lUld element 2 (x, =II(), we obtain


rhe a~~emhlcd ~ystem of C(lll~lIillns ror a mcsh of Iw\) clements with cnn ~tant EI (and moJuJIJ~ C'r=O) i~



0 0







U, U,


311 - 3/1

311 - 311
2h2 + 2111













-" I.



- 120


Q\ + Qi

Q! + Q~


- 102 -8 t


At global nooe 1_

Ql and Q~ (the ~he'jr fOfCeuod thi! bending moment, respectively). i.e., the

at the ilxcd cfld are not kll(lwn. Hence, U1C corresponding gcneraliled displ(lcernents,


AN l V l11001. 0("1 lONI 0ll1F n 'lIR U DUNI Mt'l1 1 1) 0

VI ilnd U2 mu.,' be knnwn. Sin(:c lhccnd ,l ",,0 is fix~d. we hflve VI = VI n il. Atglopal nOde 2. there :lre no cXlermtily applied shear rorcc~ lind bcmhng moment, i.e ..

AI glob .. 1node 3. the shear force is gi\-en ~ F and the bending moment a~ Mn [nole the sign u. ctlOvention for Fo and Mo fmm Ag. 5.2.2(')1:
Q ~"" Fo .

Qi=- Mo

Hence, the assembled elJualil," ~ lake the foml



24 - 6t - 24 - 61. 21} 61. - 24 61. 48 - 61. I.'


- 61.





- 24 - 6/.

U. U,


- 24


61. 24


- 61.

n l.

- I.


Q :
Q i
0 0






q, L

- 120

- 102
- B/~


-M , clJu ... tiollS f<.)r lOe lm\:nown gellcrilh/cd di "placemenl.~ and generalized



4L ~

- 24

I} 61.]

1 2


0 - 24



- 102:




+ 480




21.. '



-8 /.

- 61.


() 0


~: I _ 1"1-"'1. 1'8 1

q"L 48

- L




CIIAP'1T.lI l, IlEAMS ANIl 11IA.' " ;S


The ~Iulkm of the conden<;ed equations for the displm:el11t!!It.s yields





4 ,1


-24 - 61.









~qo L ..!..."",L2

- Mlo


"" 48E I



- ISL J6L 2

- 6L

51 .2

- 61.

=The rc;lClion~


Q: nod Q~ are

5L"Fo+6l.M,, + ~ L' ~qOl


- J8I.FfJ - 24Mo - c/ol- 1 16L 1 f n +24LMo+ffiq"L J

- 24LFo - 48M() - 2q1)1}


-6L] 24

- IS.

FII + ~qo L


+ ~qQ Ll



+ ~qo l. -,\lu + ii/lu i}


I Q: 1Qi J ~~[-24 l. ~ 6L

-6LJ 1 lu'J


It is clear tllal the renctjoo~ of lhe beam:

Ql and Q I.'()mputed ;l,oo\'c ~;tli~fy the ~tatic Itquilibrium cquations l

T'he rcaction~

Q: and Q C3 n alw he computed usi ng Ihe dell0iliol1$ (5.2.3): 1

From (S.2.Db) and (5.2.13d, we note thid .be ~'()nd dcrivllIi."e of the IIwnue cu bic in h":rpolalion functions i~ linear O\o::r Ihe dement and Ihe third derhath'e is con~tant ovcr (he clemen!. Therefore. the bending mOllleOi and shcot( (01\.'(: computed using Ihe defini tion (5.2.3) ;\Ie: eicmenl wiM'! linear and con~lItl1t, rt'\ptCtivcJy. Punher, 31 n<)de~ connecting IWl) clement;;, they yie ld discontinuou~ v;\l ue~ bo.."'Ci\U~ the scc(lnd and thin.! deri\'lI(ive~ of)\' arc not m3dc cQllIinuous Ltcm~s the in\erelemcnt nodes. ll\U~. we. huvc


AN l"nUlIlIO("nONmTltI, H'Irn, ~J 1'\11 ~I MI 111(11 )

which ure in error by =: - J.1'1oL and ~llol} compotred wit h tllO!!e compulcd u~i lJg the (i.e., equilibrium) equa!iQn~ I~'C Eq. (S.2.30)I. The !lllile clement o;olution u., a [unction of position, is givelJ by


q; "'"

for" ;S..r:s; 2"

1/1-::::1-) 1 - I "

(X)' -2 (I - - ~~::I:" (I ~~) (2- iY X)'



.J ~ h

[(1 -;;)' + (I - i;)']

(X)'] L

1111.' elliott solutiolJ ollhe problem in Fig. 5.2.9 can be obtaiocd by din.'Ct Integration and i\ given by

X)' -l. = - - 10 (X)' - 10 (- +5 (')' ,~ 120f l L

+ ,;t' [ 61

",L' [

(!-)' +.,(.o)'] + M,L' ( ~)' L t., 2 1 I.

O(X):= - 24fl 4

",t' [(') -6 (')' +4 (')' - (')'] t r I I

TIle tinite elcmclI1 Mllutioll (5.2.31) and the CJact wlution (5.2.31) urc compared in Tuble 5.2.2 fur the dma


1' =2(0)( l(flNlm l . :


F:o =6IHN. 1.=3m. Mo""OkN-m /c29x Htmm". (E/::I:5800kN-m!)

(5.2 ..lJ)

expected, the finite clemen! ~ohllion for W llnd B (:E)incidl!~ wiLh the e~lI!..1 ~oll.l t ion at tbe At poinL\ other Ihon Ihe nodc~. the difTercll(!e between (he linill.! dcmelll and exacl wlutiOIl\ is yinually negligible.

Cl IM'n:~ j-

"I'AM" Al'll FRII~II~\


Tlible 5.2.2 Comparison uf the finite element method (FEM) sOlution with the e.xact
of the cantilever be.1m Of Ex:unple 5.2.1. (2 ele mcnt~),
.t (In)


- ,14 x 10-1; (kN m)


0.1875 0.3750 0.5625 0.7500 0.937.5 Ll250 1.3125






Pf.M 0.2124t 0.1973 n.lS':.'l O.I(i10 0.15 19 0.1367 0_1216 0.1065




O.oo:JO 0._

0.(}()66 0,012!! 0,0184


(1216() 0.19M


U\750 2.0625 2.2500 2.4375



O.OOZ:'i OJ)()54 0.0093 0.0142 0.0199 0.0263 0.033.11 0.01\0 0,0491 0.0577

0.tXl94 0.0142 0.019ll 0.0263 0.0334 0.0410 O.049( 0.0577 0.0666

0.Ot211 0.018.5 0,(.\23.5

Q.0282 0.0324 0.0301 0.0393 1 O.lJ421 0.0445 0.046fi 0.0483




0.0323 0.0360 0,0393

0.J65<> 0.1.5()2 0.1354 0.1213 O. !O77


OM79 0.04<>1



0.0574 0.045<> 0.0340 0.0226



0.{J7S8 0.OS52 0.fl947 0.1043 1

0.0852 0.0947 0.1{)42

0.0505 0.0510

0.(1466 0.0483 0.04% 0.0505 0.0510 0.0511

0.0226 0-0109 -0.0009

om 13

0.11932 ['WI) the ~00J cktlh:fll. t t\O<lal ,'al\ltS: ,;,11 <"1>.",, al'l: "",,"npul/,d by in\etp<)!roion;

I<:xamplc 5.2.2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

the indeterminatc Qc,!]n showu ill Fjg. 5.2.11 (a). We aSSllme thc following di..contindata (cJ = 0):

/:: 1 ==:

1 x loS lb-ft} 2
!(f lb-ft.

forOs.r5O 10 ft.

for 10 5.f ::; 28 fL

for 10::;:.\' 15 28fl.



2400lb/ft. \o


The txJundary conditions, ;Ire

We~haJJ use three elem<:nls tv analy;;c the problcm. Thcre arc four nodes and eight glob1l1

of freMoln in the nonuniform mesh of 1hftX.' elcnlcuis.



- - -- i





0:+ QI' .. rd


+0; .. 0

Figure 5.2. ll

(II) Physical problem. (IJ) Finit~ clement mc~hofthrce clementl;. k) Equilibrium o j gCllcrnlit.ed ron;c~,

Since /:.1 and q arc elemcntwhe..constilnt, theelcm~nl stilTnc~'i matl'i;( ilnd the force \CClor are tivcn b} (!'i.2. IIi), \/IIith Il~ cr 2400 Ib/Tt. in clt-ment I and q, = 0 in elclllt'ntl1 2 and 3. TIle 3sliCmblcd Cl.juUlions lire






-1.2000 4.0000
0.7833 -0.0694 0.4167 11.3333


-OA167 1.f#>7

- 1.2500 -0.5556 - 1.6667 IO.()O(() 3.3333 1.6667 0.5556 1.6667 6.6667

('!tAI' n


IlI.A M S ANfl

Ht"'~I l\



- 20
... I()-'

Q 1
a1+ Q~ Q! +- Q i + Q~ + Qi
Ql+ Q~

U, V,

12 20
0 0 0


u, u, u,

Q ;
Q 1
Q ~+ Q :=h. ~+~ #-a~

The boundary t'\>nditiol1\ lind equilihrium of jmcm:'ll fort:Cs und mOmCI1L' are given by

Q ~= Q

Q ~+~~O .


NlJte that the fOfl.'es uml and the moment Q~ (the reilction~ ttt (he support$) ~rc nOI known. 11te boundMY con(]iliOIl~ Oil the di~pl;ICCmCI1I~ arc


Q l

U~il1g the boundary (lnd e(juilibriUJll coodjtiOll~ listed abov~. we can writ~ the condcn~ equationlo for the unknown gcflt:r.di 7.ed di~pbcemcnL' and r(1f(.'e~. The condensed equation.!> fOf the unkno\\ n gencmli/ed tlispl(lccment" l::ln be obtained by deleting the taM t"''O rOW' and two columns, which cOI'rC..~po nd \0 the known Vj (f'u"", IO'lo):

0.24 +0'

- 1.200


- 0.240 1.200

- L2(Xl

(l.OOO 0.000 4.000 0.000 0.000 0.783 -0.069 - 0.417 11.333 0.417 1.667 0.625 - 1.250 10.000


U , V,




10 - 10


ImI"" ,[-0."'6 1.6667] I I

10 -1.6667 3.3333
U, U6
This compJctc.<; the finite clement an<lly~i~ of the prol"olem. The soJulion (with the help ~f a computer) of the co nJen"Cd equations for [he gener;ll iU!d di~platemcnts. when k = lOll INin. (a hard ~prin gJ. !;i"e~ VI "" 0. 111356 x J() 4>1<:< 0, !lod (rou nded to six d...dmttl poilu"

UJ "" -OJ)0368b. UJ = 0 .026560 fl.. U4 :;:;: - 0.001 097.


=O.O I0215fL VI, =0.002466

The re;)Ction forc<:.... from the elcmelll eqUilibrium equ~llion~. 1i1C

(Q:J<>QUiI "'" -kU1 ... - 18.356 lb.

(Q:)/'><I "" - 15.640110.

( Q ~)NUil "'" -8R.Q.W ft -Ib


ANNINOUl'ClIOl'> 10 rill fINrlhElL\1I N"r\lb"I'IIOD


on the definitionll, we have

(Q~)dtf "'" - 15,(.44 lb.

CaJ),w"" - 88.038 Itlb

Rlr k 1'# I O~ IQliIi. (a ,oft lipring or 110 ~prillg). we OOWln UI= O. 16104ft.. Ul =O.004579. u,= O. I0682f1", U~ ,",, 0006605
U~:::: 0,020755
Becall~C of tIll! di~conljnllity

ft .. U,, = O.OO5K44

in the IQadllig ,lIld the fle. ral rigidity. Ihe CXttct \olution ~l' (xl is w

a/~ delined by three .~eparme e~rre"j{lns flJr lhe Illrce region,.



Thill cx'lmple deals whh thl.: inde termina te hc!;lm sho\\ II ill I- g. 5.2. 12. The beam j" made of I 'lecl ( E = )0 X Iff> psi) and the cro~s-"tCdion:it dill1elhion" nrc 2 x 3 in. (I = 4.5 in. 4). We ate intere~ted III linding the t:rM~ve~e deflectiOn w u\ing the Euler- Bernoulli beam finite element. UCC,IU'Iot! of the di'>ContJliuil} in loading, the beam \ hoold be. di\'ided inlO thtee e lements: roll == (0. 16). n~ '"" (16. 36), and Q~ = (J().4S); tbe element ICflgth.\ are: "I ::c 16 in., hl:= 20 in., and hJ """ 12 in. The load V'".Iri;uion in ench clelTlent i, given by


Eq. (5.2.19). \\e Obtain the rQ!I(lWlI1g load vectors due 10 the distribu ted



TIle elt!mcill

stiffne~, matrices can he

values cf h, E. I, nnd l<ii J!) l).


In~ -55".67 Ig,WO' 512.00

Ifl I=-

200.00 - 666.77

lood~ ;

200,()O' {q )"" {OJ

C{IIllPUleci from Ctj. (5.2.18) QY sub,tilUlillg appropriate = 0. For Element I, for exampk, we have {hi'"' 16 in .. 1 = 135 x
-3. IM I

!K1J =

0.39>' -3.1 64) -0.3955

-3. 1641

- 0.3955

_3 IM I]


.1. 16-1 t



Fo '" 500 Ib

0 U. '"
UI 0

10 I 0 1 01

u. 0 0u.


l'lgure 3.2.12 Finite clt!mcnt modeling o t an indetenninate beam

111e lIs$Cmblrol'tiffness lIlatriJl and 100Id v<:ClOr for thi" mc\h is of Ihe same foon as given in Eqs. (5.2.24a I ;1Ilt! (5.:!.24/J). The houndary w ndil jolls for the pTllblem arc

w{O) ",, 0 -

VI =0, - (0) = 0 -4 V2= 0. K'j36) =0 ...... U~ "" 0 d.,

Q\ +Qi= O, a! + Q o. i""
Nmc Ihal

Q; +Q~= O. Q ~=500. Q~_O

Ql. Qj. and Q ~ + Q1 are the rC:lcli ons Ihm afe 1101 knOWtl and aTe to be culculatw
Since the

in the

boundary condjlion~ on Ihe primary variaob are and cl)lumn\ corresponding II) the ~pt!.:i ned di~p l:ICe mcnlS (i.e .. delete TI)Y;\ and col umns I. 2. and 5) and wJve the remaining the equal ion~ for


\loe can delcte lhe


(h,. U4 Ut,.lh. and Us:

VI ~-0.OOO322 in..

V4 ::J{UlOOO593 rnd.. .


= -0.00025 13 rau.

U, = 0.005 15 in.,

= - 0.000518 rJd.


..." 1"'fMIlIlI CliOI'> T(I IlIL H,rrr fJ J ~1l''1TMI.TIIIJI)

The eXllcl deHeetion in !he IhJ\.e- inler"'31 .. o f the beam " rounded 10 whole numbe~)


given by (l3I1:c numbers were

...!- ('68,.543.l ~ _ 1
w(x) :a

691 x1 15

+ ~.l4

__'- l ~) 192
491 xl + ~f4) 15 6


...!- (_~ + ~f +55.2097t1 _ /;I 3 3 '


(6,55 4 .368 - S06.066.t + 12.000x1 _

2~ Xl)

A COlllP;lriOOIl ~lf the tinite element w llliions ror dcnections (1\'). slope!! (0). and !)ending (ealculaltX! in the po\lcumpul8tioll) al polnts other Itmn the nud~ are compared Wi th lhe c:(;)(.'t \'ilJuc~ in ThMc 5.2.3 ror Ihrcc different Ille~hes. The valuC!> of llenlions. s lope ~. and bending mOlllenl~ "ere oomputed using the linil(.: elemenl solulion ;Uid it:.
momcnl~ (M) ueriv3ti"e~.

Table 5.2.3 Comparison of the finitc eJcmt'int Mliution with the CIUKI solullol) (unitli of the qlhl.nlitic~ ~h()uld be ob\iou'l or the beam problem con~ idered in E~alllple 5.2.3.
"\1 x 1(fI

x t(f
1' '11.:1 .....
~oJ, 1 552

_(dl"'n/I/co. 1) x 10'











, , , , , ,

6 6


- 0.8..'i70 41405


- 18.45 10 11.3936 9.4751

1.1553 -3.)3116 -4 1558

- 1.02.5Q
0.4663 0.4638 -2.11147 _ 4:\456 -4.J..111 OJ21!)

4.4199 5.2328

- 4.4127

- 120.8100

~ 1 2H900

J3.nHl 39.tl6JO


- 5.47<,14

~ 5.9238

- 122.5900


-64J.4QOO -643,4900 -812.9300 -78.2.0700 -782mOO 2114.9000 11749(X'lCI



uB010 6UO:\o
_ 83.7970 -74.5371)


3.5507 21.52 10 21.521U 27.5210 22.2220 22.2220






3 5 6

451,.'\600 2114,8000


- 45 U600 -45t.J600

II .... , "" 1I\'.t 10.11,


l2.o.!aontt.It, ",,4,





10.114_' 12.

( UAI'IWl .I. IU1~\1 SA.~lJrM i\ \1F~


EXllmpk 5,2.4 (Beam Elemc.nt with Nuda! Hinge) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1bc JoSt c-\OImple of this />CetiOI\ deals ""itb a berun with an internal hinge (\Ce Fig. 5.2.13). It
~i lh al) iolemal hi nge abou t which the beam is fn.'e-Io rotale. Thu.\, at the hinge Ihere ClUlnvt be any moment and the rotation is no/ contint~ous ac~'1l/'1c hinge. T<) iln:QUnt fur the discontinuity in the rotatiOn 111 a hinge, we mu~1 eliminate the rOtation as!iOCialed with the hinge. Con~ideT a uniform beam e lement wi th a hillat at node 2. 1be element equation i, given by Eq. (!5.2.17) wil h the ,t illness nmtri,; given in (5.2.1 8) (with z.ero fou ndation rn odulu~. Cf :::0)

i:. nOI tlnc()trlmon to find beams

- 3h






2h' 3h




F, F,


- 3h


Since the mUlllent;\I a hinge is zero, we have Q,j ",, 0 and 1-"4 ::c q4 + Q-4 =' lf~, which is kllown, TIlis allow~ u~ 1 clillliDlItC 9.! (rotmion at node 2) using the Il1<!lhod di"Cu." a1 in Eqs. (3.2.59}0 13.2.60). Comparing &t, 15.2.35) wi th Eq. (.U.59), we have tbe following dcfillib(Jn~ :





Figure 5.2.J3 Comp(Jund be:UJI with an internal hinge.


M tNl Nom.CTIO", TOUIL Hr-.lTl t 1,1 MF", r \11:1111)1)

SubMiluting (3.2.6Oc) lor u! =8: into (3.2.6Oa), we obtain

K "" KJ! _

K I2


-I K~l

- 6!r

1 [ 12 - 6ft



- 12


~3E/[~h h'



--I]"] r" I
2 1 - II ' , h12 311

II 2/;. 1 - - 1 },1311) -3h 4/:.'1 h i


Thu>;;. the cquatjon~ for:1 be-nm clement with a hinge aI node 2 can be written a~

h! _ \

- h -J h' h h
0 0

Similarly. we can derive Ihe clement equations for a beam clement \\ jth hinge at node J

~] "







As a specific eXlunptc of applicHt ion of tJ1C cqlUltion~ derived. c()n~ider the bt!am in rig. 5.2.13. We U~e II two-dement ntl">h. with dement 1 having the hi nge at it~ node 2. while element 2 is Ihe usua! beam elelliellt. i'he as,;emblcd sy\tem of equations i~

, , -"


" " o



o o

o o

>1'1 ~ "" ~





-!J >

, "

" ," it "


01 wi

Q +Q 1 ; Q!+ Qi

6 6



Using lhe b(lundary eoncli l ion~

",:=0. wJ=(),
'+!l ;r h' -~

0;0#-0. Q~=O. Q~+ Qi=o.

QJ +Q i=o

""c obtain the condensed equations





nod the solutiQn is given hy


5.3. 1 (;uwming E<IUl.ltions

Recall that the Eul er Be rnoul li hcam theory is ba~ed o n the assumption that pl ane cross .. cct i o n ~ re mai n pla ne :md /lorllla / to the longitudinnl ax i.. afte r bend ing [see Fig. 5.3. 1(a )]. Th i~ assumptio n re .. ults in .. ..ero t r:Ul ~\e~ "hear ..tra m. Whe n the no rm:.lity a!> .. umptio n il> 110 t used. i.e .. plane .. ect j o n ~ re mai n pla ne but not neces..ari ly nonn ;.l to the lo ngitudinal ax i ~ after ueformali Oll . the tran s ver~e .. hear strain y, : = 2f\ ~ is not len>. The refore, the rotation





l'>cfomlcd edge



Und dbrmed edge

T- ~ " .L ...
'h ,

.. l.c) " "

u+ :'1'


503. 1

(1I) Kin ernmlc~

shcn ~ o

of the Euler- BernoYl1 i beam theory. (b) Kinema tics of 1he Timobeam theory where no rmals before dcformm ion no longer remain normal after

d e forl1l~ l ion .


AN lr-'lRODL'C' II!)~ TO 1'111: I'I~ITEEU MI.,,-r \110111(1)

of a t ran wcr~e normal pl(tne abo ut the y-ax j ~ is not equal 10 - dll' ldx Isec Fig. 5.3.1(/)) 1. Beam theory based on the<,c reJa.xed a~~urnp ti ons is known a~ a .rhellr deforllla/ioll IJewlI theory. I11m t common ly known as the TIII/wilelllw beam theon. We denote the rotation ubo utthe y-u.x i~ by an independent function tV {x). The equ i librium eq uations of the Timo~henko beam theory Isee Example 2.4.3; al<;o ~ee Reddy (2002)1 are the <'; II11e a .. those of the Eulcr- Acrnoulli beam theory (see Fig. 5.2.1 ). hut the kinematic relations are different :
(IV ri M dtV - - + cf ll' = q. - - +V = O. /11 = 1 - , V=GA K s




( -+ ~ dlt')

(5.3 ,1)

Thus. the governing equation!> in

t crm ~

o f the deflection


and rotation tV become


d d - - [ GAK, ( l1J + - ... )] +cf w = q

(Ix dx


1 +d (""') +GAK. (d"')





where G i", the :.hear modulus and K . i ... the ~he(/,. ('orrectioll ("oefficiem. which i!> introd uced \0 account for the differe nce in the COlhlant ... tate of ~ h ea r ... tre~s in thi .. theory :lIld the parabolic variation o f the <;hear slre<.s predicted by the elasticity theory throullh the be:lnl thickness. All other quantitie ... have the ...:lIlle meaning al> hcforc. Fot short and chubhy bea ms (i.e .. lengl h-lO-heighl ratio Ic ...... than 20), tV =1= - (dll' Id.l) and the difkrence. tV + ((III' I d.~). i" the tran ~vcr'>e sheilr ... train. When the shear stmin is ,-cm (i.e .. for long !olender bcam~ ) ....ubstituting the second equat ion Into the fin;t for CiA K, (\IJ + dll" l dx) and replacing l1J with - ellI' I dx, we obtain governing equ ation (5.2.1) of the Euler- Bernou lli bC:llll theory.
5.3.2 Form

The weak fonnofEq s. (5 .3 .2a) and (5.J.2b) O\er3n clemcnt n~ = (x" . l" h ) can hedcvclopcd u~ing the uwal three-step procedure. as al ready discu""ed in Example 2.4.3. Atlhe end of the <;.econd ~ t e p (i.e .. after Illtcgralion by pa I1 ~ ). we obtain

J" o ~ J"

[dill GAK , (tV


+~) + (" / dr

11 1\\' -

l' l q] tlx - [IIIGAK I (lV

+ ~)]"


[dV 2 I dtV

+ 1'2GA K,

+ dll')] dx - [V:! I dlV] "



' ..

The cocnicients o f the weighl funct ions VI 3nd v! in the boundary inlegrab are. re~pective l y.

( ""') (Ir
\IJ + -


iiii V


/ - e M


where V is the ~hear force and M i... the bending moment: these coeflicient~ con,titute the -.ccondary \aria blc .. ofthe weak fornI , The weight functions 1'1 and v~ nlU~1 ha\e the physical interpretations ,uch that the product, t '! V and l'2M IHI\e the unil~ of work. Clearly. lit mll~t be equivalent to (the variation of) the tranwcr,e deflection 1\" . and l'2 must be equivalent to

CIIM'l LIt .'. BloA~N ~NI) IllA~II. "


(the vnri mion of) the rotation function tlI;

LIt - II' , 1 - tlI '1

lienee. the primary variable of the formulation arc II' and tlI . Denoting the shear forces and bending moments <lllhe endpoints of the clement by tbe cxprc~s ion~ !cf. Eq. (5.2.3)]

dx .. , [ ( "H')] 1= -V(x,,) Q, IE- (""') 1 . ,ir '. "H')] I = V ex,,) Q;,;: [GAK. ( 1 , (-""') 1
Q, s - GAK,
EI tlI+

= -M(.{,,)


tlI + (Ir


Q4 =:


= M(_l ~ )

we anive HI the linnl \'.-cak !>Ialcmcnls o f Eq .. , (5 .3.2(/) and (5.3 .2h):


1"[GAK< ~ (\II + (/11') + o ~ 1" + (\II +





I'tll' - l),q] dx - v,(x., )Qr llll')] (Ix -

1I, (.rl!)Q~

[E I ,/i'1 (141 dr d\'

G A K, V2


V~(.l <l )Q~ - V2(XI! )Q~

We note thaI Q~ ha\ c the <.ame meaning a. . "ell a. . sen<..e as in the Euler- Bemoulli beam theory. We can idcmify Ihe bilinear and linear fonm. from Ihc "cal... form s a<..
IJI'I , t'~ ) . (II'.

\II)) =


GAK, - .

(d'" + l'2 ) (\II + -d"') + EI - - -(/.1 d1 ""''''''] d .l dx dx

Equation~ (5.3.5) arc equivalent 10 Ibe statemenl of Ihe principle of virtual di"pl ..eement" for Ihe Tirno~hcn"o beam theory. The \()ta l l~Jtentia l energy funclional of the bulated beam finite clement is given by l~ee &1 , (2.4.40)]

n A il'. IV)


1'" [f~1 (d"') ~ + G~K, (dll' +

t, _



1V) 2 +


11,2_ WQ ]lIX

- II'(X<l )Q~ - 1V(.r,, )Q ~ - \I'(x,, )Q ~ - IV(X,, )m


The tir~t term In the ... quare brackct~ represents the clastic \train energy due to bending. the ~econd lenll represent.... Ihe cJa<;lic energy due 1 Ihe tranwerse \he .. r defonllalion. the third 0 i~ the ~train energy ~tored in Ihe elastic foundation. and the f01ll1h is the wurk dune by the di,tributed load: the remaining I c rm ~ accounl for the work done by the generalized force, Q ~ in 1I10ving through the respective genentlil.ed di<;placcll1ent~ (II'. IV) at the ends of the clemcn\. Oncc again. the principle of minimum 101:11 potenti .. 1 energy. 6 nr =:: 0, gi\e<.. the we.. k forms in Eq. (5.).5) .


~\ 11<. lItOmrn()'1 I'nll1h 1 1'1111 iii nu'I'1 ~Wf1lOl)

5.3.3 Gcneral Finite Elemcnt Model

A do<'c c'(aminalion of the lem1:>. in (5.3.5) show/> Ihal both \I' and lJI arc ditTerentialed only once with re):pL'Ct t(l x. Since the primary \'ari ablc~ arc the dependent unknown:. thel11~cl vc~ (and do not include their deri\'ati\'e~). the Lagrange inteqxJlat ion of both II' and lJI i~ adll1is~ ible here. The minimum admissible degree of interpolation is linear. ~() Ih:lt (/11' 1(/\ # 0 and (/lJI 1(11" # O. The va riable~ II' and III do not have the ~ame phy):!ca! unit~: they can he inlerpor.. tcd. in lleneral. \\ 1 different degrce~ of interpolation. 111 Let u<, (~olh i der L::lgmngc interpolation of wand til in the form

" L S;t; ~ 1



where 1/I!1 and 1/1 ;1. arc the L'lgr.lIlge interpolation fllnetion~ of degree 1/1 - I and /I - t, . respecti\c1y. In general. III and /I arc I11dependl'nt of each other, although 11/ = /I i\ Ill(),' commnn. Ilowever. when 111 = Jl = 2 (i.e .. lincar interpolation of bot h II' and lJI is u,cd: ~ec Fig. 5.3.2). the derivative of II' i~

which i, clcmcntwisc-cOtl"la nt. The rotation lJI . being. linear. is not c()n .. j~tent with 'hm predicted by w(x). Ior thin beams. the transverse shear deformation i~ neg ligible, and we rnu\t ha\c \jJ = -cl\l' l lh. which re(!uin.!s
fb s;--II,

- x" .....~~7---" + 5.I - ~-- = --- ,, ~ " .!.; ; ,,


or. equivalently (by equ<lting like coefficients on hoth

which fI1tllm


s;' = S~=-

\,. ~

W i'

" r


Thi.., implie, that lJI(x) is a t"(lIlstant, i.c .. S;' =

~.lh- X

s;: =

I" "'"

tII (x) = J, - - - + S';"--- = .) II ~ - II,

X -




Q.. - I'(.,) ;


1 M
be<lm finite clement. (a)Gencrali/ed di.;placcmcnts. (b)Gcncrnli/cd




force ...

ClIM'l'rM <

Il~M~ ANI) ~ltA~U \


However. a constalll "tate of IV (X) is not admissible because the bending cnergy of the element.

f ""'-'- (d")' d,
'. 2 d.t .

(5.3. 11 )
.~ "e(/r

would be Icm. This numerical problem i, known in the finite clement literature ali To overcome lihear two altemati ve
polynomial~ p rocedure~

have been u<;cd in the literat ure:

I. COlIsi.wefll illte/po/arioll. Use an approximation of I\' and \.II ~UI.:h that rllI' l dx and IV are

= /1 + I). 2. Re(/lIce(/ imegr(llio/l. U~ equal interpolation (i.e .. 11/ = 1/) for wand IV ilnd eval uate thc bending sti ffness coc llici c nt ~ as~ociatcd with (5.3 .11 ) u,;jng a numeri cal imegration rulc (tu be discussed in Chapter 7) con,i~ t em with the actual intcqx)lation of tV . However. the :.tiffn ess cocfliciems :1:'1<ooci ated with Ihe , hear energy
of the saille degree (i.e ..



GAK. --- (d ll' + tV ) ' -2



(5.3. 12)

Illust be ellalU:lted u~in g ,I numerical integration ru le that trem, IV :I' if it i.. the ,ame order polynomial as (/11' 1(1 x. Thus. if It' and \.II are approx imated with li neilr po lyn()mials. t / II' I dx i ~ a conWl11l and \.II i ~ linenr. In evaluating the stiffncss tenm coming from the shear energy (5.3. 12), wc must usc o ne-puint intcgriltion. il ~ dictated by dll' lflx and nut IV . Note that one-point integration in this case h , ufficienl to evalu:l te the bending cnergy exact ly but not the ~ h ear energy beeau~e it is quadrat ic in IV . TIlIl'. it amounts to underin tegrating the term. Thi s is ~nown as the redll('C(1 illtl'grlllioll techn i4ue. For illustrative pUr]XlSe1<o. we ta ke a detailed look at the exprc<;<;ion


GAK' f'.'" (dW+ \.11 )' d., = - - [(d'"+ \.11 )'1 , uAK, 2 (Ix 2 (Ix
GAK. llr 2

... +/0,/2

] h,

where x = x" + ~ h r is the midpoint of the elcment and II , i~ its length. Sub~litu t ing (5.3.8) into th i<> e~pression (with 11/ = /I = 2) :lnu equating to zero for th in beams, we obtain

( -'~;~---" +~I --+ S.-~ W~l 'eX1, - .1 ,~ J "

II , II" hr

-x" )'1
, oo,.+h,12

= GAK. II ,.



- \I'r + 5j' + S~ ) 2 = 0 2


which i ~ a weaker requ irement than (5.3.9). i.e .. if (5.3.9 ) holds. then (5.3 . 13) aho hold~. but (5.3. 13) does nut imply (5.3.9). We no te that (5.3.9) I11l1,t hold only for pmblcills fo r which thc tr.mwerse ' hear em.'rgy (5.3. 12) is neghgible. In su mmary. we u~c either con.. istcnt intcrpolation ( /II = /I + I) or equa l inleqxllation with reduced integration in the evaluation of the trHnsver~e ~ h ear .. tiffne ~~ coeftki cnh in the TinlOshenko beam de ment. Wc con... idcr both fonns of clement, here. Fil... t, we completc the fin ite clement model development u~ i n g lhe gencral interpolations given in Eq. (5 ..1.8) and then di~cu ss the ~ pecitic choit'e of int crpo l ;\ t iun~ functions used for II' and IV ,



Substitution of (5.3.8) for W [lnd ~. and VI = o/i(l ) [lnd Vl = T/I,(21 into the weak form s (5.3.5), we obta in the following finite element equations of the Timoshenko beam c lement:

(i = 1. 2, .... m)




j= 1

K02Sj - F/

(i= 1,2, .... n)



1"( 1" '.


dof'" EI ______ +GAK,0/.t 21.t//2J ' ' dx dx " }

( 11




qo/i,Jx+Q2, 1,

In the interest of clarity. the element label e on the quantities can be wr'ilten in matrix form as

omitted. EquaTions (5.3.14)

I K" I [ IK 21 1


The finite e lement model in (5.3.16) with the coeffic ien ts given in (5.3.15) is the mo~t genera l displacement nnite clement model of the "l'i Illoshenko benlll theory. It cnn be used to obtain a number of special nnite clement models. as discussed next.

5.3.4 Consistent Interpoln1ion Elements

The first consistent interpolation clement (CIE) that we will cons ider is the one in which quadratic interpolation is used for II' and linear interpolntion for ~ so that dw/dx and ~ are of the same order polynomial (and hence. no shear locking occurs). That is. we se lect 0/,(1) to be quadraTic polynomials and T/I?J TO be linear polynomials. For this choice of interpolation.IK 11] i~3 x 3, [K t1 1 is3 x 2. and IK221 is2 x 2. The explicit forms of the matrices. when lund G A K, are comtant. arc (note that some of the matrix coerticients are readily available from Chapter 3)

- 8 7 -8

'.1", +- [

2 - 1


n IA I'll;K '

~l.AM S ""U FRAM I'..~


IK 22 I


1 [

_ I

- 1 ] +G~ A~ K'hf [2
I 6 I

q r

(5.3. 17)

When cf = 0, the finite clemcnt e(luations for this choicc of intclvolatio n are given by (see Fig. 5 .3.3)

14 - 16
61r ~

- 16 32 - 16 4h r
- 411,.

2 - 16 14

- 5h ~ 4h ~

- ll r
- 4h ~



- 5h r

211 ; 1:,.

5h ~

11'; 11';

5h ~

h ;0.
2h; Ee

'I; Q~ 'I; + Q',


(5.3. 18)


Q; Q:
(5.3 .19)


1\. =

E r /r

G. Ar K, h;

Ito = 121\ .

8 . = I - 61\ r.

I: r = I + 31\.

(Q~ . Q~ , Q~ . Qn are the gcneml forces defined in Eq. (5.3 .4). 11' ; and Q~ are the dcfl ection and appl icd extemallood. rc~pcc ti vely. at the centcr node ofthequadratie clemcnt. and

qr =! .' l/ti'1 qdX.

(i=1.2.c). ",; I)= quadratic

(5.3 .20)

This element is designated llS C IE- I (sec Fig. 5.3.3). Note that nodc c. which is the center node of Ihe clement. is not connected to other elements. and the only degrec of freedom lhere is the transverse deflection. Thus. there arc different number of degrce~ of freedom at different nodes of the element. and this therefore complicates the assembly of clemcnts and its implcmentation on a computer. Hence. we eliminate the node c dependence in the system of element C<luatiotl). by condensing out II'~. The second equation o f (5 .3. 18) can be used to expres~ 11'; in terms of wi. S 2'.


S q r. :.


s' l

Qq ;. ;

Q;. (
{) 2

"" "" "i:-i . !{

...~ ,


"" "" f-"H

0;. q;

" q.


J' q J

(0 )


Figure 5.3.3 Consistcnt interpolation Timoshenko beam clcmcn t. CIE- I. (1I) Gcnernliled ments. (h ) GCllcralil,cd force s.


i\NI ....IlI:OIlIorJlO\'ITonU nNrn'. U~.\IINT\lli:nlOD

:mtl Q~:

(5.3,21 )
Sub~titu tin g

for I\' ~ from Eq. (5.3.2 1) i rllO the remaining eqllati()n~ of (5.3. 18) 1i.e .. eli l11i nate
-3 !J~

11'; from Eq. (5.3.18)1 and rearranging the equations. we obtain


(2,',) [-;",

" ; ( 1.5 + 6A ~)

";(1.5 - 6i\~)



- 6

-3 "~

" ; ( 1.5 - 6A ~)

1/;( 1.5

+ 6i\ ~)


~qr I .

, ."

,,' + 1i,' 2 2 "

"" "i,fl,


where ii; = + Q;. For simplicity. but without lo~ s of generality. we will assume that Q = 0 (i.e .. no external point force h, placed at the center of the clement) so that (1; =q;. : Note that the load vector is e(luivalent to thaI of the Euler- Hernmtlli beam elernent lsee Eq. (5.2.18)1. In fac t. for unifornlload (J.the load vector in Eq. (5.3.22) is idemicalto the one in (5.2.18). Thus. the CI E- I clement. for all analysis steps. is exactly the same a~ that shown in Fig. 5.3.2 with the c lement equmions given by (5.3.22). Il owever. one must keep in mind that II' and lit arc determined by quadratic interpolations functi()n~. The second consistent interpol:ltion element. denoted CIB-2. i~ ba~ed on Lagrange cubic interpolation of \t'(x) :Ind quudratic interpolation of lJI(x) . However. thi~ clement leads to 7 x 7 clement stiffness matrix with seven degrees of freedom (11']' \\"~. 11'). II'~. Sr. S2". Sj") per clement. Elimination of Ihe intern:!1 nodal degreeo; of freedom will result in u 4 x 4 m:llri:<. Alternatively. the same clement can be derived dir(.'Ctly by :lssuming Hermite cubic interpolation of lI"(x) and a lJe,H'lIllent quadratic interpolation of IJI (x). This approach leads to an e1emem that yields. as a 'Oped al cuse. the Euler- Bemoulli be:llll dement Isee Reddy (1 997.2000)]. The derivation i~ presenled here for the case c = o. nle exact solution of Bq". (5.3.2a) and (5.3,2b) for the homogencous case (i.e .. if = 0) "nd when cf = 0 is

q :

w(x)= -

~1 (CI -~l +(2);2

2 +C1.\"+(4)

+ G~K. ("IX)

(S.3.23a) (5.3.23b)

where ('1 through c~ are the conSlant, of integration. Note that the constants CI. C1. and c, uppellring in (5,3.23&) are Ihe same as those in Eq. (5.3.23(1). T his suggests that one may use cuhic approximation of II' (x) lind an imenlepelldem quadr:llic "pproxirnation of ~ (x). The rc~u1ting finite element model is termed an illleniellellllem illterpolllliml eleml'lII (I IB). Since the solutions in (5.3.23(1) and (5.3.23b) arc v"lid also for It typical finite clernem (replace Cj with c;'). we proceed to express in tcrm~ of the nodul va lues of w and ~.


The resulling four relat io n ~ alllong (wr. 11'2' sr. S5) und subMituled back into Eqs, (5,],2](1) and (5.3.24b), give

(cr. c2. c~, c~). when inverted and

J' I

m " lI'(x)::::::wZ(x)= Lij,16}. llJ (x)~ IlJ;(x ) = L (jl;6~

1= 1


a. 2=Sf,




where ij,; :tnd


arc the appro'(irn:ltion functions

iPr = ...!... [/lr - 1 2A~.i I',


q,j = - I [ (3 - li)j'

iP~ = ~ [( I -


+ 12A,.f1


0 .1'2

+ 6t\" (I



f{!f =
f{!~ -

- - 0 - .f),f II r /l,

, _

- (J.t,-4x+3.1 - 1_11.".1:)
/1 ,



- - - ( I -.f),f "rllr


= -(3.1' - li + 1211.,.1')



Here. i is the nondimensionalluc .. l coordinate

X=-- - .

x -.1:"


II , = I + 1211.,.


Note thaI the Hennite cubic interpolation functions j(.I:) of Eq. (5.2. 11 ) arc a special case of ij,;. i.c" can be obtained from 4>; by setting A, = 0 (hence. ~I, = I). Substitution uf Eq. (5.3.24(/) into the total potenlhl l energy functional in (5.3.7) and d ifferentiating it wi th respect to yields the fi nite clement model



IK'II"'I = 1'1'1 + 1 Q'I




1" '.

ib~q(x) (Ix



AN 1.' HKOI>I}CnON TO '1'111.

I~Nm , n .9IEI<o"l' .\IIIT 110 1 ) ha~

:llld Q ~ have the s:une meaning as before !see Eq. (5.3.4)1. Equat ion (5 .3.27(1 ) ex plicit form
-3" ~


(2Ef/ ) [ -3h~ ; 6
/1 ,,11,

2h ; I:. ,

3h ..

- 23", /t 0

, '



(5.3.28a )

- 311,
Ee /~

311 ,
II ; B~

3h ..

3h ~

2"; I:.~


Q, '15 + Q; qJ


/\ e =

G ~ A e K., h ;

Ji f

= I+

1 2/\ ~ .

B e = I - 6/\ e.

".. = 1 +3 /\ ,


For uniform ly distributed load. '1(.1') = qQ the load vector in (5. 3.27b) yie lds .

l{/) = flolI ,
12 12


which is exactly the same as that in the Eu ler- Bernoulli beam elcment (ESE). Of course, for nonuniform loads the lo:td vectors o f the two e lements arc d iffe rent. In the thin beam li mi t( i.e .. /\, ~ 0). Eq. (5.3.2Sa) reduces to the EBEeq ulItions(5.2.17) and (5.2.IS) (w ith c = 0). The li E clement leads to the exact "Ixlal values for any distri bution of thc transverse load q(x) provided that the bending stitTness E I and shear stiffness KsGA afe elemcntwisc constant (and cf = 0). Such ,111 element is said 10 be SIIIJt!rCOIIr ery:ellI. Note that the bar clement and EBE :Ire aho superconvergcnt elcments (i.c .. bar element. li E. and EIlE yield exact nodal val ues of the respective theories).




Inlcgmlion Element

When eq1l3 1 interp()lution ofw(x) and !.J.! (x) is used (/II = II), all Sllbmatrices in (5.3.16) are of the same order: fl x 1/, where /I is the number of terms in the polyn()llliul (or fl - I is the degree o f interpolation). The c lcmenl coeffl eicnt matrices Ki~l. K ,~2 as well as the tirst pan of K ,}2 must be eV(t lu3led exaclly. The second pan of K;}2 is to be evalu:lIed using reduced integration. For the choice of linear il1lerpol:Ltion functions. and for clementwise constant values o f G A K, and E I . the matrices h:Lvc the followi ng ex plicit values (whe n cj = 0): !K II I = G , A, K , [

- I

- I].

[K I2 1 = G~A~ K.,

[ - :

- :]

1K 2' ~ - , 1, [ "I he - I

1-I] + -'-'--';--'-'GtA~ K ,. ht
I 4

(5 .3.29)
[" I '] I

where one-po inl integration is used to evaluate the second pan o f I K 22 ]. Note that! Kill. ! K 12 1. and the first part of! K 22 1 can be eva luated eX:Lctly with one-poilll quadrature (i.e .. numerical integration) when I lind G A K . are constant because the integrands of these coeffi cients aT constant. Iknee. o ne-point integration for [ K"f! I satisfi es all the rc<lu ircmenls. e The result ing beam clement is termed the reduced integration clement (RIB).

C'IlAPl1:R ,. I\[AM~ AM) I'1t"~Il'S


The clemen! equrllions of the RIE are (at = 4Er /r / Gr A,. K J )

-2" ~

G,A.K, [ - ;/,.


-4 - 211,.

II; +a. 211,.




- a~



h - a ,. ;
- 311,.

S' 2

Q, Q,

q r

h; + a,.

Q ;



or. in altemative form (to resemble those of the EBE)


2, 1 [ - :/" . l.t o/l : - 6 -3/1 t


II;( 1.5+6A .. )

h; ( 1.5 - 6A ,. )


= q + ;


S' I


11;( 1.5 - 6A ,. ) 3h..

h;( 1.5 + 6A .. )

w' S' 2

Q ,
(5.3.3 1) (5.3.32)


lfr =

J" '.

>./Itqdx. (i = 1,2)
j{O = 12A,.

>./I, are the linear interpolation functions. 11 is interesling 10 nOle that the c lement stiffness malrix (5.3.3 0b) of lhe linear RIE is the s.1mc as that of lhe C IE- I in (5.3.22) obtained u~ing quadratic approxirnalioll of IV and linear approximation of 1jI. The only diffe rence is the load representation. In CIE- I, the load vcctor is equ ivalent to that of the Eu ler-Bemoulli beam theory. whereas in RIE it is based on (5.3.3 1). whieh contri butes only to the foree degrees of freedom and not to the moment degree .. of freedom. The qu,ldralic interpolation of both II' and ljJ with full intcgr..tlion oflhe element coeflicieilimalrices also suffers sl ightly from lhe shear-locking phenomenon. A uniform t wO-)Xlint quadrmure rule has the desired effect on I Kill , K 1 and I K 2I 1. i.e., I K II J. I K 12], and the 2). first term of I K 22] will be evaluated exactly and the second tenn of lK121 approximately. As the degree of approx iTllatio n imdlor the number of clements in the mesh i~ increased. shear locking wi ll disappear and reduced integr..IIion i... not nece..sary.
and 5.3.6 NUlIlericll1 Exa mples

Example 5.3.1

Consider a simply I,upPOrted Ocam under distributl.'d tr.m:.vcr'iC load of inten~ity qo. Thc following di/ta i... used in computing the numcrk-al values:


II~ INTKOI)l'C'rIO~ TO THl ~l~flE ELlI\.llKl' \11<'IIIOU

Tahle 5.3.1 Comparhon of the finite e1emcfjt sOlutions with the CXUCI ma.~imUIll deflcclion :lnd rotatilll"l of;j Sil;llply supponed iwtropic beam or Exa()lple 5.3.1.






- "<litO) x 10-1

N ... 4

.... (z../2)( (I;IIJ;/q<,f.~)

ljmf<)r'l1ll004 (1../ H "" 10)


In :!


0.09751l 0.12875 0. J6OClO 0. 15625 0.09]79 0.J2504 0.15629 0.15625 0.076.39

0.14438 0.1.'52!9 0.16000

0.1.5609 0.15805

Q.5iXOJ 0.500)} 0.500((}

0.46815 0.50001)



0.14066 0.14l!47 0.15629 0.15625

0.15625 0.152.38 O.U4J3 0.1.'5629


Uniform iood (z../If

-= 1(0)






O.'501)(Xl .


0.3\1543 0.11\705 0.38702 0.38702

9.:36702 031;702 il.38702 0.38702

0.38204 0.38702 0.38702 0.38702

Sim wlrifll/l)lld (1./11 ",. JOO) ..


0.11682 0.12.322 0.12319

CH':' I



0.12007 0.12163 0.123220.12319

N i:; lilt. numbtr \Ii" ekl{le~l$ U$ed In '"" hatf beam. 1$;"';1 ''''l,,~ t.on)l'lIre<i ll) t~ reopei:live beam {~

Two difti!reot be:lm !ength.\(I.. !Iei~111 ralios. 1..1 H = lO and L/ H ::::< !OO. ~rc cQnsidered. Table 5.3.1 bhows ,I cornparlson of the finite ~! ement ~() !utiQns obtai ned with one, two, ilnd four clements in half beam with the e.\act beam wiutions I'M tWO different types (Jf load~, namely, unifomllooo and sinu~oidallO:ld. TIle cxactsolulion~ ,lccording to Ihe two theone..' nrc gh'cn belOw [sec Wang et aJ. (20Q0)1.
Euler-Rcrnoulli Rcam TheM),

Unifimn Lotm
$inll.soid(l/ Wid

TimOlihenko Bl.\am Thcl)ry Uniform Loud


[~t (X)+~MP(X)l=
1/h' ~'




X <lJ(X)=-Tx=-24F.J(I~tif;+4(1), .l=1..
Sinusoidal Load

qoL 1



~ IlloA.\lS "~I) !lI1\\1ES


where the supcn;criptlo and T refer 10 the Euler- Bernoulli and 1iroo~henko beam thcQric.o;, ~pcclivel y. Clearly, more than 1\0, 0 element5. of CI E~ land RIE are required IQobiain ,Il-..-eptable solu[ioos. On the other hand, li E yield!> CJ(acl nO(i;I! \';l1 ue.~ wilh onc dement (becauM: il is a 1>upercoO\"Crgent clement).

Example 5;3.2
Con~ider the cllnlilevcr beam of E.x;lInple 5.2. 1. We wi~h to IInalYl.e the problem using variou.~ Timoshenko beam!nt~. The problem data" given ill (5.2.33); v =0.25. K, '" 5/6. TIle e~"ct soluiionol thc problclIllICcoruing to the Tinl(l$henko beam theory is given by \'>CC WalJg ctu!. (200011

~. dw t W'(.f).,..", -(x) GAK, [Mt-(x) _ }.II (0)]. III(.t) ... - -


where ilj,lain the snperscriptj; E and 7' refer IQ the Euler- Bernoulli and 1'irn ~henksJ bellm theorie" re~peclive ly. Table 5.3.2 eontain~ the end delkClion weLl and end rotation IJI( L) f(lf't\\o, rlltlr, and eight c lcmen t ~ in full beam. To funhcr un<icr..ttllld Ihe effect of .. hear iQC.king. we (:onloidetTimw.hcnko beam clements with equal interpolation (,f W lind III. Linear as well 11.\ quadmtic el~ments with and Wilhoul n::Juccd integrnlhm are tested and the Mults are included in Table 5.3.3. It i~ clear th,\! the full imexrotior! elrmell/~ fi' IS) produce eITonevus results, implying that ~hear lOCking is present. Shtar locking groldu;llly ~anbhe~ a~ the mesh b refined wilh either liJtC-arelernent.,s or qtladra!ic clcmentJl. The foUowing genernl vbser"\'alion~can be made abQut V:lrious finileele ll\tnl nwdeb based on Ihe Tlmoshenko beam thl.""I:'ry: I. The RIE exhibits less lucking cllmpllred with the FIE. 2. As the numbet of elcmcnb in the lllC!;h is illCrca~ed or the degrt:e of approximation is increased (i.e., higher-ordcr eicmelli-S arc uo;cd), the iinile clement solulions obtained by IXJlh KI E and FIE improve: i.e., the elTe".-! of locking is reduced wit h mesh reljncmcnlS and wilh the U"C of higher-order clcmenh.

'fabJe ~.3.2

Compari~l,n of the linile clemem SOlutions obtained with V"J.rious types of finite clemen15 for the cantileler beam of Example 5.3.2.


- "'(L)

O.lCM3 0.1()..I3;:
",," (J.070~

(w ~"J >.II) 0.0914

0.05 12 0.0512


Clfl- I

III! 0.0512 0.0512

0.05 12

Thin bellm. /I



8 0.1043 Thkl be~m, 1/ 0. 1344 Q.I344 4 S 0.1344

'0.3 (II" )( lolanu >It )( 101) U.1J55 0.1293 O.126~ 0. 1340 0,1:'32 0.1355 0.1351 0.1349 0.1355

0.1031 O.I()..1O

O.IClliJ 0.1039

0.1043 0.10-13


O.O~ 12 0.O~ 1 2


0.05 t 2

0._ 0._



0.66311 0._


0._ 0._



... .. fI,

Table 5.J.J Effe<.t of reduced intcgrtuion oftranw~rse ~hellr eoel1ldents 01\ the ddlcction~ IIf t~ cantilever beam nf H:o:ample 5.:'-2.
Stemenl Quadrotie

,v ... '].


N ""ll

{I. to-iS

,111 ... 2

N <;< 4

Thill beam, II <;<0.0703 (eliWl ...... (lIO-lJ)

RI C2xl)' 0.099~ O.lml FIE (2 x1) 0.0007 0.0021 1"bld;bcam.JI ""O.~(nacl>l' x lol ... o.J3551 RLE(.))(2) 0.1"2'.)1 o 1."WO nEO )( 3) (1014R 0.0442
I c,",,,,
"1ICt'~ ru)e u.,w

0.135 1


0.1043 0.(971)

O.I{\41 01028

0.1 "\61

o 115S


O .I34i:l


bIrud,IlJ;..oo \hear \1:11:;.

3, nle IIE{l.e .. Iknnite euhic approxlmldion ()f wand n dependent qUlldrntic appw~it1l1ition vf w) with full integration yicld,~ CXllct nOdal Yl:lluell, 4. The clement with qu:klratlc approximation of boih It lind III !lnd reduced inlegralion of Ule cocffkicnts yields more accurate re..~lIhs than lhe erE ..... ith quadr.llic uppro~iOlaiion t>f II' :lnd tbe linear approxun:ltion cf III onJ with full integration of the coefl:"icicnls, 5. The liE is the be,'1 demcm for ~ Jnalysi~ of bending be:lIll~ I~\ II f..'()ntilUlS the EBB 3\ a s~ ial c,'I)e; liE automatically takes intI) account the (f"Jn!>\'cn>c ~h~;lr defonnation if it il. :.i!l:nificalli.


5.4.1 Introductory Comments
Recall that a bar element oriented arbitrarily in a plane is called a trlJ~ clement. A plane 1m"" clement contains two degrees of freedom per Olxk (II. II). :111 axial (II) and Irlll1sverM! di'placement (I). By definition. 11 barclcmenl can carry only :lxi1l1 1 01ld" and deformllxially. w herell~ bellm~ can !:Ike Iransvel""C loads lind bending moments about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the member. A ~U I)Crposi tio n of bar and be;un degrees of freedom give~ a finite element thai is known a .. 11 frame clemenl (see Fig. 5.4. 1). Members of a frame ~trlJclure ,Ire connected by rigid connections (e.g .. welded or riveted). and therefore axial ,lI1d tnmsver;e forces and bending moments arc devclol>cd in the members. The objective of this ~ec tion is 10 formu lale a t"nune finite clemenl, with the he lp of Ihc developments from Sect ions 4.6. 5.2. and 5.3.

5.4.2 Frame Element

In many tru ~s lind fmOle stmcture,. the b.1.r and bellm SlrlIclul1Il clements lire found in many dilTerent orientations (sec. for example, Fig. 4 .6.1). Analysi" of ~ u c h struc tu res fordi splacemen!!; and stresses require, the '>Cuing up of a global coordinate system and referencing all quantitic~ (i.e .. displac emcn t ~, forces. and stifTncsscs) of individual elements 10 the COIllmon (global) coordinate ~ystem in ordcr 10 assemble the ckmcnts and impose boundary conditions on the wholc ~tructure.

C HAI'I'ER ~, UF.A M$ ANI} ~'R,'M~


u; ----..c )


[Jar cicmcllI

( >-----.- ii"{




clcmcm FiJ;ll rt' 5.4. 1 Superposition of bar and beam clemen! to obtain a frame element [degrcCl. of freedom arc referred to the elernem coordinate system (X. y, Z) ).

A superposition of the bar element of Section 4.6 with the EBE of Section 5.2 or the Timoshenko beam clement (R IE. C IE. or li E) of Section 5.3 gives a frame element with three primary degrees of freedom (u. IV, S) per node (note that the transverse displacement v of Section 4.6 is now denoted by IV to be consistent with Sections 5.2 and 5.3). When the axial stiffness EA and bending stillness 1 llre cJementwise constant. the su perposition of the linear bllr clement with the li E gives the following element equations (see Fig. 5.4.1):

[Iil'l"J'~IFI '
or, in explicit form.


- I'

/10 11 3

0 6 0 - 311 -M 0 0 -6 - 311 0

- 3h
h2(l.5 + 6A)

0 0

-6 3" 112(1.5 - 6A)

0 0
112(1 .5 + 6A)

0 - 311


11 2

11 2(1.5 - 6A)


6 3"


IV 2

(5.4 . 1b)


II q,


(5.4 ,2(1)


Q, Q, + 124 Q,
(i = 1,2.3. 4)


276 and

Ai'. INTItOlll.:CTlON TO nil; ~l"rn! I:I.rMI""T MHIlOU


In &1. (5.4.2b), denotes the distributed axial force, qr the distributed transverse force, 1/1; the linear interpolation functions. and the Hermite cu bic interpolation fun cti o n ~. In the following paragraphs, we develop tran ~fomlation relations to express the element equat ions (5.4. lb}-valid in the e lement coordinate system (.r. y. Z}-IO the global coordinate system (.I., y . z) . The local coordinates (.fr , y~, Zr ) of a typical clement 11,. are rehued to the global coordinates (x. y, z) by IeI'. Eq. (4.6.2) 1



where lhe angle a. is measured clockwise from the g lobal x -axis to the clement l .. -axis. Note that the y and }i,. coordinates are parallel to eaeh olher. and they are 0111 of the plane of the paper (scc Fig. 5.4.2). The .!>amc transrormat ion relat ions hold for displacements (u. w ) along the global coordinates (x. z) and displacements (iUil ) in the local coordinates

S' I


1 I

- - h, - -







w' I


., ., ,











5.4.2 (/I) GencrJlifL"ti displacemcnts. (b) Gcncmli/.ed forces. (el Gencmlilcd disp lacements in the clcmcnt coord inates. (t/) Oencral di splm.:elllenls in the global coord inmes.



(.f. ::). Note that there is no dh.plllcemcnt in the direction o r the coordinate y (i.e ..

v = 0). However. there is a rotmion :lbout the y-axis. :lnd it remains the s:lme in both coordinate syMems because y = y. Note thm rotation 8 is equal to - tllI' / (/x in Euler- Bernoulli bc:llll theory and it is equOIllo ~ in Timoshenko beam theory. Hence. the relationship between (/1. 11', 0) and (II. IV. {n can be written as

ii 1

"1= [CO'" ' - s~na

sina cosa

Thererore. the three nodal degrees or rrecdom (ii : ,IV~ ,.s~) at the ith node (i = 1.2) in the (.f, v. ::) system are related to the three degrees or rreedom (., ~. II'~. Sj) in the (x, y, ;::) system


sinO' eosa

0 0
eosa sina cos (1


- si na



0 0 0







IN ) =

[T" H 6~1

Atwlogously. the clement force vectors in the local and g lobal coordinate systems are related according to

Returning to &1. (5.4 .1(I). we subst itute the transrormation equations (5 .4.6b) and (5.4.7) inlo (5.4.1 a) and obtOlill

Premultiplying both sides with

In 1= [TJ1', we obtain


11l11s. if we know the clement matrices I K r and I F)' or an c lement Q, in the local coordinate ~ystem (i. y. Z) the cleme nt matrices in the global coordinate .. ystelll are obtained by

Using [K ra nd 1;:'1' from Eq. (5.4.1 b) in (5.4.9) and carrying oUllhc indicah:d matrix IllUlliplicmions. we OIrrive at the following clement stiffness matrix [K " , referred to the

global coordin:IICs;
/.1. I.:OS 2 ct

+ 6 ~ i 1l2 ct

(Ji. - 6)cosO'sinu
11 ~ in l u

311 sinO'

(Jl- 6)ct>~us inu

6cO$ 2 a

11 2(1.5

311 sin u
_ (j,lCOS2 u

-3h COsO'
-(Jl - 6)silla cos u - (/l sin1a + 6 cos 2 a) -3l1 cosa
- (/.1 - 6) cosa~i na - (/(sin 2 a + 6co~2 a)

+ 6A)

+ 6 sin 2a)

-3h sin O'

311cos a h! (I.5 - 6A) 3h"ina - 3fICOfiO' 2(1.5 - 6A) 11 -3/lsi na 3hcosa 2( 1.5+6A) 11

-(/1 - 6)cmasinO' 311sin a - (I1.Cos 2 a + 6 sin1 O') - (/1-6) fii n acol>a -3hsi n a

311 cos a
(/1- 6) cofiasina

(Jl- 6) co~O' s ina


a+6cus 2 a


31, co<;a

F, F,
{ F )'=

F, co,O' - F2sina

F, F,

F, sina + F 2 co~ a FJ
FJ cosO' - Fssina

(S A . lOb )

f (,

F4 sina + Fs cosa F6

which il> the clement force vector referred 10 the global coordi nates.

Example 5.4.1

.rtk! frome li'rttCture shown in Fig. 5.4.3


i~ to be analYled for displlK.'Croenh;lfld force..~. BOth of the structure are made of the same material () iltld the $affIC geometric propenies (A, I). The ekmenl sti!Tnc$~ millrices and force \'CC1011> i.n the global coordin;ltc system (x. y. t) can be c(lmpuu.:d from (5.4. 10a) nnd CiA. 1Ob). The geometric and material propcn ics of each clement are a., follow~ (j ;1> the a1(iaj lind q is the trrulS\'cn;c: dhuiboted


EJe,uenl I.

q lll:=.-



The .1'11)11$ isout of the plM>c (lIthe: paper, and

61~ ~raJ


clo.:lw;\C from x-aX'~ tOX"M~ Wm.l,/ 1O,"4.r. )Ox !O~p$'



_Ib in.


-, Q,

B 1441R.

-1 Q


(l, ..

144 ill.

+ ii~





figure 5.4.3



Geomccry and loading. and (b) member


in the plane frame S!rur;:lUre

of EXllmplc 5.4.1.

[K I 1.= let'

0.0000 - 0.0289 - 0.00I).I O.{X)(l() 0.6944 0.0000 0.0000 2.7778 0.0289 {).()O().l -O.{lOO4 0.0289 0.0000 0.0000 -O.69.J4 0.0000 0.0000 0.= 0.0000 -0.0289
-(l.O289 {UXl(lO
! .3889

0.0000 - 0.0289 ~O.69.J4 0.0000 1.38X9 0.0000











1.0 0.0 24.0)1'

t: lemenl 2.

The load fit:= 4 P lit the ccmer of the elem<!nt {(:os ~ '"" -0.6 lIud sin t;t =: 0.8) i~ distributed 10 the nodes acclJrtiing 10 Eq. (5.2.20).

-0.2b66 -0.1)1 11 - 0.3556 0.2666 .... 0.0111

[K2j = lOS

- om J I 0.200 1 -0.0 148 IUH4!l 2.2222 0.2666 0.0 111 - 0.2001 0.0 148 - 0.0 148 LIlli
- {).266(,

0.1)1 11 0.3556

0.1666 -om ll 0.2666 -0.2001 -0.0148

0.0148 -0.2666 0.200 1 0.0148

- 0.2666
0.0 111

0.011 1 0.0 148 2.2222


== P{O.O 2.0 -72.0 0.0 1.0 72.01'1'

1be a-.sem blcd ~ti lTne."5 matrix nnli force V&..'1on. rut obtained by su pcrpo~jng the in,q thrcc rows :lnd col uilln~ (If elernent I to the fil'\t three 1\Wo'1> ond ct)lumn~ of clemeot 2. i.e.. the 3 x :l !)ubrnatrix ;w;oci;ucd with row>; and eolumn/O 4. S. and 6 of clement I. and the 3 x 3 \ubmatrix a:-.,\OCiotcd wi th n)w~ and colum,os I. 2. and 3 of clement 2 oYcrlilp i ll the ~Iobal !,IifTness matoll:. TI.e known g~metrie ixMlIldary condition~ are


force bourtdary CQlldltiOf\l> are

Q!+ Q; _ O,

Q ~+ Qi"' 2I'.


(S A . 13b)

Since all \p<x=il1e.! va l ~ ord~ ~-n bouncJasy conditions on the primary variablC'5 arc zero, the '-'<mden'>Cd Ci:IUmion!> for the unkllown genel'lIlil.(:d displil'-'eflleOl dcgrec...~ of fl"Ct.'dom arc



- O.26(i<\
- 0,0148

0.8946 -0.0148


1V' I 1 2.00 I 1.



0.0 178



- 4.8

The !oQlution is

u" '* 0.8390 l< 10 -<4 P (in.).

Uj = 0.68 12


10-<4 P (in.).

U6 -== - 0.9(,10 )( JO i P (I':ld.)

(SA. 15)

TIle reac:tion\ and forces ill c:lch member in the glohal

the d ement cquol ion:t

coordinal c..~ can Ix'

comp\.Ited from


forces I Q< CIIII be Iran~fomled I

10 IhOloC

in the clement coordinatc sy~tcm by





(SA. 1M)

- 1.420

- 0.725



-4.731 - 1.275



-0.258 - 1.780 -82,87



T.. blc 5.4, I colltain.o; the dbplllCcrllCUi.'i oblajl1Cd by \'I1riou~ I YI~~ of e)clIlelll:. lit point B, As ttoted earlier. onc EllE or l i E per member ofa ~truclure gi\'c~ eX1le1dbplacen1cCnls. whe~a.~ at tea~t two RIE or em per member ore oeedcd to OOlllJn 8IXcptJble rc~ults. Thc fon;c\ III (3th demenl :itc incl\.lded in Thble 5.4.2. The forces calculOled from the element cquatillns are also exact for EBE and lIE.



l l1 bie 5,4.1 Comparison of the gencrali,cd di1opl:lcenlents liJ ~(vI P ( 10" where 1I is a typical di~pl:lCemcntl tit poill t Il of the (rame ~Iruetllre ~hown in Pig. 5.4.3.
Di,;pl. RJE(I ).


CIE (2)




W, -,


0.27092 O.847(,~ 0.84101 O.2!!435 U.84146 O.IB9!\9 U.1-I3898 0.1-13904 0.466(1:1 0.68(31) 0.68108 0.44315 0.68083 Ol18114 0.68123 0.68124 -U.0016 0.86647 O.945(}1 0.00036 O.n029 0.91640 0.96206 0.96098

Numhd" In IhI: ""~'" tblQleo- the "umber ot cklllC<lr> per member Vtl~ 'l.fC i~1i'nI (>( ,he nurut>cr 0( delt>Cn\lo (~I!d ~"". ,,-idt the u'"'" ""tile> prtdi<:lolOO by I.bc resputi>o: beam rhcoo<:.j.

Table- 5.4.2 Compari"On of the forces (divided by P) in each member of the frame

J.n7 0.850


62.24 62.26 O.J32

3.237 1.550 4.723 0.299 4.730 0'68 3.077 1.4t 3

\U36 2.292

62.26 62.28 47.70 86.67 49.76 83.74





0.7 13 1.411 1.575



8.362 49_16

1.816 1.288


C1E(4) II El

0.987 4.128 2.6'10




t7.38 8.327

0.72t 1.417 0.725 1.420 0.725

2.66 t 4.731

10.30 SO.43
10.92 5O.4S

Number UI the
~ ~,

4.13 1

10.90 SO."5

0.Z70 4.730 0.261 4.731 0.2S8 4.73 1 0.258

0.425 2.593 1.292 1.793 1.279 1.783 1.275 1.180 1.275 1.780

>037 85.07

50.43 R3.39 50.45 82.87 .'iO.45 82.87

~. ;knioltto the III>Il'Jbu of eleroenla per nlef'lbcr. at>d lite two) row< tilt 1.......... mI>eN of !be ~n>et>Jft:. \ 'moe$ _ indepelMklll of lh/: number IJf c\mlrnt<: (and rollocidc: "'11b the: cuer ,1lIlJC1 ~io::Med. lIy <be ttipe.:w.oe batt! theoritt).

In Ihis chapter. fini le element models of the classical (i.e . Euler- Bernoull i) and Timoshenko beam theories have been developed. The classical beam tht.-o ry is governed by a fourlh-ordcr differenti:tl equation and therefore results in:1 weak form whose primary variables contain the transverse deflection and its first derivative. Therefore. Heml ite interpolal ion of the lransverse deflection is required in order to impose Ihe cOlllinuity of the deflection ,md il~ derivative at the nodc~ belweel1 clements. In Ihe case of the Timoshenko beam theory. there


AN 1' Illl.()IJI ,(" 'ION 1 0 TU[ ~lNnh U r \11 N1 \lI-IHOI) .

are two, coupled, -.ccondorder c<Iuation ... governing the Iransverse deflection and the rota tion. The weak form ~ of these e<IlIation.; require Lagrange imerpolation of the transverse deflection and mtation. Since the mt:'lion function is like the (negati ve 01) the derivative of the trJ.nsversc deflection, the degree of the interpol ation u<.ed for the rotation should bcone less than that u<;cd for the transver>e de fl ection. Such select ive interpolation o f the variablc-~ is called cOl/sis/elll illlerpo/atioll. When the same interpolation functions arc u<;cd to approximate the transverse de fl ection and the rotation, the rc~ uhing stilTness matri x is often too stiff to yield good solution!. '!.peci:llly when the number of clement:. used is small. Thi s is due to the inconsistency of interpolation of the v'lriables. and the phenomenon is know n as !IIIt'ar /o('killg. It is overcome by the use or reduced integration 10 evaluate the stiffness coeffi cicnts associ:lIed with transverse shear "trains. The c lements developed here are RIE. CIE1. which has quadr.ltic interpol:ltion of the tr,lIlsverse deflection and linear interpolatio n ortlie rotation. and li E. The plane fra me clement b:l<;cd on the unified beam clement (i.e .. liE) that contains the classical beam theory and Timo~henko beam theory have also been discussed. The rrame e lement is a superposition of the beam and bar clements and has three degrees of fR.-edom (axial displaccmem . tranverse deflection . and rotation :lboUl an ax is perpendicular 10 the plane of axial and tran~versc coordinates) l:ler node. The general plane frame elemelll is orie nted :II an angle from the horizontal position. :md its equations are obtained by transforming the equations of the fmlll e element in local coordinates.

5. 1 The nmuml vibralioll of a beam under applied axial

lood No is gove rned by

the differential equation

(I x l

IP ( EI - - + (/2",)
d.l ~

d ~ ", N, __ = pAw1w (11' 2

where III denotes nonuimcnsiulHlI frequency of n:ltur.1 vibmtion. I is the bending stilT 1 nc\s. :Uld pA is the mas~ (ma \s densilYtimes cros~sect ionaJ area) of the he:ulI. Develop (0) the weak fonn and (I,) tinite ekmcnL model of the equation. 5.2 The dilTerentilll equutlon gu\'eming :u:isymmelric bending of circular plates on el u.~tic foundati"n is given by

'''['' (Ir dr

(r M,,) - M/IIJ + kw = q(r)

e la ~tic

where k is the modulus of the and

M,,=- /)

foundation. If is the

tran~vcr~e di~tributed


dl 'd",) 'W (--+ 11 -(/r . tlr


MIIfl=- D

(d'W -dr 11 -- + 'dW) dr !


Develop (1I) the weak fonn and identify the primary and secondary variables. and (b) the fin ite clement model. Note thatlhe ~hear force is de tined by


, [" dr

- (rM,, ) - M{.~



5.3 The differential eq uations governing axisymmetric bending of circular plmes according to the shear deformation plate theory are
Id - - - (rQ , )-q = 0 r dr

[d dr

- (rM,,) - M~~


= 0


M" = D

( -d~ +v -~) .M&& =D (d~ dr r dr

~) v- + ~

Qr=K , CH

( d"') d,

where D = 1 {.1 1[ 12(1 - \i 2)1 ;lnd H is the plate thickness. Develop (a) lhe weak form of the equati ons over an element and (b) the 1inite c lement model of the equations. 5.4 Consider lhe fourth -order equation (5.2.1) and its weak form (5.2.4). Suppose that a twonode clemen! is employed. Wilh three primary variables al each node: w. 8. and K , where 0 = dwldx and K = d 2 w Idx' . Show that th e associated Hermite interpolation functions are give n by
rP2 = i ( 1-6-+8- - 3h2 h1 h4
x x . .{ . x rP,=- 1- 3- +3 - , - II } , 2 II 11 2


.i' )

.' (


where i is the clemenl coordinate wilh the origin at node I. 5.5 Consider th e weak form (5.2.4) of the EBE. Use a three-node clement with two degrees of freedo m (11' , 0). where 0 := - dwldx. Derive th e Henn ite intcrpolillion functions for the elel1l1: nl. Compute Ihe element stiffness matrix and force vector. Pllrrial

rPl = 1 - 23 - +66 - - 68 - +24112 hl 1z4 irS

5.6-5.20 Usc the minimum number of Euler-Bernoulli be;lnl finite clements to analyze the beam problcms showl1 in Figs. P5.6--P5.20. In particular. give: (a) The assembled





matrix and force vector.

(b) The splXified global displacements and forr.:es. and the equilibrium co ndi tions. (c) The condensed matrix equations for th e primary unknowns (i.e .. generalif.ed forces) ~eparately. Exploit symmetries. if any. in '-\ naly zittg the problems. The positive convention used for the generalized displacements and forces b the Sl1nte as that given in Fig. 5.2.2.

1000 Ib

jllnnlt I
T .Figure " 5.6

--1 - .. ---I .111'5.7

Fi~u re




Steel members (E, - 30 )( Hfipsi) 200 IbJin.


. 'igure }'S.A

I+-4111 ---12111.


4m . .J


f jgure 1'5.9

200 Nlm

Stccl mcrnbcr.l U;. 200 GPa)

5 kN'nl

3em dia.
1--12 cm



12 ern

J<'igure PS. IO

Figure 1'5.1 1

EI '" constant

I"igurc "5. 12



. 'igure " 5. 13



_ _ Rigid loading fr.une

II " 4 m, EI '" 50 X 106 N_m 2, k - lo"N/m



Fo = 5 kN. 110 = 103 Nlm. d ~ 0.5 In

Linear clast ic spring. k

~---- h---+r----h--~L-_'

f'igure ('5 . 14

loOO N/m
1250 N-m

2500 N

~5 m

Linear spring,

1; - 1O-4 ..... I (N lm )

- -.j.---5 m -~="L

Ef - 20x I07N_m2

Figure PS.I S


I ft. I{igid

SUO lb/ft.



Pin joint
5 ft.

5 ft.

5 ft .

Figure P5.17

luba l node


t'f - consta nt

Figure "5.16

"'o = IOOOlb

6 ft

Figure 1'5. 19

z. "'0

EI = COllstam

Figure PS.IS


A.... 1.... lltOOOC llO.... m nlb fl 'll ll! 11 0 11,,.., ~tIl'llI()1l


FiI: II ~

1 '5.20

FiJ,:lI re 1'5.24

(.... :) 0 1 0bal coorumall:s

f <, =): Ucmcnl ooordm~lC!









811.,1'- roJlb

-0' ,

IOlin. l ,J _ IOl 1l1 4

)' 001

Mille paper

Figure P5.28

OI"'PTU \ ~I''''''MS ANn Iltl\\U:.s


5.2 1 Analy zc l>rublelll 5.8 using Ihe rcdut"Cd- inlcgmllun Ti mo~hen k o beam filli le clemenl (i.e .. RIE ). Use 01 v'll ue o f ~ for lhe ~hcarcorreclion factor .md I' =0.25. 5.22 Analyze Problem 5.a using the cu n~hl enl interpollllmO (quadrali c I\" and linear III) Timoshenko bcllrn clement (i.e., CIE- I). Usc 11 va lue of ~ for the shear com.:Clio n factor and 11 =0.25.

5.23 Analy/e Problem 5.8 using the consistent interpol:uion (c ubic II' :Inti qundmlic ..... ) Timoshenko be.un cleme nl (i.e .. ClE-2). Usc u value of ~ for the shear com.-Clion fm.:l0r and 11=0.25. 5.24 AnalY/e the problem in Fig. 1'5.24 u.\ing Ihe consIstent intcf))ul'ltion Iuadr.uie II' :md linear \l.I) Timo~ h c ll~o I>cam clcmell1 (i.c .. CI E- l ). Usc II va lueof ~ for the sheareorrecullil 1= f:lctor;lnd 1 0 .25.
5.25 AnlllYle Ihe problem in Fig. 1'5.24 u~in g Ihe eonsislell1 interpohnion (cubic I\" :md quadl'lllic ..... ) limoshen ktJ beam clement (i.e . Cm-2). Usc :I value o f ~ for Ihe shear eorr.!Clio ll faelor and II = 0 .2S. 5.26
Con ~idcr a

thin isolrop ic circular plate of r.Jdius Ro and , upposc Ih,I\\he plalc i ~ clamped al r = Ro. If two lini le clemenls (see l>rub lem 5.2) :Ire used III the do main (0 :5 r :5 Ro). give the boundary ellilditi on~ on th e primary ,lIld ~eeondary v'lriab les of Ihe rne~h if the phllc b subjcc tl.'{l to (u) .1 uniformly di stributed tran sverse 10lld uf intclI'.;ity (10 and (b) point load Qo at the center.

5.27 Repeal the cireul;lf plale problem of Problem 5.26 when limoshen ~ o clemen lS is u.\Cd. '

two-element mesh o f

5.28-5.35 For Ihe fmme problems shown in Figs. P5.28-PS.35. give (I) the tnlllsformed clemenl matrices: (b) Ihe a~scmblcd clement mal rice:.: and {c) the condcn..ed ma trix equatioll~ for th e unknown genera di splllccments :Uld forces. Usc the ,ig n COIl \cntions ,llOwn in thc tigu rc below for global :md clement tli'pl:lcemem (and force ) degrees of freedom. The angle between the +\'1; r-axis and +vc .i-axil> is measured in the cJockw i~e se nse. 8

3 fl .


HI, EA arc the samc for thc two members

I:. ) OxUflb lll.z. ,>= O.) A I OOIR.~. 1 lOOIll.~

fl .


A:>Ii.'iTICOIJUCTION rO 'llu , n .'U I'I' EI.F\UNr ME:I1IOD

1000 Ibill.


40 fl.


= JO x l O~ lb/ m .l. A 1(; i l1.2. 1 101 in.4


" 5.30

5 fl .



J fl.
10 kip."


/:.'1. Elf arc the ;;;1111C for the tWI) members

If .. 102 .n. 2. 1

7 fl .

" )0 x 106lblin ,2. ,,~ 0.3 IOl "1. 4



10 fl.

Iligun! 1'5.3 1
10 kips




16 fL


t:: - 30x 10<'Ib/in. 2. A 100 in,l.I'" 200 '".~

2U ft.


Figure PS.32



I . :-I .. E,..,"Xy Pri,,..,,,I,,,. m,d \f,rimw,UlI Ml'liwds in Apl'lil'J M"duHllr.I, John Wiley. New York. 2()02.
Elcl1lc nl ~."

2. II.L"1ldy. J N .. "On Lodlllg-I'rc,- Shellr Defnrmhblc Beam Fini!\' '\/1''''11111;,.., wid blxillurm;;. 14\', 113- IJ2, 1997.

emll/HO',., Me/hods", Applied

J. Reddy, J. N .. "On Ihc IXnvll ti nn of lil,'

S ll pcrci)lIvcrg~ nl1il1\o'hc nk o

Beam Finile Elemenl:' /m. J. Comllll/.

ell-a "Ill/ Struct.

EIIK"K., 1(2),71 84, ZOUO.

Fe ll~l~r.

4 T,rno,hcrlko. S. P. alld Goodier, 1. N.. (h .."rI' "f EI'micit~. ,"kGr.IW. lld l. New Yorl , 197(),

5. UJ;ur.ll. A. C. and

S. K . A,lIvIIICI'd $',-.,,,glh ",UJ Applll'd IJ .... " ...IV. ElsevIer, New York. ]975.
/'ltU~ . . Ht'/IJIUJIIsltl/' S w"h 0,,5>',,""/

6. Wang. C.-K and SaJIlM.>Il. C G . I"lftN./"cwn Smw'uwl A1Ud)'l"~' I~nl,~c- llall . Englewood C liffs, NJ. 191W

7. Wlmg. eM. Reddy. J. N.. and Lee. K I I . Shl"/f l>ej(Jrmllbit' /J""ms (lilt! S(llul;{m_~. EI-.e~ icr. O~ford. UK. 2U(kl.

K. Willcm'.:-I_ :mll Luc,,-,. Jr.. W \ 1. Srrtl/Illrul A'JflI\.~;sj"r 1-),lIi/lun, McG ...~w. I I Jl I. New Yori, 19711.



6.1.1 Introduction
An eigenvalue problem is defined to be one in which we seck the va lues of the parameter A. suc h that Ihc equation
(6. 1. 1)

is sati sfi ed for nontri vial values of u . Here A and B denote either matri x operators or differential operators, and values of A. for wh ich Eq . (6. 1.1) is satisfied arc called eigelH'(I/ues . For each value of), there is a vector II. called an eigelll'eclOr or eig/'lIjum.:livll. For example, the equation
wilhA = - "



8= 1

which arises in connection wi th nalural axial vibrations of a bar or the transverse vibration of a cable. constitutes an eigenvalue proble m. Here). denotes the square of the frequency

of vibrmion.


In general. the determination of the e igenva lues is of eng ineeri ng as well as mathematical importance. In stnlctural problems, the eigenvalues denote either natural frequencies or buckling loads. In Auid mechani cs and heat transfer, eigenval ue p roble m ~ arise in connection with the determination of the ho mogeneou s parts of the transient solution. as wi ll be shown shortly. In these cases, e igenvalues often denote amplitudes of the Fourier components making up the sol ution. Eigenvalues arc also useful in determining the stabi lity characterist ics of temporal sche mes, as discussed in Section 6.2. In this section, we develop finite c lement modcls of eigenvalue prob lems described by difTerential equations. In view of the close simi larity between the differential equat ions govern ing eigenvalue and boundary va lue problems. the steps invol ved in the constnlction of their fini te e lement models are entirely :lIlalogous. DifTerenti al eigenvalue problems are reduced 10 algebraic e igenvalue problems Ci.e .. 1A llXI = AI B IIX)) by means of the finite element approx imation. The methods of sol ution of algebraic eigenva lue problems arc then used to solve for the eigenva lues and eigenvectors.


...,. INTROlILCTIO,- ro nll~ ~I,.m

U J :t.1F'ITloiCTHOn

6.1.2 Formulation or Eigenvalue I'roblems I'arabolic E(luation Consider the partial differential equation

pe A ~ Il

2- (kA au) = q(x.1) ax ax

(6. 1.2)

which :u;o;e, in connection with transient heat transfer in one-dimensional systems (e.g.,
a phme w:lll or a lin). Here II denotes the tempe mture, k the thennal conductivity, p the density. A the cross-Sl.'Ctionall1rea , f ' the '-I>ecific heat, and q the heat generatio n per unit

length. Equations involving the lir<:t -order time derivative afe called IXlrabolic eqlla/iolls. TIle homogenous solution (i.e .. the solution when q = 0) of Eq . (6.1.2) is oneil sought in the foml of a product of a function of x and a function or I (I.e ., through the sepa rmiol1o/-variable!i technique):

Substi tution of this a~surncd form of solution inco the

pc AV -- ~

h omogeneou~

roml of (6. 1.2) gives

(IT fit


d ( k A dV) T = O (Ix
(JI" A

Separ.lling vari:lbles of I and x (:I""uming that amve at

and kA are functions o f x only), we

(6. 1.4 )

Tdt =

I dT

[d (

prA V dx

dV) kA dx

Note that the left-hand side of thi s equation is a function of I only while the right-hand side is a function of x only. For two funct ions of two independe nt variabl es 10 be equal for all values of the independent variables, ooth function s must be equal to the same constant, say
-)., (A > 0):



[ (1 (


dV) kA dx =-A
(6 . 1.5)

dT . -=-A7 dl


d (kA dV) dx

ApcAU = 0


The negative sign of the constant A is based on the physical require ment that the solution V(x) be harmonic in x whi le 1'(1) decay exponentially wi th increasing I. The solution of (6.1.5 ) is

where K is a constant of integral ion . The values of A are determined by solving (6.1 .6), which al so gives V(x). With T(f) :tnd V ex) known . we have the complete homogen cou~ ~o luli on (6. 1.3) of Eq. (6.1.2). 11le problem of solving (6.1.6) for A and Vex) is termed an eiRelll'allic problem. and A is called the eigenvalue and Vex) the e igenfunction . When k,



A, p, and c are constants. the !oolulion or Eq. (6. 1.6) i~

Vex) =C ..inO'x

+ DcosO'x ,

(6. 1.8)

where C and D are constants or integnllion. Boundary conditions or the problem are used to find algebraic rcl,ttion~ among C and D. The algebr:lic re lations can be expre~sed in matrix form as (lA I - O'I/J 1)1 VI = 101, where LAJ and I/J I depend, in gcncral , on k, {', and p, and I VI is the vector of integration constants C and D. Since C and D both cannot be zero (otherwise, we obtain the trivial wlulion), we require the determinant oflhe coefficient mntrix I A I - alB] tobe zero. Thi s results in analgcbraiccigcnvalue problem whose wlUlion yields 0' (hence, A) and IV 1= (C, D) . To fix the idens, consider Eq. (6.1.6) subject to the boundary conditions (e.g., a fin with spccifi(:d temperatu re at x = 0 and insulated at x = L)


['AdUj ,Ix x:/_



We note that nonhomogeneous boundary conditions can be converted to homogeneou~ boundary conditions by a change of variables. Using the above boundary conditions in (6. 1.8), we obtain O=C O+ DI,O = a(CcosaL- f) si naL)


f-oT nontrivial solution (i.c., not both C and D are equal 10 zero), we set the delennimmt of thc coenicient matrix in (6. 1.10) to zero and obtain (sincc a cannot be zero)
(211 - 1)11" cos L = 0 --+ a" L = O:::'-c,-''''-


Hence, the homogencous solution becomes [note that the absorbed into Cn I


K of Eq. (6.1.7) is

,(x.t)=L,.Cne ". f' smanx,



' (') 'O"n ="'c.".,-'-"'(2,, - 1). ~


(6.1. " )

The con~lants

C n are dctcrminL-d using the initial condition of the problem, u(x , 0) = uo(x):


0) =

L Cn sin O'"x = uo(x)


Multiplying both sides with sin a m.\", integrating over the interval (0, L), and making use of the orthogonality condition

we obtain


The complete ltOlUlion of Eq. (6.1.2) is given by the sum of the homogeneous solution and the particular solution I/(.r. I) = ,/' (x. 1) + I/ "(x. I ). Thc examplc discusscd above providc" the need for determining eigcnvalues (0',,) in the contex t of finding the transient response of a parabolic e<luatioll. Next. we consider the transient response o f a sccond-order c(luation in time. known as a hYfJel"lXllic eqllflfioll . Hyperbolic Equation The axial Illa tion of a b.. r. for example. is described by the equation Isee Reddy (2002).

pp. 185- 187 1

pA-, -

a'u ~ ( EA -;- ) =/(x.1) a au at- ()x ax

(6.1.1 4)

where 1/ denotes the axilll d isplacement. E the modulus of elasticity. A the cross-sectional area, p the den~ity, and / the .txial force per unit length. The sol ution of (6. 1.14) consi"ts of two p"rts: homogeneous solution II h (Lc .. when / = 0) and particu lar solution ,,/'. The homogeneous pan is detennined by the <;CJXlTation-of-v:lriables technique. 3<; we discussed for the pm.lbolic equation. TIle homogenous solution of Eq. (6. 1. 14) is also assumed to be of the fonn in (6. 1.3). Sllb~ t itutio n o f (6.1.3) into the homogencous form o f (6. 1. 14 ) gives

d'T d pAV-,-- ( 1\ dV) 1" = 0 tll tlx tlx

Ass uming that pA and EA are
func ti o n ~

o f x onl y, we arrive at

T dt 2 =

I d T

I I (/ ( dV) , p A V t/x kA dx =-Cltil T , (1,2 + 0'- 1" = 0

(6.1.15) (6. 1.16)

The negative sign of the constant a /lex . t) be hOlrmonic in x lmd t. The solution of (6. 1.15) is

(EArIV) -a2pAV = 0 tlx


based on the

phy ~ icrtl

require ment that the solution

r (t ) = K e- ""

= K I COS 0'1

+ K2 sin at


where K I and K2 are con ~t:lnt S o f intcgr.llion. The solution of (6. 1.16), when E. A. and p, arc con<;lants. b
V(x) = C sin ax

+ I) cos&.r.


where agaill C and I) arcconstants ofilltcgration. In theproce<;s ofdctcrmining Ihecon~taJl ts C and I) using the bound"ry conditions of the problem. once 'Igain we arc required to sol"e an eigenvalue proble m (the steps arc analogous to those describcd for a JXlrabolic equat ion). Unlike in the ease of heat conduction problem. the qua ntities an in the case of bars have di rect phy .. ical meaning. namely. they represent natural frequencies of the system. Thus. in



~ tmclUral mechanics we may be interested in detenllining only the natural frequencies of the system but not the transient rCSlxlIlse. When we arc interested on ly in nlltuml frequencies of the system. the eigenvalue problem may be fonnulated directly from thc equation of motion (6. 1.14) by assuming a solution fonn that is periodic in time I

lI(x.t) =V(x)e



where w denOles the frequency of nalural vibration, i equals Fl, and Vex) denotes the configuration of the structure at that frequency, called the mode shape (i.e. , for each value of w, there is an associated mode shape). Substitution of (6.1.19) into the homogeneous fonn of (6.1.14) give~


_ .!!..... (EAdU)]e - iW/= o

dx dx
- w 2pAV=0

_ ~ (EAdU)
dx dx

which is idelltica l lO Eq. (6. 1.16) witha = w. Similar equations can be formulated for natural vibration of beams. Another eigenvalue problem that arises directly from the governing equilibrium equation is that of buckling of beam-columns. We sha ll return to this topic shortly. In summary. eigenvalue problems associated with parabolic equations are obtained from the corresponding equations of motion by assuming soluti on of the form

II(X.t) = U(x) e- U ' ,



whereas those associated with hyperbolic equations are obtained by assuming solution of the fonn
U(X.t) = U(X)e -iwr, l.=w 2

(6. 1.20h)

where A denotes the eigenvalue. Finite e lement fo rmulat ions of both problems arc presented

6.1.3 Finite Element .' ormu la tion Comparison of Eqs. (6.1.6) and (6. 1. 16) with the model equation (3.2. 1) reveals thaI the equation s governing eigenvalue problems arc special cases of the model equaLions studied in Chapters 3 and 5. Here we summarize the steps in the finite element fornmlation of eigenvalue problems for the sake of completeness and ready reference. We will consider eigenvalue problems described by (0) a single eq uation in a single unknown (e.g .. heat transfer, bar, and Euler-Bernoulli beam problems). and (b) a pair of equati ons in two variables (e.g .. Timoshenko beam theory).

Heat Transfer and Bar-Like I'roblems

Consider the problem of solving the eq uation


d [a(x)- + c (x)U(x ) = ACo(x)V(x) <lU]




,,~ 1~"TRoJ.)~Cn()'1 ToniE 1-1.'111'1: EI~I E.VI MHIIOI)

for A and U (x). Here (/. c. and '0 are known qual1lilies Ihm depend on Ihe physical problem (Le .. data). A is the eigenvalue. and U is the eigenfullclion. Special cases of Eq. (6. 1. 21) aTe given be low. Heat tra nsfer: (/ = k A . c= P{J,

co=pc;\ clJ=pA

(6. 1.22)

Over a typical element
Q~ .

(/ = Ell , , = 0,


we seek a finile clement approximatio n of U in the form

U:(x) =

" L lI~ l/Ij (x)

1",, 1

(6. 1.24)

The weak fOl"m of (6. 1.21) is


f "("W"V
fI x,

dx dx

+cwU(x )




where w i~ the weight function, and and are the ~ec ondary variables at node I anc! node II. respectively (assume thm Qj' = 0 when ii-I and i f- 1/ )



Qr =-

[ dV] '. dx
(1 -

(1 -


dx ...

Subst itution o f the finite clement approximation into the wcak form gives thc fi nite clemenl model of the eigenval ue equation (6.1.2 1):
(6. 1.27(1)


K,j =

f "[

a(x)--' __ +c(x)1/It1/l; J

"10' "10' dx dx


Mi~ = f Xco(.nv,t 1/1; dx h



Equation (6.1.27(1) contai ns the fi nite e le ment models of the eigenvalue e(luat iolls (6. 1.6) and (6. 1.16) as special cases. The assembly of element equations and imposition of bound<lry conditions o n the assembl ed equations remain thesame as in stmic problems o fChapter 3. However, the sol ution of the conde nsed eq uations for the unknown primary nodal vari:lblcs is reduced to an algebraic eigellv:llue problem in which the dCtefmin:lllt of the coeffi eiellt m;llri)( is set to :r..cro to determine the values of A. :lnd subsequently the nodnl values of the e igenfunction U(x). These ideas are illu ~tmted through examples.

Example 6.1.1
CQn.~i dc.r n

dllposed tOa fluid 8t tem{M!r,lturc. '1'0,. TIle go~'Cming difTe.rentlaJequatiQn

plane watt, inWally:lt 8 umJonll temperature T\>, which has- bOtll ~urfaces suddenly is (fQr OOQ~Uinl datil)

[P r ifr k,-, :;:: p~'(j-



(6. t .:280)

:and the initial condili()o is



CU M'lloft 0

O GE." AI.U[ ANI) TI~I [-r>EI'~"'I>rNf I'~OHLnIS


wllerc k i" the thennal conduCtivity. p the den~ity. and en the s(X.'Cific hcal al C/)n$l<1U1 pl'CS!;ure. E4ltation (6. I .28a) is also known as the difj'usioll equ(uiOIl with dif(usioll coefficient IX=: k/ pCf]. We consider twO sets of boundary e<mditioll$. each 1)(;iog represclltative. of a dilTcrent sccnilri(l (or .t = t . 1t llll1QtHtb 10 SlJlving Eq. (6. I .2Su) Md (6. I .28b) for Iwo JjlTerent set.' of boundary condition$.

Set I. If the heal trtlnsfer coeffieient at the surface" of tbe wall is assumed to be infinite, the boundary condItion.s can be expre~ed as
(6. 1.29a)

2. If we as~umc Ihat the wall at "'. ::::. L

i~ subj~tcd

to ambiellt lempetlllUre, we have

T(O.f) =T.... .

[ k!!. (J,f

+ tnT -

7 ~ *L =0 ;..;)]1
T - T~
11 =


Equation (6. I .2&1) can be nOnTtalized to make the boundary c<,mdiuons hOlllogeneous.
Cf""- -



The di ffercmial equation (6.1 .28a). initial condition (6.1 ,28b), Qnd ooundo'lry condid(U1s (6.1 ,29a)

and (6.1.29b) become

u(O.t )=o,

u (I.t)::o:O



U(O,I)=O. ( :11


~ .. I


(6. 1.30d

where t~ bars over x and I are omitted in the interest of bfC\ily. SQlution of (6.I .JOa) alld (6.1.30b) by ;;.cr:lrati()nof, ~ariables technique (or 11 = UI! '''') leads IQ th~ .t'tllution of the eigcnval ue pr'OblcllI
,fl U - - - ).U=O, U(O) ::o O, ilx l whcrea.~ solutioll of (6.1.3~) and (6. I.JOcJ re~ult~ in ( dU d .1 U(1) = O


(6 .l.3ltl)

+H ~ O u)1
... 1


This ditfcremial cqulIlion I'; a s~cial case of Eq. (6. 1.2J) wiUI (I = I, " = 0, and ('0 = I. For a linear element. the dement equations (6. 1:nil) have IhecxpUcil form (~t:e Eq. 0.2.34) for CICtllent matrkcsi

C:J: -:]-,'~ [; ;]m Hgn

ror Ii quadr.ltic clcillent, Vol.: have fs(.'C &-1. (3.2.3711) fQf clemen t ll\o'Itricc..~1


-8'] ,[4
16 - 8

- "'....!.



(6. J.32b)


"_'1I:>; llIOIX I('n ON'rfJTIII. nNn l' LLlc\ IIJ'.T \l 1 ;1110f)

SoluliOfl ror Sci I. For 3 lne\h of IWO linear elements (lhe minimum number needed fOf Set 1 bomJ(Jary conditions), with III "" J,~ = 0,5, Ihe a~~tl1bled C(luations afe

[-: (2 o -; -~] - A-'-[; ~ ~]) 1 ~: I ~ I Ql~:Q; 1 Q i

- I I 12 0


The boundary conditions U(O) "", 0, Q + Q ",,0, ilnd U(i) =: require VI "'" U I "",0. Hence. 1 f the eigenvalue problcm reduce<; to Ihe ~ingJc equation

(4 -). I~)U~=O.

or AI'"d2.0.

0 $ .1 !S O.S

The loode shape- is gh~n (within an arbitrary constant~ take U~ # I) ny

0.5 :: x :: 1.0
For a llIesh (If One quaJrmic element. we have (h;E:t 1.0)
16 16 3"- ).jQ ""' O.

or AI = 10.0,

Ul #O

The c(lrfC.\portding eigeofullCl1,m


O!:.t ::: 1.0

The exact eigCJlvaluC5 an:').. :::: (lI1f)l and A.I "" Jr !::= 9.8696. The exact eigcnfll.octions for Set 1 I;loundary condiliQlh:lre U.(n = sinIlJr.r and Udx) = ~iJ)]fx. Clearly. one quadra tic elemcllt give" mOfe ac.:uratc M"liutjun than two linellr elements. The eigenvalues and eigcnfuncti,)ns Ci\fl be used to eQlhl(Ucllhe soluliQn of the troUlsicnt problem. For e)[ample. the 'iOlution of (6, 1.3(ki) anel (6.1.30h) i..
14(.t . t ) =

L C~U. (t)t'~-'" = L: C~ sinmr.t ~

~ ~I

(6. 1.13)

where C. are conSI;lnt\ to be detenlli.ncd u~in~ the initi:1 condition of the problem lsee 1 Eq. (6.1. 13)1. The finite clement solution of the ~iIX(Ie problem, when One qu,ldratic element i ~ UM'!d. j\ given by
Ifh(X, f} = 4x(! - x)e IclIr(l

which is very-cl(l!o.c to the one-ternl solution in (6.1 .33).

Solution rur ~, 2. FQr a mc.,h l)f tWQ liGeaT elemenL~. the Set 2 bc)unJar), conditions tr:ln,late inlO UI =- 0 ane.! Qj + II U~ =- 0. The. C(llldelL'l'ti equations are


' (h [2 -'] ,h[' ']lIV'1 1 0 1

- I

I -

(; I 2

Ul"" - NUl

4 ([ - 2

' 2 +- H ]

A 1 - 12 ['

'])IU'I"" 101 U; 0


Por Ilolltrivial ~ol ution (Le .. al lensloneofthc V/ is ntlnzero). thedetenninilnl Qf the c~l)iciellt illalm shol,lld be lew:

7P -4(5

+ H)I + 4{1 + H ) = 0

The above equation is kn<Jwn :-ts the dwracll?rislic equtltioll of the,cnvatue problt:m. 'the two root!; of this qmtdratic equ3liol) for H =-I are

_12J(l2)2_7x8 7 -

6 ).,,,,, 0.37417. Al "'" 3. 544

and the eigcm'alues are (}.-= 12X)

.l.! = 4.49. )..1=36.6529 The eigenvector.; ll.\Sociated with each eigenvalue can be computed from equations (6. t .34)

4 -4~ 3-2)., U' I [-(2+),,) -(2+E;)1IUI("= !O 1=1.2 O


Fi.lI'm:amplc, for X! =0.374 167 (At =4.49(0), we have

2.5033U4 1) -.2.3742Ui l ) "'"

Taking U~I) = I, wc obtain

uml{ I

U41) = 1.0544 V~I)

1 11.0000 1
CU41)1 + (Villi = I, we obtain

0(1 the other hand. if we I)Onnaliz.c thcCQmponellt.~.

{U'!)I_ l ut - ujlJ

1_16881 1 . 0.7256

In Qt!)crwords, we obtain a mode shape whQse ampljtudeistK)t unique, Heoce, thee"igenfunction corresponding to 1..1 = 4.4900 (h=-O.5) is

U (.t)=

[0.6tUH ~jll

O.68SI(I-.~)jh+O.7151.l(2:t-I)/2h for().S ~xs. I.O


0:; x,=: 0.5

Similarly. the eigenvcctor componenl~ cOl'f"Cf;p<)Oding to

-= 36.6529 is (1.101 rultmilli:(:ed)

IV '"~ J ~ u!(' == -I J)258 V1l1

I 1 I \.00(0)
I [10

For II nle~h of one quadratic clement. the corn.lenscd cquadQlls are

-8 I [16 ( 3' -$ 7+3 11

and the characteristic equll1ion is

1 -.1.30

ISP - 4(13 + 3H)'A + 12(1

+ H)::: O.


AN 11(1IlOI){1(:nON TO Tllb

~l" n" E!.EMlxr \11;'lIlOtJ

The twO roots (If mi" qUfu'ratlc cqumio/l for II .'P I are
_ "1,,= 32J(31)1- 15X24 15 and Ihe eigenvalues are ()., "" 12X)

X1 =O.4 1545.

5:2 =3.8512 1

The. cotresptmding e.iJ;;eo\'eC.tor CQOIPQnents (\1ot nOnlI3Iii'tld)

IV '" J


rU.;IJ 1V;"

I1 I r

1.0000 1.059 I

IV"' J ""

IV1" ) I-2.9052 ) 1.00(0


The exact cigeDfunC1iQn~ for Set 2 bQundary conilitiQns are


aod the eigenvJlucs ).~ are COOlpllh..-d from tbe equation

II sin

;r;+ If:;. cos;r;. "'" 0

= I)

(6. 1)5b)

The Ullit twO r()ot~ of th e tr'JJ1sctndentill tlqu"tiQIl (6. L35b) are (for 1/

/r;'=:2.028.S ....,. ).,1 ~ 4.tl60:


A t.'Qrnparison or Ihe eigenvalues ohmitled using. mesl)cs of line:u aod quadrotic eleme.nt~ wilh Ihecxact val uC$' i~ presented io Thble6.1.1 . NotclMtthe numberQf eigenvalues obtained in

Table 6. 1. 1 Ei~e.nvultteli uf (he. heat conductiQn equations (6. 1.310) and (6.1.31 /1) for two sets of boundary c.ondiliooS'.

Mesh Zl.

" \2.0000



32$.291 <lS7.S80J

(417.70 1)



(4.2054) 9.9911 (4. 1380)





-(6I). 103{;)

(l 4.U.'IO)

686.5 12

(4. 1545)


9.9439 (4. 1196)

9,8747 (4.1 16J)





(24.8995, 39.n54

(S l.4446) 91.7847



514.119 1


39.41:;4 (24.139.1)

88.8264 (63.6597)

( 129 . 261) l.S1.9137

( 122.8S9)

(201.~ 1 )


1<M.7<M (658.133) 48 3.611 (418-9117)

'11"'"~ llll<:'filt e!\(;h f""'1> t<!rl'QPOIl<.Is to ~ 1 boul\<l...,. e'>nCl'Iim''<.


first mode m:tpe-


~ 0.50 ~ ~



- 1.00
- 1,50


4 Quaru-atic:





' .8


COOnii1l3tc, x

f'igdre 6. 1 l The liN three mode shapeS" a)l predicted by a f1)e,<;h of eigi)liinear eICOlCnl$ and a ..

mesh of four qU:Jdratie elementS for tbe beal tmilsfer problem Qf Exampi:c 6.1.1
(Set 1 boundary conditions).



'rtliru ploXle

Fil1l mod<:





....5O --.


... 1.00
- !.SO

4 quadnitic dements



0.0 0.' Coon.till'llc. .t'



fo1gure 6. 1.2 The fitll l lhree m,)de shll[ll)S uribe beat tmnsfer problem of Example 6.1.1 (Sel :2
bc:ll.lmlary condi tions),



II"TROOt.!("fIONTO TIl E 1~"'l'Ih ~:U:~II:"'"T Mn


Ibe finite clement IT\t..'1.hod is always equ;l1to the number of unkQown nodal values. As the ffiC..\h is refined, not only do we jnc(C~1! lhe Ilulnbcr of eigenvaluelo but we aiM> improve the ~Iccuracy of the! pr&:e(jing eigellvalues. NOle! also tliat the ..:;onvcfllence of the numcric;l) cigcnvalue!i 10 IDe exaC Qnes j ~ from the. abov~ , i.e. Il1e finite eit:nJeQl )()Iuti(m provides an upper bound 10 t the exact cigen,,";lluc::.. For Mructurnl ~ysteml>. this .::an be interpretl.."'Cl ~ follows: According to the principJc of minimum total \X1tential energy, any approximate di~plllCefJlent fie ld wouJd ove(C'aimate the Intal polcnliil1 energy of the sySiem. Thi:. is C<jllivaJcnl to It(lpmximating the Miffnc~~ of the system with a larger vallK' than the attuail'lnc. A StifTer "'yMeUl ""ill h:iVC IU'l!er ej ~en\'alues (Qr frequencies), The fir"!'it three mode shapes oft~ SYl\lCm are~howo in Joigs. 6.1. J

We note thm the eigenvalue equations (6. 1.3 1(1) and (6. 1.3 Ib) can al so be interp reted as those arising in conncction with Ihe axial vibmlions o f .. conManl cross sectional member. In that case. U d e note~ the axi:ll displacement [I/ (X. / ) = U (x )e- 1WI [and A =w2p/E. w bei ng the frequency of vibration. For ex:unple, the boundary conditions in (6.1.3J b) can be interpreted a~ those of:l bar fi xed at the left end alld the right end being connccted to a linear clastic spring (see Fig. 6. 1.3). The cOllstant H is cqu:ll to k/ EA , k being the spring const:lnt. Thus. the results prc ~e lltcd in Table 6 . 1.1 can be interpreted as w"!.p / E o f all uniform bar for the two different bound:lry conditio ns shown in Fig. 6. I.3. Natural Vibration of Oea ms

Ell/er-Bl'nloulJi Beam Theory

For the Euler- Berno ulli be:1Il1 theory. the equat ion o f motion is of the foml Isee Reddy
(2002). pp. 193- 196 1

(6. 1. 36)
where p denotes the mass de ns ity per unit length. A the area o f cross section. E the modulus. and I the second moment of area (see C hapler 5). The ex pression involving p i is ca lled

L- I


Set t : (,\0)

O. U(L)

t'i j:llte

6.1.3 Uniform bar with two <;ch of boundary condjt ion~.

rowry iI/alia term. Equation (6. 1.36) can be formulated as an eigenvaluc problem in Ihe interest of finding the frequency of niltural vibration by alosuming periodic mOl ion
w(x.1) = W(x)e ;""

(6. 1.37)

where IV is the frequency of naturaltntnwersc motion and \VCr) is the mode shape of the motion. Subst itution of Eq. (6.1.37) into (6.1 .36) yields
- 2 EI- dx dx 2

d (I'IV) - A (pA\V - pl "'IV) =0 ' --, d x*


(6. 1.38)

where A = lJ} . The weak form of Eq. (6.1.38)


f " (

given by

!"[!!... (E1d!\;) +

d~ lI(PW lh' lHV) 1 - , - - , - ApAvW -Apl - - (II' ,Jx* t1x * dx dx

d ~*

dlV ll"+ [( _'il-)/,1I; l" (ix.r. (/.r dx ,'.

(6. 1.39)

where II is the weight function. Note that the rotary inertia term r.:ont ribute~ 10 Ihe shear force teml. givi ng ri.;;e 10 an effectivc "he:lr foree that mu ~t hc known at :1 bou ndary ]>oint when thc deOeclion is unknown al Ihe poi nt. To obtain the finite clemem model of Eq. (6. 1.39). assume finite clement approximiltion oflhe foml
W(x )=

L, ll~ j (\) ,


where arc the I-Iermite cubic polynomials [sec &1", (5.2. 11) and (5.2, 12) 1, and ohtain the finite clement model

(I K' I - w' IM' 1) 1"'1 ~ I Q' I


(6.1041 a)

f ' d'~' ",~,


EI --~-f d:c. M~= dx (I.r ....


pA~ j+P I ,,~' __ _' J d .l dx



Qi '=

[ " ("'IV) dIVl l == - [-" ("'IV) dlV] 1

EI- 2


+ Apl -


Q;!!!! EI llx 2

' '. ( d lV) I

(6. 1.4 1h)


EI -~


+Ap l dx

I M~


For constant value .. of EI and pA. the stiffness matrix 1K~ 1 and rna"s malrix

, 21;, 1 [ ,

IK 1=1;' ,

-~Io, -6
- 311,.

- 3h.. 2112
3" ~

311 t

-3!" ] II ;
311 ,


311 t

156 rM"I = p" A ~ h , - 2211 .. 420 [ 54 1311

-2211, 411;
-13h ~ -3h 2

+- ~ 301l
When rotary inCI1ia

- 54 r 13h 156 2211..

_ 3',',',2 ] 13
22h ~


p" Ie

- 311 - 36 - 311,_

-36 -31;] 31r.. - II ..

36 311.. 311 .. 411 ;


neglected. we omil the

part of the mass matrix in (6.1.42).

Till/oshel/ko /Jelllll '11leory

The equation" of motion of lhe Timo .. hcllko beam theory arc lo;ec Reddy (20:.)2). pp. 193-

pA - ,2- - : - GAK. dl cif
ii' , " P' -.-", - - ( 1-.,)(- ax IIx



(aw+ 1lI )] = 0 ,:1\

= 0

(6. J.43a)

i1"') + GAK, (aw) -.-+ lJ! ax

where G i .. lhc ~hear modulu~ (G = /12(1 + v)!) and K, is the ... hear correction factor (K, = 5/6). Note 1hal Eq. (6. [.43h) contains the ro l:lry incnia lcnn. Onl:c again. we ;ISSUI11C periodic motion and write
w(x. t ) = W(X )l' -".~ .

III (x. I) = SCl)e ;M


and obtain the eigenvalue problem from &1", (6. 1.43a) and (6. 1.43b)



(till' + s)] _(01p A dx


IV = 0



(EldS) + GAK, (dlV + s) _l,}plS = 0 til (ix

" L Wj1/l;< x).
i- I

For equal IIltcrpolalion or \V Cr) and SCI)

W(x) =
S( .1) =

L~~iff; (x)
j ,


whcre iff; art: the (/I - I) order Lagrange


the linite dement modd

given by

IK " I IK " 101 ([ [Kl'[ IK" I] _ w , [IM "I IM" I]) I IIVI I - I IF'1 1 101 151 - IF'I I
where [ K r l

the ,tiffne<;'llllalrix and

K 1.1 =

K' !

." 1 " 1


is the Illa... , matrix


ti/, r diff ~

_y_, __ dx J
, .I"J'}J

GAK _'_' .1,'

l .\

<1 M

K 21

CHAI'I'EK 6 t:lGlcNVAL t.:E ANI) 'I'IMI. IlEPI: NI) IiNT I'KOHI '~\1 S


K 2.2 =


'N' __ EI- - d.p' ' i


+ GAK,\ .I, ~ 'f'I, J~ ) . 'f',

Mt] =



IX 1/1) (Ix, . pAW:

Q 1i

1p11/lt 1/l'j dx "


F) =

1~,2 =

Q 2;


, [ (.+ dlV)] 1 Q'= - (/S)


~ GAK,


.t. '


Q= ;

[GAK, (S +':i~) ll,.

~ 3h ,.


m= (/dS) 1

For the choice of linear intell>Olat ion function s, Eq. (6. 1.47) has the explicit form (.. fler rellrmnging the nodal variables)


I K' I =


11; (1.5

+ 61\ ,)

311 , 6 311t"

- 310, ] " ; (1.5 ~ 61\ ,)

311 ,. 11; (1.5 + 61\ ,.)

-6 -311 ,.

311 , h ; (I.5 - 61\ ~)


= p' A,


0 2" 1 0 0


0 o] 2 o 0 2rt"

" .

r,= -


(6.1.49a )




For Hermite cubic interpo lat ion of W(x) and related quadratic approximation of Sex)

Ii.c . illlertiepell(/elll illfe'fm{(J{joll elemellt ( II E) J. the resulti ng Illass m'ltrix is cumbersome and depe nds on the SlifTness parJ1lletcrs ( and G). We will not cons ide r it here 1scc Reddy
( 199910.2000)1.
Exsmple6, t .2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _

Consider a unifonll beam offt.'Ctangularcross seclion (8 x H), fixed ;)IX =0 and free at x = l..
(i.e .. a cantilever beam). We wiSh to dctennioc thc first The boundary conditions of the strucllIre are

ficltllrJI frequencies of tht: beam.

JIV W(O) <=0. -=0.


[d~Wl EI-~



d'W] ) [I:.'I- .... dx



io the Eulcr-BenlOlilli beam theory and

W(O) =0. S(O) ==0.

[El:~!L"J. =O' [GAI(,(~/~ +5)1 ..1. =0

(0. 1.50h)

in the TImllshcnko beallltheory. The firsltwo lenl:.l!\ in each elise Ihe essential (or gCt.lll1ctric) bOllndllry conditions and the la~ltw() arc the natural (or force) boundary (;i)nditi()ns.


A" IN"lIiOI)l'(n()~ TO 1 '111 IIHIT I_LnlF~'1 \11 TIIOI)

The number of cigen\'tll ue.~ we wish to determine dict:ltcs the min imum number of elements to be used I() nnalyzc the Slru';;!lJ1\':.. Fint, cQII~idcr the tuler- Bernoulli beaul clement. Since two prinuu)' degrees of freedom ate ~pe<:ified (U , = Ul'" 0). :l one-element me..}1 will have only h~\) unli;nown degTee.\ of freedom tU, and U4 ). Hence. we can dctcrmi11C only twO n:lluml frequencie~. Thu.,. a minimum ortwo Euler- Bernoulli heam elc/llCnt are I~ to Uelttmine M' l(lur o,!lur-d frcquencie~. If we U ! tbe redll;.;ed illlegnllion1imO!'hcnko beam clement, II. mesh of two linear clements C,\11 onl y rcprcM'nl the first two mlXle sh,lpes of Ihe cllOti tever beam ('lee Fig. 6.1.4) bt(ausc- there are unly twO moependent deflection de~l'Ce.\ of freedom that un: un.;p.."'Cificd. In order to repreM:nt the tir.1 fou r mode sha~ u~ing the rnluud in",grot;(/II e/~1II1!1It (RIC), ~ must U.!>C least fou r linear element.!; or IWOqU :ldrtllic t'lelllcnl... I-Iowever. the four computed frequencies may nm be tht'.lowc.\' four. For illu.\ltalivc purpose. fi~t we (;()flSider the one-element me,h uf the. Eulcr-Ikmoulli reom element. We have


(~ [-~"
f~~ ~6


-6 3L.

.1 3L 1.L!




[ l~ Fo

- J3~


54 - 13/.

-3 /}




41 .}


-3 L !

-w,p/ -36 30L



-3 L -]6

_1 .1

3. 36 3.

=~~])I~: 3l.
4L !

Hg ;I



. :c


, .,

W(x) " Wl4'l (l)+ e,~{:c) + Wl~ (.t l+ e2~.(:C)


- - - - 1";.1I1......... acrnOllUj beam el~melll Til\lo~hcl\ko beam elcmCU1\

Figure 6..[.4 Two ~~ibJe. M1lIW mode ~halJC-~ of a cantilcvcr bcallIthat clln be rcpt'C-.ented by a mesh of IWO linear 1im~hcnko hcom elementl> (or one euler I3cmoulli
bt:am etl;lment).

The Specified dh.placch1cnt UIld fOn':e degree. of freedom are WI ",,0. 81 =0. QJ =-0, and Q~ "",0. Hence. the condensed equationS ~

('!!'!.[6 3LJ_

31. 21}


,~[2U ' 56 420

22L 301.. 4Ll IW 0 I J_,,;!!!..[36 ""J) El.'I=[O 41..~


Selling th~ detc(11\lnant of the coefficient matri.\ in the above eqlliltion to ~rQ. we obtain a quadratic ch3ract<!rhlic equation in f.Ji. Firs!, consider thccase ill which the rotary inertia is neglected. The equlltion for thiS (:il.,-.e is


3.5327 34.8069 = 12,48 ~2""' 1 21 1 ..'i2. or ("I=--rr-V~' (I}~#--v \f~



The CJ(ilCt frequencie..~ arc WI ",,3.5 1(10 and ~=21.0345. where W, =w,( L1 .jjiA!7!J). The eigcnveC!i)r component!. are computc(,\ from the first of thc condcu,ed equations
Wtl)",,_ l (1260 - 11>..1)8 10 ;=1.2 1 - 420- 13.0.., 2'
l~ en.:e.

the eigenvectors are

I'" ~ 17259 1. I I f.l2 I"'~ I -i.OOOO I . 1.0000 W' "I3I2L I

W, 82 For the (:a$e in which rotary inertia j ~ nOi neglected. we ~rile p i =- pA ( H l/12) and take II / L =0.0 l. The! charJCteristic equ;ltion is

whose roolS are

3.5327 AJ =- 12.4797. 1..1"'" 1210.926 or >1=.............,.


m '

34.7984 f!{ 1 - . (<'l;=--,- ,, L, pA

1'he ex3e' frequenc.ies arc WI = 3.5158 and w,. =21.0226. where fiJ, =wl(L~../iiATf!JJ. I"'ext. ~e con~idcr the one-eleOl.ent rtte,h ufthe 1imo)heni.l,O beam' (RIEl. We. have

whc.~ K$ =5/6. r

= 1/ A"" 111/ 12. and

A=-:o::-CA K, L 2 5 12 ' .
I + I!H ~

The ~pecified displacement and rorce degrees of freedom are WI =0. Sl = 0, 0 1=- O. and Q4 = 0; and the condcn ~ed equation, arc
6 (3'!!.. [3L
jJ,q J.)

JL L~(I.S+ M)

1 ,PAL[' J) IW"" 1 ' -w-T S; I 1




A~ IN"rRODl 'II()~ TO nil: 1'I~'IT" l:u;~tFl'r \WHIOIl

SClting the detcnnin;tot of the coctlicient In-Uri., to zero. we the char.lCteris\ ic equation

where s


W~ n

the Io:!nglh-tQ. hcig,hl r(liio. ,I' =. ~I H. the rol,lry incnia is negle~ted. we h,lVe

x=~ J +4A
To further simpli fy the e~ru'c..,sjon, we assu me 11= 0.25 and obuun



+ HZ/U)


-l. ... 100 ;


(<J '=':

--r;:- Vj;A:




3.44159 (1)=-/"::::" CO V pA


The c.o;!lcl freq uency is w"" .l.S 158 for L/1I "" 1()() <lnd W= 3.5092 f\lf Lj H "" J 0, where (d! "" 6)t(l}...r;r;r[1!J). If tbe rot:)ry Inertia i~ incJude<l. we ohtain
L - = 10:

The fn:qucndes obtain<."(! by lhe EIJler-llemOul!i be:r.rn c lcme nl~ and limo'ihenko bi;ilm (RIE) are "hown in Table 6. J.2 for tWl) di(ferC\lt values of the length-Io- height ratiQ l./ H. The v;ilue j H "'" I00 m~I"es tlle-effet't of shear dcl'onmUion negligible, and we ('>bUlin CJiscntia.lJy the smile resu lt as in the Euler- Bernoulli beam theory. Since the frcq u enci~ are nllnna1i <,.eU, w~(1)I}./l.Ptt /El), il is f1\.."'t:esS<\ry only 10 !;elect tlro vlllues of I' and L/JJ. For

Tabltl6.1.2 Natural frequcflcic.' of a cantilcver beam according 10 Timo~henlc.o beam theory ilnd eulCf- Bernoulli bea(JIlhcory (EBT) !w:=wlhpAje/)I!2J,

emT )

L/H:o: 100


4L 'L I6L
2Q 4Q

F.Wrf T8'rl BSTJ

3.5406 3.5223 3.S174 3.52 14 3.5161 3.5158 35151:1 35U8





417.1330 151.8431 121.5434 3Z8.J25{\ 133.9828 J2.1.4458 J20.6152 120.83(10 1 20,901'1

),51)7 J,49S6

24. 134.5" 21.1004 21. 1 257




2aSS I
12.2350 23.3226 22. 1054 22.02!SO 22.0226 22.0315 22.0345


63.3211 61.7325


189.1)288 119.279!; 1{)4,6799





61.6179 61.6774

3.5092 1.5160

B I60


2.1.O?62 21.0(0:3 W.4421 10.9374 21.7425 22.0345

5(i.4572 .'iU405 55.1530
59..80t3 61.6972


100.74% 100.2116 t14.2898 120.9019

t 1I.00;tfy ;~;~ l1> ;ncl uded (Bract).

Il.owy t""l'\;a i; negl!CIl; 1M resu lt'
M~ ~~111

Qfthe rafiol.{1J (I~I).

ell,wrn o. U(if ~"VALUl ANU'IIMh Uhl'l~ I )b"'/1 l'kO~LHIS


compl.ItBliQna} purposes. we take

I' """ 0.25:

also, nOte that

, 5 Mil GAK=2(1+I')BfJ'6=W '

{J I =~

H lp A

where 8 ,lOd FJ are the width aud height. Tl!speetiwly. of th e. beam. We OMe ftom Tal)k 6.1.2 Ih:1I the finite clement results COln'!:r),;c with hrcJincr\.'lCnl (i.e., \>Illeo more of the same K ()f clements areu~ed) and also with p.rdinemeut (i.e,. when h,igher ind urder clements arc u..~ed). TIle pre(1m'n'\ent shows mOTe rapid convergence of the fund;lmcntai (I.e .. flrst) fn:l.juency. Note Ihat the effect of ~he~r deformation is to reduce lhe magnitude ()f natu.,ll frequency when compared to the EOT. [n other words. lhe 'ls ~uJ)led infin ite ~hear rigidity makes the EST over-predict the lUllgnitudc of frequcncie~ . '111e first four mode ~ hafX!s of the ca!l\jlevcr beam, as obtained uSing the 16e!cment mc~ h of linear clemen ts, are shown in fig. 6.1.5.




1.00 0.50




.2.1' () !








l<i~ u re6. 1.5

Pirst fuur natural mode shapes of a Cantilever bc~m, a~ predictt:d using a 16element meSh of ]inC<lr Timo~hcl)k.o beam e]cnlenls {LI H "" 10).

In c lo-.;i ng th e discussion on tl<ltura! vib ration. it is noted thaI when the ~ymrnctry o f the is u~cd to model the problem. o nly symmetric modes a rc predicted. It i ~ necessary to modcl th..: whole syslcrn in order to obta in all the modes of v ibratio n.

Stabilit)' (lJuckling) of Ucams

The stud y of buckling of be'lln-col umns also lc:Jds to an e ige nva lue problem. For example. the equation governi ng onset of buc klin g o f a column s ubje cted [0 an axial compressive


A.'i InHUlWCr!O'l TOlll E rl'lITf I:IJ: ~W'lT MI!TII0!)






Figure 6. 1.6 Col umns with diffe ren t boundary co n d i lion ~ and ~ u bjcctcd \0 axitll cO l1l prcs~ i \'c load. N O. (u) Hi nged-hin ged. (b) Hinged-clamped. (c) Clmn pcd-clampcd. (t/) Clamped-free.

force NO (sec Fig. 6. 1.6), accord ing to EST is [l-CC Reddy ( 1999")1

2 2 d ( d W) dx 2 1 dx 2

+ N oddx\V = 0 ~

(6. 1.5 ))

which describes an cigcnv;i!uc problem wit h ). = N O. The >;ma1Jes! value of N Ois called lhe critical buckling {oar/. The finite clement model of Eq . (6. 1.51 ) is

[ K' II " ' } - N " [G ' }W } ~ [Q' }


where {~ ' 1 and [Q f 1 arc the columns of d isplacement and force degree!. of freedom 0'11 the twO ends of the Euler- Bemou lli beam elClllCJlI ;


"IV) (_ IV,


[ tlx


( EI - . tl

dx 2

2 1Y) + NodW] dx


) (_IIlV dx

(/ "'IV) [- -"(/ "'IV) , "IV]

dx 2

(6. 1.52b)


dx 1

- N dx

where the ~ubsc ri pt s 1 and 2 refer to clement nodes I and 2 (M x = .1'" and x = Xh. respectively). The cocfti cienls o f the ~ tiffness m:urix I K r J and the slt/hilif)' II/atrix IC e I are

ct. =


dig dtPj d.\' (Ix tlx

(6. 1.52(.")


3 11

where it are the HermiTe cubic interpolmion functions. The explicit form of [G') is [sec the second part of the mass matrix in Eq. (6.1.42)
- 3h ~

- 36

[G'] = _,_ [ - 36 r 3h 30h r


- 36 -3h e


4h , 2 3h,

--3", II;
3h e 4h2 ,

311 ,


ForTBT. the equations governing buckling of beams are [see Reddy (1999")J

d - - [ CAK, (dW +S )] dx dx

"d'lV +N--~ O

dx 2


- - EI dx

d ( dS) +GAK" ("IV) = 0 +5 dx dx


Here W (x) and S(x) denote the transverse deflection and rotation. respectively. at the onset of buckl ing. The finite clement model of Eqs. (6.1.53a) and (6.1.53b). with equal interpolation of W and S. is
0 1 1]) IIW'1 1~ IIV'11 101 WI IM'I


K i~1

K I2

K?2 =

" 1 1"(CAK,l/Jtl/l~
CAK d""-' -'

CAK, __ __ dx , J .'. dx dx
,[,~ dt '(ix'T'J '





+ EI dl/tr dl/l i ) dx
dx dx

vr =: Q~ = [- GAK, (dW + 5) + NU dW ] dx dx
dlV V~'=:m= [ CAK, ( - . d.1



dlV] -NO(Ix -<h

M =: Q~ = f

(_EldS) dx (_E1dS) dx


Q~ =



... ,.. INTNODL("T IO'" TO nil: f l,.. n

t, u.u.ncr-,. \1 1i1 110l)

For lhe linear RIE. Lhe stiffness maLrix matrix is given by

I Ke 1 i~

given in Eq. (6.1.49(1). The stability

-I 0]
0 1 0

(6. 1.55 )

El{lImple 6. 1.3

CQl.1$.idcr a uniform column Ct., A. I. E, and 1/) filled ill Ime end ;ind pinned al the I)thcr. a:. shown In rig. 6.1.7. We wh;Ji to deltlnniuc Ihecritica.l budd ing h)Jd. Let us consider a Olesh or two euler- Bernoulli beam clemen II>. The assemb led ~y~h,:m ()f finite clement equRtions is (II = 1./ 2)

- 311
- b

- 'J11 21123/,


6 + (1 311 - 311

", 311 - 311


- 311

T,) - 3/1 0 0
3. - 311 - 36 - 311 0

0 0
- 3h

- 3h



0 0 - 6 - 311 h: 3h 3/, 6 3" 2111 0 0

- 36
310 36+36
3" - 3fr

- 311
- h~

0 - 36



_ 112-

311 - 311
4hl+ 4h ! 3h _ /11

0 0

- 36
- 3/1



- 311 - h' 3h 41r2


V, V, V, V, V, V,

= Q~ + Q1 Ql + Q~ Q' Qj

0:; Q ,

\\ohc!\! UI de note the gencrJ.liud dj~pl:lcemellls of the gl,)bal


1t"" "iiX ... 0

..-'-- '



6.1.7 A column fixed ;rt ,r =0 and hinged at x ::= L. nnd subjected to axial comprc.~~ivc load NO.

The geometric support.'!' and eqllilibrium <'Oodiliolis QI the CQlurrul require thll t (nOtc tbat the al\~llt c\)mpres~ive (orce NIJ thc equilibrium equillion and the boundary conditiOn through Q -i)

Hco!X, t!'le c\Jndcnsed equstions become

-3"J) [UI fO ' )

-h ~ 4h l-




which dcfincs the t:i~n\l',tlu~ pr\Jblem for tbe dc.tcnni(IoitiQn of NiJ Imd U ,. Setting the determinant of tbe cocfflcicnt matrix t ( l zcro. we obtain a cubic cqu;1ti(ln fqr NfJ. The ,rnaUe,~t valuc of ~ is the critical bucklillS load. which is (ubtai.ncd usi\1g 1~1 D)

N "'" 20,7088 ~: !
whereas the "dad' solmion iJi 20. 187 IlL ! fsce Reddy (1mb). pp. 155-166]. N;(t, cO{lsider a tW()c1cmeot m ~~h of the ~ J E. TIle. assembled cquatiOm; arc

- 311

- 3h
112 S\
~h h2E: ~


- 3h
1I":! :::;l

0 0

hl ~


- Jh 0


]2 0

2Jr ~ E:1

- 6 - 311
6 3h


- J ir

Ill S'/.

N' /0

1 0 - I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - I 0 2 0 - I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - I 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

u, u, u,

u, u,

Q!+ Q 1


Q :


Q 1
T hl

= 5/6, :Iud

Zl = 1.5 + 611,

3 ~"", 1.5 - 6A,

J.!o = I2A, II = CAK. hl::::;

;/ 1 +v fl 1

The condensed equatioQS lire

(2EI, [;

2h :1B) hZS1



- -

N[20 '

- 3h

ill S)

mmH~ 1
IIlllltill', we Obtain a linear

NOle. !.hat bo..'C;tuse. of the zero diago nal clement in the algebraic equation for NiJ (v = 0.25 and A "" H1[Ll)

~tabi Jity


= 2.25 + ,

180+ I44A 1 54A+36A 1 L?

which is ,Ihno$t four time:: the COJTe(:\ value! A Ifle~h of eight linear R18~ yiel~ 21.348 81/ J."). illld four quadrutic element~ yield:. 20.267 EI/L1. for 1./ fI =: 100. Clearly, the RIB h,lS slow convergence mte for buckling problem!;,

We close this section with a note that eigenvalue proble ms (for natural vibration and buckling analysis) offramc ~tructures can be formulated usi ng the ideas discussed in Section 5.4. The transformed element equations arc of the form

IK' IWI- ""IM"II"' I ~ IQ'I. I K' IWI - NIC' II "'I ~ IQ'I 1K~l = Ir I T lk ~ llr]. IM~J = IT~ITIMPII r r ], IG~1 = IrJTIG r llT~J


6.2.1 Introduction
In thi s )oCctiOIl, we de velop the finite clement models of o ne-dimensional time-dependent problems and describe time approximation ~c h et1les 10 convert ordinary diffcrcnli:11 equations in time to algebraic equ;llions. We consider finitc clement models orthe time-dependent version of the differentia! equations studied in Chapters 3 and 5. 'n lese include the secondorder (in space) parabol ic (i.e .. fi rst limc derivative) and hyperbolic (i .c .. second time derivalive)cquations and fOllrth -orderhyperbolicequations arising in connection with the bending of beams Isee Eqs. (6.1.2), (6. 1.14), (6.1 .36), (6.1 .43a). and (6. 1.43") I. Finite element models of time-dependent problems can be de veloped in two alternative ways: (a) coupled formulation in which the time I is treated as an additional coordinate along with the spatial coord inate x :lIld (b) dccoupled formulation where time and spatial variations are assumed to be separable. Thus. the approximation in the two fonnulations takes the form

t) ~ If/, (x. 1)

" L if} ; (x, r)


(coupled f01ll1U lation)

(6.2. Ill)

II (x.

t) :::::: ur, (x. t) =

" L II} (t) VI} Cr)


(decouplcd formulation)


where ~;(x, t) arc time-space (two-dimensional) interpolation functions and r' j are the nodal valllc~ that arc independent of x and I. where 'l!5(x) arc the usual one-d imensional interpolation functions in spatial coordinate.r only and the nodal values 11; (1) arc functions of time I onl y. Derivation of the interpolation functions in two coordin:Ltes will be discussed in Chapters 8 and 9 in connectiOll wilh the tinite element analysis of two-dimensional problems. Space-time coupled finite element formulations are not common, :Lnd they h:lve not been adeqtwtcty studied. I n this section. we consider the ~pacc-t illl e decoup!cd fornlUlation only.

CttA,,":!IO llG..'WAI UI: ANU "'MI,O"PP'-\}EN'll'llOllU:~tS

J 15

[)C!k(:';on at tune I) Figure 6.2.1 Dclk'(:lions of a cable:ll different Ilm(:s.

The ~ pace- time decoupled finite clement fOTmullltion of ti me-dependent voh'c,s two !iters:

probl e l1l ~


l. Sp(lfi(l/ lIppfoxim(llioll, where the solution /I of the e(ILL:ltion under consideration b appl'Oximated by expressions of the fOllll (6.2.1 b), and the spat;lll finite element model o f the equation is developed LL ~ in g the procedures of qutic or ~ t c;ldy- .. t:ltc problcrn~ while carrying all time-dependent leml' in the formul3lion . This step rc~ults in a set of ordinary differential equ:ltions (i.e . " semidiscrete system of equations) in time for the nodal varillblcs 1I ~ (t ) of the clemen!. Equation (6.2.Jh) rcpre"-Cnts the spatial approximiltion of /I for any lime I. When the solution is ..cp:uable into functions of lime on ly ilnd space only. II (x .1) = T(t)X (x). the approxima!ion (6.2. lb) is clearly justifi ed. Even when the solution is not separable. (6.2. 1b) Clm repre'\Cnt a good approximation of the actual solution provided a sufficiently stn:lll time step i~ used,
2. Telll!Xm!l (lIJpmxiIlUllioll. where the system of ordinary (Ii fferentilll equations arc furth er

approximated in time, often using lini te difference fonnul"e for Ihe time derivati ve~. Thi s step allows convers io n of the ~yste m of ordinary differential equations into a set of algebraic l."qualion~ among"l at time I I = (.~ + 1)61, where 61 is the time increment and ,\. is a nonnegative integer. All time approximlltion IIj from previous 'ime~:
sche mc.~

sed.. to find II J at time lIsing


I~ ~

I u~ing the known

val u c..~



III} ... ,

/111. I ....

Thus, :It the end of the two-stllge approximation. we have a con tinuous spatial solution :It discrete intervals of time :

" II(.I'.I. ) ~ II~(X.I,)= Lu j(t.)1/Fj(x ) (.~=O.l. ... )



NOle that the approx imllle !.oJ ution (6.2.2) has the 5:'111e fonn a... th:11 in the l>epar.lIion-ofvariables technique used \0 sol,"c Ix>undary value and initial value problem~ . By taking nodal values to be funct ions of ti me. we sec Ihat the ~ pati a l point' in an element take on different values for different times (st.'C Fig. 6.2.1). We study the delaih o f the IWO ~ tCp~ by considering a model differential L"qu:nion Iha' cOnlil in ~ both second- and fourth -order ~ patial d e rivative~ and fiN - :md second-order time

;)2 ()~ all (J 211 - -iI (au) + -, ( b- , +/'()II+CI-;-+(.'2-~ = ":- ilx iJx!t) ax dx "I a/-



The above equution is ~ubjec llo appropn:ue boundury :lIld inil iul cond i l ion~. The boundary conditions ure of the foml specify specify :11 .\ = O. L, and the initial conditions involve specifying
"211(X. 0)



all - 1I - + -iJ iJx ax


;)2 /1)
i),r 2



C2Ii(X.0) + CIII(X.0)


where Ii == il li / al. Equation (6.2.311) describes. for example, the fol lowi ng physical problem,,;
(ll) Heat!'fer and fluid flow: <'2 = 0 and b = 0

(b) Transver-c motion of a cable: a = T.

(r) The longitudi nal motion o f a rod: CI = O.Cl = pA

(0 = 0, b =0, CI = p, ('2 = 0 = EA. b = 0 : if damping is not considered.

(d) The Ir.tnsvcrse motion o f an Euler- Bernoulli beam: c2 = pA


= 0, b = 1, Co = k, CI = 0.

We will




cases through examples.

6.2.2 Scmidiscrctc Finitc Elcment Models

The scmidiscrete formulation involves approxi mation of the spatial van <Ilion of the dependent vari<lble. Thc formulation follows essentially the s:nTIe step" as described in Section 3.2. The first step involves the construction of the weak form of Ihe equatio n over a typical clement. In the ~ond step, we develop the finite clement model by seek ing approximation of the fonn in (6.2.11. Following the three-step procedure of constructing the weak form of :1 difTerential (:quation. wee:.n develop the weak fonn of (6.2.311) ovcr an element . Integration by P:111S i.. used once 011 the first term :lIld twice 011 the second term to distribule the spatial de rivatives l:qually bctwccnthe weight function \I' and thcdcpcndenl variable II:



aw ux2 ~_ - ''')] , [( a,,) + -J (b 82 + -ax (- b -8'-,,)]" ax ax Jx

(1 -


UGE/'iV"~ UE "Nr)TIM~ I)r:rn'l)hN I PROII Lr:M~


(6.2 .4a)


a ( a ~" . [a'''] ',,)] ax2 , [ a'] '' QJ = - [ a" + -;- ( "")] . ax a b-.-,
Q\ =



ax + ax

Q 1= b - , ilx



- a -;-




Q4 =- b ilx 2 "

Nex l, we assume thm If is interp0);lted by an expression of the foml (6.2. 1/) . Equati on ( implies that. at any arbitrilrily fixed time I > O. the functiollll can be approxi and 1I ~ (t). with rl ~ (I) being the \'alueol" II at tillle mated by a linear combinati on o f the / at the jth node of the element Q ~ . In olher words. the time and spatial variations of II arc scramble. This assum pt ion is not valid. in general. because it may not be possible to write the MlIUlion u(x. 1) as the product of a function o f time o nly and a function of space o nly. However. with sutlkientl y small time steps. it is possible to obtain accurate solut iolls to even those probl e m ~ fo r which the sol ution is not separable in time and space. Thc finite element solut ion that we obt.. in at the end of the analysis is conti nuous in space but not in time. We on ly obtain thc finite clcment solutio n in the form


U(X.I, )

" = Llf j (t, )y,; (x) = L"

j ,,,,d
r oo !

(u j )'" Y, j (x)

(~. = 1. 2 .... )


where (uj Y is the value of II (X. 1) at time I = I". and node j of thc dement Q r . Substituting w = y,;(x) (to obta in the ith equation of the system) and (6.2. lb) into (6.2.411), wc obtain

- \:! !y,; (X,, ) - Q3Y,, (Xb) - QZ - (Ix


. ( 'IV,,)[ . (
- Q4


-d~, ) [ dx .t.

(62.6) In m:ltrix form. we have (6.2.7(/)

3 18

AN 1N'1 kOOl('1'IOI' Ttl m~: Fil'rrL Ili]ltlSr \leT 1100



'. Equation (6.2.7(/) i... a hyperbolic cquation. and it contain"'lhe p:!r:lbolic equation :IS a sped:!1 ca!>C ('iel IM21= 101). The time :!pproximation of (6.2.711) for thc'ie two casc!; will be considered scpamtely. We begin with the pambolic equation .

Kj~ =

d 1/1 --~ j.'..~ . b tll ! ' ---f. d.L d.\ dx

F, =

j "1/I.f dx



6.2.3 I'llra bolie Equations Time Allproxim:tlion

Thc lime approximation is d iscusscd with the helpof a si ngle firsl -ordcrdilTercntial equat ion. Suppose that we wi~h todetennine lI(f) for I > 0 ~ uch th,lllI(f ) <':ttisfies
+bll = f(t), O< f < T and 1 1(0) = 110 (6.2.8) </1 where (/ :#' O. b. and 110 are con<;lants. and f j<; a function of time f. The exact solution of the problem consi~ t s of two pans: the homogeneous and panicular solutions. The homogeneous solution i" lI -


The particular ~olution is giycn by

/l1' (t)




(1' ,1-' fer) tlr)


The complete solution


given by
1I(t) = <'

b (A+~l'e"f(r)dr)

In the finite difference solution of (6.2.8). we replace the derivntives with their finite diffe rence :Ipproximation. The 1ll0~1 common ly used scheme for!.O lving (6.2.8) is Ihea-family oj approximation in which a weightcd aycmge of the timc derivatives :Ittwo consecutive time s l e p~ i~ approx imated by linear intcrpolation o f the val uc" o f thc variable at the tWO s tcp~ ("Ce Fig, 6,2.2):
(I ~ O')II , +0'14.+1
. .

II ..


.6.1~ +1

forO S O' :;: I

(6.2. I(kI)

where Uk denole~ Ihe va lue of U(I) at lime I= f . = "2:;"'1.6.t" and .6.1$ = ~ '. I is the lth lilllC ,IeI'. If the IOI:!llime 10, 1'1 i... divided inlo equal time ""cps, then I , =.\.6.1. Equalion (6.2 .1Oll) can be expressed as
11 . ... 1 = 14,. +.6.1 li,t"


11 .;... = <I - a)II. +all ,+ 1 forO :;: O' :;: 1



Ii' '' ~' fON'a rd d ifference


Ii, ,,

III ~Ut_ l , backwarddiffcrcncc


11,,= 11(1.)

~ ~.l;),{I'-I)


U I = IIU:' I) ,.

.1 = 0 s_2

1 \


.-.. ",


I' igure 6.2.2 Approximation of the dcrivat ive of a fun ction.

When a = 0, Eq. (6.2.100) gives

wh ich is nothing but the slope of" the function 1I (t) at lime I = I, based 011 Ihe values of the function at ti me I, and I, I I. Since the value orthe functio n from a step in front is used. it is termed alorward difference approximation . When Ci = I, we obtain
11 "+ 1 =

which is tenned. for obvious reason. the hackward dilJrrelll:e approximation. Relurning to Eq. (6 .2.8), we nOle that it is valid fo r all times I > O. In particular, it is va lid al times I = I., and f = t. + J. Hence, from Eq. (6.2.8) we have

a a Substi tuting the above ex pressions imo Eq. (6,2. lOa ), we arrive at

= - (I. - bll s ),

. 11'11


(/,~ 1 - b/l '~ I)

Solving for 1(1


we obtain 1(1 - ( I - 0') 6.1.,+1 bill,

+ 0' 6.1,+ I hili ,+ 1 =

+ 6.1.0+1 10' f,+ I + (I

- a ) 1.1 (6.2.l la)


11<+1 =


(1 -

a) 6.1.+1 b

+ a D. IS-I 1 b

II ,

+-:(c: + D.I,,+ I ,-Ia~f",~+;-,-, '__a-;)~f,-"I + a 6.1,~ I b


(6.2. llh)

Thus. Eq. (6.2.11 ) can be used repeatedly to march in lime and obtain the solution al times 1 =1.,+1, r,t,2 .... IN, where Ntime is the numbcr oftim e steps required to reach the final


"~I'ITII()nI.lCll()N lnTlI[,n.~I'n! ~JJ,\.IEN'I MlrlllOll


timc T (or the ~o lu ti on reaches a steady stilte). At the very begi nning, i.e.. .\ = O.thcsolution is calculated u~ing the initial value 110 :

We lIl;ty also develop " time approximation scheme usi ng the fin ite element method . To this em!. we co n ~ider the problem in (6.2.8). We wish to detel"lnine 11.<+ 1 in ternl.~ of II,. The wcigll!ed-imegral fom) of (6.2.8) Over the lime interva l (I,. ' . + 1) i"

o=f'" 1!(t) (lI~ + IJ/I - f) '"

, dl

(6.2. 13 )



i ... the weight function. Assum ing a solution of the fOlll1

II(I) ~

" 2::>,I/IJ (I)

) ", 1

where 1/1, (1) are inteq>olatioll funct io ns of order (/I - I) . ll1eG;t1crkin I1niteelement model is ohtained hy substituting the above approximation fo r II and 11 = 1/1, into (6.2. 13). We ohlain

lAHul = IF!

(6.2. 14)

" f"


( d~

(/ _ J

+ /)Y/ , )



f'' '


(6.2. 15)

Equation (6.2.14) is v;tlid with the lime interval (I" 1.+ 1), and it represents a relationship between the va lues III. 11 2 .... , II ", which arc the values of /I at time 1, .1. + <.'1 1/ 1,,- 1) ' 1.+261/1" I) . . . 1,+ 1. respectively. This would yie ld a Illu ltistep approx imation scheme. To obwin a ~ing l e-slep approximation scheme, i.e ., write 1I.,.t"l in t e rm ~ of II ., only, we ass ume linear approxi mation (i .e .. 1/ = 2)

where 1/11 (r) = 'J!~; r and 1/12(1) = of its \'a l uc~ at I ., and I fI .l:

r,.In the same fashion. [(t) can be re presented in tcrm ~

/ , ", (,) + f ,+, ~ , (I)

/(1 ) =

For th is choice of approximation. Eq. (6.2. 15) becomes

( ~ [-I 2 - I
Assuming that
11 .,

I] + M, [2
1 6 I

(6.2. 16)

is known. we solve for


from the

~eco nd

equatio n in (6.2.16)
(6.2. 17)

( 2M')
+ -} -

(M') uJ+ D.r (/, + 2/3-+ (1 - 3 3' - , ,)

Comparing Eq. (6.2 .1 7) with Eq. (6.2.1 1(1). we find that the Gu lerkin sc heme is a case of the a-family of ap proximation, wi th a = 2/ 3.

Stllble lind Conditionlilly Stable Schemes

Equatio n (6.2. ll b)ean be written in the fonn
11,, + 1

= A (u,,) + f . H I .
F ',.,+ 1 = <.>1, +1

= ---:-';-----,0':----','-'a+a6./.+ lb

a - ( I - a)6. I.+l b


i a j HI+ (I - a)/, 1

(/ +- a 6.1,,+1 h

(6.2. 1&)

The operator A is known a~ the lIIlIplijicat;o/l Ol)t'rlllur. Since j l , is an approx imate solution. the error E. = 11 ,,(1, ) - 11., at time ' 1 (where II " is. the exact solution) will influence the solution at 1 1. The error wi ll grow (i.c., E, will be ampl ifi cd) as we march in timc if .... the magnitude of the ope rator is grealer than 1.I AI > I. When the error grows without bound, the computational sche me (6.2. ll b) be co me~ unstllble (i.e .. solut ion /1 .1+1 becomes unbounded wi lh time). l l lercforc. in order for Ihe ,cheme to be Mable. il i.. necess.ary 1hat IAI :: I : (6.2 .19) a + a 6.I" lb The above L'quation places a restrict io n on lhe m:lgnitudc o f thc time stcp for certain v:lluc.~ of a . When Ihe error rem ains bounded fo r any d me ~t ep ILe., conditio n (6.2.19) is trivially ~a ti s lied for :lIly value o f 6. 11 . The schcme is Jwb/e. Iflhe error re main s boundcd o nly when thc time ~ te p remains below cena in v:!lue lin ordc r to satisfy (6.2 .19)[. the '\Cheme i ~ ~a i d to be (,OIu/iliollally stalJle. For different values of a, the lime approximation scheme in (6.2 .11 b) yields a diffcrenl ~cheille. 'nlC followin g we ll-known time-approxi malion schemes along with Iheir order o f acc uracy and slability ~hould be noted:

a - ( I - a) 6. I, + l b '

l< 1


2 j.

Ihe forward difference (or Euler) scheme (conditionally Siable): order of accuracy = 0(6.1 ) Ihe C rank-N it:ol ~on scheme (st:lble): 0 (6. / )2 thc Galerkin mcthod (stablc): 0 (6. t) 2 Ihc backward difference scheme (slable): 0 (6.1)


Of these. the Crank- Nicolson mClhod is Ihe mOSI commonly used sche me.

I:ully Discrclized "' inite Elcment Equations

We now hllvc the tools necessary to conVert the sct of ordinary di fferentiaJequations (6.2. 7a ) to a set of algebraic equations in much the same way w e convened a liing le differential L'quation (6.2.8) 10 an algebraic cquatioll (6.2. l lb). Here. we work wilh matrix equal ion I i.e " [M I ) = I M I and 1/1-1 2 1= [OJ in Eq . (6.2.7(/) 1 (6.2.2 Ia) subject 10 Ihc inilial condilions

luJo=l uoJ

(6.2.2 I b)


"" 1~1'lUII)Ln IO~ nl I1IF H~I'II. 1 U


where {lIlu denotes thc vector of nod .. 1 val u e~ of II ill time 1 = 0 , whereas {I' O I denote!> the col umn of nodal valuc~ 1/ j(l. As applied to a vector of time derivatives of the nodal values, the a-famil y of appro:<imation read:-. as

{Id<tl = {II I,

+ .6.t{Ii},+o


{IiI "" = (l - a)!ii) .. +a jlijHI

for 0 S a :S I. Equation (6.2.22(/) (an be used to reduce the ordinary differential equations
(6. 2.2 1a ) to algebraic equations among the II j at time tH I' Sin(e (6.2.2 Ill) i:. valid for an y

t > O. we c:m write it for times 1 = t, and 1 = ',, + 1:

[M [(Ii ),

+ I K ], {II ), = I Fls


IMIII,),+! + IK J,+I {/I) ,"' I = {FI,+I

where it i~ a~ ~ lltned that the matrix [M J i~ independent oftirnc . Premuitiplying both sides o r (6.2.221l) with 1M [ we obtain
.6.1,+IO' {M I{li),+l

+ .6.IH l (l

- a)lM\lli 1 = I M [((II), II - {1I11' ) 8

Substituting for amve at

lM ){Ii ),+1 and

[M Hli) .. from (6 .2.230) and (6.2.23b). respec tively. we

Solving for the vector {ld H] ' we obtain

IK1.<+ +lIII<+1 =
{K}"I =

[K], /111,

+ IFI . " I
[Mj - (12 [ KI,


111.11 +(/d KI "


[K) , =

{Fl ...... ] = .6.t.... J!a{FIJ+]

+( I -

O')!FI, [


Note that. in deriving (6.2.24(1) and (6.2.24b), it ha~ been assumed that [M [ i~ independent o f time and that the time stcp is nonuniform. Equations (6.2.24tl) and (6 .2.24fJ) are vlIlid for a typical finite element whose scm id iscreti..:cd equations arc of the form (6.2. 210). In other words. Eqs. (6.2.240) ilnd (6.2 .24b) hold for any problcm, independent of the di menslon and method of spatial approximation, a\ long as the end re,ult is Eq. (6.2.2 Ia). TIle asse mbl y, irnpo~i ti on or boundary conditions, :md sollllion of the i\s~e mbl ed equations ilrc the sallie a~ described before for ~teady -state prohicms . C:IICli lation of [k J and I PI at timc 1 = 0 requires knowl edgc of the initi .. 1condi tions [II}O and the time variation or {F l. Note thal fOfa = O(the forwarddilTerence scheme). we obtain I k I = 1M [. If matrix [Mj is diagonal. (6.2.240 ) become!>
II ,

." =_, (f-- k ' _ ,.

M l'i)


'J ll l

'+ t ', ,) ....

(no !>lIm on i)


clt"'vrr.~~; E1GE."VA I.UE A~OTIMEDEi'1'-"I)[~'T I'KOIlLEMS


Thus, no inversion or the coefficient matrix is required in ~olving for 11/1J+ l . Such a scheme is called explicil. A scheme is said to be implicil when it is not explicit (i.e" an implicit scheme requires the inversion of iJ coefficient matrix). Thus, explicit schemes arc computationally less expensive compared to implicit schemes: implicit schemes arc more accurate and have larger critical time steps. [n real-world problems. the cost of computation precludes the usc of implicit schemes. [n conventional finite clement formulations. I M I is seldo m diagonal. Therefore, explicit schemes in linite clement anal ysis can ex ist only if the time-approxi mation scheme is such thatlK] = 1M] and 1M] is diago//al. The matrix rM I computed according to the definition (6.2.7c) is called the cOllsiJlf:nI (muss) murrix. and it is not diagonal unless 1/1, arc orthogonal functions over the element domain. There arc several ways to diagonali/.e mas~ matrices: these will be discussed in Section 6.2.5.

Cunsistency, Accuracy, nnd Stnbili ty

Since (6.2,22(/) represents 1111 approximation. which is uscd to dcrive (6.2.24(/). error is introduced into the solution 1] .+ 1 at each time step. In addition to the truncation error imrodueed in approximating the derivative. round-off errors can be introduced because of the finite arithmetic used in the computations. Since the solution at time 1, +1 depends on the solution at time 1, . the error can grow with time. As discussed earlier, if the error is bounded. the solution scheme is said to be stable. The numerical scheme (6.2 .24(/) is said to be COflsi.\lem with the continuous problem (6,2.7a) if the round-off and truncation errors go to L.ero as l:J.1 -+ O. Accuracy of 11 numerical scheme is a measure of the closene~s between the approximate solution and the exact solution whereas stability of a solution is a measure of the boundedness of the approximate sol ution with time. As we mi ght expect, the size of the time step Clm influence both accuracy and stability. When we construct an approximate solution. we like it to converge to the true solution when the number of elements or the degree of approximation is increased and the time step t::.1 is decreased. A time-approximation scheme is said to be cofll'ergellf if. for fixed I" the numerical vldue 1111, converges to its true value 11/(/.,)1 as t::.t -+ O. Accuracy is measu red in tenllS of the rate at which the approximate solution converges. If a numerical scheme is stable and consistent, it is also convergent. the a -family of approximations is For all numeric::!1 schemes in which Ct stable only if the time step satisties the following (stability) condition [follows from Eq. (6.2.lm


l:J.1 <


== (I



where).. is the largest eigenvalue associated with the problem and t::.1e.; is (see below)

Note that the samc mesh as that used for the tran sient analysis must be used to calculate the eigenvalues.



IN"rRODL'<.'IO~ TO 'i'l1I - m,lTI; U.I;MI'~' \WTlIOIl

6.2.4 I-Iyperholic Efluations

Time Approximation
Consider mmrix equat ions of the fonn I~et I M ' I = IC I and 1M 2] = I M I in Eq. (6.2.7a)J lK 1(11) subjected to initi al cond itions
(/l(0) = (uo).

+ ICHlij + IM Jliil =

(F I


(Ii CO) = (V{)1


Sut:h equ ations arise in structural dynamics, where IMI denote~ mass matrix. IC ] the damping mmrix , and I K ]the st iffness matrix. The damping matrix ICI is oft en taken to be a linear combination of the ma s~ and stitTn es~ matrit:es, rei = fil l M I + {h i K I. where fi, and Ih aTC determined from physica l experimems. In the present study. we will nO! consider damping (i.e .. IC I = 10 I) in the numerical examples. although the theoretical devc10pments will account for it. Tran sient analysis of both baTS and beams lead to equ:uions of the type given in (6.2.28(/) and (6.228b). The mass and stiffness matrices fo r these problems are discussed below. Axial MOTio/l of Bars The eq uation of motion is g iven by Eg. (6. 1.14). TIle semidiscret izatiol1 resu lts in Eq. (6.2.28(/). wi th IM e ] and I K ~ ] given by Eq. (6. 1.27h) and ICI = 101.
Trm!SI'efse MOlion of Euler- Bernoulli Beams

The equaTion of motion is given by Eq. (6. 1.36). The semidiscretized equation is the same as Eq . (6.2.28(/), with I M ' ] and I K ~ ] given by Eq. (6. 1.4 1h) and [C ( = (01 .
Trallsl'erse Motiol/ of7imoshcnkv Beams

The equations of mOl ion are given by Eqs. (6. 1.43(1) and (6. 1.43h). The scmidiseretization results in Eq. (6.2.28(1), with (M eJ and (K ' j given by Eq. (6. 1.48a). Note thatjM' ] and IKel an:: the matrices g iven in Eq. (6.1.47). There are several numerical methods avai lable to app roximate the second-orde r time derivati ves and eonven differential equations to algebraic equations. Among these, the Newmark family of lime-approx imaTion schemes is widely used in structural dynamics [Newmark (1959)(. Other methods, slLch as the Wilson method [Bathe and Wilson (1973}1 and the Houbolt meThod [Houbolt ( 1950)]. can also be used to develop the algebraic equations from the second-orderd itferential equalions (6.2.28(1). Here we consider the Newmark family of approximation schemes.

Newmark's Scheme
til the Newmark method. the fun ct ion and its first ti me derivative arc approx imated accord ing



(:IIAPTER b [IG"' VAlIII: A"IlTI \l E-OCI'tc..'1I)(J<.T l'ROIIl .DIS



and a and y (= 2fJ) aTC paramcters that dctermine thc slllbi lity and accuracy of the scheme. Equations (6.2.29a) and (6.2.29b) can be viewed a ~ Taylor's series expansions o f /I and Ii. The following <>chcmes are special cases of (6.2.29a) and (6.2.29b):

a = 2' a =~,
a= a =::!,

y = 2fJ
y y


Constant-average acceleration method (\ta ble.)

!. ,

0' =2'

= 2{1 = Line:lr accelcration method (conditionally >.tablc) = 2fj = 0 Central d ifference method (conditionally stable) y = 2{3 = ~ Galcrkin mcthod (stable) y = 2fJ = 2 Backward difference method (~t ab l e)


For all schellles in which y < a and a ~

!, thc sta bility rcqu irement is

(6.2.31 )

where Wn..~ is the maximum nalUr:,1 frequency of the sySlem (6.2.280) Wi lhoUI

le i:

Fully Discretized "' inite Element [(Illations Eliminating [iil.+ 1 from Eq),. (6.2.29a ) and (6.2.29b) and writing the result for {il}$+" we obtai n (6 .2.33) where

a6 = fl:l'

CI7= ~ -

l. CIS =

(~- I) III
+ fJ (Ill )2[ FI ,+ I


Now prcmu ltiplyi ng Eq . (6.2.29(/) with {MIHI and slibsti luling for [MI$+ diiIHI from Eq. (6.2.2&/), we oblain

(1 M 1 I + fj(llt )2 [ K 1.+.) (111.+ I ",

= [An f db J.

- fj( III )2 [ C 1 Iii 1.+ I .+1

(6.2.35) where

Ibl. = III },

+ ~tlli-)~ +"2 ( I -

y)(Il I)2{iil .


Now. multiplying th roug hout with {l 3 = I IlfJ(llt)2 1. we arrive at (1 31M I. II

+ I K I.+tl 1111.+1 = {131M Is+l lbl + !FI.+, J

lCj.+ i!li I.... ,


Ul>ing Eq. (6.2.33) for !Ii}.,+l in Eq. (6.2.37) and collecting terml<, we obtain the fi,ml result
(6.2.38) where

I}(I.+I =


+ a,IM1HI + (l6ICIJ ... 1


1':",,+-1 = IFI'IL + IM"J,+dAI. + ICJ.... dBI. IAI$ = alibi , = 01!ld.< + a4IriJ . +(I,lii ),.
{BI. = (1(,11113 + lI1{iil t + (/8/ii),
(15 = - - 1


Note that the cillculation of I K J and {FJ requires knowledge o f the initial co ndili o n ~ In practice, we do nOI know liilo. A~ an :Ipproximation. it can be calculated from (6.2.28a) (we often assume that the applied force i ~ i'ero at 1 = 0):

11110, Ilil o. and liil o.

{iii" = IMIL ({ Flo -

IK 111110 - IClllil o)

(6.2.41 )

At the end o f e:lch time step, the new velocity vector {IiI., I and acceleration vector {iiI ... , arc computed u.<iing [fru m Eqs. (6 .2.29(1 ) and (6.2.29b)l
/iil.. +1 = Il, (!/I!HL

/l'r), .. I =

- 1111.) - (/41,i), - (/s{ii), IIi). + (j~ Iii Is + adii 1 .1 "

(12=( 1 - 0')6.1


0 , =a6.f .

The remaining procedure stays the :-.ame a, in slatic problems. The full y discrct ized model in (6.2.38) is based on the a.;"umption that y ;i0. Ob viou, ly. for centered d iffe rence Sl'heme (y = 0). the fOl1llUlation must be modified (sec Problem 6.26).

6.2.5 Mass Lumping

Recnll from the time approximation of par.. bolic equation:>: that 1I'1,C of the forward diffcrence scheme (i.e .. a = 0) rcsult!) in the fOIiOwinrtime marching scheme [see (6.2.24(/) and (6.2 .2"'b)l: [M' 1l111 dl = ([M'I- \6.t[K' !)!II! , + .6.tIF'"I,

'nle mass m:ltri x I Arj dcrived from the wei~Q.ted.inlegral formu lations o f the governing equation is called the cUluisfl'lrl l/IaS.f Ifwtrix, antt-if is symmetric po~itive,dc fini te and nondiagonal. Solution of the g lobal equations associated wi th ( TCquires inwrsion of the as!.Cl11bled mass lI1:ltriX. If the mass matrix is diagorwl. then the assembled C (IU:ltions can be SOIVL'(] direclly (i.e., without invening" matrix)
(U/ ).+I = Mlt' [MII(Utl, - 6.1

t ,., K /J(UJ), + 6./( Ftl. ]

(6. 2.44)

CHAPIUi I> E](;!J'/H" n'ASI> n~lI. t>El1.1'OCvr PRORIUI S


.md thus saving computational time. The explicit nature of (6.2.44) has motivated analysb to find rational ways of d iagonalil.i ng the mass mat rix. There are several ways of con"tructing diagonal mass matriccs. also known as (lilli/Jell mlln matrices. Thc row-~lIm and proportional (umpil/g tcchnique~ arc di'\Cussed here.

!tow-Sum Lumping
The sum of the elcmenh of each row of the consistcnt mass matrix is used as the diagonal element:

M~ =
where thc property (6.2.45) gives

LI f"p"" ~ ,,,; dx = f"p",~ tlx " J=




L:J=I "'i = I of the intcrJXllation function" i~ used. When p is constam.

IM' II = ph, [ I
2 0 (linear clement)

IM' II = ph.

[~ ~ O~] 0 0

(quadmtic c lement)


Compare these lumped mass m:ltriccs with the consistent


[Melc =

P~. [~ ~]

(linear element)

IM'.le = ph , [

~ _I

16 2

-;1 ]

(quadratic c lement)


Ilere subscripts Land C refer to lumped and consisten t mass matrices. respectively.

I'roporlional Lumping
Here thc diagonal element'> of the lumped mass matrix lire compUied to be proportional to the diagonal clements o f the consistent mass matrix while conserving the total mass of the element:

" f" / L f '" pl/l:l/Ir

P dx



;= 1 '.

Forconstanl p, proportiona l lumping gives the same lumped mass matrices as those obtained in the row-sum technique for the Lagrange linear and qU:ldratic c lements. The usc of a lumped rn:l ~s matrix in transient a na ly~s can ":lve comput:ltional timc in two ways. Fi .... t. for forward d ifTerence schemes. lum ped mass matrices result in explicit alge braic eCluations not requiring matrix im'crsions. Second, the cri tical time step required for condi tionally stable schemes is larger. :lnd hence less computational time is req uired when lumped mass matrices arc used. To see this, consider the ~1ab i lity criterion in (6.2.3 1) for the case a = and fj = O. For a one linear element model of a uniform bar of st iffness


A" fNTROI)UCTfO~ 1(l lllf FfNff'll B.1'-\1I.N1 M ll ntO fl

EA and ma!'s pA. fi xed at the left end. the eigenvalue problem wi th i,

aeo n ,i~ t c nt

mass matrix

(6.2.49) Since VI = 0 :md Q ~ = 0. we have

lJ} = EA h
S ub ~ti t\Jtin g thi ~

I PI = A

3 p /1 2

into Ihe cri ti cal timc SICP rcl lllion (6.2.3 I). we have.

(L cnk = 2 /wn~ = h (4p /3F.)1 /2 u

If we uo;c Ihe lumped matrix.

is given by
w = (2 /p)l jl / h

and the cri tical ti me step


(6.2.50 ) Thus. expl icit "cheme" requ ire larger time 6.2.6 Applications Here we con.. ider two ex am ples o f application:. o f fini te clement m{M.lch of o ne-d i mcn ~ i on a l probl em~. Example 6.2. 1 j" taken fro m Ir<ln"ient heat Irunsfcr (parabolic equati on). and
EX<l mple 6.2.2 is taken from ..o lid mec hanics ( hyperbol ic equation).
~ t e ps

than implici t sc h e m e~.

Exampte 6.2.1

COMillcr [he lnl.llsicm heat conduction problem dc.o;cribed by tile d~fft:re"[ ial equiltion

au alII

.... _ : 0 : ;


ror O<.t< !


wilh boundary CQnditions

11(0. 1) = 0.

(6.2.5 1b)

and illitial condition


where u i~ thenolldin)Cn.~ion:diled temperature.1'he prvblcm at hand i~ a ~~ial cascof(6.2.3(1) with Q :E! I, b ::/i: O. Co = 0. CI "" I, () ~ O. and f ,= 0 for eq. (6. 1.2) with k A = I. peA "" I. aud q = 01 The fi nile t'lemem model i$ .

M' 11-


.I.'.M '1', 'I'j

funcljo(l~, th~

For tbe chOice of line;)r in.1erpo\;llion



of;j \)pka!

element arc

"'[' 'J\"))+-'--[' -'J!"lj=!<lJj

6 I 2 "'2




when:: ht i~ (hcl~n&lb of the elemelli. Use of the Q'_family of 'ilppro~matjon (6.2. ilXl) results in the equation fs<:c W2.24a)]


61 iSlhelimestep. Fif'it. C()nsidl!l' a one.element I1)t!oh. We have {II == I)

-II+(I-a)U 6 h! I . ~I U

, A'] -1,-(1 . . ll.

0') -


Qj =q{Qi},-, + (J - aHQ;)" , Tbcboulldary CQnditiotl~ of the problem require


foralls > O(Le.,t >O)

Huwever, the initial cOndjtion (6.2.S I,) requiri!$

Since the initial cml;dition should I:x;consisteut with the boundarycllnditions. we take (U')(I = O.

Then il follows thaI (fJl)" == I.

U.sing the boondary condjljon~. we citn write for the one...demenl modeJ (Ii

== 1.0)

which Can be. SQlvcd rc~atcdly fur lh at different times, s "" 0, I, .. Repeated usc of (6.2.52) can cause lhe temporal approl>imatlon error to ~row with time, de~l\diQg on the value of a. As noted earlier, l)1c fOr\\'llrd differtnce scheme (a ",,0) i~:I conditiOO(illy Stable scheme. To determine the critical time ~tep fM the one-elc.ment mesh. we first calculate the max.i/1lum cisen~'lllue of the uSSQCimed sy~tem

.'[2'J'[' (-1..'6 +;;

1 2 _I
The eigenv;llue is (there. b onl)' une)

-"}AhU:! + h ~ IU1 = 0,

or i. =. 3/ h"'= '}

Hence, from Eq. (6.2.26) .... e: have 6t"" '# 2/J..=0.66667. Thu~. in oflier for thc forward difference f>Chcme (6.2.52)

10 be

"able. the tillie step should be smaller than


"" 0.6667; <Xhcrwise. the solution 'Will

be unStable, iI$ ShO\\"Il in Fig. 6.2.3.

For a \wo-clemclH melih. we ha\"e (h I -= II. "'" II = 0.5): the w ud c n.~L-J equa tions of thc

ti!t1c-m;"lr'l:hfng sc:beme


givcn hy

-II +2a:\J ,,, [ -/I u 6 "


J -h-a6 "
3 "

J" AI - +u-

A'] IV)

2 3

A' h


[ -h+(I-u)6 "


"igure6.2.3 StabiliJ)' of the lumMi Jillerencc (Ct=O.O) and schemes.b ;Jpplied to a p..ToIbOlic equatiOn.

Cr.II1k.~Nic()I M1U


C11",~n:k 6: EIGr~'lVA!.UE A ~]) Tl'>1FA)El'llNrnol>T I'KOBLlO....,S


The associated eigenvalue problcm is

The characteristiC cquatioQ L~

7r? - 1O.t + l = 0.



whose root:> ,Itt: ~1 "",,2 .~%7 and h1- =3 1.689J. f'eh!;c. the nitical tiQ\e ~tep OOcomd Altri ::= 2./31.6891 =0.0631. A ~ill.ll! ~tcp. 9f AI = 0.065 ~lIhs in an unstable solution, 3S showo in FIg, 6.2.3. FQr (unl:ondirionally) stable schcmes (C!?::: V, no re~tricliou on the time. step (e.g.. Crank- Nicolson methOd with two linear eJC1lient,~ and AI=0.065 yield very SJl:!0Qth and stat>1t solutioll. as sh<Jwn in Fig. 6.2.3), However, to Obtain a suf1lcicntl)' accurate ~oMi(m, the time ~tep must be ta)o:o;:u as a fraction Of A/C{(. Of cQurse. '-be nCCU!1lcy of the solution also dcpe.ndson thee mesh s!;w. /I. As tbis is decrca.~d (Le., theDu mbcr of e!emezt~ is increased), AI,1j decreases. Plot~ of u(J, t) vet:;us liooe for IX "'" 0 and Cl' "" 0.5 wilb. AI = 0.05 arc shown in Fig. 6.2..4. Solutions predicted bYfQe:mes Clf one, tWe), Qr fou( ltnear (L) Qr quadratk (Q) elements are compared. The convergence. of the solution wh.h increasing number of elementS is clear. The finite-dement solutions obtained wtth differeni mQt.,hod~. lime steps. and meshes are cl' with the c,xaL'1 solution in 'Thble 6.2.1.

6i "' 0.0s.


I qUJdratic. elcmtn! { ... 0,5) ... t qt(:a<lratic c.lelllel'll {IX "" 0.0)

'i l.00

21i.r\ear c1ez:nen~ ((1. '" 0..5) 2 linear elcrnCJIt.'l (u.... (I,O)



Time. I 6.2.4 Tran..icnt SOlulio(l of :ll?ambolic equatiOn actording to linear and quadrJtic finite


AN ,-'rHO!}l 'CIl0N 1 0 Tlfr FlNnh tU.MEIH \IL' flllll

Table 6.2. 1 A Clnllp..'lri..on of the finite element ~olutioj\" obtained using Vari()lh lillie apprroximation -.chemes and
(t:r.t=O.O~). "~O

WI th the ~maJytica l


(If a par.lbolic equation


Co' ""





1),'1951 0951\8



1.0000 0.9'J3.1


1 .Q!!70

10000 0.9942 0.9550 0.8831 0.7633



1)10 O,IS 0.20


06141 0.5220 0.4437 0_1771



o 'J'i49

I.OOOQ 0.996'1 0.9491

0.57111 0.4912 0.432-'

0.637 . 0.5482
0.4117 0.4059

0.7176 06300

0.8639 0.7557


0.8707 U.7694 O.6!124 06037



0.67&1 US987 0.$28(\

() 35 OAO (lAS {),o5O


0.4608 0.408.1



0.7731 0.6R55

O.SJ5!!. 0.4741 0.<\11\8 0.3701 0327)

0.61:154 0.6068
O.'nfl1 0.47.:1:'i 0.4194 0,3708


o 1)ffl
O.Ul7.' {),)422 0. 1209 0.1028 o,rnJ7.-I 0.074,' 0.0631



0.70 0.75

0.85 0.90

0.2843 0.2';72 0.2 1';9 0.1869 0.1625 O.141J 0. 1229 0.1069 0.0929

0.2225 0,1914 0.1(>:17

O..\~66 . 0.3746 032!1'j


OJ I76 O.27<i8


0.95 100

0,().-I56 O.O]i!S


0.1220 0.1050 0.{)90) 0.1)777 0.0609 o.oS75 0.0495

0,2227 (J,19$5 0.1717


0.471.1 0.41058 0.3676 0,3247 0.2868 0.253.5


0_ OAI2l


0.32JJ O.Utn 0.250$ 0.22 12 0.19.5.\

0)687 0.)175

0.21197 O.25M



O,125l:1 OJ9Q6 0.1764 0.1559 O.137R 0. 1218

0. 1324 () 1162 0.1020


02180 01924 0./697 O.14\1i! 0.1322 0 11 66 01029

0, 1979 0,1747 0.1544 0.1363 0.1205 0,1065

0.1125 0.1523 0.tH5 0.IIS7


0,1761 11 1551 0.1375 0.1216


0,200 1 0,1709

O. j ~<>J
0.13112 0.1122 0,10Ii0


E"(ample 6.2.2 _

We wi!o>h to dclermino; the h'lli1S'crsc motion of a heiJnl clamped at bQlh ends mid ;,ubj,tcd 1 0 initial dentiVll using EAT :iJIO TBT. The go~'emjng equations are



a4w + ax~ ~O

fQr 0 < x < I

- ( 1,1)= 0


iJl\" a;(O.tJ='O.


'w at
Noto; thllt the initial lleflecti(lll of the beam initial ~lope i~ ghcn by




eOlhlJ;ICrU with the boundary conditions. The

f.l(x, 0)

=: -

an.) (Tx, ...,

=:: -Jf C("'I1fX

+ Jf(l

- 2,1)


Bec,IU~ of ~ymJllctry aboul ~. 0= 05 (center of the bellm), we con~ider only a half ~p.l n of the beam for 6nitcdemcnt modeling. Here we u~c the firM half of the beam. O!: x ::: 0.5, lIS the

rompuuuiOflai domain. The bI}Undarywnditiml~1 ,f ~ 0.5 hO(O.5. 1) ,.. -(eh.,/8.x)(O.5. I) ~ O. The ~m idiscrctiled fin ite. element model of a typical elemcnt i~

"6 .!!.!... [ -2211,

420 54

4h ~

-Ull t

- 13".




-3h; 22/'. ~


.c..~ .' .


+ II',



.... 311; 211; 311,

?oil, - h: J", 6 311. 3h, 2h;



JI r
A; A;

We begin with It Qn~icm~nt lno.:kl 1:.

..!:.. [ - 156 22/,

420 54 1 3h


- 1311

- 13h _.311 1



-3 1i ~



The bournlary condition.. jur the one..... lemeflllnodcllr.lo.. ]Jtc lllttJ

UI = O.

rl ,,/, Jrl [ rl
~ g~

m<::..n \\ ith the EUler- 8ern(lUih beam element. The scmidi~



+ II .}

6 -311 -6



-6 3"


- 311


"" gl


Ul"" O.

U. = O,

Qt= O fot:lIJ ,>O

The initial condition .. can be computed from (6.2.5)(') and (6.2.53d)

UI = 0.

U23:s 0,

U1=O. ih= O,
(J(~\ + olMJ,HU1).t I

U,l= O.2146. U1 ::; O


U. = O

forI = (1 I(lke.... the fOrol

The colklen)ot'd equation of the time marching ""heme for

I hj~ ca.~

=- {F 1 ) ...... , :s ''''J'(o,U, + u~ih + (I~V).. s = 0, I . ..

s = 0) il; computed from the equation of mlltion:


(I,. a~. amI Us arc dclincd in (6.2.40). The second deri\alivc U , for time / = (I (i.e.. v.hen
K ...\(Ul)~ 420 --=- ('2 x 0.2 146) - # - 110.932 -1 M11 h 15('11

ror y < ~, we. must compute thi.: critical lime step AI("n. which depend~ on the square of ma."I(imum naiul1ll frequency of the beam lsec Eq. (6.2.3 1). Pol' the present model, ~ b com puted from the cigenvnlue problem
( Kn -flJ' M.n )U~=O (KW~=K-'l/M,,=516.92)
lIell..:e. the critical lime \tcp for 0-=0.5 and Y = \ (i.e., IheJ inear acceicr-JliOIl scht'lIle) i~

a'm=- .!i2/c"ma, ::: 0.15136


"" INTNOJ)'-nlO" TO mr "l"n ltlJ.I>II.'

l' Mt:TIt(N)

Although there is I]() restriction (In lime integration M:hemc.~ with Q ,.. 0.5 and y > 0.5. the critical time step pro\'idc~ an c.,liUlflte of the lime ~tep to be used to o!lwin Irllnsiem solulion. Figure 6.2.5 shows plots of II"{O.5, I) versus lime for the ..chcme with u -'= 0.5 :tod y co:: ~. Three different time ~leps. 6.1 '" 0.175. 0.150. and 0.05, 3re-u~ed II! illu~trat c the !lC{:ufa.:y. For 61 :0:::.0.175 > AI~. the solution i~ unstable., where~ for 6.1 < 6.1~ri. it i~ Mable but inaccur;uc. The period of th ~oluti(m i\ given by
T = 2.'1'"/6)= 0.27635
FQr t w~ and four-clernent mc\hel. of Euler-Bernoulli clemenb, thc crilical time steps art" (detail); are !lot presented !lere)
(A/~rih ... 0.00891,

{6t.:r;.l4 =0,00 135


where the ... uh~ripts refcr 10 the number of tl1eme nt.~ in the mc.~h. TIle trJnS\'erse deflection ohlainoo with the Olle and two Euler- Bernoulli clemcnl!; (6.1 = O.(J05) ill haU' beam for :, complcii! period (0. 0.28) arc ~how n in Pig. 6,2.0. the problem can also be analyi,e(J using thc Timo... henko beam elemctl\ (RIE). In writing the go\'C.mtng tqu3tioJls l~e (6.1.43a) and (6.1.43b)1 of the TST R.~ they <lpply to the Im::.ent problem. we first identify the coefilcients GAK" Ei. pA. and pi cOIl~istenl with Ih(l~ in the difft"telltial equation (6.2.53u). We hlllle EI "" 1.0 and pA = 1.0. Then GAK~ can be computed


-= 2(1 + 1/) BilK"" ~


+ I!) -If ~ -(, ",,- 1 fI !

12 S



'" t


" ~

- 1.00

, , ,

- 1.50


, , , o ""O,'15} , (r , ,
, , , , ,
.0 61 -"' 015


AI <; 0,05

\ 0 6J ~ O,175

(r" 0.5)






Tillie, '

I:igure 6.2.5 Center deflection w(O.5, r) ven;us lime t for tI clamped bea!ll.


'" '" i~



, , , ,
tlJ .. 0 005 - - I ekment 2dc)1lcnt:>

-0.10 ~

-o.:.!O0.0 0.1

0.1 Time,1




.'iftUn! 6.2.6 Center trnnwerse tlcllection vc:P,w" time (or a Clamped bltnm subjected to an inili3\ tr:lnwer.c: ddllXtion (81 = 0.005, ct = 0.5. and y ::: 0.5).


where B is the witJth and N the height of the beam. and I in arriving at the las! I!~prc.~~ion. Similarly,

*" hHN'. II =0.25. and K, =i are


(6.2.5&/) (6.2.56b1

The \"alue~ of w(O.5, I) ..., obtained u~iog tbc Eukr~ Benloulli and Timos.bcnl.':O elements (bOlh clemc.nt~ include the rotary inertia) for \'ari() nuU)be~ ()f ctcmelllS are Pfe*n\cd In Thble 6.2.2. TIle time step is It) he AI "" 0.005. v,hich i~ ~ll1;lller than the crilical time slep Oflhc tWIJ-elemem me~h of the Euler-Bertloulli ~aOl element v, hell y ~ {. Plots of w (0.5. t) ubtolined wilh two alld four linear Tim<)shcnko beam clements. two qundf,)tic 'limu~henko
beam eJemen~ for Lj If "'" 100 (since L:= 1.0. we take H =0.0 1; for Lj H == tOO the ~hear deformation efFcct i~ negligible) along with the twoelement -;olutil)n of the Euler-BernQulli beam element iIfC shown in Pi!!,. 6.2.7. T'hc twO linear element mesh Of TBT beam clement!; prccJkls transient resplln~ that di !fen si~nificanlly rrom the EaT ',otuticm, :lfld the TBT SQlutillO wn"crgcs to the EST ~lutiol) a.. the numDer of c:kmenb or the degree or appro.l..imali()n is iocrealiCd. Should we u~ conditionally ~tahle Scheme!., it coin he shown Ihal Ute Tim~heuko beam elemenl.rcquires larger ll.t(n thao the tuler-Bernoulli beam eleme]Jl. This is bccau~. ll.~ Lj I-J if>, the ~~ predictci.l by the 'fBT is qnallcr th;\1) that predicted by the EBT



Table 6.2.2 Effcct of mol~h on the Irflosic!ll


<If a beam claUlpt.-tl at bOth ends (6t:c

TaT elcl\lCnlS-

EDT eicrnenlS

a"",O:I,r., I/3

(1 ...



(I=U.5, '1::0:0.5

0.2146 0.2124 01938 Q,15.s1) 0.1 t45



102 1


0,()4 0.05 006 001 0.08 0.09 0. 10 0. 11 0.12 0.13 0. 14 0 15

21.. . 11>'0

0.2146 (I,2091 01t)2R 0.1666 0.1319 0.0904


0.2 1M) 0.20'.;& 0.1951


0.'2 146 0.2091 01'128 0.1667

().I~2Q 0.090~

0,2 146 0,2098 0.1951


0. 1346 (10930 00481 t).(JO I4



0.0.182 0,0014
-O,{);IS9 - 0,0'}23


- 0.0926 - 0.1345 0[685 0. 1933
- O.2Ql!.8

-0,1385 0.1719 0.1%4 - 0.2 IOil

-0.2 144

h""~r ,*'h<:!II~;

0.21!!3 0.2113

- 0,0523 -0.0978 - 0, \383 0.1717 - 0.1'.163 - 0,2108 -0,2 144 0.2071

0, 1(i98 0.1350 0.0935 0,0483 00018 - 0.1)455 - 0.0'/16

0. 1336

0.1342 - 0,1683 -0. 1933 -02088 - 0,2150 -0.21 12


() Ins! - 0.19)2 0.2087 0.2J 48 -0.211 1

O.OIl'B - 0.()4(,7 - 0.0917 - 0,1422 01833 0.2010 - 0.2154 - 0.2205 --0,1')86 - 0.1f)%

0.2146 0.2\'H9 o 1916 Ot6a6 0.1374 0.0980 0.0073 - 0,04():\ 0.0&44 - 0,1154 - 0,1588 - 0.1875


0.214(> O.2lt6 0, 1951 0, 16'.10 0.1427 0.1067 0.0657 0.0234 -0,0267 - 0.0706 0.1 100 -0.1 461 - 0.1117 - 01%9 -(1,2110 -0,2 146


-0.l()(.3 - 0.2J38 - 0.2134

41. .. foo. li<1i:wclemcnl\; 2Q .

1I",J(iMt.c ~~nli!'U'


N " 0.005, Q


0.5, Y'" 0.3. fI "" 0.01


" ,



-{l.20 ---0)0 -



Tin (2 hnwe1emellb)
TlH{4 hncHrt:lcmem~) TnT 12 quadratic. clcmenb) LBT(2 ekntenb)

"'''' 0.'
Figure 6.2. 7
Tran ~ient


Time. t




respunse of a he,U" c1ampNJ 8t both emh. ucconli ng to the TBT lind

EBl' (EI "" I. pA = I. H = 0.01 , 6t =0.00.5, a ",,{I.5, and y "'" 0.5).

In this chapter, finite clement formulations of eigenvalue problems ,md time-dependent problems arc developed. One-dimensional. second- and fourth-order cqu3tiol1s (beams) have been discussed. The eigenvalue problems studi ed include problems of heat transfer (and the like), bars, and beams. In the case of bars and beams. the eigenvalue problems arise in connection with natural vibnuions and buckling of columns. Except for the solution procedure. the finite element fomlU lation of e igenvalue problems is entirely analogous 10 boundary value problems. Finite c lement models of limc-dependent problems described by pnrabolic and hyperbolic equtllions have also been presented. A two-step procedure to derive finite clement models from differenlial equations has been described. In the first step, we seek spatial approximations of the dependent variables of the problem as li near combinations of nodal values that are functions of time and interpolation runctions thai are functionsofsJXlcc. This procedure is e ntirely analogous to the finite element formulalion presented for boundary value problems in Chapters 3-5. The cnd result of thi s step is a sel of ordinary differential equat ions (in time) among the nodal valucs. In the second step, the ordinary dirferential equations nre further approximated using the finite diffe rence approxirnotion of the time de rivatives. The res ulting nlgebmic equnt ions com be solved for rcpentedl y, marching in time. Examples using both transie nt heat transfer and beam bending arc presented .

Section 6.1
Most problems arc romlUlalive in natuTe. For eigenvalue problems, we nced 10 write the final ehar-oIeteristie equations for the eigenvalues.

6. 1 Dctennin-e the firsltwo eigenvalues associated wit h the heat tra nsfer problem whm.e govern ing equations and boundary conditions are given by (Fig. 1'6.1)

, ' a" - - ( (/ - '') +b - + cu = O forO < x < L




u (O) =0.

( " ,1" ax

H") I

. ~I.


where (I , IJ, c, and fj are eonl>l:mts. Use (0) two lme:lr fin ite elements and (b) one quadmtil; clement in the do main to solve the problem.


F===T==::r, .
c " fjP
" kA

1----1. ---"~
Fin's lal~ ..~l surrace as wel1lls
the end ... ~ I. are ex poso.,d to ambient temperature

Figure "6,1

Figure 1'6.2


Det~rllline the firM lwo longitudinal frc<luencies of a rod (with Young's modulu!> E. area of cross !>Cction A. and lellglh L) Ihat i~ fix~d at one ~nd (li.ay, ;11 \. =0) and supported axi;llI y at the other end (at .( = I") by :I linear c las tic spring (wilh ~pring cnn~lant k), as shown in Fig. 1'6.1:

problem. ,.\ lts ....!:!r: (a) The charactcri!>tie equalioll is n l - {l0 + 4C)A ~ '" / 2EA, A = (pl, 216E)<,i .

Use (0) Iwo linear fini te den"ICnls and (b) one qu adrat ic elcment in the domain to solve the + ( I + 2c) =0. c =

6.3 Determine lhe sm all~1 nUlural frequenc)' of a beam wilh ehllnpcd e lld ~ and of COIlSlanl cros~ "eclional area A, nmmenl of inertia I. lind length L Usc the sYlllmetry and IWOEuler- Bernoulli hcam element~ in the half he:lltl.
R e~olvc

Ihe above prohlelll with IWO RIEs in the half-beam.

6.5 Conl>ider a beam (o f Yuung's modulus E_ shear modul us G, ureH of cross section A, !(Ccnnd mllmenl :Irea about the axis (If bendinll J. and length L ) wi th il~ left end (f = 0) clamped and il~ ri1.!ht cnd (x = L) supporit,'d vertically by a lincar elastic spring ( Fig. P6.5). Determine the fu ndamental natural fn.'quc ncy u~ing (0) one Eulcr- Ik rnoulli beam element alld (h) one Timoshenko beam element (liE) (usc Ihe same mass matri x in both clements).


1, -I

Figure P6.S 6.6 Consider a simpl y su pported beam (ofYoung's modulus E, mass density p, area of eros... section t\. second moment of are;! about the axil> of bending I . and length 1..) with an elastic suppon al the center o f the beam (s(''C Fig. 1'6.6). Determine the fundamen tal n;lIurdl fTC<luency using the minimulll number of Eulcr-B~rnoulli ocam clements. Answer: 'nlc char:leteristi c polynomial is 455}..1 - 2(129 +c)1. + 3 + 21' = 0.

A. Il

Pinned here
L _---'., :.~___

Figurt! )'6.6
6.7 Delennine the critic:!1 buckling load of a cantilever beam (A, J. L, t.") using (iI) one EulerBerno ulli bc:am clement and (h) one Timoshcnko beam clemen!.

6.8 The nutuml vibmtion of a IK:am under applied alliaJ compress ive load NO is gO\'emed by the differential equa ti on
l / 4W


+ N U _/ ' (;f

d1 w


where .l. de notes nondimensional freq uency of natu m) vi bmtion and Ef is the nex um) ~t i ffness of the heam. (a) Dctennine the fundamen tal (i.e . smallest) na lUml frequency U) o f a cantilever bellm (i.e., fixed at one end and free at the other end) of length L with allial compress ive load No using one heam element. (b) What i~ the buckling load of Ihe beam? You are required 10 give th e tinal characteristic equat ion in eac h ca~e. 6.9 Determine the fundamental nmura l frequency of the truss shown in Fig. 1>6.9 (you are required on ly 10 formulate the problem ).

2 1':

30 Insi

o fl .

AI 3 in.l A 1 "' 4m.2

E - 30x tO~ lblln.l.\'~ O.3

A ~ IOZm2.f ~ I<r\n"

Figure 1'6.9

Figure 1'(1. 1U

6. 10 DctenniJle the fundamc ntal natural frequency of the truss ~ hown in Fig. 1"6. 10 (you arc required only to fonnulate the problem). 6. 11 Determine the lirst two longitu dina l nat urdl frequencies of II rod ( A. E, L, m). tixed at one end and with an attached mass 11/2 at the other. UM: two linear clements. Hinl: Note that the boundary conditions for the problem are 11(0) = 0 and (.4 ilu lilx + 1/1 2 illll/ il1 2)1 , . L = O. 6. 12 11le equat ion governin g
tor~ i ona l

vi bra tion of a circ ular rod is

..... here q, is the angular di~pl ocement. J the moment of inenia. G the ~hear modulus. and m the density. Iktenni ne the fundamental torsional frequency of II rod with disk (J 1 ) attached at each end. Use the symmetry and (a) two linear clements and (b) one qU < ldr.ltic c lemcnt. 6. 13 Thc equ mions governing th e motion o f a beam according to TBT cun be reduced tn the single equation

wherea 2 = Ellm A andb! = I I A. Here E isthe Young's modulus. G is the shear modulus, m is the l11as~ pe run itlcllgth. A is the are:! of cross M!ctio n. and f iS lhe mome lll nfinenia. Assuming th at (/)2m/ kG) I (i.e .. neglcctthe last term in th e guve rn ing cqu(ltion), formulate the fin ite clellient model of the (a) eige nva lue problem for the determination of na\ur,lI frequcncics and (b) fully diS(;relized problem fur the determination uf the tr:msiell\ respollM!.

U~ the finite clement model of Prohlem 6.13 to determine the fundamental frequency of a simply supported bc'lm. 6. 15 Find the criticill Duckli ng load P en by detennining the eigenvlllues of the equation


w(O) = w(L )= O.

_<1'"') <1'"') , (EI-- 1 = ( _dx- 1 d .tf.l-~


= 0

. -L

U~e onc Euler- Bemoulli clement in the half-belllll. Annver:

"m = 9.94)9EII L2.


Section 6.2
6.16 Consider the parlial differentiill cquiltion arising in connection with unsteady heat nn in~ulatcd rod: forO < x < L in

Following the procedure outlincd in Section 6.2, derive the scmidiscrcte varia tional form. the scmidiscretc 'i mte cle ment model. and the fully diM:rctil.ed finite e lement e1luations for a typical clement. 6,17 USing a two-elemenl (linear) model ilnd the semidiscrcte fini te clement equations derived In Problem 6.16. determine the nodaltempcralUres as functions of time fur the case in which II = I, f = 0, III) = I, and (/ = o. Usc the Laplace transfonn technique (sec Reddy (2(X)2) Itn solve the ordinary differential equations in time. 6.18 Consider a unifonn bar of crOSS-SCClioll(ll area A. modulus o f ciasticity E. ma!>s density fII. and length L. The axial displacement under the action of time-depcnocnt axial force.'i is go\ernt.."d by the wave equation

Dctennine the tr.llIsient !'C..\lxmsc li.e .. find u(x , I)J of the bar when the end x = 0 is thed ilnd the end x = L is subjected to a force Pu. Assume lero initial cond itions. Usc one linear clement to upproximatc the spatial variation of the solution, and solve the res ulting ordinary difl'crenliul equution in time exactl y to obtain ul (x, I) = - - ( I - eosat). A E I. 6.19 Resolve Problem 6. 18 with a mesh of two linear c lements. Usc the L1place tmnsfonn method to so lve the two ordinary dio-crenti:11 equations in time. 6.20 Solve Problem 6. 18 when the right coo is SUbjected to all a.xial fon:c I'll aud supported by an a.xial spring of stiffness /C. An.\ wu:

l'uL x

3F, (.' = - -mAL/P '


Jl = j j ! :

( kL)'" I::A
1-1 _


34 1

6.2 1 A bar of len gth L moving with vclocity l'o strikcs a spring of st iffness k. Determine the moti on 1/(.1.1) from thc instant whcn thc cnd .f =0 strikes thc spri ng. Usc OIiC linc~lr clement 6.22 A uniform rod o f length L and mass 11/ i ~ filled at x = 0 ~lIld IOI.ded with a mass /t1 at x = t. Dctcmline tht; mo tion 11(.1'. f) of thc system when th e mas~ M i~ subjected to a force 1'0. Use one lint;ur elemellt. Answer;

A= J3-

" (3M +111 )' L AL

6.23 TIle How of liquid in a pipe, SUbjected to a surge-of-pressure wave (i.e" u water hammer). experiences u surge pre~~ure p, whieh is govemed by the equ~t i o n

, '( ' f))' c- = ;;; k+ bE

where III is th e mass density and K the bulk modulus of the fluid. D is the diameter ~nd b th e thickness of the pipe, and t: is the modulus of elastic ity of the pipe materia l. Determine the pressure ,,(.r. I) usi ng one linear fin itc clcmelll for the following boundary ;lI1d initial condi tions: p(O.1) =0.

'I' (L.I) =0.


p(X.O) = "Il.

il(x.O) = O

6.24 Consider the problem of det ermin ing the temperature distribu tion o f u solid cylinder, initially
at H unifonn tc mpera tu re 70 and cooled in a mcdiu m o f zcro tcmperatu rc (i.c., 7:'" = 0 ). 'nle govern ing equal ion of the problem is

&1' I {Jc - - - r;)r


a ( rl.: -&1') =0

"nlC boundary co ndi tions are


ar (0.1) = 0.

11le ini[1<1 oondi[iol1 is T(r. I) = Til. De termine the tempera tu re di st ributioll T(r. f ) using one 1 linc;trclClllenl. Take H = 2.5CI11,1.: = 2 15 Wf(m .~C). f1 = 525 W/(m~C), 'Til = 130 C, fJ =: 2700 kg/Ill l , and c = 0.9 kJ/(k g. C). What is the heat loss at the surface'! Formulate the problem.


&T ( rl.: -ilr +(1 T )

= 0

, _ II

6.25 Determine th e nondimensiollal tcmperatureU(r, f) in the region bounded by two lon g cy lindrical
surfaces of md ii HI :md H2. 'nle dimensionless

conduction eq uation is

_ ~~
r ar with boundary and in itial co mJitions
:- ( 1<1,1) = 0.

(,"0)+ ao = 0
0( H2,1) = 1. O(r, O) = O



6.26 Show [hut (6.2.2&/). (6.2.28b), (6.2.29a), and (6.2.2%) can he reworked to mutch the fnnn in Eq. (6.2.38) as

and definc [1-/ ) amI [FJ. ~ "



U)lllhfl'lm' U.o.lI;.vrloU:lll(l1)

6.27 A unifOnll cantilever beam of kngth /., monlent of inen ia I, modul us of elasticity E. and mass m begins to vibrate with initial displacement
W(X.O)=wu x 2/ L1

:lI1d zero in itia l velocity. Fi nd it~ disp lace ment at the free cnd at any subsequent time. Usc one ELller~ Hemou ll i beam clemeLlt to determ ine the solution. Solve the resulting diITerential equaliolls in time lIsing the L:lplacc transfonn met hod. 6.2H Resoh'c Problem 6.27 using one limoshenko beam elcment.


Argyns. J . II. alld Schall)f. 0 W. "Finlle Elemems in Timc alld Sp;ICC:' A""/lUlu/lml Journal o[th .. Roml S"cwly. 7J. 1041-1044. 1969.

2. Ha lhe, K, J., Finil" f./"meml'rt>c"dllll!s ill En~int'u;n8 An"Iy,<;.. Prerl1ice l lall, Englewood ChITs. NJ, 1982. 1 Ba lhe. K. J. ami Wi1 ,on. R. L., "Slatli hly and Accuracy An~ly,is of Direct In lcgr..liOiI McthclIh," Imemll/ionlll
J umlllllJ[ "rlh'l""'~" E"8in"rr'ill/l. (m.! Slrunl",11 DY"llmi.;r, I , 283~291, 1971 .

4. Ilclytschko. T. "An Owr.'iew of Semidi'>CreUJ.ation and Time InlcgmltOlI Procedures." in Bclyl'\Chko T. and Hughes T. J. R. (eds.). Cfmlfl"/,Hi,,tlill MnlrodsJor Trwuirm A/ Nonh lloliand. AmMerd<im. PII ! 63. 19RJ. 5. Goodreau. G. L. and Taylor. R. 1.., "EvaluauollofNumencall ntegr,III01l Methods in Elastodynarmc:<," )mln",1 rifCllltipu/t'r Ml'lhuds In API,/,,,d Mt'chmllcs will Engirrl't'nllK, 2( t). 69-97. 1973. 6 ' I;Iber. l l. M .. "Analysisand DcsigllofNumeneal lmegr.lI ion Mcthod~ In StnlCwr,,1 Dynamics." EERC Repon
no. 77_29, Earthquake Engineering Research Cemer. Uni~e~l l yofCaJiromia, Berl.:eley, CA, No~ember t976.
7. Hoooolt, J. c., "A Recurrence Matrix Solution for the Dynamic RespOIl'\e of Ela,tic Aircr"ft," }",mlll/ 'if Aemrwu/ical SciellCt', 17,540-550. 1950.

8. Newmark, N. M .. "A Mcthod of Computation for Structural DynamiCs," Juunllll o[ EtigillurillK Medu/IliL'J 1)1";l"ioll, ASCf.. 115.67 94. 1959. 9. Nidell. R. E.. ''On the Swbilny of Approximation Opermon. in I'roblcm~ of Slruc1Ural DynJmics."lmrnlll l;m",1 )oum,,1 oJSnIMslIIlI1 Sm ...",l'f's, 7.301-319. 1971. 10. Reddy, J. N, T/'t'On alld Amdys.s vJ E;las/ic Plait's, Taylor and Francis, l'1liladelphia, PA. t999a.
II. Reddy. J. N .. ''On the DynamiC l!.ella~jor of the Timoshcnko Beam Finite E1emems." Sntlhl.1Iil (Journal of the hllan Academy ofScicllCe5). 24. Pun J. 175-198. 1999b.

12. Reddy, J. N .. ''On the l)cnvaliOll of the Supcrcoo"eJgt'm Tim""hcnLo lIeam Finne Element." Im_). Om'I'''/ Ci,.1 lIlUl SInICI. EnJ;ng., 1(2).7 1-34, 2000.

13. Reddy. J. N .. tlt'r]O P'mcipll'smld

~\t,;(j//{mal Melhuds in

Appl,ed Mhnll;rs, John Wiley, New York, 2002.

14. Wood, W. L., "Control orCrDnk~Nk()lson Noise in the Numerica l Solution oflhe lleat Cooouction EquJtion," IIIIt'mllliutwl JOlln",1 fi" Nofll,rriml Mt'I/,o(i;' i~ EligiliurillK, I I . 1(J5\l~ I 065, 1977.



7. 1.1 Background
l l lCfini te clement method , like most numerical lllcl hod ~, conve r.s a continuu m proble m to a discrcleone (Le" converting a ~ys l CIll with:m infinite llumberof dcgrccsoffrl!ooom illlO one wilh :1 finite numbcrordcgrcc~ offrccdllm). The finite clement model of a system ultimately represe nts a set o f algebmic I.:qu:llions among the vlIl uc)' orthe depe ndent varia bles orthe "ys!em at the <;elected nodes o f the domain. The coefficients o f the '1lgebraic equiltions arc typically integrals of approximation functions multiplied by the data of the problem. Exact evaluat ion of these integrals is not a lway' possible bee.lUse of the algebraic complexity of the data lI(.f). b(x). c(x). and f(x) in the malhcmmic:l1 model. In 'o uch cases. it i ~ natum l to -;eel.: nu merical evaluat ion of these integral expressions. Numerical evaluation of the cocllicicnt matrice~ is also useful in prob lems w ith co n~traint s. where red uced integration techniques arc used (e.g .. the reduced integrat ion clement of the Timoshc nko ocam theory in Sect ion 5.3 ). Numerical evaluation o f integ rals. called III/Illeriel/l integratiol1 or /llImt'rical ql/mlmflirt'. involves approximation of the integrand by a polynomial of s ufficient degree. occ<lu,e the integral of a polynomial can be evaluated exaclly. For eX:lIllplc. con~ ider the integral .
I =

1.~ F(x) (Ix

(7.1.1 )

We :lpproxi mate the function "'(x) by a polynomial

F(.,) "

2:>", ",(x) ,,


whe re "'1 de notes the value of F(x ) al the I lh point o f Ihe inlerval Ix". x,, 1 1 md I/I,(X) arc polyno mials of degree N - I. The rep resentation (7.1.2) can be viewed as the fi nite is the value of the fu ncti on:1I the Ith node. The element interpolation of F(x). where interpolation can be of the L..agr.lnge type or the Heml ite type. Substitution of (7. 1.2) into (7. 1. 1) and eval uation o f the integral gives an lIpprox im:lte vlllue of I . For example. ~UpP()SC that we choose linear interpolation of F(x). Then N = 2. 1/11 = (x" - x)1 h. 1/12 = (x - 1,,)1 h. and I I ih{ P1 + IS,). FI P(x,,). fi P(x,,) (7.1.3)



AI>' INTKOl}l]cnON TOnl ~ ' :INln: f.U:ME.VI' MrTllOO




r. - X;

," : ,

F" .

r~ ..



Figure 7.1.1 Approximate evaluation of an integral using the trapezoidal rule (a ) two-point formu la

and (b) three-point formula.

Thus. the value of the integral is g iven by the area of a Irape70id used 10 ap prox imate the area under the function F {x) (sec Fig. 7. 1.1). Equation (7. 1.3) is known as the trapezoidal mle of numerical integration . If we use the Lagrange (IUadratic intcrpoilltion of F(x). we obtai n
I I = 6h(l:,

+ 4F2 + F1),

F, = F(x,,),

F2 = F(x"

+ 0.%),

FJ = F(xb)


which is known as SimlJmll'S olle-third rufe. Equations (7.1.3) and (7.1.4) represent fonns of numerical quadrature formulae, In general. a quadrature formula has the form


F(x) (Ix ~


(7. 1.5)


whcrex, arcc:llled the qlUldrtllllTe IJ()illf~ and W, arc the quadrature lI'e;ght~, These fonnulae require functional eval uations. mu ltiplicatio ns. and additions to obtain the numerical val ue o f the integral. l lley yield exact val ucs of the integral whcnevcr F(x) is a ]>olynomial of order,' - I. In this section. we describe several numerical integration techniques and formulations in which the geometry as well as the dependent variables arc approximated using different degrees of polynomials, We begi n with the discu ssion of a local coordinate sy ... tem.



r-::-: '____ l==:":~-- _t-::-::-:--_! ---.

~ . -.-

'1:: _____

____ ._ _____ , '




i = h,
= x~


'; =+ 1

Figure 7.1.2 Global coonlinate .f, local coordinate i . and nom13li lc{] eoordinmc /;.

7,1.2 Nat ural Coordinates

Of all the qUlldrature formulae. as will be discussed in the subsequent sections. the GaussLegcndrc onc is the most commonly used. The details ofthc mcthod itself will be discussed shortly. The formula requires the integral to be cast as one to be evaluatcd over the interval f- l. IJ. This requires the transformation of the problcm coordinate x 10 a local coordinate such that (see Fig. 7.1.2): when
X=X a ,

s= - I:




The transformation between x and S can be representcd by the linear "stretch" transformation

x=a + b

where a and b arc constants to be determined such that the ahove conditions hold:

Solving for a and b, we obtain

1 1 b = 2(Xb - xa) = 2h ~ ,
Hence, the transformation takes the form

where x~ denotes the global coordinate of the left-end node of the clement r2, and h ~ is the clement length (see Fig. 7.1.2). The local coord inate is called the normal coordinate or rlatllral coordinate, and its values always lic bctween - I and I. with its origin at the center of thc elemcnt. The local coordinate is useful in two ways: 11 is (a ) convenicnt in constructing the interpolation functions and (b) required in numerical integration using Gauss- Lcgcndre quadrature, The derivation of the Lagrangc family of interpolation functions in terms of the natural coordinate /; is made eilsy by the following interpolation property of the approximation functions :

ifi = j ifi =l-j


where l;) is the l; coordinate of the jth node in thc clement. For an clement with II nodes, 1/1; (i = 1,2 ..... II ) arc polynomials of degree 1/ - 1. To construct 1/1, sati~fying (7.1.7), wc

~ .;

~~~- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~= 1 ~ "' +I

2~ ';

~~~~~~~~eF_~~~~~~"~ ~ "'- J '; = 0 '; = +1

.; '" - I

, ,=-J

'; = +1


,:(l - ';JI~


~ )I/Il(~)=


1 6

.<' I (I - ~-}( l

V I(';) = :: (I -

.;~)( ~ +.;). V~ (';J = - ,:



+ .;)( ~ -

,h :


Figu re 7. 1.3 Llgmngc fumily of onc dimcn~nlllal intcrpIJI:llion coordinalc.

in ICnll5 of thc nornmli/cd

proceed as follow'-: For ctich 1/1,. we formlhc pmdu(:t of II I. 2 ..... i - I. i + I. .... II; j t= i):

I linear runctions ( - ( J (j =

"~"(' - 'd(' - "'(' - "

1/Ji= lat ~=(/:

d - '"d .. -'.I

Note Ihal 1/1, i<; fcm aI all nodes except the ilh. Nexi. we delenllinc the (:onstanl

"uch that

(; = I( ~,

- ~I )(~, - ~!) ... (~, - ~, d(~i - ~; _ d'" (~, - ~,, )I - I

the inlcrpollltion function associated with node i is


(, - ,.It< - "1,,,(, - ,,- d(, - " ",1",,, (,' - ,,1, - "I",!', - " ,j((, - ,,,,1,,,(,, - ,.1
term ~


of the natural

The linear. quadratic, and cubic Lagrange interpol:LIion runction" in coordinate (for equall y l>p:.ced nodes) are .. hoVon in Fig. 7.1.3. 7. 1.3 Approx ima tion of Geometry

We wi~h to u~e the Gau<;s- Legendre quadrarure \(J numericHlly evaluate all integrals in the tinitc clemen! method. The intcgrals arc generally expn.:"ed in lerms of the coordinate appc"ring in the problem description (like.f or r). We ,1);111 call \ and r al> the "rob/em ('()urliil1f1fes or global coord ina'c ~. The Gau ... <,-Legcndre CJuadmturc require<; us 10 exprcl><; Ihe integ ral in tcnmof ~ over the interval - I to + I. We assume a relation (or tran ~ fomlati on) between the problem coordinale x and natuml coord inate ~ in Ihe form
x ~ ft<1 ~I~

where f is


to be a one to-one tmnsformutioll. An example of

is provided by

(7. 1.61'

In this case. f(~) is a linear function of S. Hence. a straight line is transformed into a stwight line. [t is natural to think of approximating the geometry in the same way as we approximated a dependent variable. In other words. the transfommtion x = f(~) can be wriltcn as

= Lxril~(o

(7.1. 10)

where xi is the g lobal coordinate of the ith node or the clement nc and arc the Lagrange interpolation functions of degree //I ~ I. When //I = 2. we have a linear transformation. and Eq. (7. 1. 10) is exactly the sillne as (7. 1.6). When/l/ =3. Eq.(7. 1.IO) expresses a quadratic relation between x and TIle functions are ca lled shapejlll1cliolls because they are u~d 10 express the geometry or shape of the e lement. When the e lement is a straigllt line. the mapping is linear (because two points, xf and x~, are sufficient to define a line). The transformation (7. LI 0) allows us to rewrite integra ls involvi ng x as those in terms of





1.~1 F(x) dx = [11 (is, F(O

F(s)d~ = F(x( s li x


so that the Gauss- Legendre quadrature can be used 10 evaluate the integral over [- I . 1[. The differential clemen t dx in the globa l coordinate system x is related to the differential clement d~ in the natural coordinate system ~ by

lix =

dx - tis = J, d~ d(

is called the Jacobiall of the transformation. We have

Je - ds -

_ dx


(f-- ,.,)-_f-- i, df , t;rX'o/i t;rX d~

= 2 in (7.1. 10)]. we Iwve

(7. 1.1 2)

For a linear transformation [i.e .. when


J~=Xl (- ~) + x 2(~) = ~(X2 - xD= ~he


Jt can be shown that J, = ~ h, whenever the clement is a straight line. irrespective of the degree of inteTJXllation used in the tr:msformation (7.1. 10).

7.1.4 Isoparamctric f'ormu lations

Recall thaI a dependent variable form

is approx imated in an c lement

ne by express ion ~ of the


u( x) =

L u j1'j(x)

[n genera l. the degree of approximation used to describe the coordinate transformation (7. 1. 10) is not equal to the degree of approxinwtion (7. [.14) used to represent a dependable

variable. i.e" #1/1,' . In other words, two independe nt meshes of eleme nts may be used in the finile clemelll fonnu lation of a proble m: one for the approxi mati on of Ihe geometry x and the other for the intc rpolation of the dependent variable u. Depending on the re lation!.hip betw(..'C n the degrec of 3pproximation used for the coordinate tran sformati on :lIld that used for the dependent variable. the finite clement fo rmulation ~ arc cl:t~sified into three categorics:
I. Subparamclric formulation s: m < f/ 2. Isoparametrie fonnulations: m = /I


(7. 1.1 5)

3. Superp:lramelric formulation s: In
~u bpar.nnetric th o~e



formu lations. the geometry is represented by lower-order elements Ihan used to approximate the dependent variable. An exam ple of th is category is provided by the Euler- Bernoull i beam element. where the Hermi te cubic functions arc used to approximate the defl ection lI'(x) lind li near interpolation can be used, when strJ.ight bcam~ are analyzed, to represent the geometry. In isoparametric formulations (which arc the mo~t common in pmetice), the same clement is used to approx imate the geometry as wel l as the dependent unknown s: 1/1; (x) = Vi i (~) . In the superparamelri e formulation s. the geometry is represented with higher-order elements than those used to approximate the dependent v<lriflbles. The superparamctric formu lation is seldom u.;ed in practice.

7. 1.5 Numc ricallnlegrnlion As discussed in the introduction. the evaluution of integrals o f the foml


F(x ) l/:t

(7. 1. 16)

by exact means i .~ either difficult or impossible owing to the compli cated form of the integrand F. Nu merical integration is alw requ in::d whcn the integrand i.. to be eVillua ted inexactly (as in the 'Jimoshcnko beam cle ment) or when the in!egrand is known only at discrete po ints (e.g., experimentally obtained data). TIle basic idca behi nd all numerical inlcgrJ.tion techniques is 1 find a funct io n P(x), 0 often a polynomial. that is both a suitable approx imatio n of F(x) and simple 10 intcgmte. The interpolati ng polynomials o f degree II . de noted by Pn , which interpolate the integrJ.nd alII + I points of the interval la, bl, oftcn producc a suitabl e approximation and posscss the desired propeny ofsimplc integrability. An illustration of the approximation oflhe function F(x) by the polynomial P4(X) that ex.actl y matc he~ the func tion F(x) at the indicated base points is given in Fig. 7. 1.4(1). The exact value of (7. 1.16) is given by lhe arCll under the solid curve, while Ihe approx imate value


P4 (x) dx

is given by the llre3 under the dashed curve. It sho uld be noted th31 the di fference (i.e .. the error in the approximation) E = F(:c) - P4(X) is nOl lllways of the same ~ign. and therefore the overal l integration error may bc small (because positive errors in one parI callcel neglltive errors in other p a n ~), even when P4 is not 11 good lIpproximat ion of F.

Cn AI'Tt:It 1 tUMPlfI1'.IlIMI't.EMlHATIO)l




- - -"- --




Hgure 7. 1.4 Numerical integration by the Ncwton-Cote... quadrat urc: (iI)approximalion of a function by P4(X): (b) the trJpc/oidal rule; and (c) Simpson's rule.

The commonly used numerical integratio n methods can be classified into two grou ps: I. The Newtoll-Cotes formulae that employ values of the funct ion III equllil y spliced poi nts

2. The Gauss- Legend re quadralurc formula thllt e mploys unequ ally spaced points
These two methods are described here.

T he Ncwlon-Colcs Quadr:ltu re, For r equally spaced base points, the NewlOlI-COIcl cI().~ed illfegrolio1l jorlllilill is given by


P(x) dx = (b - il)

, L F(x/
1", 1




where "'I are the weighling coefficients, XI are the base poinls th"t are equally spaced, and r is the number of b"se points (or r - I is Ihe num ber of intervals). Note that r = I is a special case in which the number of base points ;l~ well as the number intervals is the sa me ; in this case Eq . (7.1. 17) gives the recll1ngle fornlula . For r = 2, (7. I . J7) gives the familiar Irapezoidal rule, in which the required area under the solid curve in Fig. 7.1.4(b) is approximated by the area under the dotted straight line Ii.e., F(x) is approximated by I',(x) I:

b =.r.,

F(x )(l x= - - IF(XI)+ F (X2)J.

b- a

= 0(11 ), It = b-a



where denotes the error in the ap proxi mation and It is the unifonn spaci ng between two base points. The notation 0(11), read as "order or fl," is used to indi(;lIte the order or the


"" 1N'TIiOOLCTICIf<. TonIE m.m UJ:ME.'lrMnHOO

Tnhlc 7.1.1 Weighing cocllicicnls for lhe NcwlOn-Cotcs fonnu li!.



11' 1






, ,

, ,






90 19

75 288 216






7 90 75 288

19 288











error in tcnllS of Ihe spacing h. For r = 3 (i.e., IwO illtcrva1<.). (7.1.17) gives the familiar Simpson " ()I/e~l"ird rule r ~cc Fig. 7. 1.4 ((,)[: ,\'

E = O("~). " = 0.5(" - a)

(7 . 1.19)

The wcighling cocfficiclII' for r = 1.2 ..... 7 are given in Table 7. 1.1. Note that E~=l II' , = 1. The ba!\C poinllocalion for r = I is XI = a + 4(b - 0) = ~ (I + b). "or r > 1, lhe base point locat ions are
X I= ll, x z= tl + llo.l . .... .l, = a+(r - I)fix = h

and tlx = (b - {/ )/(r - 1). We note lhat when r is odd (i.c .. when Ihere is fill even number of intervals or an odd number ()fba~e point:.). the formula is exact when r(x) is a polynomial o f degree r or le<;s: whcn r i<; el'ell. the formul:l is cxact for:l polynomial of degree r - I or Ics<;. Odd-point formulas arc frequently u~ed bccau~c of their hi gh order of accuracy [sec Carnahan . Luther, and Wilkes ( 1969)1.

The G3uss-Legcndrt Quadrature. In the Newton-Cotcs quadrature. the ba.<;e pointlocati on~ hallC becn ~rx.'Cificd. Ifthcx/ arc not ~pceificd. th cn there will be 2r + 2 undeTermined pllrametcr~. r + I weights 11'1 and r + I ba<re poinl,;xl. which define a polynomial of degree 2r + I. The Gauss- Legendre quadrature i<; based on the idca That the ha<;e poillls fl and ed the "-eighTs WI can be choscn ..0 thaI the "urn of The r + I appropriately weighT valucs of The funct io n yiclds The intcgral exact ly when F(x) is a polynomial of degrec 21' + 1 or less. The Gaus<;-Legcndrc quadrature fonnula is given by
(7. [.20) F( .r) dx = p(~) d~ :::;,: i\~d\V1 " I / :1 where 1\' , ilre the weight filetors. ~ , arc the basc ]XlilllS lrools of the Legendre polynomi:ll I'r II (~) I. ilnd F is The transformed intcgrand



, L

hI) ~ F(x(!))J() .

dx ~ J d(

(7. 1.21 )

CIIAPT!.:R ', CO Mf'CTER l\ll'\..E.\1!iNT"'T IO~


Table 7. 1.2 Weighls and

' J

Gall~ S

points for the Gall~ s-Lcgendre qlladrature.

i~ 1

F (~)d~ =

, L F(f;l ....

Point;;, ~,t






O.7745966692 0. 3399S I04 35 1.0.8611 363 116


O.~ 555555555 O.652 14.~ 154~


.i0.5384693 101 O,90617984 59 O,2J86191861 O.661 2093S65 .10,9324695142 6

0.4786286705 0.2369268850 0.4679139346 0.3607615730 0.1713244924



t N'~c th"l O.~7no; .. = 1/ Ji O,774~9 .. ' 8/9. ",Kl O.5~5 . = 5/9



where J is the Jacobian of the transformati on between x anbd ~. The weight factors and Gauss points for the Gauss- Legendre quadrature (7.1.20) arc given for r = 1, .... 6 in Table 7. 1.2. The Gauss-Legendre quadrature is more frequently used than the Newton-Cotes quadrature bccau~e it requires fewer base points (hcnce. a sav ing in computation) to achieve the same accuracy. The error inlhe approximation is LCro if the (2r + 2)th derivative of the integrand vanishes. 1n other words. a polynomial of degree fJ is integrilted exactly by employing r = 4 + I) Gauss points. When p + I is odd. one ~hou ld pick the nearest larger integer: (p


[~("+ I)J


In fi nite element fOfll1u!ation~. we encounter integral s whose integrands F arc functions of x. 1/Ii(X). and derivat ives of 1/I/ (x ) with respect to x . For the Gauss-Legendre quadrature. we mu~t tran~forl1l F(x )dx to t(~) d ~ ill order to use the formula (7.1.20). For example. consider the integral

" .'" . (ix dx Using the chain rule of differentiation, we have

d1/lr(x) = d1/lr (~) dt; =

Ke =

" f

a(\' ) - - - - dx ' '

d~ ' d~ '

(7. 1.23)

rl d1jJr (~)




(7. 1.24)

Therefore. the integral in (7.1.23) can be written. with the help of (7. I .10). as


I d1/l ~ I dl}! ~ a(x( ~)) --- ___ ' I I J dl; J d~

J dl;




352 where

A)<lIl'lTltOOOCT1ON roTIIEn'lITF.I~\ItN'1 ~m1ll01l

"-~ I dl/tt dl/tj / =a - - - - 'J




For the isoparametric fomm lation. we take l/t; = {,~. As nOk'd e:lrlier. the Jacobian matrix will be the same (1, = 4/1~) when the ciemelll is a straight line, even if the coordinate transformation i ~ quadratic or cubic. However. when Ihe ciemelll is curved. the J:tcobian is a function of ~ for transformations other than linear. The tntn.~formation from x to ~ is not required in the Newton-Cotes quadrature. [t is pos!>iblc to detemlinc the exact number of Gauss [>oints required to evaluate the fo[ lowing element coeffici ents:


-- (Jljt~ dx dl/t' __ ' 1




/+__, __ 1

fJl/t' dl/t' (1) -2 J 1

II; d~

d~ .=

/+ '

G~ (~){J~



dx = / + I
- I

"'[(~)l/tj(~) }(J~ _ !+ I G~:(~)(J~


L, G~(~il WI /.


when linear. quadratic. and cubic interpolation function s arc used. For linear interpolation functi ons, the integrand of Kij is constant. requiring only one-point Gauss-Legendre quadrature (N K = I). The integrand of the mass matrix M iJ is quadratic (p = 2). requiring Ir ~( p + I) ~ I. the two-point quadmture (N M 2). The coeffi cients It arc evaluated exactl y by one-point <Iuadraturc (N F = I). Si milarly. for quadratic and cubic elements. we can estimate the number of Gauss points needed to evaluate K,'j' Mfj. and j,r exactly. The results arc summarized in Table 7. 1.3. Note th.lI. in estimlliing the quadrature points. il is assumed that the Jacobian J is a constant. which holds true when the e lement i~ a straight line. If the matrices in (7. 1.28) have variable coefficients or the clements are curved land hence J~ = J~(~)I, the degree of the variation of the integr.mds changes and the number of Gauss points needed to exactly evaluate the integral changes. If the elements arc straight and the coefficients a = (l(x) and c = c(x) together with [= [(x) are no more than linear in x. thcn the number of Gauss Imints for evaluating the cocflicient s



.r. (1 ---tlx

dl/lt (N)



Table 7.1.3 The numbcr of Gauss-legendre quadralUre points required to ev-. luate K~ , M~ . and . ofEq.(7. 1.28).


-------------------HM Eleme m lype H' H'

Qu~druli c


2 3

2 3

2 2

remain the same as listed in the above table. However, the evaluation of f{ requires one point more than before. Conversely. the two-point quadrature for linear e l e me nL~. threepoint quadrature for quadratic e le ments. and four-point quadrmure for cubic elements would exactly evaluate K~ with a quadratic variation of 1I(,\'). M~ with lincar variation of c(x} , and f ( with quadratic variatio n of f(x). TI1C use of Gauss- Legendre quadrature in (7. 1.28) yields the followi ng val ues (exact up to the fifth decimal place) when thc clement is str.light and the isoparamctric fOn1lUlation is used :
Qlwdrfllic Element (71m!l' -Poil1l Fomwlll)

I [

IK I ~ II,

2.33333 - 2.66667 0.33333

- 2.66667 5.33333 - 2.66667

0.33333] - 2.66667 2.33333 (7. 1.30)

I At I =


[1 .33333 0.66667 0.66667 5.33333 JO 0.33333 0.66667 0. ,66667 \ 0.666667 0.166667

0.33333 ] 0.66667 1.333433


Cl4 Elemenr ( Follr.Poilll f o mwlll ) bi{'

IKI - ~

3.700 - 4.725 - 4.725 10.800 - II, 1.350 - 7.425 [ - 0.325 1.350 0.761905

1.350 - 7.425 10.800 - 4.725

- 0.325] 1.350 - 4.725 3.700

0.589286 - 0.2 14286 0.11 3095] 3.857 143 - 0.482 143 - 0.214286 IMI - II, 0.589286 - 10 - 0.2 14286 - 0.482 143 3.857 143 0.589286 [ 0.589286 0.761905 0. 11 3095 - 0.2 14286 0.,25 \ 0.375 Ifl ~ h, 0.375 / 0.1 25


.:)(.IImple7. '"
We wi~ to e\'lIjuatc "he following integrals using the Newum-COle!; and Gauss-Legendre quadrature;:




d'fl dVrl

dx dx


rp{ are the lincar inlCt'pl.llatiQn functi(lns

Vt""'-= - (i +t;)
x~ -x

and Xo is a C(ln~tanl J'iOtC!- th,lt the integrand F(x) in the integral of Kll h a lInear polyn\ltni;ll (i.e., tbe degree. is r = I). Hence. we expec1 thl' one-polm Newton-Cotcs or Gausti-Legendre quiK.Inuure 10 yield the eXact value or Kt'J.' On the other hand. lhe intcgrJnd of Gil i~ a cubic poIYIl<.)[tii:1I (i.e .. the degree is r = 3). Hence, weexpccl the Ihn.:(-('011i1 Newton-Cote~ os: twO' pOll\! GaussJ...cgcndrc quadf'3lure w yield the CX" let value of

C11. The exact

yal uc..~


Kll=-~ [XO+~(X/t+.t~)l. _

NtJ'MOn-COlesQllfldmflll'l'-: For variou~ number {)fb<l!!c-poinl~ r. we have the fl)lIowing results:



ntAI'TEK 1 COMf'lJTI It I\tPU'_""-vr.... " o,,


Causs-I..egelld", QUlUlr(llurt!:

(Xh - :r~)d .

.pt = 0.5(1 -

~). iJf} =

'1'he coefficient Kl ~ for this ca!tl! lake..~ the form Id.l =0.5 0.5(1 + ~), and d1/l;/dx= (1/ J)th/lddt; with j ",,0.5

lllc polynomial order is P"'" I; hence, tM one-point G3l1""~ rule (r = J) would yield the exacl

KI1=-,( I Xh -


[ X<I+x,,+-, (1+0.0)2


= ---...!- [:ro ... ~(.r/> +.l,, )]


The c::ocfficient G ll lil.k.CS lhe form


...N l'<TROOUCllON TO TilE; r1 NIn, 1~.aH;NT MF:mOD

The polYl1oQ1ial orde( is p "" 3. Therefore. the two-poi.nt C1UICl vaJue


rule (r ~'2) would yield the


7.2. 1 introductory Comments
Chapters 3-6 were devoted to the finite clement formulation s of two classes of boundary val ue. initial value, or eigenva lue problems in one dimension: I. Second-order differential equations (e.g., heat tran sfer. nuid mechanics, one-dimensional elasticity. bars, and the Timoshenko beam theory) 2. Fourth-order differential eq uations governing the Euler- Bernoulli beam theory The frame ele ment, obtained by superposing the bar element and the beam element, was discus~ed in Chapter 5. By now, it shou ld be clear to the reader that the steps involved in the finite element analysis of a general class of problems (e.g., single second-order. single fourth -order, and a pair of second-order equati ons) are systematic, and once the finite element fonnulation is completed. the model can be implemented on a digital computer. Indeed, the success of the finite element method is largely due to the case with which the analysis of a class of problems, without regard to the geometry and boundary conditions, can be implemented on a dig ital computer. A particular class of problems (say that described by the model equation of Chapter 3) can be solved by simply supplying the required input data to the program. For example, if we develop a general computer program to solve equations of the form
Cl~ +C2~2 ~-


2 au

a ax




a' ( ax- b~~ ax-


+cu =!

(7.2. 1)

then all physical problems described by Eqs. (3.1. 1) and (5. 1.1) and their time-dependent versions can be solved for any compatible boundary and init ial cond itions. The purpose of this section is to discuss the basic steps involved in the development of a computer program for second- and fourth -order one-dimensional dificrential equations studied in the preceding chapters. The ideas presented here are used in the development of (he model program FEM 10, and they are meant to be il lustrative of the steps used in a typical finite element program development. One can make use of the ideas presented here and implement them using ,,"EM] 0 to develop a program of one's own. Thediscussion here focuses on the finite element computati ons, and no attempt is made to discuss the Gauss eliminat ion



procedure used to solve the resulting system of algebraic equations (a solver is provided with FEM I 0 : see Appendix I located on the book's website at www.mhhe.comireddy3e). 7.2.2 Genera l O utline A typical tinite element program consists of three basic units (see Fig. 7.2. I): 1. Preprocessor 2. Processor 3. Postprocessor [n the preprocessor part of the program , the input data of the problem arc read in and/or generated. This includes the geometry (e.g., length of the domain and boundary conditions). the data of the prob lem (e.g., cocflicients in the differential equation). finite clement mesh information (e.g" clement type. number of elements. element length. coordinates of the nodes. and connectivity matrix). and indicators for various options (e.g .. print. no print. type of field problem analyzed. static analysis. eigenvalue analysis, transient analysis, and degree of interpolation). In the processor part. all the steps in the finite element method discussed in the preceding chapter. except for postprocessing. arc performed. The major steps of the processor are: I. 2. 3. 4. Generation of the c lement matrices using numerical integration Assembly of element equations Imposition of the boundary conditions Solution of the algebraic equations for the noda l values of the primary variables

l'KEPKOCESSOR Kcad g~ometry ,md mat~rial data . and boundary ~nd initial condition ~ of the pmhlcm.

PROC ESSO K Generate tinite eleme nt me~h C~lc ulllle clement matri ces As~embl e clement equation s Solve the equations .

POSTPROCESSOR Compule lhe solution and its derivatives al desired points of lhe domain. and print/plot the results.

Figure 7.2.1 11le three main functional units of a finitc clcment progra m.



In the postprocessor pan of the progmm. the solution is computed by interpolation

at points other than nodes, secondary variables that arc derivablc from the solution arc

computed. and the output data are processed in a desired format for printout and/or plolling. The preprocessor and postprocessor~ can be a few Fortran statements to read and pri nt pertinent information. simple subrout ines (e.g .. subrout ines to generate mesh 3nd com pute the gradient of the solution), Of complex programs linked to other uni ts via di~k and !ape file).. The processor. where typically large amounts of computing time :lre spent, can consist of severa l subroutines. each having a special purposc (e.g.. a subroutine for the calculation of element matrices. a subroutine for the imposition of boundary conditions. and a subroutine for the solut ion of equations). The degree of sophistication and the complexity of a finite element program depend on the genera l class of problems being programmed. the gencmlity of the dOlt;. in the equation. and the intended user of the pro gram. It is always desirable to describe, through comment stmements. all vari,ables used in the computer program. A now chan of the computer program FEM J I) i ~ presented in Fig. 7.2.2. The objective of each of the s ubrou tine~ listed in the flow chan is dcscI;bed below.

ASSEMnLE: Subroutinc for the assembly of e leme111 equations. The equ:ltions arc assembled in uppcr balldcd form for static :Illd tran~ie111 proble ms. and in full matrix foml for eigenvalue probl e m~ . EIGNSLVR: Subrout ine fortlle solution of the eigenvalue problem! A!IX 1= AIHlIXI.













I<'igurt' 7.2,2 Flow chart of the compuler prognlnl FEM I D.



BOUNDARY: Subroutine for imposition of sped fk-d boundllry cond itions (Dirichlet, Neumann, and Newton type), COE F'FCNT: Subrout ine for computing clement m:ltrices r K ~ I . I M~I, and {f~1 for all model problems except for truss and frame clements. EC UODATA: Subroutine to echo the input to the program. 1\1F:SI-IID: Subroutine to gcnenttc the mesh (coo rd inate~ of the global nodes and thc connectivity array). POSTPROC: Subroutine to postprocess Ihe solution for all model problem~ except for truss and frame elemen ..... REACTION: Subrout ine 10 calculale the reactions (i.e .. generalized forces) for tru"" and frame elements. S UA I'E ID: Subroutine to compute the approximmion functions and their deriv:ltives. EQNSOLVR: Subroutine for )'olving banded symmetric ~ystcm of algebraic equation!>. TRANSFRl\'I: Subroutine to compute clement ..tiffness m'ltrix and force vector for truss and frame elemctm. In the follow ing secti ons. a d i ~cu ..sion of the basic componcnts of a typical finite clement program is presented, and then lhe ideas are illustrated via FORTR AN statement....

7.2.3 Prcpmcessor
The preprocessor uni t read, the input data. genemte:-the finite e lc ment mcsh, and prints the data and mesh information . The input data to a finite clement program consi),t of clement type IELEM (i.e., Lagrange clement or HenTIi te elemen t). number of elements used (NEM). specified boundary cond ition .. on primary and ~econdary variable~ (number of boundary condit ions. global node number and degree of freedom. and specified values of the degrees of free dom). the globa l coord inates of global nodes, and clement properties (e.g .. cocf1icicnts u(x), b(x). c(x). I(x), ClC.). [f a uniform mesh is u~ed,the length of the domain shou ld be read in. and global coordinates of the nodes can be generated in the program. TIle preprocessor portion that deals with the generation of fin ite clement mesh (when not supplied by the u),cr) can be sepamted into a "ubroutinc (I\'IESI-I 10). depend ing on the convenience and complexi ty of the progmm. Mesh genemt ion includes computation of the global coord inates X I and the connectivity arr:IY I HI = NOD. Recall that the connectivity matrix de~cribes the re1:lIionship between element nodes to glob:1l nodes as
NOD(/, J) = global/lode /llimber corresl>onding to the Jth (local) node of element I

This array is used in the assembly procedure as we ll a~ to transfer informati on from the dement to the global sy~ t cm and vice versa. For example, to extract the vector ELX of globa l coordinates of clement nodes from the vector GLX of global coordinates of global nodes. we can usc the matrix NOD as follows: The global coordinate X,(~I of Ihe ;th nodc of the 11 th clement is the smne ;1'> the global coordinate X J of the global node I . where
1 = NOD(II, i): {x:")I= I Xd. I = NOD(II.i) -+ ELX(i)=G LX(NOD(II.i

The arrays ELX and GLX arc used in F'EM I D to denote

and {X). respectively.


AN IN1'ROOt:CTIOI> ro -1l1F l'INITIl [LUI E."!' MrTllOO

7.2,4 Calculation of Element Matrices (Ilrocessor)

llie moSl significant function of a processor is to genemle element matrices. Thc clemenl matrices are compUied in various subroutines (COEfFCNT and TRANSl' RM ). depending on the Iype of problem being solved. These subroUl ines typically involve numeri cal evaluations of the clement matrices [K ' I and [M el (program variables EL K and ELM) and the element vector IrJ (program variable EL F) for various fi e ld problems. The GaussLegendre quadrature descri bed in Section 7.1.5 is used 1 evalu<lte clemen! m.. triccs and 0 vectors. and the array" arc assembled ;IS soon as they are computed. Thus, a loop on the number of clements in the mesh (NEM) is used to compute clement matrices and assemble them (su broutine ASSEMHLE). It is here that the connectivity array NOD plays a cnlcial role. By pUlling one clement matri x into g lob.1.llocalionsal a lime, we avoid the computalion of <Ill clement matrices III once. Element matrices fordifTerent model equations (MODEL) and Iypcof problem (NTY PE) arc generated by assigning values as di~cussed next. Governing equations arc lislcd for the static case. The v;Lriables used h:Lve the fol lowing meaning: 11 = thickness of the beam/pl ate; IJ = width of a beam; = Young's modulus; G = / 12(1 + v)l = shcar modulus; v = Po isson's mtio; D == bending stiffness (I) = E1 = 811 1 /12 for beams and D = Hl / 112( I - v 2 ) I ror plates); A = cross-sectional area; K. = shear correction factor; and cl = foundation modulus.
I. MODEL = I, NTYPE = 0 All field problems described by Ihe model equal ions (3.2. 1) and (3.4. 1), including rad ially symmctric hcaHransfer-type problems:


d ( dU) +CIf-J=O:
(1 -


AX =(I(x), CX=c(x), FX =J(x)

-~~ (radII) + r dr dr
2. MODEL = I. NTYPE = I (sec Problem 4.37):

CI/ -

J=O: AX=rll(r). CX=rc(r). FX=rf(r)

Rad ially symmelric deformationofpolarortholropicdisks


d [1-1 (dU tI,.



)] + 11 (u ,.


dU) =rf(r) dr






II n L I21




where f(l") is the distributed force per unit volume (i.e .. HJ(r) = ] is the distributed force per unit area). For the isotropic case, EL = 2 = and 1.112 = \121 = V. 3. MODEL = 1. NTYPE = 2 Radi<llly symmetric deformation o f cyl inders:

_!!... j c


[(I - till + \III]1 [(I - I!)~ + +'

dr ,. , ~ 7.(1-'+:-,--;)""(': -- 2;;-,") -

/ 111] = rJ(r)

4. MODEL = 2. NTY PE = 0 (reduced integration clement; RIE) or MODEL =2. NTYPE = 2 (consiste nt interpolation clement; elE) Bending of straight beams u~ing



the Timoshenko beam theory :

- ~:[GAKs(~+~:)J+CjlV=q
_.'elx (e{J'4s) + GAK. ('4s + elII') ~ O !... (/x (/x
AX =G AKs . CX=Cj(x). FX=q(x), nX =EI
5. MODEL = 2. NTYPE = I (RI E) or MODEL = 2. NTYPE = 3 (elE) bending of circular plates using the shear deformation platc thcory: Axisymmetric

- ~ [!!... (rMa) r (/r

/'.1" = D

M(H} ] M(H} =

+ Q, =0,

- ~!!... (rQ,) rh
Qr =

q= 0

(tI'4s + v'4s) , (Ir r

(v el'4s + '4s) , dr r

K ('4s + dW) sGh dr

6. MODEL = 3, NTYPE = 0 beamlheory:


Bending of straight beams using the Euler- Bernoulli

d', (el d2W, ) +C j


ll'=q(X), BX = EI, CX=Cj(x), FX =q(x)

7. MODEL = 3, NTY PE = I plate theory:

Axisymmetric bending of circular plates using the classical

D~ :!.. I ':!.. [~:!..(,dW)]1 +'jW~q rflr dr rdr dr

8. MODEL = 4, NTYPE = 0 Two- node truss clement. 9, MODEL = 4, NTYPE = I Two-node Euler- Bernoulli frame element . 10. MODEL 4, NTY PE 2 Two-node Timoshenko frame e lentent.

The time-dependent option is exercised through variable ITEM : ITEM = 0 ITEM = I ITEM = 2 st:ltic analysis first -order time derivative (i.e .. parabolic) problems ~ond-order time derivative (i.e .. hYIx:rbol ic) problems

The clement matrices are evaluaH:d using the Gauss- Legendre quadnlture except for MODEL = 4, where the explicit forms of clement coefficients are programmed in the interest of computational efficiency. The clement shape functions SF and their derivatives GDSF arc evalUlltcd at the Gauss points in subroutine SHAIEIO. The gaussi:m weights and points associated with two-, three-. four-. and five-point integration are SIOTed in arr.lys GAUSwr and GAUSP'L respectively. The 11 th column ofGAUSWT, for example. contains the we i g hl.~ corrc~pondin g to the n-point Gauss-Legendre (juadrature rule: GAUSJYf (i. n) = ith Gauss point correspondi ng to 1he II-point Gauss rule The variable NGP is used to denote the number of Gauss poin1s. which is ~e lected to achieve good accuracy. As noted earlier, the line'lr, quadratic and cubic interpolation


,,:. !:>.'TRODUCTlON TOT!!!" FINITE n .E.\tENT \tETIlOD

functions require two, three, and four quadrature point.s, respectively. \0 evaluate the e lement coefficients exactly. Thus, if IELEM is the element type. IELEM = I linear 2 quadratic (Lagrange elements) ( 3 cubic

then NGP = JELEM + I would evaluate K,j, M~. and ft [sec (7. 1.29)1 exact ly when c(x) is linear. and a(x). b(x). and J(x) arc quadratic functions. The Hermite cubic element is identified with IELEM = O. in which case NGP is taken to be 4. The coefficients a(x) = AX. b(x) = BX. and c(x) = ex, together with J(x) = FX in the differential equation (7.2.1) are assumed to vary with x as follow s: AX=AXO+AXI*X BX=BXO+BXI *X CX=CXO+CXI*X FX=FXO+FXI*X+FX2*X*X

(/ = ao+alx)
(b= bo + b1x )
(C = CO+CIX)


(f =

fo + fix + hX2)

For radially symmetric elasticity problems, (AXQ, AX I) lor (BXQ, BX I) for circular plates I are used to input Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio v. The Gauss- Legendre quadrature formula (7. 1.20) can be implemented in the computer fJ as fo!low~: Consider K of the form




d~'d~' a (x) --' __ +c(x)tf!rtf!' J dx dx J

SF(I) = tf!i,

dtf! ~


We use the following program variables for the quantities in (7.2.3): ELK (I. J) = K;'j. AX = a(x), NPE = After transfomling x
\0 ~

CX = c(x),

GDSF(I) = - ' tlx ELX( I)=xi

(the number of nodes in the element)


[or x

+ 0.511 , ( I +~) I
x = L. <tf!;'



the cacfficients K;j in (7.2.3) can be wrillen as

K,j =

l '[

I a(O} d~' }I ,W tis' d~j

+ dntf!IljIj

1 l'
) d~ ;;;:

Gij (s) dE


NGP = L. Gfj(Eil) WI


where Gij denotes the expression in the square brackets in (7.2.5(/).) i~ the Jacobian. and (EI, Wd are the Ith Gauss point and weight. Examination of(7.2.5b) shows that there are three free indices: i, j, and I. We take the Gauss-point loop on I as the outennost one. [n~ide this loop. we eV3luate Gi) at the Gauss point ~I for each i and j, multiply with the Jacobian) = ! h ~ 3nd the weighl~ WI. and sum

over the rangc of I :


Si nce lK'I. 1 e I. !rl arc evaluated for e = 1. 2.... , NEM. where NEM denotes the M number of ele ments in the mesh. we must initialize all arrays that are being evaluated using the Gauss- Legendre quadrature. The initiaJi/..ation must be made outside of the GaussLegendre quadrature loop. fJ The computation of coefficient s K in (7.2.5(/) requires eva luation of a. c. 1/1/. and (/>/1, I(J ~ at the Gauss point ~I' Hence, inside the loop on I . we call subroutine S HAPE I D to eval uate ljI" (/ljIi j (/x = (dljli j(/~) j J . Fortran statemcnts to evaluatc [Kr I and 1 are given below.


DO 100 NI = I.NG]> XI ~ GAUS?T(NI.NGP) C Call subroutine S HPI D to evaluate the interpo lation function" C (SF) and their global derivatives (G DSF) at the Gauss point X[ CALL SHPI D(X[ .N PE.S F.GDSF.GJ) CONST = GJ"GAUSWT(NI.NGP) 00201 = I,NI>E 20 X ~ X + SF(I)"ELX(I) AX = AXO+AXI'X CX = CXO + CXI'X oo 30 J = 1.N PE ELF(J ) ~ ELF(J) + CONST'SF(J),FX 00 30 I = I,NPE 30 ELK( I.J) ~ ELK(I.J) + CONST"(AX'GDSF(I)'GOSF(J) + CX'SF( I)'SF(J)) [n the same way, all the other coe fftcients (e.g .. M;'j and can be evaluated. Recall that the element properties (i.e .. K ~.. M,~. and arc calculated by calling a suitable subroUline (CO EFFCNl' or TRA NSFRM ) for the field problem being analyzed within a loop with a counter based on the number of elcments in the mesh (NEM).



7.2.5 Assembly or Element Equlltio ns (Proct.'SSOr ) The assembly of element equation s should be carried out as soon as the element matrices <Ire computed. rather than wniting till the clement coeffi cients of all the clements arc computed. The lnuer requires storage of the element coeffic ients of each clement. In the former case. we can pcrfomlthe assembly in the same loop in wh ich a subroutine is called to calculate clement matrices. A feature of the finite clement equations that enables us to save storage and computing ti me is the assembly of clement matrices in upper-banded foml. When clemen! matrices are symmetric. the resulting global (or assembled) matrix is also symmetric, with many l..eroS away froll1 the main diagonal. TherefofC. it is sufficie nt to store only the upper ha!j-band of

the assembled matrix . The half bandwidth of a matrix is dc!ined as follows: Le t Nj be the number of matrix ele merus between the diagonal element and the Inst nonzero e lement in the ith row. after which all e lemen ts in that row are Lero; the half-bandwidth is the maximum of (N; + I) x NDF. where NDF is the number of degrees of freedom per node max bl = . 1(N;+I)xNDFI

1!:: 1!:: f1

is the number of rows in the m,ltrix (or equmions in the problem). General-purpose equation so lvers lire avai lable for such banded system~ o f eq uatio ns. The hnlf-bnndwidth NHIlW of the a~M!mbled (i.e .. global) finite element matrix can be determined in the finit e element program itse lf. The loe:.1 nature of the fin ite c lement interpolation function" (i.e., "'; arc de fin ed to be nonLero o nly over the clement Q~ ) is respon!.ible for the banded character of the assembled matrix . If two global nodes do not belong to the same clement , then lhe corresponding entries in the globa l matri x are 7ero<;:

K/J = 0 if globalnooes I and J do not correspond to

local nodes of the samc element This propert y enables us to determine thc half-bandwidth NHBW of tile a'>sembled matri x max (7.2.7a) NHB W = ! ~ N o(" NEM labs INOD(N, I)-NOD(N, J)I+I)xNOF I ~ I . J:::: NPE where NEM = number of clements in the mesh NPE = number of nodes per element NDF = number of degrees of freedom per clement For exampl e. for one-dimensio nal problems with elements connected in series. the maximum diO'erence between the nodes o f an element is equal to NPE - I. Hence. NHBW =I(N PE - 1)+ II x NOF = NPE x NOF

Of course, NH BW i<; alway" Ie,," than or equal to the number o f primary degrees o f freedom in the mesh, i.e .. thc number of equations. NEQ. The logic for assembling the c lement matrices K,'j into the upper-banded fonn of the global coc ffi c i e n1 ~ K/j is that thc assembl y can be skipped whenever J < I and J > NHBW. The main diagonal. I = J, oftllc assembled square matrix (i.e .. full storage fonn ), becomes the first column o f the assembled banded matrix (i.e .. banded storage form), as shown in Fig. 7.2.3. The uPI>cr di.. go n a l ~ (parallel to the main diagonal) take the I>osition o f respective columns in the banded matrix . Thus. the banded matri x has dimension NEQ x NI1BW, where NEQ denotes the total number of equ a' ion ~ in the problem. n,e e lemen t cocOicients K,j and [," of:l typical c lement Q" arc to be assembled into the g lobal coefficients matrix I K I tlnd <;ou ree vector I P I. respectively. If the ith node of the clement is equal to the Ith global nooe and the jlh node of the elemen1 is equal to the Jth global node, we have
K1J= K,j. F/ = P;"

(for NOF=1)


C flAI'I'U1 ,_ U >Ml'lJTI:M IMI1D.l ~:q":1'10N


NEQ _ _ _A _ _ _



O\t1--<1tt....,. ....,. .(11 1. 0 0 0 , , <'I 21'1lN..,. . 112,'aN..t 10
<'1 31 <132 .' .......... ~IJk

a ll " 1 .. "II 2




" 23 '"

uU' 1

<l31r,~'Ujl'2 0

u J3 " 34 . ")1.2

[AJ =





IAJ (half-bandcd
""- 1'".1". 1. " ... 0

NEQ = n


0 "" . NEQ x NEQ

" 'I'


M,lIn dlagoml

"r' ()

Last diagonal beyond which all codflCICnlS are zcro Figurc 7.2.3 Finite clerncnll:ocfticicnt matrix storage in lIppt:r-half-b<lndcd forl11.

The values of I and J can be obtained with the help of array NOD:
1 = NOD(I/, i),

J = NOD(n, j)


Recall that it is possib le that the same I and J may correspond to a pair of i :lIld j of some other clement Q"'. In thnt case. K:j will be added to existing coefficients K/J during the assembly. For NDF > I, the logic still holds, with the change
K(NR)(NC) =
K (;+p _1) (j I_ _1) q

(p, q = 1, 2, .... NDF)

(7.2 .10a)

NR = (/ - I) x NDF + p,

NC = (J -I) x NDF+q


nnd I and J are related to i and j by (7.2.9b). These ideas arc implemented in subroutine

7,2.6 Imposition of Boundary Conditions (processor)

Imposition ofboundnry conditi ons on the primary and secondnry global degrees offrcedom can be carried out through a subroutine (DOUNIJARY)_ which remains unchanged for twodi mensionnl or three-dimensional problems. There are three types of boundary conditions for any problem: I. Essential boundary conditions, i.e., boundnry conditions on primary variables (Dirichlet boundary conditions). 2. Nlltural boundary condit ions, i.e., boundary conditi ons on secondary variables (Neumann boundary conditions). 3. Mixed boundary conditions (Newton boundary conditions). The procedure for implementing the boundary conditions on the primary vari<lblcs involves modifying the assembled coetlicient matrix (G LK ) and right-hand column vector (GLF) by three operations:


AN I Nr~OI)L'CTIO" 'fa '1'111 1~"1T1i EliMENI' MI:lI IOO

Slep I. Movi ng the known products to the right-h:U column of the matrix t.."q u:uion. ld SICp 2. Replacing the columns and rows of GLK corresponding 10 the known primary
variable by L.eros. and setting the coc ft icie nt on the main diagonal to unit y.

SICI) 3. Replucing the corresponding component o f the right-hand culu mn by the s pecified
value of Ihe variable. Consider the followin g N algebr.tic equations in full malrix form :

K" [

K I2

XI )

K" K"



. ]I II I
.. V2 U,


. .

F2 F,


. .

where VI and FI are the global prirnnry and second:uy degrees of freedom, respec tive ly. and K IJ are the asse mbledcoefficiem ... Suppose thai V s = Us is specified, Recall that when the primary degree of freedom at a node is known, the corresponding second,lTY degree of freedom is unknown. and vice vers:1. Set Kss = I and Fs = Us: furth er, ~et K Sl = K IS = 0 for I = 1.2 .... , N and I =I- S. For S = 2, the modi fi ed equations arc




K Jn


K nl

0 0

Kn 3

K", K.,

U, U, U, U.


P3 Pn


1 ';= f; - K;2U2 Thus, in if Us =


(i=1.3.4,5 ..... II: ; =1-2)

Os i ~ known, we have
KSi= KiS= O

where ; = I . 2, .... S - I. S + I ..... /I (i -# S). This procedure is repealed for every specified pri mary degree of freedom. It enables us to retai n the original order of the matrix, and the specified boundary conditions on the primary degrees of freedom arc printed as part of the sol ution. Of course, the logic should be impl emented for a b:mded systcm of equation,. The s pec ified secondary degrees of freedom (Q ;) are implemented direclly by adding their speci fi ed values 10 the computed val ues. Suppo<;e Ihat the poi nt source corresponding 10 the Rth secondary degree o f freedom is ~pecified 10 be F/(. Then

FN=IH+ F/l
where IN is the contri bution due 10 the d islri buled source f(x) : of the clcmcnt computalions and assembled. Mi xed-type bou ndary conditions are of the form


is compuled as a pan

d" (/ - + k(u dx
(/ dll l dx althe node

U) = 0

(ii' and k (Ire known const:ulIs)


(7.2. 11)

which contains both the primary variable u and the !\Ccondary vmiable (J is rcp laced by - k,,(lI p - u,,):

til/ I t/x.

Thu ~,

Q" =

- k p(U p - 01')

C HAl'l'ER 7: COM l'lfl bR IMI'IXME.'< rAI'IUN


Thi s amounts to modifying KI'I' by adding kll to its existing value,

FI' +- FI'+kpDI'

All three types of boundary conditions are implemented in the subroutine BOUNDARY for boundary, initial. and eigenvalue problems. The following variable names arc used in the subroutine BOUNDARY: NSPV NSSV NNBC VSPV VSSV VNBC


Number of specified primary variables Number of specified secondary variahles Number of Newton boundary conditions Column of the specified values Os of primary variables Column of the specified values F R of secondary variables Column of the specified values k " Column of the specified v<llues Oil Array of thc g lobal node and degree of freedom <It the node that is spc(;ified IISPV(I , f)=global node of the Ith boundary condition . ISPVC I,2)= degrce of freedom specified at the global node. ISPV(l.l)]

Simi lar definitions arc used for ISS V and INBC arrays.

7,2,7 Solving ECIUl.tions and Postprocessing

Subroutine EQNSOLVR is used to solve a banded system of equation~. and the sol ution is returned in array OLP. The program pctiorms the gaussian el imination and bnck-substitution to compute the solution . For a discussion of the gaussian elimination used to solve a set of linear al gebraic equations, the reader is referred to the book by Carnhan, Luther, and Wilkes
( 1969).

Postprocessi ng involves computation of the solution and its gradient at preselected points of the domain. The preselected points arc the cnd points of the clement, the midpoint, and three even ly spaced points between the end points and the midpoint. Subroutine POSTI'ROC is used to eV<l luate the so lution and its derivatives at the presciccted points of an element:
u F(x) = L:></1/IjCx),
j:o l


(d"')I ~ t",(d~; ) I
jo I



for the<lnge e lcments and

wr(x) =

L u jj(x) .

(m = 1,2,3)

(7.2 .13)

for the Hermite cubic elements. The nodal values the global nodal values U , as follows:
/I '~u I , j _


of the clement r.l. <Ire deduced from

1 = NOD(C' , j)

o c

o c o o o c

o .;

o o

o c


Table 7.3.1


Fi eld problem
















\4. 15.


17. \8 .

Ellkr-Bemolllli th(""OI) for (""ircular plates Tim(",henko !>earn thoory (RI Er Timoshenko beam lheory (CJE )' Tirnm.hrnko the".) of circular plates (RIE ) "limoshenko theory of circular rlal~~ (CJE ) Plane truss 111e Euler Bernoulli frame dement

2 4 4


(S K )o (S K )o


" t2 (t./)u



2 2






2 0


'" " " " "

f. f" f. f. f.





f, f, f, f,

h h

p, p,


KG n


For field problems 17- 19. these parameters are not read; in,(.:o&t E =5E. A =SA. L =SL. and so on are read for each member of the structure. whcre SE=modulu, E. SA=cro,;,;-scetional area A. SJ=momem of inenia I. SL=lenglh l. or the member. CN=co~O'. SN= ,in 0'. etc. ('><'e Tahl~ 73.~).


The Tim",henk" frame dement

S = GA and K i, the ,hear corn'Ction factor (K 5:6). ' h .. nmc-<lcpcndcnl rruhlcm, ont}; .... hen 'ICad}"'l'Ue solution" requi.-N. ",,[ ITEM 0 ' For tran"enl ."aly,", (01)- the [",,,,,en[ .nalys" O!Minn I. 001 a,"ailabl~ In n cMUl (orlru .. and frame problem,.



when NDF= I. For NOF > I, I is given by / = INOO(e. j) - II x NOF and

U) +p = U11J!

(p = I. 2 ..... NDFl

The va lues computed u~ing th~ derivati\le~ of the ~olution arc often inaccurate because the derivatives of the approxi mate ~oluti{jll become increasingly inaccurate with increasing onkr of di ff~rcntiation. For ~xal1lple, th~ shear forcc computed in the Eu ler-Ekrnou lli beam theory (EBT)

v = _~ (b


\\' ) = (lx 2 ~

~ II'" ~ (h j) d


dx !


will be in co n ~idcrable error in addition to being discontinuous across the elements. The accuracy incrca~e~. rather slowly. with me~h refinement alld higher-order elements. The derivatives computed u~ing 0.2.14) arc more accurate if they are computcd at the Gauss point~. When accurme value~ of the ~econdary variables are desired at the node~. it is recommended that they be computed from the clement equati ons:

Q~ =

" L K~lIj )"= I


U = I. 2 ..... n)


However. thi~ requires recomputmion or s:lVing of e lement coeffkienlS and f,~ . j Recall that the nrxbl values of geneT<l li7.ed forces arc exact at the I1(xle~ when computed u~ing (7.2. 15) for certain problem~ as discussed before.

K :


7.3.1 Gcnenll Comments The computer progT<lm FEM I D. which embodies the ideas presented in the previous sect ion. is intended to illu~trate the us..: of th..: linite clement models d..:vclopcd in Chapters 3--6 to a variety of one-dimensional field problems. some of them arc nOl discussed in this book. The program f'EM II) is deve loped as a learning compulationaltool for <;tudents of a tirst course 011 the finite clement method (sec Appendix I for a listing of the program located on the boo ... 's wcb~it..: at www.mhhe.comircddy3c). In the i nt e re~ t of ~illlp l icity and case of understanding. only the modcl equation~ di~cussed in thi s book and thei r immediate ex\Cnsions are included in the program. Table 7.3.1 contain~ a ~ummary of the definitions of eocftkien ts o f various model problem~ and their corresponding program variab l e~. The table can be used as a ready reference 10 select proper value~ ofAXO. AX I, and ~o on for dillerem problems. 7.3.2 Illustrative
]i xalllpics ~

Here we revisit some of the example problems considered earl ier to illustrate the



rEM 10 in their solution. Only certain key observalionsconcem ing the input data are made.
but complete listi ngs of input files for each problem are given. In the intere~t of brevity. Ihe complete output files for mo~t problems are nOl included. A description of the input variables 10 progrllln FI<:M 10 is presented in Table 7.3.2. In Table 7.3.2. "skip" 1llean~ that the input data is omitted (i.e .. no dat:I is required). In the "free

Table 7.3.2 Descriplion o f Ihe input

variub le~

1 the progr.un .' EM II) 0

.. l1ala Card I Tille of lhe problem be mg sol,cd (SO chamclers) T ITLE .. I)llla C:,rd 2 ~_ _ _-:-:--,--_ _,__-,--,__-,__- - - , - - , _ _ - - - - - - - - - - - - _ :'I IOI1EL Model ~'(Iu ~tioo being sol~'cd (see below) NTY I'E Type of prQb!cm '\{lIved (see below) 1'0101)"1. '" I. NTYPE = 0: A prQblcm uf MODEL EQUATION (3.2.1) MOI)hL ", I. NTY I'E = 1: A cir<,:ular DISK (PLANE STRESS) MODEL .. I. NTYPE > I: A c irt;ul~r DI S K ( PLANE STRAIN) MODEL = 2. I\"TYPE =0: A Timo~hcnko BEA \! {RIEl prob lem MODEL = 2.I\TYI'E = 1: A Timo<hcnl.o PLA ( RIE l problem TE
MODEL = 2. NTYPE = 2: A Timoshcnl. o BEAM ICIE ' I problem MODEL = 2. NTYPE > 2: A Timo.. l>cnko I'LATE (CIE) problem MODI: L "" 3. NTYPE '" 0: A F..u ler- Ikmoulli BEAM problem MODEL '" ~. NTYPE > 0: A Eu1cI- llemoul h circu lar plate MODEl. = 4. NTY!'E '" 0 : A plmlC TRUSS problem MODEL = 4. NTYPE", I : A FAller- Bernou lli FRAMEprohl~m MODEL ", 4. NTYI'!! '" 2: A Timo,lll'nk" (CHi ) IRAME problcm ITEI\I rndl c~ tor fur tran,ient ~nalysi s ITEM "" O. Stcad)' .. t:tle SolUliun ITEM _ 1. Transicnt anal), . i, of PARABOU C e{IUUlions ITEM = 2. Transie nt an~ly'is of I IYI'ERBOUC eq uatiun , Ill;M = 3. Eigc nv~ll>e analysis .lhll'Ca rd J _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ I": LI,;M Type of fimte r kme nt IEI.EM "" O.l lernllte cubic finile clement II::I.EM = I. Linear Lagl".mge fim le clement ' ELE~ I ... 2. Quad r:llic Lagmnge finll e clement Numher of e lemc nts in the lI1C_h


l l a l a C a r d 4 ~

Ilitli ealor for conlinuity of dal~ fur ll.e probl em ICONT ,. I. Data (AX.BX.CX.FX und I1le,h) is co nlinuOlI S ICONT = O. Dat a i, elemem lkpcndcnl In diC~I()r for printing uf element/glob,,1 nl,urice, NI'RNT "" O. Not to print element or glob.l l nl'ltriee~ bul JlO"tprocess the sol ution and pnnt NI'RNT "" I . !'rint E1enlCnt I coe fficient "mt rices OIl ly but po~proceSllII>c wl ullon ~l1d prim 'ril1t Elemenl I :md gIQtu ll1t:ttrice, but Nf'RNT = 2. 1 NOT postprocc's lhc 'iolullon NI'RN'T > 2. Not 10 print clement or global mmrk'C~ and Nor JlO.,tPf()L'C>s lhe ,,(lIUllon



Skip Clnh 5-15 for TlWSS/FRAME pr.)hl~I1\' (MODEL = 4). mid rc~d Can.1> 5- 15 onl), if MODEL #- 4. SK IP card~ 5- 9 if dal~ is di..cominIlOl.h ( ICONT = OJ . I)ata Ca rd 5 ~---,__-_::__:_--,-__:__:c:__,___:_--,_____:_:_c--::_----~ IlX (11 Army or c le menl Icngt h,. OX ( I) ocnotc, the globa l cuordin ale of Node I of the 11.."h: DX(I ) (I = 2. NEM I) dcno, ~s the length of the ( I . list d eme nt. \\here NEM I '" NtM + I. and NEM dellOle~ the number of elements III tho: ntt:~.

Cards 6-9 delinc tltt: ~'OC mcienb In lhe model cquation~. All eocfhcients are ex pressed in tenns of
GLOBAL OOOJdlllate x _Sec Thble 7.2. I for lhe IIlCaning ofltlc ooc lli~'lel1l'"

(Ta ble 7.3.2 continued)

Ihl,. Ca rd 11 -:,--_ _ _ _--,,--_--:-,--_-,-_ _-,--:-,--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ AXO Con,tantterm uftlle coefficient laCt) =1 AX AX I Line,lr term uf AX Ilata Card 7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ BXO BX I Constant term of the coefficiellllb(I' ) ", IUX Lin~ar terlll of the coefficient BX

UlltaCardS - : -- - - - - : - - - : : : c - -- - - , - : : c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

CXO Con,I;11lt ternl "fllle c".,rlkientlc(x) =1 CX CX I Linear terllt of the cocrtieient CX SKIP Card \I for eigenvalue problem, (i.e,. when ITbM = 3) .UHlll Card II __________________________________ FXO FX I FX2 CUn'lam t~rnl of the source If(x) = 1 I'X Linear term of I'X QU;ldratic tenn of FX

SKIP Card, 10 15 if dala is continuou, ( ICONT 'f OJ. Cards It}-15 arc read for c;teh ekment (i.e .. NIiM time,). All codocients ;ire with ""pcd In the LOCAL coord inate .i.
n"tH Card

NNM Numbcrof gluhal node. in the me,h I>ala C;lrd 11 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ NOD

10 ,,--,---:--,--,--,--,---,---,----------------------

CotHlectivily of the elertlCllt: NOD(N.I) = Global node number corre,pomling to tt,e hh node "r Ekment N (1= I, NPE) where NPE denotes thc Number of nodes Per Element GLX ( I) Length ufthe It II clement 1)" 1,, C .. rd 12 -,._ _ _-:-:-_ _ _ _-:-_ _ -::-:_-,-::-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ IX'AX Conslant and linear tl'rIllS of the cocflkielll AX
l)ala Card 13 _______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ .I)'l la CHrd 14 ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __



and linear


or the coeflicienl BX


CUn,tant and linear terms of the cocftkient ex CUII,tatH, linear ,md quadratic tenn' of FX

l)alaCard 15 - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - : = c - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

READ Card. 1 6-2~ only for TRUSS/FRAME problems (MODEL = 4): ntherwi,e SKIP, DlIllI Curd 16 _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ NNM Number of nodes in the finite delllent mesh

I)ala Cu rd 17 (Read for

SKIP C~rd, 17-19 for TRUSS prohlcm, (NTYPE = 0) ~lIc h elemcnt ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ PR SE SL SA SI CS SN

Poisson's ratio of the 1l1aleri,ti (notu>"d in ERn Young', modulu, of ,hc materi~1 Length of the ckmen! Cro,,->cctional ~rc~ of tile clement Moment of inertia of the clement Cosine of the angk of orientation of the clement Sine of the angle of oricnt"tiull of Ille clement: the angl~ i, mea,ured clockwise from the global x a~i, .1)111;1 Card IlIlR e;ld for r,lch rilnlentJ -c:- C : - - c : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 111' Int en,i1y of1hc horifontal di,trihuted force VF Int~n sity of the transvcr>ely di,tributed force PI' Point lood on the clement XB Di,tallce from nnd" I, :tiong the length of the clemen t to th ~ puint of lo;td application, PI' CI'.'T Cusine of the angle of orientatioll uf the load PF SNT Sine of the angle of orientation of the load 1'10: the angle i, measured clockwise ffl)m the element I axi"

('11<1.1'1' 01 7: ('("'II~tnOil IMIU.",,":...-rAll01'l


(Tu bl" 7,],2 con tin ued)

I)ala Ca nl f\OD

1 -,____--:-_____.,--_________________ '

of lhe clcmcnt: NOD(N.I) =- glob<llnodt: ntunber co"""~pondin~ In Ihe Ith 'klllc of clement N ( I = I,KI'E)

REAl) Cards 20 lmd 2 t ulI!y fur TRUSS prolJ lcms (NTY PE = 0).
I>uta Card 20 I Read for clleh cICIIlCIlI"__-,-,-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _




Ib lll Ca rd 21 ________________ NOD(KI)

YOlll1g'~ 1I1(llIlllu, of tl,c m~lcrial 1 ..c1lj;lh "flllC dement Cm"' >e<:tiOIiU I urc~ of IIIC clc,nent Cosine of Ihe angle Iff un cnl:ltioo of Ihe element Sine of the angle of orientation of lite elemenl Angle;' 1I1C;I'Urro eoo merctock"'ie frllm \ ax!' Inlen.~i l} of llle lIori700iai d'Mrit..Hcd force

.1)ulllCard 22 -,,--,-_-c_,--,____-,-,-___________________
NCO:'>l Number of inclined 'Ill'port cUllditions SKIP Card 23 if 110 inc line(1 "lppol1 conditiuli s arc 'llCci/ied (NCON 0). I)ala Ca rd 23 (I = Il u NeON) _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ICON( I) GloIJal,lOde number of the !iuppol1 VCON(I) Angle (in <kgreCl;) ~lweenlhc l"Iorlilal and Ihc global ' - a)(i ~ I)a la Ca rd U _,--,-_-,-___-,-____, - - - - -__, - - - , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - NSPV f'i:umberof ~pecified I'R IMARY degrees of fret:dmn SKIP CanI 2'i if no prImary variable.~ i~ ~pel' ilied (NSPV= O). I)ala Ca rd 25 (I = I 1 NS I'V)--,.,----,--:::c:---CC-:-- - - - - - - -- - - -- - 0 ISI'V{ I. I ) Node 1"II,lllihe r al "hieh Ihc PV is specified Specified local prima ry u.,~R~ of fR"COOIll (ooF):l t the lluOc ISI'V(I,2) VSPV(I) Specified v:llllC uf tl,c primary variable (PV) (wi ll nO! re"d foreij;c'lValuc probll'll" ) SK IP Card 26 foreigellvalue prublem, (i.e .. "hen ITEM = J).
1 \aCard 26 -,:---,__-C__-,,--,____-,_________________________________________ )H

('onneclll'lty of the clement: NOD(N,1l '" gloOOl node number Jlh node of clemenl N CI = I,NPE,

('O,.,...,pondi n~

to the


l\"umberof ,pecified (nollr.cro) SECOl\'OARY 'ari~bb


SKI P Cartl27 if no '\C"CQIltlary variable,,, speci fied (NSSV= O): f('P'"'31 Card 27 NSSV ISSV{I.I) ISSV(I, 2) VSSV{I)
C~ rd

I)ala Ca nl 27 (I = I 10 l\'SSV)'_,--.,--,---"'_ _-::--:_______________

Nod", l"Iulllbe r III "hlch the SV is spI."Cilied SlleCilled local second~I)' DOF at lhe,~ Specitied ,"alue uf tllC SI."Condary nria blc (SV) Number of Ihe Newlon

I)lI ta

211 ____________ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ __ _


I.x>llndary COlld,I'O'"

SK IP Ca rd 29 if no mi~cd hound:,ry cond ,tion is 'pedti~d (NNIIC = U), Th.: mhed bound;lry L'\)I ldilion is as>umcd 10 be of the funn: SV+VNIK *WV UREF) = 0 . II.cP'"'at Canl 29 NNBC hllle'. I>ala Ca rd 29 (I == I lu :"O:"OII l;") _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ INBC(!.I) INBCn,2) VN Bcr l) UREI-'{I) Nude nu"'~r III "hlCh the mixed B.e. "specified Local 001 of lhe PV and SV allhe node ' Valuc oflhc cuc:Okicnt of lhe PV in the n.c. RefcfClICc '-dluc of the PV


,o.;.II:><'lltOUtJC110'l 1lJ1l11' 11'lITi u .r., r'ITMICTI IOO

(T:lble 7.3.2 cOlll inued)


.Il:ol a Cllrd 30 _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

:>iul11t>.,r of rnullipoml con_"m;nl~ (wl id nICCllan ic"

SKIP Card 3 1 if III) mllll'pol111 {,,,,, (h l, O'" nrc 'jX'cifi ~d (N MPC "" 0). Til e lIluhipt)im condilion is a .lluncd 1 be of the foml' 0 VMPC( .. I, PV I+VMI'C<..2,- PV 2=- VI\ II'C/..3j. l(epc.11 Card 3 1 NMI'C III1I C~ . nata Ca rd 3 1 (I = I 10 NMI'C' _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
IMe 1(1. 1)
IMC I(1.2)

Node number a."ocHl.tcd w ,th I'V I

u,,:alooFof I'V I

IMC2{1. 1) IMC2{1.2)

Node number a".OCl.lll-d wi lli I'V2 Local 001' of I'V2

Valu", of III" coc-ffieiems of lite COOSit3ml equ~llOn

Value of lhe foree :'l'p lteJ ,II the node of PV I or I'V2

Skip Curd 32 if ITEM "" 0 (read onl)' fur li me-depcodcnl or elgem-aluc pmolcl11s) illlh, Cllrd 32 -::-----:-=--:::::---:=:-:c---


- - - - - - - - -- - - --

Con'W Ill p:1I1 0fCr = CTO+CTIX

Lin~ar parl ofC,. "" cro +cr l*X

S ~'P rcrnainlllg cards if 'lcady 'taIC or ci~cn~al uc annly~i~ is hi be pc rfol'lllcd

(ITEM = 0 " r1TEM = . ). '

Il:lh, Cud 33

"C:--,-------,------- - ---------- -- - -- Time ilk:n:menl Lumform ) l'ar.tmeler In III" IUlle " PI"Ox.malioo scheme Parameler mi lle lime approximation scheme-




when ITEM = I


I)ata Ca rd.4 _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _
IN COND Indi cmor fOf 'Ullinl CO n<li li rlllo;; INCONO = 0, I IOlll ogcncous (~em) inilial ~'undit ion s IN COND > O. Nonhonmgeneou. ini lial condilions Number of lime ~lcl'" ror IIhicll MlIUlion is '>Ought lime 'IeI' jnlcrval~ at wh,ch \-olnlion j, 10 be prin led

(;,\'e GAMA= 10 6 ... hen cenl~red d,ffercoce is IIJ.ed (forrnulal'Of1 on Prob lem 6.23 is Ihe COI1'CCI way 10 "llplemcnt Ihe ce ntered differt'n~'C .",heme) .



Sl ,p Cards 35 and 36 if inllial eono:h lt()l1~ arc lem (lNCON I) = 0) .lbta CardJ5 ____________________________________________________________
GUO Array of iml'dl
\ a lue.~

t)flhe pnm:!!)' variables

Sl Ip Card 36 for parJoohe equ al ;o", ( IT EM "" I ). Uula Card 36 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _

GU I Array of inlilal

of lhe firsllnne dcrivallvelj of the pri ,":!ry variahle,.

format" used here, v.uiables of each "d'II" card" (we sh,,11 use this tcmlinology to imply an input '\Cqucncc in " "i ngle in<;truction) are read from the <;arne line: if the values arc not found on the same line. the compuler will look for them on (he next line(s). However. dat:1 requ il\.-d by dilTercnt dala card~ c:mnot be put on single line; each data card must stan Wilh a new line. The ..,pace available afler Iyping requi red da(a on a given line may be ui>Cd to include an y comments. For eXi.llllple. we may lislthe variable names on that line for ready reference but only after all of tile required dala are listed. The lex( inc luded (hereafter is n ol read by the computer (except tt) edlO Ihe input file).

(')I ,\I'ln< 7

(,()~lI'U'IEH IMI1.LMESTAriO-'


E,,"mplc 7.3.1 (Sleady Hent TratJl'fer in a Rod)

CQn)id~r the

heal transfer problem of Example 4.3.3. TIle PrQblem is governed by

dlQ -~+m2(f=0 d.t!





(d8) I , ~O d, ..
P. ;Jnt! k are

where f} is the nQudimensionnl temperature. and L. m~. 0."






For this problem. we h~lVe MODEL := !. N1'"YPE :: 0, snd 11CM :: 0 (for a ~h:ady-sl!lle .solution). Since 11=:-1.0 ;lnd c>=m l "", Pf3/Ak :=400 are the ~nle for 1111 elcmeols, we set rCONT "" I , AXO..", 1.0, a.nd CXO = 400. AU other coefficients are :?;ern tb "" 0 and f "" 01 for lhis prohlem. F()r a uniform mesh of four linear elcments (NP.M = 4, JELEM "" J), the increment.' of the army DX(1l rwhere OX( I) is ttl ....',lys the x cQ(Jrd.imlte {If node I (see rigure 7.3.J) and II =L/4 =0.05/4 =0.0 125J are; DX = JO.O, 0.0125. 0.012.";. 0.0125, 0,0125).

L' 0.05, c" 400. 100. to< SO


(all with






I' /~
UI'" U(U) "" 300



~~~. ~
4 Q1 <>;]X

+ ,





'" 0

l<'lgure 7,3. L FiQite element of a rectangular fin.

The boundary conditions of lhe problem reduct:. to VI =0 :Ind Q~ =0. There is one spec~ ified boundary !:ondition (Re) on the primary ~'ari[jbJe (NSPV = I), "and il i~ dcgree of freedom (001-1 (for heal trJosfe( probJem~, lhere b only onc {)OF} at node I is: lSPV( 1. J) = I (lnd JSPV(1. 2) = I. The specified \'ll..lue is VSPV(1) "'" 3(10. Since the natura! oound<lJ)' l'O!I' dition (Q1 =0) is homogenous. there is no necrllO add a z,ero tl) lhe correspondingcotl)' of the source vc<.:tor(i.e . NSSV =O}. There are no rni;.:ed (i.e., con\'~tioll) wunditl)' condiliOtl~ in tltis problem (NNBC "'" 0). The c0111plete input data requ.ired to analyl.e the pro.hlcJIl using FEMtD art:. p~nted in Bo;.: 7.3.1 and the output me is pre:>ented in Box 7.3.2. Input data and partial OUlput for the ~al)lc problem when ;\ mesh of two quadratic elclncnts Me used arc presented in Box 7.:U.


AN NIRootJCnON1()TIU n ... rn IU\I'.N"1 MFTlIOI)

BQ" 7.3.1 III PUI file from FEMIO for the problem in EX;lmple 7.3.1. ElImple; I leill triln~f<,( in il roe (4 lineal" elcm~nt~) 100 MODC!\." t-.'1'Y(>B, ITEM 14 IfI...EM, Nh'M 11 lCONT. NPRN'r 0.0 0.0125 0.0125 0.0125 0.0125 DX{l)-XO; DX(2), ctc, Ekm('nt lengths 1.0 0.0 MO, AXl 0.0 0.0 BXO. !JXl 400.0 0.0 0;0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 FXO, FXL FX2

1 1 3tXI,O

ISPV(I, 1), ISI'V(1.2), VSI'>V(l) N$SV NNBC


Box 7;3,2 Edited OUtl)Ut from FEMI D (or the problem in Example 7.3. 1.

OUTM frt)m progrn.m FMJO by J. N. ReDOY Example 7.3.1;1:

lrilns(cr In" rc)(i (4 linear cll!,)lcnts)

...- ANALYSIS OF MODEL 1. AND1YPF. 0 PKOOUMM (St'" tlk' code below) MODl-l, NTYPE-O: A probll>rn dcscribt.>d by MOO[L EQ. 1 MODE!.-I, NlYPI:-"l: A drt:u lOlr DISK (PLANE S fR C5S) /'. looEL-1, NTYI'E>l: A cirt'Ular OISK (PLANF.STRAIr\) MODEl"'2,. l\,'TYPP.-O: A TIOlOlihenko ilEA'" (RIff) probkm MOOEL-2,. f\.'T'(PE-l: A Til11()Silenko PLA TF. (kJF.) probkm \I.100L"2. !',;l'YPE-Z: A Ti~o IJEAM (el) pmbl<,m MODEL"2,. NTYPB>2: A Tim(l$l\ct\ko PLA T (CIU) prob!em MODEl-3, N'l'YI'EooO: A rul~r-BemouJli 81!A\<I problem MODllL-3, Nli'l'l>O: A Eul""~lkmtlulli Circular pl;lte MOOEJ.,-4, N1Yf'E-0: A plJne TRUSS prnblem MODEL-4, NTYpt .... l A EI.IIt:Tlkmoul!i FRAM problem MODEL,""" t'.t'TYPI!"*2: A TimO$ht.'nko (CI) FRAMl' problem element typo! (0. I k>rmit l',>O. Lagrang~) ." 1 No. of deg. of fl\.....>dOlll per node, :-..!DP ,..- 1 No. o( demml$ in the I1Wl'h. NEM .......... 4 Nil. of total DOl; in th(' model. NEQ .,.~ .... 5 No. of "pc<:ificd prilTldry OOF, N5PV ,...... 1 No. of spc<:ified SL'COl1dnry oor. NS$V ....- 0 No. of ~pt.'Cificd Newton B. C: NN6C ...... 0

CUM'll11 7 ("OMI".J1EJt 1~1I~.I:1o'~'(lMK~


( Box 7.3.2


("(lJ1li nueU from the



Boundary informiltion on primary van..lbles:

1 I 0.30000+03
Glob.. ! coordinMt"M of the nodes, {GLXI:

O.OOOOOE+OO 0.12500-01 O.25000E-Ol 0.37500E..()1 O.SOOOOE..()l

Cocffid~nl<; ()f

the differential cquiltion:

AXO '" 0.IOOOE+01


CXO ... 0.4000+03


AX1 '"'O.(XX)()E+OO BX] '"' O.lXIOO ... OO on .. O.OOOOE +00

FX1 ,",0.0000 i'{)()
rX2 O.l)(OOE+OO

coefficienl m.:ltrix, IELK]: 0.Sl 667P.+02 -o.79167E+02

-O.79167E+02 0.8'1667E+02
Elclllt'nt source v'{'IVf, {ELF}:

O.OOOOOE+OO 0.000001::+00
SOLUTION (valu(.'S of PVS) at the NODES:
0.30000E+03 0.2;i"l52+03 0.21892+03 0.20016+03 0.19403E+03

P. Variable

S. VariabJ(!

O.OOOOOE+OO 0.30000+0..1 -O.38785E+04 O.l2500E-Ol 0.25152E"'03 -O.26076E+04

0.25000-01 0.21893"'03 -O.15015E+04

0.37500E-OJ 0.20016+03 -O.49018E+03
Box 7.3.3 Input and pani:lI output

quaoratic clemen".

I 0 0


0.0 0.025 0.025 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 400.0 00



lLEM, NE!~...' ICON'l", NP/{N'I'

DX(1)-XO: DX(2), ('Ic. Elt'.lcnglh$

AXO. ,\Xl


axo. aXl

0.0 0.0 0.0

CXI FXO, foXl, FX2


o o

1 1 300.0

ISPV(l .lj. ISPV{J.l). VSI'VP)




,..~ l"'Ilt( ~H I("1()'1ro Tllh n"ln U I '1I 'l1 MIIHOI)

(Box 7.3.3


continued fmm the



OUTPL.l' i1'Qfl1 p~r"lfn 1(\110 I)~' J. :\I. REDI)Y


Eumpte 7.3.\: Heal IrJllI>fct in I) rod {2 quadrillic: .. ten\ents} Eh.'ml!nl Iy!"! (0, ! krlllj~, ~ 0, Lagl"illlgc) ..- 2 \lo. Qf "eg, 01 f!\.'\u(lm ~>j,!r nQde, :-.I{)J. " .... t :\Io,ulcl~'m<.'f'II"inthi.Olt"Ih,!'."E.\1 ." 2
~o, Qf 10M POI; 10 the mod",l, NEQ. . 5 No, of ~pcciflcd primilry OOF, NSJ'V . 1 No, of~-pcdrJCd ~"an' ocr. :-.lSSv .. 0 No. (If spet:ificd Nt'wk>n 6. "'NBC ."..... 0


Global cooruinJk'S {If Ih<'



O.OOXJO ..00 O.I2SOOF.41 O.25000C-Ol OJro1F-O! O.50000E-OI

!:;1mwnt ooeffki"nl malT;" IELKJ: 0.946671':+02 -O.LOj((W+03 0.)3000l; + 02 -4).IO&OOI;:+ro 0.2II1t17F+03 -(l,l0600l + 03 0,1.1000+02 -0 10b00l'+tJ3 O,9-tQ676 + 02
El<mlenl ';o(>UfI:'e wdor, {H. FI: O,25I)X)E-OI O.I(lO.)(J[+OO O..z5lXlOf.{}1
SOLUTfQ;-.I (valul!'l I'V8) at tht:c NODI:$: 0j{)"()()t;+03 0.25170[+-0'\ 0.219231)+03 0.20052f+m 01',4421:+03



P V~riilbl ...

S. V~rial>I.



O.3000;)l;+{l3 -O.44'm f!+04 0.2192H:. "-(1:1 -o.19642r;H}4 O.21'J2-tF-l1):,\ -0.20014+04



ElI:llInple 7,3.2 (Steady Heat Tf'Jn~fcr in a Compositc W:III) Ilcrc we c()n~idcr [he l'OmPlhilC w(!IIIII'tIhJcm of U:(,lnlille 4.3.1 The gll'ierning cquatiOIJ~ of the pri.'blcill are