Lawson Middle School Sixth Grade

CORE MANUAL
Table of Contents
Section 1: Thunder & Lightning Core Information Section 2: Social Studies 100 Terms Section 3: Spelling & Vocabulary Section 4: Reading & Literature Requirements Section 5: Writing & Research Tools Section 6: Science Information Section 7: Math Information Section 8: Advisory Information

This manual belongs to: ________________________________ Core Teachers: _______________________________________ We have read and reviewed the Core Manual together: Parent/Guardian signature: ______________________________
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Student signature: ____________________________________

Section One:

Thunder & Lightning Core Information
Ms. Sun & Ms. Yong
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Core Information: Ms. Sun & Ms. Yong Rm. 11 & 12 Lawson Middle School _________________________________________________________________ Welcome to 6th grade!
We are looking forward to working with each and every student this year. In this section We have tried to answer frequently asked questions and include basic information on the subjects and procedures that most kids and parents ask about. If there is something that you need that is not covered, please feel free to contact us. We also highly recommend that you attend Back to School Night for more detailed information.

Core Curriculum
What is CORE?
Core consists of two academic sections, each for two periods a day. One covers language, reading, and social studies. The other class covers both math and science. The curriculum is integrated and is aligned with and follows the California State Standards and Cupertino Union School District standards for 6th grade. Please refer to the Highlights of the Core Curriculum on the CUSD website for more details. http://cupertino.ca.campusgrid.net/home Language Arts: consists of reading, literature study, spelling, writing, speaking/listening, vocabulary development, and grammar and usage. Some topics of study include literary analysis, multi-paragraph writing, writing for different purposes, review of subject-predicate, note-taking and report writing, oral presentations, reading for a variety of purposes. Social Studies: concentrates on the study of major Western and nonWestern civilizations. Topics include geography, everyday lives, problems, and accomplishments of people, and their role in developing social, economic, and political structures that helped spread ideas and transform the world. Math: focuses on the expanding concepts learned in elementary school and introduces math concepts necessary for pre-algebra and algebra in seventh grade. Science: concentrates on Earth science, including energy, heat transfer, biomes, natural resources, plate tectonics, landforms, and investigation/experimentation. Exploratory Wheel: provides an opportunity to explore a variety of possible topics, such as drama, art, and technology. Advisory: assists students to address social, emotional, academic, and 4

service needs for themselves, their school, and the community.

What are the California State Standards?
The state of California has set up guidelines, or standards, which outline what every child in the state should learn at every grade level. You can find the standards at the California Department of Education (CDE) website. This site provides standards for all grade levels, parental information, suggested reading lists, and much more.

Completion of Work
Will there be Homework?

YES!!! There is a great deal to learn in 6th grade, and homework is crucial to your child’s success. Our belief is that homework should be used to practice skills taught in the classroom. In LA/SS Core your child will have 100 minutes of reading, writing, grammar, vocabulary, and 100 Social Studies Terms studying most weeks. Other homework assignments might include social studies activities. Homework is assigned in accordance with district policy. Any work not completed in class is also expected to be completed as homework. Each student has received a homework planner and has been instructed in how to mark it. Parents are requested to check the planner and discuss assignments with their student nightly. Please see the class web page to check planner against assignments. In general there will be a maximum of 30 minutes of homework per subject each night Monday through Thursday, with the exception of math, which will have nightly homework, and can take longer depending on the individual student. Some projects might require additional time over the weekend. Homework assignments will be posted and reviewed in class. In order to help your student with their organization and homework, we recommend that you check his/her Lawson Planner each night and review work with him/her after it is completed. Homework in LA/SS will be assigned as needed throughout the week. In MA/SC Core there will be nightly math homework and occasional science readings and activities. If a student does not finish work in class, he or she may also need to complete it at home. Please reference our website for assignments and due dates. Please compare your student’s planner to the website to check for accuracy and to help students prioritize their work. In addition, the website will contain general information, most handouts and examples of assignments.
http://sites.google.com/site/mysunshineteacher http://sites.google.com/site/msyongsclass

What about late work?

It is our expectation that all assignments will be completed on time. No 5

late assignments will be accepted for full credit. Late work may be accepted for half credit if turned in within a week of the original due date.

What about make up work during absences?
It is the student’s responsibility to obtain and complete assignments (in-class and homework) missed for any reason. This includes appointments, illness, and family trips. When students are absent, they can call a classmate for assignments or check the webpage for homework. Upon return the student may check with the teacher during break, or before or after school to obtain the missed work. For excused absences, students will generally have the number of days absent to complete any missed assignments. Students need to make arrangements to complete any missed tests during study hall at a time specified by the teacher. Work missed due to an unexcused absence is accepted for credit at the discretion of the teacher. If the student knows in advance that s/he will not be in class on the day of test (family trip, etc.), arrangements must be made to take any test prior to the absence.

When is Study Hall?

Study hall will be held once a week in a classroom designated by Ms. Sun and Ms. Yong– Wednesdays after school from 3:00 p.m. to 3:45 p.m. This is optional for students who would like extra help. If students would like to attend, please let your teacher know. Students participating in after school sports will be able to request a Wednesday lunch time study hall with their teacher.

Grading and Assessment
The standard A to F system is used for all classes at Lawson. Grades are based on homework, tests, quizzes, projects, notebooks, effort, and participation. As well as traditional letter grades, your student will receive a standards-based grade on how well he or she has met the state standards. All grades are kept online, and you may access them from home or work at your convenience. Please use the Parent Interned Viewer as a resource to help your student manage their grades. Although we believe that learning is the result of efforts by students, teachers and families, we also believe that learning and managing grades is the individual responsibility of the student. This year provides a great opportunity to help students learn how to be accountable for their academic efforts. To reinforce this concept, students will be taught skills such as time management, prioritizing assignments and reflecting upon their work Students are assessed on the following factors on an on-going basis: • quality of work based on grade level standards, balanced with the individual needs of the student. 6

• •

timeliness attention, cooperation, effort, and participation in class

Parents and students may stay aware of the student’s progress by reviewing returned work and by regularly checking the online grade book. Parent signatures may be required on work receiving an achievement grade lower than a 70% or assessment score of “minus” (-). Additionally, students may be instructed to redo the work. Assignments are scored by points. Traditional achievement grades are awarded at the end of the trimester corresponding to the following percentages: 100% - 94% A 93% – 90% A minus 89% - 87% B plus 86% - 84% B 83% - 80% B minus 79% - 77% C plus 76% - 74% C 73% - 70% C minus 69% - 67% D plus 66% - 64% D 63% - 60% D minus < 60% F In accordance with CUSD guidelines for standards-based assessment, in some cases work may be scored as follows:

+ √

Exceeds standard Meets standard Below standard

Grade Calculations:
Language Arts and Social Studies Homework, classwork and participation 40% Essays, projects, presentation, tests, quizzes 60% Math Science Notebook/Participation 30% Tests/Quizzes 30% Tests/Quizzes 30% Notebook 30% Homework 30% Lab Protocol/Participation 20% 7

Projects/POM/ 20% Group Work

10%

Projects/Current Events/ Group Work

We expect all students to work consistently and honestly. Cheating will result in a zero on the assignment or assessment (test/quiz) and an automatic “U” in citizenship. Please refer to the Lawson Planner on page 10 for the definition of cheating.

Communication
How can students reach us to get help?
At school — Students may come to see us at break or directly after school. If students need help on an assignment at home they may contact us through e-mail. • Ms. Hannah Sun E-mail: mysunshineteacher@yahoo.com (this e-mail should only be used for students that need help on assignments or have concerns about a particular matter) E-mail prior to 6:00 p.m. for help on assignments E-mail: yong_aimee@cupertino.k12.ca.us Email prior to 4:30 p.m. for help on assignments

Ms. Aimee Yong

Our webpage — For homework, class information, downloads, links to interesting sites, etc., check our team webpage at: http://www.mysunyong.com Lawson newsletter — The school newsletter, Lawson Link, is published online every month. Phone calls and email for parents — Please feel free to contact us via email or voice mail. We are generally able to respond much more quickly to emails than voice mails. If parents have time-sensitive information, it may be best to contact the main school phone number and speak with a secretary.
Ms. Sun
voicemail: 408.255.7500 ext. 212 email: sun_hannah@cupertino.k12.ca.us yong_aimee@cupertino.k12.ca.us

Ms. Yong
408.255.7500 ext. 211

Individual conference—Please contact us to set up an appointment to discuss any concerns about your student’s performance. 8

Protocol for students when emailing teacher
1. Remember to use proper letter format with an opening (Dear, Hi) and a closing (From, Thank you) and include your first and last name since some email addresses do not include your name. 2. Font should be in an easy to read (Arial, Times New Roman, Verdana), in black and between 12-18 point size. 3. Use appropriate language and tone and remember that whatever you email to your teachers will be kept as a record of communication that may be used in issues concerning grades, citizenship, and communicating with your parent or guardian. 4. Remember that we are your teachers, so emails sent to a teacher should be about the academic curriculum, grades, and citizenship. DO NOT put us on your general contacts list since we do not want to receive unsolicited emails. 6. Do not invite your teachers to join any online social networks (i.e. Friendster, MySpace, Facebook etc.). It is inappropriate for teachers to be in your network and it would not follow CUSD guidelines. 7. If your teachers ask for a response from you, please reply in a timely manner and remember to email your teachers at an appropriate time if you require a response. Emails that are sent to teachers in the evening will most likely be read and responded to the following morning or later. 8. DO NOT PUT SENTENCES IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. 9. Do not end sentences with more than one exclamation mark!!!!!!!!!!!!!! or question mark???????????? 10. Please please please please do not repeat a word more than necessary. 11. plz use correct punctuation and capitalization. no txting lingo cuz OMG we r ur teachers! show us that u have learned how 2 spell (or at least use spell checker).

Discipline
Avoid The Ds” is the motto for classroom behavior expectations. Disruptive, disrespectful and defiant behavior will result in discipline. If students are having a problem following the guidelines and values established in class, they will receive warnings, interventions, and discipline, which may include parent communication, student-parent conferences, and behavior reports. 9

Participation
Constructive participation is encouraged and expected in all class activities because it is essential for success in this classroom. It is not only important to be able to communicate in a school setting, but also in social situations and your future career. Students who understand material fully should be able to clearly express their ideas. It is through this expression that you show teachers you have mastered material. Communication is also a great way to help others learn and ask questions. Your thoughts or ideas may help a student to make connections to the material or may spark other students’ thoughts and ideas which, in turn, could help you spark more thoughts or ideas. Participation and communication can be any of the following: • appropriately answering a question asked by the teacher or another student in class • asking a relevant question during a class discussion or activity • contributing a pertinent comment, idea, opinion, or suggestion • volunteering information discovered during group time or lab work • sharing information with the class about other related activities As teachers we are not always expecting your answers to be correct. We are not always expecting that you will have the answers to the questions that are being asked. However, even in trying to answer the question you will learn. If your answer/idea/suggestion is appropriate, relevant, and shows effort, we consider that an attempt at communicating in our classroom. Participation in class contributes to your work ethic and will affect your final grade.

Food & Drink
Other than bottled water, open food and drink is not allowed in the classroom except on pre-arranged, special occasions (e.g., class feast or party).

Movies
Occasionally, movies may be shown during the school day. These movies are rated G unless parental permission is given for PG.

We look forward to meeting and working with all of you. We are confident that our combined efforts will ensure a successful learning experience for each student! Sincerely, 10

Ms. Sun & Ms. Yong

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The Essential Six For Sixth Grade Success
1. Show Respect
• • • • • Respect every students’ right to learn and the teacher’s right to teach. Only one person should be talking at a time during lectures and discussion. No side conversations. During discussions, show you are listening to other students’ comments, opinions & ideas by looking at the speaker and giving appropriate verbal and non-verbal responses. Use language like, “I agree with John, and “I also feel that …” or “I disagree…because.” “She made a good point, but I feel that …” or “I think Victor made an excellent observation, and it made me realize …” Show respect to your classroom by cleaning up after yourself, returning supplies to their original location, and handling textbooks, supplies, and furniture with care.

2. Use Manners
• • • • Cover your mouth when you sneeze or cough and say excuse me. Always say thank you when you receive something. Know other teachers’ and students’ names and greet them by name when you see them. Greet visitors and help them feel welcome. Substitutes will always receive at least the same respect as teachers. Do not interrupt speakers. Wait to raise your hand until they have finished speaking. Even if you dislike a person, still him/her with respect.


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

3. Be Prepared
We will be swift, quiet, and orderly when transitioning from one subject to the other. Time spent during a transition will be less than 10 seconds. Write all assignments in your planner neatly and use it daily! Always have your required supplies and replenish them as needed. Be in your seat and ready to learn when the bell rings. Review the agenda and be ready for the first or next activity.

4. Stay Safe
Use common sense. Think before you act or speak. Tell an adult if you see or hear something that is illegal or makes you uncomfortable. Only enter a classroom when a teacher is present or with permission. When walking in line, keep your arms at your side, move quietly and do not speak. Remain silent and quickly follow directions during all emergencies/drills.

5. Be Productive
All responses should be in complete sentences unless otherwise stated. Accomplish more by avoiding distractions. Be a responsible partner or group member. Give positive and constructive feedback to your classmates. Do all of your assigned work. Study for tests. Utilize all of your class time even if you finished your required work. Be an active learner. Participate in discussions. Ask questions.

6. Have Pride
Take the opportunities provided to you so you have no regrets. Work and live to your full potential.

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• • • • • •

Accept responsibility for your actions, learn from your mistakes, and move on. Stand up for what you believe in. Be positive and enjoy life. No matter the situation, always be honest. Be the kind of friend that you want to have. Do not expect or ask for rewards or recognition from others. The best incentive should come from satisfaction within you.

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Section Two:

Social Studies 100 Terms & Unit Work
One hundred Social Studies terms have been selected for students to know. These terms will be covered in class throughout the year, but students should begin learning these terms immediately. Students are expected to study their terms at home since there will be no time given in class to study and review the terms. There will be a weekly test of ten terms chosen at random. These weekly quizzes are not graded by the teacher but will be utilized by students to assess and track their progress. After each weekly quiz, students will indicate their scores and mistakes on the terms performance chart. At the end of each trimester, students will be tested on terms selected at random from the units covered in class so far. In June, there will be a final exam of all 100 terms, which is graded. Student signature: _____________________________________ Parent/Guardian signature ______________________________
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100 Social Studies Terms
General Terminology
1. The behaviors, beliefs, customs, and attitudes of a group of people are called culture.

2. A complex society with a stable food supply, specialization of labor, a

government, social levels, and a highly developed culture that includes art, architecture, religion, music, and laws is called a civilization.

3. B.C.E. stands for Before Common Era and represents the time Before Christ (B.C.). C.E. stands for Common Era and represents Anno Domini (A.D. or the Year of our Lord) the time after the birth of Christ. Our calendar was changed in 500 A.D. to reflect the birth of Jesus Christ.

Geography
4. Early civilizations developed near river systems which provided food, water, transportation, trade, and irrigation. 5. The world is divided into northern, southern, eastern, and western hemispheres.

Early Humans
6. Artifacts are human-made objects (tools, jewelry, toys, coins) that teach about the customs and beliefs of people of the past. 7. Prehistory is history that took place before the development of writing. 8. Oral tradition is stories, myths, and legends that are passed on by word of mouth from generation to generation. 9. Archaeology is the recovery and study of artifacts, ruins, bones, and fossils remaining from the past. 10. The process of digging up remains of the past is called excavation. 11. Groups of early humans were called hunter-gatherers because they hunted for wild animals and gathered wild plants for food. 12. The development of tools and use of fire were key factors in the survival of early humans. 13. As early humans settled, they began to control both the growth and behavior of plants and animals; this process is called domestication.

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Mesopotamia (5300 B.C. - 539 B.C.)
14. A city-state is an independent, self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmlands. 15. Barter is a system of trade in which people exchange goods/services but do not exchange money. 16. A person skilled at making a particular product by hand (pottery, jewelry, tools) is called an artisan. 17. Mesopotamia means the land between the rivers and is located in the fertile valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. 18. The Sumerians were the first to create an irrigation system with dams, gates, and canals. 19. Polytheism is the belief in many gods. 20. In Mesopotamia, religion and government were combined and controlled by the priest class. 21. Pictograph is picture writing where a picture stands for a word or idea. 22. Cuneiform is a wedge-shaped, Mesopotamian writing made with a reed stylus. 23. A scribe is a professional writer or record keeper. 24. An empire is the city-states and nations it has conquered under one ruler. 25. Sargon of Akkad changed Mesopotamia's government of separate rulers for each city-state by creating the world's first empire. 26. Hammurabi's Code was an organized set of laws that established a way of life with law and order (rules and punishments) for the ancient Mesopotamians. 27. The Sumerians invented the wheel and sailboat to move trade items to and from Sumer.

Egypt (4000 B.C. - A.D. 350)
28. Egypt is located in northeastern Africa along the Nile River, the 'lifeblood' of Egypt because of food and trade. 29. Papyrus is a long, thin reed growing along the banks of the Nile, used by the Egyptians to make writing material. 30. Hieroglyphics are symbols used to stand for words or sounds in Egypt.

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31. Egyptians believed their kings were both humans and gods. 32. Sumerians, Egyptians, Hindus, Greeks, and Romans all followed polytheistic religions. 33. Homes and buildings in Egypt were made of mud brick; more important buildings (pyramids, temples, tombs) were made of stone (limestone, granite) using simple tools and no wheels. 34. Egyptians spent much of their lives planning to live for eternity because they believed in an afterlife. 35. Hatshepsut was the first recorded woman ruler of a nation; she reigned in a time of peace and wealth. 36. The three seasons (flooding, planting, and harvesting) in Egypt were based on inundation, or the annual flooding of the Nile River. 37. Natural borders of seas, desert, and mountains isolated and protected Egypt from invaders. 38. Ramses II ruled Egypt more than 80 years leaving monuments, statues, and memorials in his own honor.

Kush (2000 B.C. - A.D. 350)
39. Kush, located south of Egypt, was a source of great riches for the Egyptian empire.

Ancient Hebrews (1900 B.C. - A.D. 135)
40. Judaism was one of the first religions based on monotheism, the belief in one god. 41. The laws of the ancient Hebrews were called the Ten Commandments. 42. The "law giver" of the ancient Hebrews was Moses. 43. Abraham was considered the first person to worship the god of the Hebrews. 44. The Torah, made up of the first five books of the Bible, contains the basic laws of Judaism and traces the history of the Israelites through 1200s B. C. 45. King David was believed to have written the Psalms. 46. The Exodus, led by Moses, was when the Hebrews left slavery in Egypt for the promised land of Canaan. 47. The Temple was the most important building in Jerusalem.

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48. The Hebrews were exiled to Babylon when their country was conquered by the Babylonian Empire. 49. The capital of the Hebrew lands was Jerusalem. 50. The two kingdoms of the Ancient Hebrews were Israel and Judah. 51. The Roman Empire conquered all the lands in Asia Minor and ended up ruling over the Hebrews. 52. A gentile is a person who does not follow the Jewish belief system.

Ancient India (2500 B.C. - A.D. 467)
53. The Aryans, semi-nomadic invaders from Europe, conquered the native people of India pushing them south. 54. The Aryans’ belief in daily lives are described in the Vedas, collections of sacred hymns, poems, and prayers. 55. The Indian culture was divided into four social classes: priests, rajas and warriors, merchants and peasants, and servants. 56. As Indian people learned new skills, they developed subgroups called castes into which people were born, and worked their entire lives. 57. Buddha, or "The Enlightened One," was a Hindu prince named Siddhartha Gautama. 58. Buddhism is a religion in which people follow The Four Noble Truths, and the Eightfold Path to reach enlightenment. 59. Buddhists believe in moderation, not too much or not too little of anything. This in-between path is called the Middle Way. 60. King Asoka (Ashoka) was the Mauryan king who unified India, renounced violence, and established Buddhism as the official religion. 61. A major religion of India, Hinduism, includes the concepts of reincarnation, many gods, a caste system, and the four stages in life.

Ancient China (2200 B.C. - A.D. 220)
62. China’s natural borders, the Gobi Desert and mountains, made governance and movement difficult, and isolated China from the rest of the world. 63. Confucius, a Chinese philosopher of the Zhou Dynasty, developed a code of behavior based on personal and governmental morality, correctness of

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social relationships, justice and sincerity. 64. To justify their conquest over the Shang, the Zhou's claimed to have been given the Mandate of Heaven. 65. Taoism (Daoism), is a Chinese philosophy in which people live a simple life in harmony with nature. 66. Qin Shi Huangdi, emperor of the Qin Dynasty unified all of China under one ruler, and created the Great Wall to protect it. 67. The Qin Dynasty set one standard for language, money, and measurement throughout China. 68. The emperors of the Han Dynasty ruled during a time of peace, prosperity, expansion, and great achievements. 69. Trade and cultural interchange grew between India, Rome, and China with the use of the Silk Road trade route.

Ancient Greece (2500 B.C. - 323 B.C.)
70. Aristocracy is a hereditary form of government, where rule is by those who have the most status, money or influence. 71. A monarchy is rule by a king. 72. A system of government in which a few people rule over a larger group is called oligarchy. 73. A tyrant is a ruler who seizes power by force and shares it with no one. 74. A democracy is government by the people. 75. Only males over the age of 18 were considered citizens in Athens having reached the Age of Majority. 76. Athenians emphasized education and culture; Spartans emphasized military and discipline. 77. The Olympics began in Greece in 776 B.C., and were originally held to honor the father of the Greek gods, Zeus. 78. Sparta and Athens joined together to defeat the Persians in the Persian Wars. 79. Athenian democracy was a direct democracy in which each citizen participated in government. 80. The agora was an open-air marketplace in the center of Athens where the public could buy and sell goods.

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81. During the Golden Age, three goals of Pericles were strengthening democracy in, protection of, and beautification of the city-state of Athens. 82. The Peloponnesian War was fought between Sparta and Athens because Athens would not give up some of the control gained after the Persian Wars. 83. Socrates, a Greek philosopher and well-known teacher, used a questioning technique to search for the truth and the meaning of life. 84. Plato, Socrates' student, was a writer and philosopher. 85. Alexander the Great, king at age 20, spread Greek culture and beliefs throughout Persia, India, and Egypt; this time is known as the Hellenistic period. 86. Western culture is influenced by Greek forms of literature, the arts, architecture, mathematical discoveries, science, and democracy. 87. Homer wrote the Odyssey and the Iliad, two epic poems about the adventures of Odysseus. 88. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great and was the father of the scientific method. 89. Aesop was a Greek slave who taught moral lessons in the form of fables.

Rome (753 B.C. - A.D. 476)
90. Julius Caesar was a dictator in Rome, a general, and an author. 91. Patricians were the small class of wealthy families in Rome, and plebeians were members of a large class of ordinary citizens. 92. A republic is a representative democracy in which political power lies with the citizens, who elect leaders and representatives to run their government. 93. The three wars between Carthage and Rome are called the Punic Wars. 94. An aqueduct is a bridge-like structure built to carry water from a distant source. 95. The Roman senate is made up of citizens elected by popular vote. 96. A dictator, in Rome, was an appointed ruler who took absolute power for a period of six months. 97. The Roman Empire stretched from modern day Britain to modern day Iran. 98. Caesar Augustus, the first emperor of Rome, developed an empire to control the areas conquered by Roman armies.

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99. St. Paul preached that Jews not only had to obey God’s laws, but they also
needed to accept that Jesus was the messiah. 100. After years of persecution, Christians spread their beliefs throughout the Roman Empire when Emperor Constantine (312 –337 A.D.) promoted Christianity, allowed Romans the freedom to follow any religion, and strengthened the power of the church within the state.

100 Terms – One hundred Social Studies terms have been selected

for students to know. These terms will be covered in class throughout the year, but students should begin learning these terms immediately. There will be a weekly test of 10 terms chosen at random. These weekly tests are not graded, but should be kept track of in this chart. At the end of each trimester, a quiz will be given covering 25 random terms from the units we have covered in class thus far. In May there will be a final exam of all 100 terms, which IS graded. This final is a large portion of the Social Studies grade for 3rd trimester. The more effort students put into learning their terms,

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Quiz Date

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10

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Section Three:

Spelling & Vocabulary Words
Every other week you will be responsible for a specific set of words, introduced in class. You must know the definition, forms, and or spelling of each word for a quiz the following week. You are expected to correctly use these words in your writing and speaking. Student signature: __________________________________ Parent/Guardian signature: ____________________________

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6th Grade Accountability Word List
These words are expected to be used and spelled correctly every time you write them beginning September 1st. Points may be taken off every time a words is spelled incorrectly.
1 there John is standing there, near the basketball courts. There is a big hole in the ground where the pirates dug for buried treasure. Their backpacks are hanging on hooks in the classroom. = they are; They’re in room 9 and we are in room 11. Your mother will chaperone on the field trip. = you are; You’re talking too loud!

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

their they’re your you’re to two too than

(preposition); I am going to the store. (number); I want two scoops of ice cream. (adverb); I want two scoops of ice cream, too. I don’t want too much chocolate syrup on my ice cream sundae. (used in comparisons); Amy is taller than Kevin. (used to show sequence); First we will eat lunch, then we will have recess. (adverb; “question” word); Where are you going? (verb) Were you asleep when I called? = should have; I should’ve eaten the sandwich before I ate the candy bar. Also: could’ve = could have; would’ve = would have (possessive pronoun); The bird had grown so big it couldn’t fit in its nest anymore. = it is; It’s going to rain today.

10 then 11 where 12 were 13 should’ve

14 its 15 it’s 16 which 17 new 18 knew 19 sincerely

Which students didn’t finish their homework? had this car for two years; it isn’t new. I knew he could make it to the top of the hill. I always sign my letters “Sincerely Yours.”

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20 maybe 21 a lot 22 Saturday 23 women 24 effect 25 affect 26 California 27 United States 28 American 29 ancient 30 civilization 31 hominid 32 archaeolog y 33 Egypt 34 Mesopotam ia 35 Rome 36 India 37 China 38 Sumer 39 Greece 40 Israel

Maybe I’ll go to the ballgame tonight and maybe I won’t. I like a lot of mustard on my hot dog! I like to sleep in on Saturday and wake up early on Sunday. The woman didn’t want to join the other women in the protest against the war. The effects of the hurricane left the town devastated. The hurricane affected everyone’s life. She has lived in California all her life. He has lived in the United States since he was three. I am an American citizen. This year we are studying ancient civilizations. What are the characteristics of a civilization? Lucy is the most famous hominid in the archaeology world. The study of archaeology allows us to examine remains of the past. They pyramids of Egypt are one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Will we study Mesopotamia before we study Egypt? We will finish social studies with the fall of Rome. India is a nation and a sub-continent. The Great Wall of China is visible from outer space. The people of Sumer are called Sumerians. The Olympics originated in ancient Greece. The only country with Judaism as the primary religion is Israel.

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Commonly Misspelled Words
a while acceptable accidentally accommoda te acknowledg e acquaintanc e acquire acquit amateur apparent argument arrangemen t assessment atheist barbecue beginning believe broccoli caffeine calendar camouflage cantaloupe Caribbean category cemetery changeable chocolate collectible colonel column efficient embarrass equipment especially exaggerate exceed exciting exhilarate existence experience Fahrenheit fiery foreign forth fourth fulfill gauge generally grammar grateful guarantee harass height hierarchy humongous humorous ignorance immediate independent indispensable
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lightning maintenanc e maneuver marshmallo w medieval memento meringue millennium miniature miniscule miscellaneo us mischievous misspell nauseous necessary neighbor noticeable occasion occur occurrence official outrageous parallel parliament pastime perseveranc e personnel picnicked pigeon possession

raspberry receive recommend reference referred refrigerator relevant religious repetition restaurant ridiculous rhyme rhythm sandal schedule scissors sensible separate sergeant sheriff special success tariff temperatur e thorough threshold tomorrow tongue twelfth tyranny

committed conscience conscientio us conscious consensus definitely disappear discipline

intelligence jewelry judgment kernel knowledge leisure license lieutenant

precede preferable principal principle privilege pronunciati on publicly questionnair e

ukulele vacuum vague vicious weather weird

Spelling Menu
To practice your spelling, complete activities from the menu below. Label the activities you choose. When you have finished your activities, staple them together in this order with your pretest.

Design
a word search puzzle and key out of your spelling words.

Sort
your spelling words into 3-4 groups based on spelling features

Discover
all the little words within the spelling words and list them.

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Create
a word web for your spelling words e.g., shops shop shopping shopper shopped

Produce
a pyramid for each spelling word. e.g. t th thi thin think

YOUR CHOICE

Divide
your spelling words into syllables; be sure to check the syllabication rules or the dictionary!

Author
a short story, witty sentences, riddles or poem using your spelling words (the poem doesn’t have to rhyme).

Hunt
for your spelling words in magazines and newspapers, etc.;

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Spelling Rules
Please remember there are always exceptions to the rules and it is best to check a dictionary if you are unsure of how to spell a word.

1. ADDING S AFTER Y A.words ending in y after a vowel add s;
stay  stays journey  journeys B. words ending in y after a consonant change the y to i and add es. baby  babies cry  cries

2. ADDING S AFTER S, CH, SH, X, OR Z

A.

words ending in s, ch, sh, x, or z add es brush  brushes mix  mixes

church  churches

3. ADDING S AFTER F or FE A. words ending in f or fe, change the f or fe to v and add es calf  calves wife  wives B. words ending in double f, just add s cliff  cliffs stuff  stuffs 4. POSSESSIVE NOUNS

A. Add ’s to any singular noun
boy  boy’s James  James’s

B. If a plural noun ends in s, add the ’ after the s
girls  girls’ animals  animals’ Joneses  Joneses’ C. If a plural noun does not end in s, add the ’s like a singular noun men  men’s oxen  oxen’s 5. ENDING CONSONANTS A. double the final consonant and add the suffix in a word that ends in one vowel and one consonant win  winner hop  hopping

6. SILENT E BEFORE A SUFFIX
A. drop the silent e before adding any suffix starting with a vowel
give  giving shareshared

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B. keep the final e if the suffix starts with a consonant sincere  sincerely taste  tasteless

7. IE OR EI? A.i before e except after c or when sounding like a as in neighbor and
weigh believe receive reindeer chief

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Syllabication
About Syllables:
1. Every syllable has one vowel sound 2. The number of vowel sounds in a word equals the number of syllables. take = 1 school = 1 Math•e•mat•ics = 4 Eng•lish = 2 Sci•ence = 2

How to Divide Words into Syllables:
1. A one-syllable word is never divided. 2. Divide words at the end of a line with a hyphen. 3. Place the hyphen at the end of the first line NOT the beginning of the next line. DO THIS NOT …she went home not knowing that her parents had… …she went home not know -ing that her parents had…

4. Divide as few words as possible. 5. Do not divide words that are already hyphenated. Example: He was a good-looking man. DO NOT DIVIDE good-looking because it is already hyphenated. 6. Do not place a syllable of only one letter at the end of a line and do not place a syllable of fewer than three letters at the beginning of a line. DON’T DO THIS …he had taken the coat… OR … because Harry was an amazing boy…

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Where to Divide Words:
If you are uncertain as to where to divide a word, consult a dictionary! There are other rules and exceptions, but the following are probably the most helpful rules: Rule #1: A compound word is divided between the two words that make up the compound word. Example: base´ • ball Rule #2: When a word has a double consonant, the word is divided between the two consonants. Example: bub´ • ble

Rule #3: When a word ends in a consonant plus le, the word is divided before the consonant. Example: pur´ • ple Rule #4: Consonant blends and digraphs are never separated. Example: nick´ • el reach´ • ing

Rule #5: When a word has a prefix or suffix, the syllable division is between the prefix or suffix and the root word; except with –ed. Example: un´ • knownkind´ • ness • ened EXCEPTIONS: ed does form a separate syllable when it is preceded by a d or t Example: start´ • ed found´ • ed fright´

Rule #6: When a vowel is sounded alone in a word, it forms its own syllable. Example: u • nite´

Rule #7: When the first vowel in a word has the long vowel sound, the word is divided after that vowel; or after the diphthong. Example: ba´ • by loy´ • al

Rule #8: When the first vowel in a word has the short vowel sound, the 32

word is divided after the next consonant. Example: shad´ • ow

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Non-Fiction Reading Words
These are some of the most frequently seen words in non-fiction writing. If you can master these words and their forms, you will have a great head start in your reading!

achieve acknowledge acquire administrate affect alternative analyze approach appropriate aspect assess assist assume authority available benefit category compensate component concept conclude consist constitute construct consume context contract contribute correspond data define derive design distribute

distinct document dominate economy element environment equate establish estimate evaluate evident exclude facilitate factor finance formula function generate grant impact imply income indicate individual initial institute interact interpret invest involve issue justify labor legal
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maintain major margin maximize method obtain occur percent period policy potential principle proceed process proportion regulate relevant require reside resource sequence significant similar source specific specify strategy structure survey technique theory transfer valid vary

ensure

legislative

volume

35

Foreign Words and Phrases
a la carte ad nauseam aficionado amuck or amok angst anorak ballet boondocks cafeteria cargo carpe diem carte blanche chauffer chow cigar/cigarette corduroy coupon crayon denim entrepreneur futon honcho hors d’oeuvres kaput kayak kindergarten kow-tow luau mano a mano mea culpa memoir menu moccasin patio plaza pro bono renaissance reservoir restaurant rodeo savvy succotash taboo terra firma terra incognita tornado tycoon typhoon ukelele vamoose veni, vidi, vici verboten wampum yen

Idioms
eager beaver hold your horses fly off the handle at the eleventh hour make a mountain out of a mole hill toot your own horn see eye to eye out of the frying pan and into the fire feeling blue red tape going bananas butter someone up bite off more than you can chew sour grapes elbow grease jump the gun pie-in-the-sky two-faced get one’s wires crossed under the weather to be all ears nose to the grindstone cry wolf live from hand to mouth

to be all thumbs making a monkey out of someone cost an arm and a leg on your toes can’t make heads or bull in a china tails of something shop
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the bottom line down in the dumps play it by ear on pins and needles fish out of water

face the music to smell a rat green with envy under the weather stuffed to the gills

goose is cooked talk turkey head in the sand spill the beans shoot the breeze

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WOWs
abominable abrupt abundant affection agile akimbo amend amiable ample animated arduous arrogant audible avid babble behemoth bewilder billow bland boisterous bountiful calamity ceaselessly chaos cherish commence compassionat e consume contemplate cordial contagious deceive deplete devastate devour digress disposable dwelling edible emit erosion etiquette evade exacerbate fatal fisticuffs foliage forage fragile frivolous gracious grapple gush haphazard harmonious hinder impale inconsolable jaunt jubilant keen lapse lavish legible lenient linger luscious meander mortify nimble ominous pedigree perceive perennial perishable perplex persevere persistent pliable ponder prosper protrude quench quest replenish ruthless serene silhouette sizzle spacious scamper scorch scour sparse stamina susceptible swarm taut tedious temptation tepid terminate testify tinder tongue-tied topsy-turvy tranquil translucent treacherous trivial uproarious valiant wary wily wither wrath yammer yearn zany zest

Add some words of your own! __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ 38

_____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

__________________________________

_____________________________

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Dead Words & Lively Replacements

40

Dead Word

Lively Replacements

Meaningful Sentences
41

1. Pointless  Doesn’t reflect understanding A. I don’t like the word anthem. B. I can spell the word governess. C.
Ajar is an interesting word.

2. Replace  Looks good, doesn’t prove understanding A. On Monday, we enjoyed singing the anthem in class. B. The governess walked into the room and asked to speak with the
mistress of the house.

C. The door was left ajar. 3. Dictionary  Just rephrases the definition A. An anthem is a sacred song. B. A governess is a woman who works for a family by taking care of the
children.

C. A window or door is ajar if it is left open just a little bit. 4. Meaningful  Full of meaning; creates a “mind movie” and

paints a picture; demonstrates understanding
A. Fans at San Francisco’s 3-Com Park erupted with cheers after Cher
belted out the last lines of our national anthem at the World Series game.

B. Walking onto the grass in our back yard, Ms. Lenotti, our governess,
quickly interrupted our soccer game and directed us to the library so we could complete our math lesson.

C. When I heard noise in the basement, I hurried down the stairs only to

find the door to Cookie’s cage ajar; my bunny was on the prowl again.

Dictionary Plagiarism!
Dictionary example: Amy’s world travels were revealed in her eclectic taste in art. becomes Amy’s world travels were revealed in her eclectic taste in friends.

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How To Write A Word Master Paragraph
Modified by Barbara Alford

1. Use the word in a sentence and underline it. Examples: a. Kevin is industrious. b. We went to a restaurant last night. c. The test was a piece of cake. 2. Define the word without using it. Examples: a. He works hard and never gives up. b. The place served delicious food. c. It was so easy for me. 3. Write a sentence describing an action associated with the word. Examples: a. He plans ahead to be sure he has enough time to complete all of his assignments. b. I ordered my food with the waiter. c. Having studied for two nights previously, I was prepared. 4. Write another sentence describing an action associated with it. Examples: a. Not only does he work hard at school, but he is also studying to be an Eagle Scout. b. Unfortunately, instead of serving my dish piping hot, it arrived cold. c. I reviewed the chapters we read in class. 5. Write a sentence explaining how people feel about or react to the word using a synonym or antonym and underline that word. Examples: a. People can count on Kevin to be diligent and complete a job or project. b. Never-the-less, even if it is only a cafeteria. I am still happy to go out-to-eat instead of having to make dinner myself. c. I felt confident about my answers because the test was not difficult. Example Paragraphs: Should show what the word means and how to use it. A. industrious Kevin is industrious. He works hard and never gives up. He plans ahead to be sure he has enough time to complete all of his assignments. Not only does he work hard at school, but he is also studying to be an Eagle Scout. People can count on Kevin to be diligent and complete a job or project.

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B. restaurant We went to a restaurant last night. The place served delicious food. I ordered my food with the waiter. Unfortunately, instead of serving my dish piping hot, it arrived cold. Nevertheless, even if it is only a cafeteria. I am still happy to go out-to-eat instead of having to make dinner myself. C. piece of cake The test was a piece of cake. It was so easy for me. Having studied for two nights previously, I was prepared. I reviewed the chapters we read in class I felt confident about my answers because the test was not difficult.

Vocabulary Toolkit
Word: Primary part of speech: Other Forms: Verb:_________________________ Adverb:_______________________ Noun:_________________________ Adjective:_____________________ Dictionary Meaning: Pronunciation: Picture/Graphic:

My Meaning: Class Sentence: Practice Sentence: 44

Related Words: Synonyms

Antonyms

Notes on connotation and shades of meaning:

Section Four:

Reading & Literature
45

Requirements
Students are required to spend 100 minutes a week reading quality literature. These minutes will be recorded in a Reading Log that will be checked at the end of each trimester. Book title, genre, author, date read, reading and parent signature are required on the log. Students are required to have a book with them in class at all times. Students will be asked to respond to current reading in class. Student signature: __________________________________ Parent/Guardian signature: ___________________________

46

Reading Requirements
Students will keep a reading log and respond to current reading regularly in class. These responses will be assessed and will count toward the final Language Arts grade. Read 100 minutes per week outside of regular class assignments in a variety of genres. This reading may include: • Fiction o Historical Fiction o Folktales o Fantasy o Science Fiction o Mystery o Adventure o Realistic Fiction o Poetry • Non-fiction books o Hobbies or Informational o Biographies/Autobiographies o History o Science

 

Magazines Newspapers

Personal Reading Recommendation List
Title 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Author Genre 5-Star Rating

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Reading Strategies
Great readers use these identified strategies while reading. If you practice using them until they become second nature, your reading ability will soar.

Question:
Question what is happening while you read. Searching for reasons behind events and characters’ feelings can help you feel more connected with what you’re reading. Make notes about confusing words, but do not worry if you do not understand everything. As you read further, you will probably begin to see things more clearly.

Connect:
Connect personally with what you are reading. Think of the similarities between characters and events and what you have personally experienced, heard about, or read about. • Text-to-Self Find a point in the text in which you can connect the event, action, or a character to something in your own life or the life of someone you know personally. • Text-to-Text Find a point in the text in which you can connect the event, action, or a character to something in another book, a movie, or another medium. • Text-to-World Find a point in the text in which can connect the event, action, or a character to something in the world-at-large.

Predict:
Try to figure out what will happen next and how the selection might end. The read on to see if you were right!

Clarify:
Stop on occasion to review what you understand so far, and expect to have your understanding change and develop as you read on. Pay special attention to character and plot developments. Also, watch for answers to questions you had earlier.

Evaluate:
Form opinions about what you read, both while you are reading and after you are finished. Make judgments about and develop your own ideas about the events in the selection and the author’s personal perspective and message. Note passages, events and descriptions that inspire strong emotions. Analyze the author’s writing style including the use of literary devices (i.e. Simile, metaphor and theme) 48

Five Expository Text Structures & Signal Words
Pattern
Description

Description
The author describes a topic by listing characteristics, features, attributes, and examples

Cue Words (signal words)
       for example characteristics for instance such as is like including to illustrate

Graphic Organizer

Sequences

The author lists items or events in numerical or chronological sequence, either explicit or implied

Comparison

Information is presented by detailing how two or more events, concepts, theories, or things are alike and/or different

Cause and Effect

The author presents ideas, events in time, or facts as causes and the resulting effect(s) or facts that happen as a result of an event

                                          

first second third after next before then finally after when later since now previously use of dates however nevertheless on the other hand but similarly although also in contrast alike/ same as either/ or just like/ just as likewise in comparison where as yet if/then reasons why as a result therefore because consequently since so that for hence due to thus this led to

1. 2. 3. 4.

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

Alike
_________ _________ _________ _________ ________

Different
___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ________

Effect #1

Cause

Effect #2 Effect #3

Problem and Solution

The author presents a problem and one or more solutions to the problem

      

problem is dilemma is if/ then because so that question/ answer puzzle is solved

Problem

Solution

Instructions Used in Textbook Reading and Follow-Up Tasks
adapted from Kate Kinsella

Analyze Compare Contrast Critique Define Describe

Break the subject (object, event, or concept) down into parts and explain the various parts. Show how tow things are similar as well as different; include details or examples. Show how two things are different; include details or examples. Point out both the good and bad points of something. Give an accurate meaning of a term with enough detail to show that you really understand it. Write about the subject so the reader can easily visualize it; tell how it looks or happened, including how, who where, why. Make a drawing of something; label its parts. Give a complete and detailed answer, including important characteristics and main points. Give your opinion of the value of the subject; discuss its good and bad points, strengths and weaknesses. Give the meaning of something; give facts and details that make the idea easy to understand. Make the point or idea clear by giving examples. Tell about the importance of the subject. Explain the results or the effects of something. Give good reasons that support a decision, action, or event. Make an organized listing of the important points of a subject. Make believe/Imagine you are in a particular situation or 50

Diagram Discuss Evaluate Explain Illustrate Interpret Justify Outline Pretend

that you are a particular person, etc. and describe what this is like. Prove Relate State Summarize Show that something is true by giving facts or logical reasons. Show how things are alike or connected. Give the main points in brief, clear form. Briefly cover the main points; use paragraph form.

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Non-Fiction Reading Questions
During in-class expository reading assessments you may be asked to respond to any of the following questions. Respond using complete sentences. SUPPORT YOUR RESPONSE WITH TEXT EVIDENCE by referring to a specific passage or quote from the book. Don’t forget to include the page number where the passage or quote can be found. a.Were you able to make any connections to this piece of writing? b.How did the author use charts, diagrams, appendices, glossary, headings, sub-headings, etc. to help you understand the text better? c.What questions about this topic did you feel were especially wellanswered? What questions do you still have about this topic? Do you know where you could go to further research your questions? d.After reading the book or article on this topic, are you still excited to learn more about it? Why or why not? e.How did the author display his/her craft with this piece of writing? Were literary devices used? signal words? If so, evaluate their effectiveness. f.Evaluate what the author could have done to make the writing more exciting or the clearer. g.What kind of text structure did the author use? (e.g., problemsolution, compare-contrast, cause-effect, enumeration, mixed patterns)

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Signal Words and Phrases Used in Expository Texts
adapted from Kate Kinsella

Signal words and phrases are commonly used in academic writing like textbooks and essays to indicate the direction or pattern of thought in a paragraph or chapter. They can help readers see how tow ideas fit together and relate to each other. Signal words are usually located at the beginning of a sentence and are followed by a comma. They are the writer’s way of getting the reader’s attention and showing the reader how to interpret and predict upcoming information. Compare these to the list of transition words found in the writing section of this manual.

Words that signal definition: refers to consists of in other words (i.e.) is equal to Words that signal example: for example (e.g.) such as for instance is like

means synonymous with including to illustrate

Words that signal simple listing or addition of ideas: also in addition moreover another furthermore finally Words that signal sequential listing (ordering of steps, events, etc.): first before later second then since finally now next following previously Words that signal analysis: consider investigate analyze the first part suggests Words that signal comparison: similarly just like in the same way just as Words that signal contrast: in contrast however on the other hand whereas this means examine likewise in comparison but yet

Words that signal a cause-effect relationship: because hence due to for as a result thus 53

therefore

consequently

this led to

Narrative Literature Elements
Setting Character Plot Conflict Resolution Climax where/when story takes place who is the story about action problem how problem is solved turning point of the story—when the story STARTS to end Theme message or big idea Point of View who is telling the story Mood tone or feeling of the story Plot Line graphic (picture) representation of the action

Plot
Middle Climax

Rising  Action

Falling  Action

Beginning Exposition

Ending Resolution

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Narrative Reading Questions
During in-class reading assessments you may be asked to respond to any of the following questions. Be sure you have kept your reading log up-todate. Respond using complete sentences. SUPPORT YOUR RESPONSE WITH TEXT EVIDENCE by referring to a specific passage or quote from the book. Don’t forget to include the page number where the passage or quote can be found.

Connections
a.Is the main character similar to a character you found in another book? Or, to yourself? People you know? What are the similarities? b.Are there any connections between this book and your own life? c.Does this book seem similar to any other book you have read or movie you have seen? In what ways are they similar? d.What character would you like to be in this book? Why? e.Would you like to acquire a personality trait of a particular character? What is the trait and why do you like it? f.How have you changed after reading this book? g.What do you know now that you didn't know before? h.What questions about this book would you like answered? i.What advice would you give a particular character? Why?

Literary Elements
j. What clues did the author use to help you predict what was going to happen? k.If your book took place in a different setting, how would that change the story? Why? l. What are your favorite lines or quotes and why do you like them? m.Would you like to read more books by this author? Why? n.What incident or conflict does the author use to begin the story? Why? o.How does the author create suspense? p.Describe the climax of the story (the place where the problem of the story started to turn into the resolution of the story). Why do feel this point was the climax? q.Did the book end the way you thought it would? What clues did the author give you that made you think that? Did you think these clues were important when you read them? r.If you could change the ending of the book, what would you do? Why? Would it change the theme? s.Did any characters change during the course of the book? How did they change? What forces caused this change? t.Describe the mood of this book. How would the story have been different if the author had presented a different mood? How did the author help create the mood. u.How did the author display his/her craft? What kind of literary 55

devices were used? Evaluate their effectiveness.

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Literary Devices
Authors use devices (techniques) to make their writing more powerful such as:

Alliteration

The repetition of the first consonant sound in a phrase.

The brawny boy broke the bat.

Colloquialism

A common word or phrase that is used when people talk to one another or that reflects speech from a particular region. Colloquialisms are usually not used in a formal speech or in most assigned writing.

That’a girl. Just eat your breakfast. Don’t pay me no mind.

Flashback

A technique in which a writer interrupts a story to go back and explain an earlier event.

In the summer, Brian would live with his father. In the school year with is mother. That’s what the judge said after looking at papers on his desk and listening to the lawyers talk. Talk. Words. Now the plane lurched slightly to the right….

Foreshadowing

Hints or clues that a writer uses to suggest what will happen next in a story.

If they had made their road through the wood instead of around it, then the people would have followed the road. The people would have noticed the giant ash tree at the center of the wood, and then, in time, they’d have noticed the little spring bubbling up among its roots in spite of the pebbles piled there to conceal it.

Hyperbole/Exaggerati on

An extreme exaggeration or overstatement that a writer uses for emphasis. 57

Sally uses so much make up she could pass for a clown at the circus.

Inference

The act of figuring something out by using what you already know.

We can infer that something very bad is going to happen in Tuck Everlasting from the line: But the village doesn’t matter, except for the jailhouse and the gallows.

Metaphor

A figure of speech that compares two things without using the word like or as.

Her hair was spun gold.

Onomatopoeia

A word that imitates the sound it represents.

The buzz of the bee kept her awake all night.

Personification

A figure of speech in which a nonhuman thing (an idea, object, or animal) is given human characteristics.

“The poor kid might as well go home,” murmured Tucker Mouse to himself.

Repetition

The return of a word, phrase, stanza form, or effect in any form. May effectively bring comfort, suggest order, or add special meaning.

If you give a mouse a cookie… I looked upon the rotting sea, And drew my eyes away; I looked upon the rotting deck, And there the dead men lay.

Simile

A figure of speech that compares two things using the word like or as.

Her hair was like spun gold.

Stereotype

An oversimplified opinion or image of a person or group of people that usually has negative connotations.

Fairy tales such as Cinderella have
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stereotype characters. The step-mother is cold, scheming, and uncaring; Cinderella is beautiful and kind; The Prince is handsome and rich.

Word Choice

An effect created by an author’s use of words.

He clasps the crag with crooked hands; Close to the sun in lonely lands, Ring’d with the azure world, he stands.

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Section Five:

Writing & Research Tools
Many different genres of writing will be explored, including: • Expository work • Narratives • Research reporting • Response to literature • Persuasive writing • Poetry Papers will be graded using rubrics designed for each genre. Final pieces may be graded in their entirety or specifically looking at one or two areas (such as thesis statements or transitions). See the Sixth Grade Writing Standards description on the following pages for the specifics of what we will be learning and refining. 60

Sixth Grade Writing Standards

Ideas & Content  Writing is clear, coherent, and focused.  Writing shows awareness of audience.  Lead is attention grabbing and states the purpose for writing with sophistication.  Main ideas are supported by relevant facts, details, and explanations.  Conclusion includes personal summary, reaction, or understanding. Organization  Extremely well organized, using patterns such as compare/contrast and order of importance throughout paper.  Writing clearly progresses through a beginning, middle, and ending. Voice  Distinctive style.  Reader “hears” author speaking.  Engages the reader’s interest by showing exceptional knowledge and interest in topic. Sentence Fluency  Writing is consistently smooth, with a variety of sentence structures.  Simple, compound, and complex sentences are used correctly.
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Word Choice  Author always chooses precise, colorful words and uses them correctly.  No “dead” words used.  Word choice shows awareness of audience. Conventions  Author always uses pronouns and verb tenses correctly.  Punctuation of sentences is correct.  All proper nouns and initial words in sentences are capitalized.  Spelling is correct throughout paper. Presentation  Each page is carefully written or typed, unwrinkled, and clean.  Margins are straight; special care has been taken with titles and headings.  Illustrations are carefully drawn.  All guidelines followed.

“All great achievements require time.”
Maya Angelou

“My aim is to put down on paper what I see and what I feel in the best and simplest way.”
Ernest Hemingway
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Topic Sentences & Thesis Statements
Topic Sentence → Paragraph → Essay Thesis Statement

The topic sentence or thesis statement states the subject of the writing and tells the reader what will be proved or explained. Use the technique of Name It, Verb It, Finish Thought to construct a basic topic sentence or thesis statement. Example: The Walt Disney movie Cinderella illustrates that dreams really do come true.

Name It

Verb It

Finish Thought

Then vary your sentences by trying different techniques: • • • •

Make it a Complex Sentence (above standard +)
Although my family and I have taken many wonderful vacations, none was more exciting than our trip to the Grand Canyon. Before you make a decision to light up a cigarette, consider the health problems caused by smoking. If you want to write a terrific paragraph, begin with a complex sentence! Even though bike helmets are unfashionable, all cyclists should wear them.

Use a Sentence with However (above standard +)

•I have lived in several states; however, there is only one I
would call home. •My mother is very strict; however, there are valid reasons for her rules. •Hundreds of books line my shelves; however, a select few have changed my life.

Use a Power Number Sentence (at standard
• •

)

The new recruits learned four important procedures. Tourists traveling to Rome will enjoy three spectacular sights.

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Avoid using There Are or Here Are Sentences (below standard

-)

There are three reasons why Ashoka was a great leader in ancient India.

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Organizing Your Writing Power Outline
The power outline can help you ORGANIZE your thoughts BEFORE you write your draft. This allows you to be thorough, concise, and clear. It is also flexible – some facts need more evidence than others, but every fact MUST have evidence! Topic Sentence/Thesis Statement • Fact/Main Point * Evidence/Supporting * Evidence/Supporting * Evidence/Supporting • Fact/ Main Point * Evidence/Supporting * Evidence/Supporting • Fact/ Main Point * Evidence/Supporting * Evidence/Supporting

Detail Detail Detail Detail Detail Detail Detail

T-Chart
Alternatively, the simple T-chart is also a quick and easy way to organize thoughts. TS: Fact/Main Point

Evidence/Supporting Detail * * *

* *

* * * 65

Color Coded Paragraphs
1. Background (blue) This is the interesting extra information that pertains to the topic of the paragraph. 2. Topic Sentence (green) This is the single most important sentence in the whole paragraph. It is your main argument. It tells the reader and reminds you, the author, what major point you plan to address. 3. Main Points/Facts (black) They provide the main support for your topic sentence. You should have at least 2-3 of these in your paragraphs. 4. Evidence/Supporting Detail (red) The evidence comes in different forms: details, facts, and quotations. They all do the same thing: provide proof for your supporting points. The best evidence available is quotation when possible. You should have one piece of evidence for each supporting point. 5. Conclusion (green) Use this to remind the reader of the main point you’ve made in your topic sentence.

Example San Luis Obispo is a beautiful small town on the central coast of California. It is home to one of the best state universities, California Polytechnic State University. Even though many students want to attend a UC for college, a State school has a lot to offer also. Class sizes at a State school are often lower than those in the UC system. All of my friends at Davis and Berkeley had many classes with over four hundred people in them. The largest class I took at Cal Poly had seventy-five students, and most averaged about thirty. Because of the
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small size, I was able to know all of my professors very well. All of my professors knew me by name and were always available to help me when I needed it. My dream was to attend UC Santa Barbara for college, but I am so happy that I chose to attend Cal Poly instead. It provided me with a wonderful education and a great, personal college experience.

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Ways to Start a Sentence
1. Subject (who or what) / Predicate (action) Ms. Yong ate pie after dinner. Leopards live in the jungle. They are on vacation in Hawaii. 2. Adjective (description) Hungry Ms. Yong left but one slice of pie for the to share. Five leopards live in the jungle. The lucky Velasquez children are on vacation in

others Hawaii. 3.

Adverb (how) Silently, Ms. Yong devoured the pie before anyone could stop her. Powerfully, the leopards tore apart their prey. Sleepily, they arrived in Hawaii for their vacation.

4.

Prepositional phrase (where or when) At the family picnic, Ms. Yong won the pie-eating

contest. In the branches of the tree, leopards stalk their prey. During August, the Velasquez children will be on vacation in Hawaii. 5. Participle/Gerund (-ing word)

Pie-eating was a favorite activity of Ms. Yong. Running through the jungle, the leopards stalked their prey. Vacationing in Hawaii, they forgot about all their worries.
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Dynamite Intros (Leads)
1. Quote or Dialogue •"Run, don't look back!" my brother shouted. •"Give me liberty or give me death!" Patrick Henry's famous words tell us... 2. Hyperbole (exaggeration) •That pumpkin was as big as a school bus. •Billions and billions of coins. And all for me! Suspense or Surprise •The more I ran, the more I heard footsteps. •If I were a hummingbird, my heart would weigh 80 pounds. •Pickle relish or mustard--she just couldn't decide.

3.

4.

Sentence Fragments, Adjectives, or Description, •Pennies. Pennies everywhere. Far as I could see. •Daring. Courageous. Valiant. These are just some ways to describe Annie and Clover from The Other Side by Jacquelyn Woodson. •It's ten degrees below zero and the river is frozen a foot thick. It makes a snapping sound like the limbs of trees crackling. A lone figure glides along the black ice, moving towards the city. The only sound is each blade as it bites into the river. That's me doing my favorite sport, ice-skating. 5. Pose a Question •Have you ever watched a true hot-dog-lover in action? •Did you ever wonder why God created flies?
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•What's brown, shiny, and has beautiful fur? A beaver, of course! 6. Make a Declaration •Beavers are awesome, amazing animals.

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Ways to End Essays

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1.

Use Conclusion Words all in all clearly in conclusion surely as a result consequently in effect overall certainly for these reason obviously thus to sum up ultimately

2.

Summarize Key Points Obviously, recycling used soda cans and plastic bottles is a good idea. It will help keep the schoolyard clean, it wouldn't take a lot of time or effort, and kids of all ages could participate. Not only would you help save the environment, but you could earn some extra money for your school as well! 3. Encourage Reader to Take Action Ask your principal about forming a recycling club at your school. T This certainly could be a step towards cleaning up the environment and e earning some money for your student council! 4. Encourage Reader to Reflect The point is, whether it's aluminum or glass, Styrofoam or plastic--don't put it in the trash-recycle. Encourage your kids to expend just that little extra bit of themselves in order to recycle. In doing so, they're learning not only how to respect the e n environment, but to respect themselves in the process. 5. Restate Thesis (Topic Sentence) Using Different Words In effect, recycling can make a difference—not only to the environment, but to your pocketbook as well. 6. Repeat Question Posed in Introduction and Answer It Have you ever wondered if one person could ever make a differedifference in this world? Clearly, recycling proves that one person can!

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Literature—Free Response
Suggested Approaches
Can’t think of what to say? Perhaps one of these suggestions can help you. Remember, you don’t have to use these. If you come up with other ideas, use those. 1. 2. 3. 4. Points that I like or dislike about a character or an event Situations that make me angry or sad Questions about sections that I do not understand Comments about what I think an unfamiliar word might mean 5. Events from my life that come to mind as I read 6. Situations about events with which I do not agree 7. Predictions about what will happen next

Response Starters
Below are some words that can help stimulate your responses. After problem Although I guess If When While Whatever Before Despite I wonder I’m certain Maybe Perhaps Since As a result Because of I question I suppose I think An important In my opinion Instead of Just because This reminds me Throughout Unless I doubt I’m surprised The

I believe I’m not sure

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The “Things” Trap
When you write topic sentences/thesis statements, you may find yourself using the word things too much. To move away from this problem, try one of the words in this list or any other words that fit the subject of your paper.
Abilities Actions Advances Advantages Adventures Agreements Promises Attributes Behaviors Benefit Remedies Characteristics Choices Concerns Sections Situations Skills Conflicts Ideas Places Contributions Impressions Points Corrections Improvements Powers Details Incidents Problems Difficulties Items Projects Effects Matters Events Experiences Facts Features Feelings Frustrations Successes Surprises Talents Movements Occasions Occurrences Parts Performances Periods Themes Thoughts Troubles Qualities Reasons Resources Responses Rules

Examples Weak: As I read about Ben Franklin, I learned many things about his life. Better: As I read about Ben Franklin, I learned that his life was filled with challenges. Weak: The article we read told three things about the White House. Better: The article we read in social studies class described three features of the White House. Weak: Our principal did two things to encourage all of the students to read more. Better: Our principal started two projects to encourage more reading in every classroom. Weak: Of all the things that we did on our trip to Florida, I liked the boat ride the best.
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Better: Of all the adventures my family and I had in Florida, the speedboat ride in Clearwater was the best.

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Transition Words or Phrases
Words which can be used to show time:
at about after before immediately second during first third soon after that today until meanwhile tomorrow the next day soon yesterday next later in the end as soon as finally then when not long after that

Words which can be used to compare:
in the same way at the same time likewise like as also similarly

Words which can be used to contrast:
but yet otherwise however although hand still on the other even though

Words which can be used to emphasize a point:
again for this reason in fact to repeat truly

Words which can be used to add information:
again also another and besides for example for instance next finally moreover as well along with additionally in addition

Words which can be used to conclude or summarize:
as a result therefore finally lastly in conclusion in summary

Words which can be used to clarify:
in other words for instance that is

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Transitional Expressions
Make sure to choose transitions that fit and make sense for your paragraph or essay. Each new paragraph should have a transition!

Some Common Transition Sets
First, second, third One, another, next First of all, also, then At first, after, then One, equally important, next One, another, last First, also, besides First, in addition, finally One example, another example A good example, a better example First of all, next, the final

More Advanced Transition Sets
a good, a better, the best to begin, then, consequently it started when, as a result, then, therefore at the beginning, then, following this, finally one way, another way, a final method one, one other, along with, last in the first place, after that, later on, at last initially, then, after that as soon as, next, later, in the end to begin, at the same time, finally first of all, besides, in addition to start, furthermore, additionally, last one important, another important, the most important
modified from Step Up to Writing 2003 Sopris West

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Poetic/Literary Devices
1. ALLITERATION – several words in a line or phrase that

begin with the same sound (tongue twister – peter piper picked a peck of pickled peppers)
2. HYPERBOLE – an extreme exaggeration (hungry enough to

eat a cow!)

3. LYRIC POEM – expresses feeling and emotions 4. MESSAGE/MEANING – what the poem has to say (is there a

lesson for life?)

5. METAPHOR – describing one thing by saying it IS another

(she is an angel)
6. NARRATIVE POEM – tells a story 7. ONOMATOPOEIA – words that imitate sounds (whoosh!

splat!)
8. PERSONIFICATION – giving a non-living item the qualities

of a person

9. POINT OF VIEW – who is telling the story/poem (not always

the author) 1st person: I, me, my, mine, myself, we, us, ours… 3rd person: they, he, she, them, character names 10. RHYME – two or more words that have the same ending sound (dark, bark…matters, tatters…soul, whole) 11. RHYMING PATTERNS – the pattern of lines that rhyme (in an AABB poem, lines 1 & 2 rhyme, and lines) 3 & 4 rhyme, in an ABAB poem, lines 1 & 3 rhyme, and lines 2 & 4 rhyme, and in an ABCB poem, only lines 2 & 4 rhyme) 12. SIMILE – describing one thing as being like another – uses
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“like” or “as” (crazy as a fox, eyes like an eagle)

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Similes
A simile is a figure of speech that uses the word “as” or “like”. Figures of speech are used like adjectives or adverbs. They modify or describe a person, place, thing, or action with a colorful and often visual term of phrase. Creative writers and poets make good use of these. The following are frequently used similes.

Similes using “as”
As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As As bright as the noonday sun busy as a bee clear as a bell clear as day clear as the nose on your face cool as a cucumber certain as death and taxes cold as ice comfortable as an old shoe cute as a button cuddly as a baby dark as night deaf as a doorpost dry as a bone deep as the ocean fat as a pig flat as a pancake fresh as dew innocent as a newborn baby green as grass hard as nails happy as a lark hungry as a bear loud as thunder light as a feather lovely as a rose meek as a lamb quick as a wink quiet as a mouse rough as sandpaper smooth as glass

Similes using “like”
As strong as an ox As soft as old leather As sly as a fox As stubborn as a mule Acts like a bull in a china shop Eat like it’s going out of style Eat like a pig Chatters like a monkey Cry like a baby Cheeks like roses Drinks like a fish Eats like a bird Eyes like stars Fell like two cents Fits like a glove Fought like cats and dogs Laugh like a hyena Moves like a snail Run around like a chicken with its head cut off Run like a deer Sing like a bird Slept like a log Stood out like a sore thumb Sit there like a bump on the log Spoke like an orator Sparkled like diamonds Walk like an elephant Work like a dog Waddle like a duck Works like a charm

Metaphors
Metaphors are figures of speech that compare two things, but do not use the words “like” and “as”. These colorful phrases are used like adverbs or adjectives to describe persons, places, things, or actions. You must learn not to take them literally but to enjoy their use.
Ann was a walking encyclopedia. John’s head is a computer. Jealousy is a green-eyed monster. That car is an old dinosaur. Her porcelain skin is flawless. She’s a regular adding machine. He is faster than a streak of lightening. A fossil of a man greeted us at the door. Use kid gloves when handling this. Her heart is a fountain of kindness. The mountain of paperwork seemed to grow. His heart is an iceberg. The army of ants attacked the fallen lollipop. Tom is a marionette; his brother Bill works the strings. She is the shining star in his dark, dreary life. He is a snail when it comes to getting his work done. Mr. Mather’s bark is worse than his bite. The toddler was a clinging vine near his mother. His books were steamships and starships taking him to new worlds. His new car turned out to be a lemon. She was thunderstruck when she learned she had won. He’s top banana where he works. The police were determined to get to the bottom of the mystery. When her mother died, she shouldered the burden of raising the children. I’m a real chicken when it comes to getting an injection. At night my bedroom is a real icebox. When my mother saw my low grades, she gave me a real tonguelashing. Lost in the woods, the branches of the trees were arms grabbing me. By the times she finished her first day at work, she was dead tired. His stomach was a bottomless pit. The night was growing old, and there was still so much to be done. My grandmother is very broad-minded about most things. He turned thumbs down at the idea of moving to a new town.

Proofreader’s Marks
Delete There were cots to sleep on and food to eat on at the shelter.

Insert

^

of Mrs. Kim’s cat is the color carrots.

^

Indent paragraph or new paragraph

¶Riots are bad. People can get hurt
and buildings can get burned down but good things can happen too. People can learn to be friends. Daniel and his mom didn’t like mrs. Kim or her cat

Capitalize

Use lowercase

/

People were Rioting at the convention. I think Daniel’s mom and Mrs. Kim will  become friends People hurt other people steal things and burn down buildings in a riot. Daniels cat was named Jasmine.

Add period

Add comma

Add apostrophe Add space Subject-Verb don’t agree Spell Out # SV

# Daniel couldn’t findhis cat last night. sv I likes to eat vanilla ice cream. so She ate 3 pieces of pie after dinner! wc

SO

Word choice poor

WC

Some people barf when they are car sick.

Submitting Writing
Yes, I’m picky about how you order your papers.  But, there are good reasons for being picky about this. ONE of those reasons is for YOU, the writer, to be able to track the progress of your work!

The basic rule that applies is that you submit all work done on a piece with the latest work on top.
1. On the bottom should be the pre-writing (brainstorming, graphic organizers, or whatever was done in this step). The only exception is if you wrote something in a personal writer’s notebook (I don’t want you to tear it out). So, if you did pre-writing in a personal writer’s notebook, head a piece of paper, label it pre-writing and write me a note that says your pre-writing is in your writer’s notebook. 2. On top of the pre-writing is the rough draft with the response sheet attached to the front of the rough draft. 3. On top of the response sheet/rough draft is the revised piece. If you have done more than one revision (yes, it’s possible  ), order the revisions so that the most current revision is on the top. 4. On top of the latest revision, is the edit/proofreading sheet. 5. If a published copy is required, it goes on the very top with the grading sheet attached (if I have given you a grading sheet). Pre-writing Rough Draft with Revision #1 on top Response Revision #2 – Sheet whatever attached Edit Sheet number of to top Published copy revisions you (if I have have. The Grading Sheet asked you latest revision (if I have given to submit a always on top. you one) published (if applicable) copy)

on bottom

QUICK

QUality Information ChecKlist
A Guide for Internet Research

1. Is it clear who has written the information?
Who is the author? Is it an organization or an individual person. Is there a way to contact them?

2. Are the aims of the site clear?

What are the aims of the site? What is it for? Who is it for? Does the site do what it says it will?

3. Does the site achieve its aims? 4. Is the site relevant to me? 1. 2. 3. 4. ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

List four things to find out from the site.

5. Can the information be checked?
Is the author qualified to write the site? Has anyone else said the same things anywhere else? Is there any way of checking this out? If the information is new, is there any proof?

6. When was the site produced?
Is it up to date? Can you check to see if the information is up to date and not just the site?

7. Is the information biased in any way?

Has the site got a particular reason for wanting you to think in a particular way? Is it a balanced view or does it only give one opinion?

8. Does the site tell you about choices open to you?

Does the site give you advice? Does it tell you about other ideas?
For more guidance go to: http://www.hfht.org/chiq/Quick/docs/menu.htm
Adapted from by HDA and CHIQ & Show me Multimedia Ltd

Works Cited
Use the following guide to create a works cited or bibliography page. You may also use internet services such as bibme to create a page using MLAstyle. One to Three Authors
Author (alpha order) Title City Publisher Date

Friars, Carol, and Snow, Jerome. Prairie Women . New Haven: Yale UP, 1986 More than Three Authors or Editors
First Author Title City Publisher Date

Barry, Joanne C., et al. Jazz Greats. Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1986. Article in an Encyclopedia or Reference Book
Author(if given) and/or Date Article Title Encyclopedia or Book Title Edition

Chiappinin, Luciano. “Jouse of Ese.” Encyclopedia Britannica Magazine Article
Authors Article Title

1974 ed.

Lamb, Douglas H., and Glenn D. Reeder. “Reliving the Golden Days.” Psychology Today. June 1986: 22-29
Magazine Title Date Page Numbers

Television or Radio Program
Episode Date Program Title Producer Station City Air

“Civilizations.” Nightly News Primetime. CBS, KSIB, Los Angeles. 28 Apr. 1967 Newspaper Article
Author (if given) Section: Page Article Title Newspaper Title Date

Ferbinger, Jonathan. “Budget Woes.” New York Times. 20 Mar. 1997, sec. A:8 Electronic Recording (VCR, DVD, CD, etc.)
Video Title Medium Producer Date Length

Alzheimer’s Disease. Video cassette. Hospital Satellite Network, 1985. 28 min. Personal Interview
Interviewee Date

Pei, I.M. Personal Interview. 27 July 1983 E-mail
Author Subject line Address Date

Wall, Shannon. “Works Cited.” swallhy@ricochet.com (O9 Oct. 1996).

Internet Site (ftp, www, telnet)
Author (if known) Title

Bruckman, Amy. “Approaches to Managing Deviant Behavior.” ftp.media.mit.edu.pun/asb/papers/deviance-chi94 (4 Dec. 1994).
Address of Site with full path Date accessed

Section Six:

Science

Course Information
The science program at Lawson is a hands-on, inquiry-based program. You will be participating in labs on average of two or three times per week. You will also be expected to work on group projects, individual learning assignments, technology activities, and bookwork.

Textbook
Focus on Earth Science by CPO. All students will be provided with one copy of a science text to use at home and one copy will remain in the classroom for school use. The textbooks are to be returned at the end of the year or a replacement fee will be required.

Science Homework Policy

You will not be assigned daily homework due to the inquiry-based science program. Homework will be assigned as needed (most likely weekly) according to the lesson plan. Homework will be due the following day unless stated otherwise. • You will be expected to study for tests and quizzes. Tests and quizzes will be based on in-class notes, activities/labs, group work, lecture/discussion, and the text. • One to three times a year you will be asked to write a summary about a current scientific article. o Writing must follow the Language Arts writing guidelines. o The summary must be typed with the proper assignment heading. If you choose not to type the summary it must be neatly written, skipping lines, with the proper assignment heading. o A copy of the article must be attached to the summary with the correct bibliography information. • Occasionally there will be written homework or readings that require the use of your science text.

• About once a trimester you will be doing an inquiry lab that requires a written lab report that includes all aspects of the scientific method. The inquiry lab will give you an opportunity to take an existing lab and creating your own version of it, and stating a hypothesis that can be tested through the experiment. The length of the paper, formatting, and other requirements will be specified accordingly when the report is assigned.

Science Notebook
You will keep all of your science labs and notes in a science notebook. Your notebook will be collected regularly for grading purposes. All other related papers will be filed in the science section of your binder. Your grade will be based on the following: • Completeness of activities, including correct answers • Neatness (handwriting, tables, graphs, correct set-up, etc)

Participation

Part of your science grade is based on participation. You will be receiving participation points each day. Participation includes, but is not limited to: • Behavior • Completing activities in a timely fashion • Asking/answering questions • Sharing during discussions • Work quality during lab and in group activities

Grades
Your grade will be determined on your performance in these areas: • • • • 30% 30% 20% 20% Notebook Tests/Quizzes Lab Protocol/Participation Homework/Projects

Scientific Method Write-Up Format
I. Question This tells the general idea that you are investigating. Keep it simple! II. Hypothesis Predict what the outcome of your research will be and explain why. III. Materials List all the materials a person would need to conduct the same study that you did. IV. Procedure List the steps you used to conduct your experiment. It should be written in such a way that any other person could do your experiment exactly the same way you did it. Write with as much detail as possible; however, do not include any results from your own research here. V. Data Choose the best method(s) to show your data. It could be a chart with written observations, and data table, a graph, or pictures. Label every chart/graph/table clearly. VI. Conclusion Write about what your results told you about your research question. Explain with detail how your hypothesis was proved and/or disproved. Don’t stay with your hypothesis if your actual data didn’t back your ideas up! Conclusion includes three components: Claim: A statement that answers the original question. Answer your question in a statement. Was your hypothesis correct? Evidence: Appropriate and sufficient scientific data that supports the claim. Put your data into words. Describe exactly what happened and whether that supports your hypothesis or not.

Reasoning: Uses appropriate and sufficient scientific principles to explain the reason for why we obtained the results we did. Explain why the results occurred using your scientific knowledge and vocabulary terms.

QTDE
Question
Rewrite the question in your own words

Topic Sentence
Rewrite the question into a topic sentence (the main idea of you paragraph). It should be broad enough so that all of your details fit underneath it.

Details
Find details in the text, which support your topic sentence.

Elaborate
Tell more about your details. Explain it further for the reader. What is it? Why is it important to the topic or main idea?

Section Seven:

Math

Textbook
California Mathematics by Scott Foresman All students will be provided with one copy of a math text to use at home and one copy will remain in the classroom for school use. The textbooks are to be returned at the end of the year or a replacement fee will be required.

Activities

We will be using a variety of manipulatives, group activities, individual learning techniques, technology, and bookwork to learn the math and science standards in class this year.

Supplies needed at school
See the supply list included in the Classroom Contract.

Supplies needed at home
• • • • Protractor Compass Metric/English unit ruler Calculator

Daily Schedule

In math class, students can expect a regular daily schedule. On most days, we will begin with math for the first period and move to science for the second. Class will begin with a warm-up that should be done on individual whiteboards. Then we will move on to homework correcting of the previous day’s homework. When finished correcting, the day’s lesson will be introduced and students will copy notes and example problems. Taking notes is mandatory!

Whatever is up on the board MUST also be written in your notes. No exceptions! Following notes, there will be some practice problems which may either be individual, or group practice. Once finished, a quick check of the answers, then, if time allows, students will be allowed to start on homework for a few minutes. This is a great time to ask questions from the lesson or from a homework problem that may be confusing or difficult.

Homework
Homework will be assigned daily. It must be completed neatly in pencil. Students must copy the problems and show work as modeled in class. Homework will be corrected by each student daily and stamped, if formatted correctly and all the problems attempted. It is the student’s responsibility to make corrections to problems missed on each homework assignment.

Homework Correction
Homework is checked each day at the beginning of the period. As soon as you get to class, take out your homework and a red correcting pen so that you are ready to correct as soon as class begins. Homework answers will be posted or read aloud for selfcorrecting.

Procedure
• Each correct answer should be marked with a dot or a star next to the problem number • Each incorrect answer should be indicated by making a slash on the problem number, so you know you need to re-do these problems. Also, write the correct answer next to the problem in red pen.

Take a few minutes in class while homework is being checked to re-do mistakes. If you need more time to re-do your mistakes, take time before starting your homework. All re-dos must be completed before class the following day in order to receive full credit.

Homework Grading
Each student will receive a blank calendar at the beginning of each month. Each day of homework is worth 4 points. • 2 points for having homework done on time and following homework standards (see page 73). • 2 points for correcting in red pen, writing score at the top of the page and re-doing mistakes before class on the following day. • If any part of the above requirements are not followed, you will loose those points. • Points are awarded using stamps. For each day of homework, a student should have 2 stamps to receive full credit. The first stamp is given on the day the assignment is due. The second stamp is given the following day after being checked for corrections and re-dos. • At the end of the month, students will turn in the homework calendar for a grade. • This method allows the teacher, student and parent to easily see if (and which) homework assignments are missing, just by looking at the calendar. • This procedure will be explained more in depth in class.

Make-up Work
Making up and correcting absent work is the student’s responsibility. Please write ABSENT (to replace the daily stamp) on the top of homework paper. You have the same number of absent days to make up work without penalty. Homework is posted on the website daily and on the homework board in the classroom. You can also contact another student in the class to find out assignments.

Assessments and Re-takes
There will be one to two quizzes given in the middle of each chapter to help the student, teacher, and parents to monitor students’ learning progress. At the end of each chapter there will be a chapter test to see how much of the chapter material the student has

retained and mastered. Re-takes on quizzes and tests are allowed only if the score falls under 80%. It is recommended for the students to get help and to clarify questions on their mistakes before retaking the assessment. The re-take grade will replace the original one if it is a higher score.

Math Notebook

  

This is where students will take notes, do class work and homework. It will help to build study skills, note-taking skills, and organizational skills There will be daily entries. You are responsible for all entries, even if absent. In this case, copy from someone who keeps good notes. May be used for some quizzes and tests Will be graded twice a trimester for neatness and completeness All entries must be entered in a table of contents, titled and dated Used to take notes, copy board problems, do group work, and do class work. It will not be used for homework, except as a reference. Other related math papers will be filed in the math section of the portfolio.

Grading Policy
The • • • •

total grade will be based upon the following breakdown: 20% Notebook and Participation 30% Tests/Quizzes 30% Homework 20% Projects/POWs (problem of the week)/Group Work

Homework Standards
Below is a sample of the required homework heading and setup for each assignment: Subject Period Core Assignment Paper fold Date (center of the paper) Sun Pg. 15 #1-15 All 2008 Name

Thunder or Lightning Math pd. 1

Hannah August 21,

1) Do all work neatly in PENCIL! 2) Except for charts, word problems, or graphs, you may fold your paper in half. You must have no more than two vertical columns. Always leave room to make corrections. 3) Copy the original problem with any figures, and show all work step-by-step on each line beneath the problem as modeled in class. 4) Answers should be boxed on a separate line, except for graphs, number lines, and sentences. 5) Number each problem and draw a circle around the number. 6) Each step should be on the line below the previous step. For example: If the problem is: Simplify 3x – 14 if x=9 Correct 3x – 14 if x=9 3(9) – 14 27 – 14 13 7) Skip a line between problems. 8) Use a RED ballpoint pen for correcting (not felt tip or gel pen). If the problem is correct, make a neat dot or star to the left of (not on top of) the problem number. If it is incorrect, write an X over the problem number. 9) Use a straight edge for all straight lines. 10) Put your score clearly at the top of the paper in red as follows: ( for example: ) 11) Rework all incorrect problems in red pen next to the original, if there is room, or at the end of your work under the heading “Corrections. Incorrect 3x – 14 if x=9 3(9) – 14 = 27 – 14 = 13

5-Step Plan for Solving Word Problems
1) Read the problem carefully. Write out the basic facts. A sketch is ok. 2) Choose and define the variable (Let n = …) Put applicable units in () 3) Reread the problem and write an equation to represent relationships among the numbers in the problem. 4) Solve the equation, step by step. 5) Does your answer make sense? (Sanity Check) Look back at original problem. Write answer in a complete and comprehensive sentence. Don’t forget units, when applicable. Example: The admission charge to the museum for a group of 18 adults is $72. How much is it for each adult? Museum admission charge $72, 18 adults Let a = charge for one adult ($) a= a=4 The museum charges $4 admission for each adult.

Section Eight:

Advisory
Advisory is a class that is made up of students from Thunder and Lightning Cores. We will meet every Tuesday and Thursday. Advisory is a time where we can learn about peers, others, and ourselves in our community. Our goals in this class will be to:

Introduce a variety of study skills for a successful transition into middle school and beyond Promote character development Build class unity Advise students on academic decisions
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  

  

Support academic performance and social interaction Undertake community service HAVE FUN!!

Language Strategies for Active Classroom Participation
Expressing an Opinion I think/believe that… It seems to me that… In my opinion… Asking for Clarification What do you mean? Will you explain that again? I have a question about... Soliciting a Response What do you think? Do you agree? What answer did you get? We haven’t heard from you… Individual Reporting _______ shared with me that… _______ pointed out to me… _______ emphasized that… _______ indicated that… Disagreeing I don’t agree with you
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because… I got a different answer than… I see it another way. Affirming That’s an interesting idea. I hadn’t thought of that. I see what you mean.

Predicting I guess/predict/imagine that… Based on… I infer that… I hypothesize that… Paraphrasing So you are saying that… In other words, you think… What I hear you saying is… Acknowledging Ideas My idea is similar to/related to _______’s idea. I agree with (______) that… My idea builds upon ____’s idea.

Partner or Group Reporting We decided/agreed that… We concluded that… Our group sees it differently. We had a different approach. Offering a Suggestion Maybe we could… What if we… Here’s something we might try.

Holding the Floor As I was saying,… If I could finish my thought… What I was trying to say was…

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WORKING LEVELS IN GROUPS
LEVEL 5 HELPFUL TO OTHER GROUPS RESPECTFUL OF OTHER GROUPS

CHARACTERISTICS: after completing work at with level five characteristics, helps to facilitate the success of other groups and the efficiency of the class LEVEL 4 PRODUCTIVE RESPECTFUL COLLABORATES WITH OTHERS CRAFTSMANSHIP

CHARACTERISTICS: in addition to the characteristics of a level three, works productively and challenges self and others; works collaboratively (asks for input & gives ideas, compromises) with others in the group, demonstrates craftsmanship and quality in his/her work. LEVEL 3 PRODUCTIVE RESPECTFUL

CHARACTERISTICS: works persistently and productively on assigned and self-initiated tasks; respects the rights and work of others; engages in productive conversation; takes care of materials and the environment. LEVEL 2 WORKS WHEN REMINDED

CHARACTERISTICS: work accomplished with reminders or questioning done by teacher or group leader; sometimes working and other times not working; conversations may be unproductive. LEVEL 1 NOT WORKING

CHARACTERISTICS: no, or very little, work evidenced; there may be unfocused wandering. LEVEL 0 INTERFERING WITH OTHERS’ WORK

CHARACTERISTICS: loud talking; often silly or goofy; minimal or careless work accomplished; bothers others who are working; requires frequent teacher intervention; materials or environment may be misused.

Beginning of Year Self-Assessment – August ‘08
Next to each statement rate yourself on a scale of 0 to 5 based on your performance in school during the last trimester of fifth grade. 0 Never 1 Almost Never 2 Once in a While 3 Sometimes 4 Most of the Time 5 Always

Participation:
1. _____ 2. _____ everyday.

I took part in classroom discussions. I tried to volunteer an answer more than once in every subject

Social Skills:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ I helped others with their work when asked. I cleaned up after myself at the end of every activity. My desk was clean, inside and out. My binder and notebooks were organized. I respected others by not bothering or distracting them. I tried hard not to let other people distract me.

Work Ethic:
1. _____ I put my name on my work. 2. _____ I turned in every assignment on time. 3. _____ I used my time wisely. 4. _____ When I had a question, I sought out an answer from a friend/teacher. 5. _____ I read and followed directions carefully on my assignments and tests. 6. _____ I turned in work that is neat and organized. 7. _____ I double-checked or proofread my work. 8. _____ I stayed on task when I was supposed to be working independently. 9. _____ When I finished something in class, I took out something else productive. 10. ____ I started my work on my own without having to be reminded. 11. ____ I did my personal best on all of my assignments.

My Goals for the First Trimester:

1._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 2._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 3._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

First Trimester Self-Assessment – November ‘08
Next to each statement rate yourself on a scale of 0 to 5 based on your performance in school during the last trimester. 0 Never 1 Almost Never 2 Once in a While 3 Sometimes 4 Most of the Time 5 Always

Participation:
1. _____ 2. _____ everyday.

I took part in classroom discussions. I tried to volunteer an answer more than once in every subject

Social Skills:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

I helped others with their work when asked. I cleaned up after myself at the end of every activity. My desk was clean, inside and out. My binder and notebooks were organized. I respected others by not bothering or distracting them. I tried hard not to let other people distract me.

Work Ethic:

1. _____ I put my name on my work. 2. _____ I turned in every assignment on time. 3. _____ I used my time wisely. 4. _____ When I had a question, I sought out an answer from a friend/teacher. 5. _____ I read and followed directions carefully on my assignments and tests. 6. _____ I turned in work that is neat and organized. 7. _____ I double-checked or proofread my work. 8. _____ I stayed on task when I was supposed to be working

independently. 9. _____ When I finished something in class, I took out something else productive. 10. ____ I started my work on my own without having to be reminded. 11. ____ I did my personal best on all of my assignments.

My Goals for the Second Trimester:
1._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 2._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 3._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

Second Trimester Self-Assessment – MARCH ‘09
Next to each statement rate yourself on a scale of 0 to 5 based on your performance in school during the last trimester. 0 Never 1 Almost Never 2 Once in a While 3 Sometimes 4 Most of the Time 5 Always

Participation:
1. _____ 2. _____ everyday.

I took part in classroom discussions. I tried to volunteer an answer more than once in every subject

Social Skills:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

I helped others with their work when asked. I cleaned up after myself at the end of every activity. My desk was clean, inside and out. My binder and notebooks were organized. I respected others by not bothering or distracting them. I tried hard not to let other people distract me.

Work Ethic:
1. _____ 2. _____

I put my name on my work. I turned in every assignment on time.

3. _____ I used my time wisely. 4. _____ When I had a question, I sought out an answer from a friend/teacher. 5. _____ I read and followed directions carefully on my assignments and tests. 6. _____ I turned in work that is neat and organized. 7. _____ I double-checked or proofread my work. 8. _____ I stayed on task when I was supposed to be working independently. 9. _____ When I finished something in class, I took out something else productive. 10. ____ I started my work on my own without having to be reminded. 11. ____ I did my personal best on all of my assignments.

My Goals for the Third Trimester:
1._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 2._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 3._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

Third Trimester Self-Assessment – JUNE ‘09
Next to each statement rate yourself on a scale of 0 to 5 based on your performance in school during the last trimester. 0 Never 1 Almost Never 2 Once in a While 3 Sometimes 4 Most of the Time 5 Always

Participation:
1. _____ 2. _____ everyday.

I took part in classroom discussions. I tried to volunteer an answer more than once in every subject

Social Skills:
1. 2. 3. 4. _____ _____ _____ _____ I helped others with their work when asked. I cleaned up after myself at the end of every activity. My desk was clean, inside and out. My binder and notebooks were organized.

5. _____ 6. _____

I respected others by not bothering or distracting them. I tried hard not to let other people distract me.

Work Ethic:
1. _____ I put my name on my work. 2. _____ I turned in every assignment on time. 3. _____ I used my time wisely. 4. _____ When I had a question, I sought out an answer from a friend/teacher. 5. _____ I read and followed directions carefully on my assignments and tests. 6. _____ I turned in work that is neat and organized. 7. _____ I double-checked or proofread my work. 8. _____ I stayed on task when I was supposed to be working independently. 9. _____ When I finished something in class, I took out something else productive. 10. ____ I started my work on my own without having to be reminded. 11. ____ I did my personal best on all of my assignments.

My Goals for the Seventh Grade:
1._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 2._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 3._________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

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