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Annotated Bibliography "Caplan, J., Ed.: Written on the Body: The Tattoo in European and American History.

" Caplan, J., Ed.: Written on the Body: The Tattoo in European and American History. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. <http://press.princeton.edu/titles/6922.html>. Annotation: This source explains the history and mystery of the origin of tattoos. The author compiles multiple histories into one work taking you through a chronological time frame of tattooing and the way that it is looked at by society. She explains how the literacy of tattooing was not always seen as an art form and was involuntarily done to criminals before it appealed to the social class. It goes into the areas that tattoo artists need to be literate in like business and economics due to the sporadic flow of business.

Quotes:
Established as a punitive or proprietary symbol in Greece, tattooing continued through the

Middle Ages in Europe as a means to mark the bodies of criminals, and thus tattooing as a social practice in Western civilization became intertwined with criminality and deviance.

Evaluation: On a scale of one to ten I give this source a 7.5-8. The author references other works to support her statements and it is very effective in giving you a historical background. She poses questions that make you rethink your initial ideas about the subject exposes many different facets of the topic. This was a crucial source for my background information. Even though it wasnt as formal as some of my other sources it was very helpful and credible.

Clerk, Carol. Vintage Tattoos: The Book of Old-school Skin Art. New York, NY: Universe, 2009. Print.

Annotation: This book is very interesting. It delves into particular people and styles that made tattooing the subculture that it is today. Without influential tattooists like Don Ed Hardy and Sailor Jerry, the art form would not be what it is today. It explains how these men started and how their

works have made it in books all around for other artists to study. Rookie artists have to engage with the literacy of those who came before them in order to understand the roots of their chosen subculture. In a sense, this book was like a history text book that up and coming tattoo artists should engage with to better themselves. Quotes: Evaluation: This book gives good insight on the founding fathers of modern day tattooing. I give this source a 9 on the scale of usefulness. It gave me very sound information and opened my eyes to the tattooing world beyond what we see in mainstream media these days. It tells about certain phrases that became popular in tattooing and shows how tattoo artists learn how to say new things in new languages on a regular basis because of the variety of clientele.

Walsh, Ryan J. Painting on a Canvas of Skin: Tattooing and the First Amendment. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Painting on a Canvas of Skin: Tattooing and the First Amendment. The University of Chicago, 31 July 2011. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. <http://lawreview.uchicago.edu/sites/lawreview.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/78.3/78_3_Walsh.pd f>. Annotation: This author chooses to talk about the legal aspects behind tattooing and how it is categorized by the government. It sheds light on the fact that some people dont look at it as speech or selfexpression but more of a cultural problem. Tattooists have to be very savvy in the area of law because of the age minimum of their art. Also, the permanence of tattoos puts pressure on them to give clients exactly what they want in an almost perfect manner. These artists interact with legal documents of consent patrons sign before any work is done in order to make sure they are covered in the case of an unsatisfied customer. Quotes: A speaker is no less a speaker because he or she is paid to speak. In educating clients or shaping their wants so that the products are artistically unique. Evaluation: This is the best source that I have found because it not only focuses on the literary interaction with legal documents but also the verbal interaction between artists and customers. It attempts to categorize the subculture of tattoo artists and those seeking their expertise while articulating what kind of power the government has pertaining to the expression of tattoos. I rate this source

a 10. It did not really contain biases it just gave very straight forward facts and was filled with citations to verify the authenticity of facts being brought to the table.

Sanders, Clinton. Customizing the Body: The Art and Culture of Tattooing. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1989. Print. Annotation: This book was a great look at tattoo artists, their trade, and their craft. It gave a very open minded view of tattooing and even shared peoples stories about their tattoos and the experience they had with them. This type of book helps you understand the interaction between customer and professional because it can be a very touchy situation depending on the personalities of both people. It gave great insight on the tattooing world which is somewhat of a mystery to those who do not take part in body modification. Quotes: Evaluation: This source is great for historical background. I feel as though it could have been written better but a lot of that has to do with the timeframe in which it was published. His observations and research are much unbiased in the sense of agreeing or disagreeing with tattoo. It isnt my best source but I did receive a lot of understanding about the process tattoo artists must go through.

Schildkrout, Enid. "Inscribing the Body." Annual Review of Anthropology. By William H. Durham and Jane H. Hill. Vol. 33. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, 2004. 319-44. Print.

Annotation: This is an ethnography that gives more of a cultural background and reasoning behind tattooing. It shows that there is knowledge gained by artists with the elevated number of people they come in contact with. Every customers ideas of what they want vary so artists are constantly exposed to things that they might not have otherwise. It shows that tattooing has a philosophical demeanor about it because people enjoy carrying their imprint with them as a constant and permanent reminder of something. People usually have a story or reason behind their tattoo and that kind of relationship between tattoo artist and customer is a very unique one. Quotes:

The purpose of tattooing is not only to imprint a drawing in the flesh but also to stamp onto the mind traditions or philosophy Evaluation: This source was very interesting. Being that it was ethnography itself, it was very broad and explained many social aspects of tattoos and those who choose their profession in the field. The texts, people, and situations that come up on a daily basis is a very erratic pattern that is filled with knowledge and understanding.

Krcmarik, Katherine L. "History of Tattooing." History of Tattooing. Michigan State University, Apr. 2003. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <https://www.msu.edu/~krcmari1/individual/history.html>.

Annotation: Quotes: Evaluaion