Danielle Chemello #4

AAC Program

SPED 461

11/14/12

Page 1

Student Description: K is a 15 year old girl with an intellectual disability. At Central High School, she takes all self-contained special education classes with the exception of her sewing and physical education classes. Her self-contained classes are functional reading, functional math, English, and chemistry. K is similar to any other teenage girl because of her loves of makeup, hair styles, and Justin Bieber. She enjoys talking about these areas in great detail, however, she does not initiate these conversations. Based on the communication assessment, I learned that K’s current expressive communication skills are lower than those of her typically developing peers. She often tries to further conversations with her classmates, but fails to do so because she does not know more about a topic. She also keeps to herself and rarely initiates conversations. When she does speak with peers, K often talks about herself rather than the other person. K could benefit from an intervention where she learns how to be a good listener. Despite this, K excels at faking conversations to ensure that other students think she is able to carry on conversations. She can back herself out of the conversation when she does not know a topic well, too. Another area that she excels in is when she tells her classmates how she feels when they are making fun of her. She will look straight at them and tell them to stop. This skill is important when advocating for herself in the classroom and later on in life. K also needs practice in certain areas of receptive communication skills. She has a hard time following two step verbal directions in the classroom. She is better when it comes to written or gestural prompts. K also needs practice in following a schedule. She cannot independently wake herself and leave her home in time for activities. She would benefit from an intervention that allows her to learn how to independently follow a schedule. Another area K needs to work on is being flexible with these schedules. Whenever she has a change in her school day, K will often bring up this change repeatedly to anyone who will listen and regardless of the current conversation topic. She needs to be able to notice and accept the change. Despite these needs, K has some skills that are helpful in terms of receptive communication. She is great at following spoken directions when they are paired with a gestural prompt. For example when I point to her binder while saying, “Please pull out your binder,” K will follow the instruction immediately. Also, K is improving her ability to pull out important information from texts. This is exemplified by the comprehension checks in her reading class. When making a recipe with her functional math class, she was also able to read the steps and perform them with little assistance. This is important in showing K’s ability to comprehend written word. Also based on the communication assessment data, I learned that K’s current social interaction skills could use work so that she builds meaningful friendships. K needs to initiate conversations with her peers in order to become more social and create friendships. She also needs to practice maintaining conversations by adding different comments to the conversation. She often will repeat information in a conversation if she had nothing more to add. Lastly, K needs to improve upon her ability to listen to her peers during conversations. When in a conversation, she tends to monopolize it by talking about herself and her issues. The other students in her classes are used to this and forgiving of this, but her general education classmates are not so forgiving. K needs to practice listening to others and discussing their opinions on topics during conversations so that she can create meaningful friendships. Despite these needs, K has strengths in terms of social interaction skills. She blends in well with her classmates because of the way in which she talks. She has the tone of a typically developing student. This allows her to blend in more than some of her peers with disabilities. The second area in which K performs well is her ability to know what is appropriate to ask of other people. She knows not to ask questions that are too

Danielle Chemello #4

AAC Program

SPED 461

11/14/12

Page 2

personal such as ones about age. This skill will be helpful when she initiates conversations with peers because she already knows the questions that make other people too uncomfortable to discuss. From the data collection process, I identified two communication areas in which K would best benefit from instruction. One skill to target would be the amount of times K talks about herself in a given conversation. She often monopolizes the conversation so that she is doing most of the talking. As a result of the intervention, I would like for K to be able to ask other people’s opinions and comment on other aspects of the conversation that her partner had brought up. Not only will this allow a conversation to flow better, it will allow K to create a more meaningful relationship because she is talking with another peer about both him or her and herself. The next skill I would like to target for K is that of her ability to follow verbal instructions. I found this skill incredibly important in terms of transitioning to employment. K will need to follow verbal directions in a job site until she advocates for herself to have written instructions. Once K has a written set of instructions or a checklist of tasks, she will be much more likely to keep her job because she does what she is told. By practicing the ability to follow a checklist in the classroom, K will be better able to generalize the skill into the workplace. One Annual Objective: When given a visual checklist or task analysis across all periods of the school day (following a recipe, completing the tasks on a to do list, etc.), K will be able to follow each step of the checklist or task analysis in order to accomplish 100% of the steps for 10 consecutive opportunities. Maintenance criteria will be when K can complete the above objective during a random probe opportunity during the following times: -one week after mastery -two weeks after mastery -four weeks after mastery -eight weeks after mastery Sub-Objectives: When given a visual checklist at the beginning of her third and fourth periods, K will be able to follow each step of the checklist in order to accomplish 100 % of the steps for 10 consecutive opportunities. (2) When given a visual checklist at the beginning of her fifth period, K will be able to follow each step of the checklist in order to accomplish 100% of the steps for 10 consecutive opportunities. (3) When given a visual checklist at the beginning of her first and second periods, K will be able to follow each step of the checklist in order to accomplish 100% of the steps for 10 consecutive opportunities (4) When given a visual checklist at the beginning of her seventh and eighth periods, K will be able to follow each step of the checklist in order to accomplish 100% of the steps for 10 consecutive opportunities. (1) Skill Sequence: The above sub-objectives will be taught in the follow order so that K will reach the annual objective. First (3), second (1), third (2), and last (4). (3) ---> (1)---> (2)---->(4) Suggested Intervention and Research Rationale:

Danielle Chemello #4

AAC Program

SPED 461

11/14/12

Page 3

K often cannot follow the verbal instructions telling her to take out her materials for class. Since K follows written instructions well, it would be best to have a visual checklist for her to monitor herself and her ability to take out her class items. Selecting a self-monitoring visual checklist was a simple decision to make regarding K and her behavior in class after reading the research. Self-monitoring sheets have been researched by many and have been found to be effective. For example, Holifield, Goodman, Hazelkorn, and Heflin (2010, p. 230) concluded that self-monitoring is a “viable behavior management technique in the public schools.” They are indicating that students will benefit from self-monitoring because they are able to manage their behavior in the classroom. When self-monitoring having the required class materials, K will be managing her readiness for class behaviors. The authors also say that self-monitoring is effective in “increasing attention, academic productivity and accuracy, reading comprehension, and on-task behaviors,” (Holifield, Goodman, Hazelkorn, & Heflin, 2010). The benefits of selfmonitoring are clear. K will benefit because she will indirectly increase the previously mentioned skills by being prepared for class. When teaching K the skills to use the visual checklist, a least to most prompting system will be in place. According to the research by MacDuff, Krantz, and McClannahan, a least to most prompting system was employed by the staff while teaching a set of group home members to follow a visual schedule (1993). This prompting system was effective when the participants were able to follow the schedule and participate in the activities independently. By using the same least to most prompting hierarchy when teaching K to use her visual checklist, she will be successful in taking out each task in order to be prepared for class. By combining both the rationale for self-monitoring checklists and the instructional method of a least to most prompting system, K will be more likely to succeed in following her checklist. This will allow her to be prepared for class so that she can pay attention and complete the instructed activities more quickly. In turn, this will increase her likelihood of increasing attention and on-task behaviors. Procedures: Follow these procedures in both reading and math classes. (1) Make sure the checklist is Velcroed to the desk at the beginning of the hour. (2) Verbally and physically prompt K by saying, “K, please take out each item for class,” while pointing to the boxes under the appropriate (reading or math) column. (3) Wait 5 seconds for K to start getting out each item. If K starts to take out an item, wait until the item is out before moving to step 7. Record PV1. (4) If after 5 seconds, she does not initiate getting out an item, physically point to the location of the first item on the list while saying, “K, please take out your item for class.” (5) Wait 5 seconds for K to start getting out the item. If K starts to take out an item, wait until the item is out before moving to step 7. Record PV2. (6) If after 5 seconds, she does not initiate getting out an item, physically point to the storage location of the first item on the list while saying, “K, please take out your item for class.” Record PV3.

Danielle Chemello #4

AAC Program

SPED 461

11/14/12

Page 4

(7) Once K has her item out, say, “K, check off the box of your item with the dry erase marker,” while pointing to the appropriate column. (8) Wait 5 seconds for K to check the box. If K checks off the box within 5 seconds, repeat steps 2-8 until all four items are out for class. (9) If K does not check off the box or checks off the wrong box within the 5 seconds, physically point to the box that she is to check off while saying, “K please check off your item because you have taken it out.” Repeat steps 2-7 until K has each of the four items for class. Assessment Schedule: Assess every third period. So, 2 instructional periods and the next period would be an assessment period. (assessment and instruction may occur in the same day) Assessment Procedures: (1) Make sure the checklist is Velcroed to the desk at the beginning of the hour. (2) Verbally prompt the class to take out their items for class by saying, “Please take out your binder, pencil, and highlighter for class. K and T, please have your glasses out too.” (3) Record the amount of items K takes out and checks off on her checklist. (4) If K does not take out the four items within 30 seconds of the verbal prompt, move straight to the most intrusive physical and verbal prompt. This prompt is when I say, “K, please take out your item for class,” while pointing to the storage location of the item. Data Collection and Projected Data Display: Number and percent of items taken out per period. Bold=baseline data. Italics=probe Date Number of Items in Reading 1/4 2/4 1/4 1/4 2/4 2/4 2/4 Percent of Items in Reading 25% 50% 25% 25% 50% 50% 50% Number of Items in Math 0/4 2/4 1/4 1/4 2/4 1/4 2/4 Percent of Items in Math 0% 50% 25% 25% 50% 25% 50%

11/5/1 2 11/6/1 2 11/7/1 2 11/8/1 2 11/9/1 2 11/12/12 11/13/12

Danielle Chemello #4

AAC Program

SPED 461

11/14/12

Page 5

Date

Number of Items in Reading 3/4 3/4 3/4 4/4 3/4 4/4 4/4 4/4

Percent of Items in Reading 75% 75% 75% 100% 75% 100% 100% 100%

Number of Items in Math 2/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4

Percent of Items in Math 50% 75% 75% 75% 100% 100% 100% 100%

11/14/12 11/15/12 11/16/12 11/19/12 11/20/12 11/26/12 11/27/12 11/28/12

Above is the table I will use to record the amount and percent of items K took out for both her first and second period of the day. Below are the graphs of the baseline and intervention. Both the baseline data and the intervention data are what the data will look like if the intervention is successful.

Danielle Chemello #4

AAC Program

SPED 461

11/14/12

Page 6

Danielle Chemello #4

AAC Program

SPED 461

11/14/12

Page 7

AAC System Materials: The AAC system material will be one strip of paper that K will use to self-monitor the items she has out and ready for class. The strip of paper is approximately 3 inches by 3 inches. The paper used is white computer paper and the text is written in 14 point Times New Roman font. This strip of paper will be laminated and Velcroed to an upper corner of K’s desk. She will use a dry erase marker to check off each item for each period. I will look at the list after each class period to record the items K checked. Below is an example of the checklist.

Take out your: Reading Math binder pencil highlighter glasses

References Holifield, C., Goodman, J., Hazelkorn, M., & Heflin, L. J. (2010). Using self-monitoring to increase attending to task and academic accuracy in children with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 25(4), 230-238. MacDuff, G. S., Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1993). Teaching children with autism to use photographic activity schedules: Maintenance and generalization of complex response chains. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(1), 89-97.

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