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The Relations of Regular Figures (as shown by formulas in which π is expressed as 4 × .7854 and in which “s” or side and “h” or height and “d” or diameter are all assumed to be the same number and are all expressed by D)

Circumference Square [S=side] Circle 4S πd Surface Cube Right Cylinder 6S2 2πr2 + 2πrh Area S2 πr2 Volume S3 πr2h 1/3πr2h h=D; r=D÷2; s=√D2 + (D/2)2 4/3πr3 2/3 × 6 = 4 6D2 ×.7854×2/3 D3×.7854×2/3 Notes S=D π= 4×.7854; r=D÷2; d=D 4r2= D2 Notes S=D h=D; r=D÷2 Circumference 4D Area D2

4D×.7854 Surface 6D2 6D2× .7854

D2×.7854 Volume D3 D3×.7854

Cone πr2 + πrs [s = slant height] Sphere 4πr2

D2×.7854 (1+√5/2) D3×.7854×1/3

Unified Formulas -2

The Meaning of Phi (as shown by formulas in which Phi is taken as equal to (√5−1) ÷2 or .618033989) There is one and only one number which satisfies the equation X2 + X = 1. That number is Phi where X=Phi and Phi equals (√5− 1)÷2 φ2 + φ = 1 φ2x + φx = x φ2x/ φx = φ φx/x= φ The four formulas above explain all the so-called “Golden” properties of Phi and also the mean and extreme ratio. Explanation in words: When we divide a whole by the fraction called Phi we divide the whole or “x” into two parts, φ2x and φx. One of these parts is multiplied by Phi, the other by the square of Phi. (φ2x, φx) When we form a ratio from these two parts, “x” cancels out and we are dividing a square root into its square so we get the same number we divided by, i.e., Phi. (φ2x/ φx = φ) When we divide the fraction formed with Phi by the whole or “x”, “x” again

cancels out and we are left with Phi. (φx/x= φ) Phi equals Phi so the two ratios equal each other. φ2x/ φx :: φx/x. If “x” is a length, we get the Golden Section or the mean and extreme ratios. If x =360 degrees, we get the Golden Angle. If “x” is a length equal to 1 and divided by Phi, we can construct the Golden Rectangle perfectly. If we construct rectangles by adding squares whose sides are based on the Fibonacci progression then the rectangle whose sides are 34, 55 will be an imperfect Golden rectangle. It is imperfect because if we subdivide itinto squares and rectangles, the divisions end at the two squares which began to the “flying squares” instead of continuing endlessly. Besides the sides of the squares are not in a true Phi ratio by which I mean they are not in a ratio of .618033990. (There is a sense in which each ratio in the progression of the ratios of adjacent Fibonacci numbers can be thought of as a “Phi ratio”, but that is another story.)

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