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Wrnbr-rirtir e0Xaprotfioa coDg Ronald Carino, Joseph De vd tsush4eiss, ]onathan Ecker, Kathleen MacNamara, xo'\ Ly* ffi.r:rn l\rilcox, xa0cb6xai roUg George, Margot zal Susan Szasz, lffirr :ivdr gi),or pou xal prdh dg oixoy€vetag pou, yrd tig no),fu: u-a\l6vtpeg nporuoetqroug' clv Elizabeth Knappman, Dueu litn-',:p:'a o6vta(46, zcoU pou xal toO inr,pe}.ri04xe Br,B},fo td {g &e-,lrr3 te),rxi1popgli, Xalpigv& ger,o0eixavevbg x6nou' d1v Qv Remer yr,d ciiv ifar,petr,xd e0ouvef8qt4 xo.\ &noDoruxil Ga.-'rgre cr^,::fpcrqlxalExEooritoD Xer,p61po(gou Q ypaprpatda pou, xai rrtt"t'ie Murphy, yr& ofu Qv &xanan6v4ryl oDVepTO( :'16.

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THOMAS

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18

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S Z A S Z . .A I P E T I K A

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xat& )d(r,v np6oll0ri crls peragop&g r\g @eiuqF-i:1cl;g.oricl.q D4prr,oupyei eix6va 6t 6'IrlooDgeivar (c,rvtav6q.'Edveivar Qv (arwav6g, 6&rco6, a6tb o4pa(vet 6rr.pmopelv& Do],ocpov40eZ xai 'Ooo nd).r. &nbTeuro xt dv <prlciverclct r€rorc otbv o6yXpoxanr vo &va1vc6o'cn,h nenot}rlorl a0ti1 fitav oci2v npclpanm6r1ru (arvtavil ociiv E0p6n4 pr6Xpr np6o<pura.fr,d nepfnou 300 Xp6vtu,&nb tbv 13o p6xprcbv 16o akhva,ouvdBarvav xffi'tnoLvrl"trqQrv6nelo68la pi'EBpaioug zcor)xaoryopoDvrav 6t VorXo'.Lp<ivouvtbv iepb &.proxo'\tdv xdvouv vd pardrver,6rxalo).oycivro'q Etot d7 6o).ogov[a Xr],r,tiE<ov'Eppalov.'Enrn],6ov. DuaDe6 Eopdvog r6v'EBpa[clv rilg<6o],o<p6vcov XprtoD Xo,.effizcarpLopb6 oroD>>, &x6gta xui gtoa otb n),a[olo toD o6lXpovou &wroqpr,tropo6, &noDelxvdel yr,&pr.d. &x6p4gop& ci1S6vcrpq nob &oxoDv ol xuprolexl*Eq 6pprlveiegc6v petagop6v otb &v0pci:nrvo prua).6:iner,6i1a0rb tb Lrct9ero,cb<<Do),orp6vog>> 64IaDr1 .:;..p€ner v& Oeorprl0ei tnpp[nrer, Qv xurryyop[a1c& tbv €,o.vuto 6t 'I1ooD toD 6Xr pr6vovotoirg'Eppaioug nob 6(4oav no),).d Xp6vla npiv &),l,d,taut6Xpova, xal o'roDg'Eppafoug noii eivar o6ypi tbv txaorore 6pil4cr1. Xpovor 'H loto pia t! g << pootayo Dg>> efag E 61aproclaq eivat Ev ai O a ouvd.pNaotr,xd&),),&ivrurcc,rotax&napapetrqprdvo xs.palcto fiq peoartovr,xiqi.orop{aq.Td 6oa 0& 0rry106 Eiv eivat. gootxa, zrap& ptu L\ &nooro.oecog 0ecbp4o1 toCr 0dpato6. X6pgclva pi tdv Eugene Gaughranl, fl np.rrl &varpopd oi pr,uotlprciEqtpqavrcq dfitclcroqno.vro iepb &pro eivo(r4 neploi &nb x),aorxoU6iotoprxoUg xat& dp nol,ropTpoqil noU 61r,ve
1. B).. E.R.L. Gaughran, <<FromSuperstition to Science: The History of a Bacterium>>, Transuctions theNrwYork Arademyof Scintces, of 'H Xer,pdII,30: 3-24 ('Iavouripr,og), 1969. xprcwfl pou or! E{4a4oer,6 toCr<< Matcrpdvour'Aprou >> at paorcp6v1 &noxleorrxir od i(aipeto eiv EoxiprotoD Gaughran.

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2.6.x.,o.3. 3.6.rc.,o.7.

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

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THOIVIAS SZASZ.. AIPETIKA

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6. BI. <<Humansacrifice>.orip Enc_Tdrydil t6po6 11,o. 830. Brinni:a (tg73),

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7. W.M. ]ohnston, The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social ,{:-.:.-ry.1848- 1938 (Berkeley: University of California Press,1972),o.344.

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Xupnfntovtag p] Qv xop6<pool T4q 6n60eoqg Dreyfus, f1 6n60eo4 Polna tpopoxpritrloe toiig 'EBpaioug oi 5lq tiiv "E Ab o qia . va6 xa0414ci1g r'o.ver'lo.c nplou, zcpooql,ucop 6vog 'Eppaio6 6 iDr,o6, npoxril,eoe qpilcq otdv Masaryk ncrpa8eX6pevogtd iE1g: <<Edper,g eZpcrxr Byd 'EBpaiog xci eipar rlerceL6tt op6vo6 5tr, 6),oc a6t& 1t& iepotel,eotrxoUg q6voug eivar &zc),6g npoxaralqQrl.'H 6n60eo4 6ptog ouh &zcoderxv6er nr,Oavil Qv 6nap[4 pr,&gpuotofiq ocSral" f1 6noicr c],rxd prcopel v& 6ranpanret te),etoupyr,xoDg g6voug tr.8 'H oruory aOtii t6v 'EBpoialv. Oupcrcozcor4.nrlxcri aduro:.lcrfi, Elarr rotrir04xe 6rt fltcv 5 tcr6e8o p6vr1 Xp6vo g &va poXl,eu ebptranu xat& cilv 6nof1 c[g 0zc60eoagl]reyfus xai &noDe[y01xe xupro),extr,xd poporicr,6rcv ?rrlpcrv drp eEo"ora oi Na([. A0-i'l t orcrov1 tyet dg ptg r,t6,xor.&Q nr,4rq poo. or4v 6xo;p\t1 (B t6v &ouprB cl.orrov ivrrioeolv pEra'€b)Qr'cn.cy6'v xcri'EBpai<ov. 'O 'Iou6aioprbg eivar dwr-Xprorrctvrx\ xcri 6 Xprotravr,opbg eivo.t ixvrr.-'Iou8afotrx6g, &lld Elv 0i v& no6pre 'Iou8aiopbg 6rr, 6 eivar ;.r.itbvi6r,o Artno ctrrr-Borr8rotrxbg i) 6 Xprotravlopbg pi tdviDr,o q6zco mrrr-Eerruooonxog.A0td o,uppa(vet, dr.')o6omn* 3ner6l 6 Xprourrrropog eivc,r prd EB paixii aipeorl xal inerEl f1 eix6vc 6zroouE4rcoc Tppciou, rig 6o),og6vou toD Xpr,oto6,6yrve lotoprxd &rmriolrcoto p64og toD XprotravuopoCr. Kai ntotetro 6rt Ecor iffiur tb 6rr ..flap' 5),o noD no),),oi Xprotr,avoi orryTpatpeis ,.ai Oeoful1ot ---oup?repu).apBavoprdv<ov 6<ir8exazccrntiv,&g;fu &zmdv lpqy6pr,otbv X', tdv Edxato rp[to cri6vc- Flgrn, irrl,oxsnoer clv xanqyopia roD tel,etoupyrxo[r @rrou hrcrvtiw r,iv TBpaiov..., <pa{vero't &66vato v& 3[otlergOei pvtxi on 'dl t &rryr1plotrxi1 (leuEol,oy[atr.9 A).1& f1 neno[01o4 tdrv XprotrmrGrv &rr o[ Tppcrior 6r,anpurr.ottv tel,eterouprxoDg q6voug 6Erreiwl, <rfreuDol,oyiurr. Eivar, neprco6repo I tpapxil ouv€ztercl{g laryof€rcutrlg €ppl8 . 6 . 2 c .o . 2 8 . , 9. <<Human sacrifice>>,Encyclopaedia Britannica. aipog t t- o. 830.

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gtd.gLx t6v Oepe).taxitv p,eracpop6vroCrXplocavr,opoD, vetcxg 6q).a6f r\q9e6rntaqroo noU 6o),o9ovi1}tye &nd toUg "Eppaioug, n€9uve,xai, pet& dvaorfil4xe ,yud vd 6o),ogovq0e[iv o.uvelelg, (avd xai fuva. Td v& napa8eX0eixaveig6c 5).a aOr& Div eZvar napd Eva pu0o),6.(:41url-,6rr, 6 @e66,6'IriooD6, eivar,pr6vopr,&percr<popa,aOrb nlb e6xol,a ).dyerar napd tcpclcppo\etrl.l ociiv npdA,6u,6nog 6e[Xver \r1. \exa0apa6 Barrows Dunham or]y L\aipecl lorop[uror-t t6v alpdoeov, oi pr,eragop]g noU EXouvVe.co.rpcrlr,eioi xupr,o),ellr,geivut td (<ooy6vo rlltpclt6v &v0p<irTrrvov 6pyavc,rcrxi>v oyr1pcrttov. fr,'adcb xai Dlv &vt6Xouvvd Bx).apBavovrat,oi precagopignoU ix oulpt\ouv, <ig aOcb rcoDeivar: ...oi preL),ovtr,xoi SfepeuvrpdgroD 8raotripatog Dlv 0d ppoDv 0e6tryeg' xai. nag'6Lo noU xant rb 6no[o D]v Bpioxe'cal o' tva p6pog prnopeivd OntipXetoi xunoto &),).o,f1 Epeuvanor) xata),riyer.x&v:uo-oi &6a6[o6oeivaaEn6prevo vd xoopaoer.. Te),rxd,tb pr6vonoU 0d ylvet otb Doyparlxb zceDio eivar, 6tr, 0d &vaxa).ugOei ncig pr,& petarpopd eZvar, 6,vtcrgperagopa' &II& &g ptv Bauxa),i(eran xave\g pri rnv i66a 5tr xolvrovr,x& 6pyavcocr,xix oyfipclcra,t6v 6nolov f16v6rtpcx L\agt&ro"t &rcbrb v& ix).apB<lvovtal oi pecagopd6 tig xupro),e([eg, navqyupfoouv pi cnv &noxri].uQ a"bTi.L0 0& n

ry
Oi 6pyavr,opofcig xoavatvuxd poprpclprata , ,nprl-ypu:l.DivXaipov=at 6tav rd. <<ntoredol>> toug, cd 6no[a ioXupf(ovtut bt eivrllt zo ptolte>l.:,uxi&trri ereg, 0eotpoDvta r,&rcb &),1,o g cb petarpopd g 0 u 6 g 'H oi xupr,otre(ie6. Euoap6oxeLari; pcopatoFercrpgreopdveg zrr9o7r*xi1g'Exxlqo irl.qy r, p r& r 6r o tu 6pp1ved rrlq @ & a e(.ugE OXa pto'cta; txcppao9rlxe tnioqttcl- dnb cl X6vo6o coD Tpl8dvtou
10. B. Dunham, Heroesand Heretics:A Political History of Western Tlnught(New York: A.A. Knopf,1964),o.315.

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

(Trent),rb 1552,oi Eva Erdtalra.tb 6noio dxopt16iv 6Xer, iniorlpo(&vaxtrq0el.Tb 8ultaypa Erax4p6ooett& &x6].ou0a: 'Edv xocnor,og ioXupro0ei6rr,orb Muocripro rt6 @eia6EOXapuoduq napapdver, pd$ pi rb X6pa xai tb Alpra toD Kuplou fipc,rv'111oo6 Xploro6, xar'oboiav 6 &c-:coqxai oZvoq &pv46 xai Oei ti1 Oaupatoupyl xcri pova8r,xil petatponil roD &ptou eig X6pa [Tou] xai toD oivou eig Aipa [Tou]. ix],apBdvovtag tbv &ptov xai tbv oivov p6vov tig Eub popqig eiD6v -&pveitar, Eq),aDf a0ci7tf petatporc4,c4v 6xoua q Ka0o}.lxi1 'Exx}t1otclncl-pa no).r) 6p06g &noxa),ei Merouoirool- &g eivar &vaOeqo.'c,Lop|voq.lL IIap'6).a a0td,cr0tb noU apdnervd Oup&tcrr xaveig eival 6t,6oo 0ndpXer, twcloqixvapeoa otb &topr.o xai cilv 6pd8a cig p6),og0d Dadpnget |noiaq eZvar, airyanl.6nog xt &v &noxaleital rxt)Ti. Tb &topro np€ner. oxdcpcetcryr& rdv €crtn6 tou. fleprov& o6repo &n' 6;rl6rinote &l,l,o. c0rb eirrar zcoirtb xo:llrn,d'.i8r,ai'H tepo ftcopo. 6pdDa, &zcb Qv Al,fu- eivorrioTrxd v& inrOupei t& p614trlg vd &n4XoDv <<nrore6o>>T49. 6p&6cr6we),69 td Mr& &Er&gop1 yd t& <<Tcrore6co>> pel,riv r4g Elv 0& Dratlpo6vtrilv tav <ig 6pdda 6ni praxp6v. 'Enax6l,ou0o eivat l,ornbv rb 6tr- acp'6io zcoir Eopil tdrv f1 aip6oecovpnopei vd Oe<,lpq0ei otc0eg4 - rb rceprryd;rev6toug L\agr&ro.t &nd t& xupicrplcr..Trrore6&)'> 6pri6c-<oti2v 6noi,a rag "Ordv napoootao0qxe a0ci1 f1 aipec4. oi drdpcorror xai oi xor,t 1. B).. <<Transubstantiation Enrydopaedia Britannica (1949), rc >>, poq22,o.4l7.IIap'6),o zrobxdrrorol Ka0oirxoi Oeo).oyor fuouv rcpoonulipet vd inavaEr,arurrdroouv a0rb tb &inrc pE roirg 6poug <<transignification>> <<transfina-lization>>xai o'aNi1 TiIv g]2qtxiuo pi tlt(3 Xen=epBpiou196.5). )to MysteriumFidei 6Ilolrlo1ilGrlos !-I <<'Exave Exxlqorl.pl& tl 6r,ac4pr1oz1 ouy6lou rfig zrprLtornx6r4ta6 d6 toD Ka0o),txfr6 niotrlg, oyer.xd. pi rnv xrrpoooia rou XproroD ocil Oeia E0Xaproria, xclr[,ooyxexprprdva, Tr& rl Ercr4g4o4 tor] 66ntatoq'cilr' Merouoicoo46, po(i tri T4v 6potro1a pi rlv 6rorc Flet agpaoOei aOtb iElatt6pc.lg otb XupBodtrr,otoD Tpr66vtou> (.Transubstantiation>>, EncyclopaediaBritannica (1973), :,r:lpoq - o . l7 5). 22

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pfupt rdv Atcl-eg, vrlvkir6e(vat oreva ouvdedeprdv 6naE 6rEnp$av to6 XplotlavuopoD,t6te pi rptrtr,op6, i8eciEqxai &notun6oetq xai eivat il rcapdxx).tor1drcdcd, Ercb4ltd <</c(or€6at>> td a(peo4 d6ypara toD xtrripou. Koci 6tav o[ ],ocoixal oi xotvovie6 eivat peca(6 tou5, 6nog oupBalvel pi no]'trtg &nb ouv8e8epdveg xai pflg, pd iEec56r1 &notun<boetqt\q Lruod1aOttg otig pr6pe6 prig xai tf g teXvo),oyiaq, r\9 ioLrpmfiq xa\ r\q 6yeiuq, t6re i1 xocl &nb td into4pra <<ntore6o>> atpeol &no-ce\ei nap€xx)tuor1 :a D6yprata t6v Lxrculp6vcov xai t6v yratpalv. g xrl.\ M rd &nd r\q Bao ux€g, xup totrexttx6 g 6pplveu 6 pteve pte :agopL6 r\q Ltroplq praqeZval \ eixova p,a51r,&tb xpdto6 <i6 :'rbg oogoD zai Dizauou nar€pu,to[r 6noiou fi pdpr,pva0d noro] xoci 6rxar,oo6v1>> <<e0r1pep[a>>btroug. Ms& Dt/pL <<l1olvc,tvtxi1 xo.\ tbv 0tivato, cirg diiri, eivat f1 elx6vcrpag yr,&d1v &ppclota otirpat,i $as 7-0ptovnoU eioBti)'),ouvota,xand' t& &).),oc,0'1'r,i pnopei vd &noxpouo0oDvi&v po1oi r-critriv 6no[<,lv inuli,oeug FirrooDpe Evav<<0epaneuttxb tobq latpo6g pag vd &vocnt6f,ouv &pxet& ioXupb 1u& tdv oxorcb ain6. Mud tp[tr1, :ion),uopb>> xai r4 :i.rar tb 6tu oecopoOpe Er,a<povfa tr1 o6yxpoucr4&n6tfe<'lv oi oi iatprxig &o06veleg rr; Dravorprxig&o06veteg,6qeu),6peveg 6nog f1 6troir-oieq.xard ouvd:rueLc;lv,prcopoDv vd 3[a]'el<p0o[rv ',rso..a. xa0drgxai oi ouv6petatpop66, A0tlg xai pepr,xi6&),).eg -oi 6noieg eivat16oo 6pprlvel6vtou6 -2,-z3t6v xuprol,erctxc,sv t6v xupto),eq 6oo itclLvxrl.\oi ouvdneteg -apa\eveg xai <ppuxtb 'al-'-v-Gtv t6v petagop6v toD XplottavtopoD- &nore6ppriveu6v prou. oc6Xougt6v aipdoec6v i.oD.,, tobq x6pr,oug

OIKOfENEIA

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Eub eiDrl lovr,xfig &yuxr1q,rb xu|€va ix Erapr6tpou pi &vil9et,o &nb tb &11o. Tb Eva Lxgpo,,\e:uo.r c|v eO1evr,xil AI),d otaOepil npoo8oxia 6tr,tb nar,Di<<pnopei td xaragdpel>>'tb vd pi r\v &&&&&tr),o &xa06prorvl xai yevuxiltxtppuory{g SvOdrppDvolq pr8rinote 06l,et, rcar6[>>. rb rcp6rto,tb 6noio 6v0apMi to6 <<6 cb p6ver, ifunovoeitat \ tgnrctoo'6vr1to6 lovr,oD npbg tb nar,D[' a0ci6 r\qlxuv6rrlteq,L\oivr,r pi rb 6e6tepo,noU &no0app6ver, novoekuu| 6).Ieltft tpnroroo6vrig roD lovroD npbg tb nar,6f.
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flapareraprdvll, Sxveupf(ouoa oytor1 &vupeoa or& nat8td xal :oi-rgloveiq, &).),&xai tob6 ou(6you6, elvat ntlclrvbvvd &no8el7-0eiixBaoraXta ivoXtrqcrxil yr,d Tn pio( i1 xai 1r,d rig Eud nl,eup€9. An' a0rb tb otorXer,66e6leyovbg xocro.oxeoo.\ovro't xep[xo.\ ;Aoxeg tfuXr,arpr,xig0eopfeg oyermd. pt] cb yrrl.n(. tb n6g oi ';'oveigtpetrafvouvtd nar,6udroug xai oi o6(uyor,tpetraivouv 6 i.ra6 tbv &).1o. )Qv npaypartx6nryd.,lrd.e'6),o nor) oi &v0pc,r;sL ypeLa"\ovro'tpr,& ouyxexpupt6vrlnoo6rqra &v0pc6ntvr1g !;atpfiq,oapanmilq xal tfuXr,xi6,6vro6rorg fi 0neppo),rxl inaprecafU r71.i6rar,r6prog tvto&vioov, eivar, 6Duv4pl xai 6r,e1eiper,

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

vo( ouvo(ro9'ipo"ra&vralovroprotr npbg 6ooug no.pocprr:l.,(ouv rbv (otrxb X6po ro6 xa0ev6g.Autbg eZvar tr61ognoU oi nepr.oo66 repeeg o'tevi6 &v0pcinr,veg oy€oe6 elvat t6oo oulvd prl ixavonovptxig: napa8e[yparog Xriprv,t& ncrr,Drd ouXv& Brcivouv Q yovr,xilnpootaota rilgncpaBidonrrlq &ve(apqoto.qtooq xai oi o'6(uyol ouXv& prdrvouvclv oixerdtrpa tirgrcapaBtao1tl6 i6rcorm6rrry&.q rou6. 'Ezcer,6i1 r& nardr,d 6!v pnopoDv v& rcecrilouv 5:cr,ol ivritrrxeg,ouvri0o6 dwolpeiBovtar,lr,d clv zrpoonri0er,a.ALlA nptnet v& ptf0ouv, xu\ po'\tora o6wopcr.6ct cr0tb noir petpd ocli (coi1Elv f1 eZvar, rcpoorcdOer,a &1,1,& &rcoc6leopc. T& ncrrDr,& tb noU 3nlBpaBe6ovtar Dnlp tb 66ov frd rnv apoond0era. ouXv& ooveyi(ouv vd &va(qtoDv Elxpto4 p& pt& zpoorri0era. noir 8calcovi\eun touei,dvr\r\qtnrceo(qg coD ordlou. Aurb tixxanu}mu(er,oi &noroyta:1r,ari i&v Ezcni,louv-fi erc:l.rytrltoug ouvloratat p6vo otl oxtrr2pi1 npoonriOew. xo;i &v &nocrilouv,1 &zcotuy(a ngoxul,el xat&0],r,t[4.

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THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

xai f7 d.oyfipw,fi 6yeia xal f1 &ppc6otr,a,6n),oOtogxal f1 cptcirxo 6etrx,fixatri1xai q xolxiloupzreprqopd,1 0Qqtrl xai f1Xaprrltrii r,-tb vd &note],oirv 6q],a8r1xa9€vuqtoug n1y]i nevcovrxf c<1[r1 pi pn<potvlrl.qii vtponig yr,d tbv &),).o- 6Xouvpela).6tepr1 oX6or1 tlg ci1 ota0ep6r4ra vt .|v &.orclc9ero' ou(u1tu"\q oy€oqq,dn' 6it pera\o rou6. fi no6rqr,a fig oelooatruxi6 oy€or1q
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Ka0dg no).).ig veapig yuvalxeg elvanox)tapcop6veg -otoUg yoveiqroog cbg nal8r,& xal otoir6 &poevr,xoU6 yuvaixeg- ouXv& <i6 ;avtpe6ovtar, yld vd [eg6youv &zrbcl ox],aBr&. Arr',4 orryp]l ;oD 0d rcavtpeu0oDv, oulv& oupnepr,cpdpovro(r tauroXp6vog 6g crzli.c,Beq cig Lnavaorarpr,eg, D1).a61 drg inav aoran1p€veq xai anAaBeg.'HZelda Fitzerald xai flSylvia plath gow(etv& 61ouv '1,.tboet xai 6no8u0ei a0tl Q DuoXep\xanc;;orcl:ol. inll,oylg Oi yr' aOtig tig yuvaix eg eivat ),ryootig xoci6),eg-ntri1v Icrig VLAS_ =i.vo't rpaym€g. Mr& inr,),oT4TLO( yuvaixa a0roD to6 ei8oug eZvar, prr,& yd q\talrcc,pcx.ao'fet &vr.oo Evav ixy<bvaxatd toD ou(6you rqg, vd.netcer tdv 6aut6 t4g 1r,d td n6oo i\aytoreq nt0av6r4reg €yet vd. )lnprcogopfioet6 ixyti>vo.qr4q xui,,v' d.qe}ei,v& ouvrpr,Bei.Tb z ;m6),eop a elvan Xp6vr,adv o.n4pto.,tl.r uXrxil v6o oq,pr| nep r,o r,xil 6 pdvrpri lDpupaton oiqoq, i1 xanorc &),).o eiEo6 <<(ovtavoCr 1 0a'"d:o)>>.

Mra &),lri 6nrl,oyl eival vd &.gfioer" Evorv &yprc &y6:va xol\ ,a ouvO).i(rer tbv o6$ry6 tr16. Tb dnor€\eogta eivo, pnd (coil :,r.dprupog, xat& Qv 6noia eivar 0noXpe<,rpr6vri &v€yeranEvav vd. rizavo, &l,xoo),rxdii, &11r,66 n6g, i(eute),r,o.p6vo. Mfa citrtrr1 dxop1 inr,),oyi1eZvo(r, v'&ne),eu0ep<,l0ei&nd tdv ct:ioy6 :*1q xo.t, &vtxocw1 &vtr,prerronioettilv 6),eu0epfa,vd v& -,;ox6Qer, otlv &ruX[a,rilv &ppc6o,rr,a cnv abrotnoviu. t T6),o6,0ndpXer yr,'a0clv xal f1inr,),oT4v& i),euOepciroer tbv lxn6 vt;r1g vd yiver, Evag&ve\aprlro6, a0c6vopo6 xai 6),oxcl'i :uqpap€vog&vOpconog.

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

'O napaEo otax6q,11 Evag&ptoroq &nb ouvorx6olo,"PVoq-ipclcv t6v &v8p6v xai t6v yuvar'x6v 6q 0eopb6Tt& Tn vopr,lronoi4ori v& xo"adevliirrv xai yl& tiiv &vottpoqil nar'6u6v' pnopoDoe &nb Eva xai p6vo orpuqei,6ncl6 xai tetrtxd xanrl.o:uprl;qnxe' Lx;,dqaOtdlv t6;v np&ypa: ciiv npooDoxia 6tl oi o6vcpo<pot" tbv &)')'o xai Dnolpetio eav,€npene LrtoTSv& &'1'anoirv6 Svag tooq 6 v& &no),ocppdvouv Evaq tbv &)')'o xatd cig oefoua)'ux€q ouveupdoeuq.
6

'O povt6pvog 1)popavr mbqY&pog elvrlrt, t'nio1r' €vuq &proto q 0e&vEp6v xai luvarx6v tirg ivrll'ixcov opbg y,& cl vopr,ponott1o1 xa0i6 xai 1ld d1 gltria xai tb o6f ' Mnopeivd'xano.orpu<pei'xo'\ &nb Eva xai p6vo rcp&ypa:cilv npoo6ore),rx& xanaorpucprlxe, 0& t6v DrcoXpecSoeolv' 6npeot,Lt'rcbga0t6rv xta 6:;.o[ o6vtpo<p nev&eivaroixovopr,x&0rce60uvor'66vagnpbgtbv&l')'oxai6tL v& eival 0& Enpenevd xdvouv nar,6l&npdg c& 6noiu0d Enpene xai xa),oi Yovei6.
@)

t6v : Ar,acporpllinr,E6paca &noxanuoruoqq xa) &no(4p[c'lor16 6 n6trepo6 t6v nob Orp,i.orv &nb tig xo.-crlloapoqeg npo(6v1oe Ttfpog' E6o q6),cov,6lvootbg xai <bq

il-

Af ATIH

lz ;ro).).&np6oana riq ixydx46: cb nar8\ &yand. &nb L\ug:ulii' o ipaorfig,&nb inr0upia' 6 ve6vupgo6,&nb xctc9\xov'6o6l.-"io; xai 6 yovl66, &nb &goo[oo4' ol &nb Xp6vla navtpepdvol :t-,ti- nannobg xr rlluayud &nb &rpoo[oor'1' f1],lxtcopr6voq 6 b 6 xai rt,.g"oO anog, &rcd dnelwrcto.. av
ED

-s.lpegq &yanoOvrd np6o<,lnanoii r& cai(ouv. Kai OetlpoDpe quadl 6plpr6qcag 6rav rd navDr,d pa0aivouv vd &yanoDv cb :i:rt. noD dvaxootp[\el tilv ne(va'c,olq, neptoo6repo &rc'rdv ::,ttporco zcor) paler,pe6elil td oepBfpeu. td Xtoirg 6vr1l,[xoug dwrctp€<poupea0ti6 ti6 yv6pre6.fleprprd,.iltt ol &vDpeg xai ol yuvaixe6 v& &yanoCrv a0toUg noU lxa.,:/;o'.oDv oef,oua),uxi1 cl nefva roDg. Kai rb Oe<.'lpo6pre oqp<16r, r,".:p4t6:u4cag &yanoOv 6Xr, idv coU6i8r,ou6tofig oe(oua).r,xoir6 Tr'/:p6gouS'c,oD6&II& pr6vov ip<ocxi6 &rco66oer6 ri6 c6v ouvTr4QG)V TOU6.

@)

- :r ;bv a0capXrxb &v0porno, ixyanrl eival f1 ),ayvefa' 1rd tbv ',-D.raxrLx6, elvcl.t neootaofa. A0td< eZvar6 ],6yoq noU ol h i.ouolot xai orlpaverxoi &v0pcD7!or, &vDpeq eite dhe yovaixeq, lr-ouv ouXvd grcoloir6 i) &o{pavcou6 <<ipaortsrr' xo.iym[ grco'y,,r: zai d.cfipawot &vOponor 6Xouvnl,o6oreg xcl'i olpavrm|g - Tfti.ire;>>.'H npcilt4 Er,eu0dc4or1 i.xocvonorci ),ayveia a0t6v cl :c,u iXouv <<ipaot6g>>' 6e6tepr1ixavonor,ei d1v dvuyxrl yt& f1 --oaotaota a0t6v nor) 6Xouv<<dyocneq>>.

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

ol &v8pegxai oi yovaixeg..eivcl 6poteupdvor>> por,pd(ovtar ci2 ),av0ao1rdvqnenoilrlo1 6rt (oDv otbv i6ro x6o1ro. 6ruv <<&lazcoDv>> 6 Evagtbv &1,),o, &vcyvcopi(ouv 6rl (oDv oi Dr,arpoperr,xoUg x6o'poug&II& eival npoDrate0erpdvor, xctt& 6rao,r{8r,aBafvouv yrl.opotb itv&peoa roug. Vaaa,vd

"Otav

>EE

Fellatio (neo),erf,la) &vtr,o6],trr1tf1 ro0 ot6pato6. : Er&

6vopu\et Evcr gOovepbxrl) ore:iFsyo &ropo tbv n).oupa).r,opb tilv nomt\ta otig oefouaxai ',:ri oy€.oetq. _<
@

-:ioua).rxi'1 6l,eu0epr 6rqra:tror,

t-:-tt,lattLoq66: vd r.,cllipvet tb xaveig td np&yparu ord.... y€pw :,,," 'r,r,' aOrb xal oi &pXlg dfte it &nayopeiouv eire tb ouvr,rrr-1i-1t1.'€yovrag ofyoupo 6ttrot, pd rbv Eva fi tbv &).),o rp6ro, ':r:1poDv rbv 6),eyX6 roug ndvat otb &copro.
€D

-

ziooa,}*xoi 0epaneor€q; vraBac(lEe6 xal praocpornoi pi ]:p1za T Lo'E Ln-umu orco .
@)

eivar 1r,& cb oi[ 6p h XuDat6rrpa yr& d1

,- D:a<popd peta[U iportr,xfig rtyvrlq xa) rcopvoypacpiaqeivrl;t , r;dbv i6r,a pd d1 8racpopdpera[b ti.1qoefooatrrxlg inr0up[ag :r:. :ri; galodpag c6v yevvlcr,x6v 6pydvc,rv.

38

THOMAS

SZASZ: -lIPfTIt-{

'YndpXouv

66o <p6l,a:tb Evcr0n pzcopoue vd 6wpao0e[ <<oup.ntrrlpcopacxd>> npb6 tb ft),},o. t{nri0('r6.6p.9. tb Eva 6voprd(etar tb <<&vt[0eco>> &],lou. Ar)'@ tfb eiycr zctb&zcoxatrutoCr nrtxb yr& ti6 npcrTpcrttxig oldoerg trirv &.rb qul,rov dn'611 6),6xtrr1po l,ef,lxb co6 Eptotc; rb

'H

oe(oua),r,xi2 Bnr,0upioelvan1c' 14 dnflxdd 6.tr ti 6peEf yr,&tb ed\n'c6. Kai t& Eub pnopoDvv& evro1rforn, fi w mrcq(crrtr,o0oOv &nb ciiv tpgavrcrl xai Q pupo8ra. tou mmrcEqdyou d6 inrOupiag. Oi luvaixeg ror) rcepercoro0vta,r Erurt6 Toug, xai ourbv pneprcpdpovrar, 6o'&v v& ii0etrcv v& rcpoxaleoorn tb oe(oual,txb iv8r,arp6pov6),alv t6v &v8p6v npdg cr0c€4Avrcrg xrtvouv toU6 6auto66 roug o'e{oua},r,xd<<&wrxeipevcn6rwDgiqgup(ovtar, oi gepr,vfocpleg.M] tbv i6r,o rp6no, oi nnrorixeg fic$ fur"e],oDv ci2v tpcprlutcfi roug, xai oupzcepr,<pdpovrar riroLv va iOalav vd &vayan-ctooov oe{oua},r,xb Bv8raq6pov xdO€ &r$pa npbg aOtdg, rb xoc9rc:uollcofig iauto66 toug ..&vcxeig^evcrn cnrrtoefoucrl,r,xd.
@

'H

oef,oual,rxil 6I[q xcl.\\ &yo;rq petaf,biorov eivcr rreproo6tepo f1 3[afpeorl nap& 6 xclcv6vcl.g. &v6peg Cp<,rceriowcrr yuvaixeg Oi <<7rdvto>> 1)<<xd,tr,r>> a0roirg xori tb crlr110€T0. Epcroclg{6 &nb O Aaf8r2gChaterley frtav &ypog6l,axcg, 61r MpDoS.
@)

'H

l6ovi1 oclv ipotlxl (c6v1t6v lewrprxdrv dg;rivory eZvarxat& 'H xupr,o),ef,fav oefouatrrx6uryu. e01apfor4o4 orb cpa14t6,cilv &g68euor1,Qvobp4orl xai o[hcoxa0'6[11g eivcnpetagoprxil oe(oua),rx6trpa. Xti6 Oeopfeg 1l& d1 oe(ouotllxbvrya,6 Freud tou np6ta petdtpeQe od pretagopi g rig &v0pdrarveg &notra6oeq xa\ pretd EppriveDoe xupr,oletrewd.tigDr,xdg pero(gop6g,LoTopt\o rou

IT

'EE

*:r/06 6cr oi pl oef,oua),uxig&nolw6oer,gElv eZvat&n),65 o&v tl5 r:,Eou crl rx dq &n o\a6 oer6 &),),& eivu o e\ou a),r,xig &r'd'wt oe4.

-l oplaopb S eivalfl nepntou oio rot napa66fo r.txai,Toaq,yr" p ru:b eiva uf1ne prntouoia r\gf1Dov! g oi 6tr6xtrq 4 dy €>nuon rn1 i.rOpcintvrlq Lpneqto.g. Kr,aOtb inet8il 6 6plaopd q eivat fi ileliI61toD lopevl Spner,pfa v& yaveqtbv 6leyXo.'E&v fi &nc6]'eta 'tao- xand til oef,ouatrtxl 6l61epo1 xai rilv &vrun6xprcrl o' i) zDi1v, eivar 0nepetreyX6pevrl iav 6 6)'eyXog,xanr,o&nb tbv i.t;oio f1 &rccbl,er,a &venapxi1i,f1 ipnerpfa a0ti1 Br,<ilverat,elvut :oD 6p1aopo6 eite duoXepalvercl.tdke dxooowlet. Avctotp6y.r-<.6oo neprco6repo &ve[d].e'ytntlelvcl.t &nci]'ela toD itrdy| '1or.r 6oo nlb L\ao<pulttoprivl &ncb).elaocini1,t6oonub pexai i '"qirl xal fi€vraoqtlg ipnerptuq:'oi dpyaopoD. Ev 6).iprg, f1fi8ovil coD 1ew4tlxoO dpyaopoD eivar,ouvsprev pdvrlg, ipner.piuq6treyX6 4q dno xa),& 6o prrl :az6tro u Orip r,&g, ieic,g 3).6.gXou. a0cbg eivau 6 )'61o9 no6, ori"q&v0pcilnr,veg Kr avteq,tb o|[ elvut ra oroXp6vog &noxrnv anlxil xai Lxno\t zo,-v ::olxii E6vap1.
@)

\:\ -<xunnatrrotrxlq X6pe6, I nopveia xurudma(etar, SnerEil 'i,;ev0up[(er otoUg &v0pc6noug 6 xo.06vo.g votxr.u\ov'cd.S (ei 6tu tpyarcq vottoD odrpat6q roD: oi ler,pc6v0o/.:tei z,t'iorc pt6poq 'H z,-a\oovcob6 pDgroDg,oi n6pvegcd yevvqtr,xaroog 6p1ava. -opveta xai tb if,oou(uyr,xb o6\,Lnioqq, &neul'o6vtb oefouacoCr i.:zir povondr),ro ltipou xal npoogdpouvtilv npoontrxl pr,&q &nb clv 6noto' ..ile60epqg &1opftg>, ocig ip<,tttxiq ouva),l,ocyi5, n-ri &nopaxp6vovro(l po xo odTxpo vei xc;;'trlac;.l,r,otr,xlg lvarvie6 d1v 3),eu0epfa. 3orlpeveg Lner Xtig xoppouvtotlx|g X6peg,rl nopveia xclcrcl.dmu\ero't ncb6 xuv€vaq Elv pnopei v& otoU6 &v0pc3noug Di unev0upi(er, ,n,.xtaoet xant, &cpottrino-ce 6iv &vrixet oE xocv€vocv. Ka0cbgtd

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

xpmoq{yet t}..1v i8roxtrlofa r6v nuvrav (&v0pc3ac,lv ftpcrT_ xai prit.rv) xai xa0dg tb xparoq 6dv pnopei v& ouvouor,ao0eZ, cd xoppouvrortxb xgo.toq eivat nlb no),r) &vr.,y,'vrctx' dn€vavrt o'cfv nopveia &n'6pr, tb xanrrca\rcrtxb.
ED

@,,tveto.t oi &vEpeg 6tr, yoqce6ovto.t&.nbcbv 6pyao,pr.b yu_ cctv vcruxGtv no).U nepr,oo6repo &n' 6oo o[ yuvalxe g drcbtdv 6pya_ opd cdrv &vEp6v. "O nr,0av6tepog ).61o9 yr' aOtd eivar, dtr, 6 &v6prxdg 6pyaopbg eijxo),a iootnrl;t pri cilv txonepparool iner8il f1 3xo'neppani.i,ov1, 6),o noD Dlv'rurn[(etc:t pd nap' tdv 6pyaop6, elvo.r.lexaOapa 6pac4. A6td }iv Enpene vix\6.et xant otoUg &v0pc6rcouq oyetxd. pi Tn oytotl oi{ xal pootx6tnrag, &),),&d 06).ouvvd fdpouv il elvrl:t 6iv a0tb td xdrr,.

Ila)'ar6repa,6rav i7 oraorl ro6 LurtxoD x6o,prou &n€vo.v,* otd oi( flcav Troupl-cr;:vlxil,rd.oe\or.ra),rx&6pyava xai oi oe(oua_ ).r,xig n p aletg l1tc;tv, d. oov€netav, Llay wo gt€v .,'O xan u o o ft epro_ o6repo L\aywolt€va firrl.v16oo nlb eUxoLa &noOappu v6rctvi7 .Enopr6vo6,t Xpnonadt6v r6v pep6v rol:.o<bpanog. oe(oua),r,xi1 flEovil fircxv oovaprrloyl t'4q tnnoyoug BeBriloolg6vbg npctypc._ tog iepo6. T6pa, noU f1Autlxil oupfieprgoprl,, &n€vuvc otd o6l,Eyet pta oruorl dvofiq, r& oe(ouaLr,xd 6pyava xo:i o[ oef,oua].r,x]g npa\eq BeBl).civovrat xui rc&)yt..,Ooo ncd nofu) Bepal<bvovr,.t 16oo neprco6tepo €v0app6verat fiypi1o4 a0t6v t6v pepdrvto6 obpanog xacd Q oef,oua).r,z\ npqEn .Enoprdvorg, tc6pa i o,e_ {oua},r,xi1ebyaptovlor1 L\ag&rol &nb clv ircrtuXrlpevrl pepil_ ),<oor1 €vbgBdprllou nptilpracog.

NE

ANAPE>KAI |TNAIKE>

p6vov 6oo nrr<<&1vig>> lTaiar6tepa, o[ luvocixegOealpoDvtav g' lrclrv &.pyto vd a0toenr,BeparcbvovtaI av xt &oef,oua),t 13!,rsvdav f16ovri,61r,xo.i Dpaot4pr,6:u4ro' Q oefoua)'r,xi1 *e llii oefoua),r,xi1 Eri),aDii&xu\apreq, po)'uopdveg xu\ ,av <<Bp6pmeq n6pveg>>, :rgno6. ti>pa ol luvaixeg 0eopo6vtar t6v &va),oyl6rv, T4poupdvcov v& pr6vo6oo napap6vouv\enr€g 6rav d.py[oouv 6vE[crivi6>> f16ovi6toD payrltoD, yivovcau<<&ncoO1tux& orig ),r,u'., Xovtp6g>>, xai Siiadf &xalup-ceq,prol,uopdveg tapno6.
@)

eZvatprudxa],ii prrlXavri, \[:c prlXcrvilrcoU naipvev e6xotra prrcpbg Eva xal,b &tro1o xai Evug &raxrog :",,i. dr(\uoo &l,oyo eivcya 5tro (ovtriEvuq :r,dpag eivclcr. xaLbg &vDpag,&trtr&pr,d yovrlctxo. Aitdg elvar,6 tp6nog p] cbv .:q eivat pr,d <.&vtpoyuvafxa>>. '-oi-o f1 y).6ooa to6 &v8prxo0 oarpr,vtopo0peruorp€tper,tilv apa\VolLx6rrpu>>.

pi &va6erxv6ovro(t td tnrce}ypanu xa\ca 6na1y6),-ri dvDpeg -a:a roo9 oi yuvalxeg &nb tb o6pa tou6 xal toU6 ou(6youg j.Lr-t'-'oi.ftvdpeg &nb tb ri xuvoov inayle)'pattxa, oi yuvaixeg "Etot, 8r,axpivooi yuvaixeg ouvri0<,16 i-b tb r(. eivat i) 6Xouv. rilggeol;xai t6rv 1o<p6v toO ptzco6otou, ,:q,. u:rcb 6r,aotdoetg cig elvan xcl.i&nb tb n6oo (uyi(ouv 6nor€ :r'tt.t &nb rb rc6oo0lllg -!. c.r.icrrcbtb nor,6v 6Xouvnavcpeu0ei. fl& toUg ),6youq a0coD6 vd 1r{xprxn},avqtrxb oulxpiver xavelg d1v xaruotaorl t6v =i-'fir.,. '.-)vu.tx6ov petovotiryoov,Snatg pb a0cli c6lv xclrrocirLeou,dvcov p6vo I \dypor, 1)oi'EBpalol. fr,ati f1 xotvorvrxl 0do1 t6v luvatx6v

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

'6yet, q t n{o16,6po r6tlte g p} toD g &no6ronopn ociro tpdyo ug c! g xorv<,rvioc6,6nog oi i{apc4p6vou,ol 6pogu},6gltrol,oi rcan.X. pd<ppoveq iyxtrrlpacie6xai ol ?yxltewrot rluXao0evelg, 6noior,, oi 6)vo &nav0pornozco t, roDvtar Sner8ii6iv npoo6 ropi(ovcar pri <<r[ no'ca &)t\o>>, rco(p'Lx'c q Bao et c6v 6no).erppat rxGrv, o nupexx\t o tuxitv i6 r,ocfltov roug . Katd ouv6zceuav, yuvalxeg 0& Enpene v] &vtltf0evro(r oi o0evap6repa oroUg fio(pocTrpoo8roploaxoUg Xapaxtlpropo66, &xpuBdtq &wr nob npodpXovrau ouXvd xai &nb tig iEr,eg,6ncog ri9evrcxtxai ob ouTxexprp€veqoixovolttx€q,voprxi6 xai notrltlxlg Draxpioer,6.

i) rilg ol'Eppaior npoo8r,opf(ovtav 8riprooltlg Xprotr,avoi, &v ol Xplotlavoi npoEropl(owav D4poofalg cig'EBpaior,,0& pnopoDoav &.pocye 8r,acriprioouv v& &vant6fouv [eXopr,ot]g v& xai "H Op4oxeutr,xigtaor6-cnae;; ipcirtlorl prnopeivd <pavei6f,<,1Kr <ppevr,xi1. 6prc,rg, luvaixeg nor) g6pouv tb 6vopa toD ou(6ol 6 Tou roDg, xai nor) 6cor 6qp6or,a&valvc,rpi(owar,61r,<bg 6auzcpooDox&talvd t6g toug &IId 6g o6(u1or,&trtrclv&v0pc6ncov, ruor68r,atqpiloouvxal v& &vant6[ouv Q 6r,xlltoug [eXopr,oc4 'cn-co'. AOd4ti napd),op1 npoo8oxfa eivar f1ouvrizcero( Xapa6ub 'H piu eivut f16).Iel(rr1 xrqpr.orr.xovvoorpozcr6vtlg inoXlg uo(6. oeBaopro0pragmpb6clv lotopia no6, o'a0ti1 rlv neplncoror1, pd.qpaoxu).i(er, zcrore6oupe 6rt,nap'6),o notr otb napetrOdv v& ncbg€rpene v& eZvar, Bufitrxor6ttpulnd.qou(6you 0ec,rpoDvtav 0r,op6v4 Lxeivrlto0 ou(6you trlg,tdrpa pnopei e6xotrav& Drao' 'H oeBaopoD pa6 &).1r1 eivar,| 6).trertpr1 Xopr,o0ei&nb a0triv. 366r, p&g iv0app6ver vd npbg ti'1 fl6ooa, i7 6noia 6).),ertfr1, iiv &pXfr 6 &yvooDpre driloo<pio.c.1gixpyuiug Dr,at6nooqqb:* <<'Ev A61og, xai 6 A6yog frv mpbgtby @e6v, @ebg 6 A6yog'r.12 xal flv

'Av

1.2.'Irouwr1q.1.:t .

ANAPE' KAI fYNAIKE'

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44

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

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46

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

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THOMAS SZASZ: ATPETIKA

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Tryzax6,nuparfiprloe 6 Flannery 0 Connor, <<Elv eivar,&n),6g ;p6B\pa npbg inltruouv &IIA Eva puor{pr,o noU np€net i,.z
15. Shaw, G.B., Maxims for Revolutionists (1993),&vcl:tptpero:t orb :Eerenson,B., ed., The Macmillan Book of Proaerbs,Maxims, and (New York: Macmillan, l94g,o. 1899. : t,nousPhrases

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

xaveig vd. dw€lettr.t6 M6vov 6tay rb ouveudritonocrioouv aOrb oi rfuXlatpor.,xui 8pdoouv &va].61rog, ntir]er fi ?1oxr1o4 0d r1tq rluXratprxlg vd eivar i10r,xi1 6pprg, tdv 6yt cltioyp6trprl-.

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16. Flannery O'Connor,A CatholicNoaelistin theprotestant South o'cit Mystery and Manners (New York: Farrar,Straus & Giroux, 1969), o.209.

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' =-oyfi ptrxg eivrr4,rr,& inoXil orllu Orroioyxpepi(ovr at rdsiDat:. y-a\ &v0oDv oi eiEc,il,o),clc:,,peg. &not6).eopa elvur.tf.reOceg Tb - '\ T,pooxuvolrv poDXayupvdrv c& rl.tnoxpu:u6pov.'Hnp6xtr4-'- :i'rar vda \exa1upr1: np€net vd &vanr6(oupreprr,d i2Orxlnpo:.-,-,-xolt abrooeBaopoD, vd pu0r,o0oDpre Evuvdx6gt4 Mei) oi - :t";.av abro un6 pprQlg. d.

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'I6eo),61o9: 6 &v0pcozcog Xplorporcor,ei i66eg66 \opw.a. noU tig A\0rvb6 nm6q:6 &vOpornog noU 6dXetar, rd,\6pw.a <bg i66eg. Zxenrtxtorns:6 &vOpc,lnog Oe<,rpei o[ iEdegeivar, noU dtt Q6pxw, 6ragopetr,xd6. tr6xprvd &no8e?,X0oDv
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faL),rxdg orpouxroupal,r,op6g:t Xpltoyt c6v ),6(eov 6Xr<ig oupr&),).acbgDlaxooprltlx6v. B6),otv
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&va^oy[a eivat Eva ivvor,o].oyr,xd6,pyavo, xdaaoxeDd.opdvo p6o<.p o'roor6v Er,eu0gr{oetlv t6v r6v l,6feotv,6rcag&xprp66 tb 1ttxpoox6nlo xai tb tr1),eox6nuoelvav 6ntr.xix 6pyavu xo,arr.oxeouolt|vu gt6,oq t6v ocoot6v 6r,eu0ec{oeoy t6v <pax6v. E&v Eva dvtxe[prevo eivar no],U prr,xpb no],U paxpu& yr,& v& eivar i) &vt.trr1ntbEr,dyuprvotr6g0a).poD,pnopoDpre c6re vd tb DoDpre xorca\ovruq ro gt6.oadnb Eva 6nrmb 6pyavo. M! tbv iEr,otp6zco, Sdv pr,di56a eZvar, ouvar,o0rlpatr,xdnol,U xovtr,vil i) nol,U praxplvil yl& p&g ciiote v& Qv &vtr,tr1g0oDpe, prnopoDpe r6te v& ci1 EoDpre xowa\ovtag triv pdo,rppfi4 &va)toyfug.

.N€yero't, ^1td. &va1vc,r 6t v& p('eq tb np6oalno 6vbg &v0pcilnou, ptd. elx6va txfi\et 6oo X[],r,eg ]G\eug. AII& 1r& vd &vayv<,rploer,g cnv Qupt tou, prd lre\rl ixfl(er,6oo X[],r,eq eix6veq.

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53

) agopropd661er, lEr,aoy6.or1pi pr& neprypuqil,6rcog a0ci1 Qv :or) EXer, iTxupmano6pa p'Eva nopcpalto.
@)

:{ Srecarpop& pr,&},extrxi1ye}.or,o1pug(a,fi xupr,xuro6pa eZvar, ra4 npo'\n;, VLA; iD6ocg, 6vbg &vtr,xerp6vouii 6vbg &t6pou. E;op6vorg,np€net v& clv &vtr,\g0oDpe 6Xr v& clv &valdoours: ol L\ryfioeq fiv xaraotp6gouv xai tb v& cilv 3x).apB&ver,6 ;'-crrdxupro),effav, eival odv vd pnep8e6er,6 pn& xapmanoipo( pi ]) av i6da noU 6r,axcopo8e[ rb &topo nor) oacr,pi(er,.

\[-agopo noiqorl:fi 6qpr,oup1 ,;;***oo<irv. aOroi noD ti6 cpaa"il,ouv,napaDei1p ar oq yapw no wry << €g, tf,ruX<o >> orxoi xal QuXiar,oi. ;por. eZvarpero(gopoTro Tb dwilero c!6 xupr,o]. etrcm6trryag.
@)

{r.rpr.otrext m6rryca rfiq peragop&6 : tb vd oulXder,g petarpopd Q ,: Qv 7rpoc.(VocaLx6rrryct.. flapaEe[yp anoq yapw : otbv Pco praixb Ka0ol,rxlop6, fi n[or1 6t i7 @ E OXapr,otf elvrllt o6pra xai efu a tb =b cripa co6 Xpr,oroD. Xdi o61Xpovr1 QuXratpr,xil,iTnioul6rt :o o6pa xai td pual,b eivat Evu xai rb a0tb i) oi E6o 6tl.rer,g toO .Diouvoprfoprdrog, oD xal f1np6o0er4 niorq 5cr oi &o06veteq i( f,i; Qulyl€(nupexfi,rioerg,6r1LaD.i1,&nb iiOrxdg cig v6ppeg) xal ol tclgrltxEg no:l't'pel,r'(napexxltioer,6, 61),a8ri, &nb ri6 iacpr,xig .'oppe6)elvat na}iloerg toD a6toD eTEoug.
@)

.'O tpel,6g,6 6pc,rreup6vog 6 nol4rilg eivar 5),o?, xai yeparor. 2'avtc,oiu>> eZne 6 l,rlr(\nqp.l7 np6xel.n;ur. tntoqqyld, <<ouptrcu"Overpo 17. Ka),oxalprv{6 N6Xrag,Ilp,i€n V, )xqvil l, o:uiyor. T-8 :-r<pp. Bao. Pcilra).

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

6 xv(toetq>> 3vvor,6rv: xa06vag Xplotpo?colei peta1trooor,x6rv gopd6 6rxi6 tou inrvorioecog, npotrpcilvto'.s'ceq tig ii6r1Etor&nb tou Ve€'cir'f.cSooag tou xai roD xouvcovr,No0 nepr,y6pou'xocl6 xa1€vaqxp1o'rporoleZ 6r,xri cl tou ytr6ooa dl6 &ou),o,6noo&vo-xcx'ccx<p61ro tbv ?),).o, xai tig Epyo'ctyvrlg pi cb 6nolo &nb \r1'c&. Enr6r6xel v& 06oerEautbv rcocvo &nb rbv'A).).o. 1169, ),or,n6v, 6 Ela<p6per,Evag&nb cbv &).lo ;'OXr otb d x&.vouv,&11d otb n6oo tnapxCogi)&venapx6g tb xd,vouv'otb n6otb 161o.'O nou4dlgneio'oinr,tuXqp6vor, &nooXrlp6vot eZvat i tdv x6opo 6nac, Lxeivoq'6 ipaoti1g net9et Oer, no),),oU6 DoDv vd Evav' 6 cpel,bgxuv€vav.
@)

<AvapglBo],a rb pela],6tepo zcpoo6v>>, 6 Aprocot6],r19, trdet q ..eivo(r eioar,6e(lot6Xvri r\q perugop&g. Eivar,xdtr, noi-rElv v& 'O yu& <p6Bog pnopei v& tb prd0erg &nb &),).ougrr.18 &v0prirnr,vo6 &),).o0Div xo.\ zcouOevd cfv Sl,eu0epio- i1 &yunq qg L\aprrlo'r19, otil l.tovopepiligappoyil o(uri6 ixrilevrut nr.drpuyr.xd.&n'6oo v€eq perat1g 6),o<ptivepl€ &),{0er,a6: a6toi noD DriprtoupyoDv roug i(ouord(ouv toUg eopris, xai pti t\g xard. ).6[rv 6pp4veie6
Lvd a0coi ci6 onouDaiot oroyaoreq' &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&),),oug, dvawlp6ooovad.L

rooq noD Draleuxa[vouv petaqop€.q xai pt ci6 Dr,euxpw[oetq &ne),eu0epcivouvtoUg &),).oug, &lvooDvtau tilg ivoflrltuxoi Lxxevrptxoi.'O Karl Marx xal6 Sigmund Freud xuraoxetaoav 6 rcapan),avqrmiq pecorcpop66' Charles Peircexai 6 Karl Krauss p€ao(qopd€, QeuEo].o1[eg. 6q Xprlo'rponoro6peve6 \ep.aoxapetpav
@)

peragop€;, ?lptoro(pxtxd oripafver vd E[Tb vd XpylortroTroueiq velg,oi xanorcvil oi xutt,Eva 6,vopa nob &viyet oL xanrorcv,itl napa8efypo(rogyo,pw,v&6voprdnoU toD pou&(er,' oExant &).1,o
(IIorrltuxil).petdqpaori toD Ingram Poetica>> 18. Aristotle. <<De Bywater,otb R. McKeon, Ex6. The Basic Works of Aristotle, (N.Y.: Random House. 194D.o. 7479.

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.: : 'rra no'pocrfipqol<o(ixtrlpil> 1)Evav &v0pono <<&trerco6>>. . , i.z uzctipxet Evu &).),oeZ6og xo.i petacpop&6, noi-rBaoi(erat oE r,.o=r4'ca, Epguvto46 &tr).d np60eo4g' rcocpaDe[1pr Xo..^ 6yt d-coS .:n.r' &xoxa\eiq cb tfolpi xoc) xpaol <<odtpa alpa toD td xorl ii . :c:oD>> pruo 8r,acpcovia <<&ppc,lorro(>>. te).eurclctrl69 Xcilv xe::ooyl, XpylorttoTcoloDpe petagop& 6Xr, tl yl& vd &va1vc,lp[- ,:r3 prd 6por6tnra., go.lvopevr,x& SvundpXouoaord" &vuxet:."q. ai}'a 1rd vd E4proupy4ooupe pr[a6pol6cqro- pera\6 cou6 t ozonobg oapocanTlx\q:perayerpr,(6pevor, tfolpl o&v v& cb ::r, :b or,rpa6vbg0eoD, yevr,xe6oupe ouyxexpr,p6ve6 6pror,6o1- :: :r:tafU a0toCr xo'i r\q 0e6vpct.g pretaXer,pr,(6pevor, ou.(xe.-3veg &no,lteq odv v& frtav ol &venr,06pr1req pl&g oov€ner,eg -ev?Lcl43ai 6yt oi.ox6n4tot xapnol pfi.q txn6<paorlg,8riprroup:-tiJa ^6noleg 6pror,6opeg peta[b tlg &n6x].r,or1g tig &oOdxai 'H ytr6ooa rilg noiqorlq xo.i d6 tno:.rpr6 Xprlolponor,eZ :"r-:. - =.:r dlpLxd petagopd g, iv6 f1y},6ooa t! g Op4oxe riq zro},r g : {e iaq, - :,1: zaf c{g tfuXratpuxlg o.Eed-cn\Lx}g petagop6g. Xpr'lor,prozror,ei

:r :oUg'Eppa[ou6,6 @ebg eivar 6 Kdpro6, 6yt Evcl.qx6ptogxcl.\ :r'rrgtog Dlv pnopei vix tyet yuu6,p6vov Evaqx6prog pnopei v& r .::. lrd tor)g Xplouavo6g,6 @ebgeivat raoroXp6v<o6 K6pr,og .r: zupr,og' pnopei v& 6XelEva yur6,6 6rcoio6pnopei €noprdv<og :r :i';ar tautoXp6vcog &v0ponog xai @e6g, x6plo6 xai K6prog. - ippaixil i6da roD @eo6eZvarEnop€voq xot1rl.oii pretagopti. : '*rr1Xpro'noomiliE6a toO @eo6eivocl Eva6ouv8uaoprbg Ve-cd.-".,pa3xai xupr,ol,etamilq &n66oor1g r\g pero.qopA6.
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: xocro.lwpotv 6 @ebgpnopei v& nocpapretvet 6tu 0e6p6vov 6oo, A0rbg, 6iv Lyet 6vopa. @d).ovtag Dofiloet :*:a vd ,".z =€rom.0e6vrya, 6 Mc,luo!6TDpuoe r& 0prloxe orip 6noia pr iu, ,.i:"revda.6vopranpdnervd &no8o0eiotbv @e6.A0cb 6vopa6iv 'IouE -::ar avop6q.

'EBpaiot

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Oi'EBpaiou xanrl"lwBrl:v,bn[oqg,6tr, &v0parzto5 6 pnopel v& napaprefver, &vOpconog p6vov 6ooEyer. Eva xa],b 6vopa. @d],ovca6 v& 8uocpqprioer, &vOpc,lzco,6 tbv Freud iDpuoe prd Opqoxefa, odiv 6noia Eva 8uopqpr,otr,xb6vopa np€net v& &no6o0ei oi xtiOe &v8pa,yovcl.ixo.xal nar,6[. A0ti1 f1 0prloxeia 6vopa(emn <rf uXavtl),uoyl >>.
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<<'Oprogu),ocpl),[a>> cb 6vopa rcoDDlvoupeoclv npot[pr4o,4 eZvar xanorco yr,d oe(oua).lxi1ouve6peorlprdp6l4 toD i6iou g6),ou. 'E&v &noxatro6oape,ciiv npotfp4orlxocnor.ou yr& Trl'gop) p6l4 tfrg i6rag qulytg xal 0prioxefag,<<6por,o<pu],[a>><<6pror,o0p4xai oxetd>>,0d t& xorvo.pexo'\ ocind.tpulrxlg nrr.}ipel4; flpdner, vd ixnog clcv1 c& pdlyl cng Aprep oDv rxav r,xig VuXr,atelxn;'Eta lpeia6 yrd cb &v aOtdg eivau1)6dv eivar QuXao0dver,eg;
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xix\a kosher e7var, prr,d n(xlto-e0).oyqpdvrl&nb rbv paBBlvo. Tb puocrlpto toCrltipou eivar odf, eO).o11pdvo &nb tbv iep6a. "Eva (ru1r,xd6ydg (mopo ei.van Evu ?fuopo eO),oyqpdvo&nb cbv QuXfatpo. Td 1or,pr,vb elvav xp€cl.1 xclc.cd.pd.V6vo rbv paBBivo. 'H &nb ouvouoia eZvar, oif xurapap€vo &nb tbv iepda. 'O <<oXr,(ogpeviis> eivar,Eva6 &v0pc,lnogxurapap€vog &nb tbv tpuXfatpo.
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Tp6pe pr6voaOtd noii 0eclpoDpre <<xald>> xrx[,6nopdvorg, rcpdfe?, ),oOv Dlv v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&roUg 66o'oupe xa).& 6v6para. Crav oi &v0ponor &roxar&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&tvropa <<iivtopa>> xai coUg &poupa[oug <<&poupa[oug>>, "Otav c&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&rp6ve. Sparg r& rp6ve, 6aog xavoov oi Kr,vd(or,,

&noxal,oDvti6 &xpf6eg<<yapfDeg 0&pvcovtr toUg &pout6v xai pa[ou6 <<olx6 orca L\aqr.ar,.Lg
19. B),. Reay Tannahill,Food in History (N.Y.: Stein and Day, 1973). t52. o.

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Otav Evag &oOevlg npoonorcituu pld &o0dvela, ocOtb6vopr&>>. i) DrcoXovDp[a >r, Sotepia >> << (etar << &o0eveiag <. npoorcofr2o1 'Otcrv aOtb Eva6Oepaneur4qnpoonowirat 6t nap€yet 9epune(a, 1) 6vopa\eran <<Oepazreta Baot(6gtev1 otiiv rtorq>>, <<6zcvcoo1>> ..pe),ovrop66n. )s4 1tr6ooa fiqicl:upmr1g, inopdvcog,rl1614 ou&v&).oya pb tb 3&v 6 p.irepr,qop& Dr,a<popettxu, ac;;prl;:l..nqpt(etau 1) 10onolb6 eivar,a0tb6 noU Drcogdper, a0tdg nob yratpe6eu: autb6 noii Onogdperperciverut xu\ it<piorutut Er,dyvoori' aOtdg petocgop&xal puO o rciran. on ;or) lratpe 6et y iv enclct
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IQv na),r,d y),6ooa r6>v xpantx6v rl.rulr,atptxdrvvoooxopeforv, ..=ioalcoy)1>> <<0epaneia> aio{ptatve <po\uxtorloi Eva &,outro, FcrrveBaoavr,opbxai o6tal xo,9' Effiq. )cl v6a 1tr6ooa fiq xot,to-ilxftStf uXuatp g, DntipXo nap6 pto r,e0g1p r,opro << i : il,eu lo uv r,xfl oqpoc[veu L\avayxuolrb t6v QuxaE=pcirvco ocilv xor,v6anao->> o0ev6v vd ploCrv Ela ixxd t& i8p6pata rcob 6Xouvy[vet onmt -cnaa oqpclctstvd 3),61Xexaveig >> r, et 06t4or1ociiv xo r,v6 :ou<' <<To7ro inr,)'oyig roDq oye:*xd. p.! cb noD pnopoOv 1)Elv i.,, itreu0epia ;u::opofrvvd (o6v. Kai o6tto xa9'Effiq.
@

).un1pdvog,prnopeivd einal0ei 6tL noU vrdr0er, Tra6 &v0pconog "Evag nor) ioXu&v0pc,rnog xut[qlfg 1')6:.l"tKetxat&Ol,r,r|q. =i.vc,t y$zc;t 6L eivclct 0e6g,pnopei v& eint,lOei 6tL eivat Evuqxo(u1lgpeviig p| napar,o0!o e4.'H 6 r,agop& 6t4 o&nq tpe g i) Eva6oXr,(o '.l---a[U a0t6v r6v nepuypag6v goua(et p] q Dragopd toCr v& pr,& i)learpyr,xb ipla],elo Tt& T4 6r,efouaoxo,l..r.iq &[fva <ptudpr, 6oo4 iwbg toir i6&goug.
@

-{trtb noU yuvet Evu noir1pu,lrero(gpdop6vo oi npo(a,rb xepDfoL -l=r pd npoo'olnr,xilEuoxol,ia 6tav petaT},anl,lr,\ero't iatpr,xb

THOMAS SZASZ: AIPETIKA

o6v6popo' 64).a61d1 66vaprq 84pr,oupyfioet vd xrrcnotclivt6nooYl,6g o'uva[o01pa,orb dxpoarfipto.
@)

'Edv

Evagftv8pag ldel oQ yovocixrl" <<EioatEvaq&yye),og,pE tou xavetq tbv mrb e0tuXropr6vo &vOpono coCrx6opou>>, eivoclEvoc6 iparteuprdvog o6(u1og' 3dv 6pcog <<EZoat p<i1r,ooa,pd pn& ti6:.r.uei 6r1\c4prd(eug!>>, t6re eivat tpel,6g. Tb inr,pr60to: pera<poplg oi i*yanrlg xu\ tnrllrvoueival pouor,xi1 yr&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&r' pag, petacpop|6 &cprta ol pioou6 6prg xa\ xanrlyo-

piug elvat rpd),a.
@)

Oi ylarpof xai oi ei8lxoi orbv top6a tiS tl.ru1r,xfl6 iryetaq &pt,oxov'caLocd vd &vag6povtar, oXeDbvoi 6l,oug cig <<&o0eveig>>. pr,&y),cooorxilouvri0ewil6noLa, oi peyti),o Ba0p6, Eyetnepaoet &ncxpcrrfipr1qxcl.i&vapgropflanan. AI),& i Eragop<i, i8r,aitepa 6rav eivur.&06trr1tq, &nb tb &ropo npbg cb &.olevi1q,eivan nr;.pankfiorc clg 6r,agop&5ixnd tb no),itq6 npdg tb 0nrixoog. Alv 0& &veX6prd.oaav e6xotra nol,lrr,xor)6 v& &varp6povrar ocoirg dv0pcbzcoug, &6raxpico6, 6g 0rc4x6oug rou6' Qv iDr,a oraor10d. npfnet v& zpat&pe xcl'i yr,&tor)6 yr,atpoir6 noU &vagdpovtar 'Evan6otoUg &v0pc5nou6, 6g Xtopig6r,dxpr,o1, &o0eveigtoug. xeLacxL tpd.g-6yt o'a0to6g- vd rcoDpetuv,xa\ n6re,0d),ouo' pe v& naparrrl0oDpe &nb roU6 p6),ou6tlo(gcbgno),ut6v xai ci6 &vOpcirntlv v& livoupe bniyoot xai &oOevelg. xocl

Oi i[qyaoerq rcor)Eivouv oi ,pt,XooOeve[6 otlg €pnelpieg tou6 &no xa),oDvro( << r 7to(pa lo0{ oelg>> << xai gavt ao uho erq>>.i 3(qya o oergnoU Efvouvo'a0t]6 oi tfuXfatpot dnoxaTtoDvtal, <<DlayvcSoerg>> <<6pprlveieg>>. tfulr,atprxl toir voooxopetou,6xocxai )Qv ),6tepo6 tp6nog vd [eXopioerg tbv &o0evii &nb tdv tfuXlatpo eival &nb td nor,6gEyer. x).er6rd.>Tl pt voooxoperorxiltl.rurd. yr.anpm\,&nb td nou6gxar€yetti6 ).6[elg-x],el6rd.

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Evag civ0poztog pnopei vd ),un&tal yrd tbv Eao16 tou, i) yix xrl.;orov &),).o,&),)d pnopei vd 1afpetar, pr6vovytd" xanor.ov&],],o. Tr ).6eraOtb yld 'paq;Miprog 6rl",&1y).roti Evaqftv0porno66iv .r^-opei vrc60er vd lapd yr,&tbv 6aut6 tou; M&g ),6erEub r.;erl'yrq^cd.;6tuf1 a0col,6:rr1o'1 eZvarpr& nrb Epaocu.xil ouverDrldl xui =,gretpiadnb 6st i Xapa yr,drbv Eaot6 pag. Kai 6nop6varg 6tr, ;oi),o06 &v0pclnou6, a0to).6nqoq pnopei v& toUg Lxavorcowi I ::pr,oo6repo &nb tb vd vordr0ouy Xapo6pevor.

t1 iotopfa toir ),ey6prevou xr,vripurogt\q Lyxpanewg &nd rd -;i''rorcveupatc66l elv at fi i.oro gtcl- C,sv r xanayp{oeotv c46 },6[ec.l g . dou),e[a>.Oi nouprtavol iX0poi t6v pi1iatpr,x6v r6rv Xprioeotv 'toTorp6nav o0or6v, T6pol o,tb 16).og roD Dexdcou ivdtou :r.i-covcl.,&.pytoavioXupf(ovro(r6u,6naq oi <<rpul,ig vd t6v iOa"gvcirv>> eiyuv oi nporlyo6peveg inoXig ox),aBco0ei&rcb coUg '.:uxo66,Etot, &.py6repo(, 0no8o6).coo{ f1 toug ooveyto}4xep} td t\xoo)r.Kan6nw ine\€rewav cl 0ecopia roug, io.Xupr,(6prevor 6* iior, ol &v0p<onor, Xprlorl,rozcoloDoav noU oboiegnoUoi i6lor, 6dv ='tixpwav, oi 6nor,oDrinote pdpogtoCr x6opoo,\rav ,rox\aBot>> "EDcooav :6v oOordrv a0c6v. 6ri),a6iip.iagtetuqopr,xi1 Evvorao.cil ''.=\4 <<oxlrocgo6tt, Lnexreivovro(6rl XpIoI t16 &nd cliv xupr,o),el=,.xn oxltoc}rrl-,h 6no'a eTvatxotleotcbg&venr,06pr4co a0rbv yl' :or) cilv 6cg,ounat, tbv ),ey6prevo <<oxlyrltBo>, ptrl' petaqoptxi-1 oi v-taBix cfv 6zcofacb Dnoxeiprevo, <<6],e60epo 6 q no\trr,1g>>,tnr.'ru$ei xui pcl\tora no.pclno),U Ewova.

trav oi ),euxoi iinotxottag n.pri.u Aprepr,xfi elyav ivopaoet g :oU6 i0aleveig ApreptxavoUg &vti'Iv8r,dvougDiv 0d pnopoDoav 'ra rcoDV <<'O 'Iv6r,d6rl p6vog xa),bg 'Iv8rdvog eivat Evaqvexpdg 'iog>> 6iv 0d coUgtnar,pvav pr}r6orl ebxotria yl xo{i cl xal tt (colt :oug. Anoorepc6vtag&ropcl- 6p<i6eg i) &nb tb rcpdy4d.clx6 coug

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

6vo7pa, eival ouxvd tb np6to gipra yr,&v& cor)g dnoorcpiloery &nd cilv i6r,oxtqola,Qv i],eu0 epio^ cn (oyi roug. xa\
@)

"Otav

oi'E),Becoi 8raxqp6ooouv eivar6rcipcrfS Epn),oxfrg 6tr, fri ocbvn6),ep 6vopa(ovtar <<0Ddrepo . "otav Er1).civo tb iE ro o, o r>> uv np&y1tuoi Aprep rxayo a6tb &noxulyeirar, &,zro i, << povotlop66>> .
@

6 yuarpdg 6[vel oi xanorov oovtaTil, yr,d v& napet <.Bzcrxfv8uva oxeu&.opata>>, oc6rd xo.\eirut << gappdxoOepanefa >>. "Otav td XoplleZ 6i6r,o6 ocbv Eaut6 rol,t6te &noxa\elrc:r <<Xp.,io'tr16 oOo'cdlv>>. Ilapopro[co6, v& neOdver, cb xavelg &nb pr,d&ppc6otr,a ],6ye_ 'cd.L <<(euolxbg 0dvato6>>iv6 rb vd nel&vet pri Er,x{ roo &n6<pa_ o 11 o xalteir at << oxrc [a >> dn rlcbr ov . Mi toUg tp6rcouga6toUg xai pri Xr).r,d6eg &tr),oug, f,6ooa f1 p&g ),6er, f1dtepovoprfaelvat x&t xa),b xal r) aOrovopfu x&.6rr, u xax6. E&v Divape peyal,6rep4 ixlia oev aOtovoptu xal prr,xp6repq oclv €repovopfa, lix 6vopa(ape rIV xaruyprlor1o0or,drv << a0to - Oep anreia>> xai d1v clrb:u oxrovirr << o - &no cpao cl:6r rcp€vo 0clvato>>.
@

"Otcrv

'Hoo\i1r4oq

o} p} {uXr,acpr,xCov\rry1prxrcov6r,e0v{ouvdEpr,a &topa t6v 6nololv r& &yp,r,xd eivat &re]t\,ytow(et o&v vd poyopo(_ Xeigprdxunorcv nob nr<fverrd o,na0i tou &nb cl ldpa: vrc;0er xavelg &vaoto)dg vd &va),6o,er Ep<paorlxanorc Lntyeip1gtu, pi '€yovrag &ntvo.w(, rou Eyav ouvoprtrle rpo(upo('op6vo &nb rbv rp6no nor) precaXe o Lr,uxow la'v(ag ryt\erat td 6p1a),ei c.qS [Lrllg.
@

'H

oacpipera oQv 6pr,),[axai tb lpti(rupo prapcupoDvei\rxpiver.a xui oeBaolrb otoUg xav6veg r\g y7t6ooa6 xo.i,6tor,, 0noEq),cil-

t^o)tA

,-,.., np60eo1 vd.nupolxolu<pOoOv oit\avayxaopoi xatd d1v Qv :-'.zor.vavta.Mt&6 xai 6 )dpuylag zai f1f'6ooa coO&vOpcbnou ociiv np&[q <bgv61ra yo(pQ& xo'\ xocprepd. :,Iolp.oTroroDvtau : '.'t1,.d-, 6i ).6[er6 tig 8qtrriri1pto,elvat ebxo],o v& xrl,co'\apet oi, gpaottxb6 &<pon),to46;,noU ::,2\qytoLd6 ptovopeplg 1ew& 6 npoxatrei q60 o xui moroyp6 up4v :i pero),oyrxbg q r,tre rop6g>>, -:0aupaop6.
@)

-

pocg &norel,eital &nb 6t tp6pe' tb pruoc)'6 &nb - oropa gc;.q 6 xuiypacpoupe.A0tbg eZvat tr6:'. axo61te,6raBtf(oupe,),6pte -0pqoxeio',v6,: ;oU xcrle xowav{a,xale xolvovlxbg Oeopbg xal -,,:. icrrprxrrl- i),fiXel 6Xr,p6vov ci prnopoDpre ti 6iv pno,,,1$ev& Bd).oup,e ptoa orb o6pra pag, &tr),&xo'\ ri pnopoOpe :r: ;i Eiv paopo[rpe vd ptitroupe g€oa otb prua]'6prag.Xi tetoD .i<1&vdtruo4,6 6),e1Xog gayryoO eivar ioo66vcrpogpri tbv pi tlg toD ="+-,1Xo ocipatog xocl6 E),e1Xo6 y).cirooo(G tbv 6).e1Xo ."1pruatroD.

TAEINOMH'H

A6toi noU 6ypatfav tilv Ila),ard A,w0i1x4t\e\aBuvcb v64pa r4g tcx\w6p4oy?g L\otvoryxo.op6."O 6g @ebg 63t frcav6 tafr,vopr1d1g. -&v0pri7roug, Dqpr,o6pyqoe lprlcvrir iuvrt_ \6rl,, qotrl', Bprl;yto,_ xeQtevcx fiqto.\wotrylo-ngTou. Ilpoogu6g, 6 @ebg t6v "EBpaicov Div 6XerTvotrta, oi5reeix6va,o6re xanotu 6por,6t4ta.',Erot, oi 'EBpaior, xo.rilro.Bo.v oi i2Orxig0noXpec6oer,g &vOpcinou 6tt toD x,,\ i7 db-04o4 oeBaopotrnob vr,c60er eTvatdvrrccp6gorg &vdLo_ ya npd6 tbv 6),eyXo t6rv ouprB6).c,lv Xplorponor,eiyr& cb noU {0r,_ x6 roo iDe66eg."o 'EBpaixbg oeb6 6dv eivar Dnepdv0pornog, \nagfrtav oi 0eoi r6v 'E),).rivcov, o6re Evagtlatlp xo) Evagyi.6q, .O 6nc,lg6 @ebg rdrv Xplotravdrv. Alv eZvar<<6;uDrinote>>. xiv_ Duvog p' a6tlg riq dvo.no.po,oto.oetq eivat 6t ranew<bvo,v rdv &vOpcono. flpdypatr,, eivar &),40etu 6t ini Xr),r,et[eg .EBpaio' oi ivepyoDoavodv vd flcav 6116 Ilepro6olog Aab6 tocr @eoD, &IId 6 zcrb razcervbg xai ranewag"tvo€),a66Tou. oi Xplo.rlavoi tobg 66c,:oav xu.n,yaprl ocb 6noio 0d eivar razcervoi &l).& xojro.:retvolp6vol.
@)

681yb6 6vbg ).eorgopefou orrlcprl,rrl:et Eva npatripr,o pev\i._ oi vr1q.Kcxnorog0d nei, iner8l coD ce),efar i7 oe Bev\i.v4.Ko:norcq &).).o9, inerDil 06),er, ).iyr2pev(ivz1. IIo).).d &nd td 6nro.r4pol,oyrxdnpoB),4prarurCav xorvo_ vtxitv inrotrlpdrv ouvotfl(ovrut orb napdEerypr o.b.,6. r,dv& a f xtlvoupe xo.',otu np6o8o, np{,xet}.ornbvvd 6r,axpfvoupre &vdpre_ oa oi Eub e7D4 6[4y{oec,lv xai 6ub ei61 ouprnepr,pop6v: a0ci1 noU 6(ettl(er,td napel,06v,tilv ioroprxil E1),a6ri,xai a6d1 notr &tevt\et tb pr6),),ov, 0eo).oyr,xri. tl Autil noU 6Xervd.xavet pri td yeyov6ra xai a0ci2 nou 6xer vd. xavet pi rd xtv4rpa. a0d1 nor)

'O

TAEINOMH)H

ava(rp&" ix dkw xai a0d1 nor) rcpoo<p€pet 0epane[a. tiiv ..aitto -l,o1lxii >> d1 << xa) 0epan eouxil>>.

Ooo Lr,16tepoxara), aBatvetfrog arepcDTtos €vav &1,),o 16oo v, y.e"pa),6tep1 eivar,fircl.orlvd cbv xanaru\er. cig npbg d1v 60vrx6:n'ccl., 0p4oxeta,tb trcayyehpa t.1v ,lnytrlLqm.ilroo xar;rl.ti1 ord.on.'H &preorl yv<,rprprla Evav &],],ov&vOpono xa0lotoDv p] : ltowg xanano,\etg6vce),6 nepnr€g.' H xan anu[q r6v &vgprir g ^-cov f1cafrv6prlori coug oE xur4yopfeg eivar, Evaqrp6nog,6y. xai
'ir&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&v& coUg xa\6repa &II& v& 6prtxonorillvropiooupre 1r,d

roupe 6tr,noti 6iv 0d coUgyvc,rpfooupre ro],b xa],&. 'Ev 6],iyorg, ;, xan&tcx\4 toD &),),ou xclc?rrn,d.. &peo1 Qv lvcopr,pia tou &Xpqcrry xo'i &D6vat1.

I

E A E T OEPIA KAI AOTAEIA

Tb tfpqpra tig i],eu0e pio.qelvat fi &ncir].erar\S clLXrllnng .nut\g tepval,rot rx\q L\oo o i.uq.
@)

'H

i),eu0epia, pi clv tl.ruXo),oylxi1 neprco6repo nap& pi ci2vnol,r,trxi1oqpaota, eivar,f1 i,xav6r4ra vd tfe66etat xaveig, vd d1 y),utriver,xal v& piiv tbv zcrotedouv 6q eine clv &tr{Oera.EZvar, tx[or1qfiLxav6vrya v& ].]er cilv &].{0er,a,vdplv c}1fl,utc6vetxai, nap' 6),ovtoOto, vd pilv fir,ore6ouv6rr, eine tfdppara.
@)

Tbv 66xato tvano o.i<bva, preyd),or ol &pepmavmoi ou8rip66poxdad.oxeoo.o9qxocv xparuxi6 inr,Xop4yfioer,q pi xai tb iniVoL reuTpo(&no660r1xe ocilv <<B),eu0epia inrXelprioeov>>. t6v Mer& tbv 6e6tepo flayx6opno fl6).epo,oixo6op{0qxe tb oiorrlpardv peyd),ov dpepmavm6v a0roxrvqto8p6polv pi Xprjpara r6v cpopo),o1o6pevcov zco),rtdrv oi 6p6por 6vopao04xav<<il,e60epot xai 6p6prol>>. EZval, npogav6lg, e0xo),6tepof1 ),6(a <<i),e60epo>> v& rcino'ta6toefutf cotrx& napd cig &xpr,Big Lnilero . Xplorpo?ro

Aou).eiaeivar td v& npdner,vixnai\etqo'Evcl-Eplo nob 6yetypu,]ter. xanorc6 &).trog' iv6 6),eu0ep(aeivat rb vd 1p<itper6 Dux6 tb oou 6pyo. Mr,&6xai o[ nrb no].],ol &vOporaolD]v f,6pouvo6ce x&v v& ou),),apioouv,OecopoDv tb v& yp<itper,gEva 6rr, Oeatpr,xb 6pyo eivar oaoxo; 8uoeniteuxaoqTL'aOtb xal npotrpoOv v& nai\oov Evav p6),o orb 6pyo xcllnorco&),),ou,napd vd pilv nai(ouv xa06),ou.

EAEIOEPIA KAI AOYAEIA

zananteo1 elvat oulvd zreo,T4o,,-clxri. Eivar, 61.r<o6 EvaEl.r6vov 6 z;d ror)g ),6youE y_r,d ror)E 6nofoug Edv nerul oiru norrtE ocn rou. 'O &),^o6 e..vat 1,"r4 ,upnopei vL &no6erX0 &v.,yx,,uog ei yr,d :iv 3),e60epq &yop& toD &vtayrrropoo. A6td6 e\vut6),6yoE :ou no^^oi &v0pc,lrcor npotr,proDv xl,aQoupi(ouv &zcd v& rd v& Eouie60uv' Meya)'on o xivrocqtig &vanrlp orcou1trxiq oov €,rewg -, -: xanan[eo?q, i"i oo rirnm\g poipaq,xa],],rcpyo6v tto t :r1.1O 7v ainananrl6:'l,xrl;le"EBpaiog 0& vd lrnopoCroe eivat 6vagA),_ i-.pao;'Atvord.w, xyle veypog{ro; T(dpt( Ott&"owy>nov Kdp_ ;:p xai xale yovrl:txrx Mapla Kroupf . 1ilo@

'II

Jtr< ;,rnopoCrv &vEpeg xo:i oi. yovaixeq oi vd eivar, npayltwtxd. ;isuOeporStav ivepyoirv oav riE p6yeg o, Evav&yepd;va;Bou[_ i"_ruv \tyo ner'vtag 666 w. txei'xt yrd [SotepaapXif"r" yd xu_ ,11oDv o€f,t& Ierqle xai td t\ooota,yrd. r;'&v'axa),6{rouv ev :al=oga 6u Eyoovxo),),rioelo, olbra,6nolg oi tr6Tr;;; puTo_ :cr,rr.6a.
@

I 5t11ley Edgar HymT 20 napavlpei o'ilo,cd.6c 6 AapBfvog Ddv :-:dicrxe vd <<tazcervc6oer, &v'i.orro tdv pr4vovr6.Etovo.ci7v xa_ :a.oaaon toD (cirou, 6nti,gcdv 61ouv xavlyopiloer, ol noldprr,ol :.Lit BtBliou roD, &11d, &v:cr.}etri,g, v& 6{euyevioet xairJ eqor_ -oto:r[oel (6a>. cd Ilapopolcog xai 6 Freud 6]v npoon<i0r1oe vd z-r.eavioet ),oyr,xdrirErcapdioyo td &).).ti, p&),Lov,rb aap<i),oyo - = t oytx6.' Qor6oo, dn' abr\ci2v &notp4,&nr.uyorapfi"rpo,, : JapB[voginer,Eil v' dvrtnapq:ce0ei".iE eE &noxa\o_ !i11oe '':a'r-< 0pqoxeteq,iv6 6 Freud iner6l 'foraoe ,, arirnop*rort :*,v rapa8ooraxil,]nrytapui1
tl":at.Edgar Hyman, The TangledBank: Darwin, __-_tO_ Marx, Freud asImaginatiaeWriters(New york: Antheneum _-:;:'and ,1962),

ffi

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Ol. &wino').ol cfrg i),eu0ep[ag noU tilv &vtr,pti4ovao.l:Oi 0p4oxeieq,iv 6v6pracrro6 Oeo6' 6 natpr,artop6q, iv 6v6pac coD 60vou6' 6 xopprouvr.op.6q, 6v6patt tf19i"oor4ca6' 6 oooratrriv o V6S,iv 6v6prarr,fig xo w av n<\g6 matoo6vrl 6 0eparce to p6g, u 6' 3v 6v6patt r{g Dleiag' f1 tl.ruXrarpmil, 6v6pat r\q QuXuxlg iv 6ye[ag' il uitroxrovo],o1ia, iv 6v6patu cfrg np6trr1Qlgrng a0toxrov(crq' h xaraXpnorotroyla, iv 6v6pratr,toCr i].6yXou t6v vap"'Otror, xantxCov. 6oor &v:*pocyovro'tclv i),euOep[cr ioXupf(ovrat, gt;otxu,6ru dlv npodyouv' 6tr pr6vovI Dnotayii or\g ixnclcyope6oer,g >> oovrcrd. <<fipo(Tpo(Trd1 i),euOepf a.

'H

papog i).eu0epia Evbg&v0pcinou prnopeivd. tnuareivero(rei.g tig i).eu0epia6 €vd6 &),),ou 6naq,1r,d naptiDerypo(,a0ci1 coD 'Enop6vog, &<pevrvl pdpog toD 6o6),oD pnoeig roD. f1i),euOepio' pei v& ouyxpo6etar pi tlv i),eu0ep[a. A]v ouppafver,5p<,rg cb i6ro pd tilv &[rong€neta.'H &f,r,onp€neta Svbg&v0pcirnou D]v tnetrceiverar zcori ei6 Bripo6 rfiq d\tonptnewq Evb6 &},),ou. 'Ercop6vcog, &f,r,o),oyc3wag d\kq paq,Toaq 0& Enperce rotig vd no0eoiooupe tilv d\tonp€.new &x6p4 nr,b ndvor xal &rcb tlv 6l,eu0epia.
@)

'H

p'Eva vopr,xb 6).eu0epia eTvu ouv6eDep6vrl o6ovlgta noU per ayeryt(erat io 614to-to U6pi1Tooog, iv6 f1rupavvfa eZva ouv6er Depdvrip' Eva odotrlpor noD peraXery{\erat &vtou toirg iooug. 'ED6 61oupe6va &nb cd nrb napd6oEo''ciq &vOpcirnr,vqg 6napvd [19: D1].aDl 6tr, f1 oegv6r4ra xai f1 &\tonptxaa prnopoDv prr&g dno>rtr19oil p6vov prdoc.,l &prepotrritl.rlag,6rr.'otoi7 ixyyt(et ix 6pta r\g &.onlrayviag, xo.\ 6t f1 papBo.p6r4ro. xai fi oxat6rrpa pnopoDv e6xo),a vd fenepao0oDv &r6oqo pr,&giDrotponfag, f1 6nob 5!0ev otperat rlg &v0pc6nrve6 Er,agopdg.

AIKAIO

rli 6rd6rxor eivar tprl.orntyvega0to6rxar,o66te6' oi 6rxrry6por =i.vo.t Lnuyle),pratlegDlxaro66reg1u&roi-r6&].],oug.
@.

\ucoi noU &no6ox4ta(oov toU6 v6poug noU &nayope6ouvtdv :I6yo, rlg ouvalvetrxig oe\oo a\txig Epao'r4pdrqreq preta(U :vritrix<,rv Q Xpnon6propdvalv xai q9aoet v& &vao6ou6rv,6Xouv ).pov'cdl o' o.br€qdq rpa\er6 69 <<iyxtrrrlpataX<,lpig 06pata>>. 1uotuX66, odTn i qedon or,r.onrlpd Dnootlipi(er Qv &no,ltn 6t, g - apd. rcxbrcr, r6to rou e18ou n pu\eq ouvroro 6v Ly x}$pan u LvC,t, ".xpt\ C,s aucil rilv iino,ltrl 06),e v' &noppftfeI . Oi v6por oi 6noio r, I S, .;pooxtrce6ouv>> Evav &vOpono &nb tbv 6aur6 tou 0& tnpexe '. q dnoxa\o Ovta r << po I Lv ocv:uiov g i).e u 0e picl.gxo,\ rnq &\to v6 ri p tneuaq>>. uv6neLa a0r6v rdrv v6pr,c,lv ut -xt lr o t 0&npene ) elv '.u 6vo pa\ovro(r- << para pi g i.gxtrri paca >> 06 . Xco

"Evarol 1 i).e60ep16[oDogt6v &vOp<inov&nb di XoBretrxil "Evoorltyet 'H dnayopeup6vri. Xoprerlxl =i.vrxt np6B\pa pi 1v 6[oDo r6v rco],ut6v&nd Tn X6po(.A0cb cb 6vopti(er <<trlzco:u\io'>>. "Hvc,l prdveg flo),rtele6 &nayope6ouvdlv eioo8o 6nr,o6Xov Oi flo).rteieg 6Xouvnp6ptr1pra rnv dioopri r::q X<bpa. Oi'Hvcopdveg )o tdrv o0ol6v a0t6v oQ ldrpa xal ocOrb dvoptl(ouv <<6raxitb '.rjol VoQxc,ltux6Y>>. flo),rceleg&vayv<opl(ouv oi notrlcegtoug Oi'Hvc,lpr6veg 6tr, =/-ouvrb dvupuipeto Erxalcopra plaivouv &nb cl 1olpa. Oi vd pi lvcopdvegIlo),rteieg,),orrc6v,6iv61ouvnp6ptrrlpta cli tre16pe',1 .<trlrcotaliarr.

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

o['Hvolpdvegllo],r,teieg&vayvc6pr,(av oi zco],[6tr, roD6 6Xouv&vclcgcl;ipero Teg Dr,xal<,lpra dnocpaoi(ouv oi i6ror ti vd. gappaxa 0& n&pouv (Euxaicopa 6noio Eyrl,ocl.v 1914),Elv tb tb f1 0d DnrlpXe napdvop4 eiooDogrjpcoivrig oQ Xc6paxai Elv 0d eiyav tdtorou eiDougnp6Btr4pa 6:rloqeivar,f1 <<Elaxivrlorl r6v , vapxortrx6v>>. Qootxa,xanorct &v0pc.lnor, tnar,pvotv&x6p11 <pappaxa 0& rcoU&al,Lor, 0& \rav o6p<p<,rvol, naipvouv. AII& a0td Eiv Div vd, 0d ouvr,otoitoe r6re <<xanotypqorl vo(pxt,ltt,xdrv>> 6ntog xal tb v& 6iv 0d ouvrotoDoe <<napclcB(o.oq Byei xaveis tEro &nb Q Xc6por ouv6p<,rv>>. Kovto),oyig,dv pio. xuBdpv4oq ntoreiet 6u oi. no).freg trig Eiv 61ouvDrxafcopa BloDv 6[co&nb r4 X6pa,0d Dr2pr,oupy{v& oet no7*:'txi6 oi 6noieg, pi T4 oetpa aou6,0& 8ripr,oupyiloouv rb << ptr4pta ti1q)*nor o'Eio.;r, flapo po ial6, &v p [a xu B6pv4or1n r, np6 . otetet 6rr, oi no),[regtqg 6]v EXouv 8lxalopa v& <<Xp4olpotb zroro6v inr,xfv8uva cpo.ppcl'xu>>, 64pr,oupy{o'er, 0& notrr,tr,x}goi 6noieq,pi Tn oeqa roug,0& Dripr,oupyfloouv <np6Btrr1pra tb cfr6 "Etor,, xw&ypr1o46vo(pxorlxdlv>>. nol,tr& 60vr,x& xai xor,votvlx&, <<npoBtrripclt'ca>>Drlproupyo0vtal &nb a0td noU xtivouv ol 6iv &vOpc,lnot, &I),& &nb cbv rp6no pi tbv 6ao[o o[ xuBepvrioer,g 6pf(ouv aOtb noU xdvouv oi no),iteg xai &nd tig no),r,tlxi6 oi p' |noieq 6nr,Bri).l,ovro(r a0toUg toUg 6pr,opo66, xuBepv6vce6 oi xal xuBepvcopdvoug. Awlp6r<onor,pi r€'cotoug6),ox\p<otrxoUg v6pou6, oi rceproo6tepor &v0pconolotbv <<i),e60epo x6opo Er,axrip6ooouv >> 6t oi. &nayope6oer,gadtlg eZvar, iyxtr4pratrxi6 xo.\ 6rt 06para "Opcog, eivar,oi noltireq,Qv B),eu0epia r6v 6nolov nepr,opi(ouv. &vr4t€ranor ptdnap6porou6 Oepaneurr,xobg v6poug -oi 6nolor p &na1o pe6ouv 6 p uopr g &vt r,6 ao ery o ri1 o <p o-'ci1q yqpei.aq 6ve a(.p xui r\q oef,ouatrr,x 6t4ro.q, neprco6repo dnb 6tr, oQ o<patpati1q poypagfag- oi neprco6repor,&v0pc,lnol otbv i].e60epo x6opo Er,axqpdo'oouv oi &nalopefioetq aOrig eival &n),6g &:uoyeig 6ru i\ &v64teq, iner,Eil DlproupyoDv <iyxl,{Vdad Xt,>pi6 06para>>. A0tb eivat aOrancl:u4rot yetptoroo ei6ou6 : np6xercar yr,&Qv

"E:'ot,&v

AIKAIO

anpo0upia t6v &vOpcitrcc'lv xaralwBouv xai v& &va1v<op[vd oouv cii oxotewil rupavvia a0t6v noi-roi iDlol EXouvtnt\e\et '.r& vd toUg xupepvoDvxrlli,6noo clrbrbtrmpanei, yld tlv rupaw(.a tlg i6rag clg ouvel61afi9roog, xat' ivcotrilv fiq |nofuq *oi i),e60epor,>> &v0pcorcor &na).)d,oooyral &nb cd B&pog pru&g :ieu0epiag Qv 6noia eival &D6vapol v& &vcdf,ouv.

Iril Dixl t!6 tpd).ag ,r6oov +1tt*pao*or1 kooxai 1 6rup4yopfa pia rl..rvrotofiv &vieprlou(uyrxil 6v<,rori xanqyopo6pevog .'O 0norqp[(et ciiv &vunap(ia tp6].a6, cb6Er,xar,otroy[a 6o<,rv Eyetf;nor:ei rb 06pa tou &zc'a0t6v' tb Elxaotripto ndl,r, tnmulyeirat =;tor1gQv &vunap(ia cpd).a6, Tr& y& Dlxarol,oyfioetaOcb noU =;rBd),),erorbv xaollopo6prevo.

J,.za(apa ocilv i8r,ortxii (c,l/i: prr,dprowtpvu, <<gr,l,el,e60epq>> :oprrlvefa a6coCr noU oi ipnveuoriqelyuv xat& voDxai tb 6noio, :oiU Bo).rx 6v6paodv <<ouvro(Tpatr,xb a, Drxaiorpra )trlprypd>>. ',o,.o' o.ilr6,oi Apeprxavoi Drx116por, oi Dr,xaot6g, zcol,ltlxai oi '.to',. oi 8rlpoor,olptigol pnopoDvv& 0ecopoDv xo.i Q lerpoupyrxll lqaipeo1 €vb6ippp6ou &rcd.l ptitpa pr&g1uvafxaq,oi Evavo;ozopeio, rig pia <<i6r,alrlxi1 lrpcl."!'r'p,6noia eival voprxd. xclrrofi '..-rpopdvl' ivco f1 ahoyogilyrlori &prgerapr,vdrv papr,Xoutivag 1) try='olxov 6iv 0etopeZto(r ouvro(yputtxd Erxafc,lpaxai Dlv npo::ane6etan &zc'rbv v6uo.

*J

TIM OPIA

fla).ar6repa,6tdv xuBepvoCroav iepelg xai oi &v0ponor 6(eoi 9eto.\avtb nve6pa, oi ouvll0er,g pr60oEor, tr,prropiag fitav vd ouvrplpouv td ocSprarar6v &v0pc6zcc,ry Baoavrcrfipra xal cbv otd rpoX6. Xriprepa, aor) xuBepvoDvol luarpoi xai oi &vOpotnor, ixOerd(ouv tb o6pa, oi ouv/10er,g rr,popiegpa6 eZvarv& ouvtpfpri Boupe tb pua),b r6v &v0pcbnorv tl.ruXogrippaxa,il\exrpoobx g &xpcor4pr,aopoUg iyxecpd),ou. xal Xe r,poupyr,xoU toD
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TIMOPIA

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f1 irpoo.rOel, iEla, Q Dpaotl pt6rqrcl-aOcl 6tav Etef,dyetar 6nb oxonobS.Mt& xotjv aiyi8a rott xpanouglr,& gr,trav0p<onlxoUg lx,rvio",tnto[q,f1 6nofa &nalope6et otb xparog v&' oxotciveu, i:rxotrt1 xai Stav Bpioxerat ob a0todpruva, iv6r tnmp€ner. o:'b
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@

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EAE|XO> KAI ATTOEAE|XO>

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a0toxuptupytu xai f1 abroetmi.gt4orl 6lag6pouv e606cog &vu),6yco6:6oo neproo6rcprl ocbroexrigtqoq Lyet xrllnor.oq t6oo peyal,6rep4 elvat,xand. xuv6va, fi 3nr,0uptrl-xui i7'txuv6:rlrprxroo vd xupr,apXei otbv iaur6 tou. "H 6nr,0upria 3)dlXoupre vd roU6 &).),oug f1aOcoetnipqo1 xal Er,acp6pouv dwmp6<po g : 6oo ).ry6tepr1abroex-cttrtqor1 Ev tyet ag
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vd i)dyXer,tor)q &},),oug.
@)

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KAI ATTOEAEfXO'

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@

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74

THOMAS

S Z A S Z . .A I P E T I K A

'H

&v0ponowcovirl',oi oy€,o4pi rnv clrb:uo.r:covta,elvrlrt Bra6;ur,6 o'pb6od oy€or1pi tbv a0vocvr,opr6.
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AT OMIK H X Y MIIE P IOOPA

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@)

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76

THOMAS SZASZ:AIPETIKA

"'Onor6 rb x6otoq cfrg 6).eu0epiuqeivatf1 inayp6mvTiol, btot xr;:i rd x6oroq r\q dve\aprqoiaq eivar,f1a0to6rd0eori , rd rigtrlp"arilq &ltonp€netageivat f2 a0rapXr,x6rrryu xai tb ripqgtrxco6 oeBaoproD eZvar, a6tooepaop6q. 6
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ED

Mao'roprd eivar, f1 0rcotayl oclv a60ewirr r\q re\et6r4rag. Ava),oyrxd, xai xa0dg f1a0Oevtirl-o:u\q p6pe6 Vr;cq ouygeetar, prd rilv xanarcieorl xo.i &.pa &noppinre.cut aq &.napr;.Eext4, i troo'topr,d (xvrtxano.o.'o.}qxe dnb ciiv xuxoreyvla. Mi cd dlpaia 6pya tou, 6 zcepricpavog paoropaq De[1verti1v &yurc1 cou yr,& toU6 &).),oug.Mi d1 oxapr1 cou Eou),er.u,6&vr;:\tog reyvk4q Eeflver, pioog tou. Apg6repor ,xa06vug 1-ri tb rbv tp6zro tou, t'ntpeBaubvouv rilv mot6vrya roug: 6 Evag elvat cpa'oprevlxd 0notayprdvo6, &).)d eivar 3),e60epog,6v6 &),),o6, 6 garvopevlxd &lrttn6tantr og, elvat 0n6 Eou).oq.
ED

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ATOMIKH 'YMTIEPIOOPA

t& Vryv xltcxno0v 6ndpXovca xanotoo,),oyrxb eival v& aio9ave'Av p: (1pr,or1.t6vog iner,Eil tneoe 06prax).onrlg. 6pcogxanouog tig i56e6 rou, Lr,fope[v& vr,60eLxai xo]yaxeupdvog v.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::{er 3ner,6ii 6u Eivouv peya).6tepr1 3o,,avrr,yprigouv.@aive'cut oi &vOponor, otd lrpoc."qdad. nap& otig i66eg' rt0ocv6rana Snet8l 6),or li:a vd npdypraru,rix 6rsoia 0& 061a[a: grnopoirpte dnottrhooopre 6parg6iv pnopei vd 6Xer xo.6 l: va eivar npogu),ayg€va,iD6eg w.(rot 0ndpXer\raorloi i86egvd pdvouv&npoorareoreg. f',", -tl3 Evaq &vOponog,&.oovi19totoq otb v& Xplor,pozror,ei roUg xpocgmo' 6l.ocv L,:: tou, ncx?oc[vet &pyi\er v& cotrg t\aoxei,trot '.=vug&v0p<ono6 &ouvri0rotogotb v& Xprlotponorcitb pua),6 ',, =ptpavi(et, 6rav d.pyi.(et tb L\aoxei, p rd Er,avorl . vd uxil xpa:2. Kcr\ 6ncog6 np6coq np€xet vit &vr€\et cilv xupro).etnm|'1 to6 :r.,tirrr. ocipat6g tou, trot xo"\6 Ee6repogxptner, vd &w6pretagopr,xltoD prua),oO, 06),er td ivDuvaprc6oet . :)1 &v vd <bo'ce :-=nepv rd rcveupratrx& aet ipn66 r,a .

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THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

i),e60ep1&yopa. A0rbg eZvar6 ),61ogyr,d tbv 6noiov oi nr,b oixovoprx& dvelapuryol eivar xai oi neprco6repo &ve[ripan-coL nveDpdcxa' xo.i1r& cdv i6ro l,6yo, oi 6l,e60epor, inalye),pclcrieg eivar,(.ruXo),oytxd nh &ve\aprrlrol &nb a0toUg noU dnuoyo).oOvtar oi 0nr2peoieg coCrxpanoog 11oi pey&),ougi8lorcxoUg 6pyavropo6g.A0tbq eZval6 l6yog yr,&rbv 6noiov 6 xanrtal,ropb6 6vr,oX6el, iv6 6 xoprprouvr,opb6 nepuopi(etd'1v &toplxil zrportoBou),ia. fr,d cbv i6ro tr6yo, ot& xoppouvrorlxd xocle-rcoU xappr,d pop& xatopOcivouv orCorap6vov oi xal,),rtdXveg vd ElatrlpoDv dlv tpuXo),oyiaroCr i),e60epou 6nallelpatla, &xogt4 xr <itgxparmoi 0nd),tr4).ol- Dr,atrlpo0v Qv aveupocalxrl coug &ve(apt1ofu.

7rvc,lroymo',6oo neptoo6cepo o.io1cl.veran xavelg 6cr,f1 (<oritou 6yer.xunoto v6qpa, 16oo neprco6repo re(.vetnpbg div Onoprovil xc;;i, alto^g 6 oo n r,bno).U ai.o0 eran6tr, 6 iv 6yetv64pa, r 6 &v ma, av oo retveunpb6 Qv &vunopovrloia. A0rbg eZval6 ),6yogzco6,oi neptntcioer,grcoU0& tlg yapuxrrlp((ape 66 6),o<pdvepo <<yrl.oqto 6 no),u<ioXo).o6 eZvar, 0noprovetr,xbg nr,b iv6 6 &p,pXp6voutr, oXotrog &vunopovei.'O ),6yogyt' abr6,tb tx npciqg 6,$aoqncl.pdEofo,?yxercat otd 6tu,1l& tbv &vOpolzco vor,c50er, ouvnoU 6rl Ddetal 6r1pr,oup1cx& cn (otri, cb ).ey6pevo<<yuotgto pi Xp6vourt eZvau o'uXvdpld e0np6o8exrq &).),ayl rrlry6r4ro.gxai pr,d ebyupr,orll &vo:nao\u' 6v6,ytd. Lxeivov 6 6nolog vor,ti0et5cr eivar Eppa r,ov &note),ei gilu 6lov o q rfig fiS (coiS,tb << Ipo Xp6vou >> Xdo xa04peprvlg rou &npcl\{aq xai pr& 66uvr1pi1 0n6prvr1o1 td 1r,& eZDog (rlg nob Er,tfyer,. rng
@)

T6oov ol QuXiatpot 6oo xai oi pi1ei8rxoi Xpylorpo?coroDv L6c)1 <<navrxbq>>6rav ixvacp€povrar, 6ub npocypocraiwe),6g oi 6laf,q <poperma: zrp6rtov, ocbv 96Bo roil ri 0d pnopoDoev& xuvet xcl'Trorog otbv 6aut6 tou (tbv eoPo rlg <a6to8ui),uo4g>t)xai, Ee6-

ATOMIKH 'TMTIEPIOOPA

:spov, tbv 96Bo r,oit rt 0& prnopoOoay toD x<ivouvoi &),),or, vd 'q69o6 vd toD inr,re0ol)v). Oi Dub a6tig xanrl:orrl:oerg 6aagd_ oouv pera(6 toug, pi tdv i8r,orp6no noU 6 gopos rf1gnr<6yev_ r4g 6r,acp6pel &nb cdv g6po to6 v& ntoet xavel6 ODpax),orc!6. Iid0e pfa &nb a0tig tig neplzcr6oe4 &nanrei p(.arc\etag 6ra_ popetrx| Ttpoerorpdota y r.irclv nr,b xat&).tr4fu1npog6),a(ri .
@.

,)-iouvl0ereg,yr,d oupneprgopd roCr&v0pc6rcou, eZvocr, ciiv Q o,dv w"pTeLd. ov1<pootxil:6oo dipaore oe (<,ll 6iv pnopoDpevd (e_ ropcor0oDpecig ouvri0erd6 pa6 ixplDevi(ovr&.E reg, xavovruq -:g vd L\acpuvtoloDv.pnopoDpep6vo v& &).).<i[oupe v& peca_ t rynpaniooupe pfa ouvriOer,a pia &],\. 'Ercln],dov, cb ({o] yl& :r4ta atn6,napclanpotrpre 6ud BaozxoDg rp6noug, Qt6noug, pe_ :coxn1daLopoD t6v o.uv10el6v. Xtby rcp6to r6no,tb &topro =7.an,,le*inel pia ouvri0er,aulo0et<6vco6Tlv ixwi}e.'fi .*1q: tni *-apaDe[1pr L, 6 &],xoo],r,xb ixnog ao i\et vix &n 6 o yer.n].rip o g an g zad td oivonveupacc68l norcl'. rb nayioapxo (mopo, &vDpagii '.wa(xo-,),rpoxtovei 1l& v& yaoet gdpoS.iv6 6 iv06pparg0p4_ v'o 6 pevo q veado xnvan(\er at oi Ev epp o &0etori1. )tbv 6e6re 0 co r6no,6 &v0palnoqtyxanu\e(net ptu ouvriOela, v& uioOe_ yr,& joeu pia &),tr4noU eivat naperoro(. 6ni napa8etypant,6 xrl._ rrroQ6 &)i..).ru\er.rotyripo pi cnv nrrr;ai\ev ro.iX).a,6 nay6_ tb rd.pxos rb ga14rd pri td roryapcl-i) cd gapTr& rcoir 6Xouvno),_ i.:g 0epp[6eg cpayrlr&noir EXouv p] ],iye6.6 6p06Do[og.EBpaio6 ''tvercrt Eva6 6p066o[og tfuXava],ud6, ivd> 6 (1],<otii6 Xpr,_ t=tavdq y[verat (ll,ocng xoprpouvrotrig.

liatd cf Dr,dpxer fiS i,rpnBrtoS,oinepaoproi eivar,no),utipr0a xcxifi dnocl:urloq &vtloca0oDv oi.E<pqBot a0toUg nrllpa vd Jot o' ;o),r) zcreo't "Ooo peyal,civoupe,oi nerpocopoi txil. il,attrivowat z.'i oi. ebxaqteq v& 6v8c6ooupe a0to6g o.i.,lo.vovro,t. Erot o' Kt ';Odvoupre otd yfrpag,6rou &nop€va. Evagpr6vov nerpaop66: 6

THOMAS

S Z A S Z . .A I P E T I K A

O&vurog.Kl a0t6,Xcoplg nrd obrexu\xc;utvuv ).6yo o6te xai 0dtrr1or1yr,d toO &vtloraOo[rpre. vd

Oi v6or, goBoirvtar ualrgauouv. Oi,11par,6tepor &vOpconor, ouver8ltonoroDv, oulvd 5tav nld eivar no),U deTa,6t r6oov xar,pb tpopoDvtavvd (rioouv. A0cb6 eivat 6 ).6yog noD nol,),oi &n"a0toUg 6iv Od),ouv obte vd (rioouv o6te v& ne0dvouv.
@)

'YndpXouv 'cpeig rpoxot v' &yocno.et xave\q tbv €aut6 tou. Kat& oerpdv a0f,av6pevr1q Evraorlqeivar oi &x6).ou0or, ixyun4 xpbq : tbv €autb &npo xd),u ntr1,&y o;nno u\xexrl').up pdvl 6 g &1drcr1 1r& q coU6&).),ou xcl'i&yotn4npbg tbv iaurb ouyxexa),uppdry,iS tr(oog yr,drbv 6aut6.'H npc6crlpopgil 6vogta\erat<<abro-ewc\tqoq>> pr6pou6 tx roD 0noxelp6vou, ,rabro-neno[0r1or1>> tbv &nb tuXalo rcd.poc'cnpnal <<vo(pxroorolrb6>> rbv tfuXava),uc4. xal &nd 'H De6reprl 6vopcl.,le:uo.t <<&yocxr1>> tb f.;noxeQtevo, &rcb <<&trtpouropb6>> &nd tbv tuXaio napatrlprlcil xai .<ripr,1,r6r4to->> rbv &nb tf uXava),utl1 rpitrl popgi 6vop.a\erat <<x6ptrl..e,\ arep6 .'H xan 'c,nrcr;>> &nd rb |noxeipevo, <<B\orxeia>> rdv cuXalo lrcl'.pd.&zcb rlplrn xal <<pa(oXr,o'prbg>> rbv tfuXava),ucf1. &nb ApTa ii yp{yopa ,fi &ycllx1noU tpdge t xclcveig npbg cdv 6aut6 tootpye:co.toi odyxpouori pi rlv &ytin4, noU 6Xouvnpbg tbv "Ooo Eaur6 coug oi &).),olpi cobg 6ao[ou6 oyeti(erclct. nld 6wovri eivar fi ixyrl.nrlrcpbgtbv iaut6 roug, t6oo ooyv6tepeq xrl,\ LxpqxrmEq eZvaroi ouyxpo6oergpreta(6 rou6.

fr&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&vd pia Lnt\foet,ci6 irpoo@NLyc6vpu,Eva6 &v0pco{eXopr,cicil

noq np6,xer, puf0elvd )der pr,xp&,rbprrr,ouXvd xai pi SnrEdvd 'Ooot Elv xatagdpvouv v& ptiOouv vd cb xavoov Nto rp6no. o.{116, no).),dggopig otlv &n61voo{ toug,664yo6vtat otb vd noDv Evcrpeld),o ..6xlt prr&xai xalt\' xo(TyiTopro;l,orci.v:uan 16-

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

v& 6r,c6Xver, nl{[q tou' 3v6 tb v& ErlproupyeZ clv npoB].l1pata yr,d cbv iDlo tou cbv 8aur6 , elvut f1 &p6o<,16 6n6pev1 Ent).oy{. Tb vd 6iver xaveig v6rlpraor4 (t.l{ tou p} },r,y6tepoxrlLrrlcoapoglx6, ?)e0te).69 Epapattx6,tp6no eTvatxrl.i nrb 66o'xo),o xocinr,b ono(vto.
@)

Lovtlttxa,i (c,li eivat piclpeydtr4 &6ela tpdrca xai,yr.d.v& yepioer f1rp6na abrfi,),iyor tp6nor, 0ndpXouvnor) v& eival ntb'txrl.voir,oLnaLxol &nb rb v& &yavi\eran xai vd tnrcoyyavel xavelg xurtt\oyo.

K O I N O N I K E )) X E > E I >

Aval8era: tb 6vopa nou Eivouvoi i(ouomortg otoirg n60oug xai cig Er,axqp6{e16 i{ouor,a(op6vcov. t6v 'o Aud oi xupr,6tepe6 povopravfeg o611povou&vOpcbnou: roCr lrovo_ Oeioprbg povolapfa. xai
@

T[ eivar Evugg(]rog; fr,d pepr,xo6q,Evago6vtpogog tbv 6noio p] pnopei xaveig v& 0noDu0ei prr,d6ua6rxi1 tlr6yoo4 (..fories a deux>>)' &},),oug, yr,' xanorcgnor) p&g xptvetpi oupnti0era &},trd xai &6dxaov1 or6olr1p6:'rrryu.

'H

(trit 6)v eZval Ev., xu\a[rr.**o xep&.ow. eiv, EvagxdDog 1tE (dXerl,og&nb eipov eieg rfig aDy4q.
@)

},v Evag&v0pconogoi>ntpetrdv iauc6 rou, o[ &],].or,0& toCrna_ paoyo,v &pxeroUg),61ougriote vd ooveyioer.vd aOtoor,xtipewn.
@)

Milv vr,ciOete olt*o ytix x&norcv zcoU pnopei vu od.qp)dQer,, xai nou 0&& xavet, &v toD Eo0ez ebxo,ry('. A0toD tocr eiDougrj rb \ oopn6vta eZvar, rco),urdl,e?,a p6vov oi no),UZo,1upoi, oi pr,d noU i) &xpaiot pa(oXr,origpnopoDvvd inrtpdtfouv otbv 6aur6 rou<.

84

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

"fntpruul

tx\ia ytix cii Oprloxeia eivanf1 &Eua),),alirl,,ri1v btro(a oi nrotoi 6voprd(ouv <<ora0ep6rlro(>>. 6n€cnar4 ixfi.a odlv no),rcr,xi1 eivar, ixoov€neta,div6noia ol6na8ol6vopd(ouv <<7tpof1 oapqoo'clx6tvpa>>.
6

Oi xa),),r,epy1p6vor &v0parnorou(rpoDv. Oi &xa),),r,6pyr1tor 6raxlup<t((ovrat xoc(, iner,6l eivat &vtxayot v& ou(r1c{o,ouv, ouyX6ouv Qv Srcr,Xelprlprato).oyia tbv xaoycl-. pi
@)

Ta (6a oxotrirvouv(6la DragopecxoDei8ougyr,dtd xp€aqroug.
-xai T&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&v0pcirnwa 6vra oxorcbvouv &),),a &v0pc6nrva bvra

&noge6louy vd oxotcbvouv6pr,opdva(r,la- L\ an.luirl.q Ve-crllqopr,x6v6vopaor,6v.
€D

fr& toUg rr'ocvercLoanptocxotq,6 xav6vaq eival: d4poor,eDoce i) ycxveote'yld cor)6 ypo(pe roxpdte g, no),l, an\aotuoreite i) yaveoce' yr,d toUg 0r,ao6regclg ixnay6peooqqc6v vapxcotrx6v,6 xcrv6vo.q eivut: xaraDrdr(te i Xciveore.
@r

'Av

6nr,pr6velg oOevapdotl6 &no<pe4ooo, elooct ioXupoyvcill_rrov. &v 6yt, r6ce 6)v eloat nexercp.€vog uin€g. Eror xt &),),r,6g, yr' xdtr, Ddv norer, xalyd.u' to€va.
@D

Oi peyd),or, vopopaOeig&va6er,xv6ovtal tb vd 0uoui(ouv t ylpi vutig o'td )6vcaypa' oi ozrou8aioa yr,atpoi pi tb vd 0uord(ouv "Epeuva. &o'0evei6 otilv 'H0rxb 6(Daypa: ?iv t>ntp.&red1v i),euOepiaxal Qv Dyeia oo(9,uyl yiveore netpcl.lpan6(rocl.,16oo 8lxaortleLd 6oo xo.i or& otiq xltwtx€,q.

K O I N O N I K E >' X E X E I )

Xrbv napsEoolaxd &pr,epr,xavr,xb xanrcu),lop6, ol &v0pconor, €yoov,xai 0d ouvelioouv v& 6Xouv, xivqtpo -c6>v cig npaleciv tou6 pefvouye,cfo.o&nb tbv yehovarr. Xtdv Qv inr,0upia v& <<pri1v ;rovt6pvo oxav8r,vaBlxdo.oola), rcp6, tyow, xai 0d ouveXfoouv v& EXouv, x[v4tpo ev inr,0upirx vd,<<plvtor)E <bg lenep&.oet6 yeitovag>>.
@

flpoooXf otoUg &v0pc6noug nob ooD ),6ve |&ti.\iyr1yvc6or1 eivar dnrxlvEuvonp&ypra- Lxrbg&v rpoo06oouv,&pt oolq, _ 6t i7 nctv .'trrg 6)'trer'tp4 yvrioxlg eivar,6),60pro. flpoo'na0oDvvi oE x<ivouv zrrdrport6, 6yt oocpdnepo.

IlpoooXli ocdv &v0pono no6,oi.ro*o"r5 roD pa((. ooo,oulfireptcp€perw. o&v v& pilv 6Xer, o6rc xrl:}ipiovarl.otite-dnoXpe6oetq zcpdg6o'6va.EZvar,Bworfiq, xupr,ol,exrr,x& preroc9 i) opr*or 0& oi o&v ve'c.,xeLpLo0ei vix ei,oo.tdvrmeQtevot6v Bnr,0upre6v tou,1rd yd ixavozcori1oet ),apefa tou yr,d cl abrciixavonoi4o4. Ilpooofl orbv &vOpolzco no6, orig oydoergroD pa(i oots, ougncept<ptiperdr iou v& plv E^4eqo6rexa0iyovrao6te o&v ononpbg a0r6v. Eivar, 0eparceucrig, Xpecioerg xupro),extr,xd peta_ i) cpoptx&':0doE perdxerproOei o&v vd eioal &vrmetpevol:6>vx,.0qx6vctovtou,1l& yd ixavorcoti1oet ),ayveia tou e 1r,d a6toe_ rcipqoq.
@

Mrd xai fi xa),Lrdpyew rfiq y\q xai rb prelti).opa c6v rcarDr6v Ddv xatava),c6vouv d),4 t4v ivepyltrxo'cn-c., t6v &v0p'n[vov nltaoparav, pdver <<inln),doy tbv 1p6vog>> 6noio oi &vOp<onor, nptnet vd ppoDv tp6noug yr,&v& tdv ii Xprlorpozcor,oDyvd tdv oxorciyouv. 'H Oploxeia xcl;i6 n6lepog,fireyvrlxai 6 60ropdg
or&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&vapx<,rrtxa., xa0cbg xai zco),l,ig &).),eg &vgpjnr,veg Epaot4_

pt6upeq,prnopoOvlocog v& 0ecop40o0vxand. xanor,ov rp6no cig

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

0eacprxig ncl.pcl.oro.oeug Eva xoryb noU Bapr,dtar, yrd d),).d &1anocet 0darpo. rb

<<'O x6opog 5).og Dlv eivar rcapd pta oxrp\ 0edtpou xai 6),or, &vdpegxai yuvaixeg,&n).66 nai(ouv ord 5p1o>>.'Av ndpoupre ci1 ptetaqop& a0ci1 otd oopapa, Eq),a8i1 0ecopriooupre xol&v d1v vc.rvr,xil 6nap[1 to6 &v0pc5nou Eva 0eatpr,xb5p1o nor) naicig (etar pnpoot& oi Evcl' dxpoan4pro, ),oyrxd 6nax6),ou0 elvrl;t rb o
6tr, oi &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&vOpc,lnor, np€net vd eZvaL i) ndvto otl oxrlvil rb6 0eatdg, i)

ociiv ntrateru rogi1Oonor,oi. Xclv ipc5rr1o4 <<floloi0d eZvarxotvr"o ocil oxqv| xai noroi ocilv n).ateicl->>, Dlaqopetux& rco),rtr,x& rd. oootipmna Efvouv DlagopeclxEgdxawip etg. T& geouEapXrx& ooorfipara roD nape),06wognpoo6<pepav Eva o6votroa0otrlp6To(Tov xcrv6vcov, &vagoprx& p| tb nor,o[0& fltav 6nf oxrlv\q xcl'\ norci tb &xpoac{plo. Oi o6yXpove; xotrrLTo.Lr,orr,xi6 xor,vcov[eg napdXouv tilv rcapd).oyr1Sn6oXeo'ri 6 xo.ltvrl.g,&v eivcl.r. 6t x6opLoqxLtpyanm6q, prnopeiv' &vdBer orrl oxrpfi. Oi,o6ylpoveg xoppoDvr,otxig xorvotvfeg, ioaq xrl.i69 ixvtiDpao4 orb &truto nayx6op.to np6Btrr1pari6 xuravoplg t6v &v0pc5ntov otbv Oeatpr,xdX6po, xtreivouv re).eico6 06atpo. tb
Avci

v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&6noXpec6vou tig napaxo),ou0o[rv vd. &n' tilv V&\eS

n)tcxreicx,6no6 txavav ini ai6lve6 oi napa6ootuxEq xowavieq, xai &vti v& npoona0o[rv v& 'can(coiroiror,rioouv &].],oug ociTv xr if8rl Snepgoprclpdvrioxrlvil no6, Erot, yavet oE 6),xuottx6r4ra, 6nuq ouvdBrlpi tig <<3tre60epeg>> xorv<,lv(,eg,o't xoppouvrorig &vcxyxcr(oov coi.r6 navreq vix Lyxura),eitfouv td xtl1pr,oyr& vd n&ve ord.X@pdqLd" o'cd bpyooruota' ?,xei0d proX0/ioouv xai yr,d p.t&.qxowaviug tf 8rlpr,oupyia 6nou xrlrv€vo.g 0& ltpetr[ oq6iv paivouv 06atpa xai 0eatpr,xd.Epya xut,xurd. ouvdrcerav, 0& 6dv 0n<ip1er, np6ptrrlpra66 npbg tb nor6q eivar oti2 oxqvil xrl'\ not6q ociiv nl,acefa toD 0edtpou.

KOINONIKE> 'XE'EI'

87

Xtig otevig xai Elarr2podpeveg &v0pc6nrve oy6.oeq,f1 g tl.ruXo).o_ yrxi2 a0tovop[a xai f1 <pootxil Lyy6t4rooi oy€or1 Bpioxovrut dwrctp6tpaq &vo'\oyt1pe.ca\orou6. 'Exeivor no6, &nb dvot1oia ;oug, 0dl,ouvvd a0(rloouv xclc\ Eub -napaDelypato q yapw, rd. orb yapo ii ocrt <ptl.,a- dlv 0d 6xouv t(norn^ &nb td 6u6. 'Ev6 exeivotno6, o'ogd zcoroDvreg, ixuvonotoDytat eire pri rb Evo. dhe pri cd &),),oii, prepr,xig gopts,pi ),iyo &nd td xa0€va_6rc'g ou_ vi9t(av oi navrpep€vot xui 6n.'g tefvouv vd ezvoc' dtp.^ oi g(.ior- prnopeZ 61ouv i) tb Eva i) tb &).).o i) xappud rpopd ).lyo vd anb rb xu9€vcl-.
,oD

Td xa)d xai oi L\onrlpedloerg nor) Evag &v0po7ro6pnopel v& npoorpdper, Evav&).),ov o' DlapopcpcSvouv xowavtxtgtou o1drig oer,g. Anb tlg npoocpopiga0t66, ol nr,boripavtlxi g eTvatriqpo_ 'rt[6a, f2tpugep6t4 rcl.,:',ix ypipanrl,, rd cprl,y 6, to oi[ xai f1xa],_ qr ir,teXvr,xili) Er,avorltrxiie0Xapio-cnon.Kanorcq &nb a6tig rig ;cpo ocpopi6t rc 4tiovrat nep roo 6repo &nd &),1e6xai, pepmig go _ p€q,xanoteg Lxt4tCowcl.t &,pvrptxa,olpqava pri clv i20rzi1 np6_ taorl 6u Evag frv0pco no; np€ret vix t xrt";"&:urll yt, aOtb mo6, 6yt aitb6 ii a6cn,6Xervd xpoo<p€pet, &Il& yld tdv <<6aut6 tou>>ii tdv <<6aur6 116>>. Xtig povt6pve6xorv<,lvieg,napaDeiypatog Xtl_ prv, aOtoi noU npop40e6ouv ypipo'ra 6xcr,pr6watneprco6repo cnd a0toU6 noU rcpoplOe6ouvgayrpb xai a6toi nob npopr4_ 0e6ouv tpuxayorlia t xrtltc,svrat &x6pa neprc o6repo.'Err,zc),6ov, o[ yuvaixeg zcoir Lx.'4,fav'co.r clv 6popcpui toug 0ealpoOvrar yr,d ..oe(oual,rxd. dvrmetpevo(>>, oi &vEpegnor) ixtr,p6vr,cr yl& iv6 <<iyxegatruxd. Qv 6[unvdDa rou6 6iv OealpoCrvrat dvrme4],eyo(>>. An' a0ti2 rilv &"no,Q{, eZvar }.dOog vd. ixrtgt&.ue pld Marilyn Monroe pr6vo tb o6pa o16,&1,).d eivar ).ti0o6vd ix'p&pe yl& 6iv Svav Albert Einstein pr6vo1r& td prua),6tou. AOe i7 irvrugantx6rtpu &noxa\6nret 6yt p6vo tdv pa0ld &vtr,oefoua),r,xd xai 0neg-eyxepa).r,zb yrl,prlct<rfiprx fi}txr1g0noDoprig tdrv xorvar_ r,116

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

vtx6v paqoytoeav, &).),&Lniorlgtlv inipovnilpvncrt pra6 6evd 6u txrtgt&gre ror)g &vOpcinouq6ytyt' aOcd noU <<eivdr>>, X0oDpte &).).dyl'a0cb noU p&g <<npoog6pouv>>.
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Eivar c4g p66ag t6pa vd 6nootrTpi(oupe 6rt,6rav 6vag &v0pc.rno6 <<Xpyiorprozcotei>> tdv &).),o,f1 Ba06tep4 &v0ponr,&xai c6v E6o napapwro.(eto'r Enopdvog,oi pnd i1Otxdooocil oy€oq,Evag &v0pconogEiv 0d Enpene vd <<Xp1o'r,ponotei>> &),l,ov. A0d1 tbv eivar prr,d i6ea),r,otr,xi1 atnornantl. Oi &vOponot z;urlrvrrr Xplort orcoroCrv Svagrbv &),l,ov.Oi &v0pcSnLveg 6 oy€oeq eivar xa),ig i) xux€q, {Orx}g i) &vri0rxe6, &va},61<.'r6,6Xr rd &v oi &vOp<onor, p} otor,oDv6 Evagtbv &),l,ov,&tr),d&vatr61tog tb n6g cb pi Xplort xrivouv.
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'Yadpler,

&cd),eralt40eopr1cr,xol,o1[a, odlv tfuXracpr,xilxai cig xotvc,rvrxig inr,otipeg,oyetxd. pri d 6&v ol nupuBocrcg toD v6pou 0d tnpene vd cprorpoDvtali) vd Oepazce6ovrar &v,6q).aErl, pnopei vd pilv eival 0eparceutr,xii f1 Oepaneicl' crpc,rp[a xai uI popr2txri. A0tb eZvar, Eva &xop4 Qeu6onp69trrlpra, 6noio tb L\cxgavi\etar idv 6pfooupre <<0epaneicl->> Qv <<rlpop[a>> cl xclci pi 6Xr, Baoryr'&note),6opmaroog,&trtr& &vd),o1api tb &v ot4pi(ovtar orb txo6or,oi) cb &xo6orc t6v napapatdrv.'Qg 0epaxeieq, ).or:r6v, 0d 0ec,lpo6oapetig napeppaoetg txeiveg, 116 6noie6 rb 0rcoxeipevo -6 tnovopa(6pevo6 <<&o0evrig>>rig &va(rpei \ bnoraooe-cd.L a0tig i).e60epa 6 i6rog, pi &vc<l).o' ),a1pa, xa0d6 3ln[(er,,cilv &na],],ayl &nb pr,&doltvetu. 6v6 , trprc,rp[e6 OeopoDpre napeppaoer.q 6rcoiegrb Drcoxeipevo tig tig inorvopra(6pevo<<gutraxropdvog>>- ti6 &va\rpei xal 0no6iv raooetat o' a0tlg prd Bia p) &vtd),),a1pa, xa0r)g 6lmi(er,Qv q &rca),l,ayf &nb nepar,cdpco tuprclpfa. Alv eivat nepteplo 5rr, rb &not€Treogto' xct.lenap|.pBuorlg pnopeZv& Oeolpeltarcilrpd),rpo i) p).aBepbxai &nb cb i6lo cb Dnoxeipevoxal &nb &).),ou6.&IId

K O I N O N I K E >' X E ' E I >

o6te tb dnorl6\eogtrl-, obre oi yv6peg 1u' aOtb np€net vd p&g ixnonpoouvato).i(ouv oyeuxd. pa' T4 p6o1 r6v leyov6tory rcoU npo11yfi91xocv.
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T& npoBlri1clc,cd ri1 nap€xx\to4g imr,DdXovtar p6vov E6o rp6noug Drcu0eanon1: nepropropb1)&vexrr,x6r4ru. M'&),).a l,6yra, aOtoi oi 6noior,6pf(ouv cilv <<napdxx)*ol>>,xai BvoXl,o}vro;t dn, abtfi,0d npdner,i) v& i(avayxdoouv robg aapexxtrfvovteg v& ouppopgo0oirv ii vd toUg oxothooov. i) npdner,vd pdOouv vd tor)g &vdXovtocr v& (oDv pcl;(i,rcoq.Aiv 0ntip1er, xsi &),\ &nr,),oy{.

TIOAITIKH

'H

iplaoia i).dy1er, tlv 6\'

r] notrr,tlxri,toUg &vOpclnoug.
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)tb x),aor,xb yr,d napapr60r, td 0n6poXapo61a to6 abroxparopa, Eva nar,6i &vaxaltfnret 6n 6 abroxpanopag eivar,yuprv66. A0cb tdv xa0rord. Evav yupvb o.tnoxpanopa. A).).d, yr,d cbv o611povo &v0pcorco, x6pr,oorlpeio aOtlg tlg iotopfag 0d tb tnpene vd eivar 6Xr, 6tt 6 a0coxpuropaq eivar 1upr.v66, tb &).).& cb 6tr, eivar tf.re6t4g.

frd vd 3).61Xerg &v0p<inou6 -v& coUg i[ouow\er"g Er1],aDl1eivat &.ncxprl.ftrpo 66parc5oer,6 vd tilv nenoi1qoq 6rl oi xueivar,3nr,Btr1tr,xoi o€Bovtar tbv Eao:u6 xu\ toug xai Bepv6we6 6tt oi xupepvc6pevor eZvar, &.afigtrltwot Elv o€Bov-cattbv xai 6au"O 16 toog. npcotapXmbqor6yoq xa9e no)*rot\q iDeo),oyfag Dn6Ba0p xo.9eoootilp.urog 6pydvooq6 &v0p<ir o ecxv-crroLcxxb Trcdv- eivar v& Lxqpa\et p! oagfiveta 6t o(OTq Dr<lxproqxai fl 6r,afpeori eivar &tr40rvl xai Efxarrl. Oi iepeig npo6Ba).),av <irg &tr1Orvb 5tr oi xupepv6weg eivau0eixoi xai oi xupepvclpevor, tb Dr,aBotrr,xo[' no],r,tr,xoi,6u oi xuBepv6vtegeival lxavoi xai oi oi xuBepvclpevotdvixavot' xu\ oi lratpol xal oi QuXiatpor,6tr oi iDr,or, eivar 61r,eigxcl.\ Ly€gpovegiv6 oi, 6fouor,u\6p.evot&n' "EcoL, e;bro6q,nel..o.neg rou6 eZvar, &ppototor xa\. xapaqpove6. gpovtf8a >> << npo og6povro(6<< xai xa0o8nT non>> Dg 6{aXpetco oco pt6vou 6{apt4 pr6vou6, g, g &ppdrorou 1)Er,acapalpr6vou&5elcpoD6 g xai &6e),9€qrooq,xd0e pr,&&x'cltbr)gtig 6pd8eg(yett4 6uvar6v'pa vd ifouold(er,, yld peyti),egnepr,66oug, toUq ouvav0pcS'Enop6vco6,od. roDg ryl6. xale nol,lcxb o6orr4tu,f nr,b0novo-

TIOAITIKH

pteurrxili,D6a eivat i1&\tonpeneta xo.if1ntb 0novopeutmil xprl-f1 eZvar 6nf8er(q a0tooepaopoD. -Eri
ED

..'H iDroxtqofa eivat xtrerf rd>>, eine 6 Proudhon. A0tb eival npoqdavtg&voqor.a.IIap& rclrltru,fl 6pyavorp6v43[ouo[a eZvalx],etoD xl..e<ryv1 iva),Ldooetar pd cilv tauc66nou i1:'rl.or6:'r:6a tl.rrd "Otav ol oi xuBepvoDo'av ptovdpXeg, Ba=1:'o'rots xuBepvdrwog. 6x),eBavtbv ),oc6'6tav xuBepvoDoavoi or).ei6xai oi eOyeveig tbv iepeiq,oi naneq xori oi naoropeg 6x),eBocv ),46. Kai tc6pa, i.anpuxlg a60evt[eg,oi 6peuol ;oU DrorxoCrv inr,otlpovr,xig xcl'\ vltig xai ol yratpo) tr1ote6ouvtbv x6opo.
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'Qq gto.\a, oi &v0ponot e6xotra D6Xovtarv& eival xal vd OecDpoCrwarioot oril <pr6yetu,&II& Eiv 66Xovtat v& eivat xai v& "F'rot, 6o0 neprco6repo Toot xal otbv ntroOto. O0eopoDwat etq, n g p r, &ta uf16vvor,atf1qLoornr aq or\q &v0pc6 r,ve oy€.o xo'\ urc epr &)')'<,tvr€rotav ooo nrb no),b 7ro(pctTxovt\etxo"\ 0nepr,oX6er, f1 lnol,gfi i).euOepia, 0neu0uv6t4ta xoclf16txa rcotv1, 16u\tCov, '|vrovrleivar, yld f1 nteonrob &.oxeirar, cilv uio0dtyloylltooo rcrb rtxolt xai xo ppouvtottxo6 t6zcou. irrrx6v ouotrl pdtcovooouatrto noU 6 Ludwig von Mises &noxo-TD6 Bpioxetar,i Baorl rlrbroO . 7,=o << e dv:'uxanrrco'lttottxiivootp on[a>>
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't& 60vr1, DtolxoDvp6ixeivot zcoU 6ntoqxcl.i or\q oi.xoy€vete6, 'ro pri tb x6pog dno:';.ryyotvouv, Kai iner8il ),e[nel f1 D6vaprr1. p6vo pri tii D6vaprl 0& &notdXouv iner,Dil izeivot noU 8totxoCrv ;or)g ).einertb xDpog.A0tb oupBaiverimer8l aOtoi noU 6no:rtooovro;t,dfte d>qno),fteg eite cig nat8rd, eivat xan'i[oXi1v gopoDvtat izavoi otb vd 8taxpivouv aOtb moUoi Dr,otxo6weg Xuveu6rpozcoto0v, 6r1)'oc6/1, za\ npoona0oDvvd tb &noq6youv. vd zcoD o=,"o'r.6rouxoDvteg, 06).ouv paoro0oDv&nox),erctxd. orb

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

xDpo6,fieprgpovoCrv iolU odv o6ppo),otupavvfag. ,,Erot, oi" tilv i:nt'yoot aOroi ldvouv rilv Ltnigttlcfircognpdg td xDpog. Mi tdv i6ro tp6no o'uvel64cozcoro6v oi D'or,xoDvteg, 6tr, noU Od).ouv v& Baoro0ofrv&nox\erctr xd oQv i.oy6,nepxppovoDv xDpo6odv cb 'Enopdval6, o6prBo).o &Euvaprlag. a0toi o't }noran*xoi Xdvouv rip Lrcipqo{ toug yr,&Qv io16. 'ED6 Bpioxeru i7 LEnynonyr,&tb tffiq napaDo(o: nCoqyi.veraL oi &v0pc,lnolotig i).e60epeg xowav(eg vd odBovtar,d1v ioXUneproo6repo &n'6rr.tb xDpog. ywnio't&v0ptlnor o.clg 6),oxtrr1p<,rtr,xig xotvtlvieg vd o6Bovtar rb xDpog neptoo6teoo &n' 6gr,cilv ioy6' xo.\yto.r'.,xai otl6 Du6,ol &vOponol vd &no6i6ouv ioxu o'aotoug nou xp4orporcoroDv xDpogxai xDpogo'a6cor)6 td noD Xp4or,porcoloDv ; ioyo
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'Tntfple

r,,),o tn6v, pn&&vclo,tp en o6eon&v apeoa ord ouprg6pov o ra toD xpo.roogxai oQv npoorcaletaroo v& npootate6er tou6 &v0pcinoug, &xd tor)6 &),),oug xai &nb coUg6auco6grou6: 6oo neptoo6tepo Trpooro(re6ouv nol,rcxoi toug &vOpcilnoug oi &nb tb vd B)dnrouv robg €auro6g toug, t6oo neprco6repo ixnottyxtivouv vd ror)g npoorure6oouv &nd cb vd p\atwovran &n'toug &a),),oug. &nor6),eop.a Td elvat Evcx o6ou11ra 6raxup6pvqo4g moU npoona0ei, gti &xopa peya),6tepo fi},o, vd npootare6oer,toUg &v0pclnouSdn'cb v& 68qyoDvtd aOtoxfvrlto 1opl6 (6veg, vd &veBaivouvoi prrixavlgxcopigxpo.vog,vdrp6ve xai vd zclvouv obo(.eq nor) nepr,dXouv Bl,aBep&y),uxavtrx&.,riv6 coii6 &.<pipet ce),e[<,rg &npoorareurou€ dn€vr'.v:u' 6o],oq6vou6 xal xdxood noto6q, p r,aoci6 xcl.\lqolr,q.
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2b x.,9e ino.vo.oro.o4 pnopocrpre 8laxplvoupe rd &x6),ou0a vd ocdE r,a otig oy€.o preca(r) xtrcr;.rrLeoao xai xanante\og.dvou : er,6 D 'O xarante(6prevogvlc60er, (.t1Mayr,& rbv xarunrcofixa\ 0€_ Lel vd rbv ix8rc6[er, &nb tilv i{ouoia.

TIOAITIKH

6 xotanueorilg ?ipoocrpp p p.eq 6(erat otiq <<v6 r, &no.rcfioetg>> rot xananre(opdvou, 6 te),eutal-o6vrciOerneptgp6vqorl yrd ti2 oow6vta xai ti1 ouvepyaola toO &vtr,rcd],ou rou. "Ooo 6 xanunw\6pevog xep8i(er, i.o6upu, xataB&trl,etar, &nb ouvocr,o0ripaca Elxarrlgd"yavaxr4olg yr& tig iotopr,xtg &Dlx[eg noD toD 6Xouvinr,ptr4Oei &zrbtoi-rgxcllaocirLeoatgroo. 'H 0nepoXl toD npcirlv xo,;cdlrleo1dvou 6641ei eire otil ouv01xo),6y1or1xo.i &n6oopor1&nb d1 o6yxpouorl pri tbv npcSrlv xcxxcxnLeo-c\,dke oti2v 6voXr1 &vrlhitpq toO p6).ou roit xrlcrrlcnteo06wog. 'H ox1vil 1r,dEvav v€o xfxlto <<Lnocv aoratxilq &ne).eu06pal olgn eival Etor,pr1.
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t& preyd).a no),rtux& xwiytorro.xai oi iDeo).oyieg, 6mole6 oi 6Xouviprnve6oer, xwrponofipet Va\eq &vOpdlnov,elvat Baxcl'\ orcp€vu 6yt ori'1vtntpepataor1xocnotrov<<&1r10er,r,rv> oci'1v &),)d &pv1or1 6vbg1)no).),6v 0epe),r,tl66v prd noc0drv toD &vOpconou' &pv4or1f1 6no[a xo]taxe6et cor)g &vOpc5zcoug, xavovrag tou6 v& 'O qcrtvovto.t xatr6repor,&x' 6st vopr[(ouv6u elvat. Xpr,ocr,avr,oprbg eivar,loog,f1 p"6vr1L\ocipeori' &),),df1&Euoc,lnrlta ei).r,xpr,vi1g &Qo\oy4cfi tou yr& tilv &v0pornrvl <p6or1 pi oupprpd(erocr, tilv 0rc6oXeorl rc\m\q ootrlplag. r\g 'E66, o| prd ouvontrxil neprlpagfi, EXoupe lapaxrqprrig or txig &pvrioerg xocno tcovorpcvr mCov eo).oy16v xai <<lop 6v >> iD : AvapXrop66: &pveZcar, 6cr cd &vtayovr,ortxix nutyvt}ta &naltoDv 6r,ar,cr1tdg. Karrta).rop6g: &pver,tat 6 &vOpornog (ei pr6vopi td 6t 6iv

Xpi1as:eo-. Koprpouvr,op6g : &pveitar tilv aOtovoprfa, nap6pp4o'4vd tlv <<xuttyetq>> 6aut6 ooo xoti,xan' tn€xraorv, vd,xat6Xelgi6rotbv xtrlo(a. Xuvtrlpltrop6q: &pveitar tilv &v0pc5nlvrl porcil npb6 tilv nlltEn xai cil B\axeta.

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Oepr,vr,opr6g: &pveirar,d1v &vtiguo4 &vcl.peoa oQv OnorlprrlorltGrv &vDp6v xal clv L\upqon dn' clrbrofq. Or).e),eu0epr,op6g : &.pveiratrbv g06vo. E),eu0ep rpa : ?l.pvr1on LEclcg-cr1or1 cl q nutdtx6rrpcl.q. r,6r g xai r1q AvEpr,xbgocoBrvuop6g: &pveicar, tilv &vciqdon &vapeoa ocfv Snotiprlort tdrv luvatx6v xal tilv 3[tlprqorl &n' clctn€q. Map(rop.6g: &pveltar t& &v0pc6nwu6ptu xai ouyato0lipro,rocroD npo),etaplaroo. 'E0vr,xrop6q: peta{U Svbg},aoDxal &pveitar tlg 6pou6'cnaeq t6v yer,r6vc)vroD, &pvr1orl€4q nu0otv6'cnao'.q eZvar, vd &vciltepol &Ll,or, traoi. Eiprlvr,xb xivqp.a (flaorgr,op6g) : &pveirar clv int0etx6r4ru xu\ cb ntl0og yu& xuprapXia. VuXavti),uor1: &.pv4o4tf1g&Q.onp€netaq,tolt pruotrlplou,tfr g tpayor8lag xo.i c16 nic.r4q. (n[ovl otbv E0yevl'A1puo): &pveicar @ecopia Pouood> ro6 xt10eXu8aio orotyeio otdv &v0polno. Xooral,r,op6q: d.gvei,luur, tuXo8lc,rxruopb Qv &vtay<,1tbv xai vtotx6trpo..
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Ilapa),).a1i6 rupawiag : flo).r,rr,xr1: &pXig &na),),otpr,citvouv oi x&0e i),eu0epia' 0nodou),clvouv tbv ),a6. Oi,xovoprrxll oi &pXig &nal,),otpr,<irvouv : x&0e iDroxr1otu' xa0roro6v toDg &v0pcizcoug cptorX6repoug. Oapplaxol,oyr.xil:oi &pXi6 &na),),ocplcirvouv 5),a cd gapvaxa' xu9tototv &vixavougcoDg&v0pcbnoug. 'E:uot4provmfi: oi &pXlS&naL),otpr,c6vouv 6),ou6toU6 6plopto6g'pnep8e6ouv cbv x6opo.
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Oi 6ub x6ptor.3X0poi to6 &r6pou otbv o6lXpovo x6opo e7var, 6 xoppouvropbgxai f1Qulr,atprxll.'O xal€vaq8refdyer Evclcv &peiItxro n6),epro Lvavi,ov a0to6 noU x<iyerEvav&vOpalnoiDr,aire-

NOAITIKH

'H Svavtfovcfrg nepr,ouo[ag. (lunp6oono: 6 xoppouvr,opb6 xal rpr,xil ivavtiov rfrg iEr.oxtloio.qroit puocl,oO co[r ocbpanoq. c]1v rcop6vog,o[ xoppouvto't]g irolvlvconor,o[rv a0t6vop4 Xpnon xai ircr,pu)dooouv pexocit6v 0),r,x6v &vdoecov D Xpripacog xai nor,vi6 1r,&toUg <<tra0p6pnopou6>> toii6 [ro(upo(te6, i8lorg 1r,& {6vo ouv&},},a1pa. Oi tpuXiatpot rEoLvL>ro6v tilv a0t6vop1 Xpnon toD puatroD, t6v oe(oual,r,x6v pepdrvtoO o'rilparog xai tnxprito.ooouv pexai &tr),cov rJruXoe0uotr,x!6 p' rcor,v|g aOtoirg zcoU<<Elaxlvo0v>> f1poiv4. i6r,art6porg

&v0parnog,i8lar,tdpog 6b no),r,ttx66,elvat 66pov OeoD &v0par n6:.rpa. Kutrorct, 6po g, xai i8raftepa no],],oi no c)1v "Etot,, o[ d,vtrzrpo. eZvaroiloupa E6po toD 6r,aB6trou.

&vdtro1ap| tb xuBepvlloer,g inr,tuXlpr,dveqbyt eivar,
Snr,trdyouv ivtipetoug zcolrtrxo66, oi ooot& oi tpqrpog6por,

pi onavi\oov,&).),& &v&tro1a tb n6oo inlcuX6g &),trarote
oi xai tbv xclufvcr. roUg xocxo6g, 6nolor,&notetroDv

piv tbv eixootb aitbvo.,t& &notrutapXr,x& xcl.9eordrcl.i1ruv, xav6va,6r,eg0appdvaxai aOrb Exave rn (ali Btdrotp4.'H

rfiq Apfu,n i;nofi6 po(gelvar,6 &6uig0opog6).ox\htnnq. 'H &n6).utr1l*pt6rqra ix pdpougt6v notrttrx6v

p6vo ob pr,&xowrovicl' xuBepvcipevlt6trer,a firav inr,0up4c)1

'Ev 6).iyor,g,6fit elvcl.t EopoDoxia yr,d r6treuoug v6prou6. i 'O &Dr,<irp0opog rrol,rtr,xoir6eivar,f1 0uoia Trd Tn flpnoxe[a. 0e6tr1tx6q,6no6 f1&ouyxivqt4 otig 0uoie6if,eupevropro[r nptnet p&),),ovvd pop&(er, rapd v& tratpe6etat.

n&pXouv tpfa eiD4 Srcuxptt6v xai no),epiov fiq cl.b'cct,py.x\q

Nooofug\xara;nteoqg.

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Adtoi nolr &vrixouvorb np6to ei6og-map&6erypa 6 Marx. 6 Lenin xocioi xoppoDvrot6g- 0d),ouvvd &gar,p6oouv 66vati1 pr1&nb roDg xatazcueorigxai vd cl DcSoouv o'6),oug roU xatazrueopdvouq. tdft. cilg -prE napa6elypatcr A0tol noU &v{xouv otb 6e6tepo eZ6og rbv Popeonr,6po oQv no),r,tr,xi1 rbv Rush oQv i"apmi1,xa0dg xai pr.\oonuoregxai lr,arpoUg dna8o6g xai coDgprl,e).e60epoDg, rou6- Od),ouv &<parp6oouv 66vapr1&nb rotrg xanocnworiq v& cil xal vd clv ndpouv ol i6ror,. T6),o6,ol toO tpfrou ei8oug -pE napadeiyprata rbv Xcoxpa-cn, rbv Emerson xal toUg o6yXpovoDg oixovopol,6youqrrlg itre60epr16 &yop&6- 0d),ouv rcdpouvci1E6vap4 &nb roUg xavd tcrnteor|g xal vd ti'1 Drioouv oroUg xd'cunLeoqdvoug, &roga, cbg vd xavet 6 xa9€vuqp'c0Tn 631 06Ler,, tyovto.q 6pr<og taor61r,d e0etrfiLoco6v, tbv EtreyXo xai r6v ngale6v rou. Xpovcr,6ntog Ilpogav66 , no.p' 6),o noU no.pu no).),oi &v0pc.lnor, )dva 6tL p6vov a0toi noU pi dq npa\et6 roug &1anoOvtlv 3),eu0epia, xaranaooovtal otilv rpirq 6pd6a tb ivvooDv' oi &),),or&n166 06),ouv vd. &vtxanaorilooov Svav prorltb xocrocxrcotl prt Svav 6qprocpr).! xanocnrcotlfi,Eyovraq xatd vo6v, ytd tbv p6),o 46t6, ouvri0ogrdv Eaut6 roDg.
eD

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21. |ames Bumham, Suicideof the West: An Essayon the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism(New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House,1964).

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22. Charles S. Peirce,How to Make our Ideas Clear, in Philip P. Wiener, ed.,Valuesin aUniverseof Change: SelectedWritings Charles of (1839-1914). o. 113-36 (Garden Citv" N.Y.: Doubledav S. Peirce .{nchor,1958),o. 123.

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inlEd[r,a, &],].&eOpdcog 6r,aDeDoprdvrl, Snrppolfcng 6eovto],oytag xui r\g no\rctxnSqqiaqn<\g &noxo'\tnrercl;t nept:uprllvcr t6v iatpr,x6v p60ov nepi inlxlv8uv6trpo6 1.t6oc.o ouyzexpr,pr,6vov noU Xapaxtlpf(ouv Dr,tirpopeg nept66oug. Xtbv Ddxato Evaro aitivu,6tav 6 &:uolt"txtogtbg 6 a6toxal 6).eyXog ipocvoi Eeor6(ouo'eq dfieq,6 pref(ov i.urpmbq p60og nepl &:ruxrvDuv6r4cog Vpavi7 z;.;ior1 6propdveg, 6rr, i10r,xd voxal gttxu, &rcalopeup6veg Dpaorrlplr.up eg npo xa),oDo av xcl;x<betq o orbv Lyxtcpa),o tdv vo[r: iv 6].i1or,6, xai npoxa],oDoavveuplxoU6 "Erot,fi x),ovropo6g. Lyxparer.a xo.\ 6 a0vavloprb6xataDlxtio9qxcxv,6ner,Eil iacpr,xb tnayye\pa ioXupr(6tav 6t npoxatd l,o0oav tf uXoEr,avoritrxlg BfuiBe6. Xcby eixoorb rl.irbvrl.,\rav6 xo\exttptopb6 xai d paror,opdg ytvovro.t oi 6eorc6(ouoegd\teq,6 prel(arviacprxdg p60o6 nepi inr,xrv8uvdupog elvat 6t oulxexprpr6ve6Dpaotrlpr6Tnce;, rpaupani(oov td yovf6r,axai f0rx& xai vopr,x&&nayopeup6veq, 6nopr6vor6 clv byetu c6v pe),),ovrtxiw yeve6v: iv 6),iyor,6, xai npoxatro6vXpc0po(rooc,lpratrxig r,c6oer "Erot,i1paprloud&),),o q. va xu\ cb LSD xo.ro.dmo.(ov,ccl.L,6ner,6i1iatpr,xb tnayye\pa cb ioyopi(erat 6u npoxal,oDv levecrxlg pfuiBeg.
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xai pld oupTrrolro(ro],oy[a dvcl,]toycl- rig d\rr,gr\q 6noieg x6pi Trread.L xavet zcroteutig \ Ex&.orcte Lnoyfi. vd.

IATPIKH

105

flovcr eivat f1Elagopd prera[Uyr,atp6v xrl;\ rcr1vt&rpc,lv; Anb c]iv rceprTpo(grxt cnv Bnr,otrlpovr,xil nl,eupti, f16r,agop&eivar,6tl oi t yr,atpoi 0epane6ouv &v0pdrnr,ve6 &ppcirotle6,i) td ftppc,lota &v0pc6nrva6vtu,iv6 ol xsrlvtanpot0epane6ouv&pp6otleg (cb<,lv i) &ppooca (dra' &nb clv fi0lxil xai nol,r,tr,xil n),eupri,f16lagop& €yxaran o'rb yeyovbg5rr,6 yr,atpbgeZvar(li 0& Enpezre eivar,) v& &noE6xt4g iwo),6v t6v &v0pcSzcarv 6nr,)d1ouvv& eivar,oi zroU &oOeveig rou, ivdr 6 rcrpianpoq elvat &no8dxtqg 6wo).6v r6v &v0pcinorvnob xurtyouv &ppo ot a (6 a . Kat' &va),oy (av ),or,zc6v, 6rav 6 yuatpbg xa9f,orano.r, Sveplo6pavo toD xpanooq xui &vcl"troya, pri tb n6oo 6),oxtr4potr,xb eivar,Eva xp&rog, a6tbg Ve-ccl.B&),tretal,&nb i10r,xigxal notrr,:'rx\qoxonrd4, oB <<xr4viatpo>>: eZvar, 6q),. &vepyodpevoto6 xpanooq,td 6rcoio <rxrl,rtye>>:uobg noltireq, &xpr,B66 6no6 6 rctyiu:lpog eivar ivepyo6pevo ro6 &\poq otbv 6rcolo &vrixouvt& (6a. fr'oc0r6,6nog rd v& oxorcbvel(G>aeivat pdpog clg guolol,oytxfig l,ertouplfaq rol; tr.:u1vrdtpou, t'cotxaitb v& oxoxbvet &vOpcilnougeTvu pdpo6cngpuor,o),oy,x{g},er,toup1iag patpoD *0na},},ri},oucoCr6},oxtr4 toD pr,ltrxoDxpdtoug.
@)

"H

tpayoD fu riqo6lXpov4g <<6nrotrlpovuxflg>> io:qm\g eivat 6L a0tb noU oi yr,atpoi 6Xouvxep8ioer,oi &norel,eopantx6r4toc,tb 6Xouvyaoet oi o'upn6vr,a.flaLocr,6'cepd.,o[ yr,atpol pnopoOoav vd 0epane6ouv ),i1o xu\ xut' &vclryxqvtnpene rcol,b v& ndplTo'Enopdvco6, poCrv. xu\ 6 &oOevi1g 6 yr,atpb6 ii0e).avrb i6lo xai np&ypo":6 &oOevlgii0etrevd fu1per, iatprxil &prTn xai 6latpbg ii0e).evd t4 Xop4y4oar,. np6p\pa r6refirrl:v 6tr, 61r,atpbgfltav Tb n).o6orog oi oupn6vr,a &1,),& groXdg oL &notel,eopartx6r4ra. Eripepa, oi lr,atpoi prnopo6vv& Oepanetiouvneploo6repo xai 6nopdv<o 3nr,0upro[rv &v axoo<p((ouv g vd ],ry6tepo .'Apa, Ln[ovlg,Tro(rpoi xal &o0eveig06),ouv :*ltprl', ooyva, ivte),6g Duagoperr,xd np&ypura: 6 &oOevlq tntlrpei xcr.\&vaxotqrcq, iv6 6 yratpbg 06).er, 6ra0do'er, pr6vovlepaneiu. Td rcp6Blrlpa t6pa vd

THOMAS

AIPETIKA

eivat 6t 6 yratpdg eZvar n),o6orogoi &noteleop anx6rrpa&I).& gtoXbg oi ouprc6vla. Tb l0rxd 6[Dalpra: 6oo ol yratpol xai o[ ixoleveiq-&II& xai oi vopo06teg,oi 8lpoor,oyptigor xal oi &,n),olouvrl0r,oprdvol &v0ponor- inr,prdvouv o'uyX6ouv vd toi-r66ub BaorxoUgSpoug noU 8lxarcbyouytb iatpr,xb ),elrodpyrlpa, 6r1).aDtdlv 6nap[r1 xcl.i fiq d.o9evetuq tlv npoo8oxta fig lepuneiaq,i1 npooqopu, &xop"a xo.i rfiq n),6ov tnapxotqiarpmlq qpovrdEag, 0& rcapap6ver pi1 lxavonou1rmil, 16oo y,d tbv &oOevi1 yrd tbv 6oo xrlc\ yr,atpb 6q rcpoo6ntlv.
@)

fla),ar,6tepa, 6rav o[ &v0ptlnot ntoreoav 6t rb &v0pc5nr,vo o6pra &viyet orbv Oe6, ouprndpalvav 5tc 6iv 0& '6npene xa06),ou vd tnrcp€nerau otoilg yr,arpoirg inepBaivouv o' atn6. v& )rig p6pegpa6, noU oi &v0pc'lnor, &prploBrlto0v6tr rb &vOpcilzcr,vo odrpa &viyet otbv Oe6,oupnepafvouv6tl Div 0ntipXetr[xora noU v'&na',yope6erut xdvouv oi yr,atpoio'abr6. vd 'O Oprioxer,axbg govcapevtatrlotilg 6iv dv€ye:.atfiepropropoU6otii latpefo( rou npbg tbv @e6,Lnma).o6pevog navfpr& oXUpI 0e6t6a, otd 6pya r\g |noiaq 6 &v0pc,rnog &nayope6etar v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&Bdter Arlproupyrlpr6vog &nb tbv Oeb xai xan' eix6X6pr,.

q vo(rou, 6 &vOpcono eTvat Eva &ne(pog no),6rr,po&plo'co6ppipa, tb 6noio oi tnrcx€nte1TiE Ai0ouoag r6v Aproroupyrlpdrcov tfg Oe6cltag Div np€net vd &y/[ouv xoct,n6oop&],].ov, pevd caB&),ouv. Mi rbvi6ro tp6no,6 govtaprewa).r,oQ6 nr,otb6r\qiaqmfiq 'F.:;,rctfipr1, 6iv &v6Xeto(r Ttepropropobg ocl ).arpeio(rou y,& cilv inr,xa).o6prevog pr& nav[oXup4 'Ianpm"l1, ixavil yrd &te],e[c.lreg petrtrcSoer,g 5),a t& 6ppr,a6vra xcl.ixuplcog, oi otbv Bro).oyrxEg &vOp orno. A1pr pdvo6dn6, xo.\ xan' eix6va tl g' Iacprxfr 6 r,oupyrl q, &vOponog elvat Evu ::ueLpcl'.(Lcl.'cLxb prow6).oorb ipyaoc4puo toD teXvo).6you,66noiog eival o'ti1v0rc4peofaxcl.letruBro),oylxoD orfipova noU Dou).e6et Lxeiyr,dvd Belrr,c6oer, iv tr6ycp provt6).o. rb

IATPIKH

Ilpotpav6g, aOtlg ol 6ub irn6\teq1r,& tbv x6opo 6Xouvperr;:\6 rooqclv i6la oy€oq rcob 6Xouvtb &pvrptxb xai tb Oetrxb pu&ggclco\pde{d.q toD a0toD 06pratog.X} xd0e nep[ntcoo4t!5 i6dag 1& ciiv dfte Evexa tig i,Dda6yr& tb @e6,dke Evexcl. iaqm'ly 6 &v0polnoqxaltorurar, 0[rpa c4g &tra(oveio.qroo xui pdtpou. cfrg 6tr).eu{r16
@)

'H 'Iatprxil npooeyl[(er, tbv &vOpcono 6ncog 6 &Oeogtl @e[a xoci f1 E0Xapr,otiaz6u;u.i,g@eiaMet&\tf.r1 elvat,yt' a0t6v, tl.rc,lpl f1 treutouplfa toCr q xpaoi €rot xrll\ 6 &vOp<ono eivat i 6opi xai ocbpatog. &vOpdrnuvou 'H VuXr,atprxil (VuXavd).uor1)npooeyyi\er tbv &vOporco 6ntog 6 nr,otdg Ka0o),r,xbgnpooeyyi\er d2 @eia E0Xapr,o't[a: 6nog 6'Aptog eivat,cb o6pa xocicb alpa tolr XplotoD, Etot xo.i ipnelptu r\q eivat tb v61pa xal fi Dnoxetptevrxil 6 &avOpalnoq l6rag cou tlg (ovtS. 'Iatprxil 'H 6nalg npooey{(es tbv &vOpcono YuXooopatr,xil 'Exxtr4oieS"iS Metapp60pto'rl5 npooeyyl(ouv tilv 6ota: ol cd 6n<ogfi6orurl- eivo(ttocutoXp6vcoq tfopi xai tb xpaoi, &)'I& elvau toD XptotoCr,Eror.6 &vOpconog xai tb o6pa xai tb aipa xai taut6Xpovo(6Il xai nveOpa,&vttxe(.pevo 6noxetpevo. 'Ev 6),f1olg,t& Xptottavtxd D6ypata tlg petouofcool6 xai dg 6poouot6uryaq, xa0r)6 xai f1 ?ipvncrtrou6, d'vocncl.pocyovrcll D6ypata t!5 VuXlancrvopot6tuna xai otd, <<irctot4povlxd>> p r, r p m\q, t! g VuXoo a p ar n<fiq'I octpxl g xo'\ tfiq' I a-c m\q .
@)

Kolnore odlv Apepmil,6rav f1 Oprioxeiaptagfrtav 6 Xplotlavly o p6q, v4ore6ape xc;;\ rcpr ulu1e . T<irpa,no U 0 ploxeicl-p a g eiva r xdvoupe 6[ar,caxoci6py,ti(oupte 6r,&t!6 notrupoc.y11icl,q. fi'Irrpmfl "Etor, &vti 1r& ti1 ),alpapyia xurudmu\etar, I nuyrtoupxia,il tb rcpooeuXl 6noxrl.0roranc;* &nb ciiv tl.ruXo0epaneta, xopnooxoivt &nb tiq &pqetuptveg, r& povaor{puu ixxb coUg Xcilpoug

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Dylervfrg 6r,api<,lorig, 6 xtripog&nd ror)gxl,r,vr,xoir6 cb 1ratpo6q, Bacxavd &nb rbv Opyavr,opb Tpocpipr,tv @apprdxov 6 xai xai
roq,6noxoc0[oturw &nb clv 'Iacprxil 'Eruorfipr1,yr,d clv ltrotu tb vd eioar,iolvdg olpaiver.6u eloat Dyrltg.
@)
@e6g,yr&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&rbv 6noio cb vd eioal iolvbqcfgtanve 6u eIos,t 6vdpe-

Meprxoi zc lote6ouv 6t Ev &v0ponog np€ret vd 6xea6 rxaf'pa ag vd. oxotcioel tbv 6aur6 cou. aOtb o1putvet dtr f1 np60eol, t t 0norr,06pevr1 np60eoq, v& a0toxroviper. xavei6 6iv 0& Expene vd izcro6petQv tr,prc,rpicl.,dr'r;e tlv norvr,xilnl,eup& dke &xb &md cfv n).eup&c{6 vopo0eotrlcq:rlepi Dpfag. QuXrxrig A),],ol zcr,ote6ouv €vcl.q 6t &v0p<,lnog Ercpene 6Xer 0d v& 6rxcx[apao'ci1v eOOavao(a.a6tborlpaivet 6u,xario &nd oulxexptp|veq ouvOflxeg,6va6 yr,atpd60& tnpene v& pnopei vd oxothoet Svocv &vOpono xcopi6 ipnoDi(erat dnb cilv zco'vrxilvovd pro0eola. 'Av xai bnooulpi(c,r tb Elxa[alpraoev cl:broxtovirl,,&].],d 6Xr xai rb 6r,xa[copa oclv e60avaotu,po6 qaivetut 6u 6:ruupyer. xrl.zcolo8uxa[orpa,0neprivto a0r6v r6v 66o xai rcr,d Oepre],raxd,6ri).aDf cb 6r,xafc,rpra ocilv aOto1eprlcne(.a, i6i<,lg&nd &v0p<6noug nob Dnogdpouv&nb 0avaqg6p eq\ &virl:ueq ixo}€veteg.,Ev 6).[5tr 6vdg &o0evo[rg, TILS,rcLo'ce6co tb Dr,xaforpra Eror,po0tlvatou &nb xapx(vo, vd, napet Laetrile i) 6nor,o8{note &}.},o <<xopTtoyuaw(rtxo rpo.ppo.xo>> eivar nrd oror,letdr8e6&nb td 8r,xaicopri "Opc,r6, rou orilv o.broxrov(,o( Tnv eb}c;tvo.oio-. yl& npogaveig I ),6youg, a0rb eivar,Erxocic,lpa 6noio o'tyr.anpoi,xairb iatpr,xd rd t nayy e),pa,3v y6veI &pvo[rvcar, paocal ocor)6&o0eveig. &.nepr.g g
@)

flo),U ouXvd oclg pdpegprag, &vOpc,lnor, oi n4yaivouv oror)g ylatpo6g -iDr,att6pc*lg ocoirg na0o),6youg,oixolever,axoUg ylatpo6g, veupo),6youg tfuXr,&tpou6-yrd Eyavxai p6vo oxon6: xai vd ).dBouvpr,douwayl yr,&Eva <p6.ppaxo 6noio 6EvpzropoDv td

IATPIKH

"Evag polvd &yoprioouvpt6vor, roug. &o0evi1g a0toD toO e16oug d(er, pri tb prxpb nar,6i rcob 06l,er, Eva pnrcx6ro &).).&6iv pnopei vd gtaoet tb xouci pi td Wwx6raz rb xouti eivar,tb gocppaxeio, tb Wrcx6ro eivaLtb <<i),e1X6prevo <prippaxo xocl6 ..To>> -nob Xopllei rd. <<pnrcx6rcl'>>vrb6>> aival 6 1r,atp6g.
@)

Alv 6pf(oupe tb t[ o4patvet 3n6vduor1 &vd],oya pi tb &v 0& By&pd xa),b6 i) tret i) 6Xr l,egtd 6 inevdutfiq. Av:.'a0toir, pr,),&pe petr),ovtr,xlgii &vaEpopr,r,xi6 xaxiq 6nev66o'er,6, Lwppa\owaq trot 'E:ropdvcog, Lxr4tiper.g. elvat &v6rpo v& npoonaOo0pe vd 6piooupe r(. eivan" lepaneia o6pgova pi rb i&v 0& porlOrioel1)6Xr tbv &o0ed1vd&vappcSoer cliv &ppcSoaro(rou' &nb &vr'a0to6,0& '6npene vd pt),&pe yr& xaldg xcl,\xa;xd,q 0epaneieq, <ig petr).ovttxig i) &va8poprm|gLrcupfioag.
@

"Evag

&v0pono6 noU ioXupt\eruu6t eivat &ppooco6, iv6 eival xa,\&.,xcl;\\4td. iatpr,xil tppovtf6a )dyerar, veupororx66(runlx& 6noX6vEpr,og)'6v6 Evag &v0pcorcog nor) eival &ppc,lotog xai ioyupi(eran 6u eTvatxaLd xal &noppfn'rer, t]1v iatpr,xil gpovtl8a (tunr,x& oXr,(ogpevrig). l,61etar,6t elvrlct tfuXaror,x6g A0tlg oi t xr r.gtfio eiva r, Ba 06 rancl-dn o xal,unc r, g tdrv npo oo zcx 6rv er.q x) s oupgep6vt<ovt6v 1r,atp6v: oi &vOpalrcor zroU(4to0v pfa pt &nrrpcrrrrpp4 iatpr,xil gpovd6a eZvar, 3trarpp66&no6o x4tuor€ot, 6v6 ixelvor noU &noxpo6ouv Qv &naparnlrqi.clrptxil <ppovti8a &no6oxrpri\ovro.t ocbou1p6:'rlla. XQv iatprxil Deovtotroyia, rb pela),6tepo 61xtr1pa noU pnopei v& 8rampalet Evag &o0evi16 noU eivar v& &rcoppftfeltbv yuatp6' xai tb pela),6cepo 61xtr1pra pnopei v& Er,anpdfer,6 yr,atpb6 eival vd &noxa],6tf et 6t 6 &o0evfg 6iv Xpeui(rcan,xui 6'cttyet xai cb 8r,xaforpoc &pvr1v& gpovt[Ea. Oei,cilv iatpr,xil

110

THOMAS

SZASZ" AIPETIKA

'O odlXpov o <<evlo'c{polv y'octpb6 &nov'rd"tilv iatpr'xi1 &ppo "' S, pi tou 1e)'ouono[1o4: 6rapx<'rg Er6tlta pi tip4pa tiiv i10t'xi1 ot& oopap& tlv &pp6(fl),o, inr'pdveuv& not[pver' oc0f,av6pevo xut' ?1<<rluXuxil>') &vrtoroiyaq' 'Ev rolt o:cur^ &oOevoof (otpo.'"i1 oca oopape 1bv &o0evl <ig&v0polno' &notu'1'xdvrrro "ip"u cbv tigpaloto oi nepintc'lo4 xai o 6),f.pouq, lro.pog i'"o"p6"'r' yuatpoO'toO rjro&vv& eivar'iDr'oxt4olatoO petd, tbv 0epane6e't, toir xptitoug' io.prxoD Lnuyye\p'anog ?1
@)

"Otav ol

pt tbv Lyxequ\o ivbg &vOprinou Xer,pouploiSyXer'pi(ouv veupoaOtb no U xdvo uv << d)'tu' &no xa)'o Crv &o0€vewto D Eyxecp €vbg&v0p<6nou tbv O"ou XetpoDpToDv ilxdqal'o Xer,poupyr,xrit' rf << uxoxetpoupTt llxecpatrrxi'1&'o}ttvetu'tb &noxatroDv *rbtt cobg veupoXerpouplo6g: Eivar, ptla xatri16ueu06t4orlT-ro( xl1>>. &ve\olrxrpa pb tb &v 6 &o0ev{g toir6 inrtper.rr, u&-JlXeupi(ouv' toD iyxeq&)'ou' xai 3ner6l td rortg'€yetii5bv 6;';i;io'gdu"'o &o0evetec'npoop[&rogtu,td, 6noia 6;u AXo'u plv 31xe<patrtxbg otr oeLS' 6nepp<i 1t& tdcotou eiDougXepoupTtxi6 \ovruu,6Lror5, 3f Dr'xauozcpafiav

npbg &vixuva eivaL 6cL xv&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&x1prlo'oovro(t

a0tb Lnrcp€net otoDq rtrcirrqttg ..QuXa o0tvetuq>>'tblelovbg &oXeta pi tb &v 6 <<Dfl0ev>> v& veupoxetgoup','oig SyXlpi(ouv' &rcoppfnterd1v 3.yXeipro4' aoOrrllg 61xp[vet?1
@

ci'1 'E&v &natr\u\euqiiva &topo &nb cilv 0rcoXp6oo4v& n}qpc5oer' xai cb br'xaftlpa vd xaOop[oel 0epanefa tou,.oD &noorepeiq oxe8laocis Oi xotrLexcr'pt'otiq xai tb ri" ortvtol&cl 0epaneia' &Q]q-t,lvtag tbv napotpuc5E4xav6va *1g frep'f'r'ucrg", d6 <<iatpt ltztotd Eratr61er' tpocyo66u>>' rrot, ,,iapAvlr' td' pr'o)'r'& 6Tt <<a0cbg &trtr&0& to6 iatptxoD i6ea)'uopoD pei v& o*6puou,'"oig &6pa8eg 0epfoouvtoug&vepootp6Br}.ou6r\girl'qwfi6xtrivco6fcrq.

IATPIKH

L'I.L

"Orav

vieq, ux oi xo rv<,rv iq o yt o e4 Buo t(ovran oi oupr,gco oi &v0p alrcoU3ntno].]'& &nb t& r'poc\Vd'cd. nor [rfiopoDvv& &not.,:ufiooov "Otav pE cd OupoCrv &w<itr),0(T[,ro( Xpriprata. Baoi\ovrur oi Duatriya -1) iool6 xai rcxy69 oi &v0pclnot p.nopoDvvd. &notrct'1oouv nob 6nr0upoDv pi &vcd)'),apa td xcrv6vo^-&nb t& rpcl'yp"anrl. Xpr]pata' 0d npoonaOrioouv inop6vog vd t& &noxtl1oouv pE tp6noug. T& <pdppaxa xui f1 p6prprva &},).oug 1rd cliv 61e[4, oi pnopoDoav v& &noxtrl0oDv ocilv yevrxig Tpo(ppd6, natrar6tepa aq npiv, Ev b 0epr1 pti . IIapaD e[1panoq yapuv,Exan Xp6vr,oc &1o 6),e6 tb v& &vOptrnogprnopoOcie &yoptioet g0qvd 6oo 6nuo iiOe),e, -iryav d.ogu\eg. Xriprepa,Eva6 &v0pcozlog &1vb xai 6noio r6re pr,d 0avaq<p6pa 6nLo,p6vo €&v 6Xeu prnopelv& ndper,v6prrpta &ppdroca. Mi &tr).atr6pa,6Xoupe pexai tpopaxtrxd 66uv1pi1 tdrv ircr&pp& otb paol],euo 6tre60epri ra<ptpetrb 6nto &nb ci'1v t rct v Bpape6oeco : xcl;no &v0pcono rcalpvouv 6],upnr,axd pet&],).r,a' &),),orzrafpvouvLv€oeg popgivlg. Oi vrx4t]g aaipvouv TcoQlYonalpvouv BpapeZa aO0evtlxd BpaBeia' oi vr,xqp6vot ptd.g."Erout& v6pr,pa6nr,oet6l eivauo0otaotxd. tb BpaBeio o'a0toUg noU p6v1 Dt<if1 zroU6[ver, xotvovfa Vct.S nap4yopr,&6, tou6 eivar,rb 6tr, 0& neOrivouvpi 68uv4pb 0dvato. xplc..tl

ioXup{(owat 6rr. naoyi(ouv 1l& cb oupqdpov toD Xripepa,5tror, 6Xouv Aiv eivar, ouven6g nap&6o(o tb 6tr,oi &o0evei6 &o0evoDg. pn),ef,fpatoc. peytf),oc

IATPIKH KAI VTXIATPIKH

ft&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&cf 0epaneia t6v &ppclotcov oropdrorv, npcbcri npoDn60eorl

eivar a0rb6 noU 0nog6pecv& 6r1l,c6vev &.o0evi1g(patient). yr,& iv6 cf Oepocneto' &pproorclvtlruX6v, {,>v npdltq npoUn60eorleivar,6 (patient). Oepaneucilg eZvar, vd Drcoproverlx6g
@)

Ol lratpoi L\ooor.u(ouv &ppr,ro'trcq,6yt&v0pc6noug. tf.ruXfaoi rpo r,6(ou o w(oov &v0pc3no q, 6yt ixp ti o-c S. p u Le
@)

Oi lratpoi, oi Xeupouploi xai oi &xoxulyodprevor <<napaiatplxoi> eivo(rodv toUg prriXavrxoiig noU Lntoxeoa\ouv a0roxiv1ra, rp€va xo'i &epon),dva. "Ono6 6pr6 oi p4Xavlxol Elv 0noDer,xv6ouv otoUg &v0pclnou6?c6gi) noCr m[r66tfouv, iiror,xai oi vd
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&v0pc,rnor, to6 iacplxot Lnayye),pato6 Div 0& tnpere vd 6no-

6elxv6ouy otoUg &v0pcilnoug n6S i) no6 0& 6npene v& (otrv. Oi tfuXiatpor por,<i(ouv ta(r,8rottrxoUgnpaxropegxal pri pi Er,xaoclgpeao(pgreop6vou6 prlXavrxo6g, oi noir 0noxplvovral 6tr Dou).e6ouv ord, abroxivrpa t6v &v0pc6noviv6, oQv npo(Tparm6vpa, roi.rg ouprpou).e6ouv cor)g if,avayxa\oov oyetxix 1) pri tb n66 xai noD 0& Enpenev& (o6v.
@)

Oi lr,atpof,\egox€gutra zclore6ouv5rr, 0ndpXouv 66o ei64 n6'O vou, 6 6pyavr,xd6xal 6 tl.ruXoyevllg. 6pyavm6q, ttr4t"6vouv, npoxaleirar, &rcb pia p),<1Br1 o6pa. 6 tpuXoyevi6,&nb piootb ocb pua).6. Xcnv TreclcT1crrLx6r1ru, yrarpoi 6iv prnooi Flctrptt poCrv vrcioouv xai Eiv pnopoCrvvd. xrlcrancl.(ouv vd o<,tot& toUg n6voug r6v &),),ov&v0pcilncov. A0tb noU vr,c5Oouv xalcanrlcoxai

IATPIKH KAI q/TXIATPIKH

1.13

&l,l,ov &v0pdrnov. T& nap<ircovd.n6vou oouv elvar ns.p():rcov(x t& 6noia o[ yr,atpoi Oe<opo0v lvriola,t& &noxa]tottv <<6pyavt'xb>> t& pl n6vo. Kai Sxeiva t& 6noia oec,lpoCrv 1vl1or,a, &noxatroDv zc6vo. <<QuXoyevil>> fuiOogv& nuote6oupe6tr, 6 6p1avr,xbq716Eivat , ircopdvcog, Eva vog eivat Eva eiEog n6vou xai 6 rl.ruXoleviiS &tr)'o xo.\ 6rt 6Xouv peralf toug ci1 ).o1txi1 o4€oq nob 0ndpXet, &5 zcoDpe, ttg &vupeoao'cl oq0d1X1 xai tbv xotrr,xb Xolng. Avt' a0toCr,6 pirr voptpo?lotrlpdvl 666vri xoci6 tpuXo6pyavr,xbgn6vog eivat noU 6Xouvpe6E6vr1, yevig n6vog eivol p(.aprilvopr,pronor,rlpdvrl ord' rel\6 rooq ri1 oy€oq noU 0d ).61ape 6rt. |nuqet &vo;peoo" yvrior,aXaptovopio4aad. xocit& r"lto.oto..
@

'Eneu6f cb puoc)'b?f i QrXrxii xand'.orao1 €vbg &v0pdrnou 3n4peti(ouv ci1 oopatr,rfi rco 01eta, o[ yratpoi pr,troCrv <tpuXo1r,& tbv xai oi rluXiatpor, XpYlottlo?lotoCrv i6r'o ocopatr,xiliatpr,xii>> tbg aOtb 6po yr,&v& a00evtLxonor,ri0o0v npalpactxoi y'crtpof' xai fi o ixovo p r,xi1xanao raorl 6vbg &vopcir AII& xai t& xpiv()L.ca a\oov, tntol g,Tn o iopur;,;lcfitou01eia . IIap' 6)'cr clcbrcx' nou 6nr1pe xai oi lr,atpoi 6dv pr,l,oirv <<oixovoptxooopcrrlxliatpr,xil>> oi 1u& oixovopol,6yor Elv Xplotporloto0v crOtbvcbv 6po y'& v& &noyr,atpof. &trr10rvoi 6e[(ouv 6'w elvcl;t
@

X) npoqyo6peveg tnoy€q,6tav 6 naOol,oyoavac6pog fltav f1 qo tx iatp r,xi'1 o(l)Tt 6rt1ra, oi &o0evei60ec'rpoDvrcrv 6rc€(YT;()(1]y1 Trpo peig &pp<,lotov 6py&vov i iot6v, nob Enpenev& Dr,at1p10oirv oi &),xo6),. Tc6pa,noU tbv tAer.&v!.xanuotfioet 6 rluXona0o)'6yog, oi &o0eveig 0eopoOvtar,tpopei6 &ppootov npdf,eov xai vd 6la06oeov,noU mp6ner, 6uat1p10otrvoL &p1ela.

It4

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

'H

tfuXoXelpoupyuxil&).)d(er,rbv rp6no pi tbv 6no[o ox€nrerclct Evag &v0pco7co6, 6nog \ r,l.rl.o:*xii Xerpouplr,xl &).).<l(ettilv tpqavwfi rou.'H nrb o4pavcr,xl 6lacpop& &vdpreou rooq elvan 6cr,,o'ci1vn),aorr,xi1XerpoDpTrxil,\ xrl,p€,gtpcl.oq Qexw&&nb rbv &vOpcono noU &va(r1r& pr,&&tr).af1 orb o6pa rou, d(re eivat &vDpagdke yovu[xa' ivdr otlv tpuXoXerpoupyr,xll, fi mapdppao,rl \exwd. &nb Evav &vOpono rcob 06IeLv& inrgdper, pc& &).Iayi1 ordv tyx€go"\o xanotou &),),ou."Erot,fi &xo6ow ),oBotopii 1r,d oyt(otpp€ver,a pnopoDoe vd oulxpr,Oei prd rl1v, bno1euxt'1, 0d &xo6ota Vd.o'cex'co7i yrd yovaixeq pi npoxtr4rr,xdoc{0r1. pr,& nap€ppaorl noU 0d prcopoDoe 6rxar,o),oy40eit&v,txeivolnoU vd dvtti9evral otb v& 6Xouv oi yuvaixeg rirota ori}n,Ena4tvav tfv if,ouof u,dvex'ilpoooav clv xano.oro.orla6cil QuXtxl nd0rloq xai 6pr(av, yt' o.brfi, ri1 paorexropii 6g Oepane[a.
@)

Oi npoton 6po t fiq iarpntfig dv cl;xalytncouvv6e60 epclcneieg xcl.\ Dtatunc6vouvv6e6 0ec,lpie6,1rd &zrore),6opanu t& ritv 0eparer6v roDg, pi oxozcbvd po40rioouv&v0pcbnou6 noD naoyoov &nb ooyxexp4t€vu, npoUntfpXov'cd., olrpcl-amd. Baoava xai rd 6noia dnoxcl'ltotvtar, << &ppc6ote6>> B anting &vaxd),utpecliv .'O ivooul,fvri,6 Minot &vaxti].utfe rb ix16],uopa to6 fino.rcq xai 6 Fleming d1v nevrxr),ivq.'Ener8il a0ti6 oi o0o[eg&no8e[X0r1xav ypiloryeq yrd &o0evei6noD 0n6rpepav&nb Drapriul,xuxoil}q &vcx4t[uxai pepr,xi6 petaDormEq &,o\€vereg, 6pfo04xav -&nb yratpo66, d.o\eveiqxai &v0pcilfioug Tevr,x6repa- rilg 0eparceutrxoi xapuyovreq. Oi npcotonopot t\q tfuXuatplx{g 6nr,voo6vv€eg &o'0dvere6 xai 8r,aturccirvouv yr,& vde60e<,lp[e6 tlv aicro],6\non a0r6v ttov pri &o'0evel6v, oxond v& Erxar,o),oyrioouv <<0epaneieg>> rirg 6pr,op6ve6mpoDn<ipXoDoeg xorvovr,xig napeppaoery.'O Kraepelin tnw6qoe clv dementia praecox (clv npc,lfpq &votcl., oXr,(od1 gpdver,a yr,d 6r1).a8l1), v& 6rxar,o),oyrioer rl.ruXratpr,xb rbv i1x),er-

IATPIKH KAI }YTXIATPIKH

tL5

op6, rbv 6no[o dtroxo'\oitoe <<(rupatpuxl nepfOatr(lrln xai cdv po g 0ec,r Doecir p rd po pgi iocqm\g 0epaneia g.'E v ouveXe tyov {q,
ta6 pr&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&v€a p),tiBq d,o0€ver,a &vd &n6Dc,ro'e pnd oi roCr Xefpa6,cilv

prua),oO, dvevr6nrcTl 6g cc6pa.'O Freud Lnw64oe tlg veupcSoer6, yr&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&vd pecovopuo{a Dr,xalo),oyfoer. ti1 ou\i1r4o4q xai fq

crlg i[opol6y1or1g o] <<Qu1avdtruo1>>, ci1 OeorpoDoe, nor) xa ubt 6g, 6 g p r,dpopgii i.cl.rpw\q0epane[ag. Kan6nw, Eyowuq prix xurr1yopto" v6ov &oOeverd)v Xeipag,tl6 &ndDcooe &vd otlg <<&vrttoD oi6r,no8efououprn]dypatogtt.'O Menninger Lnr,lo6rvpeq v64oeclv lD€a 6cr,6).or eivocu tfuXao0eveig, vd 6r,xaro).oyl1yl& oer,tilv ivotrtaoia noU EEcooe 6).a \oatxuvav xanrotou xcl"oi oi ?roroDg &),),ou6, xaLig goovopevrxdnpoOdoeLg,6g pi <<0epazceutrxf Er,d0eoq>>.'Ev ooveyeiq,tyov'cug&v& Xefpag,xt ubr6g, rb o6vo),oc6v 8paoclpr,otlpc,lvr.nS(tr4S<ig pia v€,ad.o\€vera, ciiv &n66cDoa Er,arapaXiq fiq rr(anr,x!6 ioopp ontcl.q>> oi . 'Ev 6),iyor,q, lvrior,a iatprxil por10& f1 coU6lvrior,oug lr,arpoirg
v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&voorl),e6ouy yvrioroug xai vd 0epane6ouv &o'0eveig' ivd xif

rx! g F6lM iarp uxil (tf uXr,atp ) I oyi0A xul'nwoo g y r,arpoU (tf uXr,<i cpoug) vd inrlpedoouv i) vd 6{ououi(ouv n},aotoU6 &o0eveig (robg rluXax& voo'oDvte6).
@)

EQv iatp r, ixoI €veteq-6 n a g cd tpa6 pat a xui o[ pro],6vo'e xi1, 16DnfpXav &v6,xoc0ev, npogav66 froav rcecll.yv1cl.alx€g, xai npoxa),cbwago'uXv&tbv 0dvato. 'E:ri aiG>veq, Oepaneieqr€ror.av oi &o0evel6v frrav payr,xig t pero(goprx,lg,6r"r,r,q rcpooeuXli) f1 f1 &nb Xplioyi SxXu),r,opulrcov gutd t (6a, ot& 6noia &no6f8ovtav 0epazceutrxlgi6r,6t1re6.Xciiv tf uXr,atpr,xri, &vrtorp6tp o16, Oepaneieg -6naq t Xprio1 rilq L\ouoiag i) oi Ltrtl€oer.qivavdov to6 pi &o0evoDg tfuXpo).oooieq, <puppaxa xai iitrexcpoo6x- 6Xouv ptr,& paxp& Loropta xcl.\fioav npogav6g &trr10r,vi6 0epanele6 &rpo6, ooyva, rcpoxaLoOoo(v perpraopb tdlv oupntotpticclv i Tuory.Oi &o06veue6, 5p<o6, 1l& tlg 6noieg Xplot,ponor,o6vtav a0rig oi Oepaneieq-ipav payrxig l) pecagoptx€,q- 6nc,rg oi. firrlLv n6vot xai oi 6rarp6pc.lv eiD6v npoono#petq.

\

tt6

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Kat' &val, o.ytav,\ ioro pia rr1qirlqm1q- Xd.prlc)&npi(ercll. &nb oi Qv tnfpovrl txva\ipqorl t6v iatp6v yl& 0epaneieg, 6noieg 0& 0epane6ouvtl6 &o06veteqdg6no[e6iv6 6Xouvocb Xdpr,, :uo6Lv rotg, rcaoyi(ouv vd &vaxal,6tl.rouv.Kai 6oov &gop& cnv tfuXla-cpln'ti,ycxpoc>.,':uqpi(eru &nb Qv ircfprovq dvuffirqorl t6v tpuXr,drpr,rv yr& &o9€vercq, 6noleg 0& 6r,xalo].o1oDv Oepaneleg oi rlg noU ixeivor 61ouvii61 &vd yei.pagxai ti6 6noieg npoozca0oirvv& 6laEc6oouv.

NAPKCITIKA

Xuvd8plo yl& Qv xrlcrcl;ypqot1 vapxortr,x6v: &topa rcou xar6v 0ovtar oi alOouoeq^yepmeqxanvotrg xai ou(4toOv y,d tig ouv€ner.eq paplXou&vag. dg
@

Ei8r,xoi odp xar&yp4o4 vcrpxalruxdlv:Spnopor,oi Er,atetalr6vr10nzlpeola 6r,dEoo4giarpr,x6v tfeu6o],o1r,6v.
@

Kcrrcrypryor,ol,oyfa vapxcotx6v: f1 Er,dlvcoorlxai lepornei,a rfig xarcryp4o46 vdpxcltx6v, x),ti6og clg tpuXorcoc0ol,oliag fiq xo'\ (rulo0epazcefag' Oearpia flceXvr,xicng &ronogufig &vOpdrxai | >>' 6g xai 7rclv, vcrpxarrr,x6v oi v6pror, Xo(po(xtlpr,op6volv <<Xp{oteg petarponlg gapp&xov od vapxolrtxa, &xo.xrov oi npa>tlwlg of dvOpclnc,lv inr,xfv8uvoug yp\orcq xoci rcapepBarr,x6v1pageroxpat6v oi iatprxobg ei8rxo69' xr.&x6p4,f1 petatporci2 t6v gopoerogop6v ob pr,o0ob6 y,& toUg Snallel,patteg xarayprl'60 '70, 'IEo6, xai toCr rb or,ol,6youg. 1r,d tig EexaeciegroD i6e66eg ne6[o 6pdo16 fiq icrrpm\q pacp(.u;.
@

Alv DrctipXouv v61por' OnripXouvp6vov &v0polnor,pi oxoOpo p] 6dppra, toU6 6nofouq xanorcr &vOpconor, ],euxb 6dv oupnaAlv 0oDvxai tor)g &noxal,oOv<<v61poug>>. 0ndpXouvDotrog6vor, 'EBpaior, p6vov toD Xpr,oto0' 6ntiplouv toU6 6nolooq xclcnont Xpr,ocavoi 6!v oupna0oDv xai toUg &noxa),oDv<<Dotrog6voug Katd tbv i8r,o rp6no,6]v 0ndplouv i0r,opdvot' roD Xpr,oto[r>>. pr6vov o0o[eg,ti6 &vOponor, noU nafpvouv 6pr,op6veg 0ntiplouv nlore6ouv 6cr,Elv 0d tapene v& 6noieg xunont &).l,or, &vOpornor g, g, 60 . naipvouv xai coU66notors tnopr6vol &no xal,o6v << topdvoug>>

118

THOMAS SZASZ: AIPETIKA

"H

xarayplorl Xr1pr,x6v yr,d o0oldrv e7vau cl Xrlpero0epaxeiu jt 6 fi dzpeorlyro(rI 9pqoxeta.
@)

Oi xar6nw ouvtayig loprlyodpeve6 o6oie6, Lv oy€oet pi t)g pril ouvro(Toypapo6peveg 63r.6 cltyro.opbg oytoet pd tb vepb 3v ,elvcl.t dS 9p6otlg. 'O xanvbg oQv Apeplzil eival, Lv oy€oetpi c4 paprXooava, 'Exxtrrloio' 6Jt elvat f1 Oeia E0Xaprot[a 1ud tlv Ka0o],r,xi1 oi prE matzoh - ii, &vrrccp6gog, yr& tdv iouEaixb va6. oytory rd
@)

)uvc4p4or1 6rd {g pe0a66v1g: Er,arriprlol roD gu},axr,o'pdvou ocfv 6[ript4o4 &n' Q gappaxoxpania xai toD 06t1 ot& 5o],Ldpr,a.
@)

A0toi noU &va(r1toOvcil ),6o1, y& rb Lnovopa\6prevonp6Btr4prat6rv vapxanmCov, oci'1v&nay6peuol t6v <<Srcuxiv8uvtov vo(pxtottx6v>> &.p€oxovranorb vd ircrorlpcrfvouv 5cr,, X<,tpi6tb &).xob), Dlv pnopo6v vd 6ndp(ouv &),xool,uxoixai Xcoplg rilv fipofvl 6iv pnopo[rvvd 0ndp[ouv f1p<,rr,vopcrveiq. Abr6,goouxa, eZvar &),{Oela.A}.},& 0d iiOe},a n6 ,xai. o'a0toU6 xol\o' exetvd voug noD eival Erate0er,prdvot toUg &xo6ooov,6tr,tb vd.&nrl"vd yope6oer,6 tp6er xocnorcg v& Xorpr,vd vd 6Xeloefoua),txi26pafi ot4pt6rrpa 0& flrav xr,a6tb Evagrp6no6 v& &notpanei f1 rptytvoo'1, i7 &vmorv6r4rclxu\ fi QuXp6crlta. Mi tbv i6ro rp6rco xo.i xand.cfv i6ra Svvoranor) Evag6p066o[og 'EBpaio6 rceoolareleran &nb tlv tpt,Xfvoor1, Evaq iep6a6 &nb clv &vr,xocv6r4ra xal pud xa),61pr,a&rcd d1v tfuXp6tr1ta,6 Aprepuxavrxb6 trab6 npoonaOei v& npoorateu0ei &nb tilv xanoryp1onvapxc,rtrxdrv xai cbv iOroprbor& vapxortxa.

NAPKOTIKA

1.t9

'Epclqori:

n6re I ouvcaloTpdglol 6vbgrpappaxoo -Lntonprg &vayvopr,opdvou v6pr,pouOepazceuruxoD cilg p€,ooo,o} Evavouvalvetlxb &oOeviinoU 0norpdpet&nd pru& 6nro{pal6 &valvclpr,op6v1 d.o0 eto.- 6iv eiva r,0epane[a &].],&6yx\ gtu;'An uwqo 11 6v : 6tav f1 ixol€veta eivar 6 i0ropbg ocl poprpivl xai rb 0epaneucr,xbpr6ooveivatncl.)*f1popcpiv4.

'Epc6tr1or1 : n6retb vd *oprrrr, ,apx<,rrlxd od E0ropr6v &rogtu, a Dnb cfv ai{Ea ri6Locqwci1qLr,l'ott'ptng,ll,clciet eival tyx}q1ta v& xu\ yiveranOepaneia;iAnorwrlorl: 6rclrv, Snclg otbv r(6yo ,y{vetar, Onb Qv ai1i6a rot xparoug xai &nb tb i8ro tb xpcl-:loq xcl,i pret&&nb inr,),oyl xai xat'ivtotri1v toO ouyxexpr,p6vou 6Xr, &c6pou 6tav, pri &11a tr61r,a, Evav3Or,opdvo oi oQv f1p<,riv1 Eiverar, pe0a86vqoi pt,&x)*vtx'i1,Onb ai{6a 6vdgSnro{pcog ciiv &no6eg xroD << rcpoypriprprato Er,ar{pr1or16 >>.
@)

Tb v& &va|€oet xaveiq, xan' &nox\er.otx6'cr7ta, tilv nc6l4o4 o0or6v oi. xpanmobg gappraxonor,oU6 eZvaltb i6r,o napti),oyo prd xai &6r,xar,o),6y4to tb v' &va\€oeL,xffc' ixnox\emtx6rrpa, d1v nc6trr1o1 rpog6v oi ivteral,pdvoug &nb tb xp<ico6Drar6v cpogo),6youg.
@)

yr,& Mu).&pre &).xool,rop6,tbv 0er,rpo6pe na0o).oylxi1 i) tfuXlxil v6oo xo'\zcpoozca0oDpe rdv Oepane6ooupe. v& A).I& Dlv pr,),&pe xal6dv 0eolpoDpre xu9'E\r,v xclrnvrcpo- prr,d rb cig 1rd vrxotr,vr,opd rca0o).o1lxl i1 tl.tuXuxil pcl")*ora,Sv0app6voupetb xanwv6oo' opa xui o'uvarvo6pre orlg &),a(ovr,xig tnL06.oer.q xazcvror6v r6v Lvuvtw oclv &veo4 xai tilv 81e(oc r6v pi1 xanvtor(ov.

120

THOMAS

S Z A S Z . .A I P E T I K A

na),ar6tepa, otiiv 'lonav(a,6 'IouEaiopbg frtav imayopeup6vog xai 6 Ka0o).r,xropb6 npoco0o6pevrl f1 Oprloxefa, no),l,oi "EBpaZor tywav Ka0o),rxoi. AOtb cd &noxa),oDpe <<&vayxotortxb "Otav Op4oxeurr,xb npoorl).utrop6>>. oiprcpa, ocig'Hv<,lp6veq flo),rteleg,I lpoivri eivat &nayopeupdvrlxal f1pre0a66v4 npooIeirat, no),).oi ypiloteq fpc,rivrlgyivovtat yp\orcq pe0aD6vrig. A0tb tb &noxa),o[rpe<<Oepaneicl- rbv i0rop6>>. 1l&

"'Otav

-ipocv flocpaDo xo-,i7<<Ly an etoora xp >> €va lvrir p r,opacd 6noio ine DefxvueEvag&v0pono6 idv t\aoxol;oe pi pdrpo prr,& ouvriOera, 6xtoq tb vd nivet,iT 6nola,6rocv Eqrave oQv 0nepBo).{,i0eopeiro inrB),aBrig.Ilpbg tb cd).ogto[r 8exdcou ivritou aicSva,pr] Q 16vv4ori xai Q palDafa a6\4o4 rot xwipanog rn; Eyxpa'ceLda,S,f <<6lxpdtetu>>Eryaoe o4pafvel n],ripr1 vd &noX| &nb clv 'Ev &no6oxr,paor€a oov"il0eta oOoia. 1) ouveXeiq,y6pco otig &pXig toD 20oD rl.i<bvo',6 6po6 &).),a(e 6yt gt6vo66 npbg rd v64prdtou &).I& xal <ig npbg tbv &vapep6pevoo' uircfi: f1<<61xpd'ceLo..>> rc).6ov6iv &vagdpe'cdL otlg ouvriOeueg nporcalav6ltoD oroD' tc6pa &vag€.petanotig Xtoplgpdrpo xo;i o:inoooyxpur1o1 ouvriOereg &),),ov, 6noie6 a0tb6 06).eL 6)dy[er pr] (r1].o c6v tig vd &Xa).ivc,rto xo'iri,teo4,6dv xpr,Oei &vocyxaio.Kai Dlv oqpa(vet
nr&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&precplona0ew'tdrpa orppaivet clv &veu 6picov &nay6peuorl

txeivav c6rvo'uvr10eL6v oOordrv, 6noieg yld tbv Dranpdor,o xai o[ xilpr:xu fig <<LyxpclcreLo.4>> xanadtxaor€eg,xai ci,1v elvat &xpan1 xai. &venwxl Dico[r1 a6t6v noD Dlagcovouv pa([ rou.

Oi Apepr,xavoieivar i),e60epor, ayopAlouv5n),a xrai ocprxlpeg ,t &).)d 6iv eZval6).e60epor, &yopd(ouv o6pclyeg xuivrl.pxar;"vd
x&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&. A0rb 0noDr1),c5ve t 6u, oi Apepr,xavoi gopoOvca t nepro6te

po prln<,lg xrivouv Eveoqpi Eva vapxorexb &tr' 6oo gopotrvcal
v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&nupopotrl0oDv dnd pi xunotov ogaipeg' goBoDvrar nr,b no),0

120

THOMAS

S Z A S Z . .A I P E T I K A

na),ar6tepa, otiiv 'lonav(a,6 'IouEaiopbg frtav imayopeup6vog xai 6 Ka0o).r,xropb6 npoco0o6pevrl f1 Oprloxefa, no),l,oi "EBpaZor tywav Ka0o),rxoi. AOtb cd &noxa),oDpe <<&vayxotortxb "Otav Op4oxeurr,xb npoorl).utrop6>>. oiprcpa, ocig'Hv<,lp6veq flo),rteleg,I lpoivri eivat &nayopeupdvrlxal f1pre0a66v4 npooIeirat, no),).oi ypiloteq fpc,rivrlgyivovtat yp\orcq pe0aD6vrig. A0tb tb &noxa),o[rpe<<Oepaneicl- rbv i0rop6>>. 1l&

"'Otav

-ipocv flocpaDo xo-,i7<<Ly an etoora xp >> €va lvrir p r,opacd 6noio ine DefxvueEvag&v0pono6 idv t\aoxol;oe pi pdrpo prr,& ouvriOera, 6xtoq tb vd nivet,iT 6nola,6rocv Eqrave oQv 0nepBo).{,i0eopeiro inrB),aBrig.Ilpbg tb cd).ogto[r 8exdcou ivritou aicSva,pr] Q 16vv4ori xai Q palDafa a6\4o4 rot xwipanog rn; Eyxpa'ceLda,S,f <<6lxpdtetu>>Eryaoe o4pafvel n],ripr1 vd &noX| &nb clv 'Ev &no6oxr,paor€a oov"il0eta oOoia. 1) ouveXeiq,y6pco otig &pXig toD 20oD rl.i<bvo',6 6po6 &).),a(e 6yt gt6vo66 npbg rd v64prdtou &).I& xal <ig npbg tbv &vapep6pevoo' uircfi: f1<<61xpd'ceLo..>> rc).6ov6iv &vagdpe'cdL otlg ouvriOeueg nporcalav6ltoD oroD' tc6pa &vag€.petanotig Xtoplgpdrpo xo;i o:inoooyxpur1o1 ouvriOereg &),),ov, 6noie6 a0tb6 06).eL 6)dy[er pr] (r1].o c6v tig vd &Xa).ivc,rto xo'iri,teo4,6dv xpr,Oei &vocyxaio.Kai Dlv oqpa(vet
nr&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&precplona0ew'tdrpa orppaivet clv &veu 6picov &nay6peuorl

txeivav c6rvo'uvr10eL6v oOordrv, 6noieg yld tbv Dranpdor,o xai o[ xilpr:xu fig <<LyxpclcreLo.4>> xanadtxaor€eg,xai ci,1v elvat &xpan1 xai. &venwxl Dico[r1 a6t6v noD Dlagcovouv pa([ rou.

Oi Apepr,xavoieivar i),e60epor, ayopAlouv5n),a xrai ocprxlpeg ,t &).)d 6iv eZval6).e60epor, &yopd(ouv o6pclyeg xuivrl.pxar;"vd
x&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&. A0rb 0noDr1),c5ve t 6u, oi Apepr,xavoi gopoOvca t nepro6te

po prln<,lg xrivouv Eveoqpi Eva vapxorexb &tr' 6oo gopotrvcal
v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&nupopotrl0oDv dnd pi xunotov ogaipeg' goBoDvrar nr,b no),0

NAPKOTIKA

percrqoprxa,abronopoBotr40oDv tb v& tor)6nupopircocos, &nb oQv Botrrioer,, npaypurtx6upu,xocnotoq&).).og'uitr6, iv 6).iapLq, 6t onqocivet goBoCrvtalnepwo6tepo toir6 €auto66 toug &nb ror)giX0po6g roug.
@

Ila),crr,6repa,6rav o[ Apepr,xavol &nalroDoav &nb toUg &yp6teg pt&q\€w1gXcipag xall,ueploDv 1)v& pilv xatrl,r,epyoDv ou1vd Eva xexprpdvoei6og,aOcb0& 6vopa( 6rav &no mto xpatr,xil voorporc[a xal 0& firorv dwtle'col o'a0td 6),or oi natprDo).ritpegtoD i{coteprxo[r xai o[ gr,],e].e60epor, Apepr,xri.T</rpa, otilv rcoUxai nti],r vapxorrtxdrvxai dnawottv tbiDco np&ypra,cb &noxal,oDv 6),e1Xo prd6v0ouor,aop6,xu\ol zrarpr,8o)dtpeg coCr tb Drcootlpi(ouv 6fcoxal reprxoD,xal oi <pr),e),e60epor, o[ ouvtqp4rtxoi fiq Ap.epr,xi6.
T&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&6r<igopa ei64 tnubyovrarv xal &r4mnuxC,tv &rotxto-

u xpoct r6v, 0pr1 oxeutrx6lv te xui orpanrcocx6v, td, 6Xo preftnoxo-raoriyoer.p! cilv iurpl>t\ &nomtoxpdria, Qv 6nofoc6],ol ixct'Ercer,6{, proOv i7 |noiuaL>nry&. f1 xal toUg ndvceg. 6pc,lg, iatpldl &nomtoxpani,a, qawoT,rcvtxGtq, Baoi(ero.t oQv'Enr,orfigy xo'\ t x &noBl€net oQv'T1eia, xai inerDil oi &norxri06vnp6r4q 6tpear6 ceg),atpe6ouvoc6tlgtig 0e6tqregtoD iatptxoO drctocrlprovropo6 tb i6r,o g),oyepd 6oo xo.i oi dnowvoxpaneq, ol 0note),eiq eivat te),e[or6&vioXupor, dvtoto.0oOv. v'
6

'Eilv

xrinor,o6 0dl,erv& ooD xol,),{oer,pr,&Euogrlprotr,xil rocpn€\u pi 6Xet xai rb 8r,xarotroyei tb eiDo6fiqo|otuqnob zcafpverg,6]v oOola:0& v6r1pav& toD neig6:* 6!v aafpver,g oulxexpr,pt6vrl Q xu\ ooDxo),),rioet tlv tapnd).a xo.[,inln]dov, 0d nel 6ru tr]g tp6pAEv61er,, inioqq,v6rlpravd toCrneiql:* f1o6ofa noU nafpVdad.. ver6eivar &plap{g: 0& ooD xo},trrioelxai c}1vrolpn6}w xoct,inttoUg vdou6. Kai tb Xetp6tepo: nl,6ov,0d nei 6t no,po.nl,av&g tb Div 6Xer, v64pa v& tolr neiq 6u 6]v eivar,Etxri tou 6ou],er,& ci na(pvetg: 0d ooD xo),),{oer nd},r tilv tupn6}tu xai 0& \tet 6rt

122

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

6)'i&note)eig &ner,trlyu& ci1vno),ttt'opdvrl&v0pcon6anarl-.'Ev v& 061'eL oi oo.j noU npdnel v& neiS o' Evav&vopono' noU 1ro16, f1oOoia orrypanioetL\ui'rtolqa0coD noU na[pvetg'D]v eivat 6t eivar ,iuo, &B .rrBii (6"o-O€rovro.q6tr' eivat) &)'I& 6tr a6tbg vd p),aBep6g. fr& v& prnop6oer6 tb xuvetga0tb inr'tuy6q'np€'peya).6tepoxDpog?)i(ouoia,li xai t&' 6u6' &n' 6fit neuvocbXet6 taud(et 6 iv Duvdpet ortTpo(rLor1qoou"'Otocv6 oclypatr'oclg zai toD cbv iaut6 tou prbtb &n61ero riq ouppatlxlq ooqtaq Ddoxotra pnopei ).aixoD aio0{prato6, tb otrlpurt\6pevo &:uo1't"o
v& i) iDeo)'oyrxEqBaoeug:6oo i10rxi6 ob oo1pr,(6prevo &vttDp&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&oeu

eivat t& inlXer'pn1clcao. nr,b <&06oq> eivau xai 6oo nrb 61xupcltou' vd yr'&toU6 &vtr'rcdtroug tou t6oo nrb &napait1ro 0d eivar xai tbv &paupciroouv v& cbv &vtr'xpo6oouv'

rlruXoevepYriOi, &vent06plreg 1)na0o).o1r,xlg&vtl8pct,oe4t6v &oOeveiq' tlx6v qappdxtlv, nob Xop4lo6vtat &nb y'atpoUg oi xai &vcr'Dpdoelq>> 0epazce6ovtat 6vopd(ovto(t <<qoplrorxeutuxig tlq na0o)'6youg xoci &tr)'ougeiDt'xobq dnb &varc01or,otr61ou6, a0c6v c6v o0or'6v' 6tcrv Xop4LcLqm\g. Oi,i6teg &wrDp&oer,g <<bad yoOvtot-&nb ta dcopa otoU6 iauto66 roug' 6vopd(ovtau &nb Qulr'dtpou6' taf,i8ta) xai Oepane6ovtoct tripsr, (dtr60pr,a xeqaA0tb eivar,6o&v t& tpa6pra:co-dnb nupop6)'o 6n)'o otb vd ).r, tnoU6XouvnpoxtrrlOei&nb xutrovougnoU toi'tc,t'nn€0r1xav' 6va 6plop6vo 6vopa xai v& 0epanedovrat &nb veupoxetSXouv 61ouv npoxa\€'oet rd' 3v6l poup^go6g, nap6por,a cpa6pocta,zcoU i6ro.&& &rop"aotb xeqd)'t toDg,v& na[pvouv &]'\ dvopto.oto-xu\ vd &va),appdvouvti1 Oepanelatouq tfuXlatpou'
@)

q o0ot6v, 6nro f1 papr'Xou&f1 IlpooXrlpratux& Xp{o1 nap<ivopcov )'61etar'6rt xutaorp€uo "oi t1 l1potv4, &nayope6etau Srcet8ii rroUt& Xp4olpo)'eltouplla co6 &v0pcizcou tiiv <pouv xotvorvuxil qLv &wr'cpatt'xb oy€oetpi tb 1eeZvat' o trouei.Aucbg ioXupr,opbg

NAPKOTIKA

yovbg 6u,oi. <<cpopeig L\oootcl.g>> ipn).6xovadl-xup[og yonoD veZ6, zcol,ltlxoi xai yr.anpot- ouvri0cog [dpouv norctxplortroDlv zroroDvrdtorou ei8ouE vrl.pxronxo'.yr,' aOtb }noovlpi(ouv Eanav4pd6 npoona1ercgyr& vd ivroXu0oDvxai v& i[e].rX0o6vtd ri,ot ixvtyveuolg nob 0& Lvroni\oou roU6 yp\orcg a0r6v r6v napdvopctv o0or6v. ('Op<,rg, no),),d r€roto- rlot 6ue(dTovro(r yvciorl toD 0noxer,pr6vou bnoBu),),eraloE L\srrl:orlxrl:\ 6t Xcopfg ouyxatd\eofirou yr,'a0c6.) Xcdpi6 Q 'E dv oi rcapdvopeq oboieqDracapdoo.ouvcilv xo rvatv ),err,xil toupyfa -Eva ivDeX6pevooaq€oraca i(ogpevtx6, i<p, 6oov npoo6ropi(ecar, ei6og rfiq oboiagxai oi 66oer6roug- t6re 6iv tb yparx(owat ei6lx& ner.papura yl& vd &vayvc.lpr,o0oDv o[ yp\oreq. Kai 69'6oov 6iv 8r,atapdooouv&naparcfirla6ci7v xor,vovr,xii l,ertoupyia -xai i66 oa<pG>q 6 Bpir:ixerrl;t nuprivag toD tb Q(:4rfipocrcq-,r6re vd xuvetqclot otoirq &v0pc6rcoug Xpllyr& o7i vo(pxortxfv Lleru\ov-caqt& o6pa roug 6!v eivau xa06).ou odv vd toirg xdvetg tiot yr,&8lapritrl. Avt'a0toD, pow(et nepr,oo'6tepo o&v v& reorapetqtoUg &vDpeg yrd clv €ppaixo.cnad. roog L\eta(owaqrb n€oqtoug &v elvat neprretpr4pdvo.
@)

A6tol noU nou).&venap&vopreg oboieg, npootp€,por.rv vapxartrx& oi &v0p<6noug xai XpitrrlL-ccloror)g &otuvopr,xo6g. '\v L\eraooupre tbv &pr,0pdr6v nel,at6v ocoUg 6noioug ngoocp€,povrcn a0t& r& ei8q,0& oupnepdvoupebc td Xpi4r;,arl. eTvat,rt0av6v,Evanr,dioXupb66).eap&nb clv lpcoiv4. nap'6).a uina, tb v& De).ed(er,6 vapxc.ltr,xddvopti\etat <<6rax[vr1o,4 pi vapzortr,x6v>>,6v6rb v& 6e),ed(er,g Xpripata d,n\o6orata pi 6vopa\etan << 6copo6o xirt->> .
@)

Oi v6pr,pol preootrapqtdg, toirg 6nofoug &noxa),o6pe 6rr,Xer,p1panieg,pnopo0vv& Dr,agrlpr,[(ouv v& nou],&vecb npoi6v rou6 xai oi pr,d dvotyrfi, &,vta1<ovr,otr,xi1 iryopa. ?oov &gopd, toUg na-

124

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

pdvopoug peoo).apryd6,toUg 6nofoug &noxa]toit1re<< panopti xtrl>>6rav nou),&ve vcl'pxanmcr, Er,a<pripr.cil rorlqtyer. dvu\aQ per f1xuBdpv1o4,p6oc.o a0roD nob &noxu),oDpa <<iv4pdpolol yr,& rn Xpnol t6v vapxortlx6v>>'a0toi ),ornbvnoul,&vet& npoi6vta toug oE prd x)eroc4, pril&vtalcovrotrxil &yopcl'. 'H o61Xpovr7 &pepmavot4 elx6va r6v vapxcortxCov ouvotl.rf* (et, xan' a0tbv cbv tp6no, cig oixovoplxig vootporclegxai d7v tf.t u1ol,o1ia r6v xo p po uvr,otr,xdrv eotbr av : Xap1tri g no r.6111xul raqnpdt6vta Er,ari0evtaloi dfogpevr,xlgtr,p66.Vu(sq&vtxavonofrlrarv -i&v 6Xr,, oQv npoty1anLx6:urryrl., pev<,rv excl;xorpep6 fi ).atdrv- Bpioxowan otb 6l,eoS VLA; yofiqro4 <<xepEoo'xdTrcDv>> napayol6v xai Dravopdolv'xai I xuB6pv4orlifano),6eu orornrlpd piv n6l,eprooroUg xataval,ocig &vor,Xcb n6),epo otoirg 6i 7ro(po(yoTo69, &ox6vro.q tror. cl Baor,xil nolurm.fi t16 8paotript6r4ra: v& 6nordooel toU6 i1D1 Onotaypdvoug.
@

XQv ippaixil iocopia,6),or paopoDo'avocilv &pXl v& npoocp6,pouv pr,dOuofaotbv @e6'Veaa,pnopoDoe pr6vov papBivogxai 6 tetrLx& o06e[6' fi te],ecoupy,xl 0uofa tyet &vtxancllo:uclclei &nb tilv re),eroupyrxil ixvcl;xo.pcl.oro.orl tilg 0uofag. )ti1 6ucr,xi1 iatpr,xil Lotopta, 0ndpXer pr,&nap6p ow L\e\txl,xii Era6r,xaofa 6oov &gop&. ooyxexpr,pr6va <pappuxu,c& 6noia &roxa),o[rpe (x).aolxi1nepinc<,roq 6zl.;rc 6pr,oprdva tbpa <<intxivEuva>, tb xclc\ 6ruotyu): oQv ixprt,6nor,ooDrizcore pnopoOoev& EcSoer, v& i) nupet r€rota gappuxu' peta, pr6vovoi lr,acpoi pnopoDo'avvd cd Xop4yoirvxai p6vov oi &oOevelg pnopoCroav r& naipvouv. v& teluxa,xaveig 6iv pnopei vd.xclver.rtnoru&nd t& 6u6.f1 Xpnon xai f1 &noguyil tdror,c,rvo0or6v Eyet ixv:'uxancl.orcl.lei &nb clv nponayavda mepl 14 Xptol xai Qv &noguyll ccov.
@

@appaxo),oyia dnoxa),eitar, i7 Lruorfi1tr1 XpnonS rnS o0or,6v,61(0epaneutr,x6v) xai p),anrr,xdrv (rofr,x6v) ),a8ii t6v i.ap.armGsv

NAPKOT]KA

'Qot6oo,btra t& 6y1er,p[6r,4 rfiq<pcl.ppo.xo8pdoeov t6v o0or,6v. xai cilv yld 6va xe<pcl.\cllto div l4rlcaclc1;1pnon l,o.piagnepr,),app&vouv oborcelapr4o4 xai xaveig 6iv tb 0eorpeinepieplo 1)&napri6et& pi xto. Atrl,ri, o6pr<pcova aOtb tb xpr,tl1pr,o, SlXerpiEra t!6 a\auo &vago a &vouv Ev xecp &van optag 0& 6npene v& rrepr,),apB prxd ptdtd l,e16peva nepi ri; xu:'anep6t4tog t6v 'luvaux6v i) cdrv Dlagopetlxdrv gu)'6v' t& ilXerp[Dta yuvar,xo].o1fagxai o0po),oyiaq, xerpa\ano oXetlxb pd tiiv ipcotr,xil i),eu0epl6tlta oyexai cilv nopve[a' t& SlXepi8ra cpuor,otroyiuq,Evaxeqa]wto cfrg &otpotrxb pd tig 6r,aocpog€9 xui,ptBana, t& ilXer,plEr,a 'Ev 6]'[pi o6e'cl>rb cn tratpeia to[r ii].rou. xe<pr;.\c;;Lo vopiag, Evr;tcbpa, ti6 yo rg,Eog 6tou Elaxpivoupre ntb \exoll r;lpa,&nb 6 rr, <59 tdrv Xlpr,xEg xai tiq iepotetreotuxiS Xp{oel5 xai ouvdrceueg o0or6v,6iv pnopo6pe v& fexrvfiooupe pl& v49d),r,4ou(rit1o4 a0toD noU tcSpa 6vop&(oupE <'XpilneptTpo(qi? xai pr,&),o1r,xi1 ot& xai 04 vcrpxorsx6rv>> <<3Or,opbg vcl,pxantxd.>>.
@)

'E&v

&nb cilv inr,oupei v& 3v0app6ver, &vaxo6<prcr1 tbv i xotvG)v[o( qcrpa, xd n6vo,xupr,otrextt xai percrgoptx pt'og tig Xopttyttovlg cilv &vuxo69tofi prixov &nb toUg yuatpoDgxai v& &no0app6ver, tig a0toXopltflolq cpapp&xolv,0& 0nepexcr'p&cb tou pdoear iatpr,xb 3ndy1e).pa xai tig o0oieg nob XopriloDv ol y'atpoi xai
cpapprix<'lv, aOtoXoprillo4 clv xai a"Nta> <<panop t& 0&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&0notr,p&

<<Xprio'4 vocpxocxdrv>>. clv 6noia 0d 6vopri(er, vd Mi tbv iEr,otp6no, 3&v f1 xolvrovia 3nr,Oupe[ 6v0app6vel xuptoletrcmix xot\ &nb d1v &vcrxo6<puo4 ti6 oefoua),txi6 &vtiyxe6, tilv toD peco(9opl,xa,p't'oc,; ydpou xai v& &no0app6ver' &v0{xo6rpwfirooqpdoc.o a0vavlopoD,0& rinepextr,p&tbv Tdpo xai tig to6 oef,oual,rxig flEovLgnoU npoog6pouv ol o6vtpogor, 6 Evagotbv xai cii &11o xai 0& 0rcotr,p&toUg <<rcopvo'1pt1<pou5>> oef,oua)'r'd1 "' a0to ixavo nowloq,tlv 6noia 0& &noxa),ei <<orbroxan<ixpvlo4 'Ev 6tri1otg, nopvo'gpcl:qto-tya tbv a6vocvropb i6t'a clv p| f1 qappuxa pi xai t& 6zcvc,rtlxd. oytoq noU 6Xouvtd vapxotr,xd

t26

THOMAS SZASZ: AIPETIKA

'Eav tfv iatpr,x/i. f1 xor,v<ovfa ixvr|,otpeqe tlv napa8ooraxii iepdpXriorlaOrdrvcdlv &fr,6v,6nroq np6orqanaEXouvxavet xo.iroLe; oxocvdrvaprxig tilv 16peg 69 :rpdg tb o€\,0& OeclpoDo'e <<tirg6],r,pri>> 6Xr p6vo 0d tiiv tr€rpene &IId TcopvoTpo(g[a xai
xai 0&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&cfv 6ve0tippuve. Av'ctoroiyaq,6rav f1 xorvovia xatana-

nclrv'o &nb d1 Xopriyrlol gapf,erd1v aOcoloprlynon eo'p1ocxclv p.axcov &nb coU6yratpo6g, r6re p6vov 0& Oeolprioel 3rcovotil pa(6ptevainlxiv8uva vapxorlx& <<6g6l,rpa>>,td 6rcoiar6re 6yt p6vov 0d <<vopr,pronotiloe>> xai 0& <<6laxrv'fioeor. &).ld
@)

'Exarb

pnopoDoe vix &noxrfioet 1p6vra npfi, Evag &v0pconog ocfv 6)e60ep1&yop& 6oo,yv'fiouoxai &xfv6uvo,6nr,oiiOe].e pi &vtd).),aypruEva no),U prxpb Xprlpatr,zbnoo'6. Xriprepa, prnopei prrdprxpt noo6r4rcl',pl xaOapoOxai pi1 &ogavd. &noxritoer ),o06, 6nioo ocil pra6pvl&yopa yrd Eva zco),U peyd),o Xprlpatrxd noo6, rcaipvovra6 6ni nL6ov xai cb pfoxo vd. nocer. gu),axi1 ocil yr,a 6111 (c.ri1 tou Q iner,6i1 &y6paoe' xo.\ pnopei v& npopltb Oeu0eitltuytorcq noo6r4req 6nioo &nb Evav ytanp6, pd rb np6oyJlqcrrolt &vianou xapxfvou xai rd xat<i].tr1],a, yr& Qv nepio'cd.on, xo,po.novo. zc6vou.Abt6, nap& riq repaou,egnpo68oug oQv larpr,xi'1 tntorfunl xal c)1v teXvotroyia, eZvaltb orlpeio 6nou p&.9tyeu cp6pefi dv:*xclcxtta),rottxil vootp or'to-otilv iatp r, : 1r, r xl1 v6paore oraOepdxal,6repor otb vd Oeparce6oupe &ppciotr,a r4v xuiyery6repor,orb v& &yaxougi(oupe rbv &ppcooto.

ATTOKTONIA

Meya),civovta6, nar,Drdpa0aivouv pdxpl not6 o4peio rupoot&, Doz&rar, xal toU6 tnr.rp€neran, zcafpvouv (<,169 vd ti6 tou6 ot& "Ooo rou6. zrrdno),r)eZvalixocv& yr'aOtb xr,,i6oo nr,dno),U Xeplr,. td npaypoccozcolo6v, 16oo neproo6repo &vant6ooovtal oi ubr6vopu, a6toxa0optl6peva ?iropa,c& 6noia 6yt 6t6vonaipvouv d1 (tori cou6 otd.y€pr.uroDg, &I}.& pnopoCrv Lnio1qxai v& ixpanp€oouvcn (cortaou6. A6cdg eZvar6 tr6yog no6, aOtol rcoU 6nr,),6youv eivau x6puortoCrSautoD roug, oulv& irctoqg Lntv& ),6youvv& eivar xai oi ixre).eo,tig roD iautoD toug.
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5va6 &v0porco66|v (dper rt vd. xdver pi T4 (c,rrirou, pnopei

v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&Tl <pu),ct[er, yr,& pe],],ovrt>c\ypi1o4 i) vd &norpao{oeu 6t ro6

elvat &yp4or4 rud. xal v& fiv nerrl:Qer,. @e<,rpoOpe tb v& 6c nerd4 &yp1orcl oxourciD eivat xant, oyerrxa,),oyr,xb noU prno ra pei vd rb xavet xutrotoq. &II& OecopoDpe tb vix netaet xa6tt,, veig ot& oxounl8la pr,d (coil (x1pnorn,eivar. o5pn:ccopra tl.ruXr,xig v6oou.
@

X4pepa, i&v Evag iep€aq ioXupr,(6tavdtr oi pii Xpr,ocavoi, &v xai DEvtb l,6ve,06l,ouvvd ),utpo0oDv &nb ev &yvora xal v& npool),utlo0oCrv otbv Xpuotr,avtop6,6ioXupr,op66 0& dnoptou pnw6rav <i6a0toe[unlpdqori. 0& 0eopoDvcav6r1].a6i1 6nr,rirg 6t BeBc,tcr,oq6:1.prctt oinepi 6v 6 ).6yoq 06l,ouvv& o<,r0oDv aII& 6tr, 06),er, i8r,o6v& cor)gocSoel. 6 "Orav Sprg Svag tl.ruXiatpog ioXupi(etat b:uu aOtol rcor)dnr,XepoDv v& aOroxtov{oouv, &v xai E}v tb },dve,06},ouvv& oo0oDv&nb rdv 0tivato xrl.\v& Bo4040o0vv& (rioouv prr,& Xapo6-

128

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

pl& 3nl6 (coi1, ioXuprop6gtou yivetut Dextbg65 xai 611fr prev4 Aaia8il &vtrpeton t\erau neptoo6tepo 69 oalpovtxil Er1).oor1. 6 tr6pg vd oo0o6v' pia Snrpe[ cti.;rotldg inr'Oupirlrqrdv nepi 6v v& toir6 o'6oer' cng ,ropa drgSnupepaialon 6lx{5 tou 3nlOupiag
@

t6lv npoDno06oeov' Xtf y),6ooa xociotil ).oy'xi1 dfii'uore86oplor' Edoprot a0t6v noU 6narg ocilv no),r,trti ,.oi tlv v6po-eiVrl.oae 'Eno1r6v<16, xa)'b eival v& EXoupexuvet oc'loti1 pA6 bror"oOv. inerDil xffid'lnilofn. Twni,&v f1 a0toxt ovia elvat &pp<irotr'a' 0avdtou pL 6)'a t& trri1el otbv O<lvato,xai &v I rcp6\tfri toO 'r6:'e ivtotril otb ^gr'atp6 dnupcrrcr1'cu 1t€'oaeivarfi Oepaneutlxii eivar' itreuOepowcovi'a' f1ooocil Oepaneia fiq abrotirr,:covio.q

VTXIATPIKH

Avrr,xeipevo (;uXr,atpr,xlg elvat o6re\ oxe,{4o6te oi tpuclg Dlv ytxEg &,o06veteg &lld c& tf6ppara, roit <<&o0evo66>> toD xai <<tpulrdrpou>>. A0t& td tf6pprata ixpyi\ooviiEA &nb tl6 6vopao[eg a0t6v noU o'uppret6Xouv ouva],trofn.f1 6vopraoirxr{is ocil pn&gn),eupaS6g <<&o'0evoDg>>, :lru"p'6tr, eivar &ppcloroq,xr;;\ 6dv tfl6 a),Iq6 69 OepaneutoD, no.p' 6u Dlv 0epane6er xappr,& d.pptitorw. Ta (ldprparo-ooveytlovro(rpi rig ),6[elg nor) ouvr,otoCrvr d ixvr metgtevo a0c! g c! g eiDr,x6tnarl;g, uXaatp g << r,a tl.r lxi D yv6oelgtt, <<npoyvrio'erg << >>, 0epazceleg xai <<zcepar,t6por >> rcclpr:..xo).o60qoq>>. Kai xatatrrilouv pi tpdprpat no6, oixv oxt6,g, a ixxo ),ou0oDvcobg npc64v tl.ruXao0eveZg 6tr1 div 6n6),oun4 (cori o! roDg' E1),aDii pi 8uogrlp rc:'rxig rcl;gtrcl\eg 6nog << xard0),r,tfr1 >>, <<oyt(o<pptvero(>> 5tr4 ti7 ouvagil 6po).o1ia xai pi iyx).er,xai opoDg noU roD6 dnoxaTroitv<<voor1),eia>>. Kat& otsv€netav,3&v0d),ape v& Ec6ooupeocilv tfuXr,atpr,xil pfa ei).r,xprvl 6voSrao[a,0d 6vop<i(ape<<tpeuDo],oyfa>> Qv t ..tlv LnLorfi,q t6v tf eprprdrov >>.
@

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6napft xai p6vov 6nr,otrlprovr,xdrv x),ct6ov,6zrorg tfuXr,atpr,xil r) xai f1 na0ol,ol,xii rfuXo),o1fa, trrcqponor,ei ciiv <<npo.ypantx6rn-co.>> QuXao0eveld)v c6v rluXr,x6v 6r,arapaX6v. t6v xai Ilo).).oi lvr,rotuxoi x),d6or,&oXol,o6vtar,pi ti1 pe),6t4 tlg &v0pc6nr,vr1g oupneprpop&6,X<opig 6pcogxal vd 6r,Xd(ovtar, o] 0noDr,ar,p6oetg tb guorol,oyr,xbxal tb pril quoro).oytx6,rd 1rd 01rBg xal rd &ppcooto. "Erot, Dlv 0ndpXouv <<d,vanro\r.rl;xd. oixovoptxd>> zroUvd &qopoCrv &v0ripdgoixovopr,xlg nepr.6tig 6oug xai <<pi1 <puor,ol,oyr,xd oLxovogttx&>> vd drpopoCrv noU tig ypeaxonieg' 6iv DntlpXer, <<dv anto\r,axl zro),lrr,xi1 inrooiprrl >>

130

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

noU vd &gop& Qv eipriv4 xai <<pi1 rpuor,otrolr,xl nol,lrr,xii 3nr,ocnpvtnnob &gop& rbv n6).epo. A),).&OndpXer, <i[e],rxtr,xi1tfu>> noii &cpop& ouppoppo6prevq pa, oupTteprgo 6r'i'p Xo),o1[a Q <<zta0o).oyrxi1 tfulo),oyia>>zcoU &cpop&. nupexxlJoeuq :'ig Xer fiq &v0pc6n € oupnep rg opd.q xrtc[, uvyi tlruXtatptxil >> t6],o g, 0n&pXer << nor) &gop& Qv <&pp<,lorrl>ouprfiepr,gopri.
@)

Td Baorxd &vtmeQtevo QuXr,atplr$EeZvar 6r,agclvia' ouvriclg f1 pecaf,ii Eub &v0p6nov, peprx]g cpopigEtocgovia 0og Dr,a<pclvfa pera(D 6vb6 &t6pou xai pr&g 6pd8o(9.'O nlb &n),b6rp6zrogv& ),uOel Dragcovfa f1 eZvarvd napa6o0ei i7 pia n],eupd ocilv &].trri. Xdiv i8pupratuxil tfuXlacplx{, fi 6r,arpovla},6vetar,pr} tbv t\uvayxaopb toD &o0evoDg &nb tbv tfuXiatpo. Ilp6xercar yr,d p.td. npokndon rig napa8o ota x\q 0eo4q to D i prcepal,r,ot! i) ro 6 r, &nomtoxgitrl' pr,d&vdrcep4 E6vaprl xupr,apXel <ip& ndvto o] pr,& xurfreprl. Xcfv &vcupoytanpm!,fi Euapcovia ),6vetar lri c4v nap&Eoo'ri coD Qulr,dcpou otbv &oOev{. A0rb eZvarodv ti1 o61Xpov1
.. eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeipqvrorr,xil 0t o7, t6yqo ivo16v Edvtl Bori0er,oc >> : p.r& &vcirceprl

66vap4 xaneova\er.pi tnatoxDvTo rp6no grta xardsteprl. 'Ev6 oQv rpooanm! tou (c,lri,6 r{uXfarpoqD]v prcopelv& dnog6yet i)vd npoonepuoer. Er,arpotviegxrl,\ ouyxpoioeq cl6 tig xeprco6repo &n' 6u |norcoErinore &tr),og&v0pr,rzco6, rfuliarilg rpog,6poq, pnopei v& apoona9ipet v& Dreu0er{oercil (col1 cou pi tdror,o rp6no riiote oi oytoeg tou pi tor)g ne)dce6 tou vd 'O eZvatouveplacr,xdgp&).),ovnap& &vtayc,lvr,orr.x€g. nrd &nl,bg rp6roqvd inr,ceuX0eia0cb eivar v& gtil oyeri\erar p! Evav dxo6orc xe\an1 xo'i vd &pveltar,vd xuprapXei ocoU6 &o0evei6tou &II& xai vd xuprapXeitar, dnb a0ro6q.
@)

prnopei ca(rvopr10oDv, Oi,QuXfatpor, pi vd &v<l),oya cb rixavoov, ci< &xo),o60o<:

IIIXIATPIKH

A0coi nob &o1o).oDvtar pE r4 or€yuor1 xu\ r' &xfuq:url-. YUX[atpor,o'] 64pdo'r,a(ruXr,atpeia: EtaXeprocig Erlpoofarv 6avc,:t4pir,lv xai cpt4v6v f,evoEoXeicov, tr(rponol t6v <pt<oX6v ixofipocvttov xui. xaOc)gxai t6v &venr,06p1Tov ouyyev6v toug. rf VUX[acpor, iDr,totr,x& uXratpeia : EraXeupr,otlg o] Oepdrp<ov, xo,\ [evo6oXer,&pyeg trwpoxot t6v n],ouofcovxal olpavrlx6v &v0pc6ncov xa0d6 xai t6v &venr,06pqrovo'uTTevdv rouq. AvcrtfuXfatpot oi <<xouv6r4reg>> <<&vtr,-iEp6po(Tcr>>: xai 0ne60uvor l,aix6v 6nvalt4piov xai gtqv6v f,evo8olefalv 1u& tor)6 gttlXoUg xai &o{pavtou6. "Oool B. eivar,otig <<pn[(ve6>> cpappdxcov. Neupogappraxol,6lo I tpuXiatpot : gterunpdreg veupogo(p paxololrxoCr 6),r,xoD. fev rxol (l uXiarpor : petolnp ane (l uXo g gappaxo),oyr,xoir 6),r, xoD xai oupBou),ticopeg tb n6g v& (ei xave(q. 1r& f. VuXfacpor,orig <<pnl(veg>> Lyxe<pa]vx6vptraB6v: r6v 'H),e xtpo ooxat(fi Eeg : perunpareq ceXvlcl g 3n ttr4tfiag . A0rol nor) npoxal,oirv x6pa 6l& 146 ivoou).iv4g: peranpace6 0nepDooo),o1fag ivoou],iv1g. "Ooor, A. elvat oriq <<pzc[(ve6>> ouvol,ru],r,6v: t6v llulavatrur€q: pe:uolnpcrcrcs ),atpef cl.qrot @poU8ro'po0. cig Auvap r,xoi(luXoOepaneor€g: perunpures.cis npooapproyig ocbv'io16ovta fiOr,xd ),oyr,xb x<iDr,xa. YuXo0epaneutbg &).),covnenot9ipeov : pero(7t parcS &pXdlv xo'\ np axl xdrv 6 r,arp6p i1 r,xo),oyr,x6v cov 0 ououi ptftc,rv.
OD

A.

VuXr,acp 6 r,d1v<o : Zatprxil trr1 ia . r,xi1 o'4 o'te
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A0rbg nob xtiveutfuXr,arprxilEr,dyvclorl o'cl\(Vdalor46pd tnio4: pr1&Eera.

132

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETiKA

: VuXratptxil ).oyr,xi1 Ldv xunong napet Eva vapx<,lttx6, pt} ouvxai cayli yuacpoO, prerdioxupro0ei 6tu a0rb rbv xaveLvd aio0tivero(txa),6tepa, a0tb &noDetxv'et 6cr,f1tfuXaoodvelaeival pr,& napet Eva vapxantx6, yvilow &.ol€vetrr' Eriv, 6prol5,xocr.,otog 6req,xa\ ioXu&nayopeupdvo&nb toUg y,atpoDg xai toir6 vopoO xa\6repa' a6tb &noproOei6cr a0tb tbv xdvel v& aioOdvetocu 6tL Eerxv6er, eivar rc\uxopavig.
€D

5pc,lv,peVuXuatprxil vooo),oyto':Eva l,eftxb Duo<pr1p4o'ctxttv rapqwop€volv o'i 6taYvcooer,g.

VuXona0otroyia: cb vd d.noxo'\ei xavei6 t& npoB).r1putav1q (co!g <<&o06veteg>>. tlv u 0 :tb VuXo0epa netrx v& &noxa\ei xavei g <<epaneia >> tJ'r yr& &pqyorvtcl- td npop).l1pacd6E (,rttg. Xr,acpr,xi1 VuXoiotop ux6: rb vd. &noxatrei xavei6, tilv xanuon[]'r'rov1 npoocbzccov, t6rv &yanlprdvc,.lv xal t6v prr,orltdrv tilv 3[6pvr1or1 - toro p tx\g L\& o.ong>> . ntri << fbv &pep6trr1 6 Quluatp txo rcpo

6noiog, gOourpagxai 6er,)'6g,6 VuXoiotop m6q: EvuqarOptrrog, tbv Vorffi,tbv ou&vixavoqvd vr,xrio'er, &vt[n4tr6 tou oi &vor,X;cii pi xo<puvrei pt& Dtdyvoro4' 6 6noio6, &vixavog v& tbv yovurf6)'[yotg,0no6 tou otii <p6pver, Er,xr] ve6poro4' 6zcoiog,Lv oer,tbv yuvaixeq 6rav, xp(veru 6tr, neprypaqev onoo8aioug &v8pegxai oti'1vnpayp"urtx6rqroc,toD6 tre1l,atei. Oi, rluloiotoptxol eZvat 'u "nq iotopuolpaqiaq: xaOcbg Dlv oi, Enop6v<,lg Clifford Irvings Eiv [6pouv rb &vtxei1.lev6 tou5, tb iqeuptoxoov' xai xaOcbg
toD 23. Clifford Irving:'lvrootbg apeprxavbgouy'1'parpdag 6rco[ou (o't'p')' pr! ti1 ouyypaql ntraor46 Broyparpiag tb 6vopa ouvDd04xe

qJXIATPIKH

133

q:cd. roUg &p6oouvo'uvriOal (wopa-&vrmetpevdris Epeuv&g roug, yr,'oc0tdp6vo yr,dvd gouoxcloouv toDg 6auto66 rou6, 1pd<pouv 6tr6te xai oi &v0poraor, rob6 6nofoug inlvooOy eiyal ouvriOog xaxoi xo.i &oytlltot.
@)

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@)

Noprxil ncrpo(gpoo6vri:f1 &.o06vewrilq |noiuq t prlv airr,ol,olia eivut 6rt xanorcq ou),).aprpdve:uct.l 8lanpriccet Eva &6[x4pra, v& tb Ei &not6)eo1ra elvcl.tv& toir &nayyd),).ead.Lxd'cna(oplayr,' atn6. 'H napagpoo'6vr1 i).appuvtx6: Eva rluXr,atprxb&),),o0r,, tig (4or1 paor,oprdvo o'ti1vinrorvlpovrxo?ro roit Xprotravuopo6' xaxig npa\ery,noir rcal,al6repa &noDi6ovcavotbv 6r,tiBo).o noU xup[eue tdv xaqlopo6pevo, perapopgc6vovror oE <<dxclcrupocpryeg 6ppign noii rdv xdvouv napdgpova. Kal o'ri6 6ub neptnrcboer.q, 6 xaolyopodpevog ioyop(\erar 6tr, Elv L\e#)...eeoe iyxtrripaclv .. r mi1n p ulq 6 i6 rog, &).),& 6t r h n p oEn npdTp o(ron o rt'19qxe p 6oc"o 6pp{ co6 o6pat66 tou>> &nb tbv Dr,dBol,ot rnv dxanctcv(xtlcvi 'Ev tou. 6).iyor,g,6tavoi &vOp<,lnor, zc[n(oteoorvocbv Er,<lBotro, oreuo(v6cr,f1xupr,aplia roir 6r,aB6),ou npoxatroDoetb 61xtr4pa. T<ipa noU oi &vOponor, zcr,oredouv orlv 6naplnqS'cp€)wq,xtrfuXao9€vetu ote6ouv 6cr I npoxalel tb 61xtr4pa.
@)

p) VuXoocopatr,x\iaqtxil: f1..gr,loooqtrl,>> o'6pg<,rva crlv 6notu tfuXr,xig xai ol tl.ruXr,xi6 oi ooparlxlg &o06ver,eq eivcl.u &ol€veteq oclpanm€1 A6tig oi &vor1o(eqixuvonoroCrv 6rn)d or6yo rdv coir inayle),patr,opo6: vd 6[utfc6oeu tdv ei8Lxb pri tbv ioXupr,opb 6cr, rd" noLvroelvat xrlcrr&),).o,&nb a6rb nor) <paiverat 6rt elvan,xal vd 0notrplloer, rdv &v[6eonpoxa],clvtag odyXuorl odiv xor,vii),oyuxl1.

134

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Vulr,arpr,xl Oe<opia: dhe gia tnBeBa[oror1toO rcpogavoDg, (reuDilglevixeuorl Lxnecppaopdvrl teXvr,xil6po),o1ia, eire prr,& oi prr&6 apooanmilg oupTreprgop&g, v6pou clg (luXo),oy[aq. rig
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).oyr,xi1 OepaneutuxoD to6 iprner,pr,opoD tfuparprxri ; Evo.g ociiv 'O pl &v8pag&vocBet roryapo oi Eva Ba16vr, xanvr,(6vrov. ouve"Ef,a),),og, prl :rrBdrqq rco &.pyi\er, Bri1er,. v& Dr,6cu eZvotl xanvr<<O& ornq,tr6er: npotr,poDo'a pilv xanv(\ere. E6pere,Elv eivar vd 'O 'Eyd <<Kdvere ),<iOog. 01cer,v6>>. xanvr,ociig&nuvro.er.: xanvf'Eoei6 (coxaf 6iv B{Xor. 6iv xanvi(ere xo.\BriXete>.
@

Tb pavr,axb&topo oupnepr,g6pero(r cilodvrd.xocvro. ocbv x6opo iv8raqdpov xai ozrou8ar6oira 1t,'40t6' tb v& 6Xouvrb pdyr,o'ro xur.c,9\nwuxd&rogto,6odv rtnoro- vd prilvtyet oqpaoiu."O pavr,axbgzcpoonaOei xa),6tfel td leyovbg 6tr 6XerBape0e[Qv v& i6t,a tou cn (cori' 6 xataOfu,ntrxbg 6tr, r|l ouyuiverat.
@)

"Onco6 )GetEva na),rb rluXratplxb &vdx6oto,6 veupoor,xdqyti.\er (ei w nrr)tanrc otbv &6pa, 6 tfuX<,lor,xbg p€oa o' ct.b:,d. 6 tpuXiatpog eionpartet tb voixr,.@dnpoo60era 6u 6 tfuXiatpoSxo.ao'.g, o oxeoa\et Ev t nay y e),pa xoci,Veao.g pLx6r g ul,axd6, 6 veupco a or,xbg&no\4td.. nap11opr,&oi a0t& xr 6 tpuXoorxbgeivau xrlc^Ecl.6r,xaop6vog (ei g6oa o' ubr.o'. v&
@)

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II/XIATPIKH

135

Xo0epane(a pnopoDv eTrev& xananpailvouv eite v& Dr,eyeipouv tdv &oOevl1'Lfo.gr&rrlcr, &nb rb ei6og r\q oboiaq noU 0& xwcr;.nwi xui &nb tb ei8og t{g ouvopr,},iagodlv 6xoto- g& 6pn}.axei.
@)

Ol &v0pornor, po{0er,a-&nd Quxooulvd &va(qtoDv tf uXr,atpr,xil Oepanefap6xputpuXr,atpr,xb Lyx\etop6- iner,Eil alo0<ivovtat 6r;t Oil npotr,proOoocv eival ne0apdvol. 6rrl;v| <<0epane[c>> v& toug 6),oxtr4por0ei,ooyv&.,eival vexpoi AII& Dlv toirg neqrll(et nrlrl,.
@)

Oi ouveX6gEr,antr4xrr,(6pevor o6(uyor,, ooyv&., &no8l8ouv 6 pr, Drircote ivoX).ei xai ntrqycilver, oQ oupfisprgopd o'Eva &nb t& 6(ig E6o .{kw: 6&v 6 o6vtpogog Eiv xdver,<<0epane[a>> xai <<&pveltarvix (rpi1oa, po{Oeta>>, r6re 1r,' a0td <prcl;(,et, xrlrnotcx <<{ru1ao06velcr>>' rcri},r, ihv xdvet 0epotnetrl,,r6re<prr;liet ..Oepocf1 rei,a>> noU &xo),ou0ei. Kai otig Dub nepnwtioer,g,6 &vOponog noU oupzcepr,gdperar, Etot o:.,dvodvtpog6 roo, xaltor&., rp6rov w&,,no.pu),oya t& xivrpp6.tou xai tbv prelcirver, 6g &vOpcoxai r;rco,xcri a0tbg elvar ouXv& 6 npaypra:'rxbqtr6yogtlg petaf,U tcov &oupgr,lvla6.
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136

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

WuXratptx{: 6 6p. Jones6iv Enr,xpotei a6cb nob xdver, x. Smith 6 xal tbv &noxo'\ei tfuXa<i0evfi. Avtr,rfuXrarpmt'1:6 Smith 6iv Snr,xporeia0tb noU xdver x. jones xal cbv dnoxrl")wi tl.ruXao0ev!. 6 6p. 'H 6r,x{ prou0dor1: Ep. }ones xclc\ x. Smith Eiv oupna0oOv 6 6 6 Evagrdv &),),o.AocpaLdrg,rb neixarorc6 6tl Div ouprna0el vd xunotov &),),oveival no),U lr;tb 1nrc &nb cb xavet 6r,riyvcoo4 dc 'Edv eZvar, cpeL6g. mepryp<iQoupe dwtno.\$ pa6 &n),66 cbg rdv iX0p6 po(6,ouvexi(ouprev& tbv &vayvcogi(oupecbg&no),6cog &v0p<inrvo.'Av 6polgxdvoupeyr,'a6tbv priaDr,tiyvr,rol q Dutti -cptx\g ii .ti g &vruo gn1Lo'clxii prpop r,xii t! g tfruXra QuXrarpmilq xaf cbv yapann4piooupe tpe),6,t6re nclc6oupe tbv &vayvclpfvd (oupe <ig n).l1pog&v0pclnrvo.'ED6 &xpr,Bog (yxercrll xai tb 06).yrypo tdrv eixov r, xCtv&v cllnup t ao eav xrlc\rfiq y\d o o ag, fiq uo xcl'i tfiq dwt-,Qoytanpmfi6 zcoUxal oi Dub xrl:liunQuXr,acprxfiq ),e6owal tilv cpd).a: xclc?e &nb ci6 6ub xu?.rn,d.tbv 6prA1til prd &vcltepo &nd rbv &winu\6 cou, Xcoplg npoonrlcletcl.

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oxeor txig neno fifio euq6n a q, nap a6 eiyp anoq ycl"p txav av 6 r.v, Freud xai 6 Lenin. Katd cbv i6ro rp6ro, &),),oeivar vd &vtrrf0eoar orbv x].rvrxb nerOavalxaoprdxai dlv QuXr,arprxlxurclc:i.c(eo1, q xcl.vll, 6nia, Ly6' xcx\eZval ivte),66 Etocrpopeuxb np&ypa td vd &vurt}eorlrt orlg rluXr,atptxdqnenot?iloeq xcl.iouprpdo.er,g,6nuq xdvouy oi &vcl-QuX[acpor,. "Ev 6),i1org,a0coi noU Dnoo'cr1pf(ouv tilv B).eu0epfa&nb x6.0e 9p1oxeurlxil 1) QuXratpmil xanan(.eor1 &vuri.levrat 6yt otil 0p4oxeia i) clv QuXratprxll, &1I& orilv xaraxteorlyevma.

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r38

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Xi xtl0e ei6r,x6r4ra tilg x\wtxilq iarpux\q, Lxrbq rlg {ruXr,aapLv"i;,ol yratpoi xep8f(ouv rn g]ilryl tou6 &nb tiy i.xav6rrpa tou6 v& 0epane6ouv &o0evei6.Oi oqpraivovre6xo'\ L\6yoweg rluXfatpor -oi 6noior, ioXupi(ovrut no.po'no],U intpovu 6rt \ (.ruXratprxil elvat iarptxil ei6rx6t4ta odv 6).e6ti6 &}r)wq- &r.,oxroDv r4 gripyl cou6 6Xr1'aOtd noU xdvouv yr,&toi.rg&oOeveig roug &tr).d 1r,' a0r& noU xdvouv 1u& roirg o'uva8d),goug rou6. A0tb eivaL ouvax6),ou0o pi tb 6tr, o'ci1vQuXuatpr,xri&vrtle:.r; , &nb oiov8rinote &),trovtop6a rfiqimpm\qnpanat><\9, ol lr,atpoi peldtror>> <<yivovtar &nb toUg 6naEo6g rooq,6yt &nb toU6 &oOe'Enoprdvc.lg,Lxeivor. rfuXiatpor, vei6 toug. oi notr 6Xouvocl 6td0eoritoug rd pela),6repa &noOtpura i6r,cotrx6v &o0ev6v,dlore
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140

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

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142

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

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143

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24. "Nailbiting and Masturbation" The Medical Aspectsof Human Sexuality, November L974,o.l7l.

t44

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

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THOMAS SZASZ: AIPETIKA

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150

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

O[ aeproo6repor &vOponor nob OeopoDvrar<i6 Xp6vrorQuxao0eveiE, no),troi &nb tor)g 6noioug tnrcxtn'covrat xurd.6r,aoc41)napap6vouv olxelo0e),66 oi rluXr,at peiu, eivat (mo1ta Vd'cd. noU SXouv&pv4Oei 6eopeu0oDv vd eite otb v& \ilooov €ke o:ub v& fie0&vouv.Tb &notd).eopraeivo.t6tr, 6XouvBa),oapo0ei, odv -(c,.lvravoi i)/xal proo-vexpo[, xcl.\Toaqlr' a6rbv cbv vd frtav prr,oo 161o,oi no),),i g nep tnr cb elg, 6 lat4 poCryta o i Lxr"lt4x'u,x& o I xatrii rpuor,xil yr& Dyeia xai <<(oDv>> preytf),o Er,dot4pa.

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suit>>)- xal xep8foouv cilv <<outrtroyrxi &yrfn>> (<<class-action &no8elxvdet,o6ptgova pi toUg tfu6n60eor1, abr6,xo.i no'lvu, <<&o0evei6>> v6oo>> yturpooq,Srr, oi a0coi no.oyouv&nb <<rlruXlxl iv6 aOro[, ol 6ueu0uvtig c6v iDpuptarav, elvat onou6alot &v0pconrot66. pr1class-action MdXprtb 16),o6 roit 7973,nepfnou<<tptd,vtot v6oer6p.ey[ov6olpaotuqix8r,xdo0rlxav oL 6ltf cn X6pot- 6].eg Mi tdtv aoD6oxet(6peveg pi c& Dr,xar,cbpatot &o0evdrv>>. aOtbv M.D. -6 6roioq,6g npcbrlv'En[tbv tp6no 6 Milton Greenblatt, xoc'cnTo aponog VuXuxlg'T1ef ag tfr 6 Maoayo,to6'cqq,Ozir1p(e po6pevogoi pr,&tx rtl &1<,ry6v- p).6nera6cl clv i[d].t[1 66 €€ig : <<Kard,p(a twow, €fiiaore oi &nobr,onopr'o'iot rpayot yt' a6cd noir fi xorvtovia eiye dnortxet vd xaveuyr,&c& ),ry6tepo q6. e6vorlp6vapr6trr'1 IIap'6),o no6, oQv ireclc.y1cl.alx6r4ro',d(.ycl-oxtrqpd vd itratt<ilooupe tbv zttrrl0uopbtdrv voV.erEpooiroc0{oer, vd ooxopeiarvxai c6v (xpatr,x6v) oXo),eic'rv,1r,d &vant6foupe 'H xa),6tepegivatr),axtsxig tr6oer,9... Droixrlorittov 6r1poo[<ov rcpoTpo(t ufu,av, &v xal xavruy60ev npooBa),l,6pevr1dnb dwivd &vdpoug,pnopei, &v pti tt &},tro, eivar,Dneprigavl yt& fooug tbv p6l,o tvlg 6q i10onoto6oi Eva o6yXpovoDpdpratt.25 ei),txptvd rceAxpr,B6g,6nalg yt,d tbv iEroxtrioi oxl,tiBr,rv, yr,& rig netolt"tvo 1r,&td xl..r,ovextt'l1clc-co" oxltrr.Bu&q tdv vd1po,6 paDpognuv:uo' oxlwBoqi) Eva nldopa noU Bprox6cav norp6peve totr ovp xurrl.oacl.,on ox),dpou, iv6r 6 i6to6 frcav 6 e0yevr,xbg c6v &6uvdrav,ttot xai yl& tbv l8pupatr,xb rluXianpoolrln1q 'rpo, eitrlxptv&,rceTcero'pdvo cd n),eovexcripata to6 tpuXr,octpu1td t6v xoD iyx),eropo6yr,dcbv tpe),6,6tp6<pr,pog tpuXrarpeiavnotv&ppclotogi) Dtatapayp6vog&oOeEvagtfuXr,x& ta 0d napap6ver vr]g,3v6 txeivog 0& eival nocvruEva6eOlevlxbgyratpbg noU 0eparce6er coUg&o0eveiq.

25. Avutptperat otd APA Hoists Test Balloons over Crisis Areas: Fund Erosion, Class Action Suits, CMHCs, Roche Report: Frontiers of o. Psychiatry, 3:1-2,6-8 (Nov. L), 1973, 8.

152

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SZASZ: AIPETIKA

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154

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

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Sigmund Freud frtav odv rdv Henry Ford: xorltvrl.grooq ixv€ntu(e pr,d <<xa),6aepyl fiovcxonall8a>>. 6 Freud yd ev cp6],cr6 Ford yrd cilv petaxiv4o4. A),).d, Snrpdvovtaqht fi (ruXavri),uo1 Div frtav prr,doo(ip1or1&II& Eva iEr,altepo eiDog Oeporr'e(,cl.9,6 Freud Etet6nooe EvavioXupr,opb t6oo 6),ogtlvepa).cvOaoprdvo &nanqtr6,6oo xai tb v& eiXeioXupro0ei6 Ford, 6tr xo.i cb Model-T Eiv ficav ubtoxiv4ro &).),&Eva i6r,a[tepo ei6og &],66iv 1ou. Tb 6nfreuypa coD Freud, 6noprdvc,rg, ppirixerr;;tt6oo ocfv &vaxtllutpri tou, f1 6nota,5nco6xai toD Ford, Dlv firav 6rxilroo, Soo ociiv ixav6r4ra tou v& xavet cobg &v0p<irnou6 vd &noDeX0oDv d1v ra\w6pr1o4 co6 utnoxwiltou cb6&),61ou xai dtFlqoo\ipqolg65 0epanelag.'O Freud npaypant frtav iDroguia &),),d,xacd tlv &norlt'i1pou, 6r,apo).r,xi1 prd iDlo<puia.
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tpuXavatrutilg&vtrperorni(et 6)wg tig prop<pig oupneprqop&g 6nog 6 rcouprravb6 tb napdvoptoo6\:64laDl 06),er vd B).6ner avr txrxrao rfio et, Lyxe<p a\txo-, d1v ebyap[o u1or1 D &t6 p ou &n b ro d1v iDra tou ti'1oupfteprpopd, lrd tilv ipprlveia noD Diver,, yl' uistilv,11 0evtia' tr o t, n p anz:.l in 16 xer v& Xpq pro r.ipet a0 xa r,cb or xo tilv ippr4ve(aroo <ilqprudDrxalo),oy{a ytd. vd xata6rxuoet, vd. dxayope6oer, pri 8r,dqopougrp6nooq,vd xa0oploer, oupneii, cil 'Ev pt<popd Dnoxerpdvou. 6),iyor,g,6v6 toD qarvopevrxdt QuXov<i),uo4eivar f1 oefoua),r,xonotr1o1 tlg oupnepr,gop&q, otilv It edy trd-c Lx6rrpa eZva ri fi o up rro(v x ono Qcfi :*1q. r L eD

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(egouox6vel tbv oc6pqo to6 xa0eydgxai ti6 xor,o'atr,pl(atv vr,rvr,xig |noxptoLr4le),olonor,cbvxd.qaes. prdoov Tb tou eivar rb ydl,r,o, pd0oE6g f1 rou eivocl &vanoDoyupi(ertd npdypara xrl.i v& vd 8qpr,oupyei pr,x xanuoraoetq.'O tf uXava),uti16 xco iq 6r,oyxco verrd, Trpooonr,xd npoB).qp ura xo'\rlg xorvr,rvr,xig ouppdoergpi tb vd 0p4vei.M6oov tou eivar r& 8dxpua xai pr60o86g vd tou xuvet Drayvcloerq. 'H oantpa,6nop6vr,l6, &No),ou0ei napdDoorit6v "EIII7clv vcov xal t6v Xpr,otravdtv, toO Apr,oro<pavn toir Swift. 'H 0uxai &xo),ou0e[ rcapdDoorlr6v'EBpaialv r6v rcoutilv xorl Xavd).uo1 pltav6v,'coO Freud xai roD Menninger.
1i)

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).dcpr1g oatpaq ye).olonolei tiiv tp6).a, &),).atl o€Berar :#1q 'O ye)del yrd v& pilv x).tlrJ,rel. {uXava},utii6 xavet Dr,dlvoor2r[g 'Ev tpd).agxai Qv 0nopr,Bd(erx\a[etyrd vd pi11e].doer,. 6],iyor,g,

1Dr)

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

'O

Sigmund Freud frtav odv rdv Henry Ford: xorltvrl.grooq ixv€ntu(e pr,d <<xa),6aepyl fiovcxonall8a>>. 6 Freud yd ev cp6],cr6 Ford yrd cilv petaxiv4o4. A),).d, Snrpdvovtaqht fi (ruXavri),uo1 Div frtav prr,doo(ip1or1&II& Eva iEr,altepo eiDog Oeporr'e(,cl.9,6 Freud Etet6nooe EvavioXupr,opb t6oo 6),ogtlvepa).cvOaoprdvo &nanqtr6,6oo xai tb v& eiXeioXupro0ei6 Ford, 6tr xo.i cb Model-T Eiv ficav ubtoxiv4ro &).),&Eva i6r,a[tepo ei6og &],66iv 1ou. Tb 6nfreuypa coD Freud, 6noprdvc,rg, ppirixerr;;tt6oo ocfv &vaxtllutpri tou, f1 6nota,5nco6xai toD Ford, Dlv firav 6rxilroo, Soo ociiv ixav6r4ra tou v& xavet cobg &v0p<irnou6 vd &noDeX0oDv d1v ra\w6pr1o4 co6 utnoxwiltou cb6&),61ou xai dtFlqoo\ipqolg65 0epanelag.'O Freud npaypant frtav iDroguia &),),d,xacd tlv &norlt'i1pou, 6r,apo).r,xi1 prd iDlo<puia.
@)

Xcil Br6vv4 roCrFreud Eva dy6pt &vaxootptle tilv rceiva rou, ri6 nepr,el6pevotoD iwdpou tou pri 9p6gog, &rcb pr,d vtclrvrcl-,cb xlr6opara xai tlg oefoua),r,xtqroo 6pp66,cbgveapbg &),1d xai &py6tepa 66 ivll).rxog,prt ti6 rc6pveg. Bdorl a0cdgtig ipnecMi p(.e;,6 Freud dvux'i1po\etdv €aut6 tou ci6 tdv tf uXooef,oua),r,xb vopo06oi toir &v0ptonivouydvoug.
@

'H rfuXavd),uo'r1 eivar prd xarvo6pr,a ix8oXli toO'Iou8aiopo0.'O 6p065ofoq'EBpaiog ntoretet 6tr, oi "EBpaior, eZvaL flepro6or,o9 6 'O t\a69, &vc6repo6 6),olvt6v &),),clv. 6p066o{og VuXavatrucilg xaf 6 llrulavatru6pevogzctore6ouv6t o't &va).utlg xai oi &va).u06vce6 eivar oi'Tyrelg Av0potnor,, &vc3tepot 6),arvc6v &).l,cov.
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@eia E6Xapr,oc[o"tyettilv iDra oy€,or1, €va np6leupa pr] pi fl 1epocne(a cil ouvlpi Qopi xcx\xpaoi,nor) 6Xer, QuXava).utr,xi1 "Ootaeivar 0roprdvrl o,t\iryqory Tb leyovbg 6cr f1 tfo:pi tnrcxta-

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\IIYXANAAY'H

157

(erat otrx panw rC,>v nmCtv &nb tb 6dog xcri tbv oepaopd rcoU yu& vrr,r0ouv cilv'Exxlqoia. Mi tbvi6ro rp6no,td leyovbg6^cti1 rl|l uXavd).uor1 r oo("t'pqor1 nrcxta\era r orb pu a)d t6v zc rrirv eiva t r,o &nb cb E6ogxocitbv o'eBaopbnoU yl<,tgouv tilv iarptxil. yrd

'O

tpuXavatrutilg&vtrperorni(et 6)wg tig prop<pig oupneprqop&g 6nog 6 rcouprravb6 tb napdvoptoo6\:64laDl 06),er vd B).6ner avr txrxrao rfio et, Lyxe<p a\txo-, d1v ebyap[o u1or1 D &t6 p ou &n b ro d1v iDra tou ti'1oupfteprpopd, lrd tilv ipprlveia noD Diver,, yl' uistilv,11 0evtia' tr o t, n p anz:.l in 16 xer v& Xpq pro r.ipet a0 xa r,cb or xo tilv ippr4ve(aroo <ilqprudDrxalo),oy{a ytd. vd xata6rxuoet, vd. dxayope6oer, pri 8r,dqopougrp6nooq,vd xa0oploer, oupneii, cil 'Ev pt<popd Dnoxerpdvou. 6),iyor,g,6v6 toD qarvopevrxdt QuXov<i),uo4eivar f1 oefoua),r,xonotr1o1 tlg oupnepr,gop&q, otilv It edy trd-c Lx6rrpa eZva ri fi o up rro(v x ono Qcfi :*1q. r L eD

"O

(egouox6vel tbv oc6pqo to6 xa0eydgxai ti6 xor,o'atr,pl(atv vr,rvr,xig |noxptoLr4le),olonor,cbvxd.qaes. prdoov Tb tou eivar rb ydl,r,o, pd0oE6g f1 rou eivocl &vanoDoyupi(ertd npdypara xrl.i v& vd 8qpr,oupyei pr,x xanuoraoetq.'O tf uXava),uti16 xco iq 6r,oyxco verrd, Trpooonr,xd npoB).qp ura xo'\rlg xorvr,rvr,xig ouppdoergpi tb vd 0p4vei.M6oov tou eivar r& 8dxpua xai pr60o86g vd tou xuvet Drayvcloerq. 'H oantpa,6nop6vr,l6, &No),ou0ei napdDoorit6v "EIII7clv vcov xal t6v Xpr,otravdtv, toO Apr,oro<pavn toir Swift. 'H 0uxai &xo),ou0e[ rcapdDoorlr6v'EBpaialv r6v rcoutilv xorl Xavd).uo1 pltav6v,'coO Freud xai roD Menninger.
1i)

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).dcpr1g oatpaq ye).olonolei tiiv tp6).a, &),).atl o€Berar :#1q 'O ye)del yrd v& pilv x).tlrJ,rel. {uXava},utii6 xavet Dr,dlvoor2r[g 'Ev tpd).agxai Qv 0nopr,Bd(erx\a[etyrd vd pi11e].doer,. 6],iyor,g,

158

THOMAS

S Z A S Z . .A I P E T I K A

6 ),<irprlg prdv fiqoorupaq<<&xey0avero(L>> aOcobgnoU oacpi(er, &).).&ror)g &vr4teran{\et ra,gioor:,g. 6 tj.ruXava}.uc}ig iv6 <<&yan&>> a0coirg noU &va).6e1, &),)d cobg &vtrperani\er. roqxar<btepoug.
@)

T&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&nt6pa otdv Auclxd x6op.o dpa,0tipowau 1) &noterppcb-

vovrdL,Xcopl6 v'&privouv &v0pcSrclva 6l,r,xd&nopelv&pr,a yr& vd rpago6v rd. d.pnaxnx& noul,r,d.A0rb nor) &gllvouv rc6pa nioto cou6 oi &vOpolnor, Loolq eivar,I rpl1p1 66 tou6. xai eival a0c& td &ij).a &nopewcl.pra,p! c& 6rcoia n).ouci(ouv t& &pzcaxttxd. d g o'ryXpovri g iatp6 rcMx-cnqLrot'6 Lta"q oi tpuXava),utlg xal oi rfuXoiotoptxoi.
@)

i(opol,o.(non &vtorotyei prdtbv 6),e60epoouver,pprb b:n,ra,q xa\ \ &cpeolpd Tnv Epprlveia, Snog xai 6 ayr,aopbgpi tdv xanvb coO zco6pou, Snog tb rcporcatoprxb&pdptqpa p| td oi8r,n6Dero o6pnl,e1pa,6nroq ti QuXil pri cilv tlruXo8r,avo1rmil puq xaruotao4 Srcog6 iepdag pi cbv tfuXavaLuq ,lnli,qcd Bacr,'Etatpe'a xavb pi tilv VuXava),utr,xi1 rlg Brdwqq,6noq xai 6 'I4ooCrg pi tbv Freud.
@)

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iepdag Ba\et rbv petavoo[rvta v& yovatfoer,. 6 (.ruXava],ucii6 tdv &oOevfcbv Bd(et v& fanl,ciloer.Kal otig Dud nepnwrhoetg,i1 guor,xil Drdra(4 fig oovavt4o46 oupBol,i(er tb xupiaplo 06pa tlg ouva),trafng perafD c6v oupprereX6vccov:iep6a6 0d).erv& 6 x&vetrdv peravooDvta v& vr6oet tazrelvc,rp6vo6. QuXava).uQg 6 0d),el vd xavet rbv &o0evl vd vlcSoerdvioyopoq. "Eyovrag tnrp&).elrb <<zcponatopr,xb &pdpqpa>> otbv 6[opo].o1o6prevo xal lyowaq iptpute6oe r,cl << ve6pc,t n rtlg per apiBao4 g>> o otbv &o0ev11,6iepdag xai 6 tl.ruXava),uQg pnopoDv o'ci1ouvdXelav& o6oouv tbv Evav &nb clv &paprtcl- xcl.itbv &),).ov &nb ciiv &ppc6ota xai vix ixnarcfioouv Qv ui.risvlrle0yvor1,roo6v4 toug ineu8il toUg <<6oc'loo(v>>.

II/YXANAAYXH

159

tf l &vOpclnolXctpigXr,oDpop Div livovrar xa),oi Oepaneu6prevor t,t\ o'tOepaneutig Xt,tpi6 yivovrat &nrl;[orctdva],ut6<. Xr,oDpop
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H €wota $19 p.el,ocBiPao1g dvoc<p€perocr,, Ev pdper,oi pnd ouyxezgtp.tvrl&vti).4tp4yld d1 oy€or1&va),urfixai &va).u6pevou, 1 onota npooranelel tbv 6va,1 xai toD6 Du6,&nb cb E6),eap roD oe(oua),uxoD nelpaopoD. Tontxa, a0cdg eivar,6 rp6xoq pri rbv 6noio fi preraBipaoq iertoupyei cbg &puva. Mrd 0epaneu6pev4 vlcl0el b),o xai peTo(i6tep4 E).(rixai npbg Qv r'poor"onLN6r4ro' npbg tii oe(ouaxai - xo;\Totl,g &vrtorp6r.Lxi1 0n6otaor1 6vb6&ppevo6&va).utr2 xo;i 'E&v rpc,rg. 6 &va).uti16l,6eu 0epaneu6pevri od1 tou 6u txe(vr16yet xavet xanotu gL"erocBtBcl.oyi abr6v,xai 6 i6uog zcuote6et ftpb6 6rt aOcb eivar,&).r10er,a, aOtd rcob Svvoeirar iD6 eZvo.r fi 0epa6tr, neu6pevr2 06).er, Div otilv <<zcpayganm6t4ra>> oe(oua),rx&a0tbv ;bv iDr,o(&II& xanorcv &).).ov), np&ypa tb 6noio 6reuxo).6veL tdv Oepaneuclv& tlGy\et tig oe(oua\m€g.uou6pplg npdg tb T,ecrT1cxrlxd np6otono to6 rueltur1.T6te,f1 6vvola :i19 gt"eruBt66 luon; ).er,coupyei &puva yrd cbv &va).ut4. 'Edv &noDeXOeZ a0ti1 tilv €pp4ve[a,a6rb | 0epaneu6pevr2 noU ivvoelrcrl 686 eivoct a6di Div 06),er 6u oev <<npo,y1L"artx6r\rd.>>rdv &va),ucl oe[oua].r,xd (&tr],d xanorcv &].],o), np&1pra ;b 6noio xoce^to:'d'., yrd 'xe(vr1,e6xo),6cepo vd 6).dy[ercl6 xai rb oe(oua),rxeSan;6ppig npd6 tb ::'pot.yv"ocrLxb np6oorco to6 &vaiucn. T6te f16wota rfiq p,erocp(go.on; ),eltoupyel ci6 &puva yr& Q 0epaneu6pevri.
oD

oi &va).urdgnou xavoov &vaxlurmrl lepo,neio-ezvarodv tor)6 'Irioou[reg nob ].ettoupyoCrv 0rcr1peoicl'yro'. pr,d itaptboeq. Oi tfutou6 vd oclpr,X0oDv XavaLuti6 iv0app6vouv tob6 &oOeveiq o., abto6g,6v6 6 x<bdmaqro,tg&nanrei iv0app6vouvtoU6 &oOevd

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

'Irloouireg velgroug v& ocripi(ovtau otbv 6aut6 rou6' ol 0d npootpepav iatprxig napepB&oerg, 6v6 6 \9uxoq toug xc56r,xa6 dxanrei vd &rcdXouv &n'a0tlg odv v& inp6xelto yrd Dol,ocpovfa. A0rbg eivur.Evaq&nb toUg ),6you6yr& coirg 6nofoug 0e<op6 Q o611pov4 &preprxavrxilQuXavdtruoq,otilv 6noia oi &va),ucig prr,d xdvouv rd. nclcv:co. ixtbg &nb QuXavd),uor1, i10rxi'1 npootuXr,tl.
@

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&va),udi6 0d tnpene vd eival xana\6rqq,6reuxol,6vovta6ciiv &wlr'olpoc9eor1 Qv inr,xouvorvia xai pri ro6 &o0evoDg rbv €auc6 rou' 6aop6vco6, lxpene v& peool,aBei&vapeoa o:'\gnapa8e0d ><rEqxc"i t-rit tig napcr8extig inlOupfeqxrl.i &xogo.oeqtoD 0epa'Ev zceu6pevou. 6),[yor,g,6 &va],uci1g 6]v &]t]tu(ettbv &oOev{, poq0&tbv &o0ed1 &tr).ti[eu iEr,og iaut6 tou. A0tbg &),)d vd 6 cbv eivar Evag&rcbroU6 ),61ougnoU Eva66(<,lrepr,xbg napacriplcilg cfg tfuXava).utrxflg Eloc8lxaolagnoti 6dv pnopei vd.\epeu yl,oc:u[ Evag &vOpclrcog Eiv Eyet tx\),tu\er,, &nor€)reogto.tiq QuXavricig pnopei v& 6Xeu ).uor1g:6 dva).uci16 &nor6yet v& 6c6o'er otbv 0epaneu6pevo rb xara\tr1).o ei8o6 Bori0era6, 6 0epaneu6pevo6 i) prcopei vd.tyet rpoulrfioer, v& napapeivet lnra,qiprltv.
@)

Oi rluXava),utig 6Xouvyp&tperixaropp6pwl6\e4 oXetuxd pi Qv nopvefa xo'\ OndpXerpr& 6yxcir8qgQulaval,utr,xil gr,),o),o1ia
tl.ruXona0o),o1[a yvcopf(cl r6v zropv6v. A],],ti, &n' 6oo 1r,&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&dlv

yptltf.rer iy<6,oi (ruXava).utig Dbv6Xouv o6re pr& ),6[11 olecr,x&p] tb d orlpafver,rpo<pbgxcl'\ nord eZvar, Eou],er,arnq xai 6iv f2 0ndpXet xapu& tfuXava),urr,xiiBrB),r,oypcltgtu obre yr,dclv tpuXuxil 0ye[a o6ce1r,& tfuXao0tveteqclqnapapotwo.q.Kt 6pag,now tig eivat fi 6ragop& pera[U a0t6v t6v 6ub tdf,ecovluvar,xdrv; 'H pr& Dave((er toU6 praoco6g f1 o16 yld cbv 0r2).ao'p6, &tr\ ytixyo.'H Dra. pla nou],&rb yd],a qg, fi &II1... &pp61erar,.

}I/YXANAATXH

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"Evag

oxu0pt'rnb6 &vOponog pnopei vd 6Xerno).),ig &[r6troyeg i6r,6u1te6, &IId f1 onr,ptti64 Eiv eivat pia &nd a0t6g. Md tdv i6r,otp6no,Evag tfuXava),ucl6pnopei vd.tyet no),),ig &[r6troyeg Eiv iEr,6c1ce6, &I),& \Lxuv6r4ra v& 0epane6etQv tl.ru1ao06ver,a qEvagoxu0ponb6 6}.i1otg,&xptp6 g 6nro eiv p{a &nb clrbr€g.'Ev an Eiv prnopelv& eivaL ontpr6(og,U-cotxrl.\Evagtfula&v0pc,rnog Aoga),69, Evag va),uci1g pnopei v& inevepyei 0epazceu:,rxo-. 6dv pnopei v& Borl0rioer, tou, tbv rr.;e}v..ocrq &xpr,B6g {.ruXavatrud16 pnopei vd :teplnorcirc;,tEvav 6n<ogEvagoxu0ponb6 &vOp<lnog cpil,o 6nc,rg 0ndplouv no),),oi tp6nor, vd outou. AI).& &xpr,B6g xdveis,&zcbtoir6 6noiou6 p6vo prepr,xol Xapaxc4p(\ovrut Q(nrcxet ria&pXouvnol,)d ei64 Bori0ewqixrcb 6no[a t& ontgt6\r.xot,trot p6vo pepr,x& Xapaxtlpi(ovtar, 66 0epaneia.

VYXA>@ENEIA

Katd0),rtfq : abroxanqlop(a xal a0tol6 irnon. "E [aporl : A0toaya],],iao1 xu\ abroex0er,aop66. flapaio0rloq: n[or1 nor) Oecopeirat eival tpeu8rlq,dnb 6u xanorcv noU 6iv cilv ivorepvi(e'cat. Ilapa6efypanoq yapw, fi 'Ex).extb6 Aabg Oecopeltal EBpaixiln(otq6tr, oi'EBpaior eivar 6 ruiortl6rt. &nb toU6 XplorlavoUq napalo04ovl' xai rj Xpr,ocr,avr,xil 'IrlooCr 6 Ay,aopdvog'Aptog eivar rb o6pra toCr Oecopeltau napafoO1or1 toDg'EBpaioug. &nb p II apa roOri r, pela),o paviag : prercrqo rxi1 i.xeo &n6pp t oe g [a, Qq coD ciixroo xo'\ Lntlfir4orl ro[r tp06vou. VuXavalx aop6g: Eppovega0ro6raXerpr,(6peveg i8deg. Kurocvocyxct.op6q: Dtaca16g. Epproveg a6to6r,aXerpr,(6pteveg
@

Ilapagpoodvl: &ner0o.py(.a otoUg xav6veq ti6 e61evr,x\qoo'Ev prneprgop&g' otbv yovta, tbv o6(uyo ii Trl o6(u1o. 6),i1or,6, oQv no),tt txil L\oootu. Tpd),a: dwapoia.
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<<zcapavofxbg>> Evaq&v0p<,lnog 6t eivur. noU Snr,p.dvet Dlv tbv oupnaOeig 6rav 6vraq Div tdv ouprnaOeig, noU I eOydver,a xai , 0& &nar,co0oev& otoond..
@)

Kti0e &vOpciurrvlnpcl,ln pnopei v& 6pprlveu0eio6pgova p) tb 1) xouvc,rvrxdrg npoo'Eoxc6pevo 3v &wu06oel npbg ab'c6. IIo).),i6 r€ro wg, xo svrov g << tpuoroloyr, rx6 x€q>>, a\er.g 0ec,lpoltvtat np trii popgig tfuXao06vewq' \oytxu,6),e6 ol &v0pclnr,veg npd{eug 0&

'd

}YTXA>OENEIA

163

pnopoDo'ocv eivat popglg tf.ruXao0dvelag. nclprltxanto vd Td no.pa6efypar d. oxLaygd.goDv ],oyr,xi1 g xo rvcov pi2oupBati g di tl r,x& oupr.neprgopag i7 6xofu preprxdg qopig dtroxcl.]yei:eclrt <<xoLro"aOclg ii ixefvlg tlg ),ertoueTio.;cbqtfruXrxlgd.o}tver.rl4. Xp1oyj>> Kcxtcxypqo1 orij oeNoou\txn rcpd[I : o.bro-txrlLvonotrlor1, Er,aotpo<pri, 6progu).ogu),ia. Br.aop6g, Karuyprlorl gayryoD: veuprxil&vope[ia (cb &toproxata8r,xa(et rbv 6aur6 rou v&,ne1rlcvet &nb netvu). naluoapx[a. i8rorpon[eq orb rpayqr6. Ilarayprloyl orij Xpnon vapxocxdrv o0or,6y: 6nepDooo),o y(,a od1 Xpnon v apxartxi,tv, 60ropbg ot& vapxotrtxu. no{pr)Lv oer Df6 o1r(ogp6vera (6rcerEi1 xclcnol.r,q &pveiral vd. naper. qrlcpgrlcxrl. prdouvtayil yratpoO). Kan ayp4on'ci; fl,c5ooag:'TrcolovDpia. 6orep [u. oyr.\o cpp€vew. Kcxrcxyp1o cov a n'ci.- 6 p l),ia6 : Acp [a. xanur ov io-.tpa6]. r,op . Kcxrcxyp1o $1q 6 pao r1q Onr mi g tf.r Ea ro0rio.eg. Soceprxi1 :' eu r 4 t6<p).aroq. Kcrrcryprlon ai€ &xor1q:Axooottxdg tfeu8aro}fioeq. 0otepr,xi1 xrirgclori.

'O

'O petavdoqg pr,),tier, xocr'ol,o' gt"i iDr,aiteprl npogopd. veupol'O trxdg &xo6et zai B).6ner, Evav 6lx6 tou, iDr,afcepo pi rp6rco. p"ercrvcrocqg inrBdL),er cig dvclgnlpetgroD otiiv 6pl).ia rou. 6 veuparolxbg otlg Bpneplegcou.
a)

"'Otav €vag &v0polnogl6et yr,d Evav&),).ov6u elvw tfuXao0evri6, rbv xatlyopel 6tl Eyetxavet xant xax6. 6rav ]G,et yr,drbv 6aut6 too 6u naoyet &nb {luXao0dvera, ai:roxavlyopeZrar, yt& tb 6u tyet xaveL xant xax6. )rrlv rcpcirol nep(ncaotl xunorcq p.erurp€net xanotov ct).),ov &no8ronopnaio apd\o. o,cl Ee6teo'i pyl,lrero(Tpdner iaut6 tou oi &noDronopnaio rpayo. tby

1.M

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

A0td nob ol &vOponorocl6 p6pegpuq&xoxa),oDv tJ.ru1r,xi1 &oOdvera, i6ir,rEpdoa oi Eva vopr,xbnltaioto, Div eivar,yeyovdg&),).& otpavywfi' 6iv eivar xanclcorcltoq &ltr& pl& ouTxexplp6v4 no)vrtx't'; 6v 6),[1or,9,6 Dnotr,Odprevog &o0evi16 naoyet &nb tl.ruD]v yuo06vew &),),d np6xer,tar,pr&),),ov tb n6g 6Xouv&no<pcl.oiyl& oer v& oupneprg6povro(r &ntvotvri tou BxelvornoU tbv 6vopti(ouv tpuXao0evri, dhe rol:. d.p€oetdke 6y..
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Evvoracl6 no),).an),!6 npooantx6rrytaqi1av no),b cfrg p68ag xand. tii Dr,dpxew :.fig &I),ap6 to6 airiva, 6rrlcv6 Janet, 6 Kraepelin xal 6 Freud lxclrvotvtlv nparcon6po bpyrl.oraroug. A6'd1i &vcitrr1tf.r1 oxloc.v1pdleei o1pawrxb p6),o tbv 6noio tyeu rbv nai\et f1 &vaxprBrig,tfeu8oe?rror4lrovrxi Xpyioyl r\q y\thooaq ody dvocnro|r-.:4tr.s K&Oe &vOpconog eivar,ixavbg QuXr,atpr,xflg. vd. nai\et Dr,ag6poug p6).ou6,&xpr,B666nc,rgxocle ainoxivryro eivar ixsvb vd cp6[er,oi Dragoperr,xig ray6r4req. tb vd trdpe, inoprdvarg, 6n Evag&vOpolnog 6Xer<<no),),an).i1 npooronr.x6ulrcx>> 16oo v6qtrta6oo 6Xertd v& ldel xaveig 6u Eva ubroxityet v r1r tye t << ).),an).1 Euvar6trlc a ocbr xb 1oyl6>> o no o .

'H

6 xet, o oupr QuXavd).uoq r,Edo &.pxe:rx a ora, 6t rd. veupato'lx& nr 6sp"araOndpXouv tr6yc"D &trurc,rv, DnoouveiEricr,rv ouyxpo6 oeov. IIap' 5).a aina,0d frtav nrb &xprpig v& nei xavelg 6t rd. veupc,rorxd, oopmrchpanai:qtoruvrar ),61<p coD yeyov6tog 6cr,tb 0noxelpevo, 6 izcovopa(6prevo6 <<veupr,lorx6q>>, tn]r€yet cilv &vanotpao rcrtx6'cr1ra&vti tfl g o6yxpouo 49 : &vr4t€ctonog pri cilv &vayxut6vpa toO v& nptnet vd 6r,a)d[et dvclcpeocl' Dub o! npaypana, t& 6rcoia Od),er L€,iooo &I).& nob p6vo rb Eva 6[ a0c6v pnopeZvd.Eyet,&pveitar vd inr,)d{el odv vd L}rni(et 6rr., nepupdvovtag ).f1o&x6gq,0& prnopoCroe rd.Eyet6).a. Mi a0ci1 vd clv Evvora,6 veupoor,xdg eivar,&n166 ).aiprap1og, rcpotlpcirwag

d

}ITTXA'@ENEIA

rd.paoavatoD <<oup:rt6p"an6q>>r,oo cb vd LyxrlLro'l.e;b$er &n' oDver8ritd xant nob 06).er.
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Oi inovopa\6pevot o'opapd (-ruXao0evei6 <tf.'uXr,totxoi>>) (i) ooioXup[\ovrat 6t eivut gopeiq i) 06para 0auptlccov.IlapaXvd 8e[yparoq yapw, ]dve 6tr eivar,6 '11oo6gXpr,ot6g,i) 6tr, 0n<ipotb txcppa(ouv&p6rpqtouq rcap6Xouv <piDr,a otoptixl -couS,i1 porou6 ioluproproUg no6, ).6yecar, eivut <<oupntc6p 6t aadr, 6E 'E&v <<oyt(oqp6vero(6>>. 0eopo6oape 6tr c& ).ey6peva ui.iud. &vi1xouv of Eva 0p4oxeortx6,p&),),ov, rcapd oi Eva iarpr,xb nltatorc, 0d pnopo6oapre &vtlpetorzciooupe vd a0toUg notr rd txgpa(oov prd 6vav nrb d(ronpenl tp6no: 64).a8rl, pnopo6oapevd Dra0& xrlp6foupret}'p r'ir.vl pag orig Oauparoupyi6 Euvdpetqtoog,6l. xdvouv xurtillotoo 6t Dnogdpouv&n'a0rdqxrl;\Etot 0d pnopo6o'ap.e roDg &noEctooupe v& tbv 6qer,).6pevo oeBaop6.ii 0d prcopo6oape Draxrlp6(oDpe 6uorcr,ot[apra6 v& rn yr,dtoDg &Bd(yra 0nep<puo.rxig orpoug ioXupr,opro66 roug 8uvat6trlteg i) yl& €nc56uve6 inr8pdoer,g) xai vd Elax6Qoupe xdOe nepar,rdpc,r oy6.or1pa([ tou6.
@)

eivat Eva L}tclL::,topcr pi.a dvanvlpla, ti2v i {ruXao'Odvetrlt 6noto"tyet 6 QuXao0evri g,xui 6&vtb v& eival xaveig QuXao0evlg eiyar odv vd eivar praDpog, yovrl;txrli) "Eppaio6-6r,6rr, xrl:}e pir;. &n'aOtig tigxanaoro.oa4oi &).),ap6pri xai &).),eg inoXig tyoov Oeorpq0ei 6),atcciprarai1 &van4pfe6- r6re tb iprirc4pa noU 0d pnopo6oape vd O€ooupre eivat:0d 6npene vd &vtr,pretconl(oupe rhv,i t6v, tfuXao0evil 6odv vd firav dvanrlpot i) 6odv vd pilv Snootqpi(ouv 6rr, 6iv npd\rrllv &vanyipor;Oi <<&v0pcozcr,otig>> ner yd &vtrpretonf(oupe a0toU6 roUg &v0pc6nou6 io.oug, rig xa0cbgtb vd xavoop.e xant -c€roro0& frtav &6r,xoyr,"a0co6g. 6nopr6varg, toUg gep6paote od,vvd frrav xan<brepot, inlBd).),ov-o'dv v& ruqrooq gtd. xocr6teprl 06o1 xclci 6n6otao.r7 frtav ox\u-

'Av

tffi

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Bor,,yuvaixeg,'EBpaiot xo'\ tpe),o[- xrl.i pa\tora p] tilv Onoorrlplqn cotr v6pou. Oi ).dcper,6 6),eu0ep[ag c4g 8r,arefvovtrl.t 6rt
np€net gep6paore v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&roir6 cbgioou6,xa06qtb vd xuvape 63r.-

drinote &tr).o0d flcav &6r,xo6Xr,p6vov yr,'a6roUg &Il& Lzrcioqg xai yrd 6l,oug coUg &),),ou6&v0pcJnoug' 6nop€vaq,6Ev pnopoCrpe roUg &vcperconl(oupe o6re o&y &v6tepou6, o6te odv vd xatc6repougxai 6iv pnopoDpev& toiig izcrpd).).oupe pr,di6rairepvl xorvovr,xl 0do4 xo"i6n6orao4. Xi pr,&i).e60ep4xorvcovfa, oi paOpor,, yuvaixag,oi 'EBpaiot xclci tpe),oi 0& Snpene,).oroi oi n6v,vd. &wclcyrovt\ovro(r 6),e60epa coUgl,euxo66,roUg &ppeve6, tor)g Xpr,ottavoUg xai roU6 tfuXr,dtpoug.

(Darvopevrxu, Alalvc,rotrxb xai Zranrctxb'EyXer,pi6lo tlg tb Apreplxavrxlg Vuparpmilq "Evcooqgeivclct Evaqxatd),oyo6 t6v tf uXao0evec6v' otiiv irpdTVd'cLx6r4rcl., pr g, np6xercat 1ld p r& 6 )y[ora r6v xanrlyopr,6v &v0pc6nrvqg t!6 ouprneprg op&S,6ntog tl6 &vrlDrcxppuve'co'l tnayye).pa a6t6. "Onc,rgoi Xpuoo0lpeg rb 6pro0eto0v Dr,xar,cbpr yrd. 6puXeia,cd 6noia bno,]tr.u(ovrat ara 6tr,xp6Bouv no),6trpa 6 poxra,btot xcl,i tpuliarpo r,6plo OetoDv oi iolupr,opoUq&vcl.<poptxd tpe),o6g,yr,&cobg 6no[oug 6notfr,dpd (ovran 6rz xp6Bouv no),6rr,preq d"o06vete6. ilocp' 6)w aina, xo.i nap'6),o rcoUth 6puXeiaDdvpnopoDvvd &vrlxouvocd pr6ra),).a ix 6noia L\ayovrat &n' clcinu,i rpd).a paopei vd. dvt'yet otor)g tpe),o66 iner8il a6roi eival &v0po7tor.'Ercop6vog,fi pr6vr1 0epuxe[a yr& tbv tfuXtatpr,xb ipnepr,a],lopbeivar,vd Snr,otp6tper Qv tp6).a otbv v6pr,poi8loxtrirn an<,tdv tpe).6' xai v& EcSoer orbv tfuXiatpo np6oBao4 o'a0Qv p6vo pi 6poug rsoU0d 6Xouv ou1-rgrovrlOei tbv i8r,oxtriq. pi

"Onorcg

<<xan€yet>> QuXrxli &o0dvera nt0avo),oyoOpe6tr tilv xai 0& ti2 gpovtloel. 'Edv .r&vi1xe>,otor)g tfuXrdtpoug, 0& T4 gpovtioouv ixeivor,' t&v dvrtxetoroU6 tfuXo).6you6,0d gpovtl

d

\IITXA'OENEIA

rioouv Lxeivot. xai &v &viyet otoDq &v0pc6nou5no6 , xo|rd"rd. oi v& np€ner. ti1 <gpOVt[oouv iDlot , garv6peva,ti.1v<<6xouy>>,-c6ae polOr]oelv& ti1 p6vor,roDg,l) va ppo6v xaxotov nob 0d toUg gpovt[oouv.
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6iv np6r()lcfipou,6tu I tpuXao06veua eival pla &o06velaodv &n6ner <ig Lvorttttco86g, prud oecop'{0r1xe tiq &).),eg ,d1t€oia]qx()(\ f1tp6),4' 6pmepr6xer, td r& pa v& &vaEr,aveprrl0o6v trd<pupa 6noia d1v <<tl.ru1ao06vsLo(>> firav 6o&v v& ap6terva vd &cparpdooupe &nb toDg tpuXiatpougxai v& di EdrooupeotoUg tl'ruXo)'6"you6' Tb @ootxa,Elv eixa xaprd r€rotoD eiDougzcp60eor1. vd ox669 tpuXao06veueg <<7rpoyrd tig Le^g6pteve6 1) rcao4rl:L v& prtrdco Div mpoBtrripo(rct>> Onoptrllpata Er,apialo46>> <<TrpoooTrtx& t 6g 65 {'ruXo}'6uori 6", 0er,rp6a6td t& <par,v6peva i6toxt4 o[o''cCov &nb tilv &pXl to6 6pyou pou yov. Md),uotcr,tb tytl\exrl:lapfoer, TiS 6tc tb (ttttpta toD i)'611ou t otg <<i8toxtrlold<>> oupTrept-0yr,oDg1)&ppcootlg, ).o1x!g ?)napd)'o11q- eivat &vaqop&&g g t! n6 onrlloro pdpog toD npoptr! Voc-cor- 6 6novopra(6prevrl QuXa 6tt, ytd vd xarantaotoOpe pi aOt& td npoB)'rivd'cd"' o06veuag' &(ia odiv pre'14]'6tep4 ngtnet vd &noqao'looupe &v E(voupre &v:.rorp6qog' xol\6'ctiy<ir,prE Dyeia x();\ &nb 6rr, oc)1v 6),eu0epia
tb ouvrlyopr'l 6ye[4, tilv &nb pia nuva tteu0e clv v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&tono0etd)

Dnip tlg intotpoglq tfrg ocopatrxlq 6ye[ac'xo.\{qq oc'rpatuxfiS &'o\e0yeiag xo.\r\q rl'ruXlxflg xrl) d.o06vetag,6ntog t\g tpuXuxfrS -toi-rg Lnovo'p"a\68lxauopat txc,tgxar6yoDqroug veLa"s,otoDg &ppcootouS- toUg q pevoug oopattx& &ppc,:otou xu\ rl'ruXrx& ?) oi &v0pr,rnougDr1).a6i1 6noior, ..eivo(t xanoyor'>> )'dyetal 6tr' ..givar xd,toXorn aDt<,lvrCavxorto.o:'o.oetov' Meprxoi &nb tot-rg Lnwprc€q pou )'dve 6ru xcl'vto)'d0o5' pnopei pe).).ovtrx& iner,Diloc0tbnoD tripa ).dpe<rlulao0dveta>> eivat tourtdruotov zceplrctdloetg. 6tu. oi preprxiq v& dnoDerx0ei eipratoD otilt"urog,tlv 6noia autil ci1 o'ctTpil Div pia &.o06veua Atr).& pria tap6pora np6oDog ote oi 06o4 v& Dr,ayvc,looupe. ocilv t61vr1rlq Drayvrooux\q &n).6g 0d npoodoete xauvoripua

168

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

orotyeicr otbv peytilto xanaltoyo t6v xuraoraoeotv noU 6vopa(oupre ..&ppcSotreg>>' xard xupr,o),e(iav &pp<6o'cr,eg 6qtra8^{. aOtb 6po6 6iv 0& &6uvdrr,(exa06).ou rb tntyeip4ptl pou 6tr &noxa),o[rpe 6pr,o'pdvoug r6noug &v0pc6nrvl6oulrTtepr,gop&g <<(ruXao06vsreg> 6t iE6 6Xoupe vd. xclrvoupre lrero(goxo'\ pri puxig &o0dvereg. 'A),),ou tr6ve6tl xclcvro ),dOog, iner,6i1).d<,r f1{.ruXao066Xr, 6tu veta eival xant }taqopeclxb &nb tii ooparr,xil d.o}€veta -xurt pri cb 6noio &),),cloce oupgovoOv-, o6re xl ineudii ).d<o f10e6tr panreru,i1 po6tr4ori,6}v 5r,6no(.a6}v otqpi(erar oQv i}.e60epr1 xaro),oyeirar,ytd rip dnoxa).o6pev1 rluXao06ve neptoo 6repo ta &nb 6p 0d prcopoDoe Erxar,o),o1q0ei vd otil o'copacr,xil &pp.6-xcl.i aOtb eiyar,pia i10r,zi1 orta &p7yipi Qv 6no[a 6n[o4g oupgcovoCrv-, &M& 6ner8il fitote6ouv 6cr,6 6poq <<tfuXao06verd>> npo oDropl(eu pia (po( pevo],o1r,x& LVo &vayvolpfo 4tr1xanqyo pia oupneprgopAsi 6no[a, xat& roUg ioXupropo6 eivat ypilS,c,oDg, yr& tlv 3nr,o'tr1pl rluXo).o1iag. or,pr1 116 Ilp6ca-np6ra,6pc,rg, &6 o'rlperdroor a6toi oi. Lnmprctg pou &nocpefyouv 6nr,pe),dora6tr, ta vd Dc6oouv6vav 6proprbcoD r{ oqp.aivertfuXao0dveta xo'\ ri oqltcxivel(ruXr,xil0ye[a' xut, xand.6e6cepo],6yo, 6notrpoDv nd pa no),U dlor1po.olo-cns&pXftg pi o6pcpc,lvoc cnv 6noiu,eiDLxd oi 63t ixqop&.cliv &v0pclnr,vr1 6paor4pv6rq:uo.,i7oqgtaoiu pl&g trd\rtq Bpioxetat p€oa orn Xprioyl:*6. t\€\er.6 6ncl6 <<zcapdgpc,tv>>, << gpevo B).4!i;rr, <<tpetr66 << uXao0evl g>>xai << uXco >>, tJ.r tl.r olxb g>> iE6 xai no.po. no],U xar,p6,xo.\aOrb ouveXlXpylorlronololrvrar yrd v& 6r,xar,o),oyrioouv &xo6oro tbv \e:'cl'tp6Xpl xai oriprepa, i1x),er,opb otd tf.rulr,octpeia clv &xo6ota lepcllneiu. xo.\ 'Ev 6),[yolq, &v xai eivar ooorb tb 6tr fi oupnepr,rpop& &v0p6ncovrcoUioXupi\ovran 6u eivut 6 Xprotbq fi 6 Nanoldolv Eracpdper, Lxetvrlc6v &).),c,tv &nb noU 6iv Lxgpa\ouv nap6proroug g, io'Xupr,opo6 elvat maparc),av4rlxbxui &vtv:'lcuo neplopi(ev& rat xocveiq &ntr6q o'i pfa rceprypagl c6v 6ragop6rv roug, orbv nor) f1nepr,ypagl a6tl Er,xaro),o1ei rilv irno>rcfiv<,roq xai Ba0pb rip xaranieorlr\g rcpcbqg 6p&6ag &nb cl 6e6cepq.

IYTXA'OENEIA

169

'E\

o"lrio.g toD cp6nou pi rbv 6noio XpTjortioztoroDpe pdpeg orig T4 f.6ooa, Evag &v0pt,lrco6Oeropeirar, €ke 'lsoytx6g uyli16 tro(6 dke,ltoytx6g &pparorog.?cav Evag&vOponogiveplei pi tp67ro xo rvoov r,x66 rcapexx\(v ovtu, t6te &noxcl')yei:ca << r, tl,ruXrx6 6 "'Otav &pp<,rocog>>. iyd ioXupi(oprar, Evagr6-cotog 6tr, &vOpconog Dlv eZvaltfuXr,x6g&pporotog bxoriletrltt bn r6v,i tnr,0eoptr , <<tfuXr,x6g 6yr{t .A6t6, B6Bol.a,eZval 3vte},6g}.av0aoprdvo. Kai "Otav 'Iepa 'E\&aor1firclLv va ywri: fi ord &rcoxoplcpag"a rqq, Evag &vOpt,lzrog i0ecopeZto€fte nto:<tg Ka0o).rxb6 eire alpetr,x6g. Tiiv inoXil ixeivrl,\rav Evu (wopo ivepyoDoepE Evav0p4o xeutrx6:q nupexxltfuovru r p6 no, o.br g, 1)aut1, d,noxal,o 0vrav 6 <<ui.petxotn.)oi orlpeplvil inoXil 6iv 0d 0eopo6oape aipecr,xb Evav rtrotov &v0pcono &tr).&obre xoci tbv 0eopo6oape 7rr0& orb Ka0o),rx6. Mi rbv i8ro rp6no,6rav &noppinret xaveig tilv twota {tl6 {ruXao?€vetag, D}v olpaivet 6u 6eope6etar,xai pi tilv &notl.rr1 adtoi nob o{prepa0eorpoDvtar, 6rr, (;u1rxd &ppc,locor eivar, odlv ireoty1oc'cn16r4rrl' tpuXrx&6ylei6. Anopplrctar xal ciq 66o 6vvor,eg Spoug66 tfe6ctxeqrocpn€)eg xor,vctvr,xil xai yr& oupp6pgtro4 xo.\ dn6x\to4.

f r,dno).).oDg ylarpoUg rca0o).6yo n[ov1 oci,lv<< roq povrxil oq, in iatpr,xil> oqgtclctvet tug).ii ntor4 otl Bro).oyrxi1&va1coy4.Kat& -i) oov€xetuv, zcr,ote6ouv 0eopo0v 6tr, 0& txpene yd rcuore6ouv6cr 6).a td <<Qu1,xd oupnrcopffEo'.>>,6n<,lg oi ,Qoyrl:vrl,yxrl.eivar, oytoi xui oi. xanocvcltyxo.op"o{, goBie6 xoci oi xaca0}.irfeq xr;c\ oi
6).a t&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&oyettxa,<<6iv eivar nap&>> Lwppaoeqguor,xdrv xai Bro-

),oyr,x6v6r,epyaor,6v ilxegti).ou, cig 6noieq Div EXoupre to6 Ecog tcbpa xutavo\oer. 'E&v ii0e),avvd onpr,r[ouv pdXpl d. &xprl *1 oov€.neto. roug,0& 6npene tniorlq v& nro,te6ouv6rl ri @efaKor<<Div vcov(a eZvo(r, prr,& nap&>> prcouxtrl-,xrlc\ frbpr Kr,zcoUp tb <<r[noca &1,).o p.ta &vrlcnrlcu),a, rb otopayl, zcpiv&nd Eva &nb>> yud 6pylo rcoiru<pay[ag.

170

THOMAS

S Z A S Z . .A I P E T I K A

Oi 6plavr,xoi tj.ruXiatpor, ioXupi(ovrat 61,r. rfuXr,xbg oi &o06ver,e6 <<:rpoxa,LoDvrocl >> &n6, i\ ouvr,oroDvta, << oultntcbpata >> ot,rpo( rtxCov &o0ever,6v 6noieg 0noB6oxouv xai nob ELv Lyoov,trt€oi Xpr orrTutg, &noxa\ucpOel&lI& &vap€verat vd. &vaxa],ug0oDv pi cnv np6o6o rrlqiaqn$1q tnrcripr1g. 'E&v a0rb &no8etxvo6rav &trr10r,v6,1r,& xanorc;1) 6),egtlg <<QuXrxlg &o0dver,eg>>, 0& np6o0ete p6vov v€eq xanrlyopieq oclv rlndpXouoa l,io'ta rdrv <<6pyavrx6v &o0evel6v>>, 9epaneta r6v 6nofc'lv oi &o0evei6 Q 'Enop6vcog,6v6ef(er,g eivar i),e60epor, &pvr10o6v. v& noU Onooqpf(ouv ci7v<<dpyavrx]1 r]uaitlo]oytcl.>> r\g ixnoxu].o6pevr16 &o9€ver.ag &no8efxvuo(v,pr&tr),ov, 0& nap& 0d.&vuoxetcl.XLr\S (av t& i2Olxd xai no),utr,x&6r).l1ppanar\g xocaotvorTxo.oux\q tfuXratprxl6: Dr6tl, &v f1 oXl(ogpdver,a eivau pr,&&o06ver,a o&v tilv Xx),ripuvoq Kar& flltolxag,.yturt 0d Enpene v& 0n&p1ouv ei8r,xoi v6pror,nob vd aitr,o),o1oDvtilv &xo6or.a 6r,d1v<,1o4, 3yx),eroprbxai 0epaneta r6v oXr(ogpev6v &trtr' 6yt xo'\ a0t6v noU 6XouvXxtrripuvo'4Kat& fllvxaq;
@)

'H

npd(1 zai p6vo toD v& prr,l,& xaveig pd c)1v r'poorrl,o[a rC,>v << prircovt6v rlulr,xd &o0ev6v>> zcol,ttrxdrv Erxar,o npooBotri2 eZvar "Onog ot& zcotrrtrxurooq Er,xarcSpata. &xplp66, prl,cbvtagxavel6 1r,&r&, <<zcotrrrr,xd 6r,xar,dlpata >>, t6rv oxtr&Bc,rv voptpozcorei orconrlp6rg vopr,xiiDrdxpr,orl peta[U ox].dBolvxal i],e60ep<,tv til &v0pc6norv xat, tnoptvr.rq, &noorepei &nb roUg npc6toug tilv itreu0epia xai cilv ix\lonp€neta zroU&no\apBuvouv oi retreuraiot, Erot xai odlv neptntaofi pag, prr),citvto.q xaveiq yr,& t& <<rco),lrlxd Dr,xar,cJpata tpuXr,xd r6y >>, d,o0evdlv 0rcovoeici1vopr, preca(r) xii 6r,dxpr,<iq napagp6vov xai no).rrdtvnoU 6Xouvothag c&6 gpdvaq xai,Enoprdvcog, &noorepei coU6npo:toug t6v i),eu0epr,6vxc^ir\g &\r.onp€ner,or6 &nolwpBavouy oi tetreutaior. mob M6vov 6rav f1 &no6of1 xo'i d.nak4or1 t6v 6),e60epcov &v0p6ncov,vd eZvarix nolurtxd Drxalc5prlcrcl&ve\6.otr1ta &nd tf.rulrarprxd xprrllpr,a,6nroq ccbpa eivat dve\cl.pr1ro&nb 0pr1-

VTXAX@ENEIA

t71

oxeotxd.xpt:cfipro.,ln.i6ytverc;ct pri cbv o.eBao.prd <pu),e_ xai ocd rtxd' x.,i oe(oua).r,xd. xprcfipm,xai Eo6 drou oi vopo0dre6xai oi vopopaOeig&noorep4o.ouv&nb cor)6yrarpo6g, xal i6r,art6pc.lg &nb tor)6 rluXrdtpou6,rty L\oooia vix L\oloxorjvxorvcovr,xoUg 6).6yXoug p6oa oiovei i.anpmCav pd xupcloea;v, p.6vovt6re 0d Tcpo oro(Te 0o Dv td xo),tr md. 6 r,xar,cl D praca tdr v dv0pcontovrcou xat4yopo6vtal yld tfuXlxli d.o\€vew.
A)

'H

8ragopd peta(D toD vd &vtrpretcon [(et xave\q d7v <<QuXr,xil &.o06veta>> 6o&v Evavp6).oil 6odv gud.xanuo-cd.on,ez'vari6ra pi Q 6ragop& pecafr) co6 vd &v.pet<,rzc(\et xuve\gcbv'Iou8aiopb 6odv Evav p6),o 1)ciodv gttd.xanrl:o.co,on. Eivar &).),onpaypa vd pr,rtlo'etqxanorcv &v eivar'Eppalo6 (xai 06),er ndeu ordv vd va6)' x.,\ &).).o vd xalopi(eq tdv 6yet xavet rceprtoprri(xai idv 6yet,vd. tdv or6).ver,g ocpat6ne6o o.uyx6vtpc,lolg). oi Ilapo_ po[or5'eivar &].],o np&ypa v& potrloer"Evo.v &vOpolno&v ezvo.u Qulrxd &pp'otog (xai 06),er 6ei Evavrfuxfacpo). xai &].].ovd vd xaIopi(eq dv 6yet naparc0i1oer,6 (xai tdv 6Aet,vd tbv ordtrverg oi {uXr,atpeio).
CD

oi rluxfatpor oulvd i"oyrpi(ovtat 6u oi tfuxrxdg&"o06veteg61ouv prd <<Br,o),o1lxi1 guon, xai ivepyoDv 6odv, &noEerxv6 ovrc;S abr6,v& xa0repolv6rav aOtdgoi 6novopra(6preve6 dt' &o}€vercq eivat, xda)fr ntoreL, &ppcbotreg.AI),& cd v& eivat xave\q ncrG q xrryq rott pno.oxet ri roD rloxet Eyet, txto4g, Bro).oyr,xigBtioer.q -pd coUg6pougtoD vd eioal no),r)xovtb6 ii zco).r) 0yltr6g_,6pr6 nap' 6),a aOtd 6iv eZval&ppclo.cLe;. EZvar,orlpavtm6, Enop6vcl vd. Eyet xaveig xand.voDv, g, rcp6tov, ndg 6 jr,Srinoce xavet Evag&v0potrco6 pl,fiopei 0ecD_ vd p40ei 6:*tyet <<Bro),oyrxi1 gr;.onrr,t,ti {woradtr, E}v 0d pno_ rylv poDoevd rb xavet idv Edv ei,ye Eva (olvtavb o'pa. xaf,6e6repov, rco(p'6),ov 6tr o4pafiet xant td v& pr),& xaveig yld tig ga_

t72

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

vepi6 xanuoraoer,g6vbg &v0pcinou, bnarg f1&Xov6ponlyaoia x.,) f1 &xpopeya).[a,6q 0ndpXouoeg&ppc6otreg, 6]v oqpa(vet6pos rtnore Srav pr,).&xaveig 1l& toUg p6),oug noU 0aoD6e:url;t Evrllq &v0p<onog ilgnutrcqgrot pnd.oxeti) toD r\6xei,6o&v v& ,6r.,ro9 6Xer, &ppciotr,eg.

O MTOO' TH' VYXA'OENEIA)

llpiv eixoou zcepfrcou Xp6vr,aioXup(o0qxu 6t Div On&pXeL,xo'i &o06vera.Tarpa,5tro xai rcr,d pnopei vd 0ndp(er, tful,Ni'1 d:v xal rt)7.\)dtf,ruXiarpor rluXo),6yot dvaxotvrilvouv 6tr, a0ti1 il LxeF oupneptqop&g-5nc'rg f1oXr,(o<ppd) i 4 popql clq &v0pcirTrtvylg '.:ra. 6procpu),o<gu),[atfulp6clta- DdveZvaloupzcccipatai i 1 | &.ol€vemq.Tdtorot ioXuproproixepDi(ouv tilv ioppig {.ru1rx!g nr0avog iner,Dl DratoCr xal ^-pooo1i1 clv 6nooc{pr,(r1 N6opou, xcl,i z-,QUoooDv, raoroXp6vcog&pvoOvtat, tilv iyxup6trpa rilq 6cr, Eraxrlp6ooov'co..S td X Eiv c{g ?'rtoLa,g Qulrx!6 d.o06verl:.g: yrd ntrqpogopoDv di q6ovi toD X xai .i.,,arQuXrxil&.ol€veta,pt&g noU tb X 6iv eival QuXtxil 6rt,li,cl.p'6),o :;rir).dov 0novooCrv ;to\€veta, tb V xai tb Q eivau. 'Ev 6).[1'oug,6nroq &].],ote oi v& ii0e).4v,taucoXp6vcog, zclote6ouv xai v& piiv nr,r.',,0parzcol payuoo6v, Ltot xui tri:pa 06trouvvd c:=ootl otiiv 6nap[4 t6v ;rotedouv xa[,tuoroXp6vc,lq, v& ptilv nlote6ouv otiiv 6napf,ri :i; {ruXao0dveuag.

vi v& flpiv xa).& xa).d npo).dpeu xep8ioet xanrota&no6oXi1 np6:aori pou, fur f1 &pprilo:,;rrl-rilq QuXtg Eiv eivar &.o\tvew,v€eg ;pororoetqipgavio0qxr;.v oxrcLx& pti td ti <<npalpartxd.>, eivo.t ouprKai prr,d Eiv un&pXetpopg}l &v0pclnuvrlg xai {uXao06ver,a. nob vd piiv tvlg 61ouvxo),lrioer xanore ti'1vtaprnd)'a ^-eprpop&g rlulao06vetag, 6).ega&ig oL nporaoetg eivortoaor€q, orbv ;r'1g oi oDptTceptgopig 6noieq, pa0prbnoU xa0op[(ouv ouyxexprpdveg gop6g,6Xouvtafr,voprl0ei 6g QuXrxlq d"o\€veteg'xoJ prepr,xig 6tr DnovooDv a0tlg oi ouptoug trav0aog.€vec,,xa0t)g :ivar 6).eg ri xai <&o06vete5tt 6rt cl.i:rt'q, pr6eivar,<<tfuXuxig>> ;epr,<popiq i &oI€vercq>>. << vov a0t6g, 6Xouv&noxtrr10ei tl.ruXuxdg

t74

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

f1 eivar &vOpornor, rcrotedouv6cr, tfuXao06veta 6roia6ErlloCrwaut& &topa pet& 6va ei6o6oup7repr,gop&g,oclv 6tv inrb ixBao'cdga 66uvqpi6 ipneupiegrnS (,rvtg' &),tror,, eivau oup?reprpopd.qxo.\ &11,or,, &x6pu,6t eivcl.t Eva eiDog&ve60uv4g "O).eg 8uozcpoodppooal6oupneptgop&6. Eva eZDog xorvc.rvtx&, a0tig eivur.&reyvalopdveg rpoona9ereg vd Euaodloouvtbv 6po g >> << uXao06vero( xo(i elvat xano.8 r,xaopr6vevd.&nor6xo uv, ine r,Ei1 {.r gopttoprdvor, 6por, &yvoo6v tb yeyovdq 6t oi. ouvalo'Or1partxd. inep6rxri tou6 (r,li1xal 6iv Dn6xervtauo! <<rctraotrxb6>> 6Xouv paoe4 &nb pr),e),e60epoug peqoppr,ot6g.

"Erot,peprxoi

o'fuou auOpc,rroEva gtudpr yr,d vd @d 6Dr,ve Svag tJ.ruXiarpog yr,&rlg 0app6ve6 tou;@u&vapvrioetg tbv po4Ol1oer oxdtfer, vd gdppuxayud. v& cbv dvaxoo<pioet 0& or.xd.6yt.H1{A},I& coD 66r,ve 'O ].61o9 yr' aOtii ci1 Er,a&nb tbv n6vo noi-r rob npoxa).o[rv. gop& eivat 6t 6 Quliatpog eivo.t6 &pXr,ep6aq Lno6),c'roqg, r\g c1appaxu,6yt rd. cpro&.pucl-, t& eZvat 6yt rilq yeopyiag' 6t rd. rou' €rot, iv6 oi iepd o6vepla t6v tetrecoupllx6v 0epazceu6v yr& toD Oappdveg &vocpvipetg eivuud.o06veveg tb vrr,B<lvr, tfulotoD Oepaneuc!, a0ti6 yivovrcl.t&nli6 petagopig otb X<,lp<1qr, dypotr'1.
@)

"Otav

<<6pyetq>>,LvvooDpe 6tt eival EeLl,6pe6cr,xunorcgDiv 6Xer ),66' xal 0& rb 0ecopo6oape B[tlgpevrxb v& cbv 0epanedooupe -SxtraprBtivovro(6cii preragop& xupr,o),e>ntxw-pi pl& petapt6oxeDorl 6oy€oo. lOrav ldpe 6rr, xarcouoqrcl.oyet &nb <<veuprxb xtrovrop6>>, 6eL).6g, 6iv &no 6tr, 6t twota eival ivvooDpe, Ln(,oqg, xutd. 1t(.a yrd tig ouv€newgt6v &cuX6v i\ xaxdg LntDdXetarcfv e006vr1 l,eyp6v<,:v ivepyer,6vrou' &),),&o'' a0d1 dlv nepfnttoori 0ecopoOpe xar' L\op1v l,oyr,xdv& tbv 0epane6ooupe-ix),appdvovcaq ci1 petagopd xuprolexcx<i- pi \exo6puor1, iyxl,er,opb oE x&noto-

O MYOO' TH'

}I/TXA'OENEIA'

t75

x).rvrxi1 gdppraxa,ob pr,&npoono.flerrl- <<iv8uvaprciooupre>> xai vd tb <<dE6vapo veuprxbo6orrlpd>> tou.

Tb vd &noxaTei xocveig <<tfuXao06ouTxexprpr,€va <paw6preva vele6>>, oulpt(eru oi prr,d &ouvaio0rlr1 napav64ol i i10etrv1pr6vrl xo'xq Xpylol tlg y).riooag' iDrar,r6pr,rg ocilv napav6rlo4 1) Di pi tlv xaxi'lXpyiol c6v ).6fecov rlg 6noieg Er,agoponor,oCrpe npd&rb Dpaoqpr,6rnres - inl napaDeiypau, npo06oe4 &nb \eq doI€vercg. 'Ag pd 6oDpeci ivvooCrpe ti1 ),6fr1<<prouotxil>>. <<Mouorxil>> prociBolv, 6noia t& tb 6,vopaouTxexprpdvarv eival td lXr2tr,x6v &v0pc6 rva n\ao pano'o'uv0 uv,rpalo u8oCrv, n dto napdyo uv pr ou i yxexpr,pdvaei6q 6p1dvclv,t&, &xotv xai td &no).aprpdvouv. Kr pr,tr&pre yr,& d1 <<pououxil>> 0poio'pracog 6pr'rg, txiov1q toD t6v g6),).tov&nb tbv &vepro t6v xupdtorv zcoU 11 ozcd,ve or4v dt<rfi. 'EnerDil oi fiXoraOtoi pd.qeivan t e0Xdpr,oto xo.\gow(ouv pi poupe prouorxri rcap' 6).a or,xoUg iiXoug,toU g &noxo"ltoD x r,a0roU6 << >>' abra,iner8il Edv 6Xouv6r1prr,oupy40ei cbv &v0pono, &r,?Eo&rcb poDpe-xai ouXvd cb xdvoupre- vd toi-rgDr,agoponor,oCrpre &mb toUg pouor,xoUg iixoug. pb Oi i8r,or, ou),).oyr,opoi ioX6ouvxai orb ti ivvooDpre ti'1tr6'Ag (r1 <<rdXv1>>. 6no0dooDpe6u xanouog&neEe(xvue, &xapd g ragtayrpu imror4 prov md. oro tyeia xo'i v6 p rpre &r'ode(\eq, 6r t Evag ooupeatrrotrxbg rtvaxuq, noU ),6ve6t &\i\et no).l& <ilg tpyo rcyv46, otilv irpoc"(Vd'cLx6vpa Div (oypaqiorqxe &nb rbv &v0poao ocbv 6noio &pXlx& &rcoEr,66tav &trl,d,3vce),66xat& ),&0o9,dnb pr,d xa1apbrpra :roU xrcoi}*oe ypdspara o' Evu &Xpqor,pronoiryco te),dpo. Od ouv61r(e&x6gqxave\g v& rb &noi) xcx\ei <<(al1pa<prxtn ..6pyo r€yvqg>>; "Tnoo'tr1p[(ar 5tl a0td eivaut& ooor& np6ronayld vd 6[ep] tdooupe xai vd ifty4oou1.ret[ EvvooDpe tbv 6po <<Qu1ao06-xai 0& ouveXfoer oupvero(>>' yt' a6tb noU o'uprBaiver, xo.i vd palver- 6rav dvaxor),ugOei 6t i1 xarao'cd"on €vbg &vOpdlzrou,

l,/r)

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

noD nporilouprdvotg &no6r66tav oi tfuXaol€veta, eivar,f1 ouvdptd"qdplavuxlg d.o9€vetag neta toD prua),oD rou. Anoxa),oDpre Xpcogratrxi6 ti6 ouv06o'er,q L:l.'rlrvro,o oi re)-tipoc <<r 11 p 6vo 6rav n rot e6o t-r e 6r r"eivat ixnorc}r€ p ar a fig 0e€yv >>, o 1,r trrlorlg6vbg &v0pc6'nrvou nap&yovca' 6&v eivat &xore\€opara ptd.qnatycxtag &v0pcinrvl g, t pii &v0pc6n wqq, nap6.pB aor1g,r6:ue 6tv t& &noxa),oCrpe <<(olypagrxil>><<r6Xvr1>. ?) A0cb 6iv o4pra[vet, cpttouxo',6t r€tota &vtxe(gteva Eiv eZvar, aio04:.'txC,>q ebya"Ovtco6, pLord.. Evu Nogpanr [6],o nor) 6zcrn],€et pnopei v& eZvar, no).Dnrb 6poprpo&nb Eva tpaorceyvtxboxti),uopaoi f6).o. nap' 6\a aina,0d frrav o<,rorbv& &noxa),6oouperb oxa\topa ro6 i')..5pyo rtywlq>>,&Il& 0& frtav ]dOoq v& &no[6].ou <<1truzcrb>> ..6pyo c6Xv1g>> [6].o noU 6nr,n]de(,. xal,6ooupre tb Mi tdv 76ro tp6no, 3&v oi o'naopc,t8r,xlg xr,vrioer,g €vbg -6morobrinore EuoXep6g &v0pclnou eivut abrorcpoxa),o6peveg xcr\ cxtn naparc).av4txto q-, &no xa),o0 pe cb g a rv6pevo .. 0ote o p[a>>xo.\ cb OeopoDpe, 6p069, cig 6vEer,f,ri <<rfulao06velag>>. "Ey6, 3dv oi T6rcgxLv'i1oer,g npoxa),oDvrae &nd tig ntyocieg ftupo6or{oelg ouyxexprp6votvveupcSvc,rv orbv xrvrltr,xb9},o16,&noxatroDpre qar,v6pevo<<6rcatrqrcmi1xploq>> 6iv tb 0e<,1tb xal poDpe ntd. EwppaorlrluXlx!6 &o06vewg. "Erot, fi &vaxd),ut|,l4 cng << 6pyavrx!6 aico).o1tag>> |notao Drlnoce tfulao'Odveuag Eiv 0d pnopoDoe vd Llryfioet xatr6cepa tilv iv tr6yq tf.ruXao06vetadv xclci,p&),l,ov,0d xantorpeqe 6q ciTv tf uXao06ver,aaOQ xor9 r.or eaorfi , &vr txclcl tivro.g qv pi p u&npo o<p a g &vocxo"h.tcp0 oo pat r,xii&o0dvera .'E &v &no 6 etxvl 6 an eioa tuv 6t 6tregoi tfuXao06ver,eg 6Xouv6p1avr,x&d[:,trl-, r6re 6)vq tou g 0d &vtxoc9toruvro drc6,pdxpl toDEe, &yv tr,oreqoolpatrxig &pp6otr,eg.'Edv npo(ypo(rorcoloDvtav r€rorcq &vaxa),6Qer6, 0& &vunpo o <bTreuo(v lte 6yproc L\anpeux\q ozco e6tn cc;,;, 3n ra u8a
&n}.}.A 0&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&<prirr,(av ),ry6tepo q6ol rn <rluXao0€vetag>>, ti6 &n'

6 st, h &vaxd),uQr1, ),61ou yapw, 6t rd. 6pya ro D Shakespeare Ea xtu),oypagi191xuv &nd nf iyoug orb Bpetavrxd pouoeio 0d <p6ru(e 6propgto.,rbv6ripa xai tilv &\to.:dw Epyov rou &nd tlv Iearpmilg xo"\ i10mi1q n),eup&6.

O MTOO' THX }YYXA:OENEIAX

177

Oi &v0pornol-i8raltepa oi ylarpoi xai oi gor,crltdgi.crqmlq_ D:'r xara),aBaivorv ti7 0epre).r,c664 8ragop ix &vapio., ord vd i,,;otp€eet xaveig &nd xo.not.,&.ppcitortaxa\co6 y& eZvar, &o0e_ )7i-<' &).).a pi ).6yr,a,6uEvag&v0ponog pnopeZ plv eivar nofu) vd zut'd. orip byefu tou xal dpc,r6vd plv gtna(veto.rbv p6),o toCr i-toAevotq, xai tb dvt(,lero. .Ercopdvc,l6,6Ev xana<ptpvouv vd :'r'rorloouv6rt Evag6na6bgrlg christian sciencep"ropri vd eivar :ooo &ppcoorog6oo pnopei xt Evrl:q iep6a6 vd eivai rpurpepdg oo(oyoq,Evag6p06Do g'E Bpaio g 6prne g orilv rcpoero rpo [o rpraoia '-re(d6a:v i)Evag praDpog Mouoou),pulvog 60ropr6vo6 otilv lpoivq. -or'rte6 &vixavot vix xana.\o,Bouv Evag &v0pcDTrog 6tr pnopei va 6Xernhipyl 6yeia xrlti,-caoroxp6vc,lg, ;-riiv vo(ttil E1),c6vel &.o0evi6, anoxa\ottv xal atitor)g toUg &v0pc6nou6 <&oOeveig>, 64),a6i1 ..QuXrxd&oOeveig>> noU eivar,odv vd &noxoc),oC,v robg iepeig ..{uXrxd &v[xavooq>>. To i20r,xd 6i6a1pra eivs.t6rr.,6nroqEvagxa),bg iepdag Ddv zivat &vlxavog &),),d ern|yet &nb tb ot\, €tot xai Evag xa),dg (ixoiorcq, a0ronpoo6r,opr(6pevog) Ddv eivat QuXao0evilg cipp<,roto6 &II& dn€yet &nb ti2v Dyeia.

"Eva

&nd td in.xer,p'iptano,,Lvavr(ov ioxuproproD rotr prou6tr, Eiv undpxer tf uxao06ve o,pTruxv cive.,utoqv ixxoltou cono ro(, Ori 06 r,nor, no).r) &notetreopatlxl otb vd 8qpr,oupyeZ oroUg &v0pri_ nou6 tilv 6vc6mc,lor1 xav' -np€net 6no1pec,:crro ,t xo.vc,>_ bt ).dOog. AOcd cd ircr,Xer,pit 61ouv xo.na'q€ror: <<fltote6oupre u.u ocilv iatpr,xi1 npoo 6yyrc4 :#1q tl.ruXao06ve .TntfpXouv &).),o 1ag. r, (666 prnopeivd &vagdpouv tb 6vopri poD, pTropeixai 6Xr,) zroU rcpotrpoDv tilv zorvtovrxil npoo|yyrcry AII& xuvoov ),d0og, 3ner,8ri...>>' Bv ouveXeiqnrt;po:}€touv xai pe),6tegoXecxdg pi toUg <<yevecrxoUg naguyov.ceg>> oyrlo<pp|vewg xai. yld cilv 116 &rcote),eop tx6-crpat6 v << ur gapp r;:xta'v no U pu0pr uv a6ti2 tilv >> i(o <<d,oO6vera>>.

178

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

IIotrU o'uXv&EpXoprar &vr4ftranog pi a0tb rd SnrXe[pr1pa, pepr,xdg gopi6 &nb Erlpoor,oyp<igoug, &),),oug&nd rbv X6po il r6v pt6o'ov ivrlp6poolg,xrl'i 6X<o oupnepdver, eivat 0epel,r,tl6t p6vo o'i pr& t6oo netuXlp6vri 6r,aorpdBl,oo'r1 rfiq9eoqq pou, noU eZvaro'XeDbv &E6varo v& tb &v:'ltpeton[o<o.fr,ati Lixv Evuq xcl.),orcpoa[peaoq r'cl'pclca4p1ryl6 B].dnercb o4peio -x],eu6i a6to6 E]v to6 ypftpou,xorpr& &],14 ipplveta oye'ctx&pr] tri pruOo],o1[a ci6 tfuXao06ver,ag 0dtbv xavet vdtb 6ei. @d npoonu9iloc,r 6iv 6pc,lg &nrrvt.fioto,nuvto. vd. o'a6td tb irclne6o. <<'Ag rc&pe ntoro re:upo.x6otcl. n[Xp6vua.T6te oi &v0pc,lnou ore uo(vori g g ay rc oeq xo.i \ Lnto 4gn7 LEny n Trcr14 poryeirl-fir uv no Oeo).oyr,xf1. Tcirpa,&6 0no06ooupe6rr, xur',oroqtpyoruv xocl6),enap& Eva 6vo1e: Alv Dnriplouv payrcoeg. Mayrcou 6iv eivo(r, pa noU pepr,xiggopi6 &no8i6etar,o! gcorXoUg &vriprnopoug xai yuvaixeg. O& fitav ocoorbvd &noxa],oDpeci1 &vOpcinoug, i8lcog yr,& 0dor1 a0toD toD &v0pc6nou tig gtuyr.ooeq xol,vovtxil rpoo€y-ci9 payeiug, rilg &vti0etl or4v Lnio4prl 0eo),oyr,xi1 npoo€y TLon TLoiarg; @uotxd xu\ 6yt. A0cb noU 6 &v0poxroga0tbg npoog€pa 6dv eival pr& xorv<ovr,o),oyrxi1 xpoolyytorlotlg payrcoeq, &lI& pud !0rxi1 xai pr),ooogr,xil xpr,cr,xil t6v &vOpcitzccov rcor) g &noxa),oDv&},).oug &v0pc6nou payrcoeq>>. Ka0d6 6),or, tcipa yvolpi(ouv 6ts 6iv 6n&pXouv trtuytooeq, odTl i LEnynonixuvonowitoi.r6 zcrivte66oov ixtpopd.cl paleia. Kai xa0cbg5).or lvcopf(ouv nr,d 6tr, 0ntiplouv tfuXr,x]g&o\'!ver eg,arlcil h L!ry non 6dv ixavon orci xclcv€vorv 6oov ixcpopd. Qucnv y.arpm'fi.

>XIZOOPENEIA

'Edv

Evag &v0pcono6ioyopileran 6cr, 6 flcl;nrl.gelvat &\rl:}ryog, eZvar e0oeBlg Ka0o),r,x6g. 3&v ioXupro0ei6cr ocOtbg ZEr,og 6 eivar, d).d04ro6, elvat napavoixbg oytlo<ppevi6.
@)

fla),ar,6repa,6rav pr,),oDo'e @e6g, &v0palno eiye DeXOeZ 6 6 q ci1 <0eixl x).rio4>>' t<ipo.,6rav pr,),der, Oe6g,6 &vOpr,lnog 6 noD tbv dxolet elvat oyt(ogpevyi6.
@)

"Edv

5va6 &v0p<onog Bpioxet16oo L\ar4letr,xil ev nrl:p€apri tbv i6ro cou rbv iaur6, yr,at[ 0d np€net vd pr,],der, vd xtlveu6porca i) pE xanorcv &1,),o bi.tbgroD iauco6 tou;
@)

'E&v

c6tb nob &noxal,oDpe<<ocbro>tr,ov(a> prd xpauyi2yld elvat poi1\ew,t6re a6tb :roU &noxa),oDpe<<oXr,(orppdvelo(>> oueZvar

@)

"H

yevetlxil 6peuva, oyetxix pi c4v rllirirl-noU td nar,6rd oyt(ocppev6vyov6ov eival nr,d rctOavbvd EXouvoyt(otpp|vem dn' 6gu r& nar,6ld pi'1oXr(ogpev6vyovdov,elvat odv e yevecrxil6peuva to6 yrati td narDrd t6v 1a),l,6gc,lvclyyovdcovelvrllt xtb nt0avb vd pr,trrioouv fa),),uxd dn' 63t r& nar6r& pi1 yatr).69ovtov yov6cov.

r80

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Td np6p\Vo-'c\S oyt(otpp|veLd.S ir,pox|liuret, p6per,, iv &nb tb yeyovdE6u Evuq tfuXiatpog Div prnopeivd. nrl:et&np6ox\4tog o:'d or',rct€vb6&v0prizcou xal v& &),).ti[er, 6vopracoO ox6],ou tb cou' &),),d pnopei vd. nder. &trpoox)r1rog o,rb onit roit &v0pcilnou a6to[r xai v& &],],ti[er, 6vopa toO &v0pc6nou. tb A6cbq eiv.l,t Evaq&xb tor)g tp6noD6 pi toU6 6zcoioug x. A..yi.;uetau 6 <<oyt\oppevi6 &o0evrig>>.
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Od frtav f1trfOro oxecp0ei, v& xei, xave\q bt 6 yapog eivat vd i) xant orb prua),brf1q ov(oyou xai toD ou(6you' oev fipo(ypo(tx6rrryu elvw xant -Eva 6vopa,6vaq 0eopr6g- noD toD6 ivcirver, xal cor)gxaImd.6vtag ou(6you6. ME tdv i8uo tp6zro,elvav i2),i0to ozeg0e[,i) vd nei,xave\g v& (i) f1oXr(ocppdvera) fur, fi tpd),a elvut xant ord prua),bcoO tlrulorotxoit ii toD tf,ruXrdrpou'otllv rcp6yaTq91-cLx6rr1r67xant -Eva eivat 6vopra, Evag0eopr6g-noU ouvD6er tfuXroo,r,xb tdv &oOevii tbv xal tf.tuXfatpo xai toDg Elvel a0c1 rilv raor6rtryclu.
@)

-ij oy€o1 preraf,btfuXcoor,xoCr tl.rulO (ruXratpuxbg<<1dpo6tt xori 0eonroprdvri iv6nrov €vbg&xpoatrlpiou ouyyev6v,1laXr,tltpou, tp6v, 6rxaot6v xai &),).atviv8lagep6pevov to(po(ryipylt6vpnopei vd napopor,ao'Oei prd 3nrprel,66 pri Xopoypo((pylgt€vr1nrl.'O -otbv p6).o coO <<&o0evoCrg>>pcl.orocorl. tfuXotorxdg 6zcrDerxv6et ti6 peta<poplg rnq L\clcc.rctpqq,fiq neptqp6vr,lo4gxrl;i t\q "O &ppcilotr,ag. tfuliarpo6 -orbv p6),o toO <<yrarpo6>>6nr,Eelxvtet ri6 ou1i.:rtr4ppacrxi g preragopi g fig tppovriDa g,to 6 6),fuco xai t!6 0epanelag. 'H xowr.lvfa-ordv p6],o toD xolvofr1ou 61er, ouvrl0 ioet v' &yund. tb pna),6t o ubr6, Eyetdx6 peor1 6 pel1 vd cb napaxo),ou0ei xai &::uantei &veBalvouvrcepuoDrxd vd oe oxrlvii v€a€gya. AofipaweqpetaBo),dg orix xooto6prrattov Xopeut6v xai otil lopoypagloc r6v xw.fioefv roogyupi\ouv veore-

'XIZOOPENEIA

181

ptxd 69og orig v€,eqno.po.orcl.oetq xoti, xrlLrd.oov€rceLdv, xcrlvovotopieg t6tolou ei8ougiv0app6voyrar,.cboc6 oo,Baotxi,6&trlay€9, ot}1 Xopeucxil poutiva i) pracaf n t.,1S coo :r.,rl;pcl.oruo1q, at eiv 6nr),oyi6 tig 6noZe6 zor,vovfa &pveicaryld tbv <<zcpaypatrxb f1 &oOevi1>> 1rd tbv <<npaypcluxb xai yr,arp6>>. ,o Ilo),),ol &v0parnor noU &noxa.l,oCrvral<<oXr,(ogpeveig>> eivan, oQv o0o[a, &v0pcozcot 0d].ouvvd Dno6ou],rirvouv nor) &].],ougi)
v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&6nripecoDvrar dr' uitro6g. npop&).),ouv ifatgpevrxoUg ioXu

pr,opodg,oyetxd. pi rd norci eZvat, c[ tor)6 xuvoov oi &],].or, xai -ypti<pouv ypdtrrpata prd EuoavdTvooro Vocxpooxelytorrlcrrl' ypagrxd Xo,pffi/,Tnpo.- ofitc,r xa1' E\r1q.Mi a0tob6 xai &.pexai rpylrous &).).ougtp6noug, Epapaconoro0v toUg iauto6g toug, 6tot t$ore v& coDgnpoo).apBdvouvoi &).),or, Evav &nd toDg pd Eud napaxana rp6roog: dfte drgca),armc,rplprdva &Boiprpa xrl;i narDld eite cbg&v0p6noug noU Dlaxrip6ooouvrilv d.pvqcfircog vd gpovrioouv tbv tao16 Tou6, rcerfvruqc)1v np6xtr4ori: <<Kai tbpa, d 9ix xavere TL'abr6 ;>>. "O <<oXr,(ogpevtg>>, 6nopdvto6,napooow\et Evcr 6vrovo, xclci nc0av6g Xp6vr,o, np6Btr1payr,d td &xgour.i1pt6 roo,tb 6no[o pnopei v& npoo'naIfioet v& tb tr6oer, nol,),oU6 pd xai DlaqoperlxoU6tp6noug: "Orav o[ <<oXr,(ogpeveig>> ivoX],oDv 0n6oXovtar yd rb xcl.i) vouv,xunoro6 &n),o6oro(ro( prropei vd totrg &no<p6yet vd toUg i) &nopplQer.A0d4 eivar,i ouvriQg &venrolg:,rl cpropia noD inr,oi &vOpconot rt"ttroUg o' noU Div o,upna0o6v:TrpooBd),).ouv naOoOvvd. oyeri(ovrcl.t 6oo td 8uvatdv ),ey6tepopa(i tou6 - ?) xaO6),ou. "Orav ol <<o1r(ogpevei6>> npoona0oDv vd napao6poov xrl.Trorovvd oXetto'0 pct.(t ei roug, a0tbg prnopelvd ouvdrfet xant odv oupp6),ar,opal[ rcog xal vd rb 6r,ax6tf gt"era, et brr;Lv oy,!or1 i7 qIaoet orb t6),og tr26 (noU eTvatxui cb nr,0av6cepo p6poug ix r6v <<o1l(ogpev6vr>).

'XIZOOPENEIA

183

f1p1&vOp<i:roug blvetar fi 6ui1v<oo16t xaoXouv &nb &n].11, gpevrxil 1)napavoixil oXt(ogp€veta. 'Ev r6trel,0ntipXouv xui LxeivortoU6 6no[oug oi &],]or,06npooBd),l,ouvci2v ).ouvvd ttnoniooov &nb ci106oqroug, iner,6i1 i) xo(ropOopr&torv roDg. xorvroviatr6ye c6v vopfpcov napav6pcDv ototrg 6nofoug 6 x6opog Lnmevtpcbvet A0coi eivar oi &v0p<onor, 6qto ug iyxtrri pr a npooo y'fit oo, yo'paxrqpt\ow aq ro ug nep r,p Qv d"eq i1 6r7p6ora rp6oana, xai coi,rg6nofoug 6 <<xavovtxdg rr, e01apfotorg &v0pconoq Lxnpooano6pevog&nb rbv tl.ruX[acpo, <<oXr(ocppeocil tnuvo.cp€per, 0do4roug - a0ci1to6 tpe),o[r1)coCr voCrg>>. 'Eno ptve ta >> p6vco aOtb no U &noxa).oDpte<< g, eivoc r opt(o<p pti noU 6Xouviq xclto'Tt' 16oo orevd ouv8eDep6vo &v0pcSnoug xorv<ovfa, tb yvcopl(ouv,(tore L\oxal \).eg \toeq tou6 o'ci1v -xai a6tb eZvarouvenig prbr& yeyov6ra-, ncxxoiercllltoyma gp6veLo.4 r.epLo't p€ge'cat, xuplo g, 16 6tr f1 6 r,aXe iprc4 r\g o1r,(o por &rcbciiv napoXil xotvovtxo6 Xcbpou 1r,&toirg &noxa),o6pe'A),),ore ouvri0c'lgqul,axropdvou oi vou6 oXr,(ogpeveig. , firclcv &ou),ayr,&napdqpoveg xai tpe),ti6uxa.fltd np6oqaru nepr,opfxai x€wpa. Tdrpa, no),),oi oanxcrvoi tJ.ruXuatpela tfuXratpr,xd. tfuXiatpor, ouvrilogo6v otb vd. oreyu(ovao..L v6a xano"\6pana, oi nob pnopei v& eivat Lyxutatrel,er,ppdva fevo8oyeia i1 onkr.a Tb ououylev6v roug, oi 6zcoiot ,6po6, Div toU6 06),ouv. Baor,xb pndpao'pra, 6zcoio, g 6nc,l tpuiverat,Eiv 06trouv &vcrpetconi v& tb elvat, xor:'rl.. oouv pi ooBap6rlco., eTvat6tr, f1 oXr,(otpp€veta Ba&oOevlg to[r 0o6,tb np6Btrr1pa noO 0d Enpenevd (ei 6 ],e.g6prevo6 xu\ n6:q 0d Enpenev& ouvcqpei tbv 6aut6 tou' xai 6t, 6nog zcoU pp(oxetar oQ <pu).a6iv zco).itqg, 6nor,ooDrjnore i).e60epog 6nou 06xfi,0d. tnpene v& pnopel xai a6tbg v& (ei i].e60epo6, p6vo &nb toUg l,er xai 6nou toD eZvat6uvac6v,nepuopr,(6prevog napuyovreq xo'\ 6rxo6g tou oixoyoprxoUg xal {.ruXo},oyrxoUg oci2v6nolav &v'iyet. &nb a6roU g rqq xowo'cn'Eo.4

184

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

'H

<<0noxpLoto..>>,eine Rochefoucauld, 6 La ..eivoo6 g6pog tt tg rcob nl4pcSver <pau),6rrrya f1 o'ti1v&petri>>. rbv iDr,orp6no,fi Mi oy.\orpp€vetaelvat 6 g6pog tr,ttlg noU zctrrlpcilver io6tlra xa\.\ fi ixra\txilxowav{a oc}iv &vr,o6ancaVead.[r) &t6prcovxclci or1v xotyi v<,lvr,xi1 8laotpcopdtoo'4 noii 0(6T4 i6ra &pe[].rxta E4pr,oupyei.

V Y X OO E P A I I EI A

'H rluXo0epanetu eivat Evo.g zr,o'p00o6. Ol rluXo0eparceutuxis p] o[ Oepaneieg, 6noieg 6Xouv, c4v eivat petacpopr,xig pepB&oer,g iatprxi'1 oepazceuttxri,tilv iEr,a oX6o4 rcoU61erf1 xpltrzii xai cb povtd( trltreontux6v npolpappdtc,lv pri tilv 6nr,oxeuiltdrvtr1treDext6v. orctrxGrv
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'H tf.ruXooep ().net(Ieiv():t€voeiEog Lxxoopuxeupdv4g fiolxflg: eivau ti6 | 0prloxeia a0cdrv noU ip<pavt\ovrat,turctx&' toutrdXr'otov, f1ioctpr'xi'1 &0p1oxor pi 1tr6ooa nob 6dv eival c& -[\utr.vtx(,-,&],]'& 6po),oyia' pi Tn Oeotroy[atr15 rcob 6iv eivau 6 Xprottavrcp'6q, &IId 6 0etxtog6q' xai pi ixnf:uepq nqfl voripranogxu\ &[r6v i1v btuocfilrrl xai 61r,tbv Oe6.
@)

Kd0e p60o6o6 xai oloLi1 rf uXo0epanetaq, ofiv xpayganm6rligapp.oopdvrlShlt><i;,f16noia Lxqpu\eo6ov11ra :;c-,eivatEvor€rota V€tar pri tb y),c,rootxbi8ic,lptatl6 0epaneiuq' xr/(\x(/{qe ntx6ttrya, tiq d\ieq xai ci6 q r' o OoD g &vr txaronrp{\et dlv npo oco ).o8o[iegtoD i6pud t16. nar,E(,t\no Trpoo'roTb o6ot4pra toO Adler 0upi(el xoc),b otb o6otrlp& cou xaxt,iDea),roc}1oootu\torfi' oepe)'uazl 6vvor,a 6vDua<pdpov>>. tb eivocu <<xotvt,lvLXb Tb o6oc4pa toD Freud 0upi(er,&\a\ovu'6qn9o,ix6rxqtr'xb 'EBpaio, ntxpap"€vop6).og nob Lnlaa"qn<Tnd.qranelvolpr.dvrig DiDetaL-cio&v Eva6 3ni6o[og K6pr15M6vte Xp[oco5- o] prd ouveXil txorpaneic)-runetvaorl6 t6v npcblv Baoavr'otdrvaou' <<rb 0epetruaxlavvoaaord o6or4pd tou aTvo(r tvottxro tocr 0avd,tou>>.

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

Tb o6otrlpa toD Jung Oupi(er, ebnopo &.o16, oogb xtr4pr,x6, &pep6\rcto onou Eaorrl r4 6 ooyxptr tx\g 0pr1 lo),o1[ag' 0epeoxe trr,axl 6woua otb o6ot4p&.roo eivar,cb <<oultro1r,xd &ouve[Eqto>>.
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"On<,16 a0tb noU eivar xa),i1rpogi 1r& Evav &v0pc,rno, eivar,E1tr4tr1proyld Evav &l,lov, Erot xrl.i a6tb noU ytd. xanor.dv eivau tpuXo0epan eicl., at y td. xanro &trl,ov tf uXona0o),oy[a . eiv rcv
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pnopoDvv& X<,rpr,o0o0v pla ei8l i1 povtdOi,$uXo0epaneieg oi pi d1 oupnepr,<popd la, o6pg<,rva toD Oepaneur! npbg tdv &oOevl?)tlg npoo8oxfegtoD &o0evoDg. 'O t6rcog nob zcapuorocvet Lnewfi: <<AivXper,<i(etat rbv vd pd ntrlpriroerg,&n),69 ytve xa\a>>. 'O trp<oprlrmbq r6noq: <<Alvl€peq d ypero.\eoat. @& od <ppovrioro iycin. 'O c6nog noU x&ver ouprp6l,ara:<<flp6:rer pi ntrr1pdroer,g, v& xr, 61d 0d zcpoona0rioarv& oi Bo40rioc,r xdver,gnp&[1 ocOtb v& noU 06),er,6.>> Xcfv npcitrlxano.oro.ol,6 &oOevi1g 6peitrerotbv OepaneuQ oupp6pgcoor1 xo'\ e0yv<opoo6v1' otil Ee6tep4, abroranreivoovl xai 0zrotafn' otnv'cpl-c\, Xpnqocao..
@

'H

&topr,xil QuXo0epane(a eivcl.r.6va ibuaitepo eZ6ogoo\'ipnonq "Ooc6oo, pecafU 6ub &v0printov. &v 6vopa\6rav &n),69 ..ouQitb rvlovl>>, Eva pdpo6 Eiv 0d 0eorpoDoe 6aut6 tou &ppoloto tbv o6te 0& (r1to6oeSnlotpogil g6pc,lvyr& Tn 0eparceuttxilaOcl ou6iv 0& OecopoDo'e iauc6 rou yrdrbv Uy\on,tb 6i &).),oprdpog rpb o6te 0& 3pn68u(e&).troug&nb rb v& ),&Bouvpdpog oi pr& r€rotcx oo(fir1or1. 'Ev 6trfyor,g, 6tl fi iatprxil <<e0),611oe>> ou(rirrloq a0ci1 rb cii <<QuXo0epane(a>> o&v clv e0troyiato6 vexai Q Ba<rr'rce eivau

ITYXOOEPAIIEIA

poD &nb roUg iepeig,e6),o1fa nor) tb pewnp€ner,o! <<&1raop6r>, i) o&v Qv e6),o{a rdrv paBBivcov noD p,etatp 6net rig nix\eE oE << kosher>> xal e r€r o ta e6),o1ra peunp€net xant ouvrl0r,op6vo : o.i x&t &owi10roto xui,Enop€vog, yopr,!,r, onorciaOtor)g noir tb Xer,_ p[(owat -dhe aOtd eivat xurl. 0epazceutlx6, ixytaoprdvo, i) kosher- pri tb vd if,ouolti(ouv xal vd 6xpetal,),e6ovtar, rd n),fOog nor) 0€),eL td dnoxthoet. vd
@)

Oi d.gtrttdzroveg oXe8ra(oov xanotxieg,6yt <<onntxri>>. ozcr,_ Td tlxb eZvar aOrb noii Dqprr,oupyoDv &v0ponor,i) &rcotuyldvouv oi v& E4pr,oupy{oouv,orig xanotxieg rooE. Mi tdv iEro rp6no, oi {ruXo0epaneut}gnapdXouv ou]..Rr;n_ oetq,6yt Oepaneieg.Oi 0epaneZeg <<0epazceieg> (oi r6v {.ruX6v D4ladri, rcoUt<ipa tnovoprl;(ovrrl;r<<LruruX1prdveg 0epa_ $uXo neleg>t) a7vala6tb rcoUo[ ne]rareg,oi6rcoior, -a;pvouu pdpogoi t€rorcE oo(4r.i1oeq,Dripr,oupyo6v, &notuyltivouv vd E4pr,oup_ ii y{oouv, 1t€oa&nb tiqoytoeqxai t& <<ouprB6},a ra>>rooqpiltoUg QuXo0epaneotlgroug.
@)

2i d &vagdpovtar,6vvor,eg 6nc,lg<<in[1vcoo1>> <<otbro_xctta_ xai v6r7or1>>; )tlv fipaT4rlL-cLx6r4rrl,,oi dpol aOtoi ixva<ptpovrocl od Dub &pxet& Eragopetxig txn6,lteryr\q ainoyv.iro/ocg: D4),aEii ord v& yv<op[(er, xaveig tbv 6aut6 tou rilg &vrtxeipevo xai <ir6 go_ pda. Xrb rcp6to naptl8eryprl,,Evuq &v0porno6 i) Eyeu ooy_ [6per xexp4t6vr., eix6va rott ri ro6 €yet oupBez.xtd Ee6tepo,(dper i) €yet ooyxexpr,prdvr2 eix6va ro6 d 6yet xavet..H QuXocvti),uo,r1 xai g &vaEop1rr,xi6>> uXo0epaneieg 6Xo Ecil 6nepBo), &),),e << uv oei Q r, xi1 tpcpaor1otliv 6ni1vcoo1ro6 npcilrou r6noo, eig e:ni_ Bocpog fiq yvoo'ylgro[r Dedtepou t6zcou -Ioaq po,\toro xa\ (xnayope6ov_ rcrg rov. VuXo0epaneieg Baor.optveg otiTv npoi_rn60eoq rb 6cr (rcopo eivat qoptag i20r,x6v&[r6v np6ner. vix dnoxuraotrloouv aOQ Qv &vr,ooppocia.'Evag &vOp<onog, i6[cog 6ruv elvanv6,oq

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

xcxi lei pi otv olxoytveta c6v 1ovl6v rou, elvan ra,t-coXp6vcog xc"i dvrmefpevo xcl,\qop€u6. f1 a0teniyvrocfi tou -&v np6xevtar v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&L\ant<ioet rd. 6oa tbv cbg &vrmeipevo xal v& Bapdvouv

u\lfioet clg Duvdpergrou rig gop6aq- rp€.net vd &note),eitar &nb cfv io6pponl xanav6qorl xai tdrv Dud a0t6v n),eup6rvtoD iautoD tou.

'O

oo(rpipeqlri toU6 neQulo0ep aneorfiq,noU &nox*nr,.r, )ro"rcq rou <<oDvevte6(erg>> rlg po(Tvrlrogovei,eZvocl rbv xal o&v ra(rDr,6tr1 nob &roxa),ei td rtapdleva pdp4 <<toupr,otr,xi6 &cpa{r,dv>> toir6 xanoixooq<<i0ayevelg>> toir6 gcttoypaxai xal <p[(et. Xdlv npaypurm6r4ra, pa\et Eva Bprn66 Eva.prl;prll<ptto, cr, peta(b to[r EauroD rou xo.\ rilg tgtner.ptaq tou, d(ao.0evcitvad.S anv p' aOcbv cdv tp6rco i) oxotc6vovrag t4v, iv6 d1v iDr,a ocTp4 ),6ero"tdv 6aut6 tou 61106).eL cl Dtatqprioer, 6oo v& pri td Euvatbv nepuoo6reprl&xptBer,a yld pe),Lovtr,xi1 Xp{oyf. AII& pi tb vd &vrtxerpevofioreixai vd xanaypatper, ipner,pfeg tlg rou, 6 xcr9 cl.q, €v xanao rp€,<pet q &xptBC,>a0tb nob npoozca0ei v& Dratrlprioet.

Tunrxbg t[t].og yr,&div norororoo4 tfruXo0ep aneotx\qnepftrro;on1 oi iacplxb xtvrpo: <<"H Oepanelaivbg DexaefdXpovou SgriBou>>. Mu& xsi a6tb roU runtxd.0epane6ecal o.rlv iacpr,xil
eivar, pr&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&.o06vetu,t6re 6 tk\og ttntxlg napouotao4q tnd.q

iarpmilq xepinraorlg 0& prnopo6oevd el,vrl;t: <<'H0epaneirx rlq r,yToxo xxtxilg o4Qarpiag 6vbg Dexae(dXpovou &yopcoO uylv >. iv6 6 rit\oq xapoootaons TnSQuXtarpr,xlq neptnrluo1q &:rcoxu^6rwet 6rL,ytix cilv QuXr,atpm.t'l,rb eivar xaveig 8exadf,r, vd xui tcpqBog&norel..ei,&.nb p6vo tou, &o06vera noi) Xpov6v ypewlerat Oepanefa.

dra]

q/YXOOEPAIIEIA

XQ Oepanefaouprnepr,goprtg, ordv pa0pb nor) Evag &vOpc,lzrog <<6nolpecbvsTo(r>>xuver.xau,rb 6noio gop&rat vd. vd. xove, x,.i €nop6v<o6 06),er,,r) 6iv peoo),riB1oq ,.cee:rcelv& 0d eivar Ev," &nd
t&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&Eu6: i) 3(avayxaopdg i) tfeuto_Jlavayxaop6g.

6 'epazceuciigtyet rcpo,rvo,an,a ifouoio. ndvc,l ordv &&ppooto,napaEefylr anog y&.pw 6&v 6 &pp<ootog eivat yapa_ >n4ptotrt€vo6 QuXao0eviigxcri 6 0eparceudl; 6yer. roo v6prdu Lx i\ooota vd tdv <<0epazce6oer>> _ r6re i7 }epaieia ouprueprgo_ pd.q eTvat&nldrg Eva6 &nd roiig &p6cplrou6 .parrori pd tor)g 6no[oug Svag &vOpconog noD 6yet Lloooia aieyXer .1 orprrrpr_ qop& xanotoo rcoUEiv EXer,. .'Eav, &g'dt6pou,6 0epazceuclg Elv Eyetnpaypanxt1i[ou_ ola xuva otbv &o,0evi1-nupaEeilratog y&.pw,i&v 6 &oOevlg elvat Ev ne\m4gnoU rtrrlpcirver, r,Bi1 aq ilro orb iEr,<otr,xb ypacpeio to D rfluXo), o-, r 6re i Oepanef oupnepr pAS 6yo a eivat. ag &nb Ev eo cor)g &prdtpqtougtp6noug pi robE 6nofou6 ara &v0pc,rnoz 0e_ otct(oov oxrivig tpeuco-ifavr;,Txrl;o4oi_r, tbv pi Evav &nd coDg ouppetdXovtegv& rpoonowinan 6rti).dyXer,,tbv &),l,ovv& npoo_ xowican hr. t\tyyeran, tv(a zai oi Eub npoonor,oOvrar, 6'rt_ ote6ouv oQv npoo,notrlorltotr &l,l,ou.
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'E&v

Oi E{ouor,aotlxoi QuX[atporEr,aBeBarciyouv dtr or6Aogtlg 0u_ ao'epune('aq eTvatvd &nal,)d{er, rdv &o'evi1 ana tiiav.r.oryfeq, tig xaca0)'t'lteq xui. riE Lvoyt'qcou pi td <<vd rdv xrivouv vd ouver84tozco e>>tbv napal,olr,oprbt6v oupr.,l prrlrc,lv vilo tou. Eyr) )do 6tr, 6 odyoqrlg tfuXo0eprl;netagOd Enpercavd6pf(erar, &nd rdv &o0evii xai 6yt &nb tbv 0epazceucri.xai 6rt,i, xupro p€oa, pti t& 6noia 6 a6r6vopog QuXo0epaneuegpnopei v& Bo404oer rdv ne)'dtr rou, eival vi tbv &xo6er xar vt-tbv &grioel vd to[r 6r,Dti{er, 6p0o},oyr,o1rd oul,rzct<optltov,or. tdv r6v ,*i 6tr p6vov r6te pnopei 6 Oepaneuclg v& npoorp,6p",otdv neldt4 cou ti1 oupzctrrlporpatxilporiOer,a, Ea),a61 vd ou(r1tqoet pcclitou yr,d 6va),),axtr,xig inr,),oylg xai oaporana(LxeS g, (o7i

190

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

'Edv

6 tf.ruxo0epaneur4g 6 tfuxava),ucilg elvan Evaq xoognx6g, i) fiveupo(rlxbg ouprpou),tftopag1)6E4y66,6rcco6 eZXe tb 06oer 6 i6log 6 Freud, t6re np€ner vd n<ipoupexatd ypdppcr tig npatrtm|q Lxnw6oet6 a0to6 coO p6).ou xai c6v xrlc04x6v:la.v noU 6 p6),oga0tb6 oovenayerar.Aiv eivar,pr,&Eou).er& lnroqtoCrxoup6a ?)coD Xer,poupToD, plXavtxob abroxr,vritcov toir nc,ll4coD ii 'EBpaiot ro0 Dno8riptft<ov. eivar , 6rcogouvel64rorc Alv oiloorvoi ls1q&.pyatoanad.S, 6ou),eld noU pnopei v& yfvecar,6r,apxdrg, pr,& A0tbg eivcn 6 ),61o91r,d tbv Xp6vog pnatvet, Xp6vo6 Byafver,. "EBpaior, 6nolo oi ii0e),avoi paBBlvolrou6 vd 6Xouv<<?rpo(Tlro(rrxd>>tnoryyel,para xoct, oupntrlpalpantxa, v& eivaL xai nveupatrxoi o6pBoul,or' 6yt BeBata6ner,ElOeclpoDoav ),er,to6pcb TIuc,( toD pappfvou &o{prawrl ixnaoa6lloq &},}.tl, &vrtl€rag, ircel8f xcrro'lwBo.uvav frtav pr,d Dpaoqpr6rqra 16oo gepa6tt plp6vl i19Lxa, nob Elv pnopoDoevd &noce).€oetcr1paor1pr.d.g raxr nc\q,xa0r1 r,v dxaoy6,IyloyiS. E iva r,1e1ovbg 6rr, 6 Freud pep \q Dlv i(aoxoDoe tilv (luXavd).uo1Dlapx6g' f1xap6rd tou Bprox6ruv ord.ypocnto' cou. OUte 6 Jung L\aoxoloe tilv rluXo0epaneta oE ntrrip1 dnaoyolqol' f1xap8rrl"roo Bprcx6ruv oQ pe)dtl tou r6rv oupp6),cov. O6te, xatd d1 1l& rig iotopr,xi6 perapopgciloelg yvotrl pou, [rTtopoDv odlXpovor tl.ruX[arpor,, r].ruXo0epaneuti6 oi xal tf.rulava).utEgvd. L\aoxoDv tilv #avq roug oi p6vrp1 pdorl
xai

yd v&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&xanagtpvo DefXvouv xai tbv np€xovra oepaopb

ori.g drnurcfioeL1an;.

Xcf Buxtcopravil tnoyfi,oi pa.[ug noD DEviiOe],av &oXotr4vd OoDvp! tbv O1),aopb t6v Bpe<p6rv roD€ Trpooe).dpBavav no'pd.pdvve6yt' ubta. X{prepa,oi prp6pegnoU &naf,r,oDv ouvoprv& ),oDvpi r& nar,Euitoug xal oi o6(uyor,noU Eiv 6Xouv6rd0eo4 vd ou(ritoDv pi rlg o'u(6yougrou6, npoo).apBdvouvQuXo0epaneutig 1r' a0to66. Xd x&Oenep(nraoq, | <ppovrfDa tdtv ..iEoptripev<,rv>> Lvomw\erar,.'H 6r,agopd eivat 6u xaveig 6iv ouy-

IIITXOOEPANEIA

y€et 'c\qpperpox6pougpi cig pltdpeg, iv6 6),or ouyX6ouv roDg pi (ruXo0epaneutEg toirg yr,atpo6g.
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v& Eivar &E6vato v& (eX&oer,qxantrcpoonaOc6vcag rb leyaoeq. Oi &vapv{oerg, xatr}g \ xax€g, D}v prcopoOvv& petatorcro0o0v la.'E no trr6 #yvqq \ ixapryu oxourufE oilv v& elvat dvrvxeipreva zcpoorca0el Bo10{v& vog, otbv Ba0pb nob 6 QuXo0eparceurng oer tbv ne\&:urltou vd leyaoet, Dlv prnopelv& net6Xer,odlv tlg npoona9eta rou a0cl npooeyyi(ovrcl4 tbv ot6Xo tou Dr,& e00e[a666oD' &vr' a0to6, np€rcetv& poq0fioertbv ne].dtr1tou tb v& xata).tiper,6tr,6 tp6nog vd.\eyaoettd X eival v& pd0er, V, &v 06),eL &notrchoet iDr,aitepl inr,6efr,6t1ta otb vd (evd xai (a0tb noD 06l,er, xaveig v& (eXvtier,)a0tb 0& yiver,6y. L\aXvo":el owbvraqQv r6Xvr1trtg l{0rlg (rcoU&trtrolote eivar xai &v6rcapxr4), d).L& €\aoxrhwag c)1vt6Xvri cfrg pri0rloqg.
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6ndplouv ouyxpodoetg petafU i0v6v, Stol 0rc*p1ouv ou1pawd6arv xai rcalEr,6v peta[U ncrtep&6arv, otig olxoxpo6oer,g ydver,eg. v& nporeiveu xocveig Tb oixoyeveraxi2 0epaneia 1r,&tlg olxoyevetaxlq Er,apov(eq,elvut odv v& :tpoteivet v& ircr,l,6oouv 'Hvalpdva "E0vr1. gd,eOi ti,g ouyxpofioeq petafb xpatdrv t& tig ),e60epor, &.p€oxovran Xp4or,pozroroDv 6ub aOtig npooeTvd fltotedo 6cr,xai oi 66o yioetgy,& Qv <<3nil,uoq ouyxpo6oec,rv>>. xa0dg xal oi E6o xp6Bouvti6 ouyxpodoeqxo.\ eivar,B),apep66, xai Onootqp(ouv otoTclpd, otb 6vopa fig <<ei.pi1v4g>>clS "QupepfDa €vavdov {g e}'Ivig. 01eiag>',rn pr& pll,on6lepri XLv"iS xappr,& &vo.yxrl Kai o'tig Dub neprzct<5oetg,6iolupbg Div 6Xer, y,d peoo),ap4ci2 xal Div 0& oepao0el tiqnpor&oerS rou, &v elval out &w{flereq p} t& a0tozrpooEr,opr,(6pevo( pdpovtd tou' 3v6 6 xapprd oo&66va-uo6 Div €[aoga\i(er, &nb tbv peootraB1u1, 'Edv 6pco6Lgmrcrete' Bapil rcpootaoiatvavt t6v iX0p6v rou. ro(r tbv peoo),aB4c4tou,0& Baoxu\ilerar, &nb pia rfeu8il dio04-

THOMAS

SZLSZ: AIPETIKA

o4 &ogrl,\etagnoU LxeivogtoD npoogdpel. 'Ev 6),iyorg,6nog td 'Hvc.lp6va"E0vr1 ouvepyoDvotd vd 6(agavr,o0oDv &E6vapa t& 60vq noU SXouv Dnootei eioBotriT &nb td io,Xup6tepa ,€rot xai 6 Oeparceutiigoixoy€ver,ag ouvre),ei otb y& <<&zrote),erco0ei>> rb &D6vapo pr6Log 6Xer, fiq olxoyeveroqzcor) fver, 06praro6 ioXupotdpou prd),oug. A6tb eival tb &nor€\eopa nor) &xol,ouOei &peilvrccr xai ocilv repinraoq, 6zcourbv ).6yo 6Xouvtd bn).a xai ociiv &ll4,6rcou rbv ).6yo tyer.rb Xplpo(.

ETII>THMHKAI EIII)THMONI)MO>

Av0porol,6yog:6 &v0pono6 zror)ta{rEe6er o} [6veg X6pegyr,d vd xatocypa,$er. xuivd or2peldloer, Der,or,6 cig orlrori.q.arieuru, pn oxond v& &noxpdtper EerolDarprovfes ti. r6v oulr7ro(rpro.6u.or. Xatr,po).6yo6: 6 &v0pc,rno),6yo6 \eoyqg.ou, ri1q 146 narpt_ Ea6 cou xai r\E xouLro6pag rou. A4),aEii .a au.;ti*o coD &v0pcono).6you.
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Oi nOotlo.voL Ve-ca6eLol(ovtar, dvtr.xeQrcvadrg gopeig Duvd_ peooy'robq &noxa),oCrpe <<&yp[oug>> ev Ani,1x1.org yr* xai e (toti cnv dvopti(oupe << &vrpr,opr6 Oi (.ruXfatpo puioyoitlov.ccr.L >>. r, tor)g gopeig cirg &vttxetpeva. xai tpilE arrox*iooie ror)g &vOpcirnoug a0toUg <<tnrcrfipove6>> ran ?ino,lti1cou6 xai yl& e (all << &v0pc,lnlopr6 >>. 'O apc.lt6yovo6 TtpooTta0eZ dvtr,tr4<p0eZ v& ev 6{<,1 96o4 pr} roD6 Spougcrlg &v0pc6nr,vq6 elong..O QuXiatp rcpoorccrOei og v& &vtrtrrig0eiQv &vOpcjnw1 to,:6 6poug ,nitE^ guon1'. 96or11ie Oi truorfipoveg 61ouvEr,op0ciroer, ).ri0o6toD rd &ypr,ou.nor,Og Oa 6r,op0c6o'er,).dOog cd roir QuXr,drpou;
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ytcrpm\q elvan,xrlLdx a0 og, Ex<p erg a6ci p pao g r\g r ao 1g..H 0u _ yao9tveta eZvarprr,& xar, Eloyrlv &v0pcirn.ur1,irrab""4.Rif,A foo neprco6repo in'rprdvoupe eivaz ..&pp<bo'a.>> 6cr x,.i 6oo Treproo6repo raoytloogte v& tb &noEel(oupe, pi cd v& napdyoupe

roo dv0pcircou."H Oearpia i ipourr$;; xai

&vr,pra),r,opdg rd &vcf'eto ro0 &v0pconr,opo6. eiv*l Avtr,petor_ n[(et rbv &vOp<,lno vd odv ..H inrocri p4, i7 iaqmil, xcri firav (d>o iEraltepa f1 tpuXr,atp mi1, elvw ouXv& tvoyeg ria., (aronofrioq

dilrons,t,r_

194

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

<<Trerpo(po(rcx!6 veup6oeLS>> (6a zai pi tb vd 0epane6oupre od pi &v0pc6nrveg veupc6oer6 pdoa 6rctog <po.pgorxcl.,:uiq rd. oird.o4o0epaneieg(iltrexcpoobxx.&) xai oi XerpoDpyr,xlg ineprB<io'erq, 16oo ntb no),U&rcoxcrlvcbvoupre (6o xo'\xclc9rcro6pe rbv &vOpor"Eyovtag lr,o. rov |noBtBaoer.o:ubtntneDo ro0 (6ou, rcpoo8oxo6pe xai vd o'upnepr,<pdpero(r (6o: Dq),a8i1 &8lagopei o&v vd roo 1r,d ti6 npo4yo6prevegdnoltyi.eg rou, td lr,o.po.nrd>gtana xai clg ebxanptec, noU &g4oe v& Xa0o6v xai v& plv owlrcrerat 'Ev 6tr 0nrlpXet xo'\ xot:';" noD ).61ecarp6),),ov. 6),iplg,vd. na6oel vd or,oyu\e:ucll.,<isoreeivat <<yclcruno>>-Evuqc6),er,oq vd &v:*Xroxptitrig.
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Xti6 guocxb66nr,otfipreg, &vaxa),6tl,r tywav, &nuE", oi etq &nb pre l,rovtop6va&ropu: 6 Einstein &vaxd),utfe til oXetr,x6upa, 6 Noguchi ti1 o'upr,),r6rxi1 npo6).euorlclg napd).uoqg. Oi &vaxa),6rler6 a0tlg 6r,axqp6X0nxe fitav &tr40rv6g, 6u iner8l &),).or3nroc4povegpn6peo'avTpllTopo( ri6 tnmop6oouv xai vd tig 3nrv& 'Iatprxil'Etar,pe[a xal 6Xr inerDl fi feppravrxi2 ii f1 BeBar,cSoouy 'Ianovrxii 'Iarprxl 'Erar,peia Dr,exripufav eivat 6p06g. 6t )ci1v xor,vcovr,x\ truorfi&ryl, Er,orxlp6f,etgyivovrat oi 6ub goptg, pia &nb (rcop.axo'\ pia &nb 6pd8eg: 6 Mencken elne 6u i1 flotoarcal6peuorl i6uv Evail).[Or,o ].dOog'i1d 6Xco 6rtfl 6pronei gutro<pr,),ia eivar,QuXao06ver,a. Eiv A6tig oi Er,ax1p6\eqLntxopcS0qxav &trr1Or,vlg 6mer6qxanorcg tig npooundypatpe1) drg 6Xr, tig inr,peB pld a(aoe, &II& 3ner,Ei1 o'uvtaypatrxil tpono),oyia &v o"xcl,lwotlv lloto anay6 peuorl xai Lner,6l rj A peptxav rxl Vu e "Eta r,xi1 r,pe &n€xl...e,rc 6 poguLo g u)Ja&nb rbv t nio 11 ia e dlv Xr,acp po xarultoyo t6v &oOeverdrv zcoD eiXe oovtu\er.. A0rbg eivat Evaq&).trogrp6noqvd nei xaveig,xal vd 6vvorioel,6'c,1,6v6 <puor,xlg oi tntofipeq oyeri\ovtar pi leyov6ra xcl'i <<guor,xoDg v6pouq>> noU 0n6xeuytar oi iprcepr,xig xai ).oyrxd6 6oxr,pao[e6, xorvcovuxig ol tntofipeq oyei,(ovro(rpi &noqo.oerr' xaaaaa\ ?ftypucpoug, ypanto6q,v6poug noU 0n6xelvtal oQv xp{ov1 ?) r6v &r6pr<,rv, xorvoD xo'\lf1q &vuno\keuo'lg. roD

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EtrIITH\IH

KAI ETII'THMONI'MO'

195

'Tatipyouv

0epeiroDerg 8ragopig &vtipeoa ocig cpr;,otxEq xoJ (iao.eopa(6peveg)xorvr,lvuxlg ri-< irr,or{pe6. Erig np6ceg, 6 tb onnotDcodi3 np€net v&, zrpoorca\ipet vd. xancl"\&Bet eivocr, ri 6[qdvo- 6 DraBacag,i1nevtxr,],lvri' 6v6 otig xor,vc,rvux]g inrooipsi oi orcouDaoriq np€ner v& npoona0rlciouv vd, xano"lto-(n.X. cb EyxMpouv pcrr oi a60ewieg iolupi(ovrat 6t <<a0tb>> pcr.i q$oqpeve rc, f1rJ.ruXavti),uoq) eZvara0tb noU LxeivegioXufiovta:- 6;r eivat. UE d"iia tr6yra, otig <puor,xig inr,otfrpregf1 1tr6ooa elvat oupBcrcrxilxcrl otaOepri' &zrotel,eiipya)eio: eivar rb grtxpoox6rro zrob &noxal,6ntet Eva ronio xpuprp6vo.ytdtb yupvb Vant, ivrb otig xo rvov lxl g t nto dlpeq, 4 1tr6oo'a -oc00aiper 4 xo'i d.oru O4g- eivar iprc6Dro: eivar,6 napapropgotr,xbgxa0p6gtrig noir &wavcrxl,& olxeio' np6orono.<bodvteparci8erq pcloxeg.
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&va({t4ori toir xarvo6pylou -vd &vcr,tr4g0eig a0tb noii xaveig 6iv 6Xer, &vtr,trr1gOei, ouprcepuve6a0cb noU xaveig 6iv v& 6Xer, oupnepavet- dnote\ei p6),o (cotr,x\g orpaoiag ocb Lyyeipyltro(:rob yvroocb pi cnv incovupfa <<cpuolxig eZvar inlotlpeg>>. 'H piprlo4 a6toD toD iyXer,pfipanoq, otbv rop6a noU tyet ytvet yvr,rocbgrbg << r,vovtxd.q ntot\peg >>, 5Xer66qy4oer,ocii 6 ra t 6!v xo p6pgcool v6ov 6e8op6varv, &trtr&otiiv txw64oq v6ov 6vopdrov yr,d Ee6op€vono"lv.a.

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196

THOMAS

SZASZ: AIPETIKA

gu orxbg tta.o rfipov ag elvoct, p 6vc,l t ruoriyt"ov xu 6no g, d.S pro),extr,x6g.Ar1).aEi7 3[epeuvr1ti76 Drlprouplb6 v6<ov xal 6e8o'Ev6 pr6vov,oX6oecov xai rce6[ov. 6 xor,vc,lvr,xbg inr,otrlpovag eivat t nrcriptov ug pr6vovV"err;.eo pLx66: orilv rcprl,.( Vr;,rL),(6r4ra, eivar,if,epeuvr2tlgxai Er2proupybg pr,&gxawo6pyta6 y).clooag. Eivau Evaq not4rilg coCr6nofou \ notr1or1, &va<pep6p.evr1 otbv iaot.6 tou xai toU6 &),),oug, fioeeppylveleran ne(bg ).61o9 cilg yld cilv <<&v0pdsnw1 g6o1 n.
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np6oDo6 o'ti1v tnrcriytq clg &v0pc3nrv7i6 oupneprgop&g Llagr&rcxLl,orrc6v,ovlv tnoyil pa6, &nd prr,d petaocpo<pi7 toD 6vDr,a<pdpovco6 Qv 6nr,611plol,oyia tiiv inr,o,tlpo).oyla npb6 xal c4g tfuXao9€vewq'pi ).iya l,6yla, L\ag&rcllt &nb tb Sv8ra<pdpov ),iyov &v0ptin<ov.yld ti'1v SntDrlprr,o).oyta neptoo6-ceoarv xot\ yr,d vp iruorqpo),oyia, &6 noDpe,r\q oy.loqp6ver,a6.

Xr2pepa, 66o nr,borlpawr,xlg Oprloxeteg ol elvat 6 xoprprouvr,opb6 xaf f1 QuXr,atprxri. Kd0e pr,&paoi(etar otilv &"pryi, noti Drax4p6ooouv oi &pXuepei; r\5, 6tr, f2&vOp 6nwr1 oupTrepr(popd xaOop{(etw &nb tnrctripovr,xor)g v6prou6 6rr.,€noprdvc,rg, &roxcl.\ rd. pra Dlv 6Xouvi).e60ep1 Bo6trqo4. Apg6repeg, otiiv igappoy{ Toug Xo(po(tttrlp((owau &nd tb 6tr,, oDo,tpcl.rtxa., &zroorepoOv &nb toirg &vOpc'lnoug vd xavoov i),e60epeg xrl;\ iiveo L\atb vayxaop"oit Lr'itoy€q,tb 6noio pi (11o, tyoov dvalwBetoi i<papp.oor€,g rou6.

I

TO OEPAIIETTIKO KPATO>

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