What Is Scaffolding?

Scaffolding is a temporary platform constructed for reaching heights above arms' reach for the purpose of building construction, maintenance, or repair. It is usually made of lumber and steel and can range from simple to complex in design, depending on its use and purpose. Millions of construction workers, painters, and building maintenance crews work on scaffolding every day, and due to the nature of its use, it must be properly constructed and used to ensure the safety of those who use it. Commercial construction accounts for the largest use of scaffolding, but even residential construction and home improvement projects can sometimes require it. Professional painters are equipped to quickly and properly construct these platforms on the job, as are other professionals such as bricklayers and carpenters. Unfortunately, many homeowners attempt to construct scaffolding for personal use without the proper knowledge, which often results in injury. To avoid personal injury when attempting to repair, paint, or maintain a home, it's important that the homeowner know how to properly and safely erect a platform that will provide a stable work surface and will bear the weight placed on it. People who are unsure how to construct or use scaffolding should consult a professional contractor.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Scaffolding is a temporary structure used to support people and material in the construction or repair of buildings and other large structures. It is usually a modular system of metal pipes or tubes, although it can be from other materials. Bamboo is frequently used in Asia.[1]

Contents • • • • • • • 1 Scaffolding in the ancient world 2 Scaffolding in the modern day o 2. Until the release of the revised TG20 the HSE continue to allow scaffold to be built in accordance with BS 5973.1 Materials o 2. However. These are substantially independent of the materials of which the scaffold is made. The standard is intended to be used as the basis for enquiry and design. TG20 is largely based on BS 5973 with extracts taken directly from the old code.1 Putlog scaffold o 3. Requirements given are for scaffold structures that rely on the adjacent structures for stability. This document sets out performance requirements for working scaffolds. This is the reason for the 'limbo' situation. In general these requirements also apply to other types of working scaffolds. Scaffolding in the modern day This European Standard specifies performance requirements and methods of structural and general design for access and working scaffolds. it also uses permissible stress design method.2 Pump-jack 4 Standards 5 See also 6 References 7 External links Scaffolding in the ancient world The Berlin Foundry Cup depicts scaffolding in ancient Greece (early 5th century BC). TG20 received a mixed response from the UK industry and as a result TG20 is being rewritten and the new version is due for release sometime in 2008. The ancient Egyptians. The purpose of a working scaffold is to provide a safe place of work with safe access suitable for the work being done. .4 Ties 3 Specialty scaffolding o 3.2 Basic scaffolding o 2. couplers and boards. Nubians and Chinese are also recorded as having used scaffolding-like structures to build tall buildings.3 Foundations o 2. Thus the requirements of BS EN 12811-1.[2][clarification needed (technical jargon)] Materials The basic components of scaffolding are tubes.

which uses filament-wound tubes of glass fibre in a nylon or polyester matrix. becoming the baseline for decades. As well as timber. was invented and marketed in the mid-1950s.4 kg/m) and also their greater flexibility and so their lower resistance to force. . Tubes are generally bought in 6.3 mm.9 m long. there are sole boards which are placed beneath the scaffolding if the surface is soft or otherwise suspect. called a scaffpad. Another solution.3 m lengths and can then be cut down to certain typical sizes. The tubes come in a variety of lengths and a standard diameter of 48. they are either 'black' or galvanised. which often have the company name stamped into them. 50 mm and 63 mm) are a standard width (225 mm) and are a maximum of 3.[3] Tubes are usually made either of steel or aluminium. as well as laminate boards. steel or aluminium decking is used. is made from a rubber base with a base plate moulded inside. (1. With one basic 24 pound unit a scaffold of various sizes and heights could be assembled easily by a couple of labourers without the nuts or bolts previously needed. Ohio. The chief difference between the two types of metal tubes is the lower weight of aluminium tubes (1. these are desirable for use on uneven ground since they adapt. Timber scaffold boards in the UK should comply with the requirements of BS 2482. although there is composite scaffolding. because of the high cost of composite tube. The board ends are protected either by metal plates called hoop irons or sometimes nail plates. They are seasoned wood and come in three thicknesses (38 mm (usual). whereas sole boards may split and have to be replaced.5 NPS pipe).7 kg/m as opposed to 4.Extensive scaffolding on a building in downtown Cincinnati. Most large companies will brand their tubes with their name and address in order to deter theft. If steel. In addition to the boards for the working platform. it is usually only used when there is a risk from overhead electric cables that cannot be isolated. although ordinary boards can also be used. Boards provide a working surface for scaffold users. Assembly of bamboo scaffolding cantilevered over a Hong Kong street The basic lightweight tube scaffolding that became the standard and revolutionized scaffolding.

Other common scaffolding components lnclude base plates. it is possible to go in and come out of scaffolding. Most companies will adopt a specific color to paint the scaffolding with. . In Canada this style is referred to as "English". The most common are called scaffold couplers. ladders. All components that are made from metal can be painted but items that are wooden should never be painted as this could hide defects. with tubes from 21 feet down and boards from 13 ft down. Transoms rest upon the ledgers at right angles. anchor ties. Bamboo scaffolding is widely used in Hong Kong. Couplers are the fittings which hold the tubes together. sheeting. To join tubes end-to-end joint pins (also called spigots) or sleeve couplers are used. Despite the metric measurements given. and there are three basic types: right-angle couplers. gin wheels. they hold the standards in place and provide support for boards. also called uprights. intermediate transoms are those placed between the main transoms to provide extra support for boards. Ledgers are horizontal tubes which connect between the standards. The standards. Only right angle couplers and swivel couplers can be used to fix tube in a 'load-bearing connection'.A short section of steel scaffold tube. "American" has the transoms attached to the standards and is used less but has certain advantages in some situations. many scaffolders measure tubes and boards in imperial units. Single couplers are not load-bearing couplers and have no design capacity. Main transoms are placed next to the standards. ledgers and transoms. with nylon straps tied into knots as couplers. etc. The base plate has a shank in its centre to hold the tube and is sometimes pinned to a sole board. reveal ties. in order that quick visual identification can be made in case of theft.[4] Basic scaffolding The key elements of a scaffold are standards. are the vertical tubes that transfer the entire mass of the structure to the ground where they rest on a square base plate to spread the load. ropes. putlog couplers and swivel couplers. Since scaffolding is a physical structure.

More heavy-duty scaffolding can require 5.Non-board bearing transoms should be fixed using a right-angle coupler. Basic scaffold dimensioning terms. 6 or even up to 8 boards width.7 m is allowed. these are placed diagonally from ledger to ledger.Scaffolding in Tretyakovsky Proyezd. although the base lift can be up to 2.7 m. right-angle couplers join ledgers or transoms to standards.2 m while a 50 mm board can stand a transom spacing of 2. The scaffolding width is determined by the width of the boards. is 2 m. . No boards. which is just 150 mm or so above the ground. putlog or single couplers join board bearing transoms to ledgers . For a general purpose scaffold the maximum bay length is 2. The minimum overhang for all boards is 50 mm and the maximum overhang is no more than 4x the thickness of the board. The diagram above also shows a kicker lift. the minimum width allowed[where?] is 600 mm but a more typical four-board scaffold would be 870 mm wide from standard to standard. Moscow As well as the tubes at right angles there are cross braces to increase rigidity. If the braces are fitted to the ledgers they are called ledger braces. Swivel couplers are to connect tubes at any other angle. next to the standards to which they are fitted.1 m. The actual joints are staggered to avoid occurring at the same level in neighbouring standards. To limit sway a facade brace is fitted to the face of the scaffold every 30 metres or so at an angle of 35°-55° running right from the base to the top of the scaffold and fixed at every level.6 m and 63 mm boards can have a maximum span of 3. for heavier work the bay size is reduced to 2 or even 1. Of the couplers previously mentioned. bracing or couplers shown The spacings of the basic elements in the scaffold are fairly standard. Often an inside board is added to reduce the gap between the inner standard and the structure. the spacing between ledgers. Transom spacing is determined by the thickness of the boards supported. The lift height. 38 mm boards require a transom spacing of no more than 1.25 m.8 m while for inspection a bay width of up to 2.

Foundations Good foundations are essential. No couplers shown Ties . Scaffolding can be used without base plates on concrete or similar hard surfaces. although base plates are always recommended. A working platform requires certain other elements to be safe. a minimum step size of around 450 mm is recommended. For surfaces like pavements or tarmac base plates are necessary. For heavier duty scaffold much more substantial baulks set in concrete can be required. For softer or more doubtful surfaces sole boards must be used. They must be close-boarded. beneath a single standard a sole board should be at least 1. Safe and secure access must also be provided. Often scaffold frameworks will require more than simple base plates to safely carry and spread the load. On uneven ground steps must be cut for the base plates. have double guard rails and toe and stop boards. Butt-board not visible.000 cm² with no dimension less than 220 mm. the thickness must be at least 35 mm. Scaffolding showing required protection of a working platform with maximum dimensions.

A common type is a ring bolt with an expanding wedge which is then tied to a node point. The least 'invasive' tie is a reveal tie. scaffolding ties must support +/.2-3m centres (tie patterns must be provided by the System manufacturer/supplier). A transom tie tube links the reveal tube to the scaffold. General practice is to attach a tie every 4m on alternate lifts (traditional scaffolding). A vertical inside tube crossing the opening is attached to the scaffold by a transom and a crossing horizontal tube on the outside called a bridle tube. Sometimes it is possible to use anchor ties (also called bolt ties). they rely solely on friction and need regular checking so it is not recommended that more than half of all ties be reveal ties. Two additional transoms are put across from the lift on each side of the feature and are joined on both sides with shorter tubes called tie tubes. Due to recent regulation changes. . Through ties are put through structure openings such as windows. Due to the different nature of structures there is a variety of different ties to take advantage of the opportunities.The Holy Trinity Church in Vladimir.loads (tie/butt loads) and lateral (shear) loads. The gaps between the tubes and the structure surfaces are packed or wedged with timber sections to ensure a solid fit. a butt transom. is place hard against the outside face of the structure. with scaffolding wrapped in safety mesh. Scaffolds are only rarely independent structures. To provide stability for a scaffolding (at left) framework ties are generally fixed to the adjacent building/fabric/steelwork. These use an opening in the structure but use a tube wedged horizontally in the opening. to limit inward movement an additional transom. Prefabricated System scaffolds require structural connections at all frames . Box ties are used to attach the scaffold to suitable pillars or comparable features.ie. these are ties fitted into holes drilled in the structure. Reveal ties are not well regarded. The reveal tube is usually held in place by a reveal screw pin (an adjustable threaded bar) and protective packing at either end. The ties are coupled to the scaffold as close to the junction of standard and ledger (node point) as possible. When a complete box tie is impossible a lshaped lip tie can be used to hook the scaffold to the structure.

S. ^ Hong Kong 'spiders stick to bamboo scaffolding . led to the definition of a series of standards covering a vast number of specific issues involving scaffolding. The user raises the scaffolding by pumping the foot pedals on the supports. Pump-jack A pump-jack is type of portable scaffolding system. In recent years a number of new innovations have meant an increased scope of use for scaffolding. safety requirements and standard types. As such. a DIN standard divided in 5 parts which covers the design and detail of scaffolds. The scaffold rests on supports attached to two or more vertical posts. with an accompanying "construction eTool" See also • National Access and Scaffolding Confederation (UK trade association) References 1.S. Specialty scaffolding Putlog scaffold In addition to the putlog couplers (discussed above. Among the standards there are: • • • DIN 4420. such as ladderbeams for spanning spaces that cannot accommodate standards and the increased used of sheeting and structure to create temporary roofs. design and construction of falsework 29 CFR Part 1926: Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in the Construction Industry from the U. components. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). DIN 4421. a DIN standard which covers the analysis.If it is not possible to use a safe number of ties rakers can be used. For U. A putlog scaffold may also be called a bricklayer's scaffold.S. there are also putlog tubes. This feature allows the end of the tube to be inserted into or rest upon the brickwork of the structure. A transom at the base then completes a triangle back to the base of the main scaffold. the scaffold consists only of a single row of standards with a single ledger. along with the profound importance that they earned in modern applications such as civil engineering projects and temporary structures. dimensions and loadbearing capacity. Department of Labor website. Spacing is the same on a putlog scaffold as on a general purpose scaffold. The putlogs are transoms . ladder scaffolds. and ties are still required. like an automobile jack.attached to the ledger at one end but integrated into the bricks at the other. Standards The widespread use of scaffolding systems. These are single tubes attached to a ledger extending out from the scaffold at an angle of less than 75° and securely founded. materials. These have a flattened end or have been fitted with a blade. requirements and guidelines on pump-jacks – including a diagram – see the U.

In most cases the entire building is covered by steel scaffolding and mesh for easy work and safety. Typically it continues 3-5 weeks per planned schedule. ^ "Light Weight Scaffolding Goes Together Without Nuts or Bolts. ^ "New Scaffolding Guidance TG20:08 – Guide to Good Practice for Scaffolding with Tube and Fittings" NASC (National Access and Scaffolding Confederation). .2. 103. Guidelines on the Design and Construction of Bamboo Scaffolds [1]. p.org ( Trade Confederation UK ) External links • An illustrated glossary of the terms used in temporary types of construction work." Popular Mechanics. SCCR at www. 4. UK 3. ^ Hong Kong Buildings Department. February 1954. scaffolding etc. • • • Bamboo scaffolding in Hong Kong A condominium in periodical (every 10-15 years) large scale repairing/maintenance in Japan under regulation. retrieved 2011-05-01. Formwork.thesccr.

Scaffolding. 10 months after Tokyo Skytree construction start .

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