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A guide to local problem solving
table of contents Background Introduction Inviting Others to the Table Agreeing on Desired Outcomes Deciding on which Actions to take Measuring Success Collecting and Applying Data Strategic Community Action plan Lessons Learned POssible Funding sources Resources and References Glossary Thank Yous 1 2 3 7 9 14 16 17 18 18 19 20 21 Working Draft v. 3.org .0 4/3/2013 handbook for community solutions: A guide cafwd.
with a low-cost. or huge ones—distilled into an easy-to-read and easy-to-use reference document. this Handbook is written for you—the person with the idea. and many government agencies have found through necessity that collaborating with other agencies and community-based organizations can be a way to stretch funds. 18). you may address macro issues.” So should we give up? Absolutely not! We have a strong model for collaboration that can be adapted to the size and scale of your community planning effort. the participants and public turn cynical and feel that their time has been wasted on government’s “false promises. collaborations involving a few agencies. 5). Throughout the text. this kind of collaboration will create a magnified collective impact and return value for the people who finance most of these services: the taxpayers. Create a clear planning process that focuses on the issues. As you reflect on your experiences with community collaboration. We hope that the Handbook is useful to you and your efforts. The purpose of the Handbook is to serve as a usable reference to assist Californians in creating successful community strategic planning efforts. We have a strong model for collaboration that can be adapted to the size and scale of your community planning effort. Do not rush the stages of group development (see p. The Handbook includes advice for you on: Potential Hurdles & how to clear them It is important to acknowledge the numerous potential obstacles to collaboration. it is time to look at a new way of doing business. less intense collaboration. However. Raise the comfort level by presenting examples of similar communities that have found success. interest. both administratively and politically. In the long-term.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide cafwd. Cynicism. you may use the model to craft a comprehensive strategic plan.org. Certainly.org .org. or a community-based leader. by no means set in stone. Who is this Handbook for? You may be an elected official. A carefully crafted. contributed by respected practitioners in our state. Understandably. At some point in the process. Share facts about the positive reasons that it will work for you now. See more helpful tips about Legal Counsel on page 12. Whatever your job title or organization. comprehensive strategic plan for a region or county is a massive. When this happens. This Handbook is a work in progress. It’s a good idea to speak with a lawyer early on to discuss your goals and objectives. and as you achieve success and achieve momentum. Years of budget cuts have stripped scores of public service programs down to bare bones. Lack of Funding. • Inviting others to the table and carefully planning your meetings • Deciding on actions to take • Measuring success • Collecting and applying data to help evaluate the success of your effort • Creating a comprehensive Strategic Community Action Plan • Learning from mistakes along the way • Finding funding for your project • Understanding the terminology in the field The Handbook is informed by the work of many collaborations and efforts. a rich assortment of articles and books that we used as sources are available in the Resources and References section.background As California begins the climb out of the longest recession since the Great Depression. When a community has seen efforts fail in the past. cafwd. a public administrator. it is hard to obtain a grant for this type of planning work in the current economy. In our current economic recovery mode. Politics. by starting small.org. You can successfully use the model to tackle the priority manageable issues on a micro scale. comprehensive strategic plan that lays the framework for government agencies and community-based organizations to work together across sectors toward common goals will both increase efficiencies and improve results. 1 2 handbook for community solutions: A guide Have a hurdle you want to add? Email it to teresa@cafwd. complex task. Legal Issues. people become disillusioned and pessimistic. Here. you will find first-hand narratives of actual examples. Even with careful adherence to a strong collaboration model and experienced staff to guide the process. Explain the benefits to get people excited about the potential improvements. Establish guidelines for your discussions that include respect and professionalism. Information about. and we welcome your recommendations for changes or additions at any time. and motivation to set the ball rolling for your community’s planning effort. the effort can still be outsized and oversold. introduction Ready to bring your community leadership together to forge new solutions to shared challenges? This Handbook walks you through the fundamentals that must be executed to successfully complete and implement a collaboration to support your community planning effort. Ultimately. books and toolkits. E-mail Teresa Acosta at teresa@cafwd. the effort can fall of its own weight. If finding funding is your difficulty. now is the optimal time to rethink the way local services are delivered and rebuild our local public service infrastructure in a way that is smarter and more focused on results. With numerous agencies and agendas in the mix. Research the context so you understand hot-button issues in your community and can tread lightly. Share your recommendations for changes or additions with us at any time by sending an e-mail to Teresa Acosta at teresa@cafwd. and hyperlinks to. please feel free to offer your suggestions and share your examples with us. you will find best practices for any sized collaboration effort— collaborations within a single community. you may attract supporters to help fund the effort as it grows (see p. start small. you may find that you need legal counsel. from anecdotes shared with us by diverse practitioners of collaborative planning to scholarly articles. Below are some common challenges and some advice to overcome them.
Introducing that group to this Handbook may help infuse new energy. council members and staff County supervisors and county administrators Special district officials (e.g. To ensure meaningful engagement. inviting local government and community stakeholders to participate in creating the plan is an essential first step in the process. a strong vision that includes diverse perspectives. your planning effort will require several carefully planned meetings.. more stakeholders. Consultation Information Feedback Education Sample Invite List Government Leaders. federal agency representatives • • • • • • • • • • • • • WhoM should we invite to participate? If you are the convener. respected organization with a community-wide presence is usually most appropriate to lead the development of a community planning effort. state the purpose of the meeting clearly. not inviting one or the other leader/organization in your community might be mistaken as a slight. such as those displayed in the Participation Ladder to the right. and much more.org Mediation Joint Planning Who is the right convener? A neutral. Outreach to a broad group of stakeholders will help build: Source: Connor. talented staff to the effort. A facilitator will be a neutral party that will ensure the agenda is followed. state agency representatives Federal legislators. and ask for help. Note that it is important to invite stakeholders to the table early on. and a clearer method of planning into what is already underway. Send your invitation out well in advance of your meeting date to help ensure a higher turnout. you should find a skilled. will make your meeting more attractive and accessible. so err on the side of caution and invite more rather than fewer people. if you have one. it may be possible to work within the existing structure. Participation Ladder Resolution/ Prevention How should meetings be formatted? At a minimum. you will need to gather data to help the stakeholder group understand the context in which your community planning effort is taking place. A convener should be able to command authority and supply dedicated. Make sure your list is inclusive. and look to them for specific tools like sample agendas and survey questions. and if possible. and cultivate shared responsibility. the more staff support you will need. sanitation). Be aware of and sensitive to the politics of your community. In the event that you will be starting from scratch. board members and staff State legislators. and include a brief agenda. explain your idea. child care. and possibly re-deployed. board members and staff School district officials (K-12 and higher education). A strong community planning effort invites the participation of all entities whose existing functions or services are within the anticipated scope of the plan. Will it help to have an external facilitator? Yes! If possible. A facilitator also will balance participation so that no “squeaky wheel” dominates the discussion or has disproportionate influence over the priorities set by the group. promote mutual understanding. In your invitation. on the board of the PTA) Leaders of worker groups Health care leaders Faith community leaders Community activists How can we lay out the facts about what our community needs? Before your first meeting. D. It is a good idea to research other collaborative efforts you might use as potential models.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide 3 4 handbook for community solutions: A guide . Make sure to end with contact information for questions. Litigation Leaders General Public cafwd. including: City mayors. and request responses so you can keep a headcount of who is coming. online surveys. Integrating the best practices from this Handbook with existing efforts may make much more sense than starting anew.. thorough community assessment would be ideal. You should encourage the participation of all aspects of the community. Anticipating attendees’ needs by providing snacks. free parking. If there is an individual or organization that is better suited. Many groups have found success using a “Joint Planning” approach with stakeholders and an “Information-Feedback” approach with the general public. begin by building a comprehensive list of stakeholders to invite. focus groups. including local government budgets and financial reports Current community “report cards” Information about the local economy Research on the cultural and political landscape Demographic data by geographic area. You might consider asking your county to initiate the development of a strategic plan in your community. you may want to hold separate meetings for different sectors or geographic areas. such as census data • • • • • cafwd. water. partnerships that share resources and expertise. The bigger the effort. Some environmental data you may bring to the meeting include: Inventory of resources and assets. Since managing a meeting for a very large group is difficult. you must have people from the government entities that have decision-making power at the table. Arrange each meeting at a time and place you think is convenient for the majority of stakeholders. The ideal meeting format for an in-depth discussion to kick off the planning process is a workshop lasting a few hours. Community Leaders. you will need to interact with your stakeholders on a number of levels.g. A recent. including: Leaders of community-based organizations Business leaders Parent leaders (e. see how they structured their meetings. external facilitator to guide and support the discussion. It also may require community town halls. reach out. and thoughtful. To get to a real discussion of how resources will be allocated.inviting others to the table Where should we begin? If your community has already formed a collaboration or partnership tackling community issues. and include neighborhood leaders in your list. utilized. and ownership of the plan that will foster long-term support by various facets of the community. diverse.
Strengths: characteristics of the community that give it an advantage over others Weaknesses: characteristics that place the community at a disadvantage relative to others Opportunities: external elements that the community could use to its advantage Threats: external elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the community Should we take minutes? You should delegate someone to record the minutes of the meeting.Sharing this data at the meeting will help the group identify strengths and assets (human. you need a majority vote to make a decision. Having “one of each” stakeholder community sit at the table is no guarantee the broader stakeholder communities will feel they were consulted or their views heard. This discussion is very valuable. Now. Address values up front by starting your meeting with a neutral. What should we know about group dynamics? Anticipate that your group will undergo a series of stages as it coalesces and people learn to work together on developing the Action Plan. Use the data to compile the whole group’s list of shared values. Storming: the difficult. keep track of progress. Norming: the stage in which the group makes decisions and divides responsibilities 4. your group should identify: In order to make sure that many opinions and perspectives are heard. or the vote of the vast majority. “When assembling a “stakeholder” list to participate. Your meeting minutes provide a permanent record of the meeting proceedings. Opportunities and Threats. Beware “tokenism” and the patronizing assumption that stakeholder groups are homogenous. for example. and inform absent stakeholders of what happened.org What if there is conflict in our meeting? Discuss conflict management up front with the group and list ground rules for the discussion that should be posted somewhere visible throughout the meeting.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide . At a minimum. especially if done at the beginning. it is helpful to discuss each issue area with the entire group (preferably in sub-groups) and make decisions based on general consensus. you will need to prepare for a discussion of community values. Sometimes the fiercest disagreements aren’t between different “stakeholder representatives” but between members of the same “stakeholder community” who don’t see eye to eye—whether from personal history. Stakeholders’ ownership will be strengthened if they participate in this process early on. Together. You may wish to start with these suggested rules and add to them as your group sees fit: Listen actively. it avoided unpleasant surprises when the plan went before the City Council because the broad outreach made a much larger cross-section of the community aware of the issues and trade-offs involved. It is critical that stakeholder representatives (and the broader process) reach out beyond those directly involved throughout the process to ensure broader understanding during the process if broader buy-in at the end of the process is a goal. anonymous “values inventory survey. Forming: the polite stage in which group members build a tentative trust 2. Above all. Weaknesses.” 5 6 handbook for community solutions: A guide cafwd. conflict-ridden stage in which the group balances power and decision-making 3. but business and civic representatives were enlisted to serve who’d never been involved in the disability issue. they may have a hard time even agreeing on what the problem is in the first place. as well as needs. and economic) of the community. differing opinions or simply resentment about being “represented” by someone else. In fact. it is important to take current stock in a group setting of your Strengths. appointed a broad range of leaders and activists to review its Disability Access plan. Former City Manager. and respect others when they are talking Seek the maximum involvement of all stakeholders Facilitate an open exchange of ideas and dialogue (a balance of brainstorming.” It is helpful to display the results graphically to show the stakeholders an image of their own range of perspectives on given values. physical. not finding the “lowest common denominator. stress that the goal is “the common good” not just a compromise between diverse interest groups. Not only were disabled members of the community and their advocates consulted. After identifying individual values.” Too often a solution that involved parties can all live with won’t get to the heart of solving a problem. Performing: the stage in which expectations are clear and members move forward EXAMPLE 1: Stakeholders and Representation Rick Cole. don’t think narrowly. The focus should be on effectively addressing the issue together. Disinterested participants bring fresh perspective and remind existing stakeholders that the task is not satisfying the group—it’s coming up a plan that will work better than the status quo. While you may have done a “SWOT Analysis” in the past. UC Davis cites Bruce Tuckman’s four stages of group development: 1. It is important to have voices who may not have an obvious “stake” in the issue involved. separate people from ideas Seek clarification by asking questions Invite and respect minority viewpoints Use time well. following the structure of the process Create a safe space for risk. inquiry and advocacy) Focus on ideas. City of Ventura How can we determine the values in the room? Since the members of your group will have different perspectives and ideas about what is important in the community. Be alert as well that having “stakeholder representatives” at the table doesn’t in any way ensure the larger groups they are drawn from will support the outcome—or even the process. if everyone involved is too close to the existing issue. work with small groups to compile their sets of values. The City of Ventura. you have an aggregate set of values from all stakeholders that will guide the planning work. experimentation and success • • • • • • • • cafwd. This ensured not only a broader set of perspectives in reviewing the plan.
Attainable. http://www.ccag. Deputy County Administrator. it is time to discuss and agree on your shared vision. integrated solid waste management. As a result. and the ground rules have been set. Measurable. Your goals should be “SMART” goals: Specific. In simple terms. is a response to mandates imposed by federal and state legislation and the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board to reduce non-point discharge sources. San Mateo County and its cities are required to obtain a storm-water discharge permit to minimize the pollutants in that flow into the Bay. it is “where the group wants to go” and “what the group wants to accomplish. EXAMPLE 2: Addressing specific problems Mary McMillan. Decreased Crime 5. given available resources Time-related – specify when the result(s) can be achieved. How should we develop our goals? You will need to generate and refine a menu of tangible goals within each outcome (e.” and goals.ca. California Forward has put forth a vision characterized by three “E’s”: 1. It is best to select a minimum of three issues around which to deliberate. Prosperous Economy 2. Community Equity Through a statewide civic engagement effort lasting more than a year. 1981. California Forward came up with five suggested outcomes: 1. Increased Employment 2. Improved Health The specific goals you choose support your vision and the outcomes you desire.agreeing on desired outcomes Now that the stakeholders are at the table. Developing clear goals for your community will help the group set genuine priorities.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide 7 8 handbook for community solutions: A guide cafwd. Source: Doran.org . “desired outcomes. expenditure program for the AB 434 clean-air funds and storm-water pollution management. Relevant and Timely.gov The Storm-water Pollution Prevention Program (STOPP) for example. Decreased Poverty 4. the initial values inventory survey has been taken.” For example. Working backward from the goals also will help the group set milestones and take action. Quality Environment 3. Specific – target a specific area for improvement Measurable – quantify or at least suggest an indicator of progress Assignable – specify who will do it Realistic – state what results can realistically be achieved. C/CAG is the policymaking authority responsible for implementation and compliance with the Countywide NPDES Municipal Storm-Water Discharge Permit. Beginning with the end in mind will help your group frame the challenges and problems you wish to address and define the core focus of the effort. our local jurisdictions joined together as co-permittees.g. ensuring efficient countywide compliance and coordination reducing pollution and meeting permit requirements. San Mateo County “The County of San Mateo with representation from the 20 cities established the City/County Association of Governments (C/CAG) in order to make a collective impact in several areas: countywide congestion management. Improved Education 3. C/CAG has been designated as the administrator of this program. Having several issues on the table attracts more discussion and prevents the kind of hard-core debate that leads to intractable opposition. “All 3rd-graders should be able to read at a 3rd-grade level” or “the high school dropout rate should be cut in half”) that stakeholders can choose from.” What is the difference between our vision and our desired outcomes? Your shared vision describes your collective list of desired outcomes. cafwd.
& Long-Term Outcomes We expect that if completed or ongoing these activities will lead to the following changes in 1-3 then 4-6 years: Impact We expect that if completed these activities will lead to the following changes in 7-10 years: Source: W. Kellogg Foundation how can we connect activities and outcomes? It is important for those involved in the planning to be able to explain why they think new actions will improve results. you should develop a set of hypotheses about what actions you need to take to reach those goals and ultimately achieve your desired outcomes. designation of responsibilities. and reporting.K. Now.deciding on which actions to take You have decided on your goals. associated costs. You will find that the essential three main components of a logic model are: inputs. activities. management.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide 9 10 handbook for community solutions: A guide cafwd. priority order. outcomes & impact) 2 Community Needs/Assets Source: W. outcomes. To the right are two suggestions of templates you might choose to complete. or asset we will conduct the following activities: Outputs We expect that once completed or underway these activities will produce the following evidence of service delivery: Short. You can develop your set of hypotheses by asking key questions.org . implementation. Kellogg Foundation cafwd. There are several logic models you can use to connect your proposed activities to your ultimate desired outcome. and time frame involved for the effort to reach its goals and desired outcomes. evaluation. The written Action Plan should articulate how strategies will be implemented and include activities and services to be performed.K. Logic models are effective tools to assist in program planning. 4 Influential Factors Logic Model Template 2 5 Strategies 6 Assumptions 1 Problem or Issue 3 Desired Results (outputs. such as: Expected change: what is the specific change that is desired? Target group: whom are you trying to reach? Location: where is the change expected to take place? Timeline: by what time will the change take place? Measure: how will the change be measured? (number or percentage) Logic Model Template 1 Resources In order to accomplish our set of activities we will need the following: Activities In order to address our problem.
org/ assets/1/AssetManager/CS_Results_Framework. If you are engaged in advocacy. but does not always have all the answers. non profit leadership. What resources are available? A lawyer can help you use get useful information through legal means. a lawyer also can help you with litigation or the appellate process to further your cause. The city/ schools work plan has been refined through numerous stakeholder meetings gathering input from groups including the local business community. Attorney at Law. The California Public Records Act provides a means to get access to public records and other documents that are useful in your cause. mayor and board president into a focus on further institutionalizing the connection between the city and schools.Is it important to Have a Lawyer? At some point in this planning process. are there local.iipk.aspx?theme=Olive&pageid=6442467543. you may encounter conflict with existing laws and policies. In addition. police and others city departments and the school district seeking to better align delivery of services with the needs of school families. Several community meetings focusing on City/District collaboration have honed the focus of this effort. through the efforts of grass roots advocacy organizations such as invest in PUSD Kids (www. What is the process? A lawyer can help you identify and understand any procedural issues that must be followed to make your case. human services. Luna & Glushon “Below are some questions you might ask to determine whether a lawyer would be helpful to you in your collaboration. http://healthy-start.ca. students. The plan can be found on the City of Pasadena Human Services web site at http://www. local or federal rules or regulations governing your fundraising activity?“ cafwd. They can also help you determine whether your organization would qualify as “non-profit” for tax purposes.pdf. What are the roles and responsibilities among the partners? After you have identified your partners and have set your goals and objectives. are there state. There have already been a number of increasingly significant collaborations between the city health.” The city general plan update process should conclude by the end of 2012. City / School collaboration is being tangibly demonstrated in a series of joint use groundbreakings and openings of new facilities that include two new jointly funded school gyms and new Healthy Start Family Center school based health clinics. your recourse is legal action that will require the assistance of a lawyer. state or federal laws that you must understand in order to make your case? The lawyer can help you understand the legal framework for the issues you are confronting. Are there other legal issues that you should know about? A lawyer can help you identify any other issues that you need to be aware of in your action plan. A lawyer is a resource to help you understand the legal issues involved and the process and procedures that must legally be followed. A lawyer can help you sort through these issues and avoid any problems or pitfalls.org . does the issue involve the State Education Code or the Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act? If you are in front of a county board of supervisors or a city council.ci.madison.communityschools. who is responsible to accomplish those goals and how is the work to be divided? Agreements among the parties or memorandum of understanding may be necessary.org) there has been a push for the addition of an eighth guiding principal in the city general plan that states “A vibrant public education system is valued and supported as the shared responsibility of our community. The revised work plan will be presented to a joint meeting of the School Board and City Council on February. Oftentimes. Do you need to incorporate? If you are soliciting donations or accepting funds from a public agency or foundation. but may also require you to exhaust other possible remedies before you run to court. The multi year plan that is projected to be adopted at that meeting will form the framework of collaborative efforts in aligning community resources to strengthen families and neighborhoods and increase student achievement. you may find you need legal counsel. A lawyer can help you employ these resources effectively in your strategic planning. 19 2013. parents. When necessary. Remember that a lawyer is a resource.pasadenausd. The Brown Act requires city councils and other public entities to deliberate in the open and can be a useful tool for citizens. Pasadena Unified School District “The Community Schools collaboration in Pasadena has evolved from a set of regular meetings between the city manager. EXAMPLE 3: Using a Results Framework Ed Honowitz.us/ Department. A lawyer can help you decide whether to incorporate and what is the appropriate form of incorporation for your organization. Both city and district staff along with parents participated in a planning and sustainability conference by the National Center for Community Schools. As you develop plans for change.org Legal counsel for your collaboration Dennis Hernandez. what are the rules regarding lobbying and when are you required to register as a lobbyist? If fundraising. Many public entities have rules and procedures that must be followed in order to raise an issue or to appeal a ruling.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide 11 12 handbook for community solutions: A guide cafwd.pasadena. What is the applicable law? If you are in front of a school board. you may need to consult with a lawyer to determine whether you should incorporate. It is up to you to determine the role of the lawyer as best suits your needs. especially where the partners involve participating organizations or corporate entities. Board Member. community members and faith leaders. superintendent. That led to a large scale planning process between the city and district staff to develop a joint city/schools work plan based on the Results Framework from the Coalition for Community Schools: www.
When selecting indicators.org . WRAP just one example of many solutions that can be derived from data based systemic interventions. Choose the indicators that make sense for your community planning effort and its goals. Now. not crimes. Each averted warrant means an average of 40 days of jail at over $80 dollars a day has been avoided. graduation rates. How should results be articulated? Indicators should be clearly articulated in your planning document. review your goals and identify what will constitute success in reaching them. Quantitative indicators report percentages and number values. which may mean modifying activities according to the results How will we measure success? The best way to monitor your success is by tying your goals to key performance indicators. with an initial budget of $35. as a member of Jail Crowding Task force recommended a number of strategies to reduce unnecessary jail days. listed your desired outcomes. such as employment rates. and crime rates.000 to help locate and reconnect probationers who are not reporting to their probation officers. Identify a solution and hypothesis (Friends Outside will reduce warrants) 4. The goal is to get to the best available indicator. Measuring success is important for two main reasons: 1. To demonstrate progress toward goals 2. Identify the problem (jail crowding) 2. a yearly report card. or probationers did not respond to letters warning them of the consequences of not reporting. 5. attendance rates. Qualitative indicators measure the quality of the change by describing changes in perception by the community. and be willing to revise the indicators as better ones are discovered or new data become available. tremendous expense is spent on the arrest. along with a way to report the results periodically and transparently. cafwd. You have linked these to specific activities and expected outputs. pay attention to: Data availability: which data is possible to collect Usefulness: relevance of evaluation findings to goals Simplicity: ideally. A national review led to an enhanced pretrial release program utilizing validated assessments to determine who could be released to make court appearances without reoffending during the court process of determining guilt. Whether you decide to have an online dashboard. How many indicators should we develop? It is best to develop at least three indicators of success for each of your determined outcome areas so that you can best monitor your progress. and jailing of these individuals who are in trouble for violating rules. Repeat process and start over if the tested solution disproves hypothesis. there simply wasn’t the time or resources to find probationers. three indicators per outcome People often expect indicators to be perfect. Cumulatively. While failing to report to probation is a clear violation of the rules. litigation.000 jail days and 1.2 million dollars. By tying your goals to indicators. Chief probation officer. Another strategy was determined after the collection and analysis of probation data.EXAMPLE 4: data-driven systemic intervention Scott MacDonald. obesity rates. the WRAP and other programs successfully reduced the jail population by 25% and a new jail was not needed. There has been a 63% decrease in warrants and an increase in probation engagement and success. and when there is not unanimity on perfect indicators. Test the solution by collecting data after the systemic intervention (67% reduction in warrants). Finally. In the first five years of operation the Warrant Reduction Advocacy Program (WRAP) has saved over 15. The probation department. Santa Cruz county “In the early 2000s it appeared inevitable to many Santa Cruz County justice stakeholders that a new jail would need to be constructed due to an overcrowded facility. planning efforts can stall out. To challenge the group to commit to success. and agreed on clear goals. the most costly solution of all. It also means that a swift and corrective action has been taken to reconnect and engage probationers to their probation officers. The data and analysis of this problem led to the proposed solution to partner with a local non-profit. 3. Use a combination of aggregate and qualitative data (data triangulation) to fully understand what is going on and determine baselines to measure change (40 days jail is spent for each person returning on a warrant).“ measuring success You have described your vision. The probation case management system and jail data revealed that there were probationers who would be jailed for an average of 40 days after returning on a bench warrant issued for failing to report to probation. Friends Outside. Given the high probation caseloads and numerous other tasks. your group can constantly monitor its success toward achieving its goals. The process is simple: 1. Your indicators should focus on quantitative data sets but also include qualitative information. or a regular meeting to review the status of your work.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide 13 14 handbook for community solutions: A guide cafwd. Remember that no indicator is perfect. The probation office would frequently not have current addresses to remind them on their reporting responsibilities that is delineated in small font on the back of their court sentencing order. the Sheriff has not had to build his way out of the jail crowding problem. The result has been tremendous. you must include some mechanism to report on your success to the community.
Your group should discuss and decide on: Data sources (such as community surveys. you may ask: Did we do what we set out to do? What worked and what didn’t? What could be done differently? What difference are our changes making? How have we improved the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery? Have we reduced the demand for state-funded services? How will information be shared? A summary of the data and analysis information should be shared in a publicly accessible format. when. It was important to have a process in place that “operationalized” its focus on these supporting actions. then. and by whom data will be collected. however. The Strategic Business Plan looks five years ahead in this longterm vision. and the public to see real-time progress. City of Richmond “The City of Richmond developed a five-year Strategic Business Plan as one of the key tools for implementing its new General Plan 2030. Having this up-to-date information regularly available allows managers to make informed decisions. which were shared with the group.” The sponsors would report on the status of their work.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide 15 16 handbook for community solutions: A guide cafwd.” Knowing that “what gets measured gets done. organized around the five overarching goals. staff to see their performance.” Thus. Ultimately. such as in a dashboard or scorecard. To accomplish this. City Manager. there are over 200 supporting actions to be undertaken and to measure within the current five-year Strategic Plan.” we also understood that it was important to put into place a process that reported results on a regular basis.org . but also a forum for exchanging ideas and best practices.EXAMPLE 5: Assigning Responsibilities to Actions Bill Lindsay. it must be analyzed. which were attended by the measurement “sponsors. we instituted quarterly meetings. not just a measurement tool. Rather than simply produce a written report. and would also identify specific areas of success and where there were specific obstacles to achievement. The quarterly meetings. studies) Method of data collection Frequency of data collection Responsibility for data collection Resources needed for data collection • • • • • How should we analyze our data? Once data is compiled. we linked each supporting action and success indicator to a specific staff person responsible for achieving the target result. your group should complete a chart like the following: Sample data collection chart Outcome area: Indicator Level at which you want the data/target group Type of data/ method for collecting data Where is the data available (source)? How often is the data available? When will you begin collecting data and how often? When will you collect baseline data? Analysis needed? Who will do analysis? How will information be shared? Source: UC Davis School of Education CRESS Center cafwd.” collecting & applying data What do we need to decide about data collection? Now it is time to identify how. that it wasn’t enough to simply identify and measure results for the supporting actions of the Strategic Plan. supporting actions. for each desired outcome. financial data. each supporting action and each success indicator had an “owner” or “sponsor. We described that staff person as “who we should thank when the work was done and the desired outcome was achieved. We understood. thus providing an up to date measure of activity. census data. and identifies the objectives. and success indicators for five distinct and overarching goals that link to the various elements of the General Plan. For example. which is a comprehensive and bold vision of the City’s future. In all. became. How you analyze the data will depend on the questions you ask about achieving your goals.
You may look to your county board of supervisors. That process should include: Identifying the problem(s) or issue(s) that the community is dealing with lessons learned As data is collected and analyzed. an activity that includes documenting the lessons learned. and it may describe a unique process to arrive at the end result. • An innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application. Up front. if any. Periodic. it is important to catalog the “lessons learned. and community leaders who collaborate to more efficiently and effectively deliver services. organizations. 1 2 3 4 5 Clearly define the problem to be solved Outline the goals to be achieved and the metrics to be used to measure progress toward those goals Describe the public services that will be delivered Articulate the roles and responsibilities of the participating entities Identify specific state regulatory or statutory barriers to accomplishing the goals. • • Deciding on measurable community goals directed at solving the identified problem(s) • Establishing a clear understanding of the outcome that that will be reached in solving the problem(s) or the knowledge acquired from an innovation or an adverse experience that leads to a process improvement.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide handbook for community solutions: A guide cafwd. Each lesson learned provides concrete data to support a statement of: • Something learned from experience. business leaders. a collaboration may rely on leveraging existing resources (such as time and meeting materials). However. However. created through an open and transparent process by a group of locol government agencies. Start with what you can afford. • Allocating responsibility • Tracking results Each step requires a high degree of public engagement.org . (Note that it may be necessary to request legislative relief. or the major statewide foundations for some grant money to begin. • An adverse experience that is captured and shared to avoid a recurrence.) 17 18 cafwd. or even frequent.strategic community action plan California Forward has coined the term ‘Strategic Community Action Plan’ to describe a comprehensive strategic plan for a region or county. there are some common elements of a well designed and well written Action Plan. which should include: Engaging a diverse group of government leaders. but depending on the size and scale of the effort. it may require additional dedicated staff and contractor time. who often have some discretionary funding. evaluation should be built into the plan so that activities can be regularly modified and adjusted to better achieve goals and desired outcomes. and community and neighborhood activists • • Agreeing on the problem the community is trying to solve • Identifying the current services available and focusing those on the client • Figuring out the best ways to integrate services in a site-based delivery system Ultimately. potential participants in this type of planning should not wait for funding to get started. and those resources have some cost. In a Strategic Community Action Plan. residents. your Action Plan should: possible funding sources How might we fund our planning effort? Resources are required for any community planning effort. A full-scale Strategic Community Action Plan may be formatted in a number of ways. the strategic planning process is continuous from problem identification through tracking results. A specific entity should be given the responsibility of evaluating the effectiveness of the overall plan. and build on that. and develop an alternative that would be more effective at improving results.” the specific positive takeaways and constructive criticisms gained from conducting specific activities.
K. and Families: The Essential Role of Local Government. They include: Integrated service delivery: The concept of coordinating the delivery of public services across government entities. Weaknesses/Limitations. (n. Retrieved from http://www.A.d. Retrieved from http://www. A stakeholder can be defined narrowly. or indicators: Specific performance measures used to evaluate progress toward achieving a goal. (2004. Beattie. R. Kids. Counties and Schools Partnership.ccspartnership. Retrieved from http://www. (2012). MA: University Press of America. and community leaders who collaborate to more efficiently and effectively deliver public services.pdf W. “Guide for Setting Ground Rules. for your reference. (2011). Retrieved from http:// www.. A Strategic Community Action Plan sets goals. (2012).brandonu. Retrieved from http://toolkit. (2012).” (Welfare and Institutions Code 18351(d)) cafwd. G. organizations. Kellogg Foundation.serve.cailg. Evaluating Social Innovation.. and assigns roles and responsibilities among partners. A.” Management Review.R. it could be a valuable technique or an outcome that you wish to repeat or it could be an undesirable result you wish to avoid.d. Opportunities. and the changes or results you hope to achieve.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide 19 20 handbook for community solutions: A guide cafwd. and are staffed by an independent backbone organization.d.. Retrieved from http://www. Counties and School Districts Building for the Future. “Stories from the Field Supplement. highly individualized unconditional services to address needs and achieve positive outcomes in their lives.” (Kania.T. or a civic center. Cities. Counties.gfoa.gov/EN/Audits/ PerformanceAudit/Pages/Performance. org/knowledge-center/resources/2006/02/WK-Kellogg-Foundation-Logic-Model-Development-Guide.aspx White House Council for Community Solutions. (2005). (n. T. Stretching Community Dollars: Cities. 35-36.org Connor. Jacobson. Gardner. Retrieved from http://www. Retrieved from http://www. identifies strategies and programs to advance those goals.sao. Sidney L. Issue 11 (AMA FORUM). (2005). and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. R. communityschools.wkkf.org/collaboration-partnerships Melaville. Retrieved from www. M.os. Retrieved from http://www. Wraparound services: “Community-based intervention services that emphasize the strengths of the child and family and includes the delivery of coordinated. Smart Government: Improving Performance and Accountability.pdf California Forward. way to write management’s goals and objectives.) Performance.ca/rdi/files/2011/07/ CCP_ProcessHandbook. (Humphrey. Retrieved from http://ocio.d.ucdavis. Key terms are defined briefly here.php?option=com_ content&task=view&id=1554 Institute for Local Government..org/multicultural/activities/groundrules. Gibson.” National Civic Review.org/sites/default/files/EvaluatingSocialInnovation.edchange. Collaboration and Partnerships.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Scaling%20Up%20Community%20Schools%20 Stories%20Supplement%20FINAL. 2005) While not specifically mentioned in the Handbook.3cdn. (1988). (1981).edu/People/Pages/jankowski/public_html/web780/Connor_1988. Lessons learned: “Useful project management information gained through experience that your organization should retain for future use and that can be relevant to other organizations.sdsu. mutually reinforcing activities.wa. Retrieved from http://www.) Lessons Learned – Submission and Form Instructions.) Resources for Communities. (n. SWOT Analysis: A strategic planning method developed by Stanford Research International in the 1960s. Blank.aspx glossary This Handbook uses a number of terms to describe collaboration and resource-sharing activities that may not be familiar to you.pdf Doran. BEST PRACTICE: Recommended Budget Practice on the Establishment of Strategic Plans. Retrieved from http://education. such as a resident in a specific community.” (W. Retrieved from http://caforward. Their actions are supported by a shared measurement system. H. T.org/index. Paul C.net/ff3b553ad6c8e9cce3_czm6bvqdu. “There’s a S. such as a leader of a certain group.) Community School Partnerships Toolkit. Rural Development Institute’s Regional Roundtable Handbook for the Community Collaboration Process. and Pathways to College Network. (2006).gov/ CommerceITGroups/Commerce_IT_Review_Board/PROD01_007947 Washington State Auditor’s Office.” Critical Multicultural Pavilion Awareness Activities. R. Joint use: A term that refers to two or more entities sharing a public facility space.) Evaluation Guide.K. M. 2011) Key performance indicators. “A New Ladder for Citizen Participation.pdf The Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education.” Scaling Up School and Community Partnerships: The Community Schools Strategy. Gorski. and ongoing communication. (2011). (n.pdf Cities. 2004) Stakeholder: A party with an interest or concern in the issue at hand.org/evaluation-guide/ UC Davis School of Education CRESS Center .pdf Preskill.html Government Finance Officers Association.M.d. the Institute for Higher Education Policy. Collective impact initiatives: “Long-term commitments by a group of important actors from different sectors to a common agenda for solving a specific social problem. the activities you plan. evaluationinnovation. Strategic Community Action Plan: A strategic plan created through an open and transparent process by a group of local government agencies. Beer.” (US Department of Commerce) Logic model: “A systematic and visual way to present and share your understanding of the relationships among the resources you have to operate your program. pellinstitute. D.doc. used to evaluate the Strengths. (2000). (n.Center for Community School Partnerships. Lanham.org . Volume 70.) Logic Model Development Guide.edu/post/communityschool-partnerships-toolkit US Department of Commerce. Kellogg Foundation. or broadly.resources & references Annis.. Depending on the lesson.gov/new-images/council/pdf/CommunityCollaborativeToolkit_all%20_materials. there are several other related terms and concepts that you may come across in your research. pp. Retrieved from http:// geography. such as a school auditorium or field. Office of the Chief Information Officer – Investment Review Board.
and consultants of California Forward and the dedicated members of the Advisory Group. Children and Family Futures John Gioia. San Buenaventura Mission Michael DiVirgilio. Deputy County Administrator. Councilmember. Partnership for Children and Youth Irella Perez. City Manager. Executive Director. City of Alhambra Rick Cole. Redwood City School District Mary McMillan. City of Hermosa Beach Sid Gardner. Whittier City School District Connie Chan-Robison. notes Advisory Group Members Luis Ayala.thank yous This Handbook was made possible by the efforts of the many practitioners of collaborative community planning who have shared their best practices and lessons learned with us. Board Member. President. Contra Costa County Ed Honowitz. Councilmember. The Wall – Las Memorias Project cafwd. HHSA. Board Member. City of Richmond Nick Macchione. San Diego County Shelly Masur. Pasadena Unified School District Bill Lindsay. Parish Administrator. staff. Director. Board Member. Supervisor. Special thanks goes to the Leadership Council. Associate Director. Executive Director.org . San Mateo County Deanna Niebuhr. Center for Collaborative Planning Richard Zaldivar.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide 21 22 handbook for community solutions: A guide cafwd.
cafwd.org Handbook for community Solutions: A Guide 23 24 handbook for community solutions: A guide cafwd.org .
0022 San Francisco 415.9650 Los Angeles 213.facebook.488.491.org Sacramento 916.9054 .362.com/CAFwd @moveCAFwd info@cafwd.
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