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  Lawrence  Hodgkins   Tonya  M.

 Little    

Middle  School  
Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Contents  

Vocabulary      p.  2  

Developmental  Research  
     Literacy  and  Language  Development  p.  4        Cognitive  Development      p.  6        Moral  Development      p.  7        Physical  Development      p.  8        Social  Development      p.  10        Emotional/Psychological      p.  11        Motivation      p.  13        Web  Sites      p.  15        References      p.  16  

Caught  in  the  middle?  
Middle  schools  (or  sometimes  called  intermediate  schools  or   junior  high  schools)  were  formed  in  the  early  twentieth   century  and  serve  to  function  as  the  educational  bridge   between  primary  and  secondary  schools.  Middle  schools  have   any  combination  of  grades  sixth  through  ninth,  with  the  exact   grades  varying  based  on  education  district.  Sometimes  the   term  middle  school  distinctly  refers  to  including  grades  sixth   through  eight  (probably  most  commonly  seventh  and  eighth   grades)  whereas  junior  high  distinctly  refers  to  also  including   ninth  grade.  In  order  to  be  successful  for  its  students,  faculty,   and  community,  middle  schools  must  address  the  separate   developmental  needs  of  its  transitioning  students.  If  every   United  States  middle  school  successfully  enacted  middle         school  philosophy  then  middle  schools  would  become  very   successful  at  bridging  the  gap  between  primary  and  secondary   schools  while  also  nurturing  the  unique  developmental  needs  of   its  transitioning  students.  Schools  must  employ  advisory  teams,   team  teaching,  flexible  scheduling,  and  student-­‐centered   education.  School  communities  must  reform  to  implement  middle   school  philosophy,  which  addresses  the  cognitive/intellectual,   social,  emotional,  and  physical  developmental  needs  of  middle   school  students.  

 

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Vocabulary  
Adolescent  egocentrism:  The  assumption  that  everyone   else  shares  one’s  thoughts,  feelings,  and  concerns;   adolescents  become  very  focused  on  their  own  ideas.   Anorexia  nervosa:  self-­‐starvation   Authoritarian  parents:    Parents  who  are  high  in  control   and  low  in  warmth  and  responsiveness.  They  set  firm   limits  and  expect  children  will  follow  orders  because   they  say  so,  often  without  explanation  or  negotiation.   Authoritative  parents:  Parents  who  are  high  in  warmth,   but  also  exert  firm  control.  They  monitor  their  children   closely,  set  clear  standards,  and  have  high  expectations   for  b ehavior.   Autonomy:  Independence   Bipolar  disorder:  A  manic-­‐depressive  illness   characterized  by  extreme  emotional  highs  and  lows.   Body  image:  An  individual’s  dynamic  perception  of  his  or   her  body  –  how  it  looks,  feels  and  moves.   Bulimia  nervosa:  Binge  eating  followed  by  p urging,   fasting  or  excessive  exercise.   Cognitive  development:  Changes  in  problem  solving,   memory,  language,  reasoning,  and  other  aspects  of   thinking.   Contextualized/Decontextualized  Learning:   Contextualized  learning  is  learning  that  takes  place  in  a   familiar  setting  while  doing  familiar  activities,  for   example  a  child  learning  what  cups  and  saucers  are  b y   helping  a  parent  wash  dishes.  Decontextualized  learning   takes  place  in  the  unfamiliar,  like  school,  and  may  be   connected  with  places  or  things  that  a  student  may   not  be  familiar  with.  For  example,  some  students  may   be  at  a  loss  if  asked  “What  type  of  sports  equipment  is   used  to  play  lacrosse?”   Cyberbullying:  The  practice  of  using  computers  and   other  electronic  media  to  intentionally  inflict  harm  on   another  person.   Digital  divide:  The  disparities  in  access  to  technology   between  poor  and  more  affluent  students  and   families.   Egocentric:  The  assumption  that  others  experience  the   world  the  way  you  do.   Emotional/social  development:  Changes  over  time  in   an  individual’s  feelings,  personality,  self-­‐concept,  and   relations  with  other  p eople.   Empathy:  The  ability  to  understand  what  another   person  is  feeling,  and,  as  a  consequence,  experience   the  same  or  similar  emotions.   English  Language  Learners  (ELLs):  Students  whose   primary  or  heritage  language  is  not  English.   Extended  families:  Family  members  such  as   grandparents,  aunts,  uncles,  and  cousins  living  in  the   same  household,  or  at  least  in  daily  contact  with  each   other,  cooperating  to  take  care  of  children.   Gender  intensification:  Adolescents’  decline  in   flexibility,  which  reflects  their  enhanced  self-­‐ consciousness  and  increased  awareness  of  social   norms  and  expectations  concerning  masculinity  and   femininity.    

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

  Identity  Achievement:  The  result  of  healthy  exploration   and  d ecision-­‐making  regarding  identities  involved  in   occupations,  political  and  religious  affiliations,  and   relationships.   Identity  Diffusion:  A  state  in  which  adolescents  are  not   exploring  identity  alternatives  or  making  commitments.   Identity  foreclosure:  Occurs  when  adolescents  make   commitments  without  exploring  options.   Identity  Principle  (Piaget):  Principle  that  a  person  or   object  remains  the  same  over  time.  Also,  the  complex   answer  to  the  question  “Who  am  I?”   Instrumental  aggression:  Aggression  that  is  inadvertent  –   more  likely  the  result  of  having  a  specific  goal  and  poor   self-­‐control  than  having  malicious  intent   Metacognition:  Knowing  about  how  your  own  cognitive   processes  work  and  using  that  knowledge  to  reach  your   goals.   Metalinguistic  Awareness  Skills:  Meta  -­‐  awareness  skill  is   at  work  when  a  student  is  able  to  switch  their  attention   from  the  meaning  of  what  they,  or  others,  say  to  the   sayings  themselves.   Mnemonics:  Systematic  procedures  for  improving   memory.   Moral  dilemmas:  Hypothetical  situations  that  ask  people   to  make  d ifficult  decisions  and  then  justify  them.   Neglected  children:     Peer  culture:  The  social  values  and  norms  for  behavior   that  different  groups  of  adolescents  share.   Peer  groups:  Social  groups  formed  on  the  basis  of  shared   interests  and  values;  they  are  typically  composed  of   children  of  the  same  age,  sex,  race/ethnicity,  as  well  as   other  commonalities.   Peer  pressure:  The  influence  peers  have  on  each  other’s   attitudes  and  behaviors.        

 
Permissive  parents:  Parents  who  are  warm,  but   have  little  control.  They  fail  to  set  standards  or   enforce  rules  for  their  children  and  avoid  conflict   or  confrontation.   Physical  development:  Changes  in  body   structure  and  function  over  time.   Popular  children:    Children  who  are  well  liked  b y   their  peers.  They  may  achieve  social  status  by   engaging  in  either  prosocial  or  antisocial   behavior.   Puberty:  All  the  processes  involved  that  make  a   person  capable  of  reproduction   Physical  development:  Changes  in  body   structure  and  function  over  time.   Puberty:  All  the  processes  involved  that  make  a   person  capable  of  reproduction   Reciprocal  teaching:  A  method  of  supporting   reading  comprehension  that  involves  four   strategies:  questioning,  summarizing,  clarifying,   and  p redicting.   Rejected  children:    Children  who  are  actively   disliked  by  their  peers;  they  may  be  aggressive,   immature,  socially  unskilled  or  withdrawn.   School  Attachment:  The  degree,  to  which   students  fell  accepted,  valued,  respected,   supported,  and  included  in  their  schools.   Self-­‐concept:  Our  integrated  view  of  the   attributes,  abilities  and  attitudes  that  define  us.   Self-­‐esteem:  The  self-­‐evaluative  part  of  the  self-­‐ concept;  the  judgments  children  make  about   their  overall  self.            

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Literacy  and  Language  Development  
 

Middle  School  students…  

• • • •

• •

Children and young adults in the middle school years are expected to use advanced language skills. Students with typically developing advanced language skills are able to use complex sentences, in both their oral statements and written language. Students at this level are also able to produce written stories that follow story grammar rules, and regularly make correct inferences from written text. Students have the ability to understand and use figurative language. This includes understanding metaphors such as, "I move fast like a cheetah on the Serengeti," and similes, "crazy like a fox." Students also have the ability to better understand idioms such as, "he's a bull in a china shop." An understanding and ability to use expository text is perhaps the biggest cognitive and academic leap that secondary students are expected to make. Expository text has a greater emphasis on decontextualized language forms and requires students to analyze and self-reflect on their views. In short, it requires good metalinguistic awareness skills. Social language skills are of huge importance to adolescents. For instance, the ability to detect and respond to sarcasm from peers is a critical skill that teenagers with typical language development find difficult to learn. The problem, of course, of not possessing good social language skills, is that students who can't adequately respond to teasing or bullying become the target for more of the same. Children with language difficulty generally have problems with most aspects of social language, including having adequate conversation skills, and knowing social rules.

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Tips for parents: How to Motivate My Tween to Read
1. Middle School, Reading and Tweens: Read What's Popular Motivating your tween to read is so important, and when your child hits middle school, reading skills play an important role in school success. Recent research indicates that readers do better on standardized testing, such as the SATs, than do non-readers. And don't forget about the enjoyment that reading can bring an individual. The good news is your preteen doesn't have to read the classics in order to benefit from reading. Tweens may take an interest in a book if they're familiar with the story. If your daughter recently saw a great movie, see if you can find the book from which the movie was based. How many tweens rediscovered the love of reading after watching the Harry Potter movies or The Chronicles of Narnia series? 2. Consider Magazines In middle school, reading can be seen as uncool. If books don't interest your son or daughter, subscribe to a magazine that might cater to their interests. If your daughter loves crafts, consider a subscription to a crafting magazine. If your son is into sports, see if he'll read Sports Illustrated or another sports focused publication. There are several magazines that cater to the tween girl market, including Girls Life and Discovery Girls. Both offer a lot of information on dealing with school problems, social problems, and making the most of the tween years. 3. Start a Club Tween book clubs are popping up at libraries across the country, and even some school districts are sponsoring middle school reading clubs. A book club gives tweens the chance to read a book together and share their observations and comments about the story. If a club isn't offered in your area, consider starting one with your child and her friends. 4. Enlist Their Help Ask your child if she's willing to read to younger siblings or neighbors in order to help them improve their reading skills. The chance to share a story may be enough to encourage her to keep reading for fun. Some school districts offer tutoring programs in which older students tutor younger ones. It will give your tween the chance to improve her own reading skills while helping a younger student develop theirs. 5. Comic Books Use comic books to improve reading proficiency, especially with boys. In elementary and middle school reading scores are usually ten percent lower than girls and in high school twelve percent lower. Comic books can be used to supplement traditional reading materials. The Stan Lee Foundation, the comic legend’s foundation to stop illiteracy as at the forefront of this movement. Stan Lee said, "Comics really are a good aid to getting kids to read more literature, increasing their vocabulary, and making them want to read. Comics are the one type of reading you don't have to be forced into," he said. "If you're a kid, you want to read them and you enjoy them. You begin to equate enjoyment with reading. Once you become a reader, you don't stay with comics, you then go onto other things too."

 

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Cognitive   Development  
Middle  School  students…  
• Are  inquisitive  about  adults,   often  challenging  their  authority,   and  always  observing  them.   • May  show  disinterest  in   conventional  academic  subjects  but   are  intellectually  curious  about  the   world  and  themselves.   • Are  developing  a  capacity  to   understand  higher  levels  of  humor.  
Implications  for  Middle  School/  Junior  High   Teachers   Cognitive  Development   The  teacher  should…     • Provide  extensive  opportunities  for  abstract   thinking,  including  consideration  of  moral   dilemmas.   • Recognize  that  not  all  middle  schools/  junior   high  students  have  fully  developed  abstract   reasoning  skills.   • Recognize  students  may  be  inclined  to   challenge  authority  with  their  newfound   skepticism  of  the  world.   • Be  aware  and  capitalize  on  students’   fascination  with  the  “gray  areas”  of  life  )  for   example,  moral  issues  in  history  and   medicine).  

• Are  in  a  transition  period   from  concrete  thinking  to   abstract  thinking.   • Are  intensely  curious  and   have  a  wide  range  of   intellectual  pursuits.   • Prefer  active  over  passive   learning  experiences.   • Prefer  interaction  with   peers  during  learning   experiences.   • Respond  positively  to   opportunities  to  participate   in  real  life  situations.   • Are  often  preoccupied  with   self.   • Have  a  strong  need  for   approval  and  may  be  easily   discouraged.   • Develop  an  increasingly   better  understanding  of   personal  abilities.  

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Moral  Development  
Middle  School  students…  
Implications  for  Middle   School/  Junior  High   Teachers   Moral  Development   The  teacher  should…  
• Recognize  and  capitalize  on   the  relationship  between   young  adolescents'   intellectual  development   and  their  moral  reasoning     Plan  instructional   experiences  that  foster   higher  order  thinking  skills   and  higher  levels  of  moral   reasoning.  For  example,   teachers  can  include   assignments  that  guide   students  to  articulate  their   thoughts  and  feelings  in   writing.     Young  adolescents  need   opportunities  to  examine   options  of  behavior  as  well   as  the  consequences  of   these  options.  This  can  help   students  to  develop  values,   resolve problems, and set
their own standards of behavior.  

• Are  generally  idealistic,  desiring  to  make  the  world  a  better  place  and   to  become  socially  useful   • Are  in  transition  from  moral  reasoning  which  focuses  on  "what's  in  it   for  me"  to  that  which  considers  the  feelings  and  rights  of  others   • Often  show  compassion  for  those  who  are  downtrodden  or  suffering   and  have  special  concern  for  animals  and  the  environmental   problems  that  our  world  faces   • Are  moving  from  acceptance  of  adult  moral  judgments  to  development   of  their  own  personal  values;  nevertheless,  they  tend  to  embrace   values  consonant  with  those  of  their  parents   • Rely  on  parents  and  significant  adults  for  advice  when  facing  major   decisions   • Increasingly  assess  moral  matters  in  shades  of  grey  as  opposed  to   viewing  them  in  black  and  white  terms  characteristic  of  younger   children   • At  times  are  quick  to  see  flaws  in  others  but  slow  to  acknowledge  their   own  faults   • Owing  to  their  lack  of  experience  are  often  impatient  with  the  pace  of   change,  underestimating  the  difficulties  in  making  desired  social   changes   • Are  capable  of  and  value  direct  experience  in  participatory  democracy     • Greatly  need  and  are  influenced  by  adult  role  models  who  will  listen  to   them  and  affirm  their  moral  consciousness  and  actions  as  being        trustworthy  role  models   • Are  increasingly  aware  of  and  concerned  about  inconsistencies   between  values  exhibited  by  adults  and  the  conditions  they  see  in   society  

Teachers  can  also   incorporate  scenarios  that   prompt  young  adolescents   to  explore  concepts  of   fairness,  justice,  and  equity.     Schools  need  to  include   programs  and  curricula  that   address  societal  issues  such   as  racism,  sexism,  and   discrimination.  

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Physical  Development  
Middle  School  students…  
• Experience  rapid,  irregular  physical  growth   • Undergo  bodily  changes  that  may  cause  awkward,   uncoordinated  movements   • Have  varying  maturity  rates,  with  girls  tending  to  mature   one  and  one-­‐half  to  two  years  earlier  than  boys.   • May  be  at  a  disadvantage  because  of  varied  rates  of   maturity  that  may  require  the  understanding  of  caring   adults.   • Experience  restlessness  and  fatigue  due  to  hormonal   changes.   • Need  daily  physical  activity  because  of  increased  energy.   • Develop  sexual  awareness  that  increases  as  secondary   sex  characteristics  begin  to  appear.   • Are  concerned  with  bodily  changes  that  accompany   sexual  maturation  and  changes.   • Have  preference  for  junk  food,  but  need  good  intention.   • Are  physically  vulnerable  because  they  may  adopt  poor   health  habits  or  engage  in  risky  experimentation  with   drugs  and  sex.  

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Physical     Development  
Implications  for  Middle  School/  Junior  High   Teachers   The  teacher  should…   • Minimize  activities  that  call  attention  to   different  levels  of  maturity   • Promote  appropriate  eating  habits  and   model  and  encourage  fitness   • Be  sensitive  to  female  menstruation                 (male  teachers  may  want  to  partner   with  a  female  teacher,  who  might  keep   emergency  feminine  hygiene  products  in   supply  )   • Be  aware  of  the  potential  for  pregnancy  
 

 

  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Social  Development   Middle  School  students…  
           

• Are  often  intimidated  and                                     frightened  by  their  first  middle                           level  school  experience  because  of  the     large  numbers  of  students  and               teachers  and  the  size  of  the                         building.   • Desire  recognition  for  their  efforts  and   achievements.   • Like  fads,  especially  those  shunned  by   adults   • Often  overreact  to  ridicule,   embarrassment,  and  rejection.  
 

• Have  a  strong  need  to  belong  to  a   group,  with  peer  approval  becoming   more  important.   • In  their  search  for  self,  model  behavior   after  older,  esteemed  students  or  non-­‐ parent  adults.   • May  exhibit  immature  behavior   because  their  social  skills  frequently   lag  behind  their  mental  and  physical   maturity.   • Experiment  with  new  slang  and   behaviors  as  they  search  for  a  social   position  within  their  group,  often   discarding  these  "new  identities"  at  a   later  date.   • Must  adjust  to  the  social  acceptance  of   early  maturing  girls  and  the  athletic   successes  of  early  maturing  boys,   especially  if  they  themselves  are   maturing  at  a  slower  rate.   • Are  dependent  on  parental  beliefs  and   values  but  seek  to  make  their  own   decisions.  

       

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

 

Emotional/Psychological   Middle  School  students…   Development  
                     

• Experience  mood  swings  often  with  peaks  of  intensity  and  unpredictability   • Need  to  release  energy,  often  resulting  in  sudden,  apparently  meaningless  outbursts  of   activity   • Seek  to  become  increasingly  independent,  searching  for  adult  identity  and  acceptance   • Are  increasingly  concerned  about  peer  acceptance     • Tend  to  be  self-­‐conscious,  lacking  in  self-­‐esteem,  and  highly  sensitive  to  personal   criticism     • Exhibit  intense  concern  about  physical  growth  and  maturity  as  profound  physical   changes  occur     • Increasingly  behave  in  ways  associated  with  their  sex  as  sex  role  identification   strengthens     • Are  concerned  with  many  major  societal  issues  as  personal  value  systems  develop     • Believe  that  personal  problems,  feelings,  and  experiences  are  unique  to  themselves     • Are  psychologically  vulnerable,  because  at  no  other  stage  in  development  are  they   more  likely  to  encounter  so  many  differences  between  themselves  and  others.  

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Socio-­‐emotional  Development  
Implications  for  Teachers   Socio-­‐emotional  Development   The  teacher  should…     • Listen  to  and  help  students  clarify   their  thinking  as  they  go  through   the  potential  turmoil  of  identity   formation.   • Create  classroom  systems  to   provide  the  security  of  structure   while  providing  the  freedom  for   personal  expression.   • Create  classroom  activities  that  do   not  necessarily  require  students  to   “stick  out”.   • Be  particularly  careful  not  to   humiliate  students  or  draw   unwanted  attention  to  them.  

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Motivation  

Psychologist  Carol  Dweck  defines  motivation  as  "the  love  of  learning,  the  love  of  challenge."  And,  according  to  her,   motivation  is  often  more  important  than  initial  ability  in  determining  our  success.   Yet  somewhere  in  the  middle  grades  the  motivation  of  some  young  adolescents  for  learning  takes  a  n osedive.  A  young   teen  may  begin  to  grumble  about  assignments  and  teachers,  ask  to  drop  out  of  a  favorite  activity,  complain  that  he's   bored  or  show  signs  of  being  lost  in  the  educational  shuffle.  

Here  are  some  the  things  that  can  contribute  to  low  motivation:  
• Biological  changes.  The  onset  of  puberty—getting  her  period  or  being  4  feet  2  inches  tall  when  your  buddy  is  5  feet   10  inches—distracts  some  teens.  Distractions  make  it  hard  to  think  about  the  swim  team  or  the  social  studies   project  that's  due.   • Emotional  concerns.  It  may  take  extra  effort  to  concentrate  on  a  science  project  when  a  young  teen  is  preoccupied   with  physical  insecurities  or  concerned  about  being  excluded  from  a  special  group.   • The  school  environment.  A  young  teen  may  lose  motivation  after  moving  from  elementary  school  to  a  middle  school   or  junior  high.  The  loss  of  motivation  can  b e  fueled  by  insufficient  support  in  the  new  school  or  by  an  increased   workload  and  expectations  to  which  the  student  hasn't  yet  adjusted.   • Social  and  peer  pressures.    A  child  may  b e  influenced  b y  friends  who  believe  that  academic  success  isn't  "cool,".    or   that  girls  aren't  good  at  math.     • A  shift  in  how  a  child  views  his  ability.  Younger  children  tend  to  believe  that  the  harder  you  try,  the  smarter  you'll   get.  But  Dr.  Dweck  notes  that  as  children  move  into  their  early  teens,  they  may  begin  to  believe  that  ability  is   fixed  and  to  compare  their  ability  with  that  of  others—the  harder  you  have  to  try,  the  less  able  you  must  be.   This  view  can  dampen  motivation.  Why  try  hard  if  it  won't  help  you  to  do  well?     • Lack  of  opportunities.  Some  youngsters  lack  opportunities  to  take  the  classes  or  participate  in  the  activities   that  they  n eed  to  spark  their  enthusiasm.  This  is  most  likely  with  students  from  disadvantaged  families  or  who   are  at  risk,  contributing  to  perceptions  that  they  are  unmotivated.  

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Motivation  (advice  for  parents)  
Here are ways to encourage adolescents’ motivation:  
• Be  a  good  role  model.  Young  teens  benefit  from  seeing   their  parents  putting  forth  their  best  effort,  completing  work   and  meeting  obligations.  Parents  need  to  demonstrate  that   they  value  learning  and  hard  work.   • Let  your  child  know  that  sustained  effort  over  time  is  the   key  to  achievement.  Teach  him  to  set  high  goals  and  to   work  hard  to  achieve  them.  Help  him  to  see  the  value  of   tackling  challenges  and  of  finding  ways  to  meet  or  exceed   those  challenges.   • Steer  your  child  toward  appropriate  classes  and  suitable   activities.  Young  teens  need  opportunities  to  excel  and  be   useful.  Success  can  be  a  powerful  motivator  and  boredom   may  be  a  sign  that  your  child  hasn't  enough  opportunities  to   develop  her  talents.  She  may  need  an  advanced  English   class,  an  art  class  or  the  chance  to  volunteer  at  a  homeless  shelter.   • Offer  support.  Insincere  p raise  or  praise  for  poor  efforts  is  no  h elp,  but  young  teens  need  to  be   reassured  that  they  can  do  something.  "Sometimes  kids  will  say  they  are  bored,  but  it's   because  they  haven't  done  [an  activity]  before,"  advises  teacher  Barbara  Braithwaite.  Your   child  may  need  hints  about  how  to  get  started  with  a  new  project  from  you,  another  adult,   an  instructor  or  a  book.   • Find  strengths  and  build  on  them.  Every  child  can  shine  in  some  area.  Identify  what  your  child   does  best,  no  matter  what  it  is.   • Communicate  with  your  child's  teachers,  counselors  or  school  principal  when  necessary.  A  drop   in  grades  is  n ot  uncommon  when  students  go  from  one  grade  level  to  another.  But  if  your   child's  grade  drop  is  extreme  or  if  it  persists  for  more  than  one  marking  period,  get  in  touch   with  someone  at  the  school.  It's  OK  to  be  a  strong  but  respectful  advocate  for  your  child.   Because  middle-­‐grades  teachers  may  have  very  full  schedules,  you  may  need  to  show   persistence.  Call,  write  or  e-­‐mail  teachers  if  you  think  that  many  assignments  are   inappropriate  or  if  your  child  is  unable  to  complete  them  successfully.  Take  the  lead  if  your   child  is  placed  in  classes  that  you  think  are  p oor  in  content  or  that  fail  to  provide  your  child   with  sufficient  stimulation.   • Hold  realistic  expectations.  It's  important  to  hold  children  to  high  standards.  But  when  young   teens  are  asked  to  do  the  impossible,  they  may  stop  trying.  Don't  pressure  your  5-­‐foot  4-­‐ inch  son  to  try  out  for  center  on  his  basketball  team  just  because  he  played  center  for  his   elementary  school  team.  Instead,  reassure  him  that,  in  time,  he'll  grow  taller  and  help  him   to  look  for  other  activities  in  the  meantime.  Holding  realistic  expectations  also  requires  that   you  consider  your  child's  personality  and  temperament.  Your  6-­‐foot  son  may  not  enjoy   playing  basketball.  Make  sure  that  your  child  knows,  deep  in  his  heart,  that  you  love  him  for   what  he  is  and  not  for  what  he  does.  

 

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

Web  Sites  for  Adolescents  
http://pbskids.org/itsmylife/index.html     Read  informative  articles,  play  games  and  activities,  watch  video  clips  of  other  kids  talking   about  their  feelings  and  experiences,  also  features  interviews  with  celebrities  sharing  “stuff   they  had  to  go  through”  when  they  were  kids.  

The  Discovery  Channel’s  How  Stuff  Works   http://www.howstuffworks.com/  

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  Middle  School  Developmental  Project  

December  3,  2012  

  • • • •

References  
Caskey,  M.  M.,  &  Anfara,  V.  A.,  Jr.  (2007).  Research  summary:  Young  adolescents'  developmental  characteristics.   Retrieved  [Nov.  30,  2010],  from   http://www.nmsa.org/Research/ResearchSummaries/  DevelopmentalCharacteristics/tabid/1414/Default.aspx  

Comic books as education. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.stanleefoundation.org/New & Press/Comic Books as Education - Comics News at IGN.pdf   Wood,  C.  (2007).  Yardsticks:  Children  in  the  classroom  ages  4-­‐14.  (3rd  ed.).  Turners  Falls,  MA:   Northeast  Foundation  for  Children, Inc.   Woolfolk  A.  ,  &  Perry  N.  (2012).  Child  and  adolescent  development.  Upper  Saddle  River,  New  Jersey:   Pearson  Education,  Inc.  

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