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UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA CENTROAMERICA Integrantes: Karen Melisa Ruano Erazo 21011017 Fernando Alfredo Villela Barletta 20711271 (Speaker

) Josué Rubén Obando Moncada 20821054 Fecha: 13 de noviembre 2012

Tema: Japan

Asignatura: Mercadotecnia II.

Catedrático: Ing. Javier Matute.

San Pedro Sula, Honduras.

CLIMITE Most of Japan has four distinct seasons, which are somewhat similar to those in the United States. The Japanese climate is generally mild thanks to the tempering effect of the ocean. But because the islands of Japan stretch 1,400 miles from north to south there are great variations, ranging from tropical in Okinawa (with the same latitude with Key West, Florida) to blustery and snowy in Hokkaido (with the same latitude as Quebec). Springs is ushered in by plum blossoms in March and cherry blossoms in April, and is pleasant and sometimes rainy. Autumn begins in September and is characterized by falling leaves, crisp, cool, days and rice harvests. Northern Japan and temples with maple trres have pretty autumn colors. Winter tends to be mild on the Pacific side, with many sunny days, while the Japan Sea side tends to be colder and more overcast. Winter in Hokkaido and northern Honshu are shaped by frigid northwest winds from Siberia, which occasionally sweep across from the Asian continent bringing snow to coastal regions facing the Sea of Japan and to the central mountain regions. Hokkaido, northern Honshu and the mountains in the interior of Honshu are among the snowiest places on earth. Summer can be very muggy, hot and humid, especially in August and September. In many places they say it is so humid in the summer that you can walk and swim at the same time and so hot you can fry rice on the sidewalk. It is not usual for swimmers have to wait in line for an hour to get a ticket for a 20 minute dip in a local swimming pool. Southeast winds blow across Japan from the Pacific in the summer bring rain to coastal regions facing the Pacific. The humid rainy season—caused by the Bai-u front—lasts for about a month, from mid-June to mid-July in most parts of the country. But because Japan is strung out over such a large area latitude-wise the rainy season ends in Okinawa in June around the time it in starts Hokkaido and northern Japan. On most days of the rainy season it rains for one two hours or less. The temperatures are significantly cooler than later in the summer. LAND AND GEOGRAPHY With the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Sea of Japan to the west and the East China Sea to the south, Japan is an archipelago comprised of four major island and 6,800 smaller islands. Covering about 145,856 square miles (370,000 square kilometers), Japan is slightly larger than the United Kingdom, slightly smaller than California and one twenty-fifth the size of the United States. The nearest countries are Korea (about 100 miles to the west), Russia and China.

The history of Japan can be studied under. the region that embraces Osaka. History of Japan can be subdivided into certain parts for an easy and better comprehension of the civilization. • Pre-history of Japan • Japan in Ancient and Classical age • Feudal Era in Japan • Meiji Era and its Restoration • World War I • World War II • Japan during and after military control on it. Pre-history of Japan : In the prehistorical age of Japan there can be two main era found. The less developed side of Japan that faces the Sea of Japan is often referred as the ―backside of Japan‖ as opposed to more developed ―front side‖ that faces the Pacific. East Japan refers mainly to the Tokyo-Yokohama. One is the Jomon era and the other is Yayoi era. West Japan refers to everything south of Kyoto and Osaka on Honshu. The term Jomon means pattern of plaited cord and some of the earliest evidence of pottery are found belonging to this era . Japan Alps area. HISTORY Japan has a rich and interesting historical background. In addition to the 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of ocean that Japan can also claims around the main islands according to the 1982 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea it can also claim 200 nautical miles around far flung Japanese islands that extend from near Taiwan and China to far out in the Pacific Ocean. They show that Japan has a rich history and cultural heritage that any country can be proud of. The Japanese civilization that has the evidence of being in existence in the early age of the Palaeolithic era. Mount Fuji. use of iron and bronze. plus the northern part of Kyushu. cultures and trends. Japan in Ancient and Classical Age : In this whole period Japan can be . its people.The islands of Japan make up less than 15 percent of Japan‘s total territory. The area around Tokyo is called Kanto (a reference to Kanto Plain which Tokyo is part of). Kyoto and Kobe is called Kansai (or Kinki). better way of farming. In the history of Japan one can see the influences of not only different ages but also several monarchies that had ruled the people of Japan. Most of its territory is in the sea. The other period. Tohuko describes northern Honshu. had come across umpteen number of other ages that have molded and characterized the history of Japan in a very interesting way. Yayoi was a little improved and people knew weaving.

A trend was suddenly noticed where Japan's hunger for power over vast stretches of land increased and the nation set out to conquer the world with the belief that they were born to rule. In feudal Japan the strong military rule that got a firm foundation during the Ancient and Classical historical period. Intelligent and quick actions on the part of the Japanese army gave them many smaller victories within the whole course of the war and eventually weakened the Baltic army. The Japanese gain from this first Sino-Japanese war was the control of the territory of Korea and acquiring the Liaodong peninsula for a naval base. Under all these eras Japan went through a number of developments and traits. Kofun period. These are. Azuchi-Momoyama and the Edo age. Before the beginning of the WWII the Japanese had entered another war with Chinese known as the Second Sino.subdivided under four other periods. Gaining full possession of Manchuria the . These fanatic faiths and beliefs had in the very beginning given rise to the Sino-Japanese war in 1894 which lasted till 1895.Japanese War which lasted over the years from 1931 to 1945 and Japan's inclusion into the WWII was predicted by this war. The other periods in the history of Japan have several subdivisions and monarchies within them. Feudal Era in Japan : Japan in the feudal period also went through some other subdivisions of ages . Kamakura. The war had finally established Japan as a world power. It was not until a year was over that both sides realized that they had gained nothing from the war and the war was brought to a close with the mutual treaty of cease-fire signed in New Hampshire. Nara period and the Heian period. The war put the position of the Czar in question and Russia was forced to transfer the control of Korea to Japan along with the Trans-Siberian Railway. Japan nurtured high ambitions of conquering the world and being a world power since the early 1900's. Muromachi. continued with the aid of powerful regional rulers. providing Japan with a varied and colorful pattern of historical heritages . A strong willforce worked within the Japanese army and it could be perceived that they were more than willing to sacrifice their lives for their country in the war s. Asuka period. The war started with Japanese intentions of conquering Chinese territory and they first attacked Manchuria. These are. But ultimately a conflict with the Russians over the control of Liaodong peninsula implanted the seeds of the Russo-Japanese war that would start with the turn of the century in 1904 and continue for 1 whole year uptil 1905. The Russian government entered the war with the strong belief that they would defeat Japan but little did they realize how son they would exhaust their resources by persevering with an army that would decline to give in.

4%.325 million.population TOKYO (capital) 36.8% 
 note: total adherents exceeds 100% because many people belong to both Shintoism and Buddhism (2005) Languages Japanese . Koreans 0. PEOPLE Population 127.000 Brazilians of Japanese origin migrated to Japan in the 1990s to work in industries.809 million.Japanese army progressed northward into Shanghai and after a bloody encounter with Mao Zedong's armies Japan was successful in gaining control of Shanghai and Nanjing. some have returned to Brazil (2004) Religions Shintoism 83.5%. The post-war periods saw American troops infiltrating into Japan and for some years after that they retained control of the Japanese archipelago. Nagoya 3. the move forced Japan to enter into WWII. With the capture of Wuhan in 1938 the Japanese army gained enough confidence to attack the Pearl Harbor which was under US control in 1941.368. Buddhism 71.257 million. Fukuoka-Kitakyushu 2. Sapporo 2. Christianity 2%.9%. The attack on Pearl harbor forced China and USA to unify with the allies and wage war against Japan and hence. other 7. Chinese 0.088 (July 2011 est. Japan surrendered unconditionally after the atomic bomb droppings over Hiroshima and Nagasaki and accepted their defeat in the hands of the allies with the treaty of Potsdam.5%.4%.673 million (2009) Ethnic groups Japanese 98.507 million.6% 
 note: up to 230. Osaka-Kobe 11. other 0.) Major cities .

they are enthusiastic in absorbing or imitating other cultures. This environment influences largely their lives. they prefer the one to appeal their own status than the performance or design.GENERAL ATTITUDES The Japanese had to equip themselves to survive in those autocratic times and it still underlies current society and their unique characteristics. Therefore. Mini-component audio systems are essential in their narrow houses often referred to "rabbit hutches". they have more interest in human feelings and emotions than scientific or logical concerns.
 In discussions. Modesty is the prevailing attitude. Consequently. Japan is a country poor in natural resources but rich in hard-working and diligent people. In the case of high-priced merchandise. They prefer conservative merchandise rather than gaudy and appealing one. etc. The behavior of competition and appealing themselves is observed only within their own community. They feel comfortable with familiar people in the communities they belong to. literary books rate more highly than scientific books. Westerners clearly express their own opinions and speak directly in order to . On the other hand.    In personal life:  Japanese culture is group oriented and people tend to work together rather than exert their individuality. They attach much importance to harmony. they select reputable merchandise according to community standards rather than personal preferences or even coordination to own style. parks. Accordingly. They tend to place themselves in their own exclusive and closed communities. houses. roads.  Japanese people tend to accomodate others' opinions rather than speak up for themselves. Factors informing this unique Japanese characteristics are:   They adapted to catering to authority and to harmonize with others. When making purchases. comparied with westerners. In terms of book read. they have introverted personalities and they pay serious attention to harmony and cooperativeness in the group. are designed in miniature size. They are better at developping transistors than space development projects. They developed their sense of allegiance in the group consequent to be exclusive. Japan has a population of about half of the United States with a land area about 90% of the state of California. They tend to pay attention to precise details rather than the big picture.
 Expressing strong personal opinions is not common as in western countries.

When shopping. Expressing a contrary opinion would imply disrespect of the other person. their culture is called "the culture of sadness". the concept of Japanese grammar is such that they answer "Yes. colleagues or friends rather than deciding by themselves. 
 
 Clicking on Episodes of how Japanese people attach importance to the precise finish of the products provides some illustrations of this. it is either for practical use or for status. 
 
 As Japanese people have lived under dictatorship for such a long period of time.
 The Japanese trial system is not a jury system. When they answer a negative question such as "Don't you think so?" and they don't think so. On the other hand. with the melody written in minor scales.
 Japanese usage of "Yes" and "No" is opposite to English. Development of transistors was the trigger for Sony to be current major organization. A judge makes the decision according to the law. houses. Japanese people tend to have a group. Japanese people often speak English with Japanese grammar.     avoid confusion. and intermediate-priced merchandise is not acceptable. such as clothes. they attach great importance to the opinions of salesmen. Nikon is the top manufacturer of Stopper Lenses which are essential for the production of Super LSI. Therefore. neighbors than to the performance of the goods or how well they suit their lifestyle. When Japanese people buy something. Japanese people do not speak directly on the understanding that it is polite not to be direct. when making travel plans they tend to select from the travel packages offered by travel agencies. penetration of all communities is important for successful marketing in Japan. . This is applicable to many products. This is why it is said that Japanese people don't say "no". such as electronics. Most old Japanese folk songs and current "Enka" music as well. such as colleagues. Thus. etc. it is very important for sales people to be recognized as friendly and reliable advisors. Japanese people tend to attach more importance to the law and regulations than to their own judgment. I don't think so". automobiles. electronic products. 
 
 People were not allowed to criticize authority during feudal warrior times. Their houses are narrow and often referred to as "rabbit hutches". The merchandise they buy is at the lowest or the highest ends of the price range. have lyrics of sadness. For example. When selecting purchases.01microns. This consciousness still underlies the characteristics of the Japanese people and they tend to instinctively obey authority. rather than individual mentality. friends.
 Accordingly. They have succeeded in achieving the highest precision in the world of 0. 
 
 It is believed that this Japanese characteristics has come about as a result of overpopulation.08 microns and are now aiming at reaching to 0. 
 Japanese people tend to attach more importance to the precise finish of a product rather than to overall performance of the goods. the Japanese tend to attach more importance to the reputation of the item among the community they belong to. they are excellent at precision work.

This is an example of the differences of attitudes between Japan and the United States that Japanese people attach importance to forming a group while Westerners attach importance to a technology (science). business trip or purchase (called "Ringisho") to the chief who passes it along to a higher level where it is again passed up the chain of command. quantity and popularity. One Hundred Yen shops recently appeared as a new and successful retailer concept and they are growing in size. Members of the general public was at the lowest status. Corporate policies are preaching the the importance of harmony. The flagship is the Japanese Government. Private companies are therefore highly regulated by the government. responsibility is shared by many people. This system seems very inefficient. however. administrative employees are the warriors and clerks are the general public. this trend is expanding. Japanese automobile manufacturers reduced their costs by adopting a procurement method called "Kanban Hoshiki (Price and delivery control system by grouping sub-contractors)" and swept over the U.  Companies also form nationwide group. a lord who owned his castle governed his territory by his own law. the subject is performed in whole organization scale as a company mission. On the other hand.  Many corporate systems are structured for cooperative employee performance.  In feudal times. the exclusive importers of General Motors and Mercedes recently dropped Buick from their list seems to be that it is not a prestedge car (highest end). recently the mayor of Osaka prefecture required the federal government's support to reduce the landing fee at Osaka International Airport which is under non-government management.S. As more importance is attached to a . In 1990s.  Japanese manufacturers cut their production costs by using sub-contractor grouping system. This is called "Goso Sendan Houshiki (Armed Convoy System). If the application is approved. Changing jobs is regarded as disloyalty and is a disadvantage for the next employment opportunity. This concept still underlies current Japanese society. and then to purchasing section where the order is placed. They attach much importance to harmony. for such things as a new plan.
 For example. automobile manufacturers developed the Information Technology to fight back. it is sent to accounting section. The reason that Yanase. Employees have strong feelings that they are owned by their company and should to pledge their loyalty to the company. Companies are transport ships and ministries are the warships to protect and support the transport ships which carry the economy. market. An employee submits an application for approval. In the 1880s. the U.Currently.S. once the decision is made. A company is the castle. with warriors working under him.
 On business:  Japanese people tend to accomodate others' opinions rather than speak up for themselves. In this way.

whether it be a seven-course dinner or a sample at a supermarket. and yell ―kampai!‖ (cheers).    group than to an individual. and people are categorized as insiders or outsiders. is available for both companies and individuals. wait before raising the glass to your lips. Do not use it as a napkin. make a speech.co. and someone will take the lead. There are many cases of companies or organizations accepting business accounts only for companies. In most Japanese companies. hosts invite their guests to take superior seats. to show you are enjoying it. white-collar executives account for a higher percentage than executives come from technical field comparing with Western companies. You may raise bowls to your mouth to make it easier to eat with chopsticks. raise his drink. when speaking of other employees.    Slurping noodles or making loud noises while eating is OK! In fact. Changing jobs is regarded as a lack of allegiance to the company and is dis-advantageously evaluated by next employer. Most of the member of Japanese national assembly are graduates of law schools.jp is available for companies only. Within Japanese organizations. In Japanese organizations. you will receive a small wet cloth at most Japanese restaurants. It is supposed that this custom has been passed down from feudal times. The U. or to touch any part of your face. especially bowls of rice. it‘s polite to say ―itadakimasu‖ (I will receive). Just before digging in. a company has more financial confidence than an individual. com. Lifetime employment:
 The Japanese employment system has traditionally been operated as lifetime employment. EATING If you‘re with a dinner party and receive drinks. domain name.S. slurping hot food like ramen is polite. This comes from a strong group consciousness that every employee of a company belongs to the company and is a part of the company. then carefully fold it and set it aside on the table. as in homes. . but the Japanese domain name. Everyone will be served. the person's name is said without an honorific title even for high ranking employees. . Use this to wash your hands before eating.

GREETINGS . It‘s all about position and circumstance. For example. For tourists. a simple inclination of the head or an attempt at a bow at the waist will usually suffice. extended. respect pounded into children‘s heads from the moment they enter school. a friend might get a lightning-fast 30degree bow. 70-degree bow.GESTURES Bowing is nothing less than an art form in Japan. an office superior might get a slow. The duration and inclination of the bow is proportionate to the elevation of the person you‘re addressing.

as well as at the end of the calendar year and the beginning of the new year (especially January 1 to 3). HOLIDAY Almost all government offices. many businesses remain closed through January 3. This area is made especially for the removal of outside footwear. VISITING Fact but: Japanese homes and apartments have small. More information is available on theNew Year page. many public offices. More information is available on the Coming of Age page. Japanese know all about handshaking as well. and foreign visitors who at least bob the head will get a smile of recognition. if a National Holiday falls on a Sunday. However. the next day (Monday) will be observed as a holiday. you will usually find that you shoes are neatly facing the door. whether you've placed them like this or not. Sundays and National Holidays in Japan. use a little common sense. banks and post offices are closed on Saturdays. When you return to this area after your visit. Don't be overly concerned.japanese of all ages and backgrounds bow in greeting each other (even on the telephone!). and the visitor's head may crash with an outstretched hand. The Japanese shoe fairy. for a period of days known as "Obon" (the Buddhist event).   January 1 (national holiday) New Year (shogatsu): This is the most important holiday in Japan. Second Monday of January (national holiday) Coming of Age (seijin no hi): The coming of age of 20 year old men and women is celebrated on this national holiday. but many department stores. often lowered entranceways called genkan. banks and schools will also close for a few days in mid-August. . I'm almost positive your Japanese host won't send you away from their home if you point your shoes in another direction. While only January 1 is designated as a national holiday. Often a Japanese host will have slippers ready for you on the next level after you've removed your shoes. shops and restaurants are open on these days. In Japan. In addition to the Japanese National Holidays. I guess.

More information is available on the Golden Week page. May 4 (national holiday) Greenery Day (midori no hi): Until 2006. February 14 Valentine's Day: In Japan. May 3 (national holiday) Constitution Day (kenpo kinenbi): A national holiday remembering the new constitution. due to the emperor's love for plants and nature. February 11 (national holiday) National Foundation Day (kenkoku kinenbi): According to the earliest Japanese history records. April 29 (national holiday) Showa Day (Showa no hi): The birthday of former Emperor Showa.          February 3 Beginning of spring (setsubun): Setsubun is not a national holiday. March 3 Doll's Festival (hina matsuri): Also called girl's festival. It is now celebrated on May 4 and is part of theGolden Week. Before 2007. More information is available on the Valentine's Day page. It is not a national holiday. Showa Day is part of the Golden Week. April 29 was known as Greenery Day (now celebrated on May 4). the former Emperor Showa's birthday. May 5 (national holiday) Children's Day (kodomo no hi): . Greenery Day was celebrated on April 29. which was put into effect after the war. More information is available on the White Day page. It is not a national holiday. women give chocolates to men on Valentine's Day. on this day in the year 660 BC the first Japanese emperor was crowned. Around March 20 (national holiday) Spring Equinox Day (shunbun no hi): Graves are visited during the week (ohigan) of the Equinox Day. March 14 White Day: The opposite of Valentine's Day: Men give cakes or chocolates to women. but celebrated at shrines and temples nationwide. More information is available on the Setsubun page. More information is available on the Doll's Festival page.

the national holiday changes to the birthday date of the new emperor. July/August 7 Star Festival (tanabata): Tanabata is a festival rather than a national holiday. December 24-25 Christmas: . On culture day. July/August 13-15 Obon: Obon is a festival to commemorate deceased ancestors. Shichigosan is not a national holiday. Second Monday of October (national holiday) Health and Sports Day (taiiku no hi): On that day in 1964. More information is available on theShichigosan page. November 23 (national holiday) Labour Thanksgiving Day (kinro kansha no hi): A national holiday for honoring labour. November 15 Seven-Five-Three (shichigosan): A festival for children. Around September 23 (national holiday) Autum Equinox Day (shubun no hi): Graves are visited during the week (ohigan) of the Equinox Day. The day marks the return of Emperor Meiji from a boat trip to Hokkaido in 1876. If the emperor changes. More information is available on the Golden Week page. More information is available on theObon page. Third Monday of September (national holiday) Respect for the Aged Day (keiro no hi): Respect for the elderly and longevity are celebrated on this national holiday.           Also called boy's festival. Third Monday of July (national holiday) Ocean Day (umi no hi): A recently introduced national holiday to celebrate the ocean. November 3 (national holiday) Culture Day (bunka no hi): A day for promotion of culture and the love of freedom and peace. schools and the government award selected persons for their special. the Olympic games of Tokyo were opened. December 23 (national holiday) Emperor's Birthday (tenno no tanjobi): The birthday of the current emperor is always a national holiday. cultural achievements. More information is available on theTanabata page.

chairs and sofas. Consequently. The room entrances are sliding paper doors (fusuma) and sliding paper screens (shoji) which can be removed completely. are found in most Japanese households today. microwave oven. More information is available on the New Year page. Traditional tatami rooms have an alcove (tokonoma) in which a hanging scroll (kakejiku) and a flower arrangement (ikebana) or piece of pottery is displayed. and refrigerator. gas. including beds. uniquely Japanese style furniture and household devices have survived or been introduced into the Japanese home. Japanese households often consist of both Japanese style rooms with tatami floors. December 31 New Year's Eve (omisoka): December 31 is not a national holiday. the bedroom can then also function as a living or dining room. RECREATION . Instead. In addition. The heating devices are turned off during the night and when nobody is in the room. rice cooker. You should always take off your slippers when stepping on tatami mats in order to protect them from damage. and modern rooms with wooden or tiled floors. tables. The traditional Japanese bed is a futon which is laid on the floor only during the night and kept in a closet (oshiire) during the daytime. oil and electric ovens and air conditioners are used to heat single rooms. heated tables (kotatsu) are a popular piece of furniture during the winter. Most Japanese kitchens are equipped with a gas stove. HOUSING Western style furniture. but it is celebrated by an increasing number of Japanese. In addition. Christmas is not a national holiday. Most houses in Japan do not have central heating. Tatami mats are made of straw and measure roughly 180 cm x 90 cm. More information is available on the Christmas page.

Horseback riders sits on a mechanical horse that moves up and down while watching trails pass by on a screen. go parachuting. followed by overseas trips. These sports are all done in front of a projection screen. In another survey. In a survey in 2009. Particularly popular were cooking classes. and watching fireworks. Because space is at a premium Japanese can go horse back riding. retailers noticed that consumers were becoming more interested in purchases that related to a hobby or provided a skill. picnics. ski. Japanese . Running up long series of stairs—often the ones leading to Buddhist temples or Shinto shrines—is a common training method in Japan. and cultural activities such as movies and concerts. The ancient Japanese tradition of yu-suzumi. and high priced contemporary artists in the world. [Source: Environics International] Modern forms of recreation are displacing traditional Japanese art forms. twice as many women are interested in personal computers than the tea ceremony and three times more would rather go bowling than engage in traditional flower arranging. hiking. or play golf without stepping outside. Other activities that ranked high were driving. influential. in 2009. The most important figure in Japanese contemporary art today is the Tokyo-based artist Takashi Murakami. ART Japanese Contemporary Art is art created by young Japanese artists or post-war (after WWII) era Japanese art. he is also one of the most well know. often including elements of Anime.According to a survey on recreation in Japan. Japanese contemporary art is a mixture of modern and classic art styles. Japan is a leader in recreation technology. 29 percent of those asked said they very often spend their leisure time in a natural places such as a park or countryside (compared to 47 percent in the United States) and 27 percent said they sometimes spend time in natural places. 76 percent of the people interviewed said they liked to spend their free time traveling around Japan. or "enjoying the evening cool. Japanese contemporary art should not be confused with traditional Japanese art. According to a 1997 government White Paper on Leisure. walks along the waterside. Murakami is not just the biggest name in Japanese contemporary art. golf lessons and equipment and gardening products. three fourths of Japanese adults said they don‘t get enough exercise." Typical yu-suzumi pastimes include boat rides. Manga or other popular culture.

Classically.7 percent in 1999. Many newlywed Japanese couples. raising the kids by herself. especially in the countryside. even four generations living under one roof. Moreover. These days many women refuse to live with their mother-in-laws. FAMILY/MARRIAGE Asians have traditionally regarded marriages as a bonding of families rather than individuals. move in with the husband's parents after they get married and the wife's mother-in-law helps with the rearing of the children. Men are expected be breadwinners and 100 percent devoted to their employers. Since the end of World War II the nuclear family has been steadily replacing the traditional Japanese extended family that often had three generations. Many Japanese artists have taken western styles and aesthetics to heart while combining them with traditional Japanese identity and have created a new form of art that has reverberated and permeated other cultures.contemporary art is a stand of Japanese art that is best known for its combination of classic aesthetics from Japan‘s long. working very long hours. Explaining why she moved her family out of her in-laws house one woman told the New . People are not seen in the Christian view as individual children of God but rather as members of a family. when a man moved into his parent‘s house with his wife. It is often the duty of wife to take care or her husbands parents when they get old. Women are expected to 100 percent devoted to their families. his wife was expected to be a kind or servant to her mother-in-law and in some cases couldn't even leave the house without her mother-in-law‘s permission. creating in many ways a commentary on how the two intermingle. This naturally created a lot of friction and wives have traditionally not liked their mother-laws. tumultuous past. Traditionally. Japanese art sought the deeper spiritual roots of its subjects rather than the superficial appearances – however modern art has become more attached to these material possessions. These ideas are rooted in ancestor worship and Confucianism. and its more recent accentuation of western cultural trends and styles. Japanese artwork in today's cultural atmosphere retains many of the aesthetics of Japanese history while being fully aware of the modern curb of technology and internationalism. while the mother is stuck at home. In a typical Japanese family the father is gone from the home much of the time. The number of three-generation households decreased from 56 percent in 1972 to 29. children are not seen as individuals who are supposed to find themselves but rather as people responsible for keeping a family going.

Also. especially in spring. It may sound trite. The long-term sluggishness of Japan's economy has made cheap dates. here are a few simple rules to follow in any situation. especially on the first date. I just thought it was my own life and I have to live it before it's crushed. for example. Japanese women have heard of it and appreciate it when it is applied . "It wasn't anything in particular just an accumulation of things that suddenly exploded. A picnic in the park is considered quite romantic. you meet a man or woman you are interested in and want to ask them for their phone number or to go on a date.York Times." DATING Avoid doing anything that draws public attention to your date: Japanese culture emphasizes modesty and blending in. emphasizing fun and togetherness over glamor and extravagance. but just being yourself will prove a lot less complicated in the end. Choose the standard dinner-and-a-movie date. Determining the proper dating etiquette in Japan is further complicated by the fact that you are not Japanese. Likewise. pull out her chair or offer her your seat. Though the western practice of "ladies first" is not common in Japan. Drawing public attention to the object of your affection will result in acute embarrassment." and be disappointed or confused if you do not. Hold the door open for a woman and let her go first. they may try to act in a "Western fashion. do so in private. and you won't go wrong. even popular. quite common. There is no easy way to negotiate the treacherous maze of cultural baggage. Steer clear of public displays of affection. Your date may or may not expect you to behave in a "Western fashion." believing this will make you happy. If. That said.

Follow this basic Japanese etiquette at the table: say "itadakimasu" before you start eating and "gotchisosama deshita" when finished. Japan Guide advises: "When eating from shared dishes. remember that in Japan it is good manners to pour your partner's drink and allow them to pour yours. move some food from the shared plates onto your own with the opposite end of your chopsticks or with serving chopsticks that may be provided for that purpose" If you and your date are drinking alcohol. GOVERMENT .to them.

Women received the right to vote in the new constitution. The members of the Diet are elected by the Japanese people. . high courts. family courts. Elections: The minimum voting age is 20 years.The Diet building in Tokyo The current Japanese constitution was promulgated in the year 1946 during the occupation by the Allied powers: Legislature: The Japanese parliament is called the Diet. Elections for the House of Representatives are carried out every four years. The prime minister is elected by the Diet. Beside the national elections there are prefectural and municipal elections. The Emperor does not have any effective power but is only the symbol of the state. and half of the House of Councillors is elected every three years. It consists of the House of Representatives (480 members) and the House of Councillors (242 members). The cabinet further consists of the ministers which are appointed by the prime minister and are usually members of the Diet. and summary courts. Executive: The cabinet is headed by the Prime Minister. Judiciary: The highest court is the Supreme Court. Other courts are district courts. Judges are appointed by the cabinet.

EDUCATION When Japan opened herself to the world in 1868. literally meaning "circle". Thailand and Germany. Bills: come in 1. Taiwan. second only to the United States. followed by South Korea. Australia. 100 Yen and 500 Yen. construction. 2. and communication are Japan's major industries today. Most important agricultural product is rice. Coins: come in 1 Yen.000 Yen and 10. real estate. Saudia Arabia. foodstuffs and wood. Resources of raw materials are very limited and the mining industry rather small. electronic devices and computers. and is one of the world's most actively traded currencies. However. 5 Yen. Exports: Japan's main export goods are cars. It is one of the richest economies in the world with the highest level of social indices.ECONOMY The Japanese economy is the second largest economy in the world.000 Yen. Only the USA and China have a higher GNP. Industries: Manufacturing. but is very strong in other sectors such as construction.000 Yen (very rare). The Japanese currency is the Yen. The most important import goods are raw materials such as oil. Japan's currency is the yen (JPY). sen are not used in everyday life anymore. The Japanese economy is one of the third largest in the world. Major supplier is China. 5. One yen corresponds to 100 sen. The Japanese education system was reformed mainly according to the German and French model which experts regarded as most suitable and advantageous. Singapore. one of the government's high priority was catching up with Western standards in science and education. 10 Yen. The Japanese economy is very focused on their exports expecting a large industrial capacity. Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates. distribution. Hong Kong.000 Yen. 50 Yen. services. Agriculture makes up only about two percent of the GNP. The Japanese currency is the Yen. Imports: Japan has a surplus in its export/import balance. Most important trade partners are China and the USA. telecommunications and banking. followed by the USA. . South Korea.

This healthcare is provided by both the local and the national governments. many students attend special preparation schools (juku) besides regular classes. universities. followed by the best private universities. Japan still has excellent hospitals and clinics. Most foreign people have less than positive impressions of Japanese medical practitioners. and with them a high competitiveness among students. it is notable to see that few Japanese practice medicine. Over 90% of all students also graduate from high school and over 40% from university or junior college. provides highly-technical. as well as a few private junior high schools and elementary schools require applicants to write entrance exams. Generally speaking. Most high schools. Healthcare in Japan The Japanese healthcare system provides free screening examinations for certain diseases. Payments for personal medical services are offered through an insurance system called . The most prestigious universities are the national University of Tokyo and University of Kyoto. At universities the percentage of male students is higher than that of female students while the opposite is the case at junior colleges. or for one to two years between high school and university (yobiko). A characteristic of the Japanese school system are entrance exams. the Americans reformed the Japanese education system after their own which consists of six years of elementary school. each three years of junior and senior high school and four years of university or two years of junior college. medical ethics and bedside manners are not taught in Japan. In order to pass entrance exams to the best institutions. In spite of this. separated by short holidays in spring and winter. HEALTH Japan offers a wide variety of options when you need medical help. One of the reasons may be the fact that studying medicine in Japan can be very expensive. The Japanese school year starts in April and consists of three terms. Although Japan is an industrialized country. and a one month long summer break. Compulsory education includes elementary school and junior high school. Although there are numerous public and private hospitals as well as clinics. state of the art equipment. and being the world‘s leading country in technology. infectious disease control and prenatal care.After the Second World War. the Japanese have no ‗family-doctor‘ system. The number of graduate university students is relatively low.

there are still some that continue this illegal act. the coverage for medical costs varies with each scheme. This is subdivided into different categories but generally applies to people who are working in private schools. A large number of specialists and surgeons in Japan obtained their qualifications from western countries like the USA and the UK.universal healthcare. Health insurance Japan has a structure of universal health coverage. Medical insurance is divided into broader categories: the Employees‘ Health Insurance and the National Health Insurance. You are also required to do the same if you will be joining an employees‘ insurance scheme. your age. and other important factors. The monthly premiums are calculated differently but are generally based on salaries. fevers. and in medium or large companies. These include whether you are visiting. working. National Health Insurance in Japan. Anyone who is staying in Japan for more than a year and is not covered by Employees‘ Health Insurance is obliged to apply for National Health Insurance. The Employees‘ Health Insurance. Employers provide health insurance certificates to their employees. How it applies to the individual will generally depend on different factors. or colds. it is still quite disturbing. Additionally. This will require you to produce your Alien Registration Card. As the number of expatriates within Japan grows. Membership in either of the schemes is a must. in the national and the local government. This system provides equality of access. or when you are changing your name or address. going back to the country of your birth. The premiums are based on the monthly salary of the insured person. along with fees that are set by a particular government committee. This includes staffing hospitals with English-speaking medical professionals. As with other Asian countries. INFRASTRUCTURE . moving to another town or city. or studying. Japan has had problems with medical practitioners who over-prescribe. the government has increased its efforts to provide quality healthcare for them. These concerns have alarmed the Japanese government and they in-turn have taken action to eradicate the practice. Although this is normally only associated with minor ailments like coughs. which is a community-based system. Although incidents have been greatly reduced.

which employed 9.5 . Nuclear power produces 22. rates of car ownership and fuel levies are used to promote energy efficiency. Most international gateways are Narita International Airport. This strategy of economic development necessitated the establishment of a strong economic infrastructure to provide the needed energy. The nation's large and varied forest resources. but only through years of painstaking investment and toil. Although many kinds of minerals were extracted throughout the country. communications.4 percent of the labor force in 1990 and contributed some 8. Local deposits of metal-bearing ores were difficult to process because they were low grade. car usage is the lowest of all G8 countries. only 50 percent of all distance traveled.9 percent from hydro power. Because of the precipitous terrain. underdeveloped road network. Nagoya Port is the largest and busiest port in the country. 46. most mineral resources had to be imported in the postwar era. Dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional passenger transport and local big business are seven JR enterprises.A mountainous. domestic sources were only able to supply between 25 and 30 percent of the nation's timber needs. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansen trains connect major cities and Japanese trains are known for their punctuality. Japan's road spending has been extensive.7 percent from natural gas. A single network of high-speed.2 million kilometers of paved road are the main means of transportation. Construction The mainstay of infrastructure development is the construction industry. 16. Haneda Airport. and 2. the largest domestic airport. limited-access toll roads connects major cities and is operated by toll collection companies.5 percent of Japan's electricity. and high percentage of young trees. Japan has inadequate natural resources to support its growing economy and large population. Given its heavy dependence on imported energy. 9. island nation. Kintetsu Corporation. Japan has sought to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency. Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. is the second busiest airport in Asia. New and used cars are cheap. However. divided. There are 173 airports in Japan. Its 1. Kansai International Airport and Chubu Centrair International Airport.7 percent nuclear power. The nation therefore built up the manufacturing and processing industries to convert raw materials imported from abroad. 21. Agriculture and fishing were the best developed resources. As of 2008. Proposals for a new Maglev route between Tokyo and Osaka are at an advanced stage. and technological know-how.4 percent from coal. accounting for 10 percent of Japan's trade value. which covered 70 percent of the country in the late 1980s. transportation. were not utilized extensively.4 percent of energy in Japan is produced from petroleum.

in Hokkaido and Kyushu. The largest firms are also improving their underwater construction methods. and the quality of the coal is good. and execution. Japan's approximately 1 million tons of coal reserves were mostly hard coal used for coking. After the two oil crises in the 1970s. and rapid rise in land prices. which caused them chronic deficits in the 1980s. is among the most developed in the world. A number of large projects are underway. the coal seams are wider and can be worked mechanically. improvement of personal income. with about 134 square meters exclusively for housing. Mining Mining was a rapidly declining industry in the 1980s. even greater growth is expected for new urban office buildings. however. which have. In Hokkaido. Construction starts in FY 1990 covered a total area of about 283 million square meters. Most of the coal Japan consumed is used to produce electric power. respectively. and new or expanded airports. and the share of construction investment in GNP decreased gradually. management. Unfortunately. Kyushu's coal is generally of poor quality and hard to extract. Total construction costs were estimated in excess of ¥49 billion. inclined galleries. construction investment turned sluggish. such as nuclear power plants and liquid natural gas (LNG) storage tanks. which includes advanced earthquakeresistant designs. Domestic coal mining companies faced cheap coal imports and high production costs. Although demand for new private housing is expected to grow in the 1990s. Domestic coal production shrank from a peak of 55 million tons in 1960 to slightly more than 16 million tons in 1985. These include projects for Tokyo's waterfront and other urban redevelopment. continued increase in corporate earnings. 45 and 40 percent of the country's coal deposits. making transportation difficult. while coal imports grew to nearly 91 million tons in 1987. In most Japanese coal mines. Japanese coal is found at the extreme ends of the country. which . especially for more sophisticated and higher value-added private housing and private nonhousing structures. Japan's construction technology.percent of GDP. business expanded through investor confidence. highway construction. but the proximity of the Kyushu mines to ports facilitates transportation. suggesting that the construction industry would experience continued growth throughout the 1990s. The share of construction investment in GNP rose sharply. In the late 1980s. In 1987. Research and development focuses especially on energyrelated facilities. these mines are located well inland. Major firms compete to improve quality control over all phases of design.

the latest year for which complete statistics were available. Abu Dhabi (7. In 1989 Japan was the world's third largest producer of electricity. services.2 percent).300 power plants were thermoelectric. Of this total. Malaysia (20. switched from petroleum to coal. the pattern of energy consumption in Japan changed from heavy dependence on oil to some diversification to other forms of energy resources. and other energy resources. including uranium. coal 18. Japan's domestic oil consumption dropped slightly. Japan's main LNG suppliers in 1987 were Indonesia (51.7 percent of which was used by industry. residential. were used instead of pits. By 1976.extended in some places to 9. The result is that a miner's daily output is far less than in Western Europe and the United States and domestic coal costs far more than imported coal. Japan's total energy requirements were tabulated at 428.3 percent of energy needs. About 75 percent of the . such as lubricating oil or asphalt. with only 3 percent of the world's population. Most of the more than 3.3 percent came from other sources. Because domestic natural gas production is minimal. most of which is imported.3 percent for non-energy uses.3 percent).2 million tons of petroleum equivalent. Consumption totaled 298 million tons: 46. and oil the rest. doubling Japan's consumption of world energy. despite the installation of moving platforms.8 percent). In 1950 coal supplied half of Japan's energy needs.9 million barrels per day in 1990. including electric power companies and steelmakers.7 kilometers underground. In 1990 the country's dependence on imports for primary energy stood at more than 84 percent.1 percent. hydroelectricity one-third. Its rapid industrial growth since the end of World War II had doubled energy consumption every five years. and the United States (3. In 1990.0 percent. During the 196072 period of accelerated growth. 26. and 3. In 1988 oil provided Japan with 57. and 1. Japan was consuming 6 percent of global energy supplies.6 percent for agricultural. nuclear power 9. rising demand is met by greater imports. from around 5. Brunei (17. After the two oil crises of the 1970s. its consumption of nuclear power and LNG has risen substantially. While the country's use of oil is declining. This arrangement is costly.3 percent).3 percent by the transportation sector. The use of power had also changed qualitatively. 84 percent was imported. hydroelectic power 4. Several Japanese industries.1 million barrels of oil per day in the late 1970s to 4. 23. natural gas 10. Energy Japan lacks significant domestic sources of energy except coal and must import substantial amounts of crude oil.1 percent. and other uses.6 percent. geothermal power 0. energy consumption grew much faster than GNP.1 percent.4 percent). natural gas.

In 1989 nearly 700. Although the United States spent around US$108. Japan's ability to conduct independent research and development became a decisive factor in boosting the nation's competitiveness. with a total generating capacity of approximately 33 million kilowatts. more than the number of French.9 percent of its national income (the highest ratio in the world). South Africa. British.000 kilowatts per hour in 1989. the huge investments necessary for fuel enrichment and reprocessing plants. Although Japan was a late starter in this field.available power was controlled by the ten major regional power utilities. announced the commencement of "the era of Japan's technological independence. Similar trends were seen in the use of capital resources. 40 percent were Japanese. Electricity rates in Japan were among the world's highest. particularly after the Three Mile Island accident in the United States.2 million patents registered worldwide in 1985. By 1991 the country had forty-two nuclear reactors in operation. Of alternative energy sources.1 billion on government and private research and development in 1987. As early as 1980. At the same time. The ratio of nuclear power generation to total electricity production increased from 2 percent in 1973 to 23. Japan has effectively exploited only geothermal energy.6 percent of its income was devoted to that purpose. of which Tokyo Electric Power Company was the world's largest. ranking it third behind Japan and West Germany. Japan's nuclear power program was strongly opposed by environmental groups. it finally imported technology from the United States and obtained uranium from Canada. Japan continued to build nuclear power plants. During the 1980s. France. Nevertheless. only 2. The Japanese reputation for originality also increased. Other problems for the program were the rising costs of nuclear reactors and fuel. a component of the Office of the Prime Minister. The Japanese were working to increase the availability of nuclear power in 1985. Japan was producing more engineers than any country except the Soviet Union and the United States. equivalent to 2. the Science and Technology Agency. reactor failures.6 percent in 1990. The country had six geothermal power stations with a combined capacity of 133.000 Japanese were engaged in research and development. and Australia." By 1986 Japan had come to devote a higher proportion of its GNP to research and development than the United States. and nuclear waste disposal. Of the 1. and Japanese .2 billion on research and development in 1987. Japan spent US$39. Japan gradually shifted away from dependence on foreign research. and West Germans combined. Research and Development As its economy matured in the 1970s and 1980s.

government moved away from supporting large-scale industrial technology. In 1986 private industry provided 76 percent of the funding for research and development. and by encouraging private cooperation in various fields. as were 30 percent of aviation-related patents and 26 percent of communications patents. Japan significantly trailed other industrialized nations in basic scientific research. In 1987 around 33 percent of computer-related patents in the United States were Japanese.5 percent in 1986). the Japanese government attempted to rectify national deficiencies in basic research by waging a broad "originality" campaign in schools. life sciences. Meanwhile. Research emphases in the 1980s were in alternative energy. as is Japan's ratio of basic research expenses to GNP. the national commitment to greater defense spending in the 1980s translated into increased defense-related research and development. which was especially strong in the late 1980s in electrical machinery (with a ratio of research costs to total sales of 5.citizens took out 19 percent of the 120. and transportation equipment (3.2 percent). As for government research and development.3 percent). In the late 1980s. by generously funding research. chemicals (4. however. The proportion of basic research expenses borne by government is also much lower in Japan than in the United States. In 1989 about 13 percent of Japanese research and development funds were devoted to basic research. precision instruments (4. Most research and development is private. Despite its advances in technological research and development and its major commitment to applied research. . and modern industrial materials. although government support to universities and laboratories aid industry greatly.000 patent applications made in the United States. information processing.6 percent). such as shipbuilding and steel.

com/japan/history-japan.html  http://www.eltnews.nationsencyclopedia.com/wiki/Japanese_Contemporary_Art http://www.emb-japan.com/japan.html  http://matadornetwork.php?itemid=860&catid=26&subcatid=160  http://www.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/JapanINFRASTRUCTURE-POWER-AND-COMMUNICATIONS.com/japan.com/abroad/10-japanese-customs-you-must-knowbefore-a-trip-to-japan/  http://www.allianzworldwidecare.html  http://www.com/japan/demographics_profile.com/features/guide/2009/01/etiquette.jp/spanish-contents/Sobre-Japon.virtualjapan.php?itemid=630     http://factsanddetails.html http://www.com/japan.com/e/e644.html .go.com/es/country/asia/177-japan/1405-japan-infrastructure.Bibliografia  http://www.hn.com/news/story_3990.mapsofworld.html  http://country-facts.html  http://www.fodors.com/healthcare-in-japan  http://factsanddetails.php?itemid=786 http://www.indexmundi.japan-guide.html  http://factsanddetails.