You are on page 1of 36

The Origins of Christianity and the Quest for the Historical Jesus Christ Excerpted from By Acharya S/D.M.

Murdock Please feel free to print out and distribute this ebook in any way, both online and offline!

Table of Contents The Origins of Christianity and the Quest for the Historical Jesus Christ Introd uction The Controversy History and Positions of the Debate "Pious Fraud" The Pro of The Gnostics Biblical Sources Non-Biblical Sources The Characters The Major P layers Buddha Horus of Egypt Mithra, Sun God of Persia Krishna of India Promethe us of Greece The Creation of a Myth The "Son" of God is the "Sun" of God Etymolo gy Tells the Story The Book of Revelation is Egyptian and Zoroastrian The "Patri archs" and "Saints" are the Gods of Other Cultures The "Disciples" are the Signs of the Zodiac Was Jesus an Essene Master? Qumran is Not an Essene Community Was the New Testament Composed by Therapeuts? Conclusion Bibliography 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 9 9 12 13 14 19 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 24 25 25 26

The Origins of Christianity and the Quest for the Historical Jesus Christ Excerpted from The Christ Myth Anthology by Acharya S/D.M. Murdock Introduction Around the world over the centuries, much has been written about religion, its m eaning, its relevance and contribution to humanity. In the West particularly, si zable tomes have been composed speculating upon the nature and historical backgr ound of one of the main characters of Western religions, Jesus Christ. Many have tried to dig into the precious few clues as to Jesus's identity and come up wit h a biographical sketch that either bolsters faith or reveals a more human side of this godman to which we can all relate. Obviously, considering the time and e nergy spent on them, the subjects of Christianity and its legendary founder are very important to the Western mind and culture, and increasingly to the rest of the world as well. The Controversy Despite all of this literature continuously being cranked out and the significan ce of the issue, in the public at large there remains a serious lack of formal a nd broad education regarding religion and mythology, and most individuals are hi ghly uninformed in this area. Concerning the issue of Christianity, for example, the majority of people are taught in most schools and churches that Jesus Chris t was an actual historical figure and that the only controversy regarding him is that some people accept him as the Son of God and the Messiah, while others do not. However, whereas this is the raging debate most evident in this field today , it is not the most important. Shocking as it may seem to the general populace, the most enduring and profound controversy in this subject is whether or not a person named Jesus Christ ever really existed. Although this debate may not be e vident from publications readily found in popular bookstores, when one examines this issue closely, one will find a tremendous volume of literature that demonst rates, logically and intelligently, time and again that Jesus Christ is a mythol ogical character along the same lines as the Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Sumerian, P hoenician, Indian or other godmen, who are all presently accepted as myths rathe r than historical figures. Delving deeply into this large body of work, one unco vers evidence that the Jesus character is based upon much older myths and heroes from around the globe. One discovers that this story is not, therefore, a histo rical representation of a Jewish rebel carpenter who had physical incarnation in the Levant 2,000 years ago. In other words, it has been demonstrated continuall y for centuries that this character, Jesus Christ, was invented and did not depi ct a real person who was either the "son of God" or was "evemeristically" made i nto a superhuman by enthusiastic followers. History and Positions of the Debate This controversy has existed from the very beginning, and the writings of the Ch urch fathers themselves reveal that they were constantly forced by the Pagan int elligentsia to defend what the non-Christians and other Christians ("heretics") alike saw as a preposterous and fabricated yarn with absolutely no evidence of i t ever having taken place in history.

this quote has been disputed and picked a part to absolve Eusebius of deceit. Illustrating this contention. With acknowledgement to Randel Helms. So much for the "inerrant Word of God" and "infallible" Church! The confusion exists because the Christian pla giarists over the centuries were attempting to amalgamate and fuse practically e very myth. xii. 4 Wheless. Paris. 253. 356. "How it may be lawful and fitting to us e falsehood as a medicine. 220) "three luminous liars." 6 while Bronson Keeler concludes. in his play from 1564." 1 According to these learned dissenters. F ranc. 1628. doctrine or bit of wisdom they could "borrow" from the innumerable different mystery religions and philosophies that existed at th e time. Robert Taylor says. so common in fact that a n ew phrase was coined to describe it: "pious fraud. those once considered canonical or genuine were later reje cted as "apocryphal" or spurious. xxxvi. " 5 Wheless calls Church fathers Justin Martyr (c. Paris.M. 6 Wheless. as shown by Joseph Wheless's exten sive analysis in Forgery in Christianity. 3 CE. author of Gospel Fictions. was the existence of Christ as a man most strenuously denied. 160–c. Vigeri. 165). of t he dozens of gospels. 7 Keeler. they forged. but never so strongly and emphatically as in the most primitive times. and vice versa. edit." 7 In addition. 12). 4) comments. The Proof The assertion that Jesus is a myth can be demonstrated not only through the work s of dissenters and "Pagans" who knew the truth—and who were viciously refuted or murdered for their battle against the Christian priests and Church fathers fooli ng the masses with their fictions—but also through the statements of various Chris tians themselves who disclosed that they knew Jesus Christ was a myth founded up on more ancient deities located throughout the known ancient world. were determined by their own peers to b e unbelievable liars who regularly wrote their own fictions of what "the Lord" s aid and did during his alleged sojourn upon the earth. and lib. 1544. Steph. fairytale. Evangelical Preparation (bk. 105. "The passage in Eusebius is in p. 1544.Acharya S/D. Graec. Gibbon includes the original Greek and cites the edition as "Page 356. and they were singularly incompetent to deal with the supernatural. In doing so.StellarHousePublishing. Bishop of Ossory John Bale (1495-1563) appears to be suggesting that Pope Leo X (1475-1521) was privy to the truth base d on his high rank. 100-c. Paris. "Gospel Fictions. edit. 4 Some of the "great" Church fathers. Eusebius and Ter tullian (c. Rob. the New Testament could rightly be call ed." 3 Such prevarication is admi tted repeatedly in the Catholic Encyclopedia. and rewrote these texts for centuries. 607 of vol. Forgery during the first centur ies of the Church's existence was admittedly 4 . i. in a neve r interrupted succession. ch. legend. and for the benefit of those who want to be deceived. I. interpolated. 31. in one of his works. Rob. 263-339). p. Eus ebius provides a handy chapter entitled. 1 2 © 2009 www. Murdock The Origins of Christianity As Rev." 2 "Pious Fraud" Those individuals (or their spiritual hei rs) who concocted some of the hundreds of "alternative" gospels and epistles bei ng kicked about during the first several centuries AD/CE even confirmed that the y (or their compadres) had forged the documents. mutilated. According to renowned his torian Edward Gibbon. Stephani. 48. when the bishop recounts an alleged exchange between Cardina l Taylor. such as historian Eusebius (c. "The early Christian fathers were extremely ignorant and superstitious. Graec. "And from the apostolic age downwards. 606. Edit. changed. Dr. 5 Gibbon. 766." Naturally." Th e Southern Review (IV.


with the latter supposedly exclaiming. seminarians. or suffer upon the cross. "Others asserted that the incarnation of Christ was a myth. the epistles attribute d to "Paul. or Herod." 9 The Gnostics From their own admissions. 87. Cathol ic clergymen. 10 St. 107. 339. 11 St.. who held that their god could never take human form. early Christians were incessantly under criticism by scholars of great repute who were impugned as "heathens" by their Christian adve rsaries. or any person in the gospel accoun t of the Passion. the b ulk of the epistles themselves. "They are thus all uninspired anonymous church forgeries for Chris t's sweet sake!" 14 Aside from the brief reference to Pontius Pilate at 1 Timoth y 6:13. 340-341." never discuss a historical background of Jesus but deal exclusively with a spiritual being who was known to "Gnostic" sects for years. relating that. Chrysostom's Picture of the Religion of His Age. citing Chrysostom's "In Matt. added. as their name denoted.M. Chrysostom's Picture. lastly. who strenuously objected to the carn alization of their deity. Homil. the Pauli ne literature "does not refer to Pilate. Presbyterians. 13 Kennedy. 12 as are. 471. viii. Jesuits. a commentator on the works of Church f ather St. and that it also never makes any allusion to them." 11 He then 5 . beginning in 1995." 10 In discussing the various "heretics " of the second century and onward. who "were of opinion that our Lord had passed through the Blessed Virgin as wat er through a conduit. The refutations of the Christians against the Gnostics reveal t hat the Christian godman was an insult to the Gnostics. as the Christians can be shown to have taken many of t he characteristics of their god and godman from the Gnostics. XXIII.) 9 W heless. the author first addresses the Valentinians. "they know it is all myth. 231. xxi. satis est omnibus saeculis notum. Murdock The Origins of Christianity Bembo (1470-1547) and Pope Leo X. "The Docetae. (Emph." a loose designation applied to members of a variety of esoteric schools a nd brotherhoods. an epistle widely rejected as not having been written by Paul." 12 Se e Earl Doherty's Jesus Puzzle and Jesus: Neither God Nor Man for an extensive an alysis of the value of the Pauline material." As Wheless says. according to various scholars." Biblical Sources It is very telling that the earliest Christian documents. or the holy women. et al. or the Sanh edrin. "The proofs of my indictment are marvelously easy. considered that our blessed Lord did not actually exist on earth. The few "his torical" references to an actual life of Jesus cited in the epistles are evident ly interpolations and forgeries. or Caiaphas. in the higher level s of the Church educational institutions.StellarHousePublishing. Bale's original Latin is as follows: "Quantum nobis nostrisque ea de Chri sto fabula profuerit. 108.H. Chrysostom (c. meaning "Ones who know. For example. Since I have been online. © 2009 www. 35. as they were not written by "Paul. Taylo r. This group included many Gnostics. but that all was a phantasy." (Roscoe.) See also Walker. § 1. 14 Whele ss. Bale—a high-ranking Church official—certainly is acknow ledging someone's viewpoint. many individuals have written to me about having been ministers.. J..Acharya S/D. or the Romans. tha t it 8 Encyclopedia Britannica. or Judas. III. which means that at that time there were doubters i n the gospel story as a fable. 347-407) remarks.." 13 As Wheles s summarizes. "What p rofit has not that fable of Christ brought us!" 8 Even if the Pope himself did n ot express such a sentiment.

21 In the entire works of the Jewish historian Joseph us (37-c.Acharya S/D. especially Suns of God and Who Was Jesus? Se veral writers conclude that it was Eusebius himself who forged the passage. which constitute hundreds of pages. as have been those referring to John the Baptist and James." his lineage is traced to the House of David through Joseph." 15 Other early "Christian" writings such as Revelation likewise d o not mention any historical details or drama. Christians or Christianity in his voluminous writings. and one of t he wealthiest and best connected citizens of the Empire— makes no mention of Chris t. which in their present form do not appear in the histor ical record until sometime between 170-180 AD/CE." 17 Christ is said in the first three (Synoptic) g ospels to have taught for one year before he died. Jesus himself makes many illogical contradictions conc erning some of his most important teachings. The birth date of Jesus is depicted as having taken place at different times. "No other ancient writer knew Josephus' works anywh ere near well enough to have crafted something so similar to Josephus' style. Bishop Warburton (1698-1779) labeled the Josephus interpolat ion regarding Jesus as "a rank forgery. all of which one would presume would be very important to his followers. 85. 33.. 465. VI. Whealey provides an extensive analysis of whether or not Eusebius forged the TF. Walker says. there are no known non-biblical references to a historical Jesus by a ny historian or other writer of the time during and shortly after Jesus's purpor ted advent." they have been dismissed by many scholars and even by Christian apolo gists as forgeries." and although he is claimed in "Matthew" and "Luke" to have been "bor n of a virgin. 1999. Murdock The Origins of Christianity mentions absolutely none of the events of the Passion. there are only two par agraphs that purport to refer to Jesus. See Who Was Jesus?. and no one states how old he was when he died." 18 Wheless. Although much has been made of these "re ferences. scholars and other writers. 19 Non-Biblical Sources Basically. 139ff.M. in the canonical gospels. either directly or by way of allusion. Paul also never quotes from Jesus 's purported sermons and speeches.StellarHousePublishing." 20 Hellenistic Jewish philosopher Philo Judaeus of Alexandria (20 BCE-50 AD/CE)—alive at the purported time of Jesus. The accounts of his Passion and Resurrection differ utter ly from each other. 15 16 © 2009 www. 100 AD/CE). As Barbara G." CBQ 61. "Matthew" relates that Jesus delivered "The Sermon on the M ount" 18 before "the multitudes. too. 17 Wheless (207): "Both genea logies are false and forged lists of mostly fictitious names. 16 their pretended authors. Alice Whealey remarks. 496. had such exploits a nd sayings been known prior to the apostles purported time. In addition. 19 See Who Was Jesus?. etc. give sparse histories and genealogies of Jesus that contradict each other and themselves in numerous places. so t hat he may "fulfill prophecy. 82. 23 A s Dr. "brother" of Jesus. "Eusebius and the Testimonium Flavanium. Nor do any of the doze ns of other historians and writers who flourished during the first one to two ce nturies of the common era. nor does he mention Jes us's supernatural birth or any of his alleged wonders and miracles. 20 Walker. 229. Olson. "No literate person of his own time menti oned him in any known writing. 74. 21 For a l ist of these historians.g. 305-322. See my book Who Was Jesus?. 22 Lardner. see Who Was Jesus?." while "Luke" says it was a private talk given only to the disciples. 81. His birth and childhood are not mentioned in "Mark. 24 Whealey in Böttrich. and a very stupid one. 23 See." 2 4 Dujardin. . Turning to the canon ical gospels themselves. th e apostles. parables and prayers. while in "John" the number is around three years." 22 The argu ments against this passage called the Testimonium Flavianum ("TF") are detailed and can be found in my other books.

6 .

" let us turn to the words of the early Church fat hers." 27 In any case. 135 AD/CE) concerning someone named "Chrestus" or "Chresto" as reference to thei r Savior. There is not adequate room here to go i nto detail about each god or godman that possibly contributed to the formation o f the Jewish Jesus character. 30 As concerns the specious claim that the analogies betwe en the Christ myth and those outlined below are "non-existent" because they are not found in "primary sources. Suns of Gods. they would not carry us back earlier than the period in which the gospel legend took form. historian Dr. Jesus is depicted among "great crowds" and "multitud es" in some two dozen scriptures. H. suffice it to say that there is plenty of document ation to show that this issue is not a question of "faith" or "belief. 56-c. Christian defenders also like to hold up the passage in Suetonius (c. 2.M. 85fn. "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary p roof". 25 Discussing all of the non-Christian evidence. yet. no proof of any kind for the historicity of Jesus has ever existed o r is 7 . the name "Chrestus" or "Chrestos. who did not live during the purported time of Jesus but was born two decades after his purported death.StellarHousePublishing. Barne s. see also Suns of God and Who Was Jesus? 26 Barnes. see my books The Christ Conspiracy. a professor at Columbia University. Others opine that this passage is also an interpol ation. As it is said. "But even if they are authentic.E. © 2009 www. 30 For more information on the role of Alexandria in the Christ ian effort. and this information network had access to numerous m anuscripts and oral traditions that told a similar narrative with many like moti fs as portrayed in the New Testament but with different place names and ethnicit y for the characters. remarks that "next to nothing exists" and concludes: In all. and it is absurd that the purported historicity of the entire Christian religion is founded upon them. it appears that there was no single historical person upo n whom the Christian religion was founded." was fre quently held by freed slaves. such as Thal lus and Phlegon. this evidence mounts up to some twenty-four lines. and were derived from earlier so urces.Acharya S/D. gods and godmen. The Characters From all the evidence. 28 In the gospels. WWJ. heroes. and not his hist oricity. Murdock The Origins of Christianity Regarding the letter to Trajan supposedly written by Pliny the Younger (23-79 AD /CE). Concerning the passage in the works of th e historian Tacitus (c. while some have speculated that there was a Roman man of that name at that time. 71-c. 391. and so could attest only the legend of Jesus. who acknowledged that major important aspects of the Christ character are indeed found in the stories of earlier. which is another of the pitifully few "references" to Jesus or Christianit y held up by Christians as evidence of the existence of Jesus. this brief men tion is also considered by many competent scholars as an interpolation and forge ry. and that "Jesus Christ" is a compilat ion of legends." meaning "useful. 27 Duja rdin. 26 Of these "references. not a sin gle one of which is of admitted authenticity. as i s also suspected of the entire letter. these scarce and brief "references" to a man who suppo sedly shook up the world 28 can hardly be held up as proof of his existence. Who Was Jesus? and Christ in Egypt. 117 AD/CE)." 29 The t ruth is that during the era this character supposedly lived there was an extensi ve library at Alexandria and an incredibly nimble brotherhood network that stret ched from Europe to China." Edouard Dujardin says. but who asserted that 25 For more information about these and other purported references. there is but one word that is applicable—"Christian"—and that has been theorized to be spurious.) 29 See my books for further details. (See Murdock. Pagan gods. however.


and so ascended to heaven. he set the heathen poets to bring forward a great ma ny who should be called (and were called) sons of Jove. and ascended into heaven.) Taylor. and those who. and a number of whom were "crucified. rose to heaven on the hor se Pegasus. Taylor includes in the foo tnote the original Greek of Justin. whom you deem worthy of deification. and Bellerophon. I. Jesus Christ. after he had bee n torn limb from limb. Here is a clear admission that these mythical motifs l ong pre-dated the Christian era and that the gods' "lives" were very similar to that alleged of Jesus. we propound nothing different from what yo u believe regarding those whom you esteem sons of Jupiter." most or all of whom predate the Christian myth. was produced without se xual union. and Hercules. Christian father Justin Martyr acknowledged the similarities between the older Pagan gods/religions and Christianity. who is the first-birth of God. This contention is backed up by numerous artifacts from t he ancient world. • • • • • • • • 31 32 Adad of Assyria Adonis.M.. For you know how many sons your esteemed writers ascribed to Jupiter: Mercury.Acharya S/D. who. wall carvings and pai ntings. (See Perry. China and Japan Roberts. to get men to imagine that the true history of Christ was of the sa me character as those prodigious fables and poetic stories. our Teacher. was crucified and died. when he had committed himself to the flames to escape his toils. In his First Apology (21). including books. referencing it as "Justini Apolog. and that He. though sprung from mortals. that Christianity was no more r idiculous than the earlier myths: ANALOGIES TO THE HISTORY OF CHRIST. and Dioscuri. And when w e say also that the Word. though he was a great physician. was struc k by a thunderbolt. Apollo and Zeus of Greece Agni of India Alcides/Hercules of Thebes Attis of Phrygia Baal of Phoenicia Bali of Afghanistan 33 Buddha/Bedd hu of India. inscriptions.) © 2009 www." executed or s uffered otherwise. having reached the devil's e ars that the prophets had foretold that Christ would come for the purpose of tor menting the wicked in fire. have been declared to be set among the stars? And what of the emperors who die among yours elves. and rose again. For what shall I say of Ariadne. the interpreting word and teacher of all..StellarHousePublishing. when he at tempted to demonstrate. Justin sinisterly spluttered: . among other similarities to the gospel story. statuary." the devil anticipated Christ and caused human poets. and Bacchus too. 170." 33 Ap parently. (Emph. 244. son of Da nae. and Perseus. 32 Aping these purpo rted "prophecies. Murdock The Origins of Christianity the reason for these similarities was because the evidently prescient devil "ant icipated" Christ and planted "foreshadowing" of his "coming" in the heathens' mi nds. added. ANF. who. and the sons of Leda. like her. 2. priests and mythographers to create superhuman saviors and sons of God with practically the same characteristics. Aesculapius. suc h as many of the following world saviors and "sons of God. and in whose behalf you produce some one who swears he has seen the burning Caesar rise to heaven from the funeral p yre? 31 In making these comparisons between Christianity and its predecessor Pag anism. as well as oral traditions and so on. The Jesus story evidently incorpor ated elements from the tales of other deities recorded in a widespread 8 . 1 7. this god is a manifestation of the Hindu deity Balarama. The Devil laying his sch eme in this. in the face of ridicule.. A.

44 As a child he taught his teachers. 37 Walker. 42 Thundy. 36 In his original work. 367-368." After ridicule for naming a Caribbean island. a saint p rophesied he would be great. See Suns of God and below for a discussion of Buddha's mother as a virgin. SOG. 124. 76. like Jesus the character commonly portrayed as Buddha can also be demonstrat ed to be a compilation of godmen.) For more on Salivahana. who was considered the "Queen of Hea ven.StellarHousePublishing. 38 See my book Suns of God for more on this subject. 76. Lillie.. T hundy. 39 Buddha was born of the virgin Maya." 43 When Buddha was a babe. © 2009 www.M. Kloppenborg.Acharya S/D.. see Suns of God. Graves responded that he was speaking of a "Bermuda. 103. Murdock • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Deva Tat (Buddha) of Siam 34 Hesus of the Druids Horus. For more information on these gods. 40 Coomaraswamy. pre-existent in "heaven" before taking bi rth. 468." 40 He was of royal descent and was a prince. 107. 128." 42 After Buddha was born. as did Simeon concerning Christ (Lk 2:25-35). O gypt 35 Indra of Tibet/India Jao/Iao of Nepal Krishna of India The Mikado of the Shintos Mithra of Persia Odin of the Scandinavians Prometheus of Caucasus/Greec e Quetzalcoatl of Mexico Salivahana of Burma 36 Tammuz of Syria 37 Thor of the G auls Universal Monarch of the Sibyls Wittoba of the Bilingonese Xamolxis/Zamolxi s of Thrace Zarathustra/Zoroaster of Persia The Origins of Christianity The Major Players Buddha Although most people think of Buddha as one person who lived around 500 B CE. Garnier. 39 Hopkins. 9 . 80. 41 At his birth appeared a "m arvelous and powerful light. see Chr ist in Egypt. 41 Thundy. Kersey Graves depicted this god as coming from "Bermuda. 81. 38 The Buddha chara cter has the following in common with the Christ figure: • • • • • • • 34 35 Like Jesus. 43 Del Mar. 44 Hopkins. 127-128. a "slaughter of the infa nts was ordered by the tyrant Bimbasara. legends and sayings of various holy men both p receding and succeeding the period attributed to the Buddha." (Perry." which is a "small province as appears in an cient Burmah. 26. 45 Acharya. Buddha was a divine being. BB.

E. Del Mar. Garb e." 976. J.. 61 He was betrayed by a disciple. 134.. 66 and was resurrected. as 1200 apostles in the Lotus and many other Mahâyâna scriptures.E. J." 46 H e began his quest for enlightenment at age 29. in private correspondence Dr. 57 He preached a "sermon on the mount" 58 and taug ht chastity." See also below concerning "Budd hist Crucifixion. 56. "ONTB. 65 suffered for three days in hell . 124. 100.E. 52 Dobbins. J. Murdock • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Origins of Christianity Buddha was presented in the temple. Leighton. IC. the evil one." 72 He was the "Savior of the World" 73 and the " Light of the World. 4 8 Buddha was tempted by Mara. who offered him "universal dominion. 54." 975. 59 Carpenter. 88. 71 Mead. 57 Whitney. J.E. 73 Thundy. and 2. Wallbank . 47 Thundy.. 49 Carpenter.StellarHousePublishing. "ONTB.. 361.Acharya S/D. 63 Carpenter. 89. BC. GG. J. 55 fed 500 men from a "small basket of cakes. 48 Dameron. 68 Jaini. 64 Ca rpenter. 298-299. Vetterling." 977-978. GG. Hopkins. as to a disc ussion of whether or not Buddha was "crucified. 222. 162.. "Th e Twelve in Buddhism are found 1. CRW. 53 Mead. "ONTB.. 172. 72 Carpenter. 357ff. 62 Carpenter. 51 He re formed and prohibited idolatry." 66 Thundy. tolerance." 70 the "Infinite and Everlasting " 71 and the "Great Physician. J. J." 976. compassion. my 'Master of Wisdom' gives ref. FTG. "ON TB." 51 Thundy. 977. "ONTB. 61 Carpenter. J. J. in the 'Wheel of Existence' (pratîtyasamutpâdacakr am. temperance. 63 A tremendous earthquake occurred upon Buddha's death. "ONTB." 53 and preached "t he establishment of a kingdom of righteousness. See also Suns of God." 56 and he lps a disciple walk on water. 60 Carpenter." 974.M. Concerning this motif. 212.. vi.E.." 973. 56. 50 See the " Temple of the Recumbent Buddha" for artifacts proving the motif of Buddha and th e 12. Aśvaghosha/Beal.." 974. where "the idols fell down before him." 69 the "Carpenter. 58 Carpenter." 74 Carpenter. 8. 54." 976. "ONTB. 102. 1 28. Lindtner related. 67 He attained Nirvana or "heaven. 65 See also my book Suns of God." 68 Buddha was cons idered the "Good Shepherd. 53. 64 Buddha died. Titcomb. 54 Carpenter. 331-33 2. J. who led others to kill h im. 45 46 © 2009 www. 80. 184. J." 54 He performed miracles and wo nders. J. healed the sick. Lillie. 47 He crushed a serpent's head. 102. "ONTB. 5 9 He was transfigured on a mount.E. J. to sources).E.. 52 was a "sower of the word. " 49 Sakyamuni Buddha had 12 disciples 50 and traveled about preaching. 55 Carpenter. 133.. " 974. "ONTB. 366ff..E." 976. 60 Buddha was received in his native city with a triumphal welcome. 70 Hardy.. 67 Paine. love. "Obligations of the New Testament to Buddhism.E. BB. 48. 69 Lillie." 977.E. 62 Some of his persecutors became his disciples.E.E. 56 Carpenter. "ONT 10 .E. and the equality of all.

we find the curious motif of a Buddhist figure having been "crucified. scholar o f Buddhism and Sanskrit Dr.. in fact. 130. 79 It was Tathâgata—not Je sus—who was resurrected. forming the foundation of Christianity.Acharya S/D. 78 Jerome's words—"han ded down from generation to generation" and "opinionis auctoritas traditur"—indica te not that the motif had been recently copied from Christianity by Indian monks or priests but that it was a tradition of some age. the sage's mother was a "chaste wife. among others." 76 Indeed.. therefore. as well as his temptation. There is nothing in the Gospels. w ho subsequently came out of her right side. 77 Hopkins. It was king Gautama—not Jesus—who was crucified. concerning the Buddhist influence on the gospel story.M. 78 Hanna. C oncerning this purported "crucifixion" or impalement of an important Buddhist fi 11 . are. is a mere literary fiction. The twelve disciples of Jesus were. Jerome (Adversus Jovinianum 1. Hopkins. into whom miraculously entered in the shape of a white elephant the future Buddha. 428. the Son and the Holy Spirit was baptism in the name of the Buddha. events or circumstances in the Bu ddhist gospels. 74 75 © 2009 www.. He specifies that the episode is in the Mûlasarvâstivâdavinaya recension of the MPS. no person. All the miracles performed by Jesus had already been performed by the Buddha. designed for missionaries whose language was Greek. Dr.. Lindtner informed me that there were t hree sources for the crucifixion story of Buddha: the Lotus sutra. • • • • • • • • The st Supper was the Last Supper of the Buddha. In private correspondence. 76 Hopkins. Edward W.C. the belief has been handed down from generation to generation as authentic that a virgin gave birth to Buddha. Zacharias P. typical Bud dhist literature. Christian Lindtner writes: The Sanskrit manuscripts prove without a shadow of doubt: Everything that Jesus says or does was already said or done by the Buddha. 87ff. 166. therefore. Church father St." In this regard. are carved on monuments that date to 150 BCE or older. the twelve disciples of the Buddha.StellarHousePublishing. 77 In the fourth century of the common era. H opkins states that this miraculous birth story undoubtedly dates to "as early as the third century B. the founder of their religion. out of her side. and perhaps earlier. The Gospels. of which the MPS is a part. 79 Lindt ner. 137. Jesus. Murdock Buddha's Birth The Origins of Christianity According to ancient Buddhist legend..Jesus is a Buddha disguised as a new Jewish legislator. . the Mahaparin irvana sutra and the Samghabhedavastu. Messiah and king of Israel. the miraculous birth of Buddha." 75 Sanskrit scholar Dr. the Dharma an d the Samgha. Baptism in the name of the Father. 129. no event. that cannot be traced back to cognate persons.42) discussed Buddha specifically as having been born thr ough the side of a virgin: Among the Gymnosophists of India. fiction. teach er. a Buddhist text dating to the first century BCE—th e Samghabhedavastu/ Mahâparinirvâna sutra 80—Dr. related in. Thundy states: Yu. Buddhist Crucifixion In the texts.

et al. Since more than hundred years Buddhist influence in th e Gospels has been known and acknowledged by scholars from both sides. 2 61ff. Lindtner specifies that the episode is in the Mûlasarvâstivâdavinaya ("MSV") recension of the MPS. Bornato [Italy] 2001). 84 Horus was also baptized by "Anup the Baptizer. 82 See my book Christ in Egypt. a holy man." this figure is evidently not one of them. at the end of which he dies at the place of skulls after engendering two offspring. AELW. 298ff. Osiris.. Indologist and Lecturer in Relig ious Studies (Buddhist and Hindu Studies)" at Canterbury Christ Church Universit y. CIE.. the progenitors of the Ikshavaku Dynasty. subjects or "disciples. 83 Murdock. 81 As is evident from the remarks of Dr. 87 Murdock. Burkhard Scherer. with the Egyptian god even possibly contributing the titl e of "Christ. 210ff. 87 -97. Murdock The Origins of Christianity This is the story of Gautama.StellarHousePublishing.. 81 "The Sanskrit Sources of the Gospel Narratives of the Trial and Death." 82 Th e legends of Horus go back thousands of years. CIE. Just rece ntly." 85 who becomes "John the Baptist.. from the dead. Sangabhedavastu o f the Mahaparinirvanasutra: Professor Lindtner has identified the Sangabhedavast u section of the Mahaparinirvanasutra of the Vinayapitakaof the Mulasarvastivadi ns. CIE. Thundy specifically states: "We have been able to id entify two major Sanskrit sources for the trial narratives. 89 80 Concerning this episode.jesusisbuddha. as in the scripture. © 2009 www. 911. whereas Professor Thundy is apparently the source. The point." He had 12 companions. 86 Murdock. Scherer: . are frequently inte rchangeable in the mythos.html See also 12 . 85 Murdock." 86 He performed miracles and raised one man. CIE." www. the fact that there is "massive" Buddhist influence in the gospels has been w ell known among the elite scholars for a long time. II." 83 He was a child teacher in the Temple o r "House of the Father" and was baptized when he was 30 years old. "I and my Father are one. I am convinced that there are many Budd hist narratives in the Gospels. 88 Murdock. I attributed this quote to Ken Hum phreys. CIE. CIE. 52ff.M. Horus of Egypt The stories of Jesus and Horus/Os iris are very similar. however. 233ff. 293-297. and his mentor Krishna Dvapayana visits him and enters into a long dialogue. 89 Massey." Again. is that evidently pre-Christian Buddhist texts contain a crucifixion scene which parall els that found in the gospels. Gautama is impaled on the and he (or Osiris) shares the fol lowing in common with Jesus: • • • • • • • Horus was born of the virgin Isis-Meri on December 25th in a cave/manger. 87 The Egyptian god walked on is v ery important to draw attention on the fact that there is (massive) Buddhist inf luence in the Gospels. El-Azar-us." Horus and his once-and-future Father." a number of whom appear to make up the composite character of "th e Buddha. Says Dr. I have studied this text carefully and have arrived at some significant conc lusions. a "classical Philologist. 79-209. who was wrongfully condemned to die on the cross for murdering the courtesan Bhadra. with his birth being announced by a star in the East and attended by dignitaries or "wise men.Acharya S/D.) Although there are m any "Buddhas. 88 Horus wa s transfigured on the Mount. (In my previous version of this article. 84 Murdock. Duncan McDerret published his excellent The Bible and the Buddhist (Sardin i. With McDerret. A..

Christianity did not become influential to any significant extent until the sec ond century. 335-430. as well as Dr. CIE. 309ff.g. the Truth.) 93 Murdock. David Ulansey in The Origins o f the Mithraic Mysteries." (Massey. Hin nells. numerous Mithraic monuments have been found stret ching from Asia Minor to Great Britain.) © 2009 www. producing water. shortly before the true Christian era. PC. the Lamb of God. CIE. as demonstrated by Dr. 96 Although Mithraism as it developed in the Roman Empire is different from its Perso-Indian roots." the "Father. 103 He was buried in a tomb.Acharya S/D. the Messiah." In the texts. 97 Cu mont. Mithra has the following in common with the Christ cha racter: • • • • • • 90 91 Mithra was born on December 25th97 of the virgin Anahita." Bibliothèque de L'Ècole des Hautes Études (65) cites the Avesta as calling the god the "master/teacher of nat ions. the cult of Mithra was. M. CE. 10 0 Turner. Vermaseren's C orpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae. 91 He was "the Fisher. 122. Cumont. 103 One such mira cle would be that of Mithra shooting at a rock. CIE. God's Anointed Son. In fact. 191. 101 He had 12 companions or "disciples. et al. CIE. 94 Murdock. 98 Amir-Moezzi. 92 Horus's personal epit het appears to have been "Iusa. e. 99 Riddle. 98 The babe was wrappe d in swaddling clothes. Franz Cumont. t he Good Shepherd." the "ever-becoming son" of "Ptah. Lion and Fish ("Ichthys")." 102 He performed miracles. vols. Murdock.g. 94 Numerous ancient artifacts depict the baby Horus being held by the virgin mother Isis—the original "Madonna and Child. X. (See." These motifs can be found in ancient Egypt ian texts as well as other artifacts. Ho rus. 90 He was also th e "Way. as detailed in my book Christ in Egypt: Th e Horus-Jesus Connection. HJMC. e. Murdock • • • • • The Origins of Christianity The Egyptian god was killed. 96 See the extensive research of Dr." long before the Christians duplica ted the story. 17. 37. 25. 104 Murdock. Sun God of Persia The worship of Mithra preced es the common era by several 13 .M." 95 Indeed. the Light. Robertson. the Son of Man. " 93 Horus (or Osiris) was called "the KRST.. 101 Turcan (78) calls Mithra "comme le maître et l'animateur du Kos mos"—"like the master/teacher and animator of the Cosmos. buried in a tomb and resurrected. I and II. 95 Wheless. 324ff. Ulansey. 325. 468. 322. 117. placed in a manger 99 and attended by shepherds." and w as associated with the Lamb. the Word. 100 He was considered a great traveling teacher and master. 18. Mithra. who catalogued n umerous Mithraic monuments throughout Europe. 424. was portrayed as Ichthys with the fish sign over his head. Mithra is also called "master/teacher of vast campaigns.J. and when the equinox entered the sign of Pisces.. 78." etc. 92 Massey: "Horus in Egypt had been a fish from time immemorial. 404.StellarHousePublishing. 313ff." ( de Harlez. "the most popular and widely spread 'Pagan' reli gion of the times.) 102 See. 173. its major motifs and traditions can be traced to a pre-Christian body of knowledge that is largely a strotheological in nature.

Cumont. Indian and other scholars contend that the stor y is uninfluenced by Christianity.M. Murdock • • • • • • The Origins of Christianity He was considered "the Way." 110 Mit hra "sets his marks on the foreheads of his soldiers." Religious Systems of the World. For example.) Maitland. 209.StellarHousePublishing. was well-known i n the Achaemenian period [558-330 BCE]. 419. Hinnells. As part of this debate.. Ulansey. is a virgin. The comparison o f this common motif with Jesus and the 12 has been made on many occasions. these individuals know more about their ancient traditions than do mo dern Christian apologists. "the Lord's Day. Anahid. the Redeemer... Cumont.) © 2009 www. ANF. 16. who emphasize Mithra's rock birth and deny the virgin -mother motif." 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 Robertson. Deman in Mithraic Studies. the Savior. Jackson." 112 Philosophy professor Mohammed Ali Amir-Moezzi states: "Dans le mithraïsme. 507ff. 753. Apol .. (See. 1. the virgin mother of Mithra. knows all: no ne can deceive him. 114 Many of these Mithra ic parallels were remarked upon by the Church fathers. 63. Nabarz." which reveals its possible rel ationship to '"Christ. 78. as he "hears all. (Emph. Dr.. Mithra ic monuments often include an image of a lion. CE." hundreds of years before the ap pearance of Christ." by Professor A. VII. 3. 181.M. Jackson. sees all." Mithra and the Twelve Mithra surrounded by the 12 "companions" is a motif found on many Mithraic remains and representing the 12 signs of the zodiac. "Mithraism. 96. Ragozin.66. Krishna of India In discussing the comparisons between Krishna and Christ. 69." not a few scholars and writers of Persian/Iranian extract have discussed the Persian goddess of love Anahita as Mithra's virgin mother. Tertullian. 108 His sacred day was Sunday. Amir-Moezzi. t he Messiah. "Mithras and Christ: some iconographical si milarities. Badiozamani. mère de Mithra/Mehr." 105 Mithra is omniscient." 111 Mithra's "Virgin" Birth? As concerns the debate regarding the Perso-Roman god Mi thra's "virgin birth. Badi Badiozamani says that a "person" named "Meh r" or Mithra was "born of a virgin named Nahid Anahita ("immaculate") and that " the worship of Mithra and Anahita. the Truth and the Light. "Mithraism. Justin Martyr." 106 He was identified with both the Lion 107 and the Lamb. added. inclu ding in an extensive study entitled. Hinnells. E . Ha stings.g.Acharya S/D. 192-193. 734). it is claimed either that there are no real parallels or that these "exact counterparts"—as the Catholic Encyclopedia cal ls them 115—rest squarely on the shoulders of the Brahman priesthood. Robertson. th e mother of Mithra. S. 262. On Prescription against Heretics (40). 422. as in popular Mazdaism. 14 . VII. many averring that any borrowing must have oc curred by Christianity from Hinduism. est vierge" 113—"In Mithraism.. a common earlier E nglish transliteration of Krishna was "Christna. which are sometimes depicted as humans. III. P resumably." 202. e. ainsi que le mazdéisme populaire. 109 His religion had a eucharist or "Lord's Supper. Robert s. "Brahma nism" (II.M. who allegedl y copied them from Christianity. (A)Nāhīd. who were flummoxed by the m and who blamed them on the prescient devil.

ION. and was hai led as a divine incarnation. The summer and winter solstices represent the sleep and rise of Vishnu ." before crushing the s erpent's head. Robertson. See the Protevangelion and infancy go spels for Christ's similar childhood. KS. (Gen 3:15) 136 Robertso n. 125 Bryant. 139 "He lived poor and he loved the poor. O'Flaherty. which is called "Rohini" (Aldebaran). 151. the baby Krishna. 132 Bryant. CM (1900). a "holy virgin. © 2009 www. Devaki. 121 Barth. J. CM (1900). 134 Garbe. 131. KS. 123 Robertson. 127 Abhedānanda. Devaki…can also be interpreted as meaning 'the divine one. 129 Abhedānanda . 134 Kr ishna was "tempted" in the wilderness by "various fiends. Abhedānanda. 128 and he was presented with gifts. Krishna was born in a "cave-like dungeon. 55. 133 Abhedānanda.Acharya S/D. 126 wise men 127 and shepherds. 174. 59. 138 Garbe. Murdock The Origins of Christianity Krishna shares the following characteristics and motifs in common with Christ: • • • • • • • 116 117 Krishna is an incarnation of the sun god Vishnu. 163. " 15 . 139 Abhedānanda. 135 Robertson. 141 Tod. 118 Abhedānanda (50) calls Krishna's mother. 6. 129 His foster father was in t he city to pay taxes when Krishna was born. 226. 69.G. (Monier-W illiams. is found in the Bhagavat Purana (10. 119.StellarHousePublishing. Abhedānanda. Jackson." 123 Great signs and wonders o ccurred at Krishna's birth." 138 Krishna miraculously fed the multitudes. 11. "CEM. 135 He raised a child from the dead 136 and healed lepers. Rob ertson.) 122 Knapp. 130 The hero-god was persecuted by a tyrant who ordered the slaughter of infants. where the Krishna cult thrived. 128 Garbe. 845. 130 Dahlquist. 137 Krishna preached faith "in God's love to man and in his me rcy and forgiveness of sins arising therefrom. 137 Wheeler. he worked miracles and wonders. 414-415. living in the area near Mathura and Vrindavana." 140 humbly washing the f eet of guests. 477. 212. Abhedānanda. 13.. 448. "CELK." 121 Like the cave-born Christ of tradition. 124 including the appearance of a bright star. a manger. 64. The "Yadus" were the descendants of the hero Yadu. 21 2. 199. The story of the star. 59. 131 The infant Krishna was carried across a river. O'Flaherty. 175. CM ( 1900). 124 O'Flaherty. 116 Krishna was born in a stable 117 of the "virgin" 118 Devaki (" Divine One") 119 He was of royal descent and was a prince. In Christian tradition. Christ is said to be the on e who puts enmity between the woman (Eve) and the snake.M.'" 120 Sheridan.3:1). 120 Krishna is the "K ing of the Yadus." 122 Upon birth. 126 Se n (325. 150. the de af and the blind. 133 He was worshipped by shepherds as a god. in other words. 125 H is birth was attended by angels. 132 As a young boy. 131 Doniger. 150. was placed in a "bas ket for winnowing corn. CM (1900)." 508. 63." 346. Hopkins. who rises or awakens on the win ter solstice." 41. including gold and incense." 119 Indian Studies (108) states that Krishna's "mother's name. 194. 62. CM (1900).

" 160 As Vishnu . 56." 156 "Firstb orn. At Revelation 19:11 i t is said that Jesus will return in his Second Coming riding on a white horse." meaning "Victory to Lord Krishna. 6364." 149 Vyasa." 148 After his death. 164 Jacolliot. 81. 515. 149 where he lives on. CM (1900). 67." He also calls him "the most beloved Lord an d Savior of all. 142 Robertson. 142 He was transfigured in front of his disciples. 153 Abhedānanda. he is th e god "who incarnates himself when sin threatens to take the upper hand in the w orld. 148 Abhedānanda (80): "His feet were s hot through with the arrow of an unknown barbarian hunter. 77. 161 considered the "Beginning. 146 as the god is depicted approaching a fig tree. 158 Abhedān anda." 162 ("Alpha and Omega")." 152 Krishna is called the "Shepherd God. the Mid dle and the End. 144 Abhedānanda. 146 C handra. 38." 151 Dahlqui st. 150 As Vishnu. 10. Campbell. 140 141 © 2009 16 . 98. KLBG. who will arrive riding a white horse and destroy the wicked. 871. Krishna descended into hell to rescue others. See the similar story about Jesus as found i n the apocryphal text the "Gospel of Nicodemus" or "Acts of Pilate. 152 Blank." 159 and "Universal Word. 38. 160 Walker. 252." 157 "Sin Bearer." 153 "Lord of the god of g ods" 154 and "Lord of lords. 150." 147 Tradition holds that Krishna died after being shot in the foot while under a (fig) tree. 164 Turner.M. leading to claims he was pinned against the tree by a n arrow or "crucified." 155 and was considered the "Redeemer. 64. he ascended to heaven. 40. 315.Acharya S/D. Gupta." See the discussion " Krishna Crucified?" below and in my book Suns of God. 308." 151 Krishna is "a personal savior. omnipres ent and omnipotent. as well as being omniscient. 144 Krishna had a beloved disciple named Arjuna or "Ar-jouan. 154 Bryant. See also "Was Horus Crucif ied?" for a discussion of the meaning and use of the term "crucify." 158 "Liberator. 145 Doane (247) uses this uncommon transliteration. His disciples shouted the words "Jai Shri Krishna.) 156 Abhedānanda. 250. 155 Abhedānanda. 161 Abhedānanda. 163 Knott.StellarHousePublishing. 147 Robertson. 143 Krishna was anointed with oil by a woman bearing a jar of ointment. 150 Abhedānanda. Krishna continually manifested his divinity and then denied it." (Abhedānanda. Murdock • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Origins of Christianity Like Jesus.20. a messianic deliverer who will bring all men and women salvation if only they choose to give Him thei r devotion. 162 Bhagavad G ita. 60: "Krishna [is] the Lord of all. 69. where he "utters a sort of parable. 190. and destroys it. 258." 163 A future incarnation of Vishnu is the Kalki avata r." 145 A fig or banyan tree figures prominently in Krishna's myth. 143 Abhedānanda. 159 Bryant. 150. 515. CM (1900). he is the second person of the Trinity. 157 Walker. KS. 77. Abhedānanda. 304.

as Dr.Acharya S/D. Devaki is an inca rnation of the dawn goddess Aditi." 36. the evidence points to Devaki—a nd Krishna—as a mythical character. even if it is not strictly applicable to his specific nativity. we often encounter the transliteration of Krishna/Krs na as "Christna. after becoming pregnant from eating half a mango. or Krishna. Sri Ramakr ishna Mathah relates that the names "Krishna" and "Christ" became "a focal point in such debates: 'But despite decades of two-way arguments. Krishna's "Virgin" Birth? Over the centuries. 167 I n addition. In other word s. In this regard. who was said to be a "chaste maide n. 144. Garbe. © 2009 www. The Name s of Krishna and Christ Part of the controversy concerning commonalities has rev olved around the Indian and Christian godmen's respective names.. Turner. 186. there are numerous detailed similarities between the stories of K rishna and Christ." mainly because she traditionally had given birth to seven children prior to Krishna. Murdock The Origins of Christianity As we can see. Dahlquist. according to the myth. 1. Devaki. the virgin birth visà-vis Krishna's mother represents a real Indian traditio n. 165 who was the "eternal virgin" or "celestia l virgin. 17 .'" 169 Indeed. Krishna’s mother earlier had given birth as an unmarried and presumabl y virginal teenager." 170 Add ing to these facts. 166." 174 Clough additionally relates th at "Krishna" is also "one of the names of Arjuna the charioteer of the sun. 3517." 173 Krishna's Solar Nature Under "Krishna" in the Sinhal ese English Dictionary. Richard Garbe say s. 311." 172 or a "corruption of th e very name of Christ. in that f orm he is however distinct from the ten avatars or incarnations of Vishnu. at one point before Krishna was born. "In some localities of India the word Krishna is pronounced Krishta. 178. citing the Rig Veda. Shashi. we learn that "Krishta" was "also the way the name 'Christ' was pronounced" in certain dialects. "CELK. so many goddesses are said to be both mother and virgin." 166 despite the fact that she too gave birth to eight children.M. 171 Christian missionaries in India were so struck with the similarities between the names of the two gods that they explai ned "Krishna" as the "nomen ipsum corruptum Christi. Mathah. for example. Vishnu is a solar deity or epithet/aspect of the sun. it has been deb ated whether or not Krishna's mother. Rev. The fact that Krishna is not only an incarnation 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 Parmeshwaranand. regardless of how m any children they produce. In older Englis h literature. 144. Ho pkins. and the ass umption that she remains so throughout the myth is thus understandable. Hiltebeitel. For example. as his inc arnation—"being always identified with the deity himself"—Krishna likewise is solar in nature." could also be called a "virgin.10. 89. 168 Obvio usly. it was eventually d etermined that the name Christ was taken from the Greek Christos." 175 Indeed. being always identified with the deity himself. and myths do not have human body parts and so on.StellarHousePublishing. 1. Clough." indicating a possible relationship. However. Devaki was a virgin mother. 15. which is deriv ed from the Sanskrit Krishta. CM (Kessinger). 139. Clough states that "in Hindu mythology Krishna is c onsidered the most celebrated form of Vishnu or rather Vishnu himself. Vallabhācārya.. 16. Clough. while.

Acharya S/ 18 .StellarHousePublishing.M. Murdock The Origins of Christianity of the sun god but also a deity himself who possessed many solar attributes shou ld be kept in mind when investigating the Krishna-Christ parallels. © 2009 www.

Aeschylus had depicted Prometheus's torment using "w hat was then the technical term for 'crucify. "Petraeus" (Peter). Murdock The Origins of Christianity Prometheus of Greece The Greek god Prometheus has been claimed to have come from Egypt. 192. Hamilton.. the fisherman. 178 Taylor. 177 He had an "especially profess ed" friend. but his drama took place in the Caucasus Mountains. 31. iro nically admitted the true origins of the Christ story and other such myths by st ating in refutation of his critics. 184 Long before Lucian. 193.) 176 177 © 2009 www. 79. 79. For example. "You say we worship the sun. 125-180 AD/CE)." 181 He was cal led the Logos or Word. XIV.Acharya S/D. 192-4. an "ex-Pagan" and a presbyter at Carthage. 184 He ngel.. 185 Brown. 180 Br own.M. 183 In relating the depiction of Prometheus's death by ancient Roman writer Luc ian (c." 186 Interestingly. a Pausanias/Frazer. 186 CE. Dr. in such a way as to produce the effect of "a most serviceable cross" . Taylor. The scholars of other schools/sects evidently did not easily give up their arguments against the historicizing of a very ancient mythological creature. Prometheus shares a number of striking similarities with the Christ character including the followin g: • • • • • Prometheus made the first man and woman out of clay. ANF. early Church Fath er Tertullian (c. This remark represents a paraphrase b y the Catholic Encyclopedia ("Tertullian") concerning Tertullian's comments in h is Apology (16). We have lost the exact arguments of these learned dissenters because Christians destroyed an y traces of their works. 220.. 25.'" 185 The Creation of a Myth For centuries after obtaining power during the reign of Constantine. 179 suffered and was unbound 180 or "resurrected. who deserted him. which was presented in the theater in Athens. Taylor states t hat in the play Prometheus is crucified "on a fatal tree" and the sky goes dark. 182 Awad. E. 11. Lucian uses all the technical terms of a crucifixion: Prometheus is to be nailed to two rocks above a ravine in the si ght of all. so do you. 19 . Martin Hengel remarks: When describing how his hero is fastened to two rocks in the Caucasus. 11. 181 Saladin. famous Greek playwright Aeschylus wrote Prometheus Bound. 178 Prometheus was crucified. 521. Christians went on a censorship rampage that led to the virtual illiteracy of the ancient W estern world and ensured that their secret would be hidden from the masses. 267. 182 Five centuries before the Christian era. the Christians preserved the contentions o f their detractors through their own refutations. (Roberts. 179 Hengel. 176 He descended from he aven as God incarnate as man. to save mankind. 183 Taylor. 160-220 AD/CE). 369.StellarHousePublishing. Nonetheless.

" as well as the "healer" or "s avior" during the day. In other words. 192 Evans . During this time. 191 Th e sun "walks on water." 189 For a more complete list of solar characteristics and aspects. Jesus Christ and others upon whom this character is predicated are personifications of the sun. the winter solstice. the "Sun of God" b egins his ministry at "age" 30. 191 Many of the sun gods are depicted with haloes or rays around their heads. the ancients declared that "God's sun" had "died" for three days and was "born again " on December 25th. Murdock The Origins of Christianity previously strident believer and defender of the faith. Spi ca. Tertullian later renounc ed orthodox Christianity after becoming a Montanist. 154156." 190 The sun is the "Light of the World. the vernal equinox being East er. suffering or cruc ified godmen or sun gods have their traditional birthday on December 25th ("Chri stmas"). It happens to be a "happ y coincidence" and a reality in mythology that the "son of God" is the "sun of G od. 144. The ancients realized quite abundantly that they needed the sun to return every day and that they would be in big trouble if it continued to move southward and did not stop and reverse its direction." See also the "son-sun" discussion in my ebook. with a godman who is killed or "crucified" and resurrected. the winter solstice. these many dif ferent cultures celebrated the "sun of God's" birthday on December 25th. a number of the world's sacrificed. This motif represents the ancient recognition that (from a geocentric p erspective in the northern hemisphere) the sun makes an annual descent southward until December 21st or 22nd. thus. Ehrman. Wheless." w hich represents its passing through the equinoxes. For instance. at which time it is then resurrected. se e my book The Christ Conspiracy. "Jesus as the Sun throughout History. The sun at 12 noon is in the ho use or temple of the "Most High"." The sun rising in the morning is the "Savior of mankind. "crown of thorns" or halo. an astrotheological development that can be found throughout the wo rld because the sun and the 12 zodiac signs can be observed around the globe. The sun's "followers. to be born again or resurrected on December 25th. 113-114. hundreds of years before it became fashionable in Christianity. 190 Other reasons include the moon. 192 The sun is hung on a cross or "crucified. and the gospel fable is in large part merely a reh ash of a mythological formula revolving around the movements of the sun through the heavens. The claim is not being made here or elsewhere that th e two words "son" and "sun" are related etymologically. when it stops moving southerl y for three days and then starts to move northward again." "helpe rs" or "disciples" are the 12 months and the 12 signs of the zodiac or constella tions. hence. and every eye shall see him. when it resumes its movement north.Acharya S/D." is because these stories were based on the movements of the sun through the heavens. 187 188 © 2009 www.StellarHousePublishing. The fol lowing are the characteristics of the "sun of God" 189: • • • • • • • • • • • The sun "dies" days on December 22nd. who does miracles and has 12 companions or "disc 20 . the calendar originally began in the constellation of Vir go. and the sun would therefore be "born of a Virgin. etc. The sun wears a corona. 150. The sun enters into each sign of the zodiac at 30°. through which the sun must pass annually.M. "he" begins "his Father's work" at "age" 12." describing its reflection. In some areas. Thus. 187 The "Son" of God is the "Sun" of God 188 The reason these various narratives are so similar." The sun "cometh on clouds. when it stops in its movement south .

18. Dyaus Pitar becomes "Jupiter" in Roman mythol ogy. the title "Christ" in its Hebraic form meaning "Anointed" ("Masiah") was he ld by all kings of Israel. "Dyaus P itar.." 193 "Zeus" equals "Dyaus." and the actual city in Israel may have been named after the "holy city o f peace" in the Egyptian sacred texts that already existed at the time the city was founded. Robert M. 21. Dr. 197 Taylor. 837. CIE. Ptah. would be "Bethanu. and pretenders to supernatural communications. it would be safe to assume that J esus Christ is just a repeat of Horus and Osiris.e." which became "Deos." 195 while Osiris was the "KRST.) 203 Ritter. 199 Massey. this p ropaganda has been part of the conspiracy to make the ancients appear as if they were truly the dark and dumb rabble that was in need of the "light of Jesus." Furthermore. the "father of the gods. 'the shrine of the god Anu. AELW. 539. the town of Bethany is cal led in Arabic el-Aziriyeh or el-Azir—"Lazarus. II. 195 Murdock." Etymology Tells the Story The Greek god Zeus. "Bethany. Price renders the Judean town "Beth-Anu. aka "Zeus Patêr." whence comes "Satan. 199 The myth represents the triumph of light over dark. 193 194 © 2009 www. 67ff." whom we now automatically believe to be a my th and not a historical figure." and is allegory for the "multiplication of the many ou t of the One. that the v ery claim to it is in the gospel itself considered as an indication of imposture ." site of the famous multiplying of the loav es. 97." 194 is the unseen god-force." 198 Horus struggles with Set in a similar manner that Jesus battles with Satan. conjurers." 202 Interestingly." "Deus" and "Dios"—"God. historical character. with 40 days in the wilderness. or the sun 's return to relieve the terror of the night." a very ancient concept that in no way origina ted with "Jesus" and Christianity. takes his name from the Indian 21 . 313ff. 201 Massey. In E gyptian mythology." beth. means "House of God. 202 The Archaeological Institut e of America's Art and Archaeology (45) relates that "Bethany comes from Beth-An u. the "son of God" is really the "sun of God.M. Kuhn. 7. with the Semitic word for "house." (Price. "Jerusalem" simply means "City of Peace. as well as being "so commonly assumed by all sorts of impostors. 181. hence." "Zeus Patêr. among others." 203 Müller. TD.. 196 Murdock. Prior to its alleged conquest by David around 1." 196 centurie s before any Jewish character similarly named. "God the Father. not all ancients were an ignorant and superstitious lot who actually believed their deities to be literal characters. CIE. Murdock The Origins of Christianity Contrary to popular belief. The Egyptian predecessor and counterpart is "House of Anu. 5. HJMC.Acharya S/D. means. I. 135-136. since Horus was evidently called "Iusa. AE LW. 321ff. 200 Massey.StellarHousePublishing.000 BCE and subseque nt occupation by those who came to be called Jews. Indeed." which." the latter term related to the Greek word "patêr. Frankfort. and likewise is not representative of an actual. and the sun was viewed as Ptah's visible proxy who brings everlasting life to th e earth. i. 198 Murdock." 201 Any town of that designation was likely named for the allegor ical place in the texts that existed before the town's foundation. Jerusalem had been an Egyptia n garrison." 197 Horus's principal enemy—originally Horus's other face or "dark" aspect—was "Set" or "Sata. among oth er parallels.." like Dya us Pitar.'" In his translation of the pre-Nicene New Testament. 200 Likewise." or "father. According to Tay lor. CIE.

Micha-El. the Egyptian sun god.) and his worship is reflected in the fact that the Jews still consider Saturday as "God's Day." The sun has been viewed consistently throughout history as the savior of mankind for reasons that are obvious.) As it is not supported by mainstream etymology. 211 In this theory. Murdock The Origins of Christianity The Book of Revelation is Egyptian and Zoroastrian One can find certain allegorical place names such as "Jerusalem" and "Israel" in the New Testament Book of Revelation. it either vilifies the preceding deities or makes them into lesser gods. Gabri-El." 209 The "Patriarchs" and "Saints" are the Gods of Other Cultures When one studies mythmaking. with the character having different names and races . HJMC. etc. see my books The Christ Conspiracy. this purported cognate of "holy" and "helios" can be accepted as a play on words to illustrate a point. "patriarchs" or. is found in germ around the ancient Middle and Far East. Hi lton Hotema says of this mysterious book. in the case of Christianity. the Rivers and the Sea. Ra. represents a very ancient text that dates to the beginning of this era of history. 210 For a discussion of the Hebrew patriarch Abraham possibly being the Indian god Brahm a. rathe r than being that of a historical Hebrew character." or "Helio Biblia. which has baffled mankind for centurie s: "It is expressed in terms of creative phenomena.. 211 See my book Suns of God for more on the pre-Christian Joshua cult. 3-6. 204 Massey also asserts that Revelation relates the Mithraic legend of Zarathustra/Zoroaster. may come from the combination of three different reigning de ities: Isis. possibly as early as 4. 210 Another school of thought proposes that the patriarch Joshu a was based on Horus as "Iusa. 204 205 © 2009 www. that the Christians worship on Sunday betrays the genuine origins of their god and godma n. and El. 143." which became the "Holy Bible. 212 Robertson. t he Earth. 359. while its stage-setting comprises the Sky. the planet woul d scarcely last one day. 205 Dr. i. Samu-El. Gerald Massey has stated that Revelation.. Their "savior" is actually the sun. its heroine is the Moon. Without the sun. then mutated into the Christian story. HJMC. 154. which is the "Light of the world that eve ry eye can 22 . EBD. 16. Massey. with Joshua becoming Jesus. 3. which was situated in exactly the area where the Christ drama allegedly took place. 208 Pa rk. and all its other characters are Planets. the cult of Joshua.e." (Massey. far from being a Jewish appellation. 2." 208 Indeed." since the cult of Horus had migrated by this per iod to the Levant.Acharya S/D. "saints. rather than having been written by any apostle called John during the 1st centu ry AD/CE." 206 The word Israel itself. Often when an invading culture takes over its predecessors. one can readily discern and delineate a pattern tha t is repeated throughout history. EBD. the Semitic deity passed down in form as Saturn. So important was the sun to the ancients that they comp osed a "Sun Book. 212 The legend of Moses. Stars and Constellations. PC.M. Suns of God and The Gospel According to A charya S. 2 07 El was one of the earliest names for the god of the ancient Hebrews (whence E mmanu-El. 209 Hilton Hotema says: "Christianity's Holy Bible was compiled from th e Helio Biblia or Sun Book of the ancient Sun Worshippers. 206 Massey. 207 Walker.StellarHousePublishing. its hero is not Jesus but th e Sun of the Universe.000 years ago. Massey." This process may be exemplified in the apparent adoption of the Hindu god Brahma as the Hebrew pa triarch Abraham. the Earth Mother Goddess revered throughout the ancient world.

227 This "coincidenc e" did not escape the notice of the Christian world. folkloric hero. an opinion now shared by many archaeologists and scholars. Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 226 For more information on the motif of the 12. Murdock. the lawgiver" takes the stage 215.g." 225 The "Disciples" are the Signs of the Zodiac It is no accident that there are 12 patriarchs and 12 disciples. 225 In his pre-Christian book about Egypt. long before the Christian era. et al. 324. Diodorus Siculus relates that the Jewish god was viewed as the same as the "IAO. 218 Like Moses. Variations include "Men" and "Manes. "Minos" is the Cretan reformer 216. 218 T he 125th chapter of the Egyptian Book of the Dead is commonly cited as a probabl e influence on the Decalogue. like the 12 Herculean tasks a nd the 12 "helpers" of Horus. 220 The BAR article nevertheles s seeks to prove that the Exodus is historical. 214 where also the first king. as is reported in Biblical Archaeology Review ("BAR"). 261ff." 224 Even the Hebraic name of God. The so-ca lled Flood of Noah may refer to the annual flooding of the Nile—an event that was incorporated in Egyptian mythology." (Murdock. 213 214 © 2009 www. among others. CIE. Jesus's 12 disciples are symbolic for the zodiacal signs and do not depict any literal figures who played out a drama upon the ear th circa 30 AD/CE. 779." Per Harwood. "Yahweh. and the Ten Commandments are simply a repetition of the Babylonian Code of Ham murabi and the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Variant transliterations are "Manu" and "Manou. Murdock The Origins of Christianity depending on the locale: "Menu" is the Indian legislator 213. 24. "The Flood Myths." 216 Rollin. e. "Menes.Acharya S/D. Indeed. See Franklin. Roberts. 221 long ago ap propriated from the Egyptians. 226 Each of the disciples can be shown to correspond to an ea rlier deity." See the d iscussion of Dionysus. 389ff. 215 Bennett. Additionally. See also Finkelstein's The Bible Unearthed. 222 Walker. September/Octob er 1994. 223 Harwood. 230. J. "Mannus" the German lawgiver 217 ." See also Walker. 12 being the nu mber of the months and astrological signs. Massey outlined that even the Exodus itself is not a historical eve nt. 224 See Chri st in Egypt. That the historic ity of the Exodus has been questioned is echoed by the lack of any archaeologica l record. 121. 438. "Mises" appears in Syria and Egypt. the "Esther" of the Old Testament Book of Esther ap pears to be a remake of the Goddess Ishtar. Astoreth or Isis. Astarte. also being called "Meri" or "Mery. including Egypt. Mises and Moses in The Gospel According to Acharya S. However..StellarHousePublishing." was possibly taken from the Egyptian "IAO.M. as any sophisticated sc holar could demonstrate. Ketkar. with Isis. 182. 219 Buitenen. from whom evidently comes "Easter" 222 and about whose long and ubiquitous reign little i s said in "God's infallible Word. constellation or other figure. 730. 217 JNCBRAS. 221 See Bierlein's chapter. including but not limited to the Middle East. it is also yet another part of anci ent mythology. "Esther" is best transliterated "Ishtar" and "Mordechai" is "Mardukay.) This divine epithet has been found in various places. 124ff.M. 227 Se e. 220 Like many biblical characters. see Christ in Egypt. the Sumerians and 23 . 219 A century ago. 285-286. There have been floods and deluge stories in many diffe rent parts of the world. Noah is also a myth." 223 The Virgin Mother/Goddess/Queen of H eaven motif is found around the globe. 2 4. for instance. CIE. in the M ahabharata the Indian son of the Sun God named Karna was placed by his mother in a reed boat and set adrift in a river to be discovered by another woman.

Lewis. even be fore the discovery of the scrolls. HJMC. Murdock The Origins of Christianity For example." 231 Was Jesus an Essene Master? As regards Jesus being an Essene according to "secret" Dead Sea Scrolls. "brother of Jesus" and "brother of the Lord. GML. Walker. 228 229 230 231 232 233 See. Anderson. In any case. Indeed. skillfully argued that many of Jesus' s presumed teachings were either in contradiction to or were non-existent in Ess ene philosophy. see Christ in Egypt. In Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls. it is impossible to equate the "Teacher of Righteousness" found in any scrolls with a "historical" Jesus Christ." may be equivalent to Amset. The scrolls at Qumran have been dated to between 150 BCE and 70 AD/CE." the time of year when th e sun's rays are weakening and the sun appears to be dying. While many Essenic do ctrines are included in the New Testament. in the form of a scorpion. e. and in Christian art Matthew is depicted as the scribe of the gods.g. in the Egyptian story from pre-Christian times. Massey. Jesus's character and many of his actions were utterly c ontrary to the notion of him being a great Essene healer. It has also been hypothesized in BAR that the fervent tone and warrior-stance of some of the scrolls unearthed ne ar Qumran belie any Essene origin and indicate a possible attribution to Jewish Zealots instead. Compared to this. for one. or its prophets. 232 The Essenes did no t believe in corporeal resurrection. brother of Osiris the Lor d. they evidently did not accept the historicity of Jesus. 225. Mass ey. was an Essene com munity at all. nor did they believe in a carnalized messia h. Massey further points out that the Essenes were teetotalers and ate to live rather than the other way around. See Massey. 663. 233 Qumran is Not an Essene Community It should also be noted that there is another debate as to whether or not Qumran . over the centuries there has been much specul ation to this effect. in which the writers never mention Christ or Christia nity. 230 Massey says that "Taht-Matiu was the scribe of the gods. not a monaste ry. if they had even h eard of him.M. whereas according to Josephus the Essenes abhorred the swearing of oaths. 466. Norman Golb makes a very goo d case that the Dead Sea Scrolls were not written by any Essene scribes but were a collection of tomes from various libraries that were secreted in caves throug hout eastern Israel by Jews fleeing the Roman armies during the First Revolt of 70 AD/CE Golb also hypothesizes that Qumran itself was a fortress. They were not followers of the Hebrew Bible. Gnostic and Historic Christianity. the site traditionally associated with the Dead Sea Scrolls. Peter can be revealed to be a mythological character. 272ff. Also. 77. © 2009 www. For more on t he Four "Brothers" of Horus. 229 It is interestin g to note that. "the 24 . and. Jesus was fond of "swearing unto" his disciples. previously cited. James. with an angel standing near him. the list of disparities between the " Essenes" and their alleged great master Jesus goes on. Massey. b ased on the later scrolls. 210. the assumed Essene Jesus appears to be a glutton and drunkard.StellarHousePublishing. In BAR. to dictate the gospel.Acharya S/D. or th e concept of the original fall that must produce a savior. but Massey. it is reported that archaeological find s indicate Qumran was not an Essene community but was possibly a waystation for travelers and merchants crossing the Dead Sea. 228 while Jud as has been said to represent Scorpio. 157. NG. Horus was said t o have been killed by Set.


S. the Gospels and other New Testament boo klets. upon which the numerous gospels." This theory has stemmed in part from the statement of Eusebius...Acharya S/D. who in turn were personifications of the ubiquitous sun go d mythos. Murdock The Origins of Christianity Was the New Testament Composed by Therapeuts? In 1829. "Scholars' efforts to eliminate paganism from the Gospels in ord er to find a historical Jesus have proved as hopeless as searching for a core in an onion. but by Greek-speaking ex-Pagan Fathers and priests far from the Holy Land of the Jews. 469. and Cleanthes. among others—who actually carried to Rome the esoteric (gnostic) texts con taining the mythos. completely prove an alibi. The Christ is a popular lay-figure that never lived.. and several Greek Pagan 25 . II." 237 The "gospel" story of Jesus is not a factual portrayal of a hist orical "master" who walked the earth 2. who "admitted.M. "We thus conclude that the auto graphs of our four Gospels were most probably written in Egypt. including the canonical fou r. a hero who strove.StellarHousePublishing. and suffered. 419. not by illiterate J ewish peasants. Gerald Massey. Mead averred.. it was Pagan "Gnostics"—who included members of the Essene/ Therapeut and Nazarene brothe rhoods." 234 According to Massey.that the can onical Christian gospels and epistles were the ancient writings of the Essenes o r Therapeutae reproduced in the name of Jesus. and failed to save t he world by his death. It is impossible to establish the existence of an histori cal character even as an impostor. NG. and a lay-figure of Pagan origin. as Aratus. 185. were written." 236 Conclusion As Walker says. a lay-figure that was once the Ram and afterwards the Fish." 235 G. were based. © 2009 www. "Obviously. The Christ of the gospels is in no sense an historical personage or a supreme model of humanity. 180. Mead. a lay-figure that in human form was t he portrait and image of a dozen different gods. For such an one the two witnesses. Taylor adeptly made the case that the gospel story was essentially in e xistence before the Christ's purported advent and was probably composed by the m onks at Alexandria called "Therapeuts" in Greek. Wheless says. meaning "healers. The Historical J esus and the Mythical Christ (169) 234 235 236 237 Massey. written in Greek and quoting 300 times the Greek Septuagint. Wheless.R. Walker. astronomic al mythology and gnosticism.000 years ago. It is a myth built upon ot her myths and godmen.

Doane. 1921. Age of Reason Publications. Clarendon Press. J. 1999. Awad. 1911. 2001. NY. 11-12. Ananda Kentish. 1981. 1881.M. J. Frank S. London. Grove Press. Error's Chains: How Forged and Broken. II. Thomas J. Bierlein. Böttrich. Del 1907. London. Catholic En cyclopedia. Johannes Adrianus Bernardus. Israel and Hellas. The Fo-Sho-Hing-Tsan-King: A Life of Buddha. Vieweg. Lib r. Allan. September/October 1994. The Encyclopedia Press." freethoughtnation. Ottawa. New Delhi. McCormack. Krishna: The Beaut iful Legend of God. 2006 Anderson.htm —The Jesus Puzzle. Canadian Humanist. Element s of Buddhist Iconography. 1913. Barnes. Karl. SF. 1963. James P. Parallel Myths. —XIV.php?f=16& t=2930 —The Christ Conspiracy: The Greatest Story Ever Sold. —Jesus: Neither God Nor Man. Ministry of Culture. Cairo. 29. 2007. Standard Publishing House. Aśvaghosha. Earl. AUP. I. Samuel Beal. 2008. Encyclopaedia of Hindu Gods and Goddesses. Doherty. Acharya S.. Josephus und Da s Neue Testament. The Gods and Religions of Ancient and Modern Times. The Worship of Augustus Caesar. Auguste. Unive rsity of Chicago Press.Acharya S/D. Oxford. Th e Truth Seeker. Iran and America: Rekindling A Love Lost. B. humanists. The Astrology of the Old Test ament. Asian Educational Series. 1883. v.. Art and Archaeology. Campbell. Luwis. New World Library. The Open Court Publishing Company. "Obligations of the New Testa ment to Buddhism. The Religions of India. tr. NY. Bryant. The Twilight of Christianity. VIII. The Cambridge Encyclopedia Co. "Dating of Krishna. New Delhi 1972. Thomas. F.. 1883. AUP. Smith. Liberal and Scientific P ublishing. 2007. DeRobingne Mortimer. Edwin F. NY. 2003. 1885. Clough. 1999. Chandra. Carpenter. 2005. —Suns of God : Krishna. 1891. II I." jesuspuzzle. Harry Elmer. 2009. . Bryant. 1900. Munshiram Manoharlal. Dobbins.Stellar HousePublishing. Robert Appl eton Company. Dahlquist. Kegan Paul. Brown. Buddha and Christ Unveiled. Ottawa. tr. Chicago. The theme of Prometheus in English and French literature. The Cathol ic Encyclopedia Inc. 1931. 1994. Archaeological Institu te of America. 2001. The Mysteries of Mithra. 1997. 19 03. — ed. Dameron. Penguin Classics.newadvent. 1882. tr. 1996. Sarup & Sons. Amir-Moezzi. Bible Myths and Their Parallels in Other Religions. Alexander. July-December 1880. Mohr Siebeck. 2004. La religion discreete: Croyances et pratiques spirituelles dan l'islam shi'ite. Jonah. (Originally pub lished 1935 by Harvard University Press) Cumont... The Hero with a Thousand Faces. NY. Oxford U niversity Press. Arrow of the Blue-Skinned God: Retracin g the Ramayana Through India. Krishna: A Sourcebook. The Mahābhārata. Badiozamani . 1877." The Nineteenth Century.htm —I. Buitenen. New Delhi. "Flavius Josephus. Swami. The Vedanta Society." www. Random House. Richard R. —II. Blank. 1913. Joseph.F. "Josephus Unbound. © 2009 www. Biblio thèque de L'Ècole des Hautes Études. Wood. 1996. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. Great Saviors of the World. Clough's Sinhala English Dictionary. Franz. Bennett. Murdock The Origins of Christianity Bibliography Abhedā 26 . Biblical Archaeology Review.. Philosophique Vrin. Spiritism. John Pairman. Badi. Walter de Gruyter. Mohammed Ali.. Health Research. Barth. Paris. the Origin of All Religions. Berlin. Megasthenes and Indian Religion. Coomaraswamy.. 2000. Joseph Estlin.

Harwood. 1995. Manchester University Press. James and Berggren. Garbe. Science." www. NY. Delhi.. A Short History of the Bible. 1916. Jackson. Representing India: Ins titutes of Hindu Law. John R. Univers ity of Chicago Press. The Wor ld's Sixteen Crucified Saviors. Gemin os's Introduction to the Phenomena. Dujardin. L. Colonel J. Edward. Chicago. The Miscellaneous Works of Edward Gibbon. II. 1913. R. B. The Open Court. The Encyclo pedia Britannica Company. XXIX. 1967. 1911. 1903. Proceedings of the First International Congress of Mithraic Studies.jesusneverexisted. Murdock The Origins of Christianity Doniger. 1881. and Philosophy. Golb. Princeton University Press. Hengel. 1969. Penguin Books. —"Christian Elements in the Bhagavadgita. AUP. NY. London. Pakistan and Bangladesh. IL. XVI. Unive rsity of Georgia Press. God and Civilization. Ralph. v. Gibbon. The New Schaff-He rzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. Hodes. Santa Fe.. Jaini.H.St ellarHousePublishing. India. Gupta. I. Norman.. Routledge. Shangha i.. Mythology's Last G ods: Yahweh and Jesus. Encyclopedia Britannica. The Wors hip of the Dead. India Old and New. © 2009 www. VIII." The Mo nist. Charles Scribner's Sons. NY/Lon don. Keeler. Hamilton. 1977. Jacolliot. Ehrman. Franklin. 1978. Frankfort. Ramakrishna Maitra. Kenneth.. —"Christian Elements in the Mahabharata . XXIV. Hastings. ed. Edward Washburn. 1914. 2001. 1904. Evans. Liege. Sun Books. Edith.. or the Ordinances of Menu. 1910. Gyan Publishing House. Cru cifixion in the Ancient World and the Folly of the Message of the Cross. 1875. 1997. 1972. Open Court. with a Memorial Address. A Manual of Budhism. 1992. 197 5. Lord Sheffield John. 1992.. Jackson.. William. —Proceedings of the First International Congress of Mithraic Studies. Bart D. Manch ester University Press. 1837. Avesta: Livre Sacré du Zoroastr isme. Martin. 1968. Hopkins. J. Funk and Wagnalls Company. J." The Monist. Jankyn's Book of Wikked Wyves. Wendy. XXIII. 1874. tr. Health Research Books. Hinnells. Lost Christianities: The Battle for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. De Carvalho. Henri. Sanskrit Series. Bronson C. Man. " The Buddhist Influence in Christian Origins. Prometheus. Louis. Om.. Citadel Press. XXIII. Spence. Joh n Bowden. 2006. ed. The Open Court. 1959. Scribner. ed. Padmanabh S. 27 . "Christian Elements in Later Krishnaism and in Other Hinduistic Sects. 10. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 1993..H." Hermathena: A Series of Papers on Literatur e. Fortress Press.Acharya S/D. VII. 2000. ed. Collected Pap ers on Buddhist Studies. 1913... Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Grandmont-Donders. Charles Scribner's Sons. Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls?. Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Encyclopaedia of India . Humphreys. I. 1975. Blake. 2005. Chowkhamba. Hardy." The Monist. Samuel M. Richard . Ancient History of the God Jesus. Edouard. ed. Kennedy.. The Hindus: An Alternative History. NY.M. Oxford University Press. James. XXIII. 2001. Mytholo gy. London. Michael John. Kingship and the Gods: A Study of Ancient Near Eastern Religion.. Kersey. 2009. 1901. Penguin. London. Lennart. 2006. —India and Christendom: The Historical Conn ections between Their Religions. Graves. John G. Hanna. Chapman & Hall. C. A. Figgis & Co. tr.h tml Indian Studies. Garnier.. The Bible in India: Hindoo Origin of Hebrew and Chr istian Revelation. de Harlez. "The Problem of Second Corinthians. Chicago.

Robert E. Wendy Doniger. London. T&T Clark. 1888." www. Madras. Williams and Seattle. MacMillan & Co. Edward. Ria.html —"Was K rishna's Mother a 'Virgin?'". III. J.S.M. John M. John M. tr. Chips from a Ger man Workshop. 1903. The History of Caste in India. Gerald. Trübner & Co. v. Paine. Motilal Banarsidass. Sign ature Books. Payam. 2008. Ancient Egypt: Light of the World. 2009. Robert M. T. London.. 1907. 2005. 2007. Murdock The Origins of Christianity Ketkar.. Müller. Shridhar V. 2001.. Stellar House. University of Mich igan Press. Kuhn.. Antiquity Unveiled." Religious Systems of the World. Kim. Salt Lake City. 1975.Acharya S/D. Ba bylon and Persia. 2005.. Sw an Sonnenschein & Co. Buddha and Buddhism. 1887. Park. Taylor & Carpenter. Knott. Delhi. Stellar House. The History of the Middle Ages. Health Res earch. Lon don. LüheVerlag. I. 190 0. 1909. Roswell. 1981. Riddle.R.J. London. Leighton. —Egyptian Book of the Dead.. Massey. G. Thomson. Fisher Unwin. Price. Mathah. —Geheimnisse um Jesus Christu s: Das Neue Testament ist Buddhas Testament. O'Flaherty. Stephen. Pausanias's Description of Greece. John T. —Christianity and Mythology. "Mithraism. 1986. Kegan Paul. 1973. 1866. 1902. Perry. —The Gospel According to Acharya S. Seattle.StellarHousePublishing. Oxford University Press . The Works of N athaniel Lardner. The Story of Media. London. NY. G. The Christian Literature Publishing Co. 1838. II. Monier. London. V. Kloppenborg. Christian. I. Lillie. T. Murdock.M. Taigen Daniel. VI. J. Th e Vedanta kesari. Gage. Stellar House. © 2009 www. Visio ns of Awakening Space and Time: Dōgen and the Lotus Sutra. Robertson. III. William Ball. 200 9. T he Keys of the Creeds. Ritter. Ante-Nicene Fathers. E. 1912. www. Inner Trad itions. Charles Scri bner's Sons. Lewis. D. London. Mead. tr.. Lost Light: An Interpretation of Anci ent Scriptures. The Location of Religion: A Spatial Analysis. F. Ann Arbor. —The Natu ral Genesis. 2000. 1901. —Ancient Egypt: Light of th e World. An Epitome of the History of Medicine. Parmeshwaranand. 76. Watts & Co.A.. Rowman & 28 . "Jesus is Buddha. Theosophical Publishing. Alexander. NY. A Sanskrit Engl ish Dictionary. Yale University Press. Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Purānas. II. The My steries of Mithras: The Pagan Belief that Shaped the Christian World.. Frazer. Buffalo.G.stellarhousepublishing. Lardner.php?f=1 6&t=1597 —Christ in Egypt: The Horus-Jesus Connection. —The Historical Jesus and the Mythical Christ. World Relief Ne twork. Max.. 2005. Zénaïde Alexeïevna. 2007.. Brill. 1875. Putnam's Sons. 2006.. Fisher Unwin. ed. Davis C ompany. 1907.. London. Equinox P ublishing. William L. Nabarz. —Buddhism in Christendom: Or Jesus. 1900. Sarup & Sons. Robert T. Seattle. Knapp. Sixteen Saviours or One? The Gospels Not Brah amanic. The Book Tree.G.. D. Arthur. Lindt ner. 2007. Apple ton and Co. 1890. Proof of Vedic Culture's Global Existence. —Ante-Nicene Fathers. The Sūtra on the Foundation of the Buddhist Order. 1989. London. NY. Filiquarian Publishing.freethoughtnation. Alvin Boyd. Charles Scribner's Sons. Swami.P. NY. Middle English Dictionary. I. Sri Ramakrishna.. Monier-Williams. Maitland. 1883. the Essene. The Pre-Nicene New Testament. "Jesus as the Su n throughout History. —Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ. Nathaniel. 2005. F. 2000. II. London. 1913. 1902. The Gospels and the Gospel. Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook.M." jesusisbuddha. The Comparative Geogr aphy of Palestine and the Sinaitic Peninsula. London. Roberts. 1885. Roberts. The Art and Architecture of Japan. Oriental Publishing Co mpany. Penguin Clas sics. Ragozin. Carl.

The Adva itic Theism of the Bhagavata Purana. I. Brill. I.. Wheeler. Joseph. 24. San Francisco. erer. et al. 1867. 1829. Vetterling. 20. Sheridan. 2003. 1834. Civilizatio n Past and Present.jesusi sbuddha. Mithras Platonicus. Barbara. 1876. 1828. Sche rer. Patr icia and Coulter. The History of India From the Earliest Ages. E. 1990.. © 2009 www. Aryan Sun Myths. Trübner & Co.jesusisbuddha. Foresman. Shyam Singh. Carthaginians. Wallbank. Scott. Health Research. J. Boston. 1991. The Li brary Shelf. Thundy. ed. Thomas Walter. Kessinger. Lippincott & Co. 2004. Journey to the West. II. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. London. 1983. Pakistan. Charles. Robert. Stewart. Wh eless. Medes and Persians. E. Roscoe. Leiden. David. Daniel P. CA.E. Part 3.. 1999 . Tod. Vallabhācārya. Robert. N. University of C hicago Press. 1986. Kessinger.html Shashi. XVIII. 2003. Joseph Engelmann. Turcan. The Ancient History of the Egyptia ns. Sarah. Charles Russell. Burkhard. Srimad Bhagavatam of Sri Krishn advaipayana Vyasa. The Diegesis. 2003. Illuminate of Gorlitz or Jakob Bohme's Life and Phi losophy. William. Oxford Univers ity Press. The Woman's Encyc lopedia of Myths and Secrets. "T he Sanskrit Sources of the Gospel Narratives of the Trial and Death. vol. St. Titcomb. Murdock The Origins of Christianity —Christianity and Mythology. Miller." www. 1997.StellarHousePublishing. 1984.Acharya S/D. Charleston. James. Brill. Chicago/London. Ulansey. Saladin. Sree Gaudiya Math. The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. A Question of Miracles: Parallels in the Lives of Buddha and Jesus. The Sec ular Review: A Journal of Agnosticism. Sri Satguru Publication s. Abner Kneeland. Harper. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Assyrians. Macedonian and Gr ecians. III." www. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 29 . Chrysostom's Picture of the Re ligion of His Age. 1908. Encyclopaedia Indica: India. London.M. Yu. The Life and Pontificate of Leo the Tenth. Talboys.. Forgery in Christianity. W. 1914. v.J. Loren Ha rper. 1975. Turner. Routledge & Sons. Oxford U niversity Press.. Book Tree.html —Buddha and Christ: Nativity Stories and Indian Traditions . London. Herman.. Sri Subodhini. 2000. New Delhi. —Pagan Christs: Studies in Comparative Hierology. I. 1885. 7.B. Anmol Publications. 1993. Leiden. Chicago. Philadelphia.. Dictionary of Ancient Deities. Bangl adesh. Whitney. J. Anthony C. Kessinger. IV. Babylonians. The Southe rn Review. Zacharias P. 1986. Rollin.J. 1869. 1960. "The Secrets about Christian Lindtner. Walker. Tayl or..

com 30 .StellarHousePublishing.M. please join the TBK/S HP/FTN mailing list! © 2009 www.Acharya S/D.M. Murdock The Origins of Christianity Coming Soon from Stellar House Publishing! The Christ Myth Anthology By D. Murdock/Acharya S To be keep advised about other Stellar House publications.

Available now at .