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Michelle New EDET 650 Annotated Bibliography December 3, 2012 !

For my internship, I chose to work with the South Carolina Virtual School Program with their science department. My responsibilities were to help with their course development for their Physical Science initial credit course. For this annotated bibliography, I searched articles concerning online course development. Many of the articles discussed the many different aspects of online course development and which are most effective or perceived to be most effective by students and/or teachers. Another theme that was seen throughout the different articles was not only determining how to make an online course successful, but how to make it most successful for any type of student. Many of the articles also compared traditional, face-toface classrooms with online classroom environments. As a general, through reading the articles listed below, it can be said that distance education and online courses can be very effective in classrooms if implemented correctly. Using online and distance education allows for a vast array of new options and opportunities for teachers and students of any grade level. Aragon, Steven R., Johnson, Scott D. & Shaik, Najmuddin. (2002): The Influence of Learning Style Preferences on Student Success in Online Versus Face- to-Face Environments. American Journal of Distance Education, 16(4). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15389286AJDE1604_3 This study focused on determining how learning style preferences have an impact on student success in online courses versus traditional, face-to-face courses. The researchers use three learning style instruments to determine the learning styles of the participants. They used the Student Learning Style Scale, Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, and the Learning Style Inventory. The results of the study showed differences in learning styles of online students versus face-to-face students but did not find any link between their learning style and their success in the course. Auburn, Lynna J. (2004). Course design elements most valued by adult learners in blended online education environments: an American perspective. Educational Media International, 41(4). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/0952398042000314820 The researchers chose to use adult learners to help determine what elements in course design are more valued in blended learning environments (combination of face-to-face and web-based learning). The study provides both online course features and instructional design goals that were selected by these adult learners as most important when they filled out a questionnaire. The results of the study showed that the top ranking online course feature was that it is structured and that guidance and confirmation are offered to the students. Ranked at the very bottom of online course features were communication features. The students also ranked course instructional goals as well and the study found that the highest ranked goal was that the course offer options of individualization or customization.

Brusilovsky, P. (1998). Web-based education for all: a tool for development adaptive courseware. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems 30(1-7). Retrieved from http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169755298000828# In this article, the authors’ discuss a very important issue in education: being able to reach each student, regardless of background, prior knowledge, etc. They present ideas on how to develop adaptive courses. The main focus of their article discusses developing adaptive web-based textbooks using InterBook. Dutton, J. How do online students differ from lecture students? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 6(1). Retrieved from http://uwf.edu/ATC/Guide/ PDFs/how_online_students_differ.pdf This article discusses a study conducted to determine the differences between online students and face-to-face (lecture) students. The researchers not only wanted to know the differences between then two types of students but also but determine what factors influence their performance depending on which type of course they are in. Data was collected using surveys, student records and test scores. Results showed that online students chose their course format due to conflicts such as work, travel time, flexibility, etc. Lecture students chose that course format for the interaction with instructors and fellow students as well as needing to hear a lecture. Results of the performance levels showed that online students made higher grades than lecture students. Gold, S. A constructivist approach to online training for online teachers. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 5(1). Retrieved from https:// admission.kettering.edu/sites/default/files/resource-file-download/ ConstructivistApproach.pdf This study focuses on what the role of the teacher is in an online learning environment. The authors focus specifically on the training that is needed when teachers make the transition form face-to-face instruction to online. The study discusses a specific faculty development training course that is used to prepare teachers to effectively work in an online learning environment. The results of this study showed that those teachers who participated in the course, dramatically changed their attitudes about online learning as well as were now more willing to use online mediums in their courses. Mason, R. (2001). Models of Online Courses. Ed at a Distance 15(70). Retrieved from http://www.johnsilverio.com/EDUI6704-7804/Assignment1AReadings/ ModelsOfOnlineClass.pdf. The author of this article provides a framework for designing online courses. Three online course models are introduced and discussed in the article. Not only does the author discuss these model, but they also present examples of these models being used at UK Open University. The author also includes a list of important issues that need to be addressed in online course development and design.

Picciano, A. G. (2002). Beyond Student Perceptions: Issues of Interaction, Presence, and Performance In An Online Course. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 6(1). Retrieved from http://faculty.weber.edu/eamsel/research %20groups/on-line%20learning/picciano%20(2002).pdf. This is a study that compared performance in an online course to the student’s interaction and sense of presence in the course. Twenty-three students participated in this study and were placed in an asynchronous modeled course. Data was collected throughout the course as well as in a satisfaction survey. The results of the study showed that there is a strong relationship between the students’ perception of their interaction in the course and their perception of the quality and quantity of their learning. However, the results of actual measures of interaction and performance was mixed and not consistent. Saba, Farhad. (2005): Critical Issues in Distance Education: A report from the United States. Distance Education, 26(2). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/01587910500168892 This article discusses how distance education has grown in the United States and look at and analyze the “social science paradigm” of distance education. The author discusses the many factors that have contributed to the growth of distance education in the recent years. He not only discusses distance education in public education but also various other areas in society that it is used such as armed forces, government programs, etc. Schrum, L. (2002). Dimensions and Strategies For Online Success: Voices From Experienced Educators. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 6(1). Retrieved from http://actxelearning.pbworks.com/f/10.1.1.109.3649.pdf. The authors chose to use experienced educators as their frame of reference for this article. This article discusses the different aspects of being a successful online learners. The experienced educators then reviewed the different characteristics that were identified as being significant in being a successful online learner. The results of the study yielded seven “dimensions” or characteristics of student success in an online learning environment. Song, Liyan, Singleton, Ernise S., Hill, Janette R., Koh, Myung Hwa. Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(1). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.iheduc.2003.11.003 ! ! This study sought to understand online learners’ perceptions of online learning, both good and bad. Data was collected from seventy-six students who completed a survey. Most students stated that they think that the design of the course, their comfort with online technologies, and time management skills are all helpful to their success in online learning. The majority also agreed when it came to the challenges as well; most said that a lack of sense of community, difficulty understanding the goals, and technical problems challenged their success as an online learner.

Swan, K. (2002). Building Learning Communities in Online Courses: the importance of interaction. Education, Communication & Information, 2(1). Retrieved from http:// dx.doi.org/10.1080/1463631022000005016 ! ! ! This article discusses course design factors and how they affect student success in asynchronous online learning environments. The author focuses specifically on the social development of learning communities through discussions online. The authors offer 22 course design factors and relate those factors to student perceptions of satisfaction, learning, and interaction with their instructors and classmates. The results of the study showed that there were three factors that were significantly related to student perceptions and those were: clarity and consistence in course design, contact with and feedback from course instructors, and active and valued discussion. Swan, K. (2001). Virtual interaction: Design factors affecting student satisfaction and perceived learning in asynchronous online courses. Distance Education, 22(2). Retrieve from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0158791010220208. ! This paper discusses the different factors that are said to affect student satisfaction and their perceived learning when in an asynchronous learning environment. This study looked at the student perceptions of the course design in 73 State University of New York Learning Network courses during the 1999 spring semester. Data was collected through a survey distributed to 3,800 enrolled students at the end of the semester. The results of the survey showed that clarity of design, interaction with instructors, and active discussion among course participants significantly influenced students satisfaction and perceived learning. The results also showed that the students believed that their interaction with the course materials, instructor and their peers was more than in traditional classes.

Swan, K. (2005). On the nature and development of social presence in online course discussions. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 9(3). Retrieved from http://sloanconsortium.org/jaln/v9n3/nature-and-development-social-presenceonline-course-discussions ! ! This study was a mixed methods study done to build on previous research and to determine the nature of social presence in online classrooms and how it develops throughout the course. This mixed methods study used both quantitative and qualitative analyses or results from n online survey given to 91 students enrolled in four online graduate courses at a large, major public university in the Northeast. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between perceived social presence and the student’s satisfaction with online discussions. The results also showed that the perceived presence of instructors may be an influential factor in student satisfaction.The qualitative findings show that students who perceive high social presence in the course also participate more in the online discussions. Thorpe, Mary. (1998). Assessment and ‘third generation’ distance education. Distance Education, 19(2). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0158791980190206 ! This article discusses Computer mediated communication. This paper discusses the impact that this communication has had on online and distance learning. The idea of

using computing and telecommunications in distance education has created what is being called a “third generation.” These new communication opportunities allow students to become more engaged in their learning and interact with not only their instructors but their peers as well. Thorpe, Mary. (2002): Rethinking Learner Support: The challenge of collaborative online learning. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 17:2. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680510220146887a ! This article also discusses the use of computer mediated communication in the design of online and distance courses. However, this paper focuses on the course design and learner support aspects of distance education courses. They discuss the combining of these two aspects when computer mediated communication is designed into the course. Discussion of design of activities and their impact on learner support and on the course content is also discussed in great deal in this paper.

Twigg, C. (2003). Improving Learning and Reducing Costs: New Models For Online Learning. EDUCASE Review 38(5). Retrieved from http://rhet.csustan.edu/aa/docs/ PewTwiggArticle.pdf ! This article not only discusses improved models for online learning but the authors also venture into the dreaded topic of money and the costs of these technologies that re meant to be implemented in the classroom. The authors discuss the Program in Course Redesign, in depth, on the issue of implementing technologies and the issue of cost. The five course-redesign models offered by the Program are each discussed in detail. These five models include: supplemental, replacement emporium, fully online, and buffet models.

Volery, Thierry & Lord, Deborah. (2000) Critical success factors in online education. International Journal of Educational Management, 14(5). Retrieved from http:// www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=838758&show=abstract ! This article discusses the implementation of online courses in universities. The authors created a questionnaire, that was anonymous, and gave it to the 47 students inrolled in once course that the university in 1999. The questionnaire covered teaching effectiveness, technology, instructor characteristics, and student characteristics. The study found that the internet can be a very powerful tool in education. The study also found that instructors need to upgrade their lectures to include more technology. The study also found that in online learning environments the level of interaction between the students and the teacher is predominant.

Vonderwell, S. (2002). An Examination Of Asynchronous Communication Experiences and Perspectives of Students In An Online Course: A Case Study. The Internet and Higher Education 6(1). Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S. ! This study was of a qualitative nature and was conducted to determine the perspectives and experiences of asynchronous communication of undergrad students taking an online course. The authors used interviews, email transcripts, asynchronous discussion transcripts and two reviews of the asynchronous discusses to collect and analyze the

data. The results of this study can be used by asynchronous instructors on the factors, strategies, and barriers that need to be accounted for. Vrasidas, Charalambos & McIsaac, Marina Stock. (1999): Factors influencing interaction in an online course. American Journal of Distance Education, 13(3). Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08923649909527033 ! This is a study of the interaction between teacher and student in an online graduate course. This study involved eight students and one professor. The authors used observation as a means of collecting data. They observed the face-to-face meetings in person and tape-recorded and transcribed each. The authors also used interviews with the instructor and students in order to collect data on their view on interaction. The authors also collected student work, discussions, and email messages in order to determine the interaction between student and teacher. The results of the study showed that the following four were the major factors that influence interaction in an online course: structure, class size, feedback provided for the students, and participants’ prior experience with CMC.