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AC&DC transmission lines COMPARASION What were the technical issues involved in the AC-DC debate?

It was really a question of system architecture and the distances involved. Long-distance transmission requires high voltages for efficiency. With AC, you can use stepup transformers to boost the voltage for transmission and then step it back down near the customer for low-voltage consumption. Buttransformers don't work for DC power, so there was no way to optimize the voltage. Since Edison's DC concept was restricted to low voltage, a central station could serve a radius of only a couple of miles. Considering the tremendous growth in electrification and long-distance transmission in the early 20th century, there's no doubt AC was the right choice. Has the technical base for DC improved since then? It certainly has for special applications. In the mid-30s, the mercury arc valve was developed, which could rectify AC-basically convert it to DC-after its voltage had been raised. This opened the possibility for high-voltage DC transmission (HVDC). However, the equipment was extremely large and expensive and required a lot of maintenance. The smaller, solidstate thyristor valve, developed in the 1970s, was a big improvement. But even with thyristors, a DC converter station is huge-typically covering a dozen acres. You have to have a compelling need for DC to justify the expense. Can you give our readers an example? The case is quite clear-cut for undersea cable. Cables have a lot of stray capacitance; so when you put voltage into one, you are essentially charging up a big distributed capacitorthe cable itself. Only after the cable is charged up will you get power out the other end. But with AC, the charging happens every half cycle because the current is constantly switching directions. This doesn't matter much if it's a short cable, but if it's 20 or 30 miles long, more current is being used to charge the cable than is coming out the other end. At some length, you get nothing on the far end. With DC, the cable only needs to be charged once, and you don't have this extreme loss. So with long cables, DC is essentially the only choice. There's a 50-mile DC cable connecting mainland Canada to Vancouver Island, for example, and a similar undersea cable is being installed right now between Connecticut and Long Island. What about overhead HVDC transmission? Well, you don't have the big stray capacitance problem that you do with cable. With overhead transmission, the idea is to offset the extra cost of DC converter stations at each end of the line by spending less on the line itself. This is feasible. DC requires fewer conductors-two instead of the three for three-phase AC transmission-and the towers can be smaller, allowing a narrower right-of-way. Also, for AC lines, the insulators that separate the conductors from the tower have to be specified for peak voltage rather than average voltage; with DC, the peak voltage and average voltage are the same. Of course, you have to allow for transient peaks with both types of current, but overall, DC lines require less insulation for a given line voltage. The lower material and construction costs add up over a long line, with the breakeven point believed by many to be around 300 miles. The Advantages DC Transmission over AC Transmission Systems

instead of DC (Direct Current). DC transmission system on the other hand has more advantages over AC transmission system: 1. thus no frequency variation to monitor. 2. Note that. easy to analyze than AC system. has a combine power loss of around 1. Voltage levels used are of standard values. the transmission of electrical power from bulk power generators all the way to household. for example.6 %. 3. steps 1 and 3 are the only added steps. while DC is only a real number. and most importantly. efficiently. Currently. the transformation of DC voltage into another level involves 3 steps. If DC system has the ability to transform voltage into various levels. easy to monitor. these steps incur additional heavy losses. because of its ability to transform voltage to various levels by using a transformer. modern technology converter/inverter has attempted to reduce the amount of this loss. DC to AC Conversion If compared to AC system voltage transformation. the power is just the real component. 4. commercial and industrial consumers is made through high voltage alternating current (AC) transmission and distribution systems. and 3.Currently. Resistance DC system reduces the amount of resistance in the line. thus simplifying the analysis. stable. Reactance. The voltage transformation follows the faradays Law which states. 4. AC to DC Rectification 2. Unfortunately. Ability to transform voltage and to flow power in two opposite directions (bidirectional) are the only advantages of AC system over DC system. However. the current was reduced thus line losses was also reduced. The emf induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the time rate of change of magnetic flux through the circuit. 230 KV AC . and through a series of voltage transformations to reduce losses and minimize cost. 1. Connection will not also require synchronization. A 1000 MW. DC system does not introduce a reactance in the line. . Susceptance DC system does not introduce susceptance in the line thus removing the effect of charging current. at higher voltage.230 kV AC converter/inverter. AC system is used in the transmission of bulk power. Power In DC system. Frequency In DC system. The use of DC system in the transmission of power will be more economical if the price from its benefits is higher that the cost incurred from the addition of rectifier and converter. the DC transmission system will the more efficient.450 KV DC/ 450 KV DC . AC to AC transformation. Analysis Analysis of AC system always involved complex numbers. the frequency is zero. 3.