Regional Mathematical Olympaid - 2012

Date : 02-12-2012
1. Let ABCD be a unit square. Draw a quadrant of circle with A as centre and B, D as end points of the arc.
Similarly, draw a quadrant of a circle with B as centre A, C as end points of the arc. Inscibe a circle I
touching the arcs AC and BD both externally and also touching the side CD. Find the radius of the circle
I.
Ans.
1
16
Sol. By pythagores (r + R)
2
= (R – r)
2
+
4
1
(r + R)
2
= (1 – r)
2
+
4
1
Here R = 1
(r + 1)
2
= (1 – r)
2
+
4
1
r =
16
1
.
2. Let a, b, c be positive integers such that a divides b
5
, b divides c
5
and c divides a
5
. Prove that abc divides
(a + b + c)
31
.
Sol. Method 1 :
Consider the expansion of (a + b + c)
31
. All terms in it are of the form of r
km
a
k
b

c
m
, where r
km
is a
constant (in the form of binomial coefficient) and k, , m are non-negative integers such that
k +  + m = 31.
If k > 1,  > 1, m > 1 then abc always divides a
k
b

c
m
. hence we have to consider terms in which one
or two of k, , m are zero.
Now let k =  = 0, then a
31
= a. a
5
. a
25
= a. (ck
1
) (ck
1
)
5
= a (ck
1
) (k
2
b k
1
5
)
= abc k
1
6
k
2
Clearly, abc divides a
31
and similarly we can say about b
31
and c
31
.
Now let us consider two out of k, , m are not zero. Let k = 0, , m
=
0 then term would be
r
km
b

c
m
, where  + m = 31.
b

c
m
= bc b
–1
c
m–1
,  ,m > 1
Now atleast one of –1 and m–1 must be greater than 25 and 5 respectively, which clearly shows the
divisiblity of abc.
Method 2 :
a | b
5
¬ b
5
= k
1
a ; b | c
5
¬ c
5
= k
2
b ; c | a
5
¬ a
5
= k
3
c
(a + b + c)
31
÷
31
5 5
1 3
b a
b
k k
| |
+ +
|
\ .
=
31
5 25
5
1 1 3
b b
b
k k k
| |
+ +
|
\ .
= b
31

31
4 24
5
1 1 3
b b
1
k k k
| |
+ +
|
\ .
= b. b
5
. b
25

31
4 24
5
1 1 3
b b
1
k k .k
| |
+ +
|
\ .
= abc
( )
125 4 126 125 80 24
1 1 1 3
k b k k k .b + +
Which is clearly divisible by abc.
3. Let a and b be positive real numbers such that a + b = 1. Prove that
a
a
b
b
+ a
b
b
a
s 1.
Ans.
Sol. ((a
a
)
2
+ (b
a
)
2
) ((b
b
)
2
+ (a
b
)
2
) > (a
a
b
b
+ a
b
b
a
)
2
(using cauchy skwartz inequality)
¬ a
a
b
b
+ a
b
b
a
s
a 2 a 2 b 2 b 2
((a ) (b ) )((b ) (a ) ) + + ......(1)
now a
2a
+ b
2a
s (a + b)
2a
and b
2b
+ a
2b
s (a + b)
2b
a
2a
+ b
2a
s 1 and b
2b
+ a
2b
s 1
¬ (a
2a
+ b
2a
)(b
2b
+ a
2b
) s 1
Equation (1) becomes a
a
b
b
+ a
b
b
a
s 1 Hence proved
4. Let X = {1, 2, 3,.....,10}. Find the the number of pairs {A, B} such A _ X. B _ X. A A
=
B and
A
·
B = {5, 7, 8}.
Ans. 2186
Sol. X = {1, 2, 3, ......., 0}
So X – (A · B) has 7 elements.
A will has 5, 7, 8. Rest elements can be assigned in 2 ways '1' can either go to A of B or none.
So total pairs = 3
7
– (1).

|
(When no elements has
been assigned to A or B.)
5. Let ABC be a triangle. Let D, E be points on the segment BC such that BD = DE = EC. Let F be the mid-
point of AC. Let BF intersect AD in P and AE in Q respectively. Determine the ratio of the area of the
triangle APQ to that of the quadrilateral PDEQ.
Ans.
9
11
Sol.
AADE =
3
A
¬ x + y =
3
A
...(1) where x = area of
APQ
A & y = area of PQED
Consider AADC Consider AAEC
1
AF
CF
CB
BD
PD
AP
= × × 1
AF
CF
BC
BE
QE
AQ
= × ×
1
1
1
3
1
PD
AP
= × × 1 1
3
2
QE
AQ
= × ×
3
PD
AP
=
2
3
QE
AQ
=
So AP =
4
3
AD
AQ =
5
3
AE
A
APQ
=
A sin AF
5
3
AD
4
3
×
A
APQ
=
20
9
A
ADE
¬ x =
20
9
×
3
A
x =
20
3A
Thus (1) ÷
20
9

3
A
+ y =
3
A
¬ y =
3
A

|
.
|

\
|
20
9
– 1
y =
20 3
11
×
A
y
x
=
20 3
11
20
3
×
A
A
=
11
9
6. Find all positive integers n such that 3
2n
+ 3n
2
+ 7 is a perfect sqaure.
Sol. 3
2n
+ 3n
2
+ 7
(a) If n is odd n = 2k + 1 n
2
is of form of 4ì + 1 here ì e I
3
4k+2
+ 3(4ì + 1) + 7 ¬ 9.81
k
+ 12ì + 10
(81)
k
÷ 1 mod(4)
9(81)
k
÷ 1 mod(4)
3
2n
+ 3n
2
+ 7 ÷ 3 mod(4) and a perfect square can’t be of form of 4ì + 3
(b) If n is even n = 2k
9
2k
+ 12k
2
+ 7
Now 9
2k
< 9
2k
+ 12k
2
+ 7 s (9
k
+ 1)
2
where equality will hold only at k = 1
Rest it will be in between perfect square of 9
k
and 9
k
+1
i.e. two consecutive no. Hence n = 2 is only solution.

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