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Annotated Bibliography AEET/EDET 650 - Internship in Educational Technology Keith Davis

This bibliography is a compilation of references used in research in support of my efforts in completing the internship project for AEET 650 at the University of South Carolina Aiken. Finding the requisite amount of articles proved to be a challenge as most articles on the subject of online course development are very specific to particular endeavors. It took some time to find pertinent articles to my project.

Akdemir, O. (2008). Teaching in online courses: Experiences of instructional technology faculty members. Turkish online journal of distance education, v9(n2), 97-108. Retrieved from accno=ED501108

The Internet and computer technology have altered the education landscape. Online courses are offered throughout the world. Learning about the experiences of faculty members is important to guide practitioners and administrators. Using qualitative research methodology, this study investigated the experiences of faculty members teaching online courses. A convenience sampling was used to select the instructional technology faculty members to investigate their experiences in online courses. Interviews with faculty members

teaching online courses were used as the primary source to collect data about the experiences of faculty members in online courses. Results of the study showed that faculty members' interest in using technology and the amount of time available to them for online course design affected the quality of online courses. The findings of this study also indicated that design quality of online courses is affected by the interest of faculty members to use the technology and the time that they can devote to planning, designing, and developing online courses. The poor design of existing online courses, high learning expectations of individuals from these courses, and the future of online courses are the concerns of faculty members. Higher education institutions should support workshops and trainings to increase the skills and interests of non-instructional design faculty members to design and develop online courses.

Berrett, D. (2012, May 04). The imperfect art of designing online courses. Chronicle of higher education, 58(35), B11-B12. Retrieved from vid=4&hid=109&sid=d08324c2-63a2-49eb-8322caaaf45fbdf3@sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==

The article explores challenges faced by college administrators, faculty members, and technology coordinators in developing online courses. Particular focus is given to the process used by several institutions, including Rio Salado College, Kaplan University, and Drexel University, in developing course

materials, designing curriculum, and establishing communication between teachers and students in online environments.

Bradford, P., Porciello, M., Balkon, N., & Backus, D. (2007). The blackboard learning system: The be all and end all in educational instruction?. Education development center, inc., 35(3), 301-314. Retrieved from target=contribution&id=X137X73L52615656

Blackboard Inc. provides powerful and easy-to-use systems for educational instruction, communication, and assessment. In the last three years, Blackboard Inc. has marketed two major product lines: the Blackboard Commerce Suite and the Blackboard Academic Suite. The core of the Academic suite is the Blackboard Learning System, the course management system for classroom and online educational assistance. Other course management systems and learning management systems exist, including Angel/LMS, eCollege, GNU General Public License/Linux, and LearningSpace, as well as open-source learning systems such as The Sakai Project, Open Source Portfolio Initiative, Moodle, and uPortal. Despite the drive toward new portal commodities, the Blackboard Learning System has become the dominant e-learning software company. Is this necessarily good for higher educational learning? Members of the United University Professions Technology Issues Committee debate the issue as well as present specific applications of the Blackboard Learning System in distance

learning, hybrid courses, and as didactic supplements to other electronic environment enhancement systems.

Butler, J. (2010). 24/7 online learning: Lessons learned. Techniques (association for career and technical education), 85(6), 32-36. Retrieved from vid=4&hid=101&sid=d08324c2-63a2-49eb-8322caaaf45fbdf3@sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==

This paper discusses lessons learned by Auburn Career Center, Ohio, in developing online courses. The paper covers the learning management system interface and connectivity, staffing and content area choices, preparation of teachers for the transition, delivery style, student and parent training and connectivity, teacher concerns, professional development, challenges for online and blended learning, and investment in district staff development.

Chitanana, L. (2012). A constructivist approach to the design and delivery of an online professional development course: A case of the iearn online course. International journal of instruction, 5(1), 23-48. Retrieved from vid=3&hid=4&sid=c7f490b1-d414-4a52-8d3db75554e89556@sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==

This study examined the International Education and Resource Network Science Technology and Math online professional development course. The participants were 28 educators enrolled in the course, who were either teacher educators or teachers, working in different educational institutions in different countries throughout the world. Results of the study confirms earlier research findings that the constructivist approach to course design and delivery provides a powerful structure for creating learning environments conducive to the development of professional skills among educators. Results of this study can be used to assist professional development coordinators and administrators to plan effective professional development.

Clark-Ibáñez, M., & Scott, L. (2008). Learning to teach online. Teaching sociology, 36(1), 34-41. doi: 10.1177/0092055X0803600105

The demand for online courses is growing. This paper offers suggestions on how to teach online courses that promote student engagement and learning. We discuss the benefits and challenges of teaching online. We share research-based strategies for designing an online course and draw upon our experience of developing fully online sociology courses. Practical suggestions include preparing students, promoting learning through the discussion board, managing communication, incorporating multimedia, and evaluating the course. Recommendations for modifying teaching strategies for the online environment are also included. Student comments from anonymous surveys convey the

student perspective about taking online courses. Developing an online class is possible with early planning and an awareness of how to engage students.

Conole, G., & Oliver, M. (2002). Embedding theory into learning technology practice with toolkits. Journal of interactive media in education, Retrieved from

Expert and theoretical knowledge about the use of learning technology is not always available to practitioners. This paper illustrates one way in which practitioners can be supported in the process of engaging with theory in order to underpin practical applications in the use of learning technologies. This approach involves the design of decision-making resources, defined here as 'toolkits'. This concept is then illustrated with three practical examples. The ways in which this approach embeds specific theoretical assumptions is discussed, and a model for toolkit specification, design and evaluation is described.

Ellis, T. (2003). Engineering an online course: Applying the ‘secrets’ of computer programming to course development. British journal of educational technology, 34(5), 639-650. doi: 10.1046/j.0007-1013.2003.00356.x

Colleges and universities are increasingly migrating towards utilizing the World Wide Web to convey at least part of, and in many cases, their entire curricular offering. Despite this trend there is little support for the professors responsible

for translating courses refined over a career in the classroom for delivery via the Web. Teachers who are experts in their subject area and masters of their craft when in a classroom find themselves in the uncomfortable position of having to relearn how to teach in a new environment with little or no support. Development of an online course is, in many significant aspects, analogous to developing a computer product. The procedures and tools utilized in the software engineering field to manage computer software development, therefore, offer promise for developing online courses. This paper explores the potential of one process developed for the software engineering field—the System Development Lifecycle (SDL)—as a tool to effectively design and develop online college courses.

Hudnutt, B. (2002). The shodor education foundation: Supporting appropriate uses for technology in the classroom. Meridian: A middle school computer technologies journal, 5(1), Retrieved from

The Shodor Education Foundation is dedicated to helping educators and students at all levels understand and use technology appropriately in math and science education. An emphasis is placed on science and mathematics explorations, developing numerical models and simulations integrated with the curriculum, professional development, and access to a network that supports their use in a learner-centered environment.

Jain, P., Jain, S., & Jain, S. (2011). Interactions among online learners: a quantitative interdisciplinary study. Education, 131(3), 538-544. Retrieved from vid=4&hid=109&sid=d08324c2-63a2-49eb-8322caaaf45fbdf3@sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ

This study concerns the design and development of online instruction and specifically targets interaction and communication between online learners. Facilitating appropriate and meaningful interactions in designing instruction is a major goal for anyone developing a course, especially an online class. The data for this study came from the online courses offered at one of the major Rocky Mountain University. The research subjects and courses were taken from the College of Education, College of Business, College of Arts and Sciences and College of Health Sciences. The findings of this study suggest that the interactivity in an online class depends on the discipline it belongs to and hence, future research must focus on explaining the overall interactions within a discipline.

Kleiman, G., Dash, T., Ethier, D., Johnson, K., Metrick, S., & Treacy, B. (2007). Designing and implementing online professional development workshops. Education development center, inc., Retrieved from

This report provides useful information for those who are planning to incorporate online learning into professional development programs, as well as those who will design and implement online professional development activities. The Education Development center, Inc. (EDC) Center for Online Professional Education is continuing to explore this new medium for teaching and learning, as are many other organizations. This paper summarizes the goals and audiences of the online workshops and other online activities that inform this report; considers different approaches to online professional development; presents an overview of the elements common to workshops.

Lavolette, E., Venable, M., Gose, E., & Huang, E. (2010). Comparing synchronous virtual classrooms: Student, instructor and course designer perspectives. Tech trends: Linking research and practice to improve learning, 54(5), 54-61. doi: 10.1007/s11528-010-0437-9

The synchronous tool that is right for developing an online course depends on the context, needs and priorities. This report compares synchronous, virtual classroom systems Elluminate Live! v. 9 and Dimdim v. 4.5. The researchers compared the features of each system in terms of facilitation of communication, presentation of course content and logistical requirements. Similarities and differences are outlined. Online workshops were conducted with each of the systems to collect feedback from instructors and students regarding overall perceptions of the systems and ease of use. Recommendations are provided for

those making decisions about the selection and implementation of a synchronous, virtual classroom system.

Maddux, C. (2004). Developing online courses: Ten myths. Rural special education quarterly, 23(2), 27-32. Retrieved from vid=4&hid=101&sid=d08324c2-63a2-49eb-8322caaaf45fbdf3@sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==

Online education carries many benefits for individuals in rural areas as well as individuals with disabilities. The rapid growth of online courses and the increased number of institutions moving to online education has resulted in many instructors beginning to develop online courses for the first time. The article presents ten common myths that have sprung up concerning online course design and delivery, and offers accurate information regarding these misconceptions.

Manner, J., & Rodriguez, D. (2012). Rural redesign: Delivering online professional development for rural teachers of esl. US-China education review, A(3), 267-277. Retrieved from vid=5&hid=101&sid=c7f490b1-d414-4a52-8d3db75554e89556@sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==

This study reports the progress of a project in a teacher education program designed to deliver professional development to rural teachers through an online format addressing ESOL (English for speakers of other languages). Project LEAP was crafted to provide in-service teachers with professional development in ESOL, so that services to ELLs in the region would be improved and so that clinical placements for teacher candidates would model and support best practices for a diverse student body.

Merrill, H. (2003). Best practices for online facilitation. Adult learning, 14(2), 13-16. Retrieved from vid=12&hid=4&sid=c7f490b1-d414-4a52-8d3db75554e89556@sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==

In this article, the author provides an overview of the best instructional design and delivery practices for facilitating online courses. Many factors that contribute to effectively facilitating an online course are discussed, including student expectations and experience with technology, understanding the types of technologies used, effective course design, the multiple roles of the facilitator, and developing effective groups. The facilitator needs to be able to weave an effective learning experience from these interactive elements that is appropriate for the specific online audience.

Plummer, L., Nichols, E., & Nelson, M. (2001). Collaboration: Developing an effective on-campus online course. College & university media review, 7(2), 9-22. Retrieved from vid=10&hid=115&sid=c7f490b1-d414-4a52-8d3db75554e89556@sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==

This paper describes the development of an eight-week on-campus, Web-based online course at Indiana University Bloomington for incoming freshmen to introduce them to the university's culture. It also discusses course structure, design, collaboration among instructional and technology units, course assessment, and student opinions of the course.

Puzzifero, M., & Shelton, K. (2008). A model for developing high-quality online courses: Integrating a systems approach with learning theory. Journal of asynchronous learning networks, v12(n3-4), 119-136. Retrieved from

As the demand for online education continues to increase, institutions are faced with developing process models for efficient, high-quality online course development. This paper describes a systems, team-based, approach that centers on an online instructional design theory called Active Mastery Learning, implemented at Colorado State University-Global Campus. CSU-Global Campus

is a newly created online campus within the Colorado State University System, and launched in the Fall of 2008 with fully-online undergraduate degree completion programs and Master's degrees. Rourke, L., & Anderson, T. (2002). Using peer teams to lead online discussions. Journal of interactive media in education, Retrieved from

This study investigated an online course in which groups of four students were used to lead online discussions. The teams were examined for their ability to bring instructional design, facilitation, and direct instruction to the discussions. The setting was a graduate-level communications networks course delivered to a group of 17 adults enrolled for professional development education. Interviews, questionnaires, and content analyses of the discussion transcripts indicate that the peer teams fulfilled each of the three roles and valued the experience. Students preferred the peer teams to the instructor as discussion leaders and reported that the discussions were helpful in achieving higher order learning objectives but could have been more challenging and critical.

Scanlon, E. (2010). Technology enhanced learning in science: Interactions, affordances and design based research. Journal of interactive media in education, Retrieved from

This paper reflects on the experience of working on a range of technology enhanced learning in science projects to review a number of working principles which have proved effective in the practice of educational technology. It discusses how these principles relate to the theories in use in educational technology. Three case studies are considered illustrating methods of participatory design, design based research and socio-cultural approaches. All the case studies are taken from the application of educational technology principles to the design of examples of science instruction. The paper offers an interpretation of the contemporary practice of educational technology.

Thiede, R. (2012). Best practices with online courses. Online submission, US-China education review, A(2), 135-141. Retrieved from

The popularity and rise in online courses have somewhat taken the author by surprise. Starting as a college instructor three years ago, the author has witnessed the tremendous interest in online programming. Online education, it is the fastest growing enrollment at the kindergarten-12th grade and higher educational levels. At the university level, administrators are directing the design of online courses, faculty members are being drawn to develop these types of courses and students are strongly requesting these courses. However, even though there is this strong movement for online programming, it is relatively new and unfamiliar to most university administrators and faculty members. There is a

pressing need to acquire hands-on, practical knowledge, skills and materials for these online courses. Consequently, university faculty is scrambling to find more information, materials and resources to fulfill these online programming interests and needs. This paper will present an overview, teaching/learning techniques, exemplary assignments and activities, and assessment tools for online courses.