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FIDEC Training Center

Control Valves

Category of Valves
Valves Manual valves Automated valves
These valves are operated automatically.

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Modulating valves Self Operated valves On-Off valves
On-Off valves just put the flow “on” or “off” . On the other word, let the flow medium run or stop. There types of valves are mainly used for sequential control or rough control like air conditioning. Self-operated valves operate receiving energy from fluid pressure of fluid temperature. It has high responsibility but generally is not good at accuracy.

Modulating valves are moreover categorized into 2 types.

Control valves
Control valves operate receiving energy from compressed air, electric power, etc. used with controllers and sensors. Control valves and related equipment realizes most accurate control.

Control Valves

Introduction
What Is A Control Valve? The control valve manipulates a flowing fluid, such as gas, steam, water, or chemical compounds, to compensate for the load disturbance and keep the regulated process variable as close as possible to the desired set point. The control valve assembly typically consists of the: * Valve body * The internal trim parts * An actuator to provide the motive power to operate the valve * A variety of additional valve accessories, which can include positioners, transducers, supply pressure regulators, manual operators, snubbers, or limit switches.

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Control Valves

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Flow meter Press. Sensor Orifice. Transmitter Control Valves . Transmitter Level Transmitter Temperature Transmitter Orifice FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valve Controller 4-20mA 4-20mA D.P.Roles of control valves Process parameters Flow Pressure Level Temp.

Example of process control Flow control FC PC Boiler Boiler feed pomp Minimum flow control valve Level control Reactor LC Heat exchanger Turbine bypass valve T bi b l Temperature control TC Pressure control Boiler FIDEC (Training Center) Turbine Control Valves .

Introduction FIDEC (Training Center) Typical Valve Assembly Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

Control valve travel so that correct amount of fluid runs inside valve.Component parts FIDEC (Training Center) Actuator Positioner Convert electrical signal to pneumatic signal so that valve can operate using pneumatic energy. Yamatake Standard Single Seated Valve Control Valves Body .

Control Valves .Structure of actuator and valve body Diaphragm Convert pneumatic energy to force Spring Convert force to displacement FIDEC (Training Center) Valve Body Gasket Seal the space between valve body and bonnet Valve Plug Seat Ring Trim modulates flow passage to control flow rate.

ir .Introduction FIDEC (Training Center) Major Component of Typical Control Valve Body Control Valves training@fidec.

ir .Introduction Rain cap Eye bolt Diaphragm Spring Actuator stem Diaphragm case Scale plate Stem connector Yoke Packing flange Packing follower g Yoke claming nut Gland packing Valve stem Bonnet Stud bolt and nut Gasket Guide ring Guide bushing Valve plug Seat ring Valve body FIDEC (Training Center) Actuator Body Trim Control Valves training@fidec.

Combination of body and actuator
Control valves Actuator

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Pneumatic

Motorized

Hydraulic

Body

Glove
Control Valves

Angle

Butterfly

Features of each actuator types
Pneumatic type Hydraulic type Motorized type Response time Dead time is rather long. Action speed is fast. Possible by using integrated spring or connecting volume tank easily and certainly. Middle for spring diaphragm type. Big for piston cylinder type. t Simple Dead time is short. Action speed is fast Difficult to maintain

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No dead time. Action speed is slow Can stop and maintain only the position at an emergency time. Bigger than pneumatic type and oil pressure type Complicated

Maintaining safety position at supply fail time Output power

Small for oil integrated type. Big for oil separated installation type i t ll ti t Complicated

Structure

Weather proof and Exprosion proof Air piping or electric wiring

Not necessary Simple

Should be considered Simple for oil integrated type. Complicated for oil separated installation Complicated Expensive

Should be considered Simple

Maintenance work Cost

Easy Reasonable

Complicated Expensive

Control Valves

Features of each body types
Linear motion Glove valve 3-1. Single seated valve 3-2. Top & Bottom guided valve 3-3. Cage valve 3-4. Angle valve Control Valves 3-5. Tree-way valve 3-6. Diaphragm valve Gate valve Rotary motion 3-7. Rotary valve 3-8. Butterfly valve Ball valve
Control Valves

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-Required Cv value: Cv value calculated with fluid condition FIDEC (Training Center) water 60degF 1 psi Control Valves US gal/min . Then.6 degC) l ih h i f l/ min at differential pressure of 1 psi and specific travel of valve. -Rated Cv value: Cv value at a valve is fully opened. you need to calculate required Cv value with fluid condition given on control valve data sheet.Cv calculation When you decide port size of control valve.) is introduced. What is Cv value ? One of the popular coefficients that express flow capacity. most popular Cv calculation formula that is established by FCI (Fluid Controls Institute. Inc. you can specify appropriate Rated Cv value and port size. At this chapter. Flow rate of 60 d F (15 6 d C) clean water with the unit of US gal/ Fl f degF (15. Cv value us defined as follows.

the changing relationship between percentage of maximum flow capacity and percentage of total travel range can be portrayed . f th l Commonly specified inherent flow characteristics include: * Linear Flow Characteristic * Equal-Percentage Flow Characteristics * Quick-Opening Flow Characteristic Control Valves training@fidec. the unobstructed flow area changes in size and shape depending on the contour of the valve plug.Introduction FIDEC (Training Center) Flow Control Characteristics As the actuator moves the valve plug through its travel range. When a constant pressure differential is maintained across the valve.ir . and is designated as the inherent flow characteristic of the valve.

L: Valve plug travel) FIDEC (Training Center) Equal-Percentage Flow Characteristics Inherent Flow Characteristics Curves Control Valves training@fidec.ir . L (K: Constant.Introduction Linear Flow Characteristic Cv = K .

Introduction Quick-Opening Flow Characteristic FIDEC (Training Center) Typical Construction to Provide Quick-Opening Flow Characteristic Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir .Introduction Selection of Flow Characteristic FIDEC (Training Center) Liquid Level Systems Control Valves training@fidec.

ir .Introduction Rangeability FIDEC (Training Center) “Rangeability” denotes the ratio between the maximum flow rate and the minimum flow rate which can be controlled by a control valve. Inherent rangeability = Cv  max imum Cv  min imum Control Valves training@fidec.

* Have adequate capacity for the intended service. and temperature influences of the process. corrosive. and * Incorporate appropriate end connections to mate with adjacent pipelines and actuator attachment means to permit transmission of actuator thrust to the valve plug stem or rotary shaft.ir . the valve must: * Contain the fluid without external leakage. Control Valves training@fidec.Control Valves Valve and Actuator Types Control Valves FIDEC (Training Center) The control valve regulates the rate of fluid flow as the position of the valve plug or disk is changed by force from the actuator. * Be capable of withstanding the erosive. To do this. q p y .

ir .Valve Bodies Globe Valves Single-Port Valve Bodies FIDEC (Training Center) Single-Ported Globe-Style Valve Body Control Valves training@fidec.

• This type is most advantageous because small sized actuator can be mounted. price is not reasonable because the larger the valve size is.Valve Bodies FIDEC (Training Center) Most Popular type• Valve plug has only one seat to shut-of fluid• Seat leakage is low even though it has metal • seat Unbalancing fluid force is higher than • p pressure balancing type g yp When required valve size is lower than 2 inch.ir . the bigger the actuators size is comparing single seated type to pressure balancing type. • generally. Control Valves training@fidec. That means price is reasonable.• When required size is larger than 2 inch.

Valve Bodies FIDEC (Training Center) Gasket Valve Plug Valve Body Seat Ring Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

seat leakage is larger than • single seated valves. Control Valves training@fidec.ir .Top and Bottom Guided valve FIDEC (Training Center) The valve plug is guided at top and • bottom. Pressure balanced type. Generally.• This type is used mainly for oil refinery • industry.

For pressure balanced cage type.ir .Cage valve „ „ FIDEC (Training Center) „ „ „ „ This type comes after single seated type in market. actuator size is smaller than single seated type when body size is same. It has window that consists of flow characteristics. This type can reduce cavitation erosion and aerodynamic noise that are typical control valve claim. seat leakage is larger than single seated valve. Generally. Therefore price is more competitive than single seated type when valve size larger than 3 inch or used with highhigh pressure rating. Valve plug is guided by cage (shaped like pipe and set in valve body.) Pressure balanced type is more popular than unbalanced type. Seat ring Valve plug Control Valves training@fidec.

Cage-Guided Valve Bodies FIDEC (Training Center) High Capacity Valve Body with Cage-Style Noise Abatement Trim Control Valves training@fidec.Valve Bodies High Capacity.ir .

Also used because of piping design • advantage. Wetted parts design is simpler than general 2 • way valves.Angle valve FIDEC (Training Center) Center of inlet and outlet of valves are right • angle. Erosion: Destruction of valve bodies or trims due to high fluid velocity Abrasion: Erosion due to slurry that contains solids or particles. Control Valves training@fidec. So this type is also advantageous for viscous fluid fluid. This type is advantageous for erosive or • abrasive fluid.ir .

ir .• Mainly used for temperature control.• Mixing type is used to mix 2 flow.• Mixing type Control Valves Diverting type training@fidec.Tree-way valve Three-Way Valve Bodies FIDEC (Training Center) Diverting type is used to separate flow to 2 way.

modulate •Wetted parts can be lined with several materials (PTFE. •This type is cost effective. Glass. and rubbers).Diaphragm Valve •Elastic diaphragm made with rubber and PTFE the flow passage. FIDEC (Training Center) Full open Control Full close Control Valves . So this type is advantageous for slurry or corrosive fluid.

Generally. this type cannot be applied.Valve Bodies Rotary Valves Butterfly Valve Bodies „ FIDEC (Training Center) „ „ A disk that is almost same diameter as pipe size rotate so as to modulates flow. For higher-pressure rating. High-Performance Butterfly Control Valve Control Valves training@fidec.ir . Valve capacity is highest for all types of valves. Generally this type is used at pressure rating 300# or lower.

ir .Valve Bodies V-Notch Ball Control Valve Bodies FIDEC (Training Center) Rotary-Shaft Control Valve with V-Notch Ball Control Valves training@fidec.

Fluid can be passed easily because of straight trough construction. CV capacity is bigger than that of other globe valves.Eccentric-Disk Control Valve Bodies FIDEC (Training Center) Center of the plug rotating point is eccentric from the center of valve body.ir . Eccentric-Disk Rotary-Shaft Control Valve Control Valves training@fidec.

Max Operating • Temperature: 140 deg C Control Valves training@fidec. Body has rigid stainless • casing to avoid warp with piping stress.ir . Especially used for • corrosive fluid. Applicable pressure and • temperature is limited. which resist most of acids and alkalis. All wetted parts are made • with PTFE.PTFE Valve FIDEC (Training Center) Plug: PTFE with 304ss core Bellows: PTFE Casing: SUS304 Body: PTFE A branch of single seated • control valve.

Cheaper than PTFE valve Max Operating Temperature: PVC: 50 deg C.PVC / Polypropylene Valve FIDEC (Training Center) A branch of single seated control valve. which resist most of acids and alkalis Applicable pressure and temperature is limited. Polypropylene: 80 deg C Model VNP Control Valves . Especially used for corrosive fluid. All wetted parts are made with PVC or Polypropylene.

• FIDEC (Training Center) 4. pressure and seat leakage class.Highest abrasion resistance. 3. Ceramic 99% aluminum ceramic or Silicon carbide ceramic Model HMC CV < 4.0 Model HIC 13<CV<120 Control Valves Aluminum ceramic: 70 deg C .Ceramic Valve Wetted part materials are all ceramics • • All wetted parts are made with ceramics that resists most of acids and alkalis. There are application limitations for • temperature.

Valve Plugs Types of Valve Plugs Cage FIDEC (Training Center) Plug for cage valve Contoured plug EQ% Control Valves Linear training@fidec.ir .

Valve Plugs FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir .Cage-Guided Characterization of Cage-Guided Valve Bodies FIDEC (Training Center) Characterized Cages for Globe-Style Valve Bodies Control Valves training@fidec.

End Connections Control Valve End Connections FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir .End Connections FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.

and Stud Bolts Control Valves training@fidec.Bonnets Valve Body Bonnets The bonnet of a control valve is that part of the body assembly through which the valve plug stem or rotary shaft moves. Flange. FIDEC (Training Center) Typical Bonnet.ir .

Bonnets Extension Bonnets FIDEC (Training Center) Extension Bonnet Control Valves Valve Body with Fabricated Extension Bonnet training@fidec.ir .

ir .Packing Control Valve Packing FIDEC (Training Center) Single PTFE V-Ring Packing Control Valves training@fidec.

Packing FIDEC (Training Center) Comprehensive Packing Material Arrangements for Globe-Style Valve Bodies Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

Packing FIDEC (Training Center) Typical Valve Stem Packing Assemblies Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir .Packing PTFE V-Ring Laminated and Filament Graphite Single PTFE V-Ring Packing ENVIRO-SEAL_ PTFE Packing FIDEC (Training Center) ENVIRO-SEAL PTFE Packing System Control Valves training@fidec.

ir .Packing FIDEC (Training Center) V-PTFE V7132Y #4519 yarn y Graphite (T2200) Control Valves SM636 TK2006 training@fidec.

ir .Packing Graphite Ribbon for Rotary Valves FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.

Packing FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir .Gaskets Gaskets FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.

Gaskets FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir Serrated metal gasket Control Valves .Gaskets Examples on Uses of Gaskets Serrated metal gasket FIDEC (Training Center) Spiral gasket Model HTS Model M d l ACP V543 V543 PTFE coated V8590 Spiral gasket training@fidec.

ir .Gaskets FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.

Grease FIDEC (Training Center) Lubricator PS6 Control Valves #800 #400 #650 training@fidec.ir .

ir .Valve Plug Guiding Valve Plug Guiding 1. Cage Guiding FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.

ir .Valve Plug Guiding 2. Top Guiding FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.

ir .Valve Plug Guiding 3. Stem Guiding FIDEC (Training Center) Left view Control Valves training@fidec.

ir . Top-and-Bottom Guiding FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.Valve Plug Guiding 4.

ir .Valve Plug Guiding 5. Port Guiding FIDEC (Training Center) Right view Control Valves training@fidec.

Valve Plug Guiding Restricted-Capacity Control Valve Trim FIDEC (Training Center) Adapter Method for Providing Reduced Flow Capacity Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

Control Valves training@fidec. and manual actuators are also widely used.Actuators Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Pneumatically operated control valve actuators are the most popular type in use. but electric. hydraulic. The spring-and-diaphragm pneumatic actuator is most commonly specified due to its dependability and simplicity of design. Pneumatically operated piston actuators provide high stem force output for demanding service conditions.ir .

Diaphragm Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.ir .Actuators 1.

ir .Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Field-Reversible Multi-Spring Actuator Control Valves training@fidec.

Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Diaphragm Actuator for Rotary Shaft Valves Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir . Piston Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valve with Double-Acting Piston Actuator Control Valves training@fidec.Actuators 2.

ir . Electrohydraulic Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valve with Double-Acting Electrohydraulic Actuator and Handwheel Control Valves training@fidec.Actuators 3.

Manual Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Typical Manual Actuators Control Valves training@fidec.Actuators 4.ir .

Actuators 5. Rack and Pinion Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Typical Rack and Pinion Actuator Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

Control Valves training@fidec. Electric Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Traditional electric actuator designs use an electric motor and some form of gear reduction to move the valve.Actuators 6. these mechanisms have been used for continuous control with varying degrees of success.ir . Through adaptation.

ir .Actuators 7. Control Valves training@fidec. Types (Directions) of Valve and Actuator Actions FIDEC (Training Center) Types of valve and actuator actions should be correctly selected for fail-safe plant operation when the driving power (air supply) has failed. (b) Reverse action: Valve closes when driving power has failed. The type (direct and reverse) are defined as follows: (a) Direct action: Valve opens when driving power has failed.

ir .Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.

Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir .Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.

Analog I/P Positioner 3.ir .Positioners Control Valve Accessories Positioners FIDEC (Training Center) Pneumatically operated valves depend on a positioner to take an input signal from a process controller and convert it to valve travel. These instruments are available in three configurations: 1. Pneumatic Positioners 2. Digital Controller Control Valves training@fidec.

Positioners FIDEC (Training Center) 1. Pneumatic Positioners: A pneumatic signal (usually 3-15 psig) is supplied to the positioner.ir . Control Valves training@fidec.

Analog I/P Positioner FIDEC (Training Center) This positioner performs the same function as the one above.Positioners 2.ir . 3. The digital di it l products cover th categories. d t three t i * Digital Non-Communicating * HART * Fieldbus Control Valves training@fidec. Digital Controller Although this instrument functions very much as the Analog I/P described above. but uses electrical current(usually 4-20 mA) instead of air as the input signal. it differs in that the electronic signal conversion is digital rather than analog.

Positioners

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Modern Control Valves Utilizing Digital Valve Controllers
Control Valves training@fidec.ir

Positioners

FIDEC
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Positioner Schematic for Piston Actuator
Control Valves training@fidec.ir

Volume Booster

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Volume Booster

Control Valves

training@fidec.ir

Other Accessories Other Control Valve Accessories FIDEC (Training Center) Top-Mounted Handwheel for Direct-Acting Diaphragm Actuator Control Valves Top-Mounted Handwheel for Reverse-Acting Diaphragm Actuator training@fidec.ir .

Other Accessories Limit Switches FIDEC (Training Center) Cam-Operated Limit Switches Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir .Other Accessories Solenoid Valve Manifold FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.

ir .Other Accessories Supply Pressure Regulator FIDEC (Training Center) Supply Pressure Regulator with Filter and Moisture Trap Control Valves training@fidec.

Other Accessories Pneumatic Lock-Up Systems FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

Other Accessories FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

Other Accessories Fail-Safe Systems for Piston Actuators FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir .Other Accessories Electro-Pneumatic Transducers FIDEC (Training Center) Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Mounted on a DiaphragmActuated Control Valve Control Valves training@fidec.

Other Accessories Electro-Pneumatic Valve Positioners FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

electronics. Control Valves training@fidec.Other Accessories Diagnostics FIDEC (Training Center) Digital valve controllers incorporate predefined instrument and valve diagnostics within firmware to provide alerts if there are problems with instrument mounting. hardware or valve performance.ir .

ir .Seat Leakage Classifications Standards and Approvals Control Valve Seat Leakage Classifications (In accordance with ANSI/FCI 70í2 and IEC 60534-4) FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.

Seat Leakage Classifications FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir .Seat Leakage Classifications FIDEC (Training Center) Control Valves training@fidec.

I WKH DFWXDO SUHVVXUH GURS DFURVV WKH YDOYH DV GHILQHG E\ WKH V\VWHP conditions of P1 and P2 LV JUHDWHU WKDQ 3PD[ WKHQ HLWKHU IODVKLQJ RU FDYLWDWLRQ may occur. Vena Contracta Illustration Control Valves training@fidec.ir .Cavitation and Flashing Cavitation and Flashing Choked Flow Causes Flashing and Cavitation FIDEC (Training Center) The IEC liquid sizing standard calculates an allowable sizing pressure drop. normally the valve port. The change is from the liquid state to the vapor state and results from the increase in fluid velocity at or just downstream of the greatest flow restriction. 3PD[ .

Cavitation and Flashing FIDEC (Training Center) Comparison of Pressure Profiles for High and Low Recovery Valves Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

Cavitation and Flashing FIDEC (Training Center) Typical Appearance of Flashing Damage Typical Appearance of Cavitation Damage Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

FIDEC (Training Center) 4.Noise Prediction Noise Prediction 1. Account for distance and calculate the sound pressure level at the observer’s location 2. 2. Hydrodynamic Control Valves training@fidec. Determine the fraction of total power that is acoustic power 3. Calculate the total stream power in the process at the vena contracta.ir . Convert acoustic power to sound pressure. Account for the transmission loss of the pipewall and restate the sound pressure at the outside surface of the pipe 5. Aerodynamic The method defines five basic steps to a noise prediction: 1.

Noise Prediction Noise Control FIDEC (Training Center) Valve Trim Design for Reducing Aerodynamic Noise Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

Noise Prediction FIDEC (Training Center) Valve and Inline Diffuser Combination Control Valves training@fidec.ir .

ir .Noise Prediction FIDEC (Training Center) Valve and Vent Diffuser Combination Control Valves training@fidec.

ir .Noise Prediction FIDEC (Training Center) Special Valve Design to Eliminate Cavitation Control Valves training@fidec.

ir .Noise Prediction FIDEC (Training Center) Typical In-Line Silencer Control Valves training@fidec.

ir .Noise Prediction Noise Summary FIDEC (Training Center) Globe Style Valve with Noise Abatement Cage for Aerodynamic Flow Control Valves training@fidec.

ir .Noise Prediction FIDEC (Training Center) Ball Style Valve with Attenuator to Reduce Hydrodynamic Noise Control Valves training@fidec.