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• Slice Selection : • Better Approximation : ideal O2D (x, y ) =

∫O

Ω

3D

(x, y,z)δ (z − zs )dz

z − zs dz O2D (x, y ) = O3D (x, y,z)TopHat 1 ∆z Ω 2

∫

• Radon Transform :

~

P (θ,z) =

∫ ∫ O(x, y)δ(x cos(θ ) + y sin(θ ) + z)

dx

• Fourier Transform : g(k ) = • Central Slice Theorem :

∫ G(x)e

−ikx

**k z = k x cos(θ ) + ky sin(θ ) z = x cos(θ ) + y sin(θ ) Or (x, y ) = 1
**

π

• Back Projection :

π

∫ P (θ,z)dθ

0 ~

• Map :

O r (k x ,k y )= P (θ,k z ) where k z = kx cos(θ ) + k y sin(θ )

≈

More Organized Proof of The Central Slice Theorem

**The PSF associated with the simple Bach projection is: PSF ∴ Or (x, y ) = O(x, y ) ⊗
**

BF

=

1 r

1 x2 + y2

where Or (x, y ) = B{P (α,z)} and B = ∴ 1

π

∫ P (α x cos(α ) + y sin(α ))dα

1 0

R

Or (x, y ) 123 4 4

=

c

O(x, y ) 123

⊗

1 x2 + y2 1 24 4 3 1 k

c

Or (k x ,k y ) so

≈

≈

=

O(k x ,k y )

≈

≈

c

•

O(k x ,k y ) = k Or (k x ,k y )

More Organized Proof of The Central Slice Theorem

1. 2. P (α , z) =

∫∫ O(x, y )δ(x cos(α ) + y sin(α ) − z)dxdy

Equate the z− axis with a tilted reference frame x ' || z, y ' ⊥ z ∴ and x ' = x cos(α ) + y sin(α ) x = x ' cos(α ) − y ' sin(α ) y = x ' sin(α ) + y ' cos(α )

3.

Substitute # 2 into #1 and change integral to dx ' dy ' (still over all space) P (α , z) =

**∫∫ O(x cos(α ) − y sin(α ), x sin(α ) + y cos(α ))δ(x − z)dx dy
**

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

'

4.

Integrate along x ' and note that z is only a point along the x ' axis. P α, x ' =

**( ) ∫∫ O(x cos(α ) − y sin(α ), x sin(α ) + y cos(α ))dy
**

) ∫∫ (

O x ' cos(α ) − y ' sin(α ), x ' sin(α ) + y ' cos(α ) e

5.

**Fourier Transform along x ' p α , kx ' =
**

~

(

)

−ix ' k

x'

dx ' dy '

More Organized Proof of The Central Slice Theorem

**6. Transform back to the (x, y ) coordinate system p α ,kx ' = 7.
**

~

(

) ∫∫ O(x, y )e

− i(x cos(α )+ y sin(α ))k

x'

dxdy

Define the tilted k− space coordinate system. k x = k x ' cos(α ) − ky ' sin(α ) k y = k x ' sin(α ) − k y ' cos(α )

8.

Rewrite # 6 as p α ,kx ' = p(α ,kz ) =

~

~

(

) ∫∫ O(x, y )e

− i k ' cos(α )−k ' sin(α ) x −i k ' sin(α )+ k ' cos(α )y y y x x

e

dxdy

k ' =0

y

∫∫ O(x, y

)e− ik xe−ik y dxdy

x y y

k ' =0

y

= F2D {O(x, y )} k ' =0

The Central Slice Theorem

Consider a 2-dimensional example of an emission imaging system. O(x,y) is the object function, describing the source distribution. The projection data, is the line integral along the projection direction.

P 0o, y =

( ) ∫ O(x, y )dx

**The Central Slice Theorem can be seen as a consequence of the separability of a 2-D Fourier Transform.
**

o(kx ,k y )=

~

∫ O(x, y)e

−ikx x −iky y

e

dxdy

**The 1-D Fourier Transform of the projection is,
**

p(ky ) =

~

∫ P (0 , y)e = ∫ O(x, y )e = ∫ O(x, y )e

o

−iky y

dy

−iky y

dxdy e dxdy

−iky y − i 0x

= o(0, ky )

~

**The Central Slice Theorem
**

The one-dimensional Fourier transformation of a projection obtained at an angle J, is the same as the radical slice taken through the two-dimensional Fourier domain of the object at the same angle.

O(x, y )

Radon transform

P θ, y '

( )

2D FT

1D FT

o(kx ,k y )

~

θ

p θ,k y '

~

( )

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