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Bacteria and viruses

By: Anh Do and Emma Le IGCSE students

Bacteria are found

Introduction to ---BACTERIA---

everywhere. In air, water, animals, soil, food, on us and even in outer space.

They are so terribly small. So small that it takes one million

to cover up a pinhead. You
can never see bacteria with your naked eye. They can only be seen through a microscope.

Bacteria structure
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Single-celled organisms Have no true nucleus. Bacterial cells do not contain organelles but are able to carry out of their life processes without them.

A few can photosynthesize, but most feed off other organisms.

They may be parasites (feeding off living organisms) or

saprotrophs (feeding off dead organisms).

Bacteria are very small and have different shapes.

Bacterial shapes
Bacilli are rod-shaped Spirilli are spiral

Cocci are spherical

Bacterial cell:

 

    

Capsule Cell wall Cytoplasmic membrane (cell membrane) Ribosome Nucleoid Flagella Pilli Cytoplasm

Capsule
- Capsule is a layer that lies outside the cell wall

of bacteria.
- It is a well organized layer, not easily washed off, and it can be the cause of various diseases. - It also keeps the cell from drying out and helps it stick to the food or other cells.

Cell wall
- The thick cover of the bacteria maintains the shape of the bacterial cell.

Ribosomes
- Where protein is made.

Flagella
- May be one or several. - It is a tail that some bacteria have for locomotion.

Cytoplasm
- A jelly part of the bacterial cell that makes the most of the most bacteria. - Cytoplasm contains enzymes and food molecules but no organelles.

Requirements of bacteria
Bacteria have certain requirements

that their environment must
provide.

A large demand of food (raw or cooked) Oxygen Water Moist and warmth/ temperature Waste materials Not a lot of time

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The importance of BACTERIA

Used to make medicines.

Bacteria are probably the organisms that carry out the largest variety of activities and they also are the most numerous organisms on this planet Earth.

Requirements of bacteria

The understanding of these requirements are important to biotechnology as well as for the cure of the diseases that bacteria cause. If all of the bacteria’s requirements are supplied, the bacteria can breed and multiply rapidly by binary fission. Binary fission: Bacterium divides itself into two in this process, then divides into 2 again and so on and so on. They continue dividing until very large populations are formed.

Fun facts on bacteria

Nearly one third of all bottled drinking water made in the U.S. is contaminated with bacteria.

If you wear those comfy headsets on the airplane for 1 hour, the amount of bacteria in your ear

canal would increase around 700 times.

Normally, there would be between 10,000 and 10 million bacteria on each hand.

Fun facts on bacteria

Studies show only around 70% of people wash their hands after using a public toilet.

Almost one million bacteria can be created by one person in 1 school day.

Viruses
- They do not show the typical features of living things. - All viruses are parasites and cause harm to their host. - Most of viruses cause disease – they may infect humans, domestic animals or plants.

Viruses and bacteria compared
Virus Covered by Cell membrane Cytoplasm Protein coat No No Bacteria Cell wall Yes Yes

Genetic material
Living or nonliving?

DNA or RNA – only DNA – enough for a few gens several hundred
Non-living unless in living host

Fun facts about viruses

Plants can also get virus infections – when plants get infected, their leaves and flowers change colour, and/or their leaves and stems twisted. There is no vaccine against colds even when there are many different viruses that cause colds.

Viral infections cannot be cured with antibiotics – most viral infections, like a cold or some chest infections, just have to get better on their own.