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1.What is an Oracle Instance? Instance is a combination of memory structure and process structure. Memory structure is SGA and Process structure is background processes. 2. What information is stored in Control File? Ans) The database name The timestamp of database creation The names and locations of associated datafiles and redo log files Tablespace information Datafile offline ranges The log history Archived log information Backup set and backup piece information Backup datafile and go back over log information Datafile copy information The current log sequence number 3. When you start an Oracle DB which file is accessed first? Ans) If it has First read init.ora file otherwise spfile.ora 4. What is the Job of SMON, PMON processes? SMON :- System monitor process recovers after an instance failure and monitors temporary segments and extents.

5. the database may have uncommitted transactions. This process is called cache recovery. If an Oracle instance fails before the data in the database buffer cache are written to data files. When there are enough data in the database buffer cache. What is Instance Recovery? When an Oracle instance fails. Transaction recovery: When a transaction modifies data in a database. Oracle uses the undo data stored in undo segments to accomplish this. This process is called transaction recovery. The data stored in the undo segment is used to restore the original values in case a transaction is rolled back. It is possible that changes made by these uncommitted transactions have gotten saved in data files.Oracle performs an instance recovery when the associated database is re-started. What is written in Redo Log Files? .PMON :. they are written to data files. At the time of an instance failure. Oracle rolls back all uncommitted transactions when the associated database is re-started. To maintain read consistency. the before image of the modified data is stored in an undo segment. These changes are also recorded in online redo log files simultaneously. Oracle uses the data recorded in the online redo log files to recover the lost data when the associated database is re-started. Instance recovery occurs in two steps: Cache recovery: Changes being made to a database are recorded in the database buffer cache. 6.Process monitor process cleans up processes and releases locks and resources after an abnormal termination of a process.

This limit applies only for the life of the instance. T always advisable to have two or more redo log files and keep them in a separate disk So you can recover the data during the system crash. when the redo log buffer is 1/3 full and immediately before the Database Writer (DBWn) writes its changed buffers into the datafile. How do you control number of Datafiles one can have in an Oracle database? When starting an Oracle instance. What is the purpose of Redo Log files? Ans) The purpose of redo log file is to record all changes made to the data during the recovery of database. 7. Can you make a Datafile auto extendible. A tablespace is used to grouped related logical structures together. the maximum number of datafiles is controlled by the DB_FILES parameter. Log writer does this every three seconds. 11. how? . What is a Checkpoint? 13. How many Maximum Datafiles can there be in an Oracle Database? Ans) Max datafiles in oracle is 65536 or 65546. Which Process writes data in Datafiles? Ans) Server Processes.If yes. 9. resource and dba are three default roles. 12. Which Process reads data from Datafiles? Ans) Server process. What is a Tablespace? Ans) A database is divided into Logical Storage Unit called tablespaces. 8.. Which default Database roles are created when you create a Database? Ans) Connect . 10. the database's parameter file indicates the amount of SGA space to reserve for datafile information. 14.Log writer (LGWR) writes redo log buffer contents Into Redo Log FIles. (else DBWR) 15.

16. What is difference between PFile and SPFile? Ans) ‡ Server Parameter Files . What is PGA_AGGREGRATE_TARGET parameter? Ans) 21. 18. You can check the current max with: 19. Dictionary Cache: Oracle continously request and update information in the data dictionary of the db.Data Dictionary cache holds dictionary information.Binary version. 20. ‡ Initialization Parameter Files . What is kept in the Database Buffer Cache? Ans) Database Buffer cache is one of the most important components of System Global Area (SGA). 17. Not persistent. What is a Shared Pool? Ans) Shared Pool compromises of Library Cache and Dictionary Cache. Large Pool is used for what? Ans) Large Pool is an optional memory structure used for the following purposes :(1) Session information for shared server . Of redo log files" with DBCA. How many maximum Redo Logfiles one can have in a Database? Ans) Depends on what you specified for MAXLOGFILES during database creation (manually) or what you specified for "Maximum no. Buffer Cache is shared memory structure and it is concurrently accessed by all server processes. Database Buffer Cache is the place where data blocks are copied from datafiles to perform SQL operations.Text version. Persistent.Library Cache stores and shares sql stmts where as plsql stmts in memory.To maximize the performance of the system internal operation.

.If such block is available Oracle moves the entire ROW to the NEW BLOCK. What is Row Migration and Row Chaining? Ans) Row Chaining:-The row is too large to fit into an EMPTY data block. Row Migration:-An UPDATE statement increases the amount of DATA in a ROW so that the Row NO LONGER FITS in to its DATA BLOCK. What is PCTFREE and PCTUSED Setting? Ans) Pct Free is used to denote the percentage of the free space that is to be left when creating a table. What is PCT Increase setting? Ans) PCTINCREASE: It take place when two extent are already allocated.The ROWID of the MIGRATED rows does not change. 25. What is 01555 .Oracle keeps the original Row piece of a Migrated row row to POINT to the NEW BLOCK containing the actual row.INDEXES are not updated and they point to the ORIGINAL row LOCATION. Hence Large pool also reduces overhead of Shared pool.it work for third or subsequent extent.:: Pctfree 20.. . Third extent size last extent size+ pctincrease of last extent size.Row chaining in such cases is Unavoidable. Similarly Pct Used is used to denote the percentage of the used space that is to be used when creating a table eg. 22. the query will goves into cartesion product or infinite loop . The role of Large Pool is important because otherwise memory would be allocated from the Shared pool. Oracle tries to find another Blockwith enough free space to hold the entire row.(2) I/O server processes (3) Parallel queries (4) Backup and recovery if using through RMAN. CHAINING occurs when row is INSERTED or UPDATED Row chaining can happen for very large rows such as rows that contain LOB.Snapshot Too Old error and how do you avoid it? Ans) he SNAPSHOT_TOO_OLD erro will come . Pctused 40 24. 23.In this Oracle stores the DATA for the row in a CHAIN of one or more Data BLOCKS.

.Other case is suppose ur updated loarge no of rows at atime without saveing the records . contact ur DBA to check for Undo retention period. ----------Snapshot_too_old exception is thrown when ur performing very large DML operation without commiting this can be resolved by increasing undo retention period. In this case u can use commit statement for every 500 records then u can avoid this problam. Or ask DBA to extend the table space for this segment.