FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

7-14
July 1997 Revised May 2004 Page 1 of 9

FIRE & EXPLOSION PROTECTION FOR FLAMMABLE LIQUID, FLAMMABLE GAS, & LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GAS PROCESSING EQUIPMENT & SUPPORTING STRUCTURES

Table of Contents
Page 1.0 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................... 2 1.1 Changes ............................................................................................................................................ 2 2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................... 2 2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 2 2.2 Construction and Location ............................................................................................................... 2 2.3 Occupancy ....................................................................................................................................... 3 2.4 Protection ......................................................................................................................................... 3 2.4.1 General .................................................................................................................................. 3 2.4.2 Arrangement of Sprinkler and Water Spray Systems ........................................................... 4 2.4.3 Protection of Piping, Valves and Fittings Against Damage from Explosions ........................ 6 2.4.4 Water Supply ......................................................................................................................... 6 2.4.5 Drainage ................................................................................................................................ 7 2.5 Equipment and Processes .............................................................................................................. 7 2.6 Operation and Maintenance ............................................................................................................ 7 3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................... 7 3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................ 7 3.2 Test Data ......................................................................................................................................... 7 4.0 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 8 4.1 FM Global ........................................................................................................................................ 8 4.2 Others .............................................................................................................................................. 8 APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ....................................................................................................... 8 APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY ....................................................................................... 8 APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION ........................................................................................ 8 APPENDIX D NFPA STANDARD ................................................................................................................ 9

List of Figures
Fig. 1. Accidental Release Control Systems and Valving. ............................................................................ 4 Fig. 2. Indoor processing Structures. Arrangement of sprinkler and water spray protection. ....................... 5 Fig. 3. Outdoor processing structures. Arrangement of sprinkler and water spray protection. ..................... 5

©2004 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of Factory Mutual Insurance Company.

2. Damage-Limiting Construction. b) Processes located outdoors utilizing large quantities of flammable liquids or gases at high temperatures and/or high pressures. ©2004 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. Compressors. 2. Data Sheet 7-47. A greater than average explosion hazard exists under any of the following conditions: 1.) 2. Loss Prevention in Chemical Plants.2. Emergency Venting of Vessels. Spacing of Facilities in Outdoor Chemical Plants. Loss Prevention in Chemical Plants.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS 2.2 Construction and Location 2. and liquefied flammable gases. Spacing of Facilities in Outdoor Chemical Plants.0 SCOPE This data sheet covers fire and explosion protection of indoor and outdoor areas involving processing equipment.2 Process structure areas or buildings should be separated from other important areas or buildings by at least 100 ft (30 m). It does not apply to flammable liquid mixing areas only or small scale flammable liquid occupancies in conventional manufacturing or utility plants. explosion resistance. This is particularly desirable for enclosed process structures or partially enclosed process structures having roofs. 1.2. Data Sheet 7-95. Data Sheet 7-44/17-3. see Data Sheet 7-43/17-2.1 Changes May 2004.2.) with flammable liquid holdup at ground level and provide solid floors with curbing and drainage rather than open steel grating beneath such equipment when located at upper levels. Data Sheet 7-49/12-65. Data Sheet 7-43/17-2. Flammable Liquid Operations.7-14 Fire & Explosion Protection for Process Structures Page 2 FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1. For guidance on separation. and Equipment. main structural steel and equipment supports (load-bearing members) should be fireproofed with a material having at least a two-hour fire resistance rating. and liquefied flammable gases. 2.1 Introduction The following guidelines should be followed. Data Sheet 7-45. Any enclosures should be of damage-limiting construction. flammable gases. Process Vessels. and be capable of withstanding direct application of large fire hose streams.2. All rights reserved. under Plant Layout. Chemical Reactors and Reactions. . and Data Sheet 7-44/17-3. etc. Inerting and Purging of Tanks. 2.1 Preferably locate process structures in the open with a minimum of enclosure. where release of flammable vapors can be expected to cause severe and widespread damage. Physical Operations in Chemical Plants. as applicable. for the protection of indoor and outdoor areas involving processing equipment and supporting structures handling flammable liquids. weathering resistance when outdoors. Data Sheet 7-59. pumps. such as in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion.3 Preferably locate equipment (vessels. Data Sheet 7-32. (See Data Sheet 1-44. flammable gases. a) Processes located inside buildings using flammable liquids or gases at such temperature that an ‘‘escape’’ from the equipment will result in the formation of an explosive concentration sufficient to cause major explosion damage. References to various applicable ANSI/ASME standards were updated. Instrumentation and Control in Safety Applications.4 For process areas where there is a greater than average explosion hazard or severe three-dimensional fire hazard. and supporting structures handling flammable liquids. corrosion resistance as needed. Data Sheet 7-46/17-11.

Fire & Explosion Protection for Process Structures 7-14 FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Page 3 2. extent. 2. See Figure 1 for a generalized arrangement. Fig. and quench or purging systems to minimize the quantity of hazardous material released in the event of equipment failure or accident.e. dump or salvage systems.3. All rights reserved.3. 3. vents to flare stacks or incinerators (i. The exact type. under Chemical Plant Process Hazards and Process Equipment Design for process and equipment design. Accidental release control systems and valving. 2. Reactions involving any unstable materials. and arrangement of such protective equipment will be dependent upon the process involved. 2.3. Loss Prevention in Chemical Plants.3 Occupancy 2. depressurization system).3 Provide process equipment with block or isolation valves.2 Flammable liquid pumping and piping systems should be installed and arranged in accordance with Data Sheet 7-32.. 4. Processes utilizing equipment of large volume and low strength which must be taken through the explosive range at periodic intervals for maintenance or operating purposes. 1. .1 Follow the guidelines of Data Sheet 7-43/17-2. ©2004 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. Processes which are subject to frequent explosion incidents such as some phenolic resin reactions. Flammable Liquid Operations.

Protection should be provided at least to a height of 10 ft (3. For outdoor locations. 2. Indoor locations handling quantities less than these should be protected in accordance with Data Sheet 7-32. In addition to the manual tripping capability at the deluge valve.2. however.because of probable delayed action with standard closed head systems.e. and structural steel located more than 15 ft (4. Standard Approved high temperature-rated wet pipe automatic sprinklers or water spray nozzles can be used when the occupancy to be protected is located inside buildings.1 m) above the height where substantial quantities of flammable liquids may accumulate. Approved water spray nozzles are particularly applicable for local cooling of beams. whether solid or grated. and processing equipment. 2. at least one manual remote station should be provided. In general. these amounts would be approximately two to two and onehalf times as great. follow the recommended protection arrangement for processing structures located indoors.4. 3). Fixed Water Spray Systems for Fire Protection. equipment supports.. For area protection.1 For processing structures located indoors. Water spray nozzles. subject to the aforementioned height limitation.1 General Sprinkler or directional water spray protection in accordance with this data sheet is needed where quantities of flammable liquids or liquefied flammable gases are sufficient to cause substantial damage in the event of fire. where provided. Where system actuation lines are grouped.2. Flammable Liquid Operations. but are acceptable in open structures having solid decks if noncombustible draft curtains are provided extending down a minimum of 5 ft (1. Actuating devices should be such that the water control valve will open if the actuating system is ruptured by an explosion or other accident.4. Closed head sprinklers and nozzles are not suitable for outdoor protection because of wind effects and delayed actuation. discharge pressure should not be less than the minimum required for effective operation of all nozzles. should be placed to provide direct impingement of water on processing equipment and supporting structures in accordance with Data Sheet 4-1N.4 Protection 2. For outdoor locations handling quantities less than these. provide either area protection or directional water spray protection. 2). whichever is higher (Fig.6 m) beneath it. their limited effectiveness against three-dimensional spill fires. Any solid operating level or roof should have area protection directly beneath.7-14 Fire & Explosion Protection for Process Structures Page 4 FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 2.4.5 m) from solid decks. Types of Systems Closed Heads. and normally lower discharge densities frequently make their use inadvisable. columns. Open head deluge sprinkler or water spray systems should be used within structures having no walls . preferably located in the process control room or process control area. provide area protection below all roofs and operating levels. Deluge or preaction systems should be used inside if necessary to provide protection against freezing. All rights reserved. localized protection may be acceptable (i. Area protection will protect a maximum of 15 ft (4.6 m) below any level of area protection where flammable liquids can accumulate (Fig. ©2004 Factory Mutual Insurance Company.with or without roofs . they should be protected against explosion damage. Physical arrangement of the processing structure and equipment will determine which type of protection is more practical. When water spray nozzles are used. . Flammable liquid holdup in trays of distillation columns should not be considered accumulations of substantial quantities of flammable liquids. Structures and equipment handling unstable materials need special consideration and nearly always require protection. hose streams or monitor nozzles where personnel for fire fighting is limited). under Exposure Protection.0 m) above normal flammable liquid levels within the vessels or up to 30 ft (9.2 Arrangement of Sprinkler and Water Spray Systems 2. foam quantity limitations.4.2 For processing structures located outdoors. these quantities would be approximately 200 gal (757 dm3) for any one container or 2000 gal (7570 dm3) in separate containers over a base area of 2500 ft2 (232 m2) for indoor locations. Additional protection should be provided for any equipment. Dry pipe systems are not acceptable. Foam-water sprinklers can protect some process structures. Open Heads.

2. Water spray nozzles should be arranged according to accepted FM Global Engineering and Research practice for water spray fixed systems for fire protection. Indoor processing structures.9 m2) in area.4. Pipe racks further than 20 ft (6.1 m) of process structures are considered part of the structure and require the same protection. two-hour rated fireproofing. water spray.2. or the pipe schedule for deluge systems or extra hazard occupancy should be used. 3. 2. Arrangement of sprinkler and water spray protection. 2. 2.2. 2.9 m) in width or diameter and 10 ft2 (0.4.3 For any process area.4. Unless completely fireproofed.2.1 m) from a process structure may need protection in the form of sprinklers. protection is needed inside the skirts of columns or similar self supporting vessels.6 Pipe sizes should be calculated. Arrangement of sprinkler and water spray protection. or a combination thereof depending upon the loss potential.4. Fig. .Fire & Explosion Protection for Process Structures 7-14 FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Page 5 Fig. provide protection below any obstruction to water distribution which exceeds 3 ft (0. ©2004 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. Outdoor processing structures. 2.5 Sprinkler spacing should not exceed 100 ft2 (9. Important structural members or equipment below obstructions of smaller size may need additional protection against flame impingement.4 Pipe racks within 20 ft (6.2 m2) per head. All rights reserved.

2.4. provide densities according to accepted FM Global Engineering and Research practice for water spray fixed systems for fire protection. If open head deluge sprinkler or water spray systems are provided.4. Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings. Valves and Fittings Against Damage from Explosions 2.1 Power Piping.4. Welding should be prohibited in an occupied structure. or ANSI/ASME Standard B16. The use of monitor nozzles in excess off 500 gal/min (1900 dm3) when fixed protection is operating normally may seriously reduce water supplies for fixed systems and should be discouraged unless water supplies are designed for additional flow.5.4.4. (51 mm) or smaller may be welded.30 gal/min/ft2 (12 mm/min) under any solid intermediate level or roof. These fittings should conform to ANSI/ASME Standard B16. 2. For processing facilities located indoors.7-14 Fire & Explosion Protection for Process Structures Page 6 FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Note: Where main structural steel and equipment supports (load-bearing members) are fireproofed with a material having a fire resistance rating of two hours or more. assume all systems will operate. For area protection of processing structures located indoors.4.30 gal/min/ft2 (12 mm/min) per required protection level (Fig. assume the fire protection system over the fire origin will open along with all other fire protection systems within 100 ft (30 m) of its extremities.3.3.4 Water Supply 2.5 Piping should be supported from the building or structural framework. outdoor piping may be attached to self-supporting process equipment.3 Protection of Piping. Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings. welded subassemblies may be prepared outside the area and assembled (flanged) within the area. include any hose streams and/or monitor nozzles likely to be used to determine the total water demand.1 Risers should be located in areas cut off by pressure resistant walls or shielded by structural columns.) 2.4. provide 0. 2. but should be at least two hours. however. assume all heads will open within the building for ground floor areas up to 10. rating) should be used. deluge. 2. 1. .3. B31. or ANSI/ASME Standard B16. etc.3 Duration. In addition to the above water requirements.. 2.1 Density. Fixed Water Spray Systems for Fire Protection. the following densities should be provided as illustrated in Figure 2.4. 0.) should be located at least 50 ft (15.15 gal/min/ft2 (6 mm/min) under all other levels. Welding should conform to the ANSI/ASME standard for pressure piping. All manual shutoff valves and automatic sprinkler control valves (alarm check.3 Generally.4. Welded flanged fittings should conform to ANSI/ASME Standard B16. ©2004 Factory Mutual Insurance Company.O.3.6 For processing structures located indoors or outdoors. 2. 0. All rights reserved. 3. and equipped with divisional valves so that any breaks due to explosion damage can be isolated. For area protection of processing structures located outdoors.2 Demand. Flexible couplings should not be used.4 All piping over 2 in. however.2 m) from the building or structures. 0.3. water supply mains to hazardous process areas should be buried. 150 and 300 lb. 2.4.4.4.3. (Refer to exposure protection section in Data Sheet 4-1N. (51 mm) should be welded or have welded flanged fittings. additional water protection is unnecessary for these supports. 2. 3).2 Feed and cross mains should be located away from reactors or pressure vessels insofar as it is practical (e. in the aisles or off to the sides of reactors or pressure vessels but never directly above this equipment).4. Requirements will vary with each installation. For directional water spray protection.G. Buttwelding Ends.9 Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings.30 gal/min/ft2 (12 mm/min) at each protection level above a solid floor or level. For processing facilities located outdoors. Piping 2 in.25.4. 2.3.g. looped. a readily accessible manual shutoff valve should be provided for each system.000 ft2 (929 m2). The water supply should be capable of maintaining discharge and pressure requirements until the flammable liquid flow can be shut off and the area drained or the flammable liquid is consumed. otherwise malleable iron on steel fittings of 150 lb steam rating (300 lb W.

1 Inspection and maintenance procedures. Guidelines for Evaluating the Effects of Vapor Cloud Explosions Using a TNT Equivalency Method. 3. The results of these findings indicate that fire protection guidelines for process structures should emphasize locating equipment with flammable liquid holdup at ground level and providing solid floors with curbing and drainage rather than open steel grating beneath such equipment when located at upper levels. standard sprinkler protection. 2.16 gal/min/ft2 (6. gas fires from escaping gases or vaporizing liquefied flammable gases. and flammable liquids having flash points below 200°F (93°C).5. Liquids escaping from equipment will gravitate to lower levels. provide a combination of general area cooling and actual wetting of equipment and structures. Two basic types of fire tests using heptane as a fuel source were conducted. The cooling and wetting also will prevent load displacement caused by thermal expansion of structural members and rupture of process tanks and piping.1 Instrumentation should be provided and arranged according to the guidelines of Data Sheet 7-43/ 17-2.5 Equipment and Processes 2. spray fires from liquids under pressure.4.e.16 gal/min/ft2 (6. and combinations of both for a multilevel flammable liquid process steel structure 40 ft (12. 2. For more descriptive detail on vapor cloud explosions. in general.5 Drainage 2. Fixed Water Spray Systems for Fire Protection.5 mm/min) density can help control a floor spill fire quickly but are not very effective in reducing exposure from a three-dimensional (i.5. The drainage system should be capable of handling all anticipated sprinkler and/or water spray discharge and hose stream water. Equipment explosions can also occur due to fire exposure. Loss Prevention in Chemical Plants. flammable gases. and three-dimensional spill fires involving a fuel spill at an upper level of the process structure. 3) foam-water sprinklers at a 0.1 General Processing facilities where flammable liquids. Loss Prevention in Chemical Plants.1 Processing areas should be provided with emergency drainage to an acceptable location. upper open level) spill fire. particularly within an enclosed area. or from escaping gases or vapors.. or combinations of these. For guidance refer to Data Sheet 7-83. Unconfined vapor cloud explosions are also possible in congested open process facilities where large quantities of flammable liquids are handled at elevated temperatures and pressures. two-dimensional floor spill fires. and Data Sheet 4-1N. operator training. water spray. ©2004 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. Fires within such facilities may be open tank fires. Automatic sprinklers and/or water spray will.6.4.5 mm/min) density and/or standard sprinklers installed in accordance with these guidelines can protect process structures against floor spill fires. see Data Sheet 7-42. and liquefied flammable gases are used in quantity can be protected from fire with insulation and fixed protection such as automatic sprinklers. Drainage Systems for Flammable Liquids. upper open level) spill fires create a more severe fire exposure than floor spill fires. Water will not.2 Test Data FM Global Engineering and Research conducted a fire test program to evaluate the effectiveness of foamwater sprinkler protection.2 m) high. however. thereby preventing weakening of metal by overheating. Explosions within such facilities may also occur due to runaway chemical reactions with or without an ensuing fire. extinguish fires in flammable gases. Explosion damage can be minimized by using open construction or damagelimited construction with adequate spacing or separation. Three important findings of the test program were 1) three-dimensional (i. and emergency procedures should be performed according to the guidelines of Data Sheet 7-43/17-2. Each drained area should not exceed 5000 ft2 (465 m2). All rights reserved.6 Operation and Maintenance 2.Fire & Explosion Protection for Process Structures 7-14 FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Page 7 2. 3. exposing other equipment in the structure. multilevel fires of all types are possible. 2) foam-water sprinklers at a 0.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS 3.. . and monitor nozzles. liquefied flammable gases.e.

reactors. and plastics manufacturing plants. particularly within chemical plants. Guidelines for Evaluating the Effects of Vapor Cloud Explosions Using a TNT Equivalency Method. Process Vessels. Chemical Reactors and Reactions. . This revision of the document has been reorganized to provide a consistent format. involve structures which vary widely in shape and size.1.9. Fixed Water Spray Systems for Fire Protection. Work floors of solid construction or open-grating construction may be located at various levels. piping and equipment. Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings. Instrumentation and Control in Safety Applications. Data Sheet 7-49/12-65. stills and pipe racks may be arranged irregularly throughout or adjoining the structures. Typical of such facilities are petrochemical plants. APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS Approved: references to ‘‘Approved’’ in this data sheet means the product and services have satisfied the criteria for FM Approval. Data Sheet 4-1N. Drainage Systems for Flammable Liquids.7-14 Fire & Explosion Protection for Process Structures Page 8 FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 4. elevator shafts. ANSI/ASME B16.25. condensers. Such floors may be incomplete or penetrated by stairs. but often have high elevations and small floor areas. for a complete listing of products and services that are FM Approved.0 REFERENCES 4. Compressors. Loss Prevention in Chemical Plants. Physical Operations in Chemical Plants. Tanks. a publication of FM Approvals. APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY January 2000. APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION Processing facilities. Data Sheet 7-42. All rights reserved. Emergency Venting of Vessels. Data Sheet 7-95. 4. and Equipment. ANSI/ASME B16. Data Sheet 7-43/17-2. Some have neither walls nor roofs. Data Sheet 7-32. Inerting and Purging of Tanks. Flammable Liquid Operations. Data Sheet 7-44/17-3. Data Sheet 7-59. Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings. Power Piping. ANSI/ASME B31. solvent extraction plants. Data Sheet 7-47. ©2004 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. pharmaceutical plants. Data Sheet 7-46/17-11. Data Sheet 7-45. Buttwelding Ends. Damage-Limiting Construction.5. ANSI/ASME B16.1 FM Global Data Sheet 1-44. agricultural chemical plants.3. Data Sheet 7-83. Spacing of Facilities in Outdoor Chemical Plants. Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.2 Others ANSI/ASME B16. Refer to the Approval Guide.

©2004 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. There are no conflicts with related NFPA standards.Fire & Explosion Protection for Process Structures 7-14 FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Page 9 APPENDIX D NFPA STANDARD There is no specific NFPA standard for protection of flammable liquid processing equipment and supporting structures. All rights reserved. .