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Project report on

Automation of Raw material section of AC sheet using PLC
Submitted in the partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of degree of Master of Technology In MECHATRONICS By K Balaji chandra sekhar (10011D8026) Under the esteemed guidance of

Mr. V.Udayabhaskar Reddy



This is to certify that Mr. K BALAJI CHANDRA SEKHAR bearing Admn. No. 10011D8026 is a bonafide student of M.Tech (MECHATRONICS), a program jointly conducted by Department of Mechanical Engineering, JNTUH College of Engineering Hyderabad and CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF TOOL DESIGN, Balanagar. He has fulfilled the requirements for submission M.Tech project for the award of degree of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY with specialization in MECHATRONICS

ENGINEERING from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad.

Mr. Sujayat Khan Principle Director CITD, Balanagar Hyderabad

Dr. A Chennakeshava Reddy HEAD Mechanical Engineering Dept JNTUH College of Engg



This is to certify that this thesis entitled “AUTOMATION OF RAWMATERIAL SECTION OFAC SHEET USING PLC “ done by K BALAJI CHANDRA SEKHAR,bearing Admn. No. 10011D8026, submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, JNTUH College of Engineering Hyderabad in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY with specialization in MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad.

Mr. V.Udhayabhaskar reddy



I would like to thank Prof.Mr.VUdhayabhaskar reddy (Director, Central Institute of Tool Design) and Dr.G.Krishnamohan (senior professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering) for giving me opportunity to do my project work in Hyderabad Industries Ltd, Sanath nagar, Hyderabad. I am extremely thankful to Mr.Karunasagar, General Manager, and Mr Aishwarya sinha, (HR) for offering me this project and for their constant support, guidance and encouragement for the entire duration of the project. I am also highly indebted to Mr. Vyasraj dessai ,Deputy Manager, G.Rajiv Ram ,Assistant Manager, for his valuable suggestions, supervision and technical support throughout the course of the project. I would like to thank all of our Technical members for their support. Finally I would like to thank all the supervisors and O/E‘S who helped me in doing the project till date. I express my gratitude towards our Principal directorMr. Shujayat Khan and Mr. V. Krishnaswamy, Director –Training, who were in constant touch with us all these 2 years of post graduation as a guide and philosopher



continues to enjoy the confidence of our customers. Currently a major trend that is sweeping the building products industry is the ―Green‖ factor. Incorporated on 17th June 1946 is one of the oldest fibre cement roof manufacturing companies in India. HIL welcome this paradigm shift and are confident that as a pioneer.K. HIL is run by a team of dedicated professionals and has grown into an organization occupying an eminent position in the building material industry of India. is a result of our continued efforts to extend the network and ensure availability of products even in remote rural areas. it will be able to set standards and serve the discerning customer to their satisfaction. quality. It develops brands that have stood the test of time and created a legacy of market leadership. and its mature product lines of Aerocon and Hysil stand testimony to that fact. 5 . There is a growing segment of building products consumers who are environmentally conscious.About HIL: Hyderabad Industries Limited (HIL) is a flagship Company of the C. Finance and Industry. HIL is backed by the organizational and technical expertise of the Birla‘s and has a Board of directors comprising experienced personnel from Business. HIL anticipated this Green revolution a decade ago. strength and durability. Birla Group of Companies. with a representation in all the states. The sheeting brand ―Charminar‖ built over a period of 60 years based on affordability. The extensive sales and distribution network spread across the country.

commercial businesses and for several public utilities. plywood. This imparts better dimensional stability & durability to the board.  Charminar Board & Super Board: Charminar Board is a highly versatile building board for a range of applications in interiors limited only by the users‘ imagination. Aerocon Panels can be used for number of applications like Partitions. Precisely because they provide thermal insulation. Charminar Super Board is a higher density board ideal primarily for applications outdoors and also indoors. Mezzanine flooring and prefabricated houses etc. silicaceous and micaceous material aggregate.  Charminar Flex-O-Board: High pressure steam cured(Autoclaved) Charminar Flex-O-Board AC Flat Sheets come in handy for applications such as partitions. provides roofing to millions of low cost houses and to industries.HIL’s PRODUCT DETAILS :  Charminar AC Roofing Sheets: HIL is the market leader in the manufacture and sales of fiber cement roofing sheets in India. Their brand ―CHARMINAR‖ built over a period of 60 years based on affordability.  Aerocon Panels: Aerocon Panels are a substitute for plaster-board. wall paneling in cold-storage rooms for outdoors switchboards panels etc. 6 . cement. printing table tops. false ceilings. quality. are resistant to fire. Aerocon panel is a sandwich panel made of two fiber reinforced cement sheets enclosing a light weight concrete core composed of Fly ash. strength and durability. moisture and dampness and have good acoustic properties too. particleboard and brick walls. walls.

It is an alternative to traditional clay brick for construction of walls for building. strategy and a genuine concern for the environment. This product is used to restrict Heat transfer to atmosphere from hot equipments such as Boilers.  HYSIL: Hysil is made from naturally occurring minerals. Aerocon Blocks: Aerocon Blocks is an Autoclaved Aerated Concrete light weight building blocks used for construction of walls. Furnaces. Aerocon Block is a thermal insulation material which reduces energy consumption. HIL‘s focus on developing green and environmentally sustainable products almost ten years ago stands testament to their vision. This has been used in green building at Hyderabad constructed by CII (Confederation of Indian Industry). Departments of HIL :     Finance & Accounts Department Information Technology Supply Chain Department Materials Department 7 . Aerocon Panels. Ovens and Steam – piping. Aerocon Blocks and HYSIL are Green Building Products. Hydrated Calcium silicate reinforced with mineral fibers. This product has exceptionally low thermal conductivity which helps in reducing heat losses to maximum extent there by resulting in fuel savings and thereby making it more environmental friendly.

Financial. the group and community they belong to.e. These are further broken down to actionable plans with targets and would be reviewed on continuum basis. They believe on clean environment with special emphasis by promoting Green building products in and around the work place which would foster health & prosperity of individuals. 8 . employee wellness and environment protection. Health and Safety): They give highest priority to safety. Customer. They follow a methodology of translating strategy into actionable objectives from the Strategy map to scorecards of Leadership team up to unit head level. Capability with its execution.        Quality Assurance Research & Development Medical Surveillance Unit Marketing Division Marketing Services Department Engineering Division Human Resource Production Department HIL’s INITIATIVES FOR ORGANISATIONAL SUCCESS:  EHS (Environment. Process.  BSC (Balanced Score Card): BSC envisages in balancing the multiple perspectives i.

 HIP (HIL’s Innovation Cell) : A structured process to facilitate continuous generation of new ideas and put in place an Idea Management System which in turn will help evolution of new products and processes at HIL. They plan to implement TPM across the other units in the forthcoming year. change. EMS (Enterprise Management System): EMS has been formulated to promote and manage continuous improvement. 9 .  TPM (Total Productive Management): They have implemented Total Productive Management initiative in 4 manufacturing units: the process has helped organization to improve operational efficiencies and optimum utilization of the existing resources. To be quick to adapt. improve and innovate. Vacuum pumps. Energy efficient lighting system and modernized mechanical devices / systems were also installed for optimum use of power and fuel. To develop and manufacture environment friendly products. HIL’s Mission:     To enhance long term shareholder value.  ECM (Energy Conservation Management): They have initiated process to conserve and optimize use of energy being environment friendly. backwater pumps and other equipments in existing plants. Installation of energy efficient blowers. It focuses on the assembly and analysis of data for key measures that are quickly reviewed and acted upon by a team. To deliver products and services that meets or exceeds customer expectations.

teamwork. To foster employee engagement through learning. collective wisdom and empowerment.  To implement global best practices in Safety.  To establish a corporate culture and a set of values that employees and other stake holders are proud of. Health and Environment 10 .

limit switches . In the Fibre Mill. In this project various sensors . increase reliability . The wet fibre is sent to a Weighing System and then to the Slurry Mixer.controlled by programmable logic controllers(PLCs) and other embedded systems and integrated using software systems.The workers who are working in the asbestos manufacturing leads to lung cancer . These bags are fed into a totally enclosed Bag Opening Device (BOD). Then the wet fibre is fed into the Fibre Silo through an Elevator. which contains two cutters and a moving conveyor.asbestiosis and other respiratory diseases . Russia.One of the most powerful causes of this trend is a new force.reduce maintainance cost.a fully automated bag opening device has been developed for safety of the workers. It is then extracted through an Extraction Screw.and which is already deeply affecting our economy and lives.In this project the existing manufacturing systems are replaced with fully automated systems that are controlled by AB SLC-500 Controller . The entire operation is done in a totally enclosed circuit.pneumatic cylinders. Hence. The entire system. Chrysotile Asbestos fibre is imported from Brazil. Fibre Mill etc.programmable logical controllers are to be used to achieve precise automation for efficient production and to decrease break down time. two revolving stones mix the fibre with water for about 20minutes. Canada. which consists of Filter Bags and a Mechanical Shaking Device . Then the dry fibre is passed through an Elevator into a Fibre Mill. when machines were controlled entirely by workers on the factory floor. so that no fibre particles are let out into the atmosphere.a new industrial technique with wide implications that is Automation. which is also totally enclosed. none of the workers manually come in contact with the fibre.Abstract: Now a days technology is changing at a faster pace . Asbestos manufacturing has been very difficult and it requires precise automation . The efficiency of the main drive is important in the asbestos sheet making process and the optimization of VFD‘s is necessary for higher production of AC sheets. Then the bag falls on to a Lump Breaker. i.To eliminate this .The Asbestos fibres are received in 50 Kgs polyethylene woven bags in 2 tonnes shrink-wrapped pallets. The bags are then cut open by two cutters. is connected to a Dust Extraction System. Then came automation when machines could work without human intervention.variable frequency drives . They are unloaded using Forklifts in a separate go down at the factory.The fine dust collected at the bottom of the Dust Collector is automatically passed into the process through the Screw Conveyor.Industrial Automation has come a long way from the days of mere mechanization . The PLCs are used for precise control of the main drive and mixing of raw materials for homogenios mixing. BOD. and Zimbabwe .a trend has been evident in industry which has caused many to look with excitement to the future. 11 . The complete system is automated. The polyethylene bags are also pulverized and fed into the Fibre Mill through a Shredder.e. In recent years .

C. discharge of the press packed asbestos fibers into the lump breakers and breaking of lump into fibers are the subsequent steps. dimensional or comparative analysis of these machines used in HIL with those in other industries of same background. 2. maintenance free. 12 . strong and durable roofing material for factories. Though Fibre Cement. preventing any problems caused due to the carcinogenic property of the raw material. The report does not deal with the design. Inputs from the technical specification manual of HIL have been taken and. When the equipment is used properly with all automatic functions. Asbestos is one of the most important materials used in manufacture of various products in a vastly industrial country like India. Then the bags are automatically cut opened by cutters. easy-to-install.Products has a growth rate of about 7 % per annum. The said product is not a health hazard and there has been an ever-increasingdemand for Fibre Cement Sheets in our country. HIL has pioneered in the manufacture of asbestos cement corrugated sheets. the assembly. the removal of the empty bags. The conveyed bags are received by the belt conveyer of automatic bag opening device. The fiber bags are loaded manually on to the inclined conveyer. corrosion resistant. the chances of emission of dust particles into the atmosphere are practically nil. technical characteristics and subparts of the various components of these machines viz. Detailed study of the machines will help in easy understanding of the machine processes and components by a layman and the zero tolerance methods adopted in the design of these machines for high quality management can be noted. OVERVIEW OF BAG OPENING DEVICE (BOD): The function of the equipment is to open the raw asbestos fiber bags automatically in the without leaving any dust outside. The necessity of this material is present in each and every aspect of our daily life.Corrugated sheets. The demand for Fibre Cement. cost effective. purpose.1. This report deals with two different machines involved in the manufacture of A. yet it has been observedthat there is an unfulfilled demand for Fibre Cement Products in Western India. Being weather-proof.Products are deep-rooted in various parts of our country. Fiber Bag Opening Device and Vat. observation in the assembly section of the workshop floor (Engineering Division) as well as working of the machines in the sheet plant has been done. INTRODUCTION It has been observed that there is an unfulfilled demand for fibre Cement Products. warehouses etc.

storage bin. The entire system is designed keeping in mind zero dust generation and no manual handling of chrysotile fiber is done either dry or wet.1FIBER PREPARATION General Description of the Process: Chrysotile fiber bags of different grades are put in fully enclosed automatic PLC controlled Bag Opening Device. elevator. Lump Breaker. The dust produced at these points is efficiently collected by suction hoods incorporated into the debagging unit. 13 . The whole system of mill. Screw Conveyor. The emptied asbestos fiber bag is then shredded and recycled into the manufacturing process. The cut bags move forward and are picked up by a mechanical arm. In this process the bags are conveyed on a slant conveyer to the bag opener in which two high-speed plain cutters slit the wrapping bag. The fully automatic Bag Opening Device.Storage belt conveyer helps to store complete batch capacity of 500 kg during opening operation and facilities to charge into edge runner mill without delay. batch weighing hopper and hydro-disintegrator is closely connected unit as a whole. 2. Fiber passes through enclosed lump breaker and closely connected screw conveyor to be automatically discharged in the mill and the empty bags are automatically fed in the connected Bag shredder where these are shredded and fed to the Edge Runner Mill through a duct 25% to 30% water is added in the mill. The wet Chrysotile fiber along with shredded bag particles are discharged from the mill to a closely connected bucket elevator which discharges the wet chrysotile fiber along with the shredded bag particles to a storage in which has a screw conveyor attached at the bottom for discharging the wet chrysotile fiber into a batch weighing Hopper placed on electronic load cells which in turn discharge the pre-determined weighed wet chrysotile fiber into the Hydro-disintegrator where the wet fiber is mixed with a lot of water to form asbestos slurry. bucket. Bag shredder and mill are completely closed integrated unit.

2DESCRIPTION EQUIPMENT AND TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 2. The chain passes over sprockets mounted on head end shaft and tail end shafts.2. Fiber bags are manually loaded on to the inclined conveyor. This inclined slot conveyor helps to transfer bags from floor level to BOD mounted on a plat-form. The head end shaft is mounted on Plummer blocks with spherical roller bearings and tail end shaft is mounted with standard take up units for tensioning facility. The head end shaft and tail end shafts. 14 . Total conveyor is supported by suitable legs.3 INCLINED CONVEYOR BELT Description The inclined conveyor consists of a mild steel fabricated structure made from standard steel sections. It is basically a chain conveyor mounted with suitable slots to support fiber bags. The conveyor is also provided with suitable guards to ensure the fiber not to fall sideward during its travel. The conveyor is driven by an electric gear motor with suitable sprockets for speed reduction.

Figure1: Inclined Conveyor Belt Technical characteristics Capacity Speed of conveyor Motor : : : 75 bags per hour 25m/min.73 kW. The various parts of the conveyor belt assembly are available in the Technical Drawing of the belt.4AUTOMATIC BAG OPENING MACHINE Description 15 . 2. electric geared motor 3. output 37 RPM Overall dimension : Length-6650mm Width-1150mm Height-5000 mm Mass of equipment : 2500 kg approx.

The lump tree material is now transferred to storage troughed belt conveyor. The cutter assemblies are mounted on freely pivoted arms which apply required contact pressure between the cutters and the bag. After slitting. hooks through the bag and pulls it out while the conveyor starts allowing the contents to fall in the bin. Perspex windows etc. After cutting. empties the contents. Here a special looking arm digs in. Fiber bags are received on the belt conveyor which feeds bags against 2 rotating cutter blades. The emptied bags are now fed to 2 pinch rollers for further disposal. the leading and two side faces. the knives go back to initial position. Complete construction is from mild steel fabricated steel sections and plate.Bag opening machine cuts the fiber bags. Suitable inspection doors. Figure2: Automatic Bag Opening Machine Technical characteristics Capacity Bag size : : 75 bags per hour 610mm long x 400mm wide x 250mm 16 . The belt conveyor and pinch rollers are driven by electric geared motors. separate the cut bags fully automatically in a totally enclosed system. the bag travels and halts at the edge of the belt. The emptied fiber now passes through a lump breaker which breaks the lumps. Together these blades slit open the 3 sides of the bag viz. are provided.

5 kW.56kW. 9070mm long. 270mm Φ x 2mm thick electric motor 1. 2. 45 RPM electric geared motor HSS cutter.2mm Φ x 175mm stroke b) Pneumatic cylinder 101. 5 mm thick Nylon belt Motor (for belt conveyor) Gear box Cylinder for pinch rollers : : : 2. output 84 RPM Final lump breaker speed Mass of equipment : : 28 RPM approx. 1500 RPM ratio 50:1 single reduction unit 76.5 kW.6mm Φ x 360mm stroke Lump breaker motor : electric geared motor 1.2mm Φ x 218mm stroke pneumatic cylinder Motor for pinch roller Bag cutter Motor for cutter Pinch roller Cylinder for hooking unit : : : : : 0.5 ASSEMBLY OF BOD 17 .24kW. 3400 kg approx.Thick TO 800mm long x 600mm wide x 160mm Thick Belt : 600mm wide. 3000 RPM 127mm Φ x 365 mm long a) Pneumatic cylinder 76.

Components of BOD S. Bracket Limit Switch ‗Jai Balaji‘ Type Dome Light Guide Plate Assembly 4-3-3731 4-2-3908 4-2-4263 4-1-4367 4-1-4371 4-1-4363 4-1-4365 4-1-4368 4-1-3656 4-2-3193 2. Quantity Description Drawing No. No.6 COMPONENTS AND PURPOSE OF BOD 18 .S. Part List Drawing No. AS1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 PN Circuit Limit Switch Arrangement Empty Bag Pushing Arrangement Main Housing Assembly Conveyor Assembly Lump Breaker Assembly Cutter Arrangement Bag Lifting Arm Assembly Finger Arrangement L.

30 RPM. Driven Roller . Geared Motor. The deposited bags are smoothly transferred beyond the limit switch and then passed through the cutter assembly and finally the lumps are transferred to the lump breaker assembly. 2 CAM . 1 Parallel key . 20 starts & stops per hour. 1 Limit Switch.6 mm thickness . 1 Sprocket. pitch : 3/4‖ . IS:2048. 19 . ID: 18mm. 1 Spacer OD: 70mm. of links : 104 with connecting link .make NTN .6. Purpose It has to carry the bags from the slant conveyor and move it to the lump breaker through the cutters provided. endless.IS:549 steel .6. Guide Roller . The complete process is automatic. OD: 55mm. 1 Pin . 2.5kW. 2 Pillow Block-UCP 205 DI. service factor : 2. Tensioning Bracket (visible + opposite) .2. 2 Flange .1. 1 Guard . no. A certain device is necessary for the start and stop of the belt and thus the Limit Switch. its purpose is to stop the conveyor belt as soon as the fiber bag comes in contact of the limit switch.3mm thickness . nylon type. It is continuously involved in the transport part of the bags and the start and stop of the belt is controlled using a limit switch and a PLC arrangement which thus allows for the smooth and yet controlled inflow. 2 Grub Screw M16x15LG. 4 Plate . ID:48. length : 3920mm.width:580mm. 1 Deck plate . 2 Bush . Type C .2 LIMIT SWITCH ARRANGEMENT Components 1 Pipe . Each bag has to individually pass through the entire assembly before the entry of the next bag.5mm. frame size : FO-16090L-P4. 1 Wiper. Tensioning Base (visible + opposite) . make LHP .1 CONVEYOR ASSEMBLY Components Drive Roller . 1 Conveyor Belt. shaft Φ45mm. 4 Pillow Block-UCP 209 DI. simplex. The PLC is programmed as per desired mode of operations. shaft Φ25mm. 2 End pad.3mm x 50. 2 Key 8 x 7 x 12 LG. Purpose It is an electrical device which transmits a logical signal to the PLC as soon as the fiber bag comes into contact with the limit switch. 45mm thickness with key way .make NTN . 2 Split cotter pin Φ6. 2 Support . In BOD.

7 CUTTER ARRANGEMENT Components 2 Brackets .5mm thick). 2 Cutter knife . flange mounted. Cover is provided to both the cutters for easy obstruction and deposition of the cut particles.415V . frame size : 905.17mm wide) .Figure3: Limit Switch Arrangement 2. 4 Single Row taper roller bearing no.58mm OD. 2 adaptor .3 phase. 2 Shafts . 099L . The flow of the bag is not obstructed and the cut bag is removed in the subsequent process before the deposition of the lump in the lump breakers. The cutters are provided with individual motors and are separately driven with the required power input.5 degrees in opposite directions. 2 Kelwyn hydraulic door closer sleek-90 ( 1 on left hand and 1 on right hand ) .. The left and the right arm cutter each move an angle of around 49. 4 Bearing cover (Top-2.Bottom-2) . 2 Lovejoy flexible coupling no. 1 Cutter arm . 4 Lock Plate . 2 Cutter flange . 2 Electrical motor 1.64mmOD. 20 .5kW. Purpose The two cutters on the either side of the BOD are installed in such a way that each cutter cuts the bag fully across its side and half-way along its width side leaving the back side of the fiber bag uncut. 320132 (size : 32mm ID. Felt sealing ring (size : 48mm ID.6. 3000 RPM.50 Hz.

2. 1 Parallel key round end 10 x 8 x 260 LG . 1 Pushing rod Purpose 21 . 1 Pneumatic cylinder rear trunnion mounting. 1 Oscillating bracket . The fiber bag after being cut is grabbed by the finger arrangement attached to it.NTN make . cylinder with cushion part no. 2 Parallel Key 12 x 8 x 55 LG . A projected arm with fingers like. 1 Flanged unit C-UCF 206 DI. The fiber is deposited to the lump breaker and the bag is sent to shredder with the help of Empty Bag Pushing Arrangement. 4 Finger .185mm stroke.8 FINGER ARRANGEMENT Components 1 Cross beam . 1 Shaft . B52103. B52104: trunnion no. part no. 400mm stroke. B52102 . cylindrical part no. 1 Piston rod eye . rear trunnion mounting (double acting) . made of a suitable material are used for picking up the bag. 1 Piston rod eye . 2 Brackets (for limit switch) . 1 cylindrical clevis . bore : Φ4‖. make: Schrader Purpose This assembly is inter-linked with Finger Arrangement. drawing no.make Schrader . 1 PN Cylindrical 21/4‖ bore x 200mm stroke central trunnion mounted . 1 Shaft .2.NTN make . cushioned cylinder. 2 Limit switch ‗Jai Type‘ JLSL-A Purpose This arrangement is attached to the Bag Lifting Arm Assembly and it is used to grab the bag after it is cut with the help of its finger type blades. make Schrader . 1 Flanged unit CM-UCF 206 DI. 2 NTN pillow block UCP 209 DI . 40014. 1 Parallel key round end 8 x 7 x 26 LG . 1 Lever .9 BAG LIFTING ASSEMBLY Components 1 Lifting arm (with lever) .10 BAG PUSHING ARRANGEMENT Components Support Bracket . C077187. 1 Top support . 2. 2 Bracket . 4 Finger lever . trunnion part no. 1 Standard bore pneumatic cylinder Φ76mm bore. 40013-1.

1 Separator . 2 Shafts . 2 Key 12 x 8 x 35 . After being introduced in the lump breaker assembly. 4 Limit Switch .5 kW. 1 Frame . the fiber gets broken into small lump. 2. Service factor : 2. 2 NTN Flanged Unit CM-UCF 209 DI . 1 Motor mounting bracket .11 LUMP BREAKER ASSEMBLY Components 1 Hopper .Bag after being cut opened is grabbed by finger arrangement and moved over bag shredder. 1 Spacer . 3 Hood . 2 NTN Flanged Unit C-UCF 209 DI . 1 LHP Geared motor FO-16090L-P4. Purpose The fiber in the bag is in highly compressed manner in the form of cuboids. no.12 MAIN HOUSING ASSEMBLY Components 1 Main Frame . It is removed by a cylindrical rod at the top of the shredder. Figure4: Lump Breaker motor and cutter arrangement 2. 2 Gears . of starts & stops per hour-20. 6 Support .30 RPM. 1 Chute .1. 4 Brackets (for limit switch) Purpose 22 .

4.5 kg Now. This can be tabled as:S.1 Separator. OTHER COMPONENTS: 2 Dome Lights.S.OVERVIEW OF VAT 23 .1 Frame.6 Support. No. 1 Limit Switch ‘Jai Balaji Type’ Cat Whisker (Steel Rod) 2.3 Hood. 5. during the process.13.1 Chute.4 Brackets (for limit switch) 2. to maintain a specific solids percentage with respect to water. 3.5 14.5 kg Asbestos Fiber – 103 kg Dry Waste – 14.13 L.5 1702 kg 3.4 Limit Switch.Main Housing Assembly signifies the entire assembly of the Bag Opening Device. Cement – 528 kg Fly Ash – 343 kg Pulp – 12. 1 2 3 4 5 Raw Material Cement Fly Ash Fiber Pulp Dry Waste Ratio (RM : Water) 1:1 1:1 2:1 1 : 52 1:9 Total Weight of Raw Water (in kg) Material 528 342 103 12. a specific amount of water is added to each raw material.5 650 130.5 1000 kg 528 342 51.1 MATERIAL BALANCE OVER FIBER CONE TANK One batch of raw material consists of 1000 kg (dry weight) Raw Material composition per batch:1. 2. It contains 1 Main Frame. BRACKET Purpose It is required to mount the limit switch as per desired position.

So guide roll bearing housings are adjustable one end by electrical motor drive and the other end by manually adjustable hand wheel.The asbestos cement slurry is fed into individual vats (6 vats) and is kept continuously agitated by 2 rotating agitators in each vat.1DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT The vats of sheet machine are constructed from mild steel fabricated main body and side walls. The felt guide roller which is just before sheet forming section is provided with necessary regulating arrangement for this centering purpose. The excess water filters through sieve cylinder and falls into the trench below the vats while the asbestos cement paste is collected by the cylinders in the form of a thin elementary layer. mounted to trim the film formed on sieve cylinder. The vacuum suction boxes located in between the sieve cylinder serve to dry the film adhering to the felt. Fiber aligning screw is provided in each vat for aligning the fiber orientation with respect to felt path. This elementary layer from each pick up point is transferred to the continuously moving endless felt of the sheet machine by means of the couch roller. This is achieved by adjusting the position of guide roll axis with respect to felt path. The sealing arrangement has deflector on shaft to prevent leakage from passing into the bearings.1HATSCHEK PROCESS The success of fiber cement manufactured by the Hatschek process is largely due its formation in thin paper like films that are placed one on the other until the desired sheet thickness is reached. A felt tensioning device has been provided so as to keep the felt to the required tension. After the desired thickness of sheet is formed (after a specific number of rotations). the sheet is cut off by the automatic arrangement provided in the drum. Each vat has two mild steel fabricated agitators driven by electric geared motors. Both ends of agitator shaft are sealed with special sealing arrangements with holding rings. sealing discs etc. 3. 3. The vat side walls also support sieve cylinder bearing housings spray pipe mechanism etc. There are 2 film cutting water nozzles.1. This is driven by hydraulic/electrical geared motor. The ends of agitator shaft are supported in spherical roller bearings and Plummer blocks mounted on brackets fixed to vat side wall. The asbestos cement film from the felt is wrapped around a sheet forming drum mounted on the king post. Formation 24 . A suitable mechanized felt guiding device is incorporated for centering of felt on the machine. The couch rollers and suction boxes are mounted on a collapsible steel frame work which can be lifted by the hydraulic cylinder which is provided for ways removal and replacement of sieve cylinders and the felt.

could be upto 6 in total. Thus the strength of sheets made in this fashion is approximately 50% greater than sheets formed to full thickness in one action in the filter press process. The machine is still used in the same basic form today and although modern Hatschek machines are much more productive than the early models they would still be recognised by the inventor if he were alive today. Large arrows show direction of the felt and roller movement. Ludwig Hatschek. The felt is threaded around a drive or anvil roller and a tail roller. Origin The Hatschek machine was first developed for the production of asbestos cement in the 1890‘s when it was patented by the inventor.of the sheet by this means distributes the reinforcing fibers in two dimensions taking best advantage of the reinforcing fibers to increase the in-plane strength of the sheet. (Figure 1) The sieve cylinder is mounted on an axle and driven by a continuous felt wrapped around the top of the sieve by a couch roller. The fundamental part of the Hatschek machine consists of a vat in which a cylindrical sieve rotates in contact with a dilute water based slurry of fibers capable of forming a filtering film and mineral materials including Portland cement. The drive or anvil roller is pushed into hard contact with an accumulation roller. 25 . Mechanism Figure9: Schematic of Hatschek Machine showing the principal components. Only one vat shown.

water from the slurry runs through the sieve depositing a soft porous film of fibers and cement on the surface of the sieve. The film is carried on the felt to an accumulator roll to which it is transferred by further removal of water at high pressure. (Figure 2) 3.Sheets are formed on the Hatschek machine as follows. As may be anticipated from the structure of the Hatschek machine. the stack of films is then removed from the roller and laid out flat to form the sheet. A sufficient number of films are wrapped on the accumulator roll to form a sheet of the desired thickness. 2. This removes much of the water from the film by forcing it back through the film. The purpose of this paper is to examine the first of these processes in detail and to determine those machine parameters that determine the rate at which films can be built. The solid film floats on this layer of water and is transferred to the felt partly in response to the effect of removal of water and partly because the felt has a greater affinity for the film than the sieve. Figure10: Primary dewatering of the film on removal from sieve. 4. it is not possible to measure the thickness of films as they are deposited on the sieve within the vat of the operating machine. 1. As the clean sieve is pulled under the slurry in the vat. Nor is it easy to measure the thickness of the film being 26 . The action of dewatering successive films in contact with each other under pressure is sufficient to bind the films together to form a contiguous solid sheet. Nor is it easy to measure the thickness of the soft film on the sieve in the gap between the water and the point where the felt comes in contact with it. The sieve carrying the film exiting the vat is brought into contact with the felt stretched tightly across the sieve.

Two possibilities exist. 2500 mm bearing : : 1834 mm 1.2TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VAT Capacity Agitator centers Inside dimension of vat Agitator drive : : For 1250 mm Φ sieve cylinder 250 mm diameter.conveyed on the felt to the accumulations roller. In this case the formation of the filter layer takes place just below the rubber flap. 3. Film formation: The general mechanism of film formation is by filtration. The fiber orientation screw runs counter to the sieve direction and throws the slurry onto the sieve above the immersion point.5 kW electric geared motor with frequency of rotation 125 RPM output. A cylindrical sieve is rotated in contact with a slurry of fibers and non-fibrous materials.1. Formation of the film takes place as follows 1. a film forms and is continuously stripped from the sieve as it emerges from the sieve vat. 1. 3. Thus the average thickness of the film must be inferred from the thickness of the final sheet divided by the number of films that make it up. 2. The fibers orientation screw runs in the same direction as the sieve that may be fitted with a rubber flap extending 50 mm or so beneath the surface of the slurry. It may be noted that the position of formation of the filter layer (in 1 above) depends on the mode of operation of the Hatschek Machine fiber orientation screw. In this case most of the formation of the filter layer occurs before the sieve enters the slurry. The film is dewatered and stripped from the sieve on to the felt driving the sieve. 27 . 2. A filter layer of fibers forms on the surface of the sieve within a short distance the immersion of the sieve into the water. The film continues to build up on the sieve but now contains a lower proportion of fibres and a greater proportion of the non-fibrous materials.

height=1600mm Approximate mass of equipment Fiber aligning screw : : 1850 kg diameter-225mm.1. AS1 1 Cutting Nozzle Pipe Assembly 28 . 50 cycles. 25 to 400 RPM.415 volts. width=2000mm.5 cm2 /revolution. maximum pressure 60 bar. bearing-2794mm. face width-1775mm. flow rate 80. Required power 1.3 ASSEMBLY OF VAT Components of 1250mm Φ Sieve Cylinder Vat Assembly Quantity Description Assembly Drawing No. 3 phase Cordon shaft : standard automobile universal cordon shaft Type of sealing between vat body and sieve cylinder Overall dimension : length=2500mm. pitch-112.5 kW. A4-1-5356A Part List Drawing No.5mm Fiber aligning screw drive : 1. : ‗O‘ ring sealing 3.5 kW electric geared motor with frequency of rotation 125 RPM output Or Variable speed hydraulic motor.

transfers a constant rate of slurry to the felt and the excess slurry is removed by this assembly 29 .1 CUTTING NOZZLE PIPE ASSEMBLY Components: 2 MS cutting nozzles at distance 1500 mm from each other with 2 clamps on it with the help of 2 rubber hose ½‖ x 880 LG and 4 hose clamps for ½‖ hose (2 on each side of sieve cylinder). It removes the excess slurry which may be deposited on corners of sieve cylinder. due to the limitation of width of felt. wheel valve with BSP female threads) Purpose This assembly is located on the upper part of the Vat.AS2 1 Sieve Bandage Tightening Arrangement Vat Blow Down Arrangement Vat Agitator Assembly Vat Agitator Drive Assembly 1250mm Φ Sieve Cylinder Spray Oscillation A4-2-2439 AS3 1 B4-1-2407 AS4 2 4-2-4345 AS5 2 A4-1-4449 AS6 1 4-1-5445 4-3-6334 AS7 1 4-1-5171B 4-3-6041 4 COMPONENTS AND PURPOSE OF VAT 4.M. 6 hose nipples ½‖ (2 on corner of each side and 2-2 each on either side of each ‗leader ½‖‘ size G. The sieve cylinder.

Purpose The function of this arrangement is to ensure the proper bandage of the sieve cylinder by means of belt.3 SIEVE BANDAGE TIGHTENING ARRANGEMENT Components There are 4 arrangement for sieve bandage assembled as 2 pair on each side of sieve where each pair is at a distance of 570 mm (center to center distance) from each other. 4.Figure11: Cutting Nozzle Pipe Assembly 4. Each arrangement consists of a pin mounted by a cover with 4 socket head cap screw (SS) M8x25 LG along with a hexagonal nut M30 (SS) and washer ID 22x OD 56mm x 5mm thickness (SS).3.1VAT BLOW DOWN ARRANGEMENT 30 . This arrangement is introduced with a bracket on it. This arrangement is applied on the two sides of the sieve so that the sieve cylinder is properly tightened. It also helps in prevention of leakage of slurry from the edges of the sieve cylinder. The split pin is 40mm long and 5mm Φ.

Connecting Rod.2VAT AGITATOR ASSEMBLY Components 2 MS Agitator shafts with 3 blades mounted on it at 120⁰ angle with respect to shaft axis.3. Purpose The purpose of this assembly is to drive the agitator shaft by supply of power from the motor drive which has an output of 125 RPM. 75 mm diameter at bearings. the agitators are used to agitate the slurry. bearing centers-2300 mm Shaft size: 100 mm diameter inside sieve. face width of sieve-1515 mm.4SIEVE CYLINDER ASSEMBLY Components Overall dimensions: diameter-1250 mm.5 kW electric geared motor with frequency of rotation 125 RPM output. 2500 mm bearing centers. 415 volts. 4.3VAT AGITATOR DRIVE ASSEMBLY Components 1. Blow down lever with counterweight (to ensure proper closure of valve) Purpose This arrangement is used to remove the remaining slurry from the Vat mainly at the time of maintenance or as per requirements for consistent running of Vat. 2370 long 31 .3. 4. Therefore. 50 cycles.3. 3 phase.Components Construction: Blow down Valve. Purpose The slurry containing cement in significant amount has the property of getting settled on the bottom of the Vat frame if left undisturbed. 4. Shaft specifications-250 mm diameter.

S.) Approximate mass of equipment: 1000 kg Purpose The spider rings have machined rectangular slots on their periphery wherein the brass strips are located. 153 mm length (S. 3. 5x5 mesh.S. This elementary layer from each pick up point is transferred to the continuously moving endless felt of the sheet machine by means of the couch roller. 990 mm OD 6 arms Middle spider ring: 9 nos. The excess water filters through sieve cylinder and falls into the trench below the vats while the asbestos cement paste is collected by the cylinders in the form of a thin elementary layer.) Spacers – 91 mm Φ..) End rings – 2 (M.Phosphor Bronze bottom cover.I. The vacuum suction boxes located in between the sieve cylinder serve to dry the film adhering to the felt. 1515mm long (Brass). 1242 mm OD x 7 thick (S.875mm wide. 805 mm OD with 6 arms (C.I.S. These strips give a force base to the phosphor bronze bottom mesh over which another top screen is wound tightly and brazed. Middle spider: 3 nos.) Chim rings – 2 (C.) End spider: 2 nos. 32 . 1530 mm wide x 3960 mm long Phosphor Bronze top cover. 40 x 36 mesh Strips (for screen support): 160 nos.S.S. 15. rectangular slots for strips positioning Strip angle: 8⁰39‘ Tie Rod.18mm thick.

Service Factor :1.3. A lever connected to link with the help of bush and pin. Foot mounted. A lever connected to a bracket fixed on a plate with the help of hexagonal HD screw M6x15 (SS) and spring washer A6 (SS).415 V.29 RPM.5 SPRAY OSCILLATION Components Helical geared motor 0. produce non-uniformity in the deposition manner of the slurry. Frame :43P-D80L4.55 kW. Purpose After the slurry is deposited to the felt. Spray Oscillation tube is used for removing these heavy particles.Figure5: Sieve Cylinder 4. Make : Power Build. The tube is designed in a manner such that there are small holes at 33 . some heavy particles.Insulation Class-‗F‘ with temperature rise limited to Class-‗B‘. This link is connected to the shaft of the motor. which get stuck to the sieve cylinder.50Hz.IP : 55. Ambient :45⁰ C.65.

Push-buttons. It can be programmed controlled and operated by a person unskilled in operating computers. 5 INTRODUCTION ON PLC (Basic defination and its parts): PLC stands for Programmable logic controller. Types of input signals to the PLC would be of ON/OFF logic or analogue. PLC literate. On the other hand. photoelectric sensors. These input signals are interfaced to PLC through various types of PLC input module. However. who is nonetheless. We can define PLC as a user friendly. microprocessor based-specialized computer that carries out control functions of many types and level of complexity. Example—Limit Switch. Its purpose is to monitor crucial parameters and adjust accordingly. Photoelectric Switch. Timer. but. which form the basic man-machine interface are types of manual input device. limit switch.1 INPUT DEVICES: Intelligence of an automated system is greatly depending on the ability of a PLC to read in the signal from various types of automatic sensing and manual input field devices. checking on pressure and or liquid level and many others. It will operate any system that has output devices that goes ON and OFF. PLCs can be thought of in simple terms as industrial computers with specially designed architecture in both their central units (the PLC itself) and their interfacing circuitry to field devices (input/output connections to the real world). the PLC will have to tap the signal from the specific automatic sensing devices like proximity switch.the bottom of it. level sensor and so on. The water coming in it from the water line is sprayed in the form of jet and thus removing the heavy particles that are deposited on the sieve cylinder. keypad and toggle switches. 5. Programmable controllers have many definitions. Rotary Encoder. for detection of workplace. monitoring of moving mechanism. Proximity Switch etc 34 .

It is therefore unsuitable. buzzers. Through activation of motors and solenoids the PLC can control from a single pick and place system to a much complex servo positioning system. Like the input signal interfacing. Depending on user‘s need various types of memory are available for choice: Read– Only Memory(ROM): ROM is a non-volatile memory that can be programmed only once. Some the most commonly controlled devices are motors. Ladder program. It executes the program processes I/O signals and communicates with external devices. solenoids. It is least popular compared with other memory type. It is the area that holds the operating system and user memory. Timer and counter values are stored in the user memory. 5.5. signal from output devices are interfaced to the PLC through wide range of PLC output module. relays indicators.1OUTPUT DEVICES: An automatic system is incomplete and the PLC system is virtually paralyzed without means of interface to the field output devices. buzzers and etc.1.1. 35 .3MEMORY: There are various types of memory units.2 CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT: The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a microprocessor that co-ordinate the activities of the PLC system. 5. These type of output devices are mechanism of an automated system and so its direct effect on the system performance. alarms etc. The operating system is actually a system software that co-ordinate the PLC. Example—Plot lamp.1.

Random Access Memory(RAM): RAM is commonly used memory type for storing the user program and data. however to a limit number of times. humidity and noise. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory(EPROM): EPROM holds data permanently just like ROM. 5.1. A prom writer is required to reprogram the memory. The data in the volatile RAM would normally be lost if the power source is removed.1. 36 .5 ADVANTAGES: PLC‘s are designed to withstand severe conditions such as vibrations.4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PLC: PLC‘s have a lot of advantages owing to which it is put use in a wide range of applications. It does not require battery backup. Let‘s have a look at some of the advantages and disadvantages of PLC 5. Its contents can be erased and reprogrammed electrically. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory(EEROM): EEROM combines the access flexibility of RAM and the non-volatility EPROM in one. temperature variations. its only how well the advantages score over its disadvantages which makes a difference and separates it from the rest. However. its content can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. Like every other technology PLC has disadvantages as well. However this problem is solved by backing up the RAM with a battery.

5. electromechanical or computer controls. mixers. photo sensors.2 APPLICATIONS OF PLC PLC can support a variety of hardware devices. The hardware uses is very reliable which make these likely to operate for years before failure.6 DISADVANTAGES: Too much work required in connecting wires. pumps. All the above mentioned devices serve as output devises which respond to control devices such as mechanical. Difficulty in finding errors.Have interfacing for inputs and outputs integrated in the controller and can have extensive input output arrangements. 37 . Difficulty with changes or replacements. Troubleshooting aids make programming simpler and reduce downtime. pneumatic. The above mentioned output devices are integrated in various forms and are put to use in almost industry where automation is required. solenoid valves. 5.1. drive-motors. it being the most essential component is used to control various kinds of lights. relay contacts etc. pushbutton switches. Very flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily. requiring skillful work force.

3 ARCHITECTURE OF PLC: A PLC consists of a Central Processing Units(CPU) containing an application program and Input and Output Interface methods. which is directly connected to the field I/O devices. The program contains the PLC so that when an input signal from an input signal from an input devices turn ON. The response normally involves turning ON an output signal to some sorts of output devices.5. \ 38 . the appropriate response is made.

6 CONCLUSION Asbestos fiber contains particles that are carcinogens and thus can be hazardous if opened manually. the thickness of the sheets is generally nearly constant. It is not possible to measure the thickness of the film as they are deposited on the sieve within the vat of the opening machine. 39 . The Automatic Fiber Bag Opening Device involves labor only at the loading stage of the bags and hence hazardous event is prevented. Due to less tolerance allowed. The future enhancement of the project is that the HMI should be installed for operator‘s convenience. and is relatively cheaper when compared to other materials. Mild steel is used as it has a low tensile strength and it is carburized for better surface hardness. The average thickness of the film must be inferred from the thickness of the final sheet divided by the number of films that make up. 40 . www. Affliated EastWest Press. 6. Technical Specifications Manual Of Hyderabad Industries Limited.6. ―Formation Of Films on Hatschek Machines‖ 2nd edition. ISBN-81-87972-17-3. pages(1-51).pactrol.hil. 2004. 3.BIBILOGRAPHY 1. Tony Cooke . www. Programmable Logic Controllers and Industrial Automation an Introduction.wikipedia. 2009. Madhuchanda Mitra and Samarjit Sen Gupta. www. 4. P.

41 . Felt: a fabric made of compressed matted animal fibers (19). Agitator: something which agitates something else (24). 9. Hose: a flexible pipe for conveying liquid or gas (8). 6. 8. an important source of commercial asbestos(1) 2. 5. Chrysotile: A grey or green fibrous mineral. Pinch Rollers: Rubberized free spinning wheel (12) 4. Trunnion: cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point (19). Plummer Blocks: a method of mounting bearings on a rotating shaft (3). Pneumatic: of or relating to or using air (or a similar gas) (13). Schrader: pressure monitoring system (19).Guide roller: a roller which passes over the material (24).GLOSSARY 1. 7. 3. 10.