You are on page 1of 41

Project report on

Automation of Raw material section of AC sheet using PLC

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of degree of Master of Technology In MECHATRONICS By K Balaji chandra sekhar (10011D8026) Under the esteemed guidance of

Mr. V.Udayabhaskar Reddy



This is to certify that Mr. K BALAJI CHANDRA SEKHAR bearing Admn. No. 10011D8026 is a bonafide student of M.Tech (MECHATRONICS), a program jointly conducted by Department of Mechanical Engineering, JNTUH College of Engineering Hyderabad and CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF TOOL DESIGN, Balanagar. He has fulfilled the requirements for submission M.Tech project for the award of degree of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY with specialization in MECHATRONICS

ENGINEERING from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad.

Mr. Sujayat Khan Principle Director CITD, Balanagar Hyderabad

Dr. A Chennakeshava Reddy HEAD Mechanical Engineering Dept JNTUH College of Engg


This is to certify that this thesis entitled AUTOMATION OF RAWMATERIAL SECTION OFAC SHEET USING PLC done by K BALAJI CHANDRA SEKHAR,bearing Admn. No. 10011D8026, submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, JNTUH College of Engineering Hyderabad in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY with specialization in MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad.

Mr. V.Udhayabhaskar reddy


I would like to thank Prof.Mr.VUdhayabhaskar reddy (Director, Central Institute of Tool Design) and Dr.G.Krishnamohan (senior professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering) for giving me opportunity to do my project work in Hyderabad Industries Ltd, Sanath nagar, Hyderabad. I am extremely thankful to Mr.Karunasagar, General Manager, and Mr Aishwarya sinha, (HR) for offering me this project and for their constant support, guidance and encouragement for the entire duration of the project. I am also highly indebted to Mr. Vyasraj dessai ,Deputy Manager, G.Rajiv Ram ,Assistant Manager, for his valuable suggestions, supervision and technical support throughout the course of the project. I would like to thank all of our Technical members for their support. Finally I would like to thank all the supervisors and O/ES who helped me in doing the project till date. I express my gratitude towards our Principal directorMr. Shujayat Khan and Mr. V. Krishnaswamy, Director Training, who were in constant touch with us all these 2 years of post graduation as a guide and philosopher


About HIL:
Hyderabad Industries Limited (HIL) is a flagship Company of the C.K. Birla Group of Companies. Incorporated on 17th June 1946 is one of the oldest fibre cement roof manufacturing companies in India. It develops brands that have stood the test of time and created a legacy of market leadership. The sheeting brand Charminar built over a period of 60 years based on affordability, quality, strength and durability, continues to enjoy the confidence of our customers. The extensive sales and distribution network spread across the country, with a representation in all the states, is a result of our continued efforts to extend the network and ensure availability of products even in remote rural areas. Currently a major trend that is sweeping the building products industry is the Green factor. HIL anticipated this Green revolution a decade ago, and its mature product lines of Aerocon and Hysil stand testimony to that fact. There is a growing segment of building products consumers who are environmentally conscious. HIL welcome this paradigm shift and are confident that as a pioneer, it will be able to set standards and serve the discerning customer to their satisfaction.

HIL is run by a team of dedicated professionals and has grown into an organization occupying an eminent position in the building material industry of India. HIL is backed by the organizational and technical expertise of the Birlas and has a Board of directors comprising experienced personnel from Business, Finance and Industry.


Charminar AC Roofing Sheets: HIL is the market leader in the manufacture and sales of fiber cement roofing sheets in India. Their brand CHARMINAR built over a period of 60 years based on affordability, quality, strength and durability, provides roofing to millions of low cost houses and to industries, commercial businesses and for several public utilities. Charminar Flex-O-Board: High pressure steam cured(Autoclaved) Charminar Flex-O-Board AC Flat Sheets come in handy for applications such as partitions, false ceilings, printing table tops, wall paneling in cold-storage rooms for outdoors switchboards panels etc, Precisely because they provide thermal insulation, are resistant to fire, moisture and dampness and have good acoustic properties too. Charminar Board & Super Board: Charminar Board is a highly versatile building board for a range of applications in interiors limited only by the users imagination. This imparts better dimensional stability & durability to the board. Charminar Super Board is a higher density board ideal primarily for applications outdoors and also indoors. Aerocon Panels: Aerocon Panels are a substitute for plaster-board, plywood, particleboard and brick walls. Aerocon panel is a sandwich panel made of two fiber reinforced cement sheets enclosing a light weight concrete core composed of Fly ash, cement, silicaceous and micaceous material aggregate. Aerocon Panels can be used for number of applications like Partitions, walls, Mezzanine flooring and prefabricated houses etc.

Aerocon Blocks: Aerocon Blocks is an Autoclaved Aerated Concrete light weight building blocks used for construction of walls. It is an alternative to traditional clay brick for construction of walls for building. Aerocon Block is a thermal insulation material which reduces energy consumption. This has been used in green building at Hyderabad constructed by CII (Confederation of Indian Industry).

HYSIL: Hysil is made from naturally occurring minerals, Hydrated Calcium silicate reinforced with mineral fibers. This product is used to restrict Heat transfer to atmosphere from hot equipments such as Boilers, Furnaces, Ovens and Steam piping. This product has exceptionally low thermal conductivity which helps in reducing heat losses to maximum extent there by resulting in fuel savings and thereby making it more environmental friendly.

Aerocon Panels, Aerocon Blocks and HYSIL are Green Building Products. HILs focus on developing green and environmentally sustainable products almost ten years ago stands testament to their vision, strategy and a genuine concern for the environment.

Departments of HIL :
Finance & Accounts Department Information Technology Supply Chain Department Materials Department

Quality Assurance Research & Development Medical Surveillance Unit Marketing Division Marketing Services Department Engineering Division Human Resource Production Department


EHS (Environment, Health and Safety): They give highest priority to safety, employee wellness and environment protection. They believe on clean environment with special emphasis by promoting Green building products in and around the work place which would foster health & prosperity of individuals, the group and community they belong to.

BSC (Balanced Score Card): BSC envisages in balancing the multiple perspectives i.e. Financial, Customer, Process, Capability with its execution. They follow a methodology of translating strategy into actionable objectives from the Strategy map to scorecards of Leadership team up to unit head level. These are further broken down to actionable plans with targets and would be reviewed on continuum basis.

EMS (Enterprise Management System): EMS has been formulated to promote and manage continuous improvement. It focuses on the assembly and analysis of data for key measures that are quickly reviewed and acted upon by a team.

HIP (HILs Innovation Cell) : A structured process to facilitate continuous generation of new ideas and put in place an Idea Management System which in turn will help evolution of new products and processes at HIL.

TPM (Total Productive Management): They have implemented Total Productive Management initiative in 4 manufacturing units: the process has helped organization to improve operational efficiencies and optimum utilization of the existing resources. They plan to implement TPM across the other units in the forthcoming year.

ECM (Energy Conservation Management): They have initiated process to conserve and optimize use of energy being environment friendly; Installation of energy efficient blowers, Vacuum pumps, backwater pumps and other equipments in existing plants. Energy efficient lighting system and modernized mechanical devices / systems were also installed for optimum use of power and fuel.

HILs Mission:
To enhance long term shareholder value. To be quick to adapt, change, improve and innovate. To develop and manufacture environment friendly products. To deliver products and services that meets or exceeds customer expectations.

To foster employee engagement through learning, teamwork, collective wisdom and empowerment.

To establish a corporate culture and a set of values that employees and other stake holders are proud of.

To implement global best practices in Safety, Health and Environment


Now a days technology is changing at a faster pace . In recent years ,a trend has been evident in industry which has caused many to look with excitement to the future,and which is already deeply affecting our economy and lives.One of the most powerful causes of this trend is a new force,a new industrial technique with wide implications that is Automation.Industrial Automation has come a long way from the days of mere mechanization , when machines were controlled entirely by workers on the factory floor. Then came automation when machines could work without human intervention,controlled by programmable logic controllers(PLCs) and other embedded systems and integrated using software systems. Asbestos manufacturing has been very difficult and it requires precise automation .In this project the existing manufacturing systems are replaced with fully automated systems that are controlled by AB SLC-500 Controller .The workers who are working in the asbestos manufacturing leads to lung cancer ,asbestiosis and other respiratory diseases .To eliminate this ,a fully automated bag opening device has been developed for safety of the workers. Chrysotile Asbestos fibre is imported from Brazil, Canada, Russia, and Zimbabwe .The Asbestos fibres are received in 50 Kgs polyethylene woven bags in 2 tonnes shrink-wrapped pallets. They are unloaded using Forklifts in a separate go down at the factory. These bags are fed into a totally enclosed Bag Opening Device (BOD), which contains two cutters and a moving conveyor. The bags are then cut open by two cutters. Then the bag falls on to a Lump Breaker, which is also totally enclosed. Then the dry fibre is passed through an Elevator into a Fibre Mill. The polyethylene bags are also pulverized and fed into the Fibre Mill through a Shredder. The entire operation is done in a totally enclosed circuit, so that no fibre particles are let out into the atmosphere. In the Fibre Mill, two revolving stones mix the fibre with water for about 20minutes. Then the wet fibre is fed into the Fibre Silo through an Elevator. It is then extracted through an Extraction Screw. The wet fibre is sent to a Weighing System and then to the Slurry Mixer. The entire system, i.e. BOD, Fibre Mill etc. is connected to a Dust Extraction System, which consists of Filter Bags and a Mechanical Shaking Device .The fine dust collected at the bottom of the Dust Collector is automatically passed into the process through the Screw Conveyor. The complete system is automated. Hence, none of the workers manually come in contact with the fibre. The efficiency of the main drive is important in the asbestos sheet making process and the optimization of VFDs is necessary for higher production of AC sheets. The PLCs are used for precise control of the main drive and mixing of raw materials for homogenios mixing. In this project various sensors ,limit switches ,pneumatic cylinders,variable frequency drives ,programmable logical controllers are to be used to achieve precise automation for efficient production and to decrease break down time, increase reliability ,reduce maintainance cost.


It has been observed that there is an unfulfilled demand for fibre Cement Products. The said product is not a health hazard and there has been an ever-increasingdemand for Fibre Cement Sheets in our country. The demand for Fibre Cement.Products has a growth rate of about 7 % per annum. Though Fibre Cement.Products are deep-rooted in various parts of our country, yet it has been observedthat there is an unfulfilled demand for Fibre Cement Products in Western India. Asbestos is one of the most important materials used in manufacture of various products in a vastly industrial country like India. The necessity of this material is present in each and every aspect of our daily life. Being weather-proof, corrosion resistant, maintenance free, cost effective, easy-to-install, strong and durable roofing material for factories, warehouses etc. HIL has pioneered in the manufacture of asbestos cement corrugated sheets. This report deals with two different machines involved in the manufacture of A.C.Corrugated sheets, the assembly, purpose, technical characteristics and subparts of the various components of these machines viz. Fiber Bag Opening Device and Vat. The report does not deal with the design, dimensional or comparative analysis of these machines used in HIL with those in other industries of same background. Inputs from the technical specification manual of HIL have been taken and, observation in the assembly section of the workshop floor (Engineering Division) as well as working of the machines in the sheet plant has been done. Detailed study of the machines will help in easy understanding of the machine processes and components by a layman and the zero tolerance methods adopted in the design of these machines for high quality management can be noted.


The function of the equipment is to open the raw asbestos fiber bags automatically in the without leaving any dust outside, preventing any problems caused due to the carcinogenic property of the raw material. The fiber bags are loaded manually on to the inclined conveyer. The conveyed bags are received by the belt conveyer of automatic bag opening device. Then the bags are automatically cut opened by cutters, the removal of the empty bags, discharge of the press packed asbestos fibers into the lump breakers and breaking of lump into fibers are the subsequent steps. When the equipment is used properly with all automatic functions, the chances of emission of dust particles into the atmosphere are practically nil.

Storage belt conveyer helps to store complete batch capacity of 500 kg during opening operation and facilities to charge into edge runner mill without delay.

2.1FIBER PREPARATION General Description of the Process: Chrysotile fiber bags of different grades are put in fully enclosed automatic PLC controlled Bag Opening Device. In this process the bags are conveyed on a slant conveyer to the bag opener in which two high-speed plain cutters slit the wrapping bag. The cut bags move forward and are picked up by a mechanical arm. The dust produced at these points is efficiently collected by suction hoods incorporated into the debagging unit. The emptied asbestos fiber bag is then shredded and recycled into the manufacturing process. Fiber passes through enclosed lump breaker and closely connected screw conveyor to be automatically discharged in the mill and the empty bags are automatically fed in the connected Bag shredder where these are shredded and fed to the Edge Runner Mill through a duct 25% to 30% water is added in the mill. The fully automatic Bag Opening Device, Lump Breaker, Screw Conveyor, Bag shredder and mill are completely closed integrated unit. The wet Chrysotile fiber along with shredded bag particles are discharged from the mill to a closely connected bucket elevator which discharges the wet chrysotile fiber along with the shredded bag particles to a storage in which has a screw conveyor attached at the bottom for discharging the wet chrysotile fiber into a batch weighing Hopper placed on electronic load cells which in turn discharge the pre-determined weighed wet chrysotile fiber into the Hydro-disintegrator where the wet fiber is mixed with a lot of water to form asbestos slurry. The whole system of mill, bucket, elevator, storage bin, batch weighing hopper and hydro-disintegrator is closely connected unit as a whole. The entire system is designed keeping in mind zero dust generation and no manual handling of chrysotile fiber is done either dry or wet.








2.3 INCLINED CONVEYOR BELT Description The inclined conveyor consists of a mild steel fabricated structure made from standard steel sections. It is basically a chain conveyor mounted with suitable slots to support fiber bags. The chain passes over sprockets mounted on head end shaft and tail end shafts. The head end shaft and tail end shafts. The head end shaft is mounted on Plummer blocks with spherical roller bearings and tail end shaft is mounted with standard take up units for tensioning facility. The conveyor is driven by an electric gear motor with suitable sprockets for speed reduction. This inclined slot conveyor helps to transfer bags from floor level to BOD mounted on a plat-form. Fiber bags are manually loaded on to the inclined conveyor. The conveyor is also provided with suitable guards to ensure the fiber not to fall sideward during its travel. Total conveyor is supported by suitable legs.


Figure1: Inclined Conveyor Belt Technical characteristics Capacity Speed of conveyor Motor : : : 75 bags per hour 25m/min. electric geared motor 3.73 kW, output 37 RPM Overall dimension : Length-6650mm Width-1150mm Height-5000 mm Mass of equipment : 2500 kg approx.

The various parts of the conveyor belt assembly are available in the Technical Drawing of the belt.



Bag opening machine cuts the fiber bags, empties the contents, separate the cut bags fully automatically in a totally enclosed system. Fiber bags are received on the belt conveyor which feeds bags against 2 rotating cutter blades. Together these blades slit open the 3 sides of the bag viz. the leading and two side faces. The cutter assemblies are mounted on freely pivoted arms which apply required contact pressure between the cutters and the bag. After cutting, the knives go back to initial position. After slitting, the bag travels and halts at the edge of the belt. Here a special looking arm digs in, hooks through the bag and pulls it out while the conveyor starts allowing the contents to fall in the bin. The emptied bags are now fed to 2 pinch rollers for further disposal. The emptied fiber now passes through a lump breaker which breaks the lumps. The lump tree material is now transferred to storage troughed belt conveyor. Complete construction is from mild steel fabricated steel sections and plate. Suitable inspection doors, Perspex windows etc. are provided. The belt conveyor and pinch rollers are driven by electric geared motors.

Figure2: Automatic Bag Opening Machine Technical characteristics Capacity Bag size : : 75 bags per hour 610mm long x 400mm wide x 250mm

Thick TO 800mm long x 600mm wide x 160mm Thick Belt : 600mm wide, 9070mm long, 5 mm thick Nylon belt Motor (for belt conveyor) Gear box Cylinder for pinch rollers : : : 2.24kW, 1500 RPM ratio 50:1 single reduction unit 76.2mm x 218mm stroke pneumatic cylinder Motor for pinch roller Bag cutter Motor for cutter Pinch roller Cylinder for hooking unit : : : : : 0.56kW, 45 RPM electric geared motor HSS cutter, 270mm x 2mm thick electric motor 1.5 kW, 3000 RPM 127mm x 365 mm long a) Pneumatic cylinder 76.2mm x 175mm stroke b) Pneumatic cylinder 101.6mm x 360mm stroke Lump breaker motor : electric geared motor 1.5 kW, output 84 RPM Final lump breaker speed Mass of equipment : : 28 RPM approx. 3400 kg approx.



Components of BOD S. No. Quantity Description Drawing No. Part List Drawing No.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1

PN Circuit Limit Switch Arrangement Empty Bag Pushing Arrangement Main Housing Assembly Conveyor Assembly Lump Breaker Assembly Cutter Arrangement Bag Lifting Arm Assembly Finger Arrangement L.S. Bracket Limit Switch Jai Balaji Type Dome Light Guide Plate Assembly

4-3-3731 4-2-3908 4-2-4263 4-1-4367 4-1-4371 4-1-4363 4-1-4365 4-1-4368 4-1-3656 4-2-3193




Components Drive Roller ; Driven Roller ; Guide Roller ; Tensioning Base (visible + opposite) ; Tensioning Bracket (visible + opposite) ; 4 Pillow Block-UCP 209 DI, shaft 45mm,make NTN ; 2 Pillow Block-UCP 205 DI, shaft 25mm,make NTN ; Geared Motor,1.5kW,30 RPM, service factor : 2, frame size : FO-16090L-P4, 20 starts & stops per hour, make LHP ; 1 Sprocket, simplex, pitch : 3/4 , no. of links : 104 with connecting link ; 1 Spacer OD: 70mm, ID:48.5mm, 45mm thickness with key way ; 2 End pad, OD: 55mm, ID: 18mm,6 mm thickness ; 1 Guard ; 1 Conveyor Belt, endless, nylon type, length : 3920mm,width:580mm,3mm thickness ; 1 Parallel key ; 1 Deck plate ; 1 Wiper.

Purpose It has to carry the bags from the slant conveyor and move it to the lump breaker through the cutters provided. The deposited bags are smoothly transferred beyond the limit switch and then passed through the cutter assembly and finally the lumps are transferred to the lump breaker assembly. It is continuously involved in the transport part of the bags and the start and stop of the belt is controlled using a limit switch and a PLC arrangement which thus allows for the smooth and yet controlled inflow. 2.6.2 LIMIT SWITCH ARRANGEMENT

Components 1 Pipe ; 1 Pin ; 2 Split cotter pin 6.3mm x 50,IS:549 steel ; 2 Flange ; 4 Plate ; 2 Bush ; 2 CAM ; 2 Grub Screw M16x15LG, Type C ; 2 Key 8 x 7 x 12 LG, IS:2048, 2 Support ; 1 Limit Switch. Purpose It is an electrical device which transmits a logical signal to the PLC as soon as the fiber bag comes into contact with the limit switch. The PLC is programmed as per desired mode of operations. In BOD, its purpose is to stop the conveyor belt as soon as the fiber bag comes in contact of the limit switch. Each bag has to individually pass through the entire assembly before the entry of the next bag. The complete process is automatic. A certain device is necessary for the start and stop of the belt and thus the Limit Switch.


Figure3: Limit Switch Arrangement

2.7 CUTTER ARRANGEMENT Components 2 Brackets ; 2 Shafts ; 1 Cutter arm ; 4 Single Row taper roller bearing no. 320132 (size : 32mm ID,58mm OD,17mm wide) ; 4 Bearing cover (Top-2,Bottom-2) ; 4 Lock Plate ; 2 Electrical motor 1.5kW, 3000 RPM, flange mounted, frame size : 905,3 phase,50 Hz.,415V ; 2 adaptor ; 2 Lovejoy flexible coupling no. 099L ; 2 Cutter flange ; 2 Cutter knife ; 2 Kelwyn hydraulic door closer sleek-90 ( 1 on left hand and 1 on right hand ) ; Felt sealing ring (size : 48mm ID,64mmOD,6.5mm thick). Purpose The two cutters on the either side of the BOD are installed in such a way that each cutter cuts the bag fully across its side and half-way along its width side leaving the back side of the fiber bag uncut. The left and the right arm cutter each move an angle of around 49.5 degrees in opposite directions. Cover is provided to both the cutters for easy obstruction and deposition of the cut particles. The flow of the bag is not obstructed and the cut bag is removed in the subsequent process before the deposition of the lump in the lump breakers.

The cutters are provided with individual motors and are separately driven with the required power input.


2.8 FINGER ARRANGEMENT Components 1 Cross beam ; 1 Standard bore pneumatic cylinder 76mm bore,185mm stroke, cylinder with cushion part no. B52103, rear trunnion mounting (double acting) , trunnion part no. 40013-1, make Schrader ; 1 Piston rod eye ; 1 Lever ; 1 Shaft ; 1 Flanged unit C-UCF 206 DI,NTN make ; 1 Flanged unit CM-UCF 206 DI,NTN make ; 4 Finger lever ; 4 Finger ; 1 Parallel key round end 10 x 8 x 260 LG ; 1 Parallel key round end 8 x 7 x 26 LG ; 2 Brackets (for limit switch) ; 2 Limit switch Jai Type JLSL-A Purpose This arrangement is attached to the Bag Lifting Arm Assembly and it is used to grab the bag after it is cut with the help of its finger type blades. A projected arm with fingers like, made of a suitable material are used for picking up the bag.

2.9 BAG LIFTING ASSEMBLY Components 1 Lifting arm (with lever) ; 1 Shaft ; 2 Parallel Key 12 x 8 x 55 LG ; 2 NTN pillow block UCP 209 DI ; 1 Piston rod eye ; 1 Pneumatic cylinder rear trunnion mounting, bore : 4, 400mm stroke, cushioned cylinder, part no. B52104: trunnion no. 40014, make: Schrader Purpose This assembly is inter-linked with Finger Arrangement. The fiber bag after being cut is grabbed by the finger arrangement attached to it. The fiber is deposited to the lump breaker and the bag is sent to shredder with the help of Empty Bag Pushing Arrangement.


Components Support Bracket ; 1 PN Cylindrical 21/4 bore x 200mm stroke central trunnion mounted ; cylindrical part no. B52102 , drawing no. C077187,make Schrader ; 2 Bracket ; 1 cylindrical clevis ; 1 Oscillating bracket ; 1 Top support ; 1 Pushing rod Purpose


Bag after being cut opened is grabbed by finger arrangement and moved over bag shredder. It is removed by a cylindrical rod at the top of the shredder.

2.11 LUMP BREAKER ASSEMBLY Components 1 Hopper ; 2 Shafts ; 1 Motor mounting bracket ; 2 Gears ; 1 Spacer ; 2 Key 12 x 8 x 35 ; 2 NTN Flanged Unit CM-UCF 209 DI ; 2 NTN Flanged Unit C-UCF 209 DI ; 1 LHP Geared motor FO-16090L-P4,1.5 kW,30 RPM, Service factor : 2, no. of starts & stops per hour-20. Purpose The fiber in the bag is in highly compressed manner in the form of cuboids. After being introduced in the lump breaker assembly, the fiber gets broken into small lump.

Figure4: Lump Breaker motor and cutter arrangement

2.12 MAIN HOUSING ASSEMBLY Components 1 Main Frame ; 1 Chute ; 1 Separator ; 1 Frame ; 6 Support ; 3 Hood ; 4 Limit Switch ; 4 Brackets (for limit switch) Purpose


Main Housing Assembly signifies the entire assembly of the Bag Opening Device. It contains 1 Main Frame,1 Chute,1 Separator,1 Frame,6 Support,3 Hood,4 Limit Switch,4 Brackets (for limit switch) 2.13 L.S. BRACKET Purpose It is required to mount the limit switch as per desired position.

OTHER COMPONENTS: 2 Dome Lights; 1 Limit Switch Jai Balaji Type Cat Whisker
(Steel Rod)

2.13.1 MATERIAL BALANCE OVER FIBER CONE TANK One batch of raw material consists of 1000 kg (dry weight) Raw Material composition per batch:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cement 528 kg Fly Ash 343 kg Pulp 12.5 kg Asbestos Fiber 103 kg Dry Waste 14.5 kg

Now, during the process, a specific amount of water is added to each raw material, to maintain a specific solids percentage with respect to water. This can be tabled as:S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Raw Material Cement Fly Ash Fiber Pulp Dry Waste Ratio (RM : Water) 1:1 1:1 2:1 1 : 52 1:9 Total Weight of Raw Water (in kg) Material 528 342 103 12.5 14.5 1000 kg 528 342 51.5 650 130.5 1702 kg


The asbestos cement slurry is fed into individual vats (6 vats) and is kept continuously agitated by 2 rotating agitators in each vat. The excess water filters through sieve cylinder and falls into the trench below the vats while the asbestos cement paste is collected by the cylinders in the form of a thin elementary layer. This elementary layer from each pick up point is transferred to the continuously moving endless felt of the sheet machine by means of the couch roller. The vacuum suction boxes located in between the sieve cylinder serve to dry the film adhering to the felt. The asbestos cement film from the felt is wrapped around a sheet forming drum mounted on the king post. After the desired thickness of sheet is formed (after a specific number of rotations), the sheet is cut off by the automatic arrangement provided in the drum. A suitable mechanized felt guiding device is incorporated for centering of felt on the machine. The felt guide roller which is just before sheet forming section is provided with necessary regulating arrangement for this centering purpose. This is achieved by adjusting the position of guide roll axis with respect to felt path. So guide roll bearing housings are adjustable one end by electrical motor drive and the other end by manually adjustable hand wheel. A felt tensioning device has been provided so as to keep the felt to the required tension. The couch rollers and suction boxes are mounted on a collapsible steel frame work which can be lifted by the hydraulic cylinder which is provided for ways removal and replacement of sieve cylinders and the felt.


The vats of sheet machine are constructed from mild steel fabricated main body and side walls. Each vat has two mild steel fabricated agitators driven by electric geared motors. The ends of agitator shaft are supported in spherical roller bearings and Plummer blocks mounted on brackets fixed to vat side wall. Both ends of agitator shaft are sealed with special sealing arrangements with holding rings, sealing discs etc. The sealing arrangement has deflector on shaft to prevent leakage from passing into the bearings. The vat side walls also support sieve cylinder bearing housings spray pipe mechanism etc. Fiber aligning screw is provided in each vat for aligning the fiber orientation with respect to felt path. This is driven by hydraulic/electrical geared motor. There are 2 film cutting water nozzles, mounted to trim the film formed on sieve cylinder.

The success of fiber cement manufactured by the Hatschek process is largely due its formation in thin paper like films that are placed one on the other until the desired sheet thickness is reached. Formation

of the sheet by this means distributes the reinforcing fibers in two dimensions taking best advantage of the reinforcing fibers to increase the in-plane strength of the sheet. Thus the strength of sheets made in this fashion is approximately 50% greater than sheets formed to full thickness in one action in the filter press process. Origin The Hatschek machine was first developed for the production of asbestos cement in the 1890s when it was patented by the inventor, Ludwig Hatschek. The machine is still used in the same basic form today and although modern Hatschek machines are much more productive than the early models they would still be recognised by the inventor if he were alive today.


Figure9: Schematic of Hatschek Machine showing the principal components. Only one vat shown, could be upto 6 in total. Large arrows show direction of the felt and roller movement. The fundamental part of the Hatschek machine consists of a vat in which a cylindrical sieve rotates in contact with a dilute water based slurry of fibers capable of forming a filtering film and mineral materials including Portland cement. (Figure 1) The sieve cylinder is mounted on an axle and driven by a continuous felt wrapped around the top of the sieve by a couch roller. The felt is threaded around a drive or anvil roller and a tail roller. The drive or anvil roller is pushed into hard contact with an accumulation roller.

Sheets are formed on the Hatschek machine as follows. 1. As the clean sieve is pulled under the slurry in the vat, water from the slurry runs through the sieve depositing a soft porous film of fibers and cement on the surface of the sieve. 2. The sieve carrying the film exiting the vat is brought into contact with the felt stretched tightly across the sieve. This removes much of the water from the film by forcing it back through the film. The solid film floats on this layer of water and is transferred to the felt partly in response to the effect of removal of water and partly because the felt has a greater affinity for the film than the sieve. (Figure 2) 3. The film is carried on the felt to an accumulator roll to which it is transferred by further removal of water at high pressure. 4. A sufficient number of films are wrapped on the accumulator roll to form a sheet of the desired thickness, the stack of films is then removed from the roller and laid out flat to form the sheet. The action of dewatering successive films in contact with each other under pressure is sufficient to bind the films together to form a contiguous solid sheet.

Figure10: Primary dewatering of the film on removal from sieve. The purpose of this paper is to examine the first of these processes in detail and to determine those machine parameters that determine the rate at which films can be built. As may be anticipated from the structure of the Hatschek machine, it is not possible to measure the thickness of films as they are deposited on the sieve within the vat of the operating machine. Nor is it easy to measure the thickness of the soft film on the sieve in the gap between the water and the point where the felt comes in contact with it. Nor is it easy to measure the thickness of the film being


conveyed on the felt to the accumulations roller. Thus the average thickness of the film must be inferred from the thickness of the final sheet divided by the number of films that make it up.

Film formation: The general mechanism of film formation is by filtration. A cylindrical sieve is rotated in contact with a slurry of fibers and non-fibrous materials, a film forms and is continuously stripped from the sieve as it emerges from the sieve vat. Formation of the film takes place as follows 1. A filter layer of fibers forms on the surface of the sieve within a short distance the immersion of the sieve into the water. 2. The film continues to build up on the sieve but now contains a lower proportion of fibres and a greater proportion of the non-fibrous materials. 3. The film is dewatered and stripped from the sieve on to the felt driving the sieve. It may be noted that the position of formation of the filter layer (in 1 above) depends on the mode of operation of the Hatschek Machine fiber orientation screw. Two possibilities exist, 1. The fiber orientation screw runs counter to the sieve direction and throws the slurry onto the sieve above the immersion point. In this case most of the formation of the filter layer occurs before the sieve enters the slurry. 2. The fibers orientation screw runs in the same direction as the sieve that may be fitted with a rubber flap extending 50 mm or so beneath the surface of the slurry. In this case the formation of the filter layer takes place just below the rubber flap.


Capacity Agitator centers Inside dimension of vat Agitator drive

: :

For 1250 mm sieve cylinder 250 mm diameter, 2500 mm bearing

: :

1834 mm 1.5 kW electric geared motor with frequency of rotation 125 RPM output.


415 volts, 50 cycles, 3 phase Cordon shaft : standard automobile universal cordon shaft Type of sealing between vat body and sieve cylinder Overall dimension : length=2500mm, width=2000mm, height=1600mm Approximate mass of equipment Fiber aligning screw : : 1850 kg diameter-225mm, face width-1775mm, bearing-2794mm, pitch-112.5mm Fiber aligning screw drive : 1.5 kW electric geared motor with frequency of rotation 125 RPM output Or Variable speed hydraulic motor. 25 to 400 RPM, maximum pressure 60 bar. Required power 1.5 kW, flow rate 80.5 cm2 /revolution. : O ring sealing


Components of 1250mm Sieve Cylinder Vat




Assembly Drawing No. A4-1-5356A

Part List Drawing No.


Cutting Nozzle Pipe Assembly



Sieve Bandage Tightening Arrangement Vat Blow Down Arrangement Vat Agitator Assembly Vat Agitator Drive Assembly 1250mm Sieve Cylinder Spray Oscillation
















Components: 2 MS cutting nozzles at distance 1500 mm from each other with 2 clamps on it with the help of 2 rubber hose x 880 LG and 4 hose clamps for hose (2 on each side of sieve cylinder). 6 hose nipples (2 on corner of each side and 2-2 each on either side of each leader size G.M. wheel valve with BSP female threads) Purpose This assembly is located on the upper part of the Vat. It removes the excess slurry which may be deposited on corners of sieve cylinder. The sieve cylinder, due to the limitation of width of felt, transfers a constant rate of slurry to the felt and the excess slurry is removed by this assembly


Figure11: Cutting Nozzle Pipe Assembly


Components There are 4 arrangement for sieve bandage assembled as 2 pair on each side of sieve where each pair is at a distance of 570 mm (center to center distance) from each other. Each arrangement consists of a pin mounted by a cover with 4 socket head cap screw (SS) M8x25 LG along with a hexagonal nut M30 (SS) and washer ID 22x OD 56mm x 5mm thickness (SS). The split pin is 40mm long and 5mm . This arrangement is introduced with a bracket on it. Purpose The function of this arrangement is to ensure the proper bandage of the sieve cylinder by means of belt. This arrangement is applied on the two sides of the sieve so that the sieve cylinder is properly tightened. It also helps in prevention of leakage of slurry from the edges of the sieve cylinder.



Components Construction: Blow down Valve, Connecting Rod, Blow down lever with counterweight (to ensure proper closure of valve) Purpose This arrangement is used to remove the remaining slurry from the Vat mainly at the time of maintenance or as per requirements for consistent running of Vat.


Components 2 MS Agitator shafts with 3 blades mounted on it at 120 angle with respect to shaft axis. Shaft specifications-250 mm diameter, 2500 mm bearing centers. Purpose The slurry containing cement in significant amount has the property of getting settled on the bottom of the Vat frame if left undisturbed. Therefore, the agitators are used to agitate the slurry.


Components 1.5 kW electric geared motor with frequency of rotation 125 RPM output. 415 volts, 50 cycles, 3 phase. Purpose The purpose of this assembly is to drive the agitator shaft by supply of power from the motor drive which has an output of 125 RPM.


Components Overall dimensions: diameter-1250 mm, face width of sieve-1515 mm, bearing centers-2300 mm Shaft size: 100 mm diameter inside sieve, 75 mm diameter at bearings, 2370 long

Phosphor Bronze bottom cover, 5x5 mesh, 1530 mm wide x 3960 mm long Phosphor Bronze top cover, 40 x 36 mesh Strips (for screen support): 160 nos., 3.18mm thick, 15.875mm wide, 1515mm long (Brass), rectangular slots for strips positioning Strip angle: 839 Tie Rod- S.S. Middle spider: 3 nos. 805 mm OD with 6 arms (C.I.) End spider: 2 nos. 990 mm OD 6 arms Middle spider ring: 9 nos. 1242 mm OD x 7 thick (S.S.) Chim rings 2 (C.I.) End rings 2 (M.S.) Spacers 91 mm , 153 mm length (S.S.) Approximate mass of equipment: 1000 kg

Purpose The spider rings have machined rectangular slots on their periphery wherein the brass strips are located. These strips give a force base to the phosphor bronze bottom mesh over which another top screen is wound tightly and brazed. The excess water filters through sieve cylinder and falls into the trench below the vats while the asbestos cement paste is collected by the cylinders in the form of a thin elementary layer. This elementary layer from each pick up point is transferred to the continuously moving endless felt of the sheet machine by means of the couch roller. The vacuum suction boxes located in between the sieve cylinder serve to dry the film adhering to the felt.


Figure5: Sieve Cylinder


Components Helical geared motor 0.55 kW,29 RPM,415 V,50Hz,IP : 55,Insulation Class-F with temperature rise limited to Class-B, Ambient :45 C, Foot mounted, Frame :43P-D80L4, Service Factor :1.65, Make : Power Build. A lever connected to link with the help of bush and pin. This link is connected to the shaft of the motor. A lever connected to a bracket fixed on a plate with the help of hexagonal HD screw M6x15 (SS) and spring washer A6 (SS). Purpose After the slurry is deposited to the felt, some heavy particles, which get stuck to the sieve cylinder, produce non-uniformity in the deposition manner of the slurry. Spray Oscillation tube is used for removing these heavy particles. The tube is designed in a manner such that there are small holes at


the bottom of it. The water coming in it from the water line is sprayed in the form of jet and thus removing the heavy particles that are deposited on the sieve cylinder.

5 INTRODUCTION ON PLC (Basic defination and its parts):

PLC stands for Programmable logic controller. We can define PLC as a user friendly, microprocessor based-specialized computer that carries out control functions of many types and level of complexity. Its purpose is to monitor crucial parameters and adjust accordingly. It can be programmed controlled and operated by a person unskilled in operating computers, but, who is nonetheless, PLC literate. It will operate any system that has output devices that goes ON and OFF. Programmable controllers have many definitions. However, PLCs can be thought of in simple terms as industrial computers with specially designed architecture in both their central units (the PLC itself) and their interfacing circuitry to field devices (input/output connections to the real world). 5.1 INPUT DEVICES: Intelligence of an automated system is greatly depending on the ability of a PLC to read in the signal from various types of automatic sensing and manual input field devices. Push-buttons, keypad and toggle switches, which form the basic man-machine interface are types of manual input device. On the other hand, for detection of workplace, monitoring of moving mechanism, checking on pressure and or liquid level and many others, the PLC will have to tap the signal from the specific automatic sensing devices like proximity switch, limit switch, photoelectric sensors, level sensor and so on. Types of input signals to the PLC would be of ON/OFF logic or analogue. These input signals are interfaced to PLC through various types of PLC input module. ExampleLimit Switch, Timer, Photoelectric Switch, Rotary Encoder, Proximity Switch etc


5.1.1OUTPUT DEVICES: An automatic system is incomplete and the PLC system is virtually paralyzed without means of interface to the field output devices. Some the most commonly controlled devices are motors, solenoids, relays indicators, buzzers and etc. Through activation of motors and solenoids the PLC can control from a single pick and place system to a much complex servo positioning system. These type of output devices are mechanism of an automated system and so its direct effect on the system performance. Like the input signal interfacing, signal from output devices are interfaced to the PLC through wide range of PLC output module. ExamplePlot lamp, buzzers, alarms etc. 5.1.2 CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT: The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a microprocessor that co-ordinate the activities of the PLC system. It executes the program processes I/O signals and communicates with external devices.

There are various types of memory units. It is the area that holds the operating system and user memory. The operating system is actually a system software that co-ordinate the PLC. Ladder program, Timer and counter values are stored in the user memory. Depending on users need various types of memory are available for choice: Read Only Memory(ROM): ROM is a non-volatile memory that can be programmed only once. It is therefore unsuitable. It is least popular compared with other memory type.


Random Access Memory(RAM): RAM is commonly used memory type for storing the user program and data. The data in the volatile RAM would normally be lost if the power source is removed. However this problem is solved by backing up the RAM with a battery. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory(EPROM): EPROM holds data permanently just like ROM. It does not require battery backup. However, its content can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. A prom writer is required to reprogram the memory. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory(EEROM): EEROM combines the access flexibility of RAM and the non-volatility EPROM in one. Its contents can be erased and reprogrammed electrically, however to a limit number of times. 5.1.4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PLC: PLCs have a lot of advantages owing to which it is put use in a wide range of applications. Like every other technology PLC has disadvantages as well, its only how well the advantages score over its disadvantages which makes a difference and separates it from the rest. Lets have a look at some of the advantages and disadvantages of PLC

5.1.5 ADVANTAGES: PLCs are designed to withstand severe conditions such as vibrations, temperature variations, humidity and noise.


Have interfacing for inputs and outputs integrated in the controller and can have extensive input output arrangements. Very flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily. Troubleshooting aids make programming simpler and reduce downtime. The hardware uses is very reliable which make these likely to operate for years before failure. 5.1.6 DISADVANTAGES: Too much work required in connecting wires. Difficulty with changes or replacements. Difficulty in finding errors; requiring skillful work force. 5.2 APPLICATIONS OF PLC PLC can support a variety of hardware devices, it being the most essential component is used to control various kinds of lights, pumps, drive-motors, photo sensors, pushbutton switches, mixers, solenoid valves, relay contacts etc. All the above mentioned devices serve as output devises which respond to control devices such as mechanical, pneumatic, electromechanical or computer controls. The above mentioned output devices are integrated in various forms and are put to use in almost industry where automation is required.



A PLC consists of a Central Processing Units(CPU) containing an application program and Input and Output Interface methods, which is directly connected to the field I/O devices. The program contains the PLC so that when an input signal from an input signal from an input devices turn ON, the appropriate response is made. The response normally involves turning ON an output signal to some sorts of output devices.


Asbestos fiber contains particles that are carcinogens and thus can be hazardous if opened manually. The Automatic Fiber Bag Opening Device involves labor only at the loading stage of the bags and hence hazardous event is prevented. It is not possible to measure the thickness of the film as they are deposited on the sieve within the vat of the opening machine. The average thickness of the film must be inferred from the thickness of the final sheet divided by the number of films that make up. Due to less tolerance allowed, the thickness of the sheets is generally nearly constant. Mild steel is used as it has a low tensile strength and it is carburized for better surface hardness, and is relatively cheaper when compared to other materials. The future enhancement of the project is that the HMI should be installed for operators convenience.


1. 2. 3. 4. Technical Specifications Manual Of Hyderabad Industries Limited. Tony Cooke ,. Formation Of Films on Hatschek Machines 2nd edition, Australia, Affliated EastWest Press. 2004. P.6.

5. Madhuchanda Mitra and Samarjit Sen Gupta, Programmable Logic Controllers and Industrial Automation an Introduction, ISBN-81-87972-17-3, 2009, pages(1-51). 6.



1. Chrysotile: A grey or green fibrous mineral, an important source of commercial asbestos(1) 2. Plummer Blocks: a method of mounting bearings on a rotating shaft (3). 3. Pinch Rollers: Rubberized free spinning wheel (12) 4. Trunnion: cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point (19). 5. Pneumatic: of or relating to or using air (or a similar gas) (13). 6. Schrader: pressure monitoring system (19). 7. Felt: a fabric made of compressed matted animal fibers (19). 8. Agitator: something which agitates something else (24). 9. Hose: a flexible pipe for conveying liquid or gas (8). 10.Guide roller: a roller which passes over the material (24).