Deism

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Deism
i Deism /ˈdiːɪzəm/[1] [2] in religious philosophy is the belief that reason and observation of the natural world, without the need for organized religion, can determine that the universe is the product of an all-powerful creator. According to deists, the creator does not intervene in human affairs or suspend the natural laws of the universe. Deists typically reject supernatural events such as prophecy and miracles, tending instead to assert that a god (or "the Supreme Architect") does not alter the universe by intervening in it. This idea is also known as the Clockwork universe theory, in which a god designs and builds the universe, but steps aside to let it run on its own. Two main forms of deism currently exist: classical deism and modern deism.

The earliest known usage in print of the English term "deist" is 1621,[3] and "deism" is first found in a 1675 dictionary.[4] [5] Deism became more prominent in the 17th and 18th centuries during the Age of Enlightenment — especially in Britain, France, Germany and America among intellectuals raised as Christians who found they could not believe in supernatural miracles, the inerrancy of scriptures, or the Trinity, but who did believe in one God. Deistic ideas also influenced several leaders of the American and French revolutions.[6]

Overview
Deism is a theological position concerning the relationship between "the Creator" and the natural world. Deistic viewpoints emerged during the scientific revolution of 17th century Europe and came to exert a powerful influence during the eighteenth century enlightenment. Deism stood between the narrow dogmatism of the period and skepticism. Though deists rejected atheism,[7] they often were called "atheists" by more traditional theists.[8] There were a number of different forms in the 17th and 18th century. In England, Deism included a range of people from anti-Christian to un-Christian theists.[9] Deism holds that God does not intervene with the functioning of the natural world in any way, allowing it to run according to the laws of nature that he configured when he created all things. God is thus conceived to be wholly transcendent and never immanent. For Deists, human beings can only know God via reason and the observation of nature but not by revelation or supernatural manifestations (such as miracles) – phenomena which Deists regard with caution if not skepticism. See the section Features of deism, following. Deism can also refer to a personal set of beliefs having to do with the role of nature in spirituality.[10] Deism can be a belief in a deity absent of any doctrinal governance or precise definition of the nature of such a deity. Deism bears a relationship to naturalism. As such, Deism gives credit for the formation of life and the universe to a higher power that by design allows only natural processes to govern creation. The words deism and theism are both derived from words for god: the former from Latin deus, the latter from its Greek cognate theós (θεός). Prior to the 17th century the terms ["Deism" and "Deist"] were used interchangeably with the terms "theism" and "theist," respectively. ... Theologians and philosophers of the seventeenth century began to give a different signification to the words... Both [theists and Deists] asserted belief in one supreme God, the Creator... and agreed that God is personal and distinct from the world. But the theist taught that God remained actively interested in and operative in the world which he had made, whereas the Deist maintained that God endowed the world at creation with self-sustaining and self-acting powers and then abandoned it to the operation of these powers acting as second causes.[11] Perhaps the first use of the term deist is in Pierre Viret's Instruction Chrétienne en la doctrine de la foi et de l'Évangile (Christian teaching on the doctrine of faith and the Gospel) (1564), reprinted in Bayle's Dictionnaire entry Viret. Viret, a Calvinist, regarded Deism as a new form of Italian heresy.[12] Viret wrote, as translated following from the original French:

Deism There are many who confess that while they believe like the Turks and the Jews that there is some sort of God and some sort of deity, yet with regard to Jesus Christ and to all that to which the doctrine of the Evangelists and the Apostles testify, they take all that to be fables and dreams... I have heard that there are of this band those who call themselves Deists, an entirely new word, which they want to oppose to Atheist. For in that atheist signifies a person who is without God, they want to make it understood that they are not at all without God, since they certainly believe there is some sort of God, whom they even recognize as creator of heaven and earth, as do the Turks; but as for Jesus Christ, they only know that he is and hold nothing concerning him nor his doctrine.[12] In England, the term deist first appeared in Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621).[13] Lord Herbert of Cherbury (1583-1648) is generally considered the "father of English Deism," and his book De Veritate (1624) the first major statement of Deism. Deism flourished in England between 1690 and 1740, at which time Matthew Tindal's Christianity as Old as the Creation (1730), also called "The Deist's Bible," gained much attention. Later Deism spread to France, notably through the work of Voltaire, to Germany, and to America.

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Features of deism
Critical and constructive deism
The concept of deism covers a wide variety of positions on a wide variety of religious issues. Following Sir Leslie Stephen's English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, most commentators agree that two features constituted the core of deism: Critical elements of deist thought included: • Rejection of all religions based on books that claim to contain the revealed word of God. • Rejection of all religious dogma and demagogy. • Rejection of reports of miracles, prophecies and religious "mysteries". Constructive elements of deist thought included: • God exists, created and governs the universe. • God gave humans the ability to reason. Specific thoughts on aspects of the afterlife will vary. While there are those who maintain that God will punish or reward us according to our behavior on Earth, likewise there are those who assert that any punishment or reward that is due to us is given during our mortal stay on Earth. Individual deists varied in the set of critical and constructive elements for which they argued. Some deists rejected miracles and prophecies but still considered themselves Christians because they believed in what they felt to be the pure, original form of Christianity – that is, Christianity as it existed before it was corrupted by additions of such superstitions as miracles, prophecies, and the doctrine of the Trinity. Some deists rejected the claim of Jesus' divinity but continued to hold him in high regard as a moral teacher (see, for example, Thomas Jefferson's famous Jefferson Bible and Matthew Tindal's 'Christianity as Old as the Creation'). Other, more radical deists rejected Christianity altogether and expressed hostility toward Christianity, which they regarded as pure superstition. In return, Christian writers often charged radical deists with atheism. Note that the terms constructive and critical are used to refer to aspects of deistic thought, not sects or subtypes of deism – it would be incorrect to classify any particular deist author as "a constructive deist" or "a critical deist". As Peter Gay notes: All Deists were in fact both critical and constructive Deists. All sought to destroy in order to build, and reasoned either from the absurdity of Christianity to the need for a new philosophy or from their desire for a new philosophy to the absurdity of Christianity. Each Deist, to be sure, had his special competence. While one specialized in abusing priests, another specialized in rhapsodies to nature, and a third specialized in the

self-evident truth.. especially as the eighteenth century wears on. and freethinking. that .. as I said before.. Paul Hazard has recently described the Deists of this time 'as rationalists with nostalgia for religion': men. I think.. but who liked to believe that the slope they had started upon was not slippery enough to lead them to atheism. when joined together so as to be affirmed or denied of each other. however. squarely states that the rejection of revealed Scripture is the characteristic element of Deism. Deism was one of the dirty words of the age. agree that revealed Scripture is nothing but a joke or "well-invented flam. make what we call a proposition. Yet whatever strength the movement had— and it was at times formidable— it derived that strength from a peculiar combination of critical and constructive elements. judge.. It was the same as the natural theology that was so prevalent in all English theology in the 17th and 18th centuries... Too many men of letters of the time agree about the essential nature of English Deism for modern scholars to ignore the simple fact that what sets the Deists apart from even their most latitudinarian Christian contemporaries is their desire to lay aside scriptural revelation as rationally incomprehensible.. but the ideas the mind conceives of them. this is called demonstrative knowledge.. and the light of nature: By the rational faculties... and is therefore styled intuitive knowledge or self-evident truth. be called divine inspiration as being immediately from God." — James E. it would be in vain for men to argue with one another [because there would be no basis for demonstrative reasoning] .  Deism: An Anthology.. Knowledge [is]..[14] "A strange feature of the [Deist] controversy is the apparent acceptance of all parties of the conviction of the existence of God. and as Leslie Stephen argued in retrospect. the perception of the agreement or disagreement of our ideas. that the constructive element of deism was not unique to deism. —Peter Gay. And any two of these.. John Leland. or by the intervention of some other idea or ideas .. Yet some Deists claimed to be Christian.. Those propositions which need no proof... that it is practically impossible to distinguish between them. p. or disagreement: This is. . a view further codified by such authorities as Ephraim Chambers and Samuel Johnson.. and infer: The immediate objects of which faculties are not the things themselves. Deists were stigmatized – often as atheists – by their Christian opponents.. and not acquired by any human deduction or drawing of consequences: This. "is a denial of all reveal'd Religion. What set deists apart from their more orthodox contemporaries were their critical concerns. Defining the essence of English Deism is a formidable task.. most Deists. As E. Like priestcraft. we call self-evident. who had allowed the spirit of the age to separate them from orthodoxy. to human society and to religion. If there were not some propositions which need not to be proved. then. 13' It should be noted. atheism.. Tindal presents a Lockean definition of reason. is that divine. because by comparing the ideas signified by the terms of such propositions. Force. Knowledge accrues either immediately on the bare intuition of these two ideas or terms so joined.  Introduction (1990) to An Account of the Growth of Deism in England (1696) by William Stephens' One of the remarkable features of deism is that the critical elements did not overpower the constructive elements. But the term Deism is nevertheless a meaningful one. . and thus useless. 3 Concepts of "reason" "Reason" was the ultimate court of appeal for deists. Graham Waring observed.Deism skeptical reading of sacred documents." About mid-century... certainly.. the Deists shared so many fundamental rational suppositions with their orthodox opponents. "DEISM. we immediately discern their agreement." And Basil Willey observed[15] M.. or even detrimental." writes Stephens bluntly.. we mean the natural ability a man has to apprehend. [Intuitive knowledge] may. that is. While there may possibly be exceptions.. in his historical and analytical account of the movement [View of the Principal Deistical Writers]. what we call intuitive knowledge.

deist authors attempted to use reason as a critical tool for exposing and rejecting what they saw as nonsense. 4 .  Christianity Not Mysterious: or. Christianity as Old as the Creation (II)[17] Once a proposition is asserted to be a self-evident truth. —Matthew Tindal . and other ridiculous fables of the Church of Rome. And that though we cannot reconcile them by reason of our corrupt and limited understandings." The divines gravely tell us "we must adore what we cannot comprehend. [Some] contend [that] some mysteries may be. Many doctrines (say these) are made necessary to salvation.." This famous and admirable doctrine is the undoubted source of all the absurdities that ever were seriously vented among Christians. is more exempted from its disquisitions than the ordinary phenomena of nature. and of the relationship we stand in to him. or in other words. I take it to be very intelligible from the precedent section that what is evidently repugnant to clear and distinct ideas. we may without some infallible rule. for instance. to "adore what we cannot comprehend. we have no manner of idea of it. often take a questionable proposition for an axiom. Without the pretense of it. I understand the belief of the existence of a God.. according to the title of this discourse. and that no Christian doctrine can be properly called a mystery. .. —John Toland.. [Others contend] that no mystery is contrary to reason. old wives' fables for moral certitude. reason and the Gospel] they seem directly to clash.[20] or to our common notions.. and infinitely happy in himself.Deism uniform light.e..[18] I hope to make it appear that the use of reason is not so dangerous in religion as it is commonly represented. according to our conceptions of them [i. nor above it. Now. There is nothing that men make a greater noise about than the "mysteries of the Christian religion. Wherefore. No Christian that I know of expressly says reason and the Gospel are contrary to one another. we likewise maintain. for these colors are so incompatible in the same subject as to exclude all possibility of a real positive idea or conception..  Christianity as Old as the Creation (II)[16] Deists did appeal to "the light of nature" to support the self-evident nature of their positive religious claims. So to say as the papists that children dying before baptism are damned without pain signifies nothing at all. Consequently.. that there is nothing in the Gospel contrary to reason. which 'tis impossible to believe..... —Matthew Tindal.. and of ourselves. we hold that reason is the only foundation of all certitude. . as we are extremely subject to deception. who is the source of all other beings.. I suppose you will allow that it is evident by the light of nature that there is a God. which shines in the minds of all men. that a ball is white and black at once is to say just nothing. and the sense and practice of those duties which result from the knowledge we. and to our fellow-creatures. . a Treatise Shewing That There Is Nothing in the Gospel Contrary to Reason.. the impossibility of believing.. The first thing I shall insist upon is that if any doctrine of the New Testament be contrary to reason. and human impostures for divine revelation... and our own imperfections. and yet received by faith. yet that from the authority of divine revelation we are bound to believe and acquiesce in them. whether as to its manner or existence. Nor should we be ever bantered with the Lutheran impanation..[19] On the contrary. there is not much more to say about it. and that nothing revealed. Nor above It (1696) I have known some. The first is from John Toland's Christianity Not Mysterious. who have alleged as a reason why they have forsaken the Christian faith. or at least seem to be. by our reason... a being absolutely perfect. By natural religion." Some of them say the "mysteries of the Gospel" are to be understood only in the sense of the "ancient fathers. But very many affirm that . contrary to reason. so that the religion of nature takes in everything that is founded on the reason and nature of things. but that all are "above" it. have of him and his perfections. To say. or. Here are two typical examples. as the fathers taught them to speak. we should never hear of transubstantiation.[21] is contrary to reason." .

59–60. I should certainly run mad through despair of finding out the Truth. till we come to an eternal. implying eternity. rational religion with all kinds of superstitions and "mysteries" – irrational theological doctrines. pure religion that was simple and rational. or else no more than a Holy Three. but to their being entirely governed by priests. and dependent on the priests for information about the requirements for salvation. quoted in John Orr. vol. and restore. must needs have been produced by somewhat before it. the true primitive and natural religion implanted in mankind from the creation. and that power presupposeth something existent that hath such power... which they strove to maintain and increase. Christianity as Old as the Creation (XIV)[22] One implication of this deist creation myth was that primitive societies. and omnipotence. or Manifestations. and the thing so existing with power to produce. or societies that existed in the distant past. What can be the effect of an unintelligible mystery upon our minds. —Matthew Tindal. do include a power of their producing. or economies. they considered true. original Christianity to be the same as this original natural religion. but to puzzle and amuse. Deists saw their mission as the stripping away of "priestcraft" and "mysteries" from religion. English Deism. but only an amusement? That which is only above reason must be above a rational belief. If I should be persuaded that an explanation of the Trinity were necessary to save my soul. or internal Relations. Laymen were told by the priests that only the priests really knew what was necessary for salvation and that laymen must accept the "mysteries" on faith and on the priests' authority. or external Denominations. They felt that this original pure religion had become corrupted by "priests" who had manipulated it for personal gain and for the class interests of the priesthood in general. Deists referred to this kind of manipulation of religious doctrine as "priestcraft".. which they imposed on the credulous as divine oracles. over time "priests" had succeeded in encrusting the original simple. and see the Learned so widely differing and hotly disputing what it is I must believe concerning it. —Thomas Hobbes.. true condition – simple and rational. An Account of the Growth of Deism in England (1696). that these things were mysteries. Whereas the business of the Christian dispensation was to destroy all those traditional revelations. 76 History of religion and the deist mission Most deists saw the religions of their day as corruptions of an original. —William Stephens. The effects we acknowledge naturally. and that again by something else before that. This . or Three Somewhats. This kept the laity baffled by the nonsensical "mysteries". 19–20' 5 Arguments for the existence of God Thomas Hobbes – a 17th century deist and important influence on subsequent deists – used the cosmological argument for the existence of God at several places in his writings. 4. who pretended communication with their gods. and this is it which all men conceive by the name of God. a highly derogatory term. I replied. the first power of all powers and first cause of all causes. and yet widely differ in what we must believe concerning it. or Properties. and to have thence their revelations. if it were not eternal. The priests consequently enjoyed a position of considerable power over the laity.. pp. According to this world view. As Matthew Tindal put it: It can't be imputed to any defect in the light of nature that the pagan world ran into idolatry. that is to say. pp. whether three Minds or Modes. In many cases. should have religious beliefs that are less encrusted with superstitions and closer to those of natural theology. incomprehensibility. confused. free from all idolatry. But he asked me to what end could an unintelligible doctrine be revealed? not to instruct. before they were produced. and so above our understanding. p..Deism because they are in their nature absurdities. Works. You all agree that the belief of your Trinity is absolutely necessary to salvation. thereby restoring religion to its original. and must I be saved by an irrational belief? .

I content myself with believing. that the power that gave me existence is able to continue it.[26] held that souls exist. Part I. there were differences among deists about freedom and determinism. Heraclitus conceived of a logos. This view naturally led to what was then usually called necessitarianism [23] (the modern term is determinism): the view that everything in the universe – including human behavior – is completely causally determined by antecedent circumstances and natural law. and in the afterlife are rewarded or punished by God for their behavior in life. a supreme rational principle. such as Anthony Collins. Thomas Chubb. without any divine intervention. and said the wisdom "by which all things are steered through all things" was "both willing and unwilling to be called Zeus (God)". actually were necessitarians. La Mettrie's L'Homme machine [24]. under the influence of Newtonian science. even to positive conviction. for example. such as Benjamin Franklin.and 18th-century theologians in general – referred to God using a variety of vivid circumlocutions such as: • • • • • Supreme Being Divine Watchmaker Grand Architect of the Universe Nature's God – used in the United States Declaration of Independence Father of Lights – Benjamin Franklin used this terminology when proposing that meetings of the Constitutional Convention begin with prayers[29] Historical background Deistic thinking has existed since ancient times. Because of their high regard for natural law and for the idea of a universe without miracles. tended to view the universe as a vast machine. as I now have. Others such as Thomas Paine were agnostic about the immortality of the soul: I trouble not myself about the manner of future existence. that continues to operate according to natural law. However. either with or without this body. Recapitulation Still others such as Anthony Collins. as it is understood today. Some.  The Age of Reason.[25] Beliefs about immortality of the soul Deists hold a variety of beliefs about the soul. Among the Ancient Greeks.[27] Bolingbroke. debates about freedom versus "necessity" were a regular feature of Enlightenment religious and philosophical discussions. . 6 Freedom and necessity Enlightenment thinkers. Some. the word "deism".[28] Deist terminology Deist authors – and 17th.Deism became a point of attack for thinkers such as David Hume as they studied the "natural history of religion". and it appears more probable to me that I shall continue to exist hereafter than that I should have had existence. created and set in motion by a creator being. before that existence began. —Thomas Paine. in any form and manner he pleases. is generally used to refer to the movement toward natural theology or freethinking that occurred in 17th-century Europe. Some. such as Lord Herbert of Cherbury and William Wollaston. deists were especially susceptible to the temptations of determinism. Plato envisaged God as a Demiurge or 'craftsman'. believed in reincarnation or resurrection. (See. survive death. and Peter Annet were materialists and either denied or doubted the immortality of the soul.) As a consequence. and specifically in Britain. Outside ancient Greece many other cultures have expressed views that resemble deism in some respects. Reflecting the intellectual climate of the time.

are thought to have had considerable influence on the deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of Confucius into Christianity. As Herbert wrote in De Religione Laici (1645). the English Civil War pitting King against Parliament was just beginning.[30] 7 The discovery of diversity The humanist tradition of the Renaissance included a revival of interest in Europe's classical past in Greece and Rome. when scholars worked on biblical manuscripts. and certainly there is not one of them that the lawgivers have not pronounced to be as it were divinely ordained. and in the Pacific. The voyages of discovery of the 16th and 17th centuries acquainted Europeans with new and different cultures in the Americas. The veneration of that classical past. particularly pre-Christian Rome. They discovered a greater amount of cultural diversity than they had ever imagined. the successes of humanism and natural science along with the fragmentation of the Christian churches and increased understanding of other faiths. Europeans discovered diversity in the present. which led to the beginnings of biblical criticism. Such massive sectarian violence inspired a visceral rejection of the sectarianism that had led to the violence.Deism Natural theology is a facet of the revolution in world view that occurred in Europe in the 17th century. Many faiths or religions. in Asia. To understand the background to that revolution is also to understand the background of deism. so that the Wayfarer finds one in Europe. In addition to discovering diversity in the past. In particular. At the same time. In particular. Religious conflict Europe had been plagued by vicious sectarian conflicts and religious wars since the beginning of the Reformation. This new awareness of diversity led to a feeling that Christianity was just one religion among many.[31] [32] "Life and works of Confucius". all helped erode the image of the church as the unique source of wisdom. In particular. when Lord Herbert of Cherbury's De Veritate was published. It also led to a search for natural religious truths – truths that could be universally accepted. because they had been either "written in the book of Nature" or "engraved on the human mind" by God. still another in the very Indies. clearly. the Thirty Years War had been raging on continental Europe for nearly 25 years. Several cultural movements of the time contributed to the movement. the new availability of Greek philosophical works. another in Africa. exist or once existed in various countries and ages. cultural diversity with respect to religious beliefs could no longer be ignored. translated into European languages by the Jesuits stationed in China. study of classical documents led to the realization that some historical documents are less reliable than others. 1687. destined to dominate the whole world. In addition. In 1642. with no better claim than any other to correctness. and in Asia. they began developing the principles of textual criticism and a view of the New Testament being the product of a particular historical period different from their own. by Prospero Intorcetta. . and the question arose of how this vast amount of human cultural diversity could be compatible with the biblical account of Noah's descendants. It was an enormously destructive war that (it is estimated) destroyed 15–20% of the population of Germany. the ideas of Confucius.

• Virtue and piety are the chief parts of divine worship. Herbert distinguished truths obtained through experience.) The new awareness of the explanatory power of universal natural law also produced a growing skepticism about such religious staples as miracles (that is. from innate truths and from revealed Edward Herbert. Isaac Newton's mathematical explanation of universal gravitation explained the behavior both of objects here on earth and of objects in the heavens in a way that promoted a world view in which the natural universe is controlled by laws of nature. Galileo's condemnation for heresy being an especially visible example. portrait by Isaac Oliver (1560–1617) truths.[33] [34] Like his contemporary Descartes. set it in motion controlled by natural law and retired from the scene. the Probable. These discoveries posed a serious challenge to biblical authority and to the religious authorities. Innate truths are imprinted on our minds.Deism 8 Advances in scientific knowledge The 17th century saw a remarkable advance in scientific knowledge: the scientific revolution. see English and French Deism in the Eighteenth Century Lord Herbert of Cherbury (d. as well as works by lesser-known authors such as Richard Simon and Isaac La Peyrère. The work of Copernicus. In consequence the Bible came to be seen as authoritative on matters of faith and morals but no longer authoritative (or meant to be) on matters of science. and his book De Veritate (On Truth. Kepler. 1648) is generally considered the "father of English deism". the Possible. such as Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan and Spinoza's Theologico-Political Treatise. the first two thirds of De Veritate are devoted to an exposition of Herbert's theory of knowledge. paved the way for the development of critical deism. Herbert's term for universally accepted truths was notitiae communes – common notions. such as the Bible. in turn. Herbert believed that there were five common notions. Early deism For main article. • We ought to be sorry for our sins and repent of them . In the realm of religion. Herbert searched for the foundations of knowledge.[7] • There is one Supreme God. (See the Watchmaker analogy. as It Is Distinguished from Revelation. and the False) (1624) the first major statement of deism. The history of deism Precursors of deism Early works of biblical criticism. • He ought to be worshipped. This. violations of natural law) and about books. suggested a theology in which God created the universe. and Galileo set aside the old notion that the earth was the center of the universe. that reported them. and the evidence that they are so imprinted is that they are universally accepted. and through reasoning about experience. In fact.

I do not wish to consider here whether any other more appropriate means exists by which the divine justice may be appeased. [T]here is no nation. General agreement among religions. against Christianity. yet the Common Notion or Universal Consent tells us that adoration ought to be reserved for the one God.. lead us to repent our sins. [W]e must take great care to avoid deception.. .. Herbert had relatively few followers. the most important part of religious practice. the nature of divine goodness... . has existed without some expression of it— is found established among all nations. 62 It is worth quoting Herbert at some length. for men who are depressed. command us to live a holy life. and mode. ceremonies.. But its nature is quite distinct from the truth [based on Common Notions] . .. Blount made one special contribution to the deist debate: "by utilizing his wide classical learning.. p. Other Deists were to follow his lead. But all religion. and Causes of Their Errors. quoted in John Orr. and pagan ideas.Deism • Divine goodness doth dispense rewards and punishments both in this life and after it. philosophy. —Lord Herbert of Cherbury . English Deism. Hence divine religion— and no race. Revealed truth exists. law. and it was not until the 1680s that Herbert found a true successor in Charles Blount (1654–1693). and above all conscience.. then. enjoin us to worship Him. Moral virtue. . —Lord Herbert of Cherbury. defined in this work as the right conformation of the faculties. That reward and punishment exist is. proceed with great care in discerning what actually is revealed... however savage. [T]he truth of revelation depends upon the authority of him who reveals it. in the stars.."[35] 9 . quality. 3–4.. in hell. It follows from these considerations that the dogmas which recognize a sovereign Deity... however barbarous. saints.. conscience. and warn us of future recompense or punishment.. to give the flavor of his writing. .. proceed from God and are inscribed within us in the form of Common Notions. tell us that our crimes may be washed away by true penitence. since I have undertaken in this work only to rely on truths which are not open to dispute but are derived from the evidence of immediate perception and admitted by the whole world. superstitious. but there is the greatest possible consensus of opinion concerning the right conformation of the faculties. Punishment has been thought to lie in metempsychosis... is and always has been esteemed by men in every age and place and respected in every land.. De Veritate According to Gay. and that we can be restored to new union with God.. traditions.... There is no general agreement concerning rites. ... in the Elysian fields. Accordingly that which is everywhere accepted as the supreme manifestation of deity. The connection of Virtue with Piety. and it would be unjust to ignore it. teach openly or implicitly that punishment or reward awaits us after this life. I term God. though there is the greatest difference of opinion as to their nature. A sense of the importance that Herbert attributed to innate Common Notions will help in understanding how devastating Locke's attack on innate ideas was for Herbert's philosophy No general agreement exists concerning the Gods. pp. then. The rewards that are eternal have been variously placed in heaven.. but there is universal recognition of God. by whatever name it may be called... There is no general agreement concerning the various rites or mysteries which the priests have devised for the expiation of sin. which has not and will not recognise the existence of punishments and rewards... sacred beings. and angels. or in temporary or everlasting death... We must. . is and always has been held to be... a Common Notion.. Blount demonstrated how to use pagan writers. While there is no general agreement concerning the worship of Gods. some sovereign deity among the Gods... The Antient Religion of the Gentiles. and . extent.. . or ignorant of causes are always liable to it.. . Every religion in the past has acknowledged.. every religion in the future will acknowledge. .

to the end of the 1740s when the tepid response to Middleton's Free Inquiry signalled its close."[37] Among the Deists.. Anthony Ashley-Cooper. clear without being deep. Locke himself was not a deist. were close to madness. —Peter Gay. and Thomas Morgan (?–1743). were self-educated freethinkers. By the 1730s. . deists turned to natural theology and to arguments based on experience and Nature: the cosmological argument and the argument from design. constructive deism could no longer appeal to innate ideas for justification of its basic tenets such as the existence of God. like Thomas Chubb (1679–1747). Innatist deism was replaced by empiricist deism. The rise of British deism (1690–1740) Peter Gay places the zenith of deism "from the end of the 1690s. the intellectual caliber of leading Deists was none too impressive. a few. Instead. and the opponents of Deism finally mustered some formidable spokesmen. English Deism went into slow decline. Locke's famous attack on innate ideas in the first book of the Essay effectively destroyed that foundation and replaced it with a theory of knowledge based on experience. like Thomas Woolston (1669–1731). Third Earl of Shaftesbury (who did not think of himself as a deist. had been offered and refined. Since Herbert's De Veritate.  Deism: An Anthology[39] ... notably John Toland (1670–1722) and Matthew Tindal (1656–1733). The Deists of these decades. but shared so many attitudes with deists that Gay calls him "a Deist in fact. It had all been said before. and better. forceful but not subtle. Charles Blount. when the vehement response to John Toland's Christianity Not Mysterious (1696) started the deist debate.. under the influence of Locke and Newton. Others. who regardless disagreed with his deist views by dint of being in holy orders in the Church of Ireland. Thomas Chubb (1679–1747).  Deism: An Anthology[37] Other prominent British deists included William Wollastson. He believed in both miracles and revelation. and he regarded miracles as the main proof of revelation. innate ideas had been the foundation of deist epistemology. First Viscount Bolingbroke. nearly all the arguments in behalf of Deism .[36] After Locke. . are of significance to the specialist alone.) After the writings of Woolston and Tindal. but dated 1690) marks a major turning point in the history of deism.. Peter Annet (1693–1769). The best known Deists. —Peter Gay. . (This last was a patron of Jonathan Swift."[38] ) and Henry St John. if not in name...Deism 10 John Locke The publication of John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689. only Anthony Collins (1676–1729) could claim much philosophical competence. only Conyers Middleton (1683–1750) was a really serious scholar. . were talented publicists..

some writers maintain that Hume's writings on religion were not very influential at the time that they were published.[41] Nevertheless."[40] Following Locke's successful attack on innate ideas. which those terrified devotees do not readily. severity. and must augment the ghastliness and horror which oppresses the amazed religionist. was already in decline before Hume's works on religion (1757. In it. In Christianity as Old as the Creation. English deism. without scruple. while men lie under dismal apprehensions of any kind.[42] . since this new foundation required that "revealed" truth be validated through human reason. but fear of the unknown. may easily be conceived. and malice must occur. which "became. was "the first and most ancient religion of mankind". not monotheism. Matthew Tindal the Use of Reason. Because almost every argument. • His skepticism about the validity of natural religion cuts equally against deism and deism's opponents. The primary religion of mankind arises chiefly from an anxious fear of future events. who were also deeply involved in natural theology. Hume contends that polytheism. David Hume In its implications for deism. the focal center of the deist controversy. . Tindal articulated a number of the basic tenets of deism: • He argued against special revelation: "God designed all Mankind should at all times know. the psychological basis of religion is not reason. and what ideas will naturally be entertained of invisible. the Natural History of Religion (1757) may be Hume's most interesting work. • Hume's skepticism about miracles makes him a natural ally of deism.  The Natural History of Religion. and has given them no other Means for this. unknown powers. the work is often termed 'the deist's Bible'.Deism 11 Matthew Tindal Especially noteworthy is Matthew Tindal's Christianity as Old as the Creation (1730). modern scholars find it interesting to study the implications of his thoughts for deism. Tindal's "Deist Bible" redefined the foundation of deist epistemology as knowledge based on experience or human reason. apply to their deity. however. cruelty. very soon after its publication. Every image of vengeance. profess. by which time deism had almost vanished in England. —David Hume.. This effectively widened the gap between traditional Christians and what he called "Christian Deists". but Dr. what he wills them to know. But his famous Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion were not published until 1779. section XIII As E." David Hume The writings of David Hume are sometimes credited with causing or contributing to the decline of deism. believe. contends Hume. In addition. And no idea of perverse wickedness can be framed..1779) were published. and issue raised for decades can be found here.[39] Furthermore. quotation. and practice. Graham Waring saw it.

and Hume scholar Paul Russell has argued that the best and safest term for Hume's views is irreligion. an atheist. was seen to be a fabric of superstitions. Primitive man was no unspoiled philosopher." in P. or something else.. who acquired a taste for Newtonian science. necessitous animal. French deists also included Maximilien Robespierre and Rousseau. as the deists had implied.Deism The clear reasonableness of natural religion disappeared before a semi-historical look at what can be known about uncivilized man— "a barbarous. An argument in favor of Kant as deist is Alan Wood's "Kant's Deism. an argument against Kant as deist is Stephen Palmquist's "Kant's Theistic Solution" [45]. Wreen (eds. The most famous of the French deists was Voltaire. in the words of Peter Gay. Voltaire at age 24 by Nicolas de Largillière . And the history of religion was not. retrograde. during a two-year visit to England starting in 1726. . "travelled well. Rossi and M. For a short period of time during the French Revolution the Cult of the Supreme Being was the state religion of France.). Hume himself was uncomfortable with the terms deist and atheist. clearly seeing the truth of one God. Bayle. it waxed in France and the German states. Natural religion. Kant's Philosophy of Religion Re-examined (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1991). Experts dispute whether Hume was a deist. and reinforcement of deistic inclinations. Kant's identification with deism is controversial. the widespread phenomenon of superstition was caused less by priestly malice than by man's unreason as he confronted his experience." as Hume termed him.. and Montesquieu. if by that term one means the actual religious beliefs and practices of uncivilized peoples.[43] 12 Continental European deism English deism. As Deism waned in England."[44] France had its own tradition of religious skepticism and natural theology in the works of Montaigne.

a treatise that helped to popularize deism throughout the USA and Europe).that God governs in the affairs of men. was not very useful. for the arguments of the Deists. Thomas Jefferson is perhaps one of the Founding Fathers with the most outspoken of Deist tendencies. American Founding Fathers. but which subsequently became more commonly known as the Jefferson Bible. exhibits a strong deist tendency of stripping away all supernatural and dogmatic references from the Christ story. that "the longer I live. who wrote the "Bible" of American deism in his Principles of Nature (1801) and attempted to organize deism by forming the "Deistical Society of New York. they were said to be the substance of sermons preached at Boyle's lectures. Benjamin Franklin. which at times gave me great trouble. Enlightenment philosophy (which itself was heavily inspired by deist ideals) played a major role in creating the principle of religious freedom. generally referring to himself as a Unitarian. and George Washington. and Hugh Williamson. deists. possibly Alexander Hamilton. "Some books against Deism fell into my hands. though he is not known to have called himself a deist.[57] In his Notes on the State of Virginia. and recollecting Keith's conduct towards me (who was another freethinker) and my own towards Vernon and Miss Read. one unpublished Ph. Thomas Jefferson. expressed in Thomas Jefferson's letters. Their political speeches show distinct deistic influence. Jefferson stated that he "trembled" at the thought that "God is just. or by the Free Agency of Man.[49] [50] [51] Benjamin Franklin wrote in his autobiography. in the Constitutional Convention. the more convincing proofs I see of this truth -. I began to suspect that this doctrine. who were especially noted for being influenced by such philosophy include Thomas Jefferson. Ethan Allen." warning of eventual "supernatural influence" to abolish the scourge of slavery. dissertation has described Jefferson as not a Deist but a "theistic rationalist".[58] . which were quoted to be refuted. because Jefferson believed in God's continuing activity in human affairs. tho' it might be true. particularly Collins and Ralph. In particular. These include James Madison. Gouverneur Morris. However.[46] and Thomas Paine (who published The Age of Reason." Thomas Paine In the United States there is controversy over whether the Founding Fathers were Christians. It happened that they wrought an effect on me quite contrary to what was intended by them. Other notable Founding Fathers may have been more directly deist."[55] For his part. and the principle of religious freedom expressed in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.D. and sets aside the Events which would otherwise have been produc'd in the Course of Nature. My arguments perverted some others. in short. or something in between. Cornelius Harnett. I soon became a thorough Deist. appeared to me much stronger than the refutations.[47] [48] Particularly heated is the debate over the beliefs of Benjamin Franklin.[56] The first-found usage of the term "theistic rationalist" is in the year 1856.[54] He later stated. his treatment of the Biblical gospels which he titled The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth."[52] [53] Franklin also wrote that "the Deity sometimes interferes by his particular Providence. or Framers of the Constitution.Deism 13 Deism in the United States In the United States. but each of them having afterwards wrong'd me greatly without the least compunction. A major contributor was Elihu Palmer (1764–1806).

and spread of naturalism[59] and materialism. Also. as that is a human characteristic which God does not contain. A modern definition[62] has been created and provided by the World Union of Deists (WUD) that provides a modern understanding of deism: Deism is the recognition of a universal creative force greater than that demonstrated by mankind. and atheism. ideas. freethought. which increased doubt about the first cause argument and the argument from design. which were atheistic • the writings of David Hume[59] [60] and Immanuel Kant[60] (and later. and consequent rising doubts that reason and rationalism could solve all problems[60] • deism became associated with pantheism. growth. turning many (though not all) potential deists towards atheism instead • criticisms (by writers such as Joseph-Marie de Maistre and Edmund Burke) of excesses of the French Revolution.Deism 14 The decline of deism Deism is generally considered to have declined as an influential school of thought by around 1800. to say that deism evolved into. This attempt has produced a wide variety of personal beliefs under the broad classification/category of belief of "deism". which in turn is why a human-like God that can lead to numerous contradictions and inconsistencies is no longer believed in and has been replaced with a much more abstract conception. Even today. there are a number of deistic Web sites. however. this means that it makes no sense to state that God intervenes or does not intervene. The Modern Deism web site includes one list of the unofficial tenets of modern deism. other religious movements. such as Pietism or Methodism. and were so criticized by Christian apologists[59] [60] • frustration with the determinism implicit in "This is the best of all possible worlds" • deism remained a personal philosophy and had not yet become an organized movement (before the advent in the 20th century of organizations such as the World Union of Deists). people self-identified as Unitarians rather than as deists[60] • an anti-deist and anti-reason campaign by some Christian clergymen and theologians such as Johann Georg Hamann to vilify deism • Christian revivalist movements. based on deistic principles. It is probably more accurate. The term deist became rarely used. which means that God transcends the personal/impersonal duality and moves beyond such human terms. which taught that a more personal relationship with a deity was possible[60] Deism today Contemporary deism attempts to integrate classical deism with modern philosophy and the current state of scientific knowledge.[61] Classical deism held that a human's relationship with God was impersonal: God created the world and set it in motion but does not actively intervene in individual human affairs but rather through Divine Providence. Charles Darwin). but deist beliefs. Some modern deists have modified this classical view and believe that humanity's relationship with God is transpersonal. and influences did not. all of which became associated with one another. supported by personal observation of laws and designs in nature and the universe. • with the rise of Unitarianism. Modern deists believe that they must continue what the classical deists started and continue to use modern human knowledge to come to understand God. perpetuated and validated by the innate . They can be seen in 19th-century liberal British theology and in the rise of Unitarianism. What this means is that God will give humanity such things as reason and compassion but this applies to all and not individual intervention. which adopted many of its beliefs and ideas. including: • the rise. and contributed to. Several factors contributed to a general decline in the popularity of deism.

pandeism. Antony Flew. The common area of agreement is the desire to use reason. Other than this distinction (and the possibility that the universe will one day return to the state of being God). and humanistic deism. In 1998 Sullivan-County. for example. including monodeism (this being the default standard concept of deism). Because deism asserts God without accepting claims of divine revelation. The 2001 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) survey. process deism. A Revolution in You [72] written by its founder and director. which involved 50. 1996 saw the first Web site dedicated to Deism with the WUD site Deism.000 self-identified adherents representing about 0. There are a number of subcategories of modern deism. From these effort. THINKonline! and Deistic Thought & Action! As well as using the Internet for spreading the Deist message. Subcategories of deism Modern deists hold a wide range of views on the nature of God and God's relationship to the world. The earliest allusion to pandeism found to date is in 1787. reported that the number of participants in the survey identifying themselves as deists grew at the rate of 717 percent between 1990 and 2001. Pandeism holds that God was a conscious and sentient force or entity that designed and created the universe. Some deists see design in nature and purpose in the universe and in their lives (Prime Designer). it appeals to people from both ends of the religious spectrum. panendeism. spiritual deism. and nature as the basis of belief. the belief that the universe is identical to God. the WUD is also conducting a direct mail campaign. Deist Info [69]. Pandeism Pandeism combines elements of deism with elements of pantheism. Bob Johnson.com to promote more traditional and historical Deist beliefs and history. Currently the WUD offers two online Deist publications. If this were generalized to the US population as a whole. In 2009 the World Union of Deists published a book on Deism. The WUD offered the monthly hardcopy publication THINK!. was a convert from atheism.02% of the US population at the time. in . and Raymond Fontaine [63] was a Roman Catholic priest for over 20 years.000 participants. with the reported total of 49. it would make deism the fastest-growing religious classification in the US for that period.Deism ability of human reason coupled with the rejection of claims made by individuals and organized religions of having received special divine revelation. pandeistic beliefs are deistic. Deism: A Revolution in Religion. The Deist Alliance has its own quarterly newsletter that is written by members and readers. In 2010 the Church of Deism [73] was formed in an effort to extend the legal rights and privileges of more traditional religions to Deists while maintaining an absence of established dogma and ritual. while others see God as a subtle and persuasive spirit (Prime Mover). This book focuses on what Deism has to offer both individuals and society. Bob Johnson established the first Deist organization since the days of Thomas Paine and Elihu Palmer with the World Union of Deists [66]. polydeism. In the last few years. experience. many other Deist sites and discussion groups have appeared on the Internet such as Positive Deism [68].com [66] . Some deists view God in classical terms and see God as observing humanity but not directly intervening in our lives (Prime Observer). God thus became an unconscious and nonresponsive being by becoming the universe. which operates by mechanisms set forth in the creation. It split from Deism. the Deist Alliance [71] was created so that many of the sites on the Internet could come together to support each other and advocate Deism. Others see God and the universe in a co-creative process (Prime Motivator).[64] [65] 15 Modern deistic organizations and websites In 1993. scientific deism.com[67] was originally the Virginia/Tennessee affiliate of WUD and the second Deism site on the Web. Modern Deism [70] and many others. Christian deism.

it is the whole creation. karma.” . Generally. A component of panendeism is "experiential metaphysics" – the idea that a mystical component exists within the framework of panendeism. deists (and why not even pandeists?) In the 1960s. and supernatural events and favor an ongoing personalized connection with the divine presence through intuition. but 'could be called a Pandeist' whose nature-God 'is not separate from the world. Spiritual Deism is extremely general and is not bound by any ideology other than the belief in one indefinable god whose spiritual presence can be felt in nature. It is nature. Virginia. Spiritual Deism is not infected by political principles or partisanship of any kind. A 1995 news article includes an early usage of the term by Jim Garvin. Spiritual Deists reject all divine revelation.' something very close to the Native American concept of the all-pervading Great Spirit. Pan-theisten. Spiritual Deists are likely to label themselves “Spiritual But Not Religious. demagoguery. They wrote: Man stelle es also den Denkern frei. doch einen Pandeisten nennen konnte.. prayer or some other type of communion. und eben so scheint es mit seiner Gottheit beschaffen zu seyn. atheists. most Spiritual Deists are more comfortable contemplating the universe as a mystery than they are in filling it with belief systems such as eternal reward.Deism translator Gottfried Große’s interpretation of Pliny the Elder’s Natural History: Plinius. den man. communion with nature. Spiritual Deists are extremely welcoming and tolerant to all except dogma. Garvin described his spiritual position as "pandeism' or 'pan-en-deism. Spiritual Deists reject the notion that God consciously intervenes in human affairs. ob sie Theisten. but not all of God. Because of this.[77] This is a major departure from Classical Deism. meditation and contemplation. allowing the seeker to experience a relationship to Deity through meditation. and went on to lead the economic development of Phoenix. omnipresent god who is the cause and/or the substance of the universe. reincarnation. Seine Natur ist die ganze Schöpfung im Konfreto. Arizona. Atheisten. theologian Charles Hartshorne scrupulously examined and rejected both deism and pandeism (as well as pantheism) in favor of a conception of God whose characteristics included "absolute perfection in some respects. concluding that "panentheistic doctrine contains all of deism and pandeism except their arbitrary negations". and it seems to be designed with divinity. Deisten (und warum nicht auch Pandeisten?)[75] This is translated as: So we should let these thinkers decide themselves whether they are theists."[78] Spiritual Deism Spiritual Deism is the religious and philosophical belief in one indefinable.[76] 16 Panendeism Panendeism combines deism with panentheism. a Vietnam veteran who became a Trappist monk in the Holy Cross Abbey of Berryville. relative perfection in all others" or "AR".[74] Here Gottfried says that Pliny is not Spinozist. pan-theists. ist Natur oder Gott kein von der Welt getrenntes oder abgesondertes Wesen. writing that this theory "is able consistently to embrace all that is positive in either deism or pandeism".. Despite his Roman Catholic post. etc. the belief that the universe is part of God. and intolerance itself.' The term was used in 1859 by German philosophers and frequent collaborators Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal in Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft. Therefore. As such. religious dogma. wo nicht Svinozisten.

Springer. [8] Joseph C. self-cleansing.or. "Please God grant me . not carrying reference to transcendence. Allen (ed) (1990). Merriam-webster.cdr:1.cd_max:12/ 31/ 1681& tbm=& bav=on. "Cousin-germans to these men are many of our great Philosophers and Deists" [4] Bailey. Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion (November 1988).[81] One of the special achievements of such deism-based humanism is that it discloses new. [9] James E. freedom. Robert (1621).lr:lang_1en. ISBN 9780889209749. Matthew Tindal argues against praying for miracles.. but advocates prayer as both a human duty and a human need. this deism-mediated exclusive humanism developed as an alternative to Christian faith in a personal God and an order of miracles and mystery. [10] "Deism Defined" (http:/ / moderndeism. . usually referred to as Spiritual Deists. Retrieved 2010-09-27. merriam-webster.cd_min:1/ 1/ 1621.[82] This is the province of a buffered self. com/ books?id=t1pQ4YG-TDIC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_ViewAPI#v=onepage& q& f=false). com/ search?q=deism& hl=en& lr=lang_en& sa=X& ei=laN0TYJXhrixA-jP2cwL& ved=0CBoQpwUoBA& source=lnt& tbs=bks:1. For example. • Some deists do not believe in divine intervention but still find value in prayer as a form of meditation. ISBN 9780792305835. Retrieved 2010-09-27. .. and carrying a sense of human capability. . com/ books?id=CFBGAAAAYAAJ& pg=PT255& dq=deism& hl=en& ei=Yq50TcHSNIH4swOAltHHCw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=deism& f=false). [3] Burton. com/ books?id=modLIHCBCIoC& pg=PA43). pp. Richard Henry Popkin (1990). [7] Justo L. [6] Ellen Judy Wilson and Peter Hanns Reill (2004). God can only be experienced through the nature of the universe. google.com. discipline. . who is the locus of dignity. ISBN 9780060633165. Nathan (1675). in Christianity as Old as the Creation. Prometheus rebound: the irony of atheism (http:/ / books. Recent discussion on role of deism Recently. .. whose ontic commitment. "first-found usage of "deist"" (http:/ / books.[79] Today.cdr:1."). 2010-08-13. Retrieved 14 August 2010. [2] "Deist – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary" (http:/ / www. Such prayers are often appreciative (that is. com/ books?id=y0LP9AiNS_wC& pg=PA83). 2. References [1] US dict: dē′·ĭzm. & fp=d73c05de5384b6af). Wilfrid Laurier Univ.[80] • Some deists. • Some deists believe that God is not an entity that can be contacted by human beings through petitions for relief. in his book on Secular Age showed the historical role of deism. . 85–. google. This humanism invokes a moral order. so no amount of supplication. Retrieved 14 August 2010. The Reformation to the present day (http:/ / books. google. McLelland.cd_max:12/ 31/ 1681& tbm=#q=deism& hl=en& lr=lang_en& sa=X& ei=mqN0Tc6jJozUtQOax43ICw& ved=0CBoQpwUoBA& source=lnt& tbs=bks:1. a non-supplicative form of prayer which is common in the New Thought movement. pp. or begging can change the fundamental nature of the universe. González (1984).com. II. and influence of Isaac Newton's theology (http:/ / books. deists hold a variety of opinions about prayer: • Some contemporary deists believe (with the classical deists) that God has created the universe perfectly. E. google. Press. com/ books?id=cPgveWnCdRcC& printsec=frontcover& dq=anatomy+ of+ melancholy& hl=en& ei=p610TbKxEYi-sQOk5dDwDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=deists& f=false). HarperCollins. practice meditation and make frequent use of Affirmative Prayer. pp. 190–.Deism 17 Opinions on prayer Many classical deists were critical of some types of prayer. google. com/ html/ deism_defined. . i. R.lr:lang_1en. 43–. com/ books?id=GWoHUb5qQccC& pg=PA190).cd_min:1/ 1/ 1621.. html). An universal etymological English dictionary (http:/ / books. disengaged. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment (http:/ / books. . Oxford University Press.[83] According to Taylor by the early 19th century. com/ dictionary/ deist). and spiritual renewal. Retrieved 2011-04-09. google. rather. The Concise Oxford Dictionary.") rather than supplicative (that is. google. Moderndeism. anthropocentric moral sources by which human beings are motivated and empowered to accomplish mutual benefit. Charles Taylor.com search for "Deism" in years 1621-1681" (http:/ / www. leading to what he calls an exclusive humanism. section IV. nature. The Anatomy of Melancholy: Part III. Retrieved 14 August 2010. . Force. is wholly intra-human. request. . "Thank you for . Essays on the context. [5] "Googlebooks.

 13. [31] "Windows into China". 163. [13] Reill. building wealth and finding God. Eerdmans. 1.toc. [36] Orr. . John (1934). described himself as "quite in the necessitarian scheme. The Eighteenth Century Background. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 11. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 06/ 08/ AR2006060801123. [29] Michael E. [27] Orr. 96–99. com/ id3/ jefferson_deist. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment. 173–89. Graham (1967). htm#excerpts). E. p. Deism: An Anthology. 140. 107. On the Providence of God in the Government of the World (http:/ / www. Skeptical Inquirer. edu/ entries/ hume-religion/ ). Graham (1967). 2001). Good discussions of individual deist writers can be found in The Seventeenth Century Background and The Eighteenth Century Background by Basil Willey. p. Graham (1967). p. [23] David Hartley. vol. "The Founding Fathers Solving modern problems. "Two Early Works of David Hartley". John (1934). [39] Gay. New York. John Parker. [20] Note the reference to Descartes' "clear and distinct ideas" [21] Note the reference to Lord Herbert of Cherbury's "common notions" [22] Waring. . [15] Willey. p. ed. Basil (1934). [48] Holmes. 59 ff. . 1–12 [19] Some mysteries are "above" reason rather than "contrary" to it. Deism and Natural Religion: A Source Book. pp. E. washingtonpost. p. John (1934). article: Deism. [42] Waring. edu/ xtf/ view?docId=DicHist/ uvaBook/ tei/ DicHist1. edu. p. Graham (1967). Paul (2005). Peter Hanns. pp.com. This was Locke's position. p. Deism and Natural Religion: A Source Book. [37] Gay. USA. [54] Benjamin Franklin. 78–79. Dawes (Westminster: John Knox Press. p. pp. p. English Deism: Its Roots and Its Fruits. Deism and Natural Religion: A Source Book. findarticles. php?title=1057& Itemid=27) (New Haven: Yale University Press..25. xml. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (http:/ / oll. lib. Eerdmans. 173. Peter (1968). org/ history/ oracle..Deism [11] Orr. no. vol. [44] Gay. 2005. [50] Gene Garman (2001). Sullivan-County. p. com/ resources/ twobf2/ provdnc. [43] Russell. . David (2006). Benjamin (2005). Van Nostrand. The Seventeenth Century Background. html [46] "Excerpts from Allen's Reason The Only Oracle Of Man" (http:/ / www. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. edu/ ~crshalizi/ LaMettrie/ Machine/ [25] See for example Liberty and Necessity (1729). 78. English Deism: Its Roots and Its Fruits. 2004). E. Peter (1968). First Things. Deism: An Anthology. Van Nostrand." (http:/ / www. 2 (April 1981). . htm). Americanrhetoric. 143. "Benjamin Franklin: An American Life" (http:/ / www. [53] "Benjamin Franklin. com/ speeches/ benfranklin. id=dv1-77. firstthings. NY: Library of America. edu/ ~walters/ web 103/ Ben Franklin. "Hume on Religion" (http:/ / plato. umf. id=dv1-77. [45] http:/ / www. John (1934). Van Nostrand.com. Peter (1968). 1966). p. English Deism: Its Roots and Its Fruits. "Was Thomas Jefferson a Deist?" (http:/ / www. hk/ ~ppp/ srp/ arts/ KTS. virginia. Graham (1967). sullivan-county.. See Ferg. [34] Orr. 19. html). New York.brand=default) in the on-line Dictionary of the History of Ideas. htm). ISBN 0521547245 [33] Willey. pp. English Deism: Its Roots and Its Fruits. Deism and Natural Religion: A Source Book. English Deism: Its Roots and Its Fruits. 451. . stanford. 9–10. [51] Walter Isaacson (March–April. Peter (1968). John (1934). Stephen. Eidenmuller. John Hobson. for example. p. Deism and Natural Religion: A Source Book. [41] Orr. ISBN 0890730504 [32] "The Eastern origins of Western civilization". [24] http:/ / www. Van Nostrand. Van Nostrand. Poor Richard. libertyfund. [18] Quoted in Deism and Natural Religion: A Source Book. Benjamin Franklin: Autobiography. com/ ftissues/ ft0501/ articles/ dulles. ISBN 1883011531. E. Journal of the History of Philosophy. [14] Waring. Eerdmans. University of Maine. "Benjamin Franklin – Constitutional Convention Address on Prayer" (http:/ / www. . p. 113. 114 ff. Deism: An Anthology. pp. [55] Max Farrand. [38] Gay. [35] Gay. John (1934). cscs. [40] Waring. 134. 619. p. Introduction. and Later Writings. [17] Waring. p. [26] Orr. Van Nostrand. John (1934). Deism: An Anthology. Farmington. Retrieved 2010-09-27. [47] "The Deist Minimum" (http:/ / www. [16] Gay. Facts On File. xv. htm). Peter (1968). depth=1. php?option=com_staticxt& staticfile=show. maine.toc. xv. historycarper. p. htm). pp. umich. Retrieved 2009-12-17. Deism: An Anthology. [30] The discussion of the background of deism is based on the excellent summary in "The Challenge of the Seventeenth Century" in The Historical Jesus Question by Gregory W. ISBN 0195300920. 47–48. Eerdmans. Deism: An Anthology. htm)(1730).chunk. 137. Basil (1940). com/ p/ articles/ mi_m2843/ is_2_28/ ai_114090213/ pg_1). ethanallenhomestead. Eerdmans. [12] See the entry for "Deism" (http:/ / xtf. Autobiography" (http:/ / faculty. pp. [28] Orr. English Deism: Its Roots and Its Fruits. p194-195. Ellen Judy Wilson (1996). Washington Post. [49] David Liss (11 June 2006). NY: Oxford University Press. 18 . org/ index. Introduction. English Deism: Its Roots and Its Fruits. americanrhetoric. Peter (1968). Ethan Allen Homestead Museum. hkbu. E. [52] Franklin. . pp. Eerdmans.

org [74] Große. (2007). htm).cdr:1.htm)]]. positivedeism. The Principles of Nature (http://www. [58] Gregg L. com [67] "Deism and Reason" (http:/ / www. [78] Albuquerque Journal. Mass: Harvard University Press. panendeism. html). htm#_Toc86950608) [80] "Deism Defined. . "Deism". English translation 1954) A History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century by Sir Leslie Stephen. ca/ search?q="Theistic+ rationalism"& hl=en& sa=X& ei=N9tpTajZKpG4sAPjj7imBA& ved=0CBkQpwUoBA& source=lnt& tbs=bks:1. 2004. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. adherents. html). com/ deism. p. quoting Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia. J. [75] Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal. [81] (Taylor. com/ html/ deism_defined.cd_min:1000-12-23. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy.cdr:1. [63] http:/ / www. 256) [82] (ibd. 2 volumes (1876. utm. deist. [[The Age of Reason (http://www. deism. California. . Vol.cd_max:1860-12-31& tbm=#q="Theistic+ rationalism"& hl=en& sa=X& ei=ZttpTdTAI5PmsQO27fGkDA& ved=0CBkQpwUoBA& source=lnt& tbs=bks:1. Retrieved 2010-09-27.com/deismbook. html [62] "Deism Defined" (http:/ / www. . [59] "English Deism" (http:/ / www. The Radical Rhetoric of the English Deists: The Discourse of Skepticism. A Secular Age. 76-77. p. . 262. Ernest Campbell (1967).cd_min:1000-12-23. 326–336. Deist Glossary and Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / deism. moderndeism. [65] "Largest Religious Groups in the United States of America" (http:/ / www. Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft (1859).com/principlesofnature. 2. [76] Charles Hartshorne. com/ deism_defined. 1800 ed. 348 ISBN 0-208-00498-X. com/ Original.htm). sullivan-county. 257) [83] (ibd. gc. dissertation).deism. A Revolution in You (http://www. 1995. deism. 1902) A History of Freethought: Ancient and modern.com. Claremont Graduate University. htm [73] http:/ / www. [68] http:/ / www. htm). [61] http:/ / www. Claremont Graduate University. Important discussions of deism can be found in: • • • • English Deism: Its Roots and Its Fruits by John Orr (1934) European Thought in the Eighteenth Century by Paul Hazard (1946. Claremont. 2009-06-25. Thus this would not have be a term Jefferson would likely have used for himself. google. moderndeism. 2004. Retrieved 2010-09-27. Retrieved 2009-12-16. dissertation). 1984) . Deism. Panendeism. p. Collier-MacMillan. (1997). htm#Hume's Influence). p. [57] "Googlebooks search for "theistic rationalism"" (http:/ / www. Palmer. org [72] http:/ / www. The Political Theology of the American Founding (Ph.htm). Gottfried (1787). James A.D. pp. com [71] http:/ / www. . com/ books?id=6ro9AAAAcAAJ& pg=PA165& dq=pandeisten& ei=YiknS8ydDo3iyATjvZnbCA& cd=2#v=onepage& q=pandeisten& f=false). Claremont. [60] Mossner. com/ to-natures-god. Deism: A Revolution in Religion. Frazer. Thomas (1795). 164.com. 3rd ed. Elihu. November 11. B-10. 2001" (http:/ / www. Cambridge. [66] http:/ / www.deism. . cuny. p.cd_max:1857-12-31& tbm=& fp=ff5583dee75015d6). 75. com [69] http:/ / www.deism. The Political Theology of the American Founding (Ph. edu/ research/ iep/ d/ deismeng. Adherents. . University of South Carolina Press. Frazer. . com/ deism_defined. churchofdeism.262) 19 Bibliography • • • • Paine. htm). Naturgeschichte: mit erläuternden Anmerkungen (http:/ / books.. Betts (Martinus Nijhoff. dynamicdeism. Sullivan-county. [77] "Welcome to" (http:/ / www. google.Deism [56] Gregg L.com. [79] External link to portion of text (http:/ / www. Herrick. com/ rel_USA. C. Welcome to Deism. htm). org/ library/ christianity_as_old_as_the_creat. deistalliance. info [70] http:/ / www. pp. . deism. 2006. Saturday.D. California. to the period of the French revolution by John Mackinnon Robertson (1915) Other studies of deism include: • Early Deism in France: From the so-called 'deistes' of Lyon (1564) to Voltaire's 'Lettres philosophiques' (1734) by C. net [64] "ARIS key findings. p. edu/ faculty/ research_briefs/ aris/ key_findings. com/ deismbook.com/theageofreason.com. Man's Vision of God and the Logic of Theism (1964) p. Retrieved 2010-09-27. deism. 1680–1750.

Newark. 1967) 20 External links Informational links • • • • • • • • • • • • • A Critical Examination at Deism (http://www.cgi?id=dv1-77) – Dictionary of the History of Ideas Deism in English (http://en. Anthologies of deist writings include: • Deism: An Anthology by Peter Gay (Van Nostrand.html) World Union of Deists (http://www.htm) .com) Works by Thomas Paine • collection of essays (http://www.net) Church of Deism (http://churchofdeism.org/deism.htm) Deism (http://etext. Leo Lemay.htm) Unified Deism (http://www.religioustolerance.com/deism.org/etext/3743) at Project Gutenberg • The Age of Reason.sullivan-county.virginia. Graham Waring (Frederick Ungar.htm) – Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) The Rise and Fall of English Deism (http://ontruth. Ed.edu/cgi-local/DHI/dhi.newadvent.sullivan-county.com/deism.iep.htm) • The Age of Reason (http://www.gutenberg.com/the_age_of_reason_paine.Deism • The Seventeenth Century Background: Studies on the Thought of the Age in Relation to Poetry and Religion by Basil Willey (1934) • The Eighteenth Century Background: Studies on the Idea of Nature in the Thought of the Period by Basil Willey (1940) • Simon Tyssot de Patot and the Seventeenth-Century Background of Critical Deism by David Rice McKee (Johns Hopkins Press.deizm. The Complete Edition (http://www.edu/d/deismfre.org) English Deism (http://www. 1987.utm.com) Deist Links (http://tvftm.lib. University of Delaware Press.htm) – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy French Deism (http://www. 1968) • Deism and Natural Religion: A Source Book by E.com) The Origins of English Rationalism (http://www. Masonry. J.htm) – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Deism (http://www.utm. Essays Honoring Alfred Owen Aldridge.org/cathen/04679b. 1941) • The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus During the Deist Controversy by William Lane Craig (Edwin Mellen. A.deism.iep.unifieddeism. and the Enlightenment.com/paine.deism.edu/d/deismeng.deism.htm) – ReligiousTolerance.org Deism (http://www. 1985) • Deism.com/deism/eng_rat.

LenW. Pigman. Yst.0/ . Tediouspedant. Michael A. Kimon. User2004. after an engraving by William Sharp (died 1824). Madmedea.php?title=File:Edward_Herbert_1st_Baron_Herbert_of_Cherbury_by_Isaac_Oliver. Kintetsubuffalo.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Beria. Scott97007. Mutter Erde. Haipa Doragon.83. Corwin8. Morwen. Southleft. Trödel. Chsbcgs. Kotra. Wolfnix. Durral. RK. Philippe Couplet et al Image:Edward Herbert 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury by Isaac Oliver. Eparksbuckeye. Pimpinseacow. Hammaad. 21655. Dennis Brown. Bwanab.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Andreagrossmann. SDC. Jocke666. Christofurio.wikipedia. Cerireid. Adraeus. CodeMonk. Plastikspork. YrPolishUncle. Technogiddo.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Den fjättrade ankan at sv. BobTheTomato. Cybercobra. Midnightcomm. Awawawawoo. Gabbe. Kahriman. BD2412. Ginsengbomb. The Thing That Should Not Be. Aquillion. Gogo Dodo. Zenmobster1023. Former user. Griswaldo. T3gah. 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