Chanakya was a teacher to the first Maurya Emperor Chandragupta (c.

340–293 BCE), and generally considered to be the architect of his rise to power. Traditionally, Chanakya is also identified by the names Kauṭilya and Vishnugupta Sharma, who authored the ancient Indian political treatise called Arthashastra. It is important to identify Chanakya as a great Indian because his cultural significance has reached far and wide, and his words are just as internalised in other parts of South Asia. Chanakya has been considered as the pioneer of the field of economics and political science. Chanakya was a teacher in Takṣhasila, an ancient centre of learning, and was responsible for the creation of Mauryan empire, the first of its kind on the Indian subcontinent. His works were lost near the end of the Gupta dynasty and not rediscovered until 1915. Identity Two books are attributed to Chanakya: Arthashastra and Neetishastra which is also known as Chanakya Niti. The Arthashastra discusses monetary and fiscal policies, welfare, international relations, and war strategies in detail. Neetishastra is a treatise on the ideal way of life, and shows Chanakya's in-depth study of the Indian way of life. Chanakya also developed Neeti-Sutras (aphorisms - pithy sentences) that tell people how they should behave. Of these well-known 455 sutras, about 216 refer to raaja-neeti (the do's and don'ts of running a kingdom). Apparently, Chanakya used these sutras to groom Chandragupta and other selected disciples in the art of ruling a kingdom. Legend The Nanda King throws Chanakya out of his court, prompting Chanakya to swear revenge. Chanakya searches for one worthy for him to rule through. Chanakya encounters a young Chandragupta Maurya who is a born leader even as a child. Chanakya established monarchial system in ancient historical times in India. He may be main architect to groom a child, but his means to reach power were manipulative and secretive. Chanakya's initial attempt to overthrow Nanda fails, whereupon he comes across a mother scolding her child for burning himself by eating

hold that Chanakya was one of them. Magadh (Modern day Patna. Chanakya's life was connected to these two cities.from the middle of a bun or bowl of porridge rather than the cooler edge. Bihar. the Sanskrit form of "Tamilian". a sub-sect of Iyers. he poured buttermilk on the tree so that the ants will gather around tree and finish the tree to its last pieces. Chanakya enjoyed the best education of the time. This claim finds curious echos in Parishista-parvan. In Takshashila.c. According one tradition. instead of attacking the heart of Nanda territory. Chanakya was a native of Dravida.350 . slowly chips away at its edges. there is an anecdote which says a thorn had pricked his foot once. Birth and Origin Chanakya (c. Political turmoil in Western India at that time caused by Greek invasion forced Chanakya to leave the University environment for the city of . Chanakya realizes his initial strategic error and. There is also a claim that Chanakya belonged to the Brahmin group from the present day Kerala and believed to be resident of present day Ernakulam. According to the Kashmiri version of his legend. After that instead of uprooting the tree. The Kingdom of Magadha maintained contact with Takshasila. being a very common variant of Dravida). Chanakya. India). The school had by that time existed for at least five centuries and attracted students from all over the ancient world of Southeast Asia. where Hemachandra claims that Chankya was a Dramila (Dramila. also known as Anshul or Anshu or Kauṭilya or Vishnugupta was born in a family of Brahmin as the son of Acharya Chanak in Pataliputra.Takshasila had established itself as a place of learning.275 BC). Pataliputra and Takshasila. in 'Takshashila' (present day Pakistan). Chozhiars. he became a teacher of politics. One of Chanakya's various names was Dramila. ("Dramila" is believed to be the root of the word "Dravida" by some scholars).

Chanakya Neeti Broadly speaking. It is essential that the state keeps an eye on the occupation of excess land by the landlords and unauthorized use of land. This ended with Chanakya being removed from an official position he enjoyed. Although Chanakya initially prospered in his relations with the ruler. • An egalitarian society where there are equal opportunities for all. • The nation should envisage to construct forts and cities. Ideally the state should monitor the most important and vital resource – Land. • • Internal trade was more important to Chanakya than external trade. • Establishment of new colonies for the augmentation of resources. Chanakya dreamt of a country reaching the following levels of development in terms of ideologies and social and economic development: • A self sufficient economy which is not dependent on foreign trade. so that there is no chance of tax evasion. irrespective of the person . The cities would act as giant markets increasing the revenue of the state. a minimal amount of tax should be collected. He also advocated the development of the already annexed colonies. beginning from sowing of seeds to harvest. • The state should take care of agriculture at all times. the efficient management of land is essential for the development of resources. which was ruled by the Nanda king Dhanananda. These complexes would protect the country from invasions and provide internal security. The state should collect taxes at a bare minimum level. His imperialistic views can be interpreted as the development of natural and man made resources. At each point of the entry of goods.Pataliputra. • • Laws of the state should be the same for all. • According to Chanakya. being a blunt person he was soon disliked by Dhanananda. Government machinery should be directed towards the implementation of projects aimed at supporting and nurturing the various processes.

BOOK IX. Conduct of Courtiers. Concerning Law. Material pleasures and achievements are always secondary to the spiritual development of the society and country at large. Antisocial elements should be kept under check along with the spies who may enter the country at any time. Concerning Discipline BOOK II. • • Chanakya envisioned a society where the people are not running behind material pleasures. The Duties of Government Superintendents. Removal of Thorns. The Conduct of Corporations. Concerning a Powerful Enemy. BOOK X.who is involved in the case. Arthashastra consists of 15 parts which are as follows (by sections and books) BOOK I. which were composed by ancient teachers. BOOK XI. • • Security of the citizens at peace time is very important because state is the only saviour of the men and women who get affected only because of the negligence of the state. BOOK VIII. . BOOK XIII. The Source of Sovereign States. BOOK VI. BOOK VII. Destitute women should be protected by the society because they are the result of social exploitation and the uncouth behavior of men. Control over the sense organs is essential for success in any endeavour. BOOK XII. The Work of an Invader. Strategic Means to Capture a Fortress. BOOK IV. Concerning Vices and Calamities. Spiritual development is essential for the internal strength and character of the individual. BOOK V. BOOK III. Relating to War. The End of Sixfold Policy. Chanakya's Arthashastra Chanakya mentions that his Arthashastra is made as a compendium of almost all the Arthasástras.

000 slokas. Secret Means. Analysis of His Works Artha is one of the of life (Purshartha) besides dharma. kama & moksha. social psychology. economics and finance (Muniapan. 2005:b). Increasingly the understanding of management is coming to depend on understanding. Management and Kautilya’sArthashastra Management is an interdisciplinary field with contributions from various fields such as psychology. however studies specifically in the context of organizational management is limited. • Kumar & Rao (1996) conducted a study of value based management from Kautilya’s Arthashastra. • Narayana (2002) integrated Kautilya’s Arthashastra into strategic leadership. Sihag (2004) researched Kautilya on the scope and methodology of accounting. organizational design and the role of ethics in ancient India. There are on the whole 15 books.BOOK XIV. The Plan of a Treatise. 150 chapters. sociology. • Radhakrishnan (2005) identified and exposed some of the Kautilyan management fundamentals. anthropology. • In his Arthashastra. political science. • Muniapan & Shaikh (2007) explored lessons in corporate governance from Kautilya’s Arthashastra in ancient India. 180 sections and 6. Kautilya made references to various Acharyas who include Bharadvaja. Parasara. which is the basis for human resource management. Pisuna and Kaunapadanta. • Garde (2003) made a study on Kautilya's aphorisms on management. Manu. • The earliest Arthashastra can be found from the Ayodhya Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana and in the Santi Parva of the Vyasa Mahabharata Several studies have been done on various aspects of Arthashastra by Kautilya. Visalaksa. BOOK XV. Contemporary management also includes issues related to cross-cultural management and international management. analyzing and predicting organizational behavior. One of the keys to successful management . Such are the contents of this Science. among others.

machinery. thereby. • Resources generated by organizations includes manpower development. . market penetration and diversification strategies. eat into his wealth. • According to Kautilya. • Further generation of resources requires expansion of the kingdom (organization) not by war but through market & product development. money. methods & markets. If the king is energetic. team or a unit. social responsibility. • Resources will make ethical conduct or behaviour possible & vice versa. If the leader is slack (and lazy in performing his duties) the subjects will also be lazy. Hence the king should himself always be energetic. Besides. his subjects will be equally energetic. human resource management. Managers must develop an in-depth knowledge of past and present models. materials. organization. etc. theories and processes to manage effectively and intelligently. corporate governance. then labha (gain or profit). • Management must strive to generate resources based on ethical conduct or behaviour. The leader of any organization should be able to maintain high standards while running an organization. a lazy king will easily fall into the hands of the enemies. financial management. The Kautilya’s Arthashastra deals with different aspects management which includes strategic the ability to understand and apply management principles and techniques efficiently and effectively. The basis of resources is kingdom • To generate resources you need an enterprise. dharma without resources is toothless & resources without dharma is useless. accounting. so will be his people (followers) Kautilya emphasized the importance of leadership by example. Kautilya on Leadership Kautilya had stated that as a king (leader) is. Contemporary management practice is pervasive in every aspect of human life within all types of organizations. • Shubh (goodness or auspiciousness) must come first.

• The conquest of senses is rooted in discipline & training in ethics & morals – should begin from childhood. • This also involves control of 6 enemies within (desires. gains/losses. extending to Bengal. There are . hot/cold should be taken with equanimity.Kautilya on Organizational Management Managing an organization need to be carried out with help of senior leaders or management thinkers. – organization is rooted in the conquest of senses • Victory over the senses means control of 5 organ of sense & 5 organs of action • Only a leader who has conquers the organs of his body would be able to put organizational interest first before his self interest. also includes pride & foolhardiness. – conquering the senses is rooted in training • The first chapter of Arthashastra is ‘vinaya adhikarikam’or book on moral training. victory/defeat. although the context it was written was for kings to govern the state. •Mauryan Empire was continued by his son Bindusara and by his grandson King Asoka . anger. greed. a careful study the Arthashastra will be useful for expanding business empire. Conclusion Kautilya’s Arthashatra is one of the ancient Indian literature which had provided some insights to management. • The control of the mind. The Impact of Kautilya’s Arthashastra •Chandragupta Maurya was considered to be the unifier of India during the 4th Century B. arrogance. One wheel does not support transportation. •Today. infatuation & envy). •Mauryan Empire expansion included Afghanistan. therefore it is necessary to appoint senior leaders or management thinkers and listen to their opinion. all experiences such as happiness/sorrow. all the way to the border of Persia (Iran).C.

which is yet to be known and practiced in the modern management.many management concepts from Kautilya’s Arthashastra. . The author hopes that more studies in the areas of organizational management such as strategic management. which are still applicable in today’s organizational management. financial management and human resource management from Kautilya’s Arthashastra can be undertaken for future research. A deeper study of the book will open many new areas of management concepts.