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Ajifu 1 Works Cited African Slave Trade Routes. Digital image. Exploring Africa. Exploring Africa, n.d. Web.

1 Dec. 2012. <http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m15/activity3.php>. This image depicts the African Slave Trade routes around the world, but predominantly among the Americas. It helps to show the closeness between the African continent and Brazil, compared to Africa and the United States. The visual image assists in communicating the idea that because of the proximity of Brazil and Africa, slaves were more easily attainable, which contributed to the various degree of treatment of imported slaves. Baronov, David. The Abolition of Slavery in Brazil: The "Liberation" of Africans through the Emancipation of Capital. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000. Questia School. Web. 6 Nov. 2012 This eBook provided information that contributed to the background history of the slave industry and the influence of Brazils development as a slave based society. It was useful to understand the foundation of the slave society that was established in Brazil before a discussion of the effects of the end of slavery took place. Black in Latin America Brazil: A Racial Paradise? Perf. Professor Henry Louis Gates Jr. PBS, 2011. Online. This movie special had a variety of information and interviews led by Professor Henry Louis Gates Jr. on his investigation to find out if Brazil is a racial paradise. One of the professors favorite quote from Manuel Querino was included. This video was resourceful and included firsthand perspectives on the state of Brazils racial democracy. Brazil, Land of Color, Music, Beauty and Diversity. Digital image. Worldfolio. AFA Press, Aug. 2011. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.worldfolio.co.uk/region/south-

Ajifu 2 america/brazil/mario-moyses-tourism>. This picture shows the beauty of Brazil and the land it has to offer. This further reinforces the idea that the land can be developed because of the rich natural resources available. "Brazilian History: Abolition of Slavery." Brazilian History Abolition of Slavery. N.p., 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://histclo.com/country/other/bra/hist/bh-abol.html>. This site provided information regarding actions taken after slavery was abolished in Brazilian education. A picture provided on this website, with the accompanying information shows how the Brazilian education system did not segregate black children from white children. "Capoeira." Enso Martial Arts. Enso Martial Arts Supplies, 12 Oct. 2009. Web. 5 Nov. 2012. <ensomartialarts.com/articles/?tag=traditional-slave-dance>. This site provided information about the history of the Brazilian martial art and dance form called capoeira. It gave background information about how this art form came to be and how it thrives in Brazil today. Capoeira: The Dance. Digital image. Capoeira Classes. Rio, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.rio.com/practical-rio/capoeira-classes>. This is a current picture of capoeira schools in Brazil. The legacy of the slaves continues forward and is maintained today, since it is being continued through education of the younger generations. Condition of Freed Slaves 1913. Digital image. Brazilian History: Independent Brazil's Economic Development. Historical Boy's Clothing, 9 Feb. 2009. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://histclo.com/country/other/bra/hist/bh-ieco.html>. This photograph is a first hand look at how much the newly freed slaves suffered financially. These people lived in one of the richest areas of Brazil, but in their rural lands, they were still

Ajifu 3 poor. Formalization of the 1988 Constitution. Digital image. History Today. Atias Chemicals, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://atias.com.br/English/index.php/the-company/history/>. This primary image shows the celebration during the formalization of Brazils constitution in 1988. This is an important event in Brazils history because they established themselves as a democratic nation. Frota, Beto. Capoeira in the Sunset. Digital image. Flickr. Yahoo!, 21 June 2009. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/beto_frota/3817838730/>. This picture shows the beauty of capoeira in Brazil. This martial arts and dance form helped slaves to defend themselves against the harsh treatment of their slave masters. Geipel, John. "Brazil's African Legacy." History Today. Ed. Roy Porter and Peter Burke. History Today Ltd., Aug. 1997. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.historytoday.com/johngeipel/brazils-african-legacy>. This article contributed information to the political impact of slavery on Brazil. After the importing of slaves was made illegal, some people still managed to import illegal black gold, which is another reference to African slaves. Heeb, Christian. Christ the Redeemer and Rio de Janeiro. Digital image. Brazil. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/countries/brazil-guide/>. This picture of Christ the Redeemer and Rio de Janeiro shows the beauty of Brazil. Herring, Hubert. Good Neighbors: Argentina, Brazil, Chile & Seventeen Other Countries. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1941. Questia School. Web. 6 Nov. 2012.

Ajifu 4 This eBook provided information about slave imports in Brazil for four centuries: the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. The slave trade in Brazil provided a large amount of labor that contributed to the economic success of industries like sugar and gold mining. Lei urea. Digital image. As Limitaes Da Lei urea. Mundo Educacao, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.mundoeducacao.com.br/historiadobrasil/as-limitacoes-lei-aurea.htm>. This is a picture of Lei urea and Princess Isabel. This is the document that freed slaves in Brazil and Princess Isabel was the instituted this event. Mann, Charles C., and Susanna Hecht. "Maroon People." Where Slaves Ruled. National Geographic, Apr. 2012. Web. 07 Oct. 2012. <http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2012/04/maroon-people/mann-hecht-text>. This article provided historical and current information about the quilombolas and the hidden societies that they live in. It gave insight on controversial issues regarding land distribution or deforestation for development. Manuel Raimundo Querino. Digital image. Source Gravata 40 Years. N.p., 9 June 2001. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.fontedogravata.org/2001_06_09_archive.html>. This photo of Manuel Raimundo Querino, writer and Afro-Brazilian historian, reinforces the quote that it accompanies. Maroon People. Digital image. Doladodeca, 22 June 2011. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.doladodeca.com.br/2011/06/22/quilombolas-do-maranhao-recebem-apoiodo-governo-federal/>. This is a picture of the quilombolas, or the maroon people that live in quilombos. These people were either slaves or descended from former slaves. This image shows the faces of younger

Ajifu 5 people with a slow progression of faces of older people living in these hidden societies. Ponti, Viviane. Carnival, Brazil. Digital image. Lonely Planet, 2011. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://www.lonelyplanet.com/brazil/images/carnival-brazil$26710-6>. This is a picture of one of the performances in Brazils Carnival, which is a celebration of its multi-cultural background. It is a recent picture that shows how different types of people come together to celebrate and embrace their cultural differences. Quilombos. Digital image. Doladodeca, 22 June 2011. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.doladodeca.com.br/2011/06/22/quilombolas-do-maranhao-recebem-apoiodo-governo-federal/>. This is a picture of a sign written in Portuguese, which says Communities, Maroon People, Land Rights. It is a primary source of protest from the people, in which they want to speak out about the rights of the Maroon people to land that theyve occupied for many, many years. The Brazilian government wants to take away their land, to produce it for economic benefit, but it is also a big political issue. Sao Paulo. Digital image. Brazlian History: Independent Brazil's Economic Development. Historical Boy's Clothing, 9 Feb. 2009. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://histclo.com/country/other/bra/hist/bh-ieco.html>. This is a primary photograph of the living conditions of newly freed slaves living in Sao Paulo in 1913. It shows how poor the Africans were and how much they still suffered, economically, in a society that ended slave trade. Snider, Colin M. Golden Law. Digital image. Americas South and North. Wordpress, 2 Sept. 2012. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://americasouthandnorth.wordpress.com/2012/09/02/getto-know-a-brazilian-princess-isabel/>.

Ajifu 6 This is a primary document of Princess Isabels Golden Law, which abolished slavery in 1888. This is a very important piece of Brazilian history, because it freed a vast amount of its people from the slave trade. Stuenkel, Oliver. Brazil and Africa. Digital image. Brazil in Africa: Bridging the Atlantic? PostWestern World, 15 Jan. 2012. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.postwesternworld.com/2012/01/15/brazil-in-africa-bridging-the-atlantic/>. This illustration shows the relationship between Brazil and the African continent. It further reinforces the points being made about the African influence on Brazilian culture. Taylor, Kit Sims. Sugar and the Underdevelopment of Northeastern Brazil, 1500-1970. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, 1978. Questia School. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. This eBook provided lots of information about the conditions of Brazil during the slave trade and their involvement in the sugar industry. Sugar was a major industry in Brazil and was a large contributor to the Brazilian economy. Turner, Tyrone. "Where Slaves Ruled - Photo Gallery - Pictures, More From National Geographic Magazine." Where Slaves Ruled - Photo Gallery. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2012. <http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2012/04/maroon-people/turnerphotography>. This gallery of photos is a first hand experience for photographer, Tyrone Turner with the maroon people living in quilombos. These hidden communities still thrive in Brazil today. Zweig, Stefan, and Andrew James. Brazil, Land of the Future. New York: Viking, 1941. Questia School. Web. 6 Nov. 2012.

Ajifu 7 This eBook provided information about the natural resources of Brazil and how useful it could potentially be for its people. These facts back up the points being made about decisions political leaders have taken in trying to develop the land for industrial purposes.