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OC-Classical views-Taylor(functioning of d org would improve if d principles of sci mgt were followed,study d job scienticaly

2 develop 1 best method,select employees scientifically&train 7 devlop them 2 make them competent,coop among workers and managers,divide responsibility betw managers&workers)Taylor believed that conflicts betwn managers&workers would disappear if these principles were applied.Fayol(advocated that managerial functions such as planning,organizing,commanding,coordination&control are applicable to all sorts of orgal human behavior.)Weber(was father of bureaucratic mgt,believed that bureaucratic form of org would be most effective from or org, Main principles of bureaucratic org are-well defined hierarchy of authority,division of labor based on functional specialization,formal rules& regulations,impersonality,selection&promotion based on merit only)Mary Parker Follet(she noted d value of constructive conflict in an org,argues”We bcome more&more developed as our conflict rise 2 higher level”,advocated d need 2 form integrative or problem solving method 4 managing orgal conflict,believed that other methods of handling conflict such as avoidance,dominance,compromise, were ineffective in dealing with conflict) OC-Neo Classical View-Elton Mayo(was d father of human relations movement,emphasized d need 4 coop 4 enhancing orgal effectiveness,2 him C was an evil&should b minimized or if possible eliminated from orgs altogether) Little&Whyte(“Harmony in an undesirable goal 4 d functioning of an org.the obj should nt b 2 build a harmonious org,bt 2 build an org capable of recognizing d problem it faces and develop ways of solving these problems.since C is inevitable part of orgal life it is important that conflict resolution procedures b built into d design of org ”)

Robbins(presented d philosophies of orgal C,classical view of C was based on d assumption that C was detrimental 2 an org&it must b reduced,behavioralist’s philosophy was that C was inevitable in org&managers should encourage moderate amount of C 4 making org effective,d philosophy of C of d interactionist is d third philosophy, C was absolutely necessary for making a group viable,self-critical and innovative,managers shouls both stimulate&resolve C according 2 their nature,mgt of C is a major responsibility of all administrator,C is a means of generating agreement&of creating agreed upon terms of negotiation,it bcomes an instrument of social change&influence,orgal C is considered legitimate&inevitable&a positive indicator of effective orgal mgt,little or no C in an org lead 2 stagnation, poor decisions,&ineffectiveness) Thomas Hobbes&John Locke(they suggested that purpose of govt is 2 establish order in social relations without which there would b consyant violence btwn human beings,persons are their own enemies or enemies of others or both,Locke opined that govt is 2 b organized by d ppl through their common consent&its duty was preservation of lives,liberties&estates,govt should conctol C) Hegel-Hegel’s philosophy was dominated by d dialect which has developed 4 different meanings(arriving at d truth,dialogue or debate,process of ascertaining truth,process of change through d C of opposing forces)

DofC-March&Simon consider C as a breakdown in d standard mechanism of dec mak so that a person or group faces difficulty in selecting an alternativeDavis defines C as a disagreement over d goals 2 attain or methods 2 b used 2 accomplish goals-Pondy(1967) argued that orgal C can best b understood as a dynamic process underlying orgal behavior-Tedeschi (1973) defines C as an alternative state in which d behaviors or goals of one actor are 2 some degree incompatible with d behaviors of some other actors-Smith defines C as a situation in which d conditions,practices,goals 4 different participants r inherently incompatible-Litterer(1966) defines C as a type of behavior which occurs when 2 or more parties r in opposition or in battle as a result of perceived relative deprivation from d activities of or interacting with another person or group. CofC-according 2 Charles Darwin-the biological principles of “Struggle for existence” and “d survival of d fittest” r d main cause of conflict—Sigmund Freud&other psychologist hold the view that d innate instinct 4 aggression in man is d main cause of conflict.(1.Individual difference2.Cultural difference3.Clashes of interest4.Social change)Bell&Hart 8 CofC(1.Conflicting resources2. Conflicting style3. Conflicting perceptions4. Conflicting goals5. Conflictingpressures6. Conflictingroles7.Different personal values8.Unpredictable policies )5CofC-(1.Differing values can lead 2 C2.Making assumptions can lead 2 C3.Differing expectation can lead 2 C4.Differences in d way u were brought up can result in C5.Knowledge&ability 2 deal with d C can result in C) C Res Scenario-1.Ignore d C2.Smooth over d C3.Use ur authority 2 settle d C4.Negotiate a resolution 2 d C5.Use collaboration 2 resolve d C— Types(specifically 3-task,relationship,process)-1.War2.feud or factional strife3.Litigation4.C of impersonal ideas— Types(Personal,Racial,Political,Int’l,Class)—(Persoanl or Corporate,Latent or Overt)

Managing C-Approaches(2 reduce/resolve)- A.Change d factor that cause C(increase resource available,redesign reward system,take steps 2 improve commu)B.Use an appropriate techniques 4enhancing coor(making use of managerial hierarchy,relying on rules&regulations,enlisting liaison persons,forming task force,integrating depts)C.Appeal 2 super-ordinate goalsD.Matching(personalities&work habits) 5Maor Interpersonal-A.AvoidanceB.Competition(Attemting 2 convince another that your conclusion is correct& He is mistaken)C.Accommodation(willing 2 sacrifice ur goal so that d other party’s goal can b attained)D.Compromise(willing 2 accept a raise of 100 Taka per hour rather than Tk. 200 2 acknowledge partial agreement with a specific viewpoint & 2 take partial blame for an infraction).E.CollaborationF.Confrontation C&Negotiation-is a process of bargaining in which 2 or more parties who hv different preferences must make joint decisions&come 2 an agreement.—The Traditional View—The Human Relations View—The Interactionist View.The C Process-S1.Potential opposition or incompatibility(communi,Structure,Personal variables,)S2.Cognition&personalization(perceived, felt)S3.Intentions(C handling intensions-X-Coop-Y-Assertiveness-Competing, Avoiding,Compromising, Collaborating,Accommodating)S4.Behavior(Overt Cparty’s behavior,other’s reaction)S5.Outcomes(increased group perf,decreased gr perf)—Negotiation-Bargaining strategies(Distributive,Integrative,)The Negotiation Process(Preparation&planning,Definition of ground rules,clarification&justification,bargaining&problem solving,closure&implementation)—Issues in Negotiation-D role of personality traits in N,Gender difference in N,Cultural differences in N,thirdparty N(mediator,arbitrator,conciliator,consultant)