1. Covalent bond: A covalent bond is a bond formed by sharing of electrons betwee n atoms.

In a covalent bond, the shar ed pair of electrons belongs to the valence shell of both the atoms. 2. Conditions for formation of covalent bond: a. The combining at om should have 4 to 7 electrons in their valence shell. s b. The combining at om should not lose electrons easily. s c. The combining at om should gain electrons readily. s d. The difference in electronegativities of two bond ed at oms should be low. 3. Properties of covalent compoun ds: a. Phys ical states: They are generally liq uids or gases. Some covalent comp ounds may exist as solids. b. Solubility: They are generally insoluble in wat er and other polar solvents but soluble in organic solvents like benzen e, toluene etc. c. Melting and boiling point: They generally have low melting and b oiling points. d. Electrical conductivity: They do not conduct electrical current. 4. Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of covalent compoun ds: a. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the molecule. b. Identify how ma ny electrons are nee ded by each at om to att ain n oble gas configuration. c. Share the electrons betwee n atoms in such a way that all the atoms in a m olecule have noble gas configuration. d. Kee p in mind that the shar ed electrons are count ed in the valence shell of both the at om sharing it. s 5. Electr onic configuration of som non- metals: e Name of element Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine Argon Symbol Atomic No. H C N O F P S Cl Ar 1 6 7 8 9 15 16 17 18 Electrons Distribution Valency Type of of electrons element 1 6 7 8 9 15 16 17 18 1 2, 4 2, 5 2, 6 2, 7 2, 8, 5 2, 8, 6 2, 8, 7 2, 8, 8 1 4 3 2 1 3 2 1 0 No n – metal No n – metal No n – metal No n – metal Non – metal Non – metal Non – metal Non – metal Noble gas

This covalent bond with som polarity e is called polar covalent bond. s giving rise to large molecules. Th is property is called catenation. First complete the noble gas configuration of all the hydr ogen atoms by bonding each hydr ogen at om with a carb on atom by a single bond. Catenation 10 . Kee p in mind that the shar ed electrons are count ed in the valence shell of both the at om sharing it. 12 . b. 11 . 7. carb on has the ability to form four bonds with carb on or at oms of other mono-valent elements. double or triple bonds. the atom with the higher electro negativity develops a partial negative char ge and the at om with the lower electro negativity develops a partial positive charg e. Carb on form a large num er of com ounds because of two un ique properties: s b p a. Electronegativity – It is the ability of an at omto attract towards itself. The remaining valency of each carb on is completed by forming carbon – carb on single. 4 Valence electrons = 4 Valency = 4 So . Carb on forms covalent bonds. c.Tetravalency of carbon: Atomic nu mber = 6 Electr onic configuration: 2. the at om with s higher electro negativity pulls the shared pair of electron towards itself. Or in other words. Write the electronic configuration of all the atoms present in the molecule. Thu s. 9. e.6. Catenation: Carb on has the un ique ability to form bonds with other at om of carb on. Tetravalency b. Steps for writing the Lewis dot structures of Hydrocarbons: a. If the at om forming a covalent bond have different electro negativities . d. a shar ed pair of electrons 8. Identify how ma ny electrons are nee ded by each at om to att ain n oble gas configuration. s . carb on nee ds four electrons to attain noble gas configuration.

the derivatives are called aromatic c om oun ds. General formula = CnH2n wh ere n = nu mb er of carb on atoms Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon triple bond are called alkynes. . When hydr ogen bond ed to carb on of benz ene is substituted with halogens.13.Classification of hydrocarbons: • • a. Aromatic hydrocarbons: These are the hydr ocarbons w hich have benz ene ring in their structur e. Cyclic or closed chain hydrocarbons: These are the hydr ocarb ons which have carb on carb on closed chain. radicals or other fun ctional gr oups.carb on single and double bonds. ii. General formula = CnH2n-2 wh ere n = number of carb on atoms b. They are class ified as: i. ii.Benzene: It is an aromatic hydr ocarb on which has the molecular formula C6H6. Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-carbon double bond are called alkenes. Saturat ed hydrocarbons: These hydr ocarb ons have all carb on – carb on single bonds. Aliphatic or open chain hydrocarbons: These are the carbon comp oun ds wh ich have carb on carb on long open chains. It has alternating carb on . They are classified as: i. Unsaturated hydrocarbons: These hydr ocarbons have at least one carb on – carbon double or triple bonds. p 14 . Alicyclic hydrocarbons: These are the hydr ocarb ons which do not have benz ene ring in their structure.

(a) Homologous series of alkanes: General formula: CnH2n+2 wh ere n = num er of carb on atoms b (b) Homologous series of alkenes: General formula: CnH2n wh ere n = num er of carb on atoms b (c) Homologous series of alkynes: General formula: = CnH2n -2 wh ere n = num er of carb on atoms b 19 . b. regardless of the length and nature of the carb on chain is called fun ctional group.IUPAC nam of hydr ocarb on consists of two parts: e a.Properties of a homologous series: As the molecular m ass increases in a series.Benz ene can also be represented as: 15 . suf fix is –ene. but chemical properties which are p determined by a fun ctional group remain the same within a series.Fun ctional group: An at om or a gr oup of atoms which wh en present in a comp ound giv es specific properties to it. an for double bond. and for triple bond suf fix is –yne 16.Types of formula for writing hydrocarbons: a. suf fix is – e . . Suffix: De pends on the type of carb on – ca rbon bond: for single bond. Free valency or valencies of the gr oup are sh own by the single line. Structural formula: The actual arrangement of at om is writt en s 17 . 18 . W rd roo t: Numb er of carb ons in the longest carb on chain o Numb er of carbon atoms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 W rd roo t o (Gr eek name) Meth Eth Prop But Pent Hex Hept Oct Non Dec b. Molecular formula: The actual nu mber of each type of atom present in the compoun d. a. The molecular formula of all the mem ers of a b homologous series can be derived from a general formula.Homologous Series: A series of organic comp ounds in which every succee ding mem er b differs from the previous one by –CH 2 or 14 u. so physical properties of the com ounds sh ow a variation.

the nam of the carb on e chain is modified by deleting the final ‘e’ and adding the appropriate suffix. 3.Steps to write the IUPAC nam of organic compoun ds: 1 e (a) Select the par ent carb on chain: 1. double bond. (b) Numb er the par ent carb on chain from that carb on end such that the fun ctional gr oup. The fun ctional gr oup. triple bond or e side chain. (c) Identify the nam and position of the funct ional group.Chloro Named as prefix Cl/ Br Bromo Ch loro – Br omo Alcohol -OH . Replacement of hydr ogen at om by a fun ctional gr oup is always in such a m ann er that v alency of carb on remains satisfied.ol Oxygen Carboxylic acid -oic acid Aldehyde Ketone -al -one 2 . d. double bond. 2. c. If a double or a triple bond is present in the carbon chain. replacing the hydr ogen is also called as hetero at om because it is different from ca rbon. it should be included in the par ent chain. Select the longest ca rbon chain as the parent chain. triple bond or side chain gets the lowest nu mber. and can be nitrogen. 20. .b. The fun ctional gr oup is attach ed to the carb on chain thr ough this valency by replacing one hydr ogen at om or atoms. (e) If the name of the funct ional group is to be given as a suffix. If a fun ctional gr oup is present. the carb on chain should include the functional group.Some fun ctional groups in carb on compoun ds: Heteroatom Functional Formula of the Suffix group functional group -Cl Ha lo. (d) The name of the fun ctional group is writt en with either a prefix or a suf fix as given in the above table. Rememb er h ere that the aldehyde and carb oxyl ic acid fun ctional gr oup are present on the terminal carb on atom . or halogen etc. sulphur.

Und ergo substitution reaction like chlorination Are fairly un reactive and inert in the pr esence of most reagents Unsaturated hydrocarbons Give a yellow sooty flame on combustion. acidified K2Cr 2O7 etc.Oxidizing ag ents are substances wh ich are capable of providing oxyg en to other comp ounds for their oxygen. addition reaction with bromine in carb on Are reactive 23 .Reactions of ethanol: 2 CH 3CH 2OH + 2 Na → 2 CH 3CH 2ONa + H2 Hot con. 22.Catalysts are substances that cause a reaction to occur or proceed at a different rate without the reaction being affected. the nam of the word roo t includes the fun ctional gr oup carb on at om also.Fo r example. e (g) If the carb on chain is unsaturat ed. Und ergo add ition reaction like hydrogenation. H2SO4 CH 2 =CH2 + H O 2 CH 3CH2OH . 25 . then the final ‘ane’ in the nam of the carb on e chain is substituted by ‘ene’ or ‘yne’ as given in the table above.carbon chain with a double bond would be called prop ene and if it has a triplebond. (f) Rememb er that in the comp ounds wh ich have carbon containing fun ctional gr oups. Fo r example. Example: Alkaline KMnO4. 24. a three . Difference betwee n chemical properties of satu rat ed and un saturated hydrocarbons: Saturat ed hydrocarbons Give a clean blue flame on complete combustion and on incomplete combustion give a yellow sooty flame. a three -carbon chain with a ketone group would be nam ed in the following m ann er – Pr opane – ‘e’ = pr opan + ‘one’ = propanone. it would be called propyne.

Struc ture of soap molecule: The struc ture of soap molecule consists of a long hydr oc arb on tail at one end which is hydrophobic in nat ure.So aps are sodium or potass ium salts of long chain carb oxylic acids.Cleansing action of soap: Whe n soap is at the surfa ce of water. Prem Nagar.Class-IX Chapter-4 Carbon & its Compounds Sub-Science A lkaline KMnO4 + Heat 2 CH 3CH2 OH − − − − CH 3COOH −−−− → Or acidified K2Cr2O7 + Heat 26. Reactions of eth anoic acid: CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COO Na + H2O ac id CH 3COOH + CH3CH 2OH   → CH 3COO CH 2CH3 E ste r CH 3 COO C2H5 + NaOH  → CH 3 COONa+ C2 H5 OH  CH 3 COOH +NaOH  → CH 3 COO Na + H2 O  2 CH 3 COOH +Na 2CO 3 CH 3COOH + NaHCO 3 2 CH 3 COO Na + H 2 O +CO 2 CH 3 COO Na + H 2 O +CO 2 27 . the ionic end of so ap orients itself tow ards water and the hydr oc ar bon ‘tail’ orients itself aligns itself along the dit. The othe r end is the ionic part which is hydrophilic in nature. clusters of molecules are formed in which the hydrophobic tails are in the interior of the cluster and the ionic ends are on the surfa ce of the cluster. 29 . 28 . 30 . This formation is called a micelle. Thus . Address : 25. Karnal Page 7 of 8 . Catalysts are substances that cause a reaction to occu r or pr ocee d at a different rate without the reaction being affected.

Whe n hard water is tr eat ed with so ap. sc um is form ed. This is cause d by the reaction of so ap with the calcium and magnesium salts. Thus . since the oily dirt will be collected in the cen tre of the micelle. 31 . Detergen ts are no n biodegradable. Prem Nagar. The micelles stay in solution as a colloid and will no t co m t ogethe r e to precipitate because of ion-ion repulsion. Now. So aps are biodegradable.Detergen ts do no t form scu m with hard water. 34 . cleaning in hard as well as soft water. the dirt suspen ded in the micelles is also easily rinse d away. Difference between Soaps & Detergents: So aps Detergents So aps are sodium or potass ium Detergen ts are generally salts of long chain carboxylic acids. whe n water is agitated. amm onium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids. 32 . they remain effective in hard water.Class-IX Chapter-4 Carbon & its Compounds Sub-Science Soap in the form of a micelle is able to clean. Address : 25. This is because the charged en ds of thes e comp oun ds do no t form insoluble precipitates with the calcium and magnes ium ions in hard water. So aps are no t effective for cleaning Detergen ts are effective for in hard water. 33 . which cause the hardnes s of water.Detergen ts are generally amm onium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids. Karnal Page 8 of 8 .