AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSITIVITY PROCESSES OF INAUGURATION SPEECHES OF TWO PRIME MINISTERS OF AUSTRALIA JOHN HOWARD AND JULIA GILLARD

A THESIS

BY:

ADE RAHMADIANA REG. STUDENT NO: 070705020

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA MEDAN 2011

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to thank to Allah SWT who has given me all of the blessing, mercy, talent and time, so that I can finish my thesis entitled “An Analysis of Transitivity Process of Inauguration Speeches of Two Prime Ministers of Australia : John Howard and Julia Gillard”. I would like to thank to the dean of Faculty of Letters, Drs. Syahron Lubis, M.A. also to Drs. H. Muhizar Muchtar, M.S. and Dra. Nurlela, M. Hum as the head and secretary of English Department, and to Bang Am for all of opportunities and facilities that given to me and for all their attentions in all academic affairs. I would like to express my best and sincere thanks to my supervisor, Prof. Hj. T. Silvana Sinar, MA, Ph.D and my co-supervisor Dr. Drs. Eddy Setia, M.Ed. TESP for having shared their valuable ideas, times, guidance and patience. My gratitude is also expressed to all of my lecturers in English Department who taught me much and contributed the knowledge during the academic years. My lovely thanks are due to my beloved family, Drs. Mawardy Rasyid, (Alm) Siti Sabrina, Siti Omas Harahap and my beloved grandmother Hj. Juliana. All of my brothers and sisters for giving me the good times (and hard times too) so I can stand here as myself today. Special thanks and welcome to the new member of this family, the in – laws, niece and nephew, bang Hendra, kak Lia, bang Faiz, bang Andi, kak Neni, bang Heri, kak Siti, bang Duar, bang Kadir, Winda, Fizah, Evi, Santi, Jasmine and Dzulhanan.

Big thanks to those friends who have been giving me the joy, laughter and many other things, Vika, Tina, Fe, Suci, Hadi, Reza, Izal, Bayu, Yudha, Ade 09, Ai, Dinda, Yugo, miss Lili, kak Indah, kak Rizki, kak Deka, Yusuf, Ibel, Edo, kak Rara, kak Fani. Last, my special thanks to bang Ade, bang Dedi and bang Deman. Let’s keep on ‘menyampah’ and remember all those black, white and grey memories of Kansas and OEP. Thanks for the support and friendship from my alumni and senior, and Junior. Last but not least, for all of my friends and people who know me. I am truly sorry because I cannot write your names but I hope you always know that all of you are matter to me. Thank you very much.

Medan, April 2011 Writer,

Ade Rahmadiana 070705020

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AUTHOR’S DECLARATION

I, ADE RAHMADIANA, declare that I am the sole author of this thesis. Except where reference is made in the text of this thesis. This thesis contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a paper by which I have qualified for or awarded another degree. No other person’s work had been used without due acknowledgement in the main text of the thesis. This thesis has not been submitted in any tertiary education.

Signed : Date : 14th May, 2011

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COPYRIGHT DECLARATION

Name Thesis title

: ADE RAHMADIANA : An Analysis of Transitivity Process of Inauguration Speeches of Two Prime Ministers of Australia : John Howard and Julia Gillard”.

Qualification : S1/Sarjana Sastra Department : English

I am willing that my thesis should be available for reproduction at the discretion of the librarian of English Department, Faculty of Letters, University of Sumatra Utara, on the understanding that the users are made aware of their obligations under law of the Republic of Indonesia.

Signed : Date : 14th May 2011

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ABSTRACT Skripsi yang berjudul “An Analysis of transitivity processes of inauguration speeches of two prime ministers of Australia John Howard and Julia Gillard’, membahas tentang analisis proses transitivitas yang terdapat dalam pidato pelantikan dua perdana menteri Australia, yaitu John Howard and Julia gillard. Teori yang digunakan dalam skripsi ini adalah teori Systemic Functional Linguistic oleh M.A.K Halliday (Oxford University Press, 2004). Dalam teori ini, Halliday membagi proses transitivitas menjadi 6 bagian, yaitu proses material, proses mental, proses verbal, proses relasi, proses eksistensi dan proses tingkah laku. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah proses dalam teks pidato pelantikan kemudian dianalisis dengan menggunakan teori transitivitas dengan menentukan jenis proses dalam teks tersebut. Untuk menganalisis data dibutuhkan metode dokumentasi dan pengelompokkan data secara keseluruhan. Dari hasil analisis ditemukan total 429 klausa yang terdiri atas Relational Process 42, 6 %, Material Process 35, 7 %, Mental Process 13, 6 %, Verbal Process 9, 6 %, Behavioral Process 2, 9 %, and Existential Process 1, 7%

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………… AUTHOR’S DECLARATION.............................................................. COPYRIGHT DECLARATION……………………………………... ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………. TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………… CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Analysis……………………… 1.2 Problem of the Analysis………………………....... 1.3 Objectives of the Analysis………………………… 1.4 Scope of the Analysis…………………………….... 1.5 Significances of the Analysis…………………....... CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Theoretical Framework …………………………… 2.1.1 An Overview of Discourse Analysis………. 2.1.2 Systemic Functional Linguistic……………. 2.1.3 Metafunctions of Language………………..

i iii iv v vi

1 4 5 5 5

6 6 7 8

2.1.3.1 The ideational Function………….. 8 2.1.3.2 The Interpersonal Function………. 9 2.1.3.3 The Textual Function……………. 9

2.2 Transitivity Processes..,……………………………. 10 2.2.1 Material Processes…………………………. 12 6

2.2.2 Mental Processes…………………………...

13

2.2.3 Behavioral Process…………………………. 13 2.2.4 Relational Process………………………….. 14 2.2.5 Verbal Processes…………………………… 14 2.2. 6 Existential Processes………………………. 16 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH 3.1 Research Method…………………………………... 17 3.2 Data Collecting Method……………………………. 17 3.3 Data Analysis Procedure…………………………... 18 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF TRANSITIVITY PROCESSES IN

INAUGURAL SPEECHES OF TWO AUSTRALIA PRIME MINISTERS AND FINDINGS 4.1 The Analysis of Data……………………………… 4.1.1 Transitivity of Inaugural Speech of John Howard…………………………………… 21 4.1.1.1 Relational Process………………………… 4.1.1.2 Material Process…………………………..31 4.1.1.3 Verbal Process …………………………... 38 4.1.1.4 Mental Process…………………………... 43 4.1.1.5 Existential Process ……………………… 45 4.1.1.6 Behavioral Process………………………. 46 4.1.1.7 Summary ………………………………... 47 21 21

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4.1. 2 Transitivity of Inaugural Speech of Julia Gillard...

48

4.1.2.1 Relational Process………………………...48 4.1.2.2 Material Process………………………… 65 4.1.2.3 Verbal Process………………………….. 79 4.1.2.4 Mental Process…………………………. 81 4.1.2.5 Existential Process……………………… 86 4.1.2.6 Behavioral Process……………………… 87 4.1.2.7 Summary ……………………………….. 91 4.2 Findings……………………………………………. CHAPTER V : CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Conclusions………………………………………..... 95 5.2 Suggestions……………………………..................... 95 BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………… APPENDICES ………………………………………………………….. Appendix 1: The Inauguration Speech of John Howard………………… Appendix 2: The Inauguration Speech of Julia Gillard………………… 97 99 101 105 93

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Analysis Language is one of tools of communication that human needs to share what they are thinking about. Language has so many kinds in order that we can share something to other people by various ways. Language has many functions in communication, for instance, we can integrate or separate a country by language. There are so many ways to convey what our thinking is, for example by speaking and writing. In this thesis, the writer will analyze the language of two leaders in the form of speeches that were used for communication to their society specifically, these are the president inaugural speeches delivered by two prime ministers of Australia, i.e. Julia Gillard and John Howard. The writer uses president inaugural speeches for her analysis because she can know their real vision and mission of Julia Gillard and John Howard using language in their president inaugural speeches, what are the presidents feeling and action and how they convey their ideas in those speeches? It is fact that a leader needs to communicate through his order speech process because a leader needs to share what she or he is thinking through his communication to his society by doing communication. A leader will put political strategies and forward they practiced to his society. Language consists of three levels or strata, namely Phonology,

Lexicogrammatical, and Discourse / Semantic. Halliday (1978:40) says,”…. Any text represents an actualization (a path through the system) at each level: the level of meaning, the level of saying (or wording, to use the folk of linguistic term for the 9

lexicogrammatical system, and of course the level of sounding or writing. In this thesis, the writer uses transitivity theory to analyze the speeches of Julia Gillard and John Howard prime ministers. The writer thinks she can explore processes that relate to the transitivity process due to Halliday Functional System. The writer thinks that transitivity theory is the most suitable theory to analyze text of written speeches due to the transitivity system. The transitivity system provides some types of process with own characteristics and function. The transitivity is divided into three point, they are Participants, processes, and circumstances. Participant is the doer that does an action in a clause. This participant will be named by own name in each of types process of transitivity, For example killing is a kind of material process and the participant or the doer will have different name with hearing as the mental process. Then, processes are actions that done by the doer or the participants based on their types, and in those two president inaugural speeches, it portrays those aspects of transitivity found in processes in those two speeches, like wise Enggins (2004:210) says that, “Transitivity construes the world of experience into a manageable set of process types.” By transitivity we can analyze the types of processes, what type of processes are mostly used in the text. Next, circumstances is the background of process that done by the participants. On the other words, circumstances can be location, time, manner, etc in which the participant does some actions. Halliday (1994:151) quoted in Thompson’s book (1996:105) proposes nine main types of circumstantial elements. They are location, extent, manner, cause, Contingency, accompaniment, role, matter, angle. 10

In this thesis, the writer explores these six types of transitivity found in the two president inaugural speeches, e.g. material, mental, relational, behavioral, verbal, and existential processes. As said previously in this thesis, the writer discusses about president inaugural speeches of two Prime Ministers Australia, i.e. Julia Gillard, and John Howard. These two speeches are interested to be analyzed because the writer can find the most dominant type of processes used by president, especially two presidents of Australia, Julia Gillard and John Howard. Then, we can make conclusion what type is commonly used by prime ministers of Australia in president inaugural speeches. This chapter needs to describe about the country of origin of those two prime ministers. That is Australia. Australia is a country that has more 21 one million people. Indigenous people and foreign people come from more than 200 hundreds countries. The capital of Australia is Canberra. Australia has 6 states and 2 territories; they are New South Wales, Queesland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia, Nothern Territory, and Australian Capital Territory. Australia uses parliamentary system in its governance. Australia forms constitutional monarchy. Australia has queen that relating to England is Elizabeth Queen II. Then, Australia has three big political parties. They are labor, liberal, and national. Julia Gillard, Prime minister of Australia now, come labor political party. John Howard was born on 26th July 1939. He is the 25th prime minister of Australia. John Howard is known as the second longest Australia prime minister after Sir Robert Menzies. He became prime minister of Australia from 11th March 1996 to 11

3rd December 2007. He was from liberal party and changed Paul Keating in1996. He has a wife, Janneta Howard and has three children. They are Melanie, Tim, and Richard. Besides prime minister and leader of his family, he likes doing sport, cricket and Rugby. Julia Gillard was born on 29th September, 1961. She is the 27th prime minister of Australia and also the first woman who became prime minister in Australia. Julia Gillard is from labor party and change Kevin Rudd as the leader and prime minister. Julia Gillard won the general election in July 2010. In her vision as prime minister of Australia, she concentrates her vision in health, education, immigration and weather changes. We know that Julia Gillard disagree with Gay Marriage that many people do this nowadays. She argues that marriage is only by a man and a woman. 1.2 Problems of Analysis The problems of this analysis are: 1. How many transitivity processes that are found in the two president inaugural speeches of Prime Minister of Australia? 2. What is the most dominant type of process that used in their inaugural speeches? 3. Why it is one more dominant than the other?

1.3 Objective of the Analysis The objectives of the analysis are to:

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1. Find out transitivity processes in the two inaugural speeches of Australia Prime Minister. 2. Find out the most dominant process that used in the two inaugural speeches of Australia Prime Minister. 3. Find out the reason why it is more dominant than the other. 1.4 Scope of the Analysis This analysis focuses on transitivity processes found in president inaugural speeches of two Prime Ministers of Australia. They are Julia Gillard and John Howard. 1.5 Significances of Analysis In analyzing transitivity processes, there are some significances, they are: 1. The readers can understand how many transitivity processes that used in the two president inaugural speeches of Australia prime minister. 2. To enrich the study of transitivity verbs. 3. Theoretically it gives information about transitivity processes in a text and how the texts work as they do.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Theoretical Framework 13

2.1.1 An Overview of Discourse Analysis Discourse Analysis is a study about text. Text which is discussed is not only in writing but also in speaking language. Halliday and Hasan (1976:1),quoted in Enggins’s book, states “The word TEXT is used in linguistics to refer to any passage, spoken and written, of whatever, that does form a unified whole”. From the quotation, we know that discourse analyzes both written and spoken text. Written texts can be found in the articles, letters, stories, instruction, comics, notice, caution, etc, while spoken texts can be found in the speech, interview, conversation, interruption, etc. in this thesis, the writer analyze spoken text becoming object of the analysis. Speech is one of spoken text that used to do communication and to share what someone thinks at that time by pronouncing in the front of audiences. Basically, many scholars had differed texts into two parts, they are written language called by text while spoken language called by discourse. Otherwise Halliday and Hasan stated that text included both spoken and written language. In this thesis, the writer agrees to Halliday and Hasan’s statement because all of things can be called by text, if they have cohesion and coherence and has message to the others. Enggins (2004:33) states, “The cohesive resource of reference refers to how the writer or speaker introduces participants and then keeps track of them once they are in the text. Participants are the people, places and things that get talked about in the text”. All of the texts, not only written text but also the spoken one, need cohesion, cohesive and coherence to be called by text. Next, Enggins (2004:42) states “The cohesive resource of lexical relation refers to how the writer/speaker uses lexical 14

items (nouns, verbs, adjective, adverbs) and even to sequences (chains of clauses and sentences) to relate the text consistently to its area o focus or its field”. The writer knows that text has to be coherence and cohesive in its structure. Cohesive and coherence is not only found in the written text but also in the spoken text. Content of Spoken text should relate each other. In this thesis, the writer agrees to Halliday and Hasan statement.

2.1.2. Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) In daily life, we use language to many functions, chat to other people, read the newspaper, speech in the front of audience, tell the story, do interview, make an appointment. To do those activities, we need language and should know its context of language that used at that time. And the language that we are used to doing those activities relates to texts, both written text and spoken text in order that the writer will analyze it by SFL. Systemic Functional Linguistics is one of theories about language relating to language and its context. The Idea of context firstly is founded by Malinowski continued by Firth and developed by Firth’s students called by Neo-Firthian. One of his students is M.A.K Halliday. Systemic functional linguistics was developed by M.A.K Halliday, a professor of linguistics from Sydney University, Australia. In this theory, the texts are analyzed based on language and its context. SFL works on language and its context. ‘S’ for Systemic implies systemic relations and their probabilities in systemic networks. The probabilities are started from general to specific features. Next, it is also implies that the systems of meaning 15

involved interrelation relating to investigating phenomena. The “F” for Functional implies that it is concerned with the functional realizations of the systems in structures. Enggins (2004:2) says, “Halliday’s interest has always been with the meanings of language in use in the textual processes of social life”. Based on this quotation, the writer agrees that all processes of social life as part of language have meanings. It is the most suitable theory that the writer apply to analyze this thesis. The writer thinks that SFL theory is the most suitable to analyze spoken text in this thesis. They are inauguration speeches by Julia Gillard and John Howard as Prime Ministers of Australia. 2.1.3 Metafunction of Language Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) describes that language is functional or called by Metafunction. Metafunction of language means that it is not about functions of language but it is about fundamental concepts of someone in using language. There are three functional of Metafunction in languages, they are The Ideational Function, The Interpersonal Function and The Textual Function. 2.1.3.1 The Ideational Function The ideational function relates to experiences of someone relating to process that happened at that time. It is realized in some points, they are participants, process, and circumstance. The ideational function has two meanings, they are experiential meaning and logical meaning. Halliday and Matthiessen (2004) quoted in Enggins’s book states that the ideational strand of meaning in fact involves two components :

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that of experiential meaning in the clause and that of the logical meaning between clauses in clause complexes. Experiential meaning relates to what has happened between oneself to the external world. The clause represents both actions relating to inside of oneself as experience and outside world of someone. In this function, they have some points to represent their experiences, they are participant, process, and circumstance. The process that has been happened is called by transitivity process. They are material, mental, relational, verbal, existential and behavioral process. Besides experiential meaning, logical meaning relates to ideational function. The clauses should be related each other and can take conclusion logically based on the clauses described in the text, not only written text but also spoken text. 2.1.3.2 The Interpersonal Function The interpersonal function relates to interpretation and interaction done by the doers. The clauses describe relation between the speaker and the listener in the spoken text or the writer and the listener in the written text. Halliday (1984, Halliday and Matthiessen 2004:106-111) quoted in Enggins’s book state that approaches the grammar of interaction from a semantic perspective. He points out that whenever we use language to interact, one of the things we are doing with it is establishing a relationship between the person speaking now and the person who will probably speak next. Enggins (2004:144) From this quotation, the writer concludes that relationship between speaker and listener or writer and reader should establish called by interaction each other. 2.1.3.3 The Textual Function 17

The textual function relates to the interpretation of someone taken by clauses as message. In this textual function, we can catch meaning the message and coherence between a clause to other clauses and relate them by activity and language. In this function, the components of textual function are theme and rheme. The message or meaning in the clause called by theme and rest is called by rheme. Enggins (2004:212) says, “By looking at what the speaker puts first in the clause, we can capture the encoding of textual meaning”. And “with theme used to refer to the point of departure (‘what I’m talking about) and Rheme to label the point of arrival (‘what I’m telling you about it)”. In this thesis, the writer will limit the analysis is only about the Ideational Function relating to experiential meaning that representing experiences based on participant, process and circumstances. In this thesis, the writer will concentrate to Transitivity processes found in Inauguration speech of two selected prime minister. They are Julia Gillard and John Howard. 2.1.4 Transitivity Process Transitivity system belongs to experiential metafunctions. When someone speaks by clauses consisting words, the meaning of the words has been in someone’s mind. This meaning relates to the content or the idea of the words. Processes found is representation of processes relating to transitivity systems. Transitivity provides some types of process with own characteristics and functions. The transitivity is divided into three point, they are Participants, processes, and circumstances. Participant is the doer that does an action in a clause. This participant will be named by own name in each of types process of transitivity, For 18

example killing is a kind of material process and the participant or the doer will have different name with hearing as the mental process. Then, processes are actions that done by the doer or the participants based on their types. Enggins (2004:210) says that, “Transitivity construes the world of experience into a manageable set of process types.” By transitivity we can analyze the types of processes, what type of processes are mostly used in the text. Halliday (2004:169) says, “The clause construes a relationship of signification between a word and its meaning”. Next, circumstances is the background of process that done by the participants. On the other words, circumstances can be location, time, manner, etc in which the participant does some actions. Halliday (1994:151) proposes nine main types of circumstantial elements. They are location, extent, manner, cause, Contingency, accompaniment, role, matter, angle. In this thesis, the writer only analyzes the types of processes. They are material, mental, relational, behavioral, verbal, existential processes. In this thesis, the writer only focuses on types of transitivity processes found in those selected inauguration speech. Halliday (2004:173) says, “The semiotic space shown in below can be interpreted systematically as a system network. Like all system networks, this network construes a continuous semiotic space”.

Figure: 5.3 TRANSITIVITY represented as system networks (Source: Halliday, 2004: 173) Material Actor

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Behavioural Major Process Type Mental + Sanser: Sanser : Conscious Verbal + Sayer Relational Attribute + Sanser: + Attribut: Identifying + Token: + Value: + Behaver : Behaver ; Conscious

Existential + Existent 2.2.1 Material Processes

Enggins (2004:215) says, “Material processes are processes about doing, about action. Actions involve actors, or participants. Participants realized by nominal groups.” This quotation stated that material processes has characteristic is doing a real action or movement and this type relates to physical action, and in this process we can see real action of doing this process, for instance walking, bringing, kicking, touching, etc. in this material process, the first participants will be called by the actor and the second or more participant will be named by the goal. In the inaugural speech, we can see the examples, Many women follow us into the parliament Many women Actor Follow Pr : Material us Goal into the parliament Circ loc: place

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2.2.2 Mental Processes Enggins (2004: 225) says, “We are not asking about actions or doings in a tangible, physical sense, but about mental reactions: about thought, feelings, perceptions.” We know that mental process is a type of transitivity process that related to sense, feeling of person. In mental process, the first participant who does the action is called by Senser, and the second participant or the purpose will be named by Phenomenon, for example We understand the great enduring truth. We Senser 2.2.3 Behavioral Processes Behavioral process is a kind of process that relating to psychological and the actions are done in conscious being. This type of process is between mental and material processes. In this process, it usually has one participant that is called by Behaver. If there is any second participant, it will be called by Behaviour. Enggins (2004: 233) states that, “Halliday describes these processes semantically as a ‘half way house’ between mental and material processes.” In other words, behavioral process is included the action process, but the action is done with consciousness. For example, stared, laughed, waved, sigh, laugh, watch, etc. For instance, He laughed at people in the front of this building He Behaver Laughed Pr : Behavioral at people Behaviour 21 in the front of this building Circ loc: place understand Pr : Mental the great enduring truth Phenomenon

Actually, between Mental processes and Behavioral Processes, there is similarities, they discuss about processes relating to thinking and feeling. The difference is Mental processes relates to verbs happened unconsciously while Behavioral processes relates to verbs happened consciously by the Behaver. For instance, hear, related to physical perception verbs, relating to mental processes. This action is happened unconsciously by the Senser while listen to is a process requiring consciousness when doing this process. 2.2.4 Verbal Processes Verbal processes is a kind of processes that relating to the saying and directly effects to mental operation. It is done by consciousness. For example, said, told, report, asked, repeated, etc. For example : Santi is asking me about the information Santi Sayer is asking Pr : Verbal me Receiver the information Verbiage

2.2.5 Relational Processes Relational processes is a part of predicates that using to be or auxiliary as the processes. There is no real action like material processes but there is regarded as a clause that the existence is regarded, for instance am, will not be, may be, hasn’t had, are, would have been, etc. There are two classifications in relational process. They are Intensive Attributive Processes and Intensive Identifying Processes. Enggins (2004:240) states that, “…. There is no passive form of the clause: the subject can

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never conflate with the role attributive, but will always conflate with the role of carrier”. In the intensive attributive processes, the first participant will be named by Carrier while the second participant is called by Attributive. In intensive Identifying process, the first participant will be named by Token, and the other participant will be named by Value. Enggins (2004:242) states that, “Typically the nominal groups in identifying intensive are definite, whereas in attributives the attribute is an indefinite nominal group”. Means that there is no passive form in Intensive Attributive Process otherwise it can be passive forms in intensive identifying process. It is happened because most of the first participant and the other participants are nominal groups, for example 1. Barry Jones is one of the few politicians of whom Australians are truly fond. Barry Jones Token Is Pr: Relational Indentifying Process one of the few politicians of whom Australians are truly fond Value

2. Premier Kennet and CSR are wrong Premier Kennet and CSR Carrier Are Pr :Relational Attributive Process wrong Attributive

2.2.6 Existential Processes Enggins (2004:238) states that, “Existential Processes represent experience by positing that ‘there was / is something’. As we know that ‘there’ will have two

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meanings, if ‘there’ word shows a location, it is not involved in existential process but in circumstances, for example 1. There is a sense of community and a fighting spirit often missing from the sleeker suburbs. There is Pr : Existential a sense of community and a fighting spirit often missing Existent from the sleeker suburbs Cir loc: place

2. There are only two reasons why Werribee has been selected as the site for this toxic dump. There are Pr : Existential only two reasons why Werribee has selected as the site for this toxic dump Existent

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS
3.1 Research method

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Method is needed in this analysis in order to get the research qualified. In this thesis, the writer applied the descriptive qualitative content analysis method to do her analysis in which supported by internet, other thesis, and other sources. This is done by collecting data from inauguration speeches of two prime ministers Australia. They are Julia Gillard and John Howard. 3.2 Data Collecting Method Usman (2008:52) states “Teknik pengumpulan data terdiri atas observasi, wawancara, angket, dan dokumentasi”. (‘Data collecting method is divided into observation, interview, questionary, and documentation’). Based on this statement, the writer chooses one of data colleting method to apply in her thesis. The writer applied documentation method in her analysis. The writer collected the data based on documents. Usman (2008:69) states that “Teknik pengumpulan data dengan dokumentasi ialah pengambilan data yang diperoleh melalui dokumen dokumen” (‘Data collecting method by documentation takes data that got from documents’). In this thesis, the documents were inauguration speeches by two prime ministers Australia in order that the writer can take conclusion after analyzing those documents in her analysis. In this thesis, the writer does content analysis by applying Halliday’s theory to analyze the object of the analysis. The objects of the analysis are inauguration speeches of two Australia prime minister, John Howard and Julia Gillard while method that the writer applies in this thesis is documentation method. In this thesis, documentation method is applied because the writer analyzes the object based on the spoken texts of those speeches. 25

3.3 Data Analysis Method Descriptive method is one of methods that used in analysis by describing the Data. Descriptive comes from English language meaning that describing. The object of the research done is reported by descriptive method in order that the readers can understand the result of research well. Bungin (2001:290) states that, “Penggunaan strategi deskriptif kualitatif dimulai dari analisis berbagai data yang terhimpun dari suatu penelitian, kemudian bergerak ke arah pembentukkan kesimpulan kategori atau cirri cirri umum tertentu”. (‘Using in qualitative descriptive strategy is started from analysis that collected from the research to forming of conclusion or specific characteristic’) From this quotation, the writer will do the analysis of transitivity process in president inaugural speeches of prime ministers of Australia by analyzing all of Data and towards at making a conclusion. All of data that the writer analyzed are called by population. Population is the total object in the research in order that the inaugural presidents’ speeches of prime ministers Australia were called by Population. In this thesis, the writer divided all of sentences in those speeches into clauses, after dividing all of the sentences to clauses, the writer identified and classified the processes based on transitivity theory that explained in chapter two. And the last, the writer found out the most dominant process that used in those speeches and take conclusion. In order to find out the most dominant type of transitivity that used in the Inaugural speeches of prime ministers of Australia, the writer applies Bungin’s formula (2005:172); 26

N N Fx

= fx / n x 100% = Percentage of each types of transitivity = total number of types of transitivity.

It can be concluded that speeches relate to the communication. Bungin (2007:155) stated that, “Analisis isi berhubungan dengan komunikasi / isi komunikasi”. (‘Content of the analysis relates to the communication’) So, the writer does the analysis to get a conclusion that becomes an object of communication. For Example, in Julia Gillard, the 27th Prime minister of Australia, her speech: it is a cause for celebration and will inspire us to ensure that many more women follow us into the parliament. In this sentence, the writer firstly divides that sentence into clauses, they are: 1. It is a cause for celebration 2. It will inspire us to ensure 3. Many women follow us into the parliament After dividing the sentence into clauses, the writer does identification and classification based on transitivity theory. They are: 1. It is a cause for celebration It is Identified Pr relational a cause : Identifier for celebration Circ cause: purpose

2. It will inspire us to ensure

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It

will inspire

Us Senser

to ensure Circ cause: purpose

Phenomenon Pr :mental

3. Many more follow us into this parliament Many more women Actor Follow Pr : material Us Goal into this parliament Circ loc: place

Next, after doing identification and classification for whole documents, the writer decides the most dominant process that used in those inauguration speeches of Australia Prime ministers. Then, the writer took conclusions after doing all of those steps in the analysis.

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF DATA AND FINDINGS 4.1 The Analysis of Data

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This analysis includes the analysis of processes perhaps circumstances and other aspects that rose in the Data. The following analysis consists of detailed analysis of the data. The following analysis consists of detailed analysis of the Data. 4.1.1.1 Relational Process Relational process is process relating to regard as clause uses to be, auxiliary or part of predicates that indicates being or having situation. The data is Inauguration speeches delivered by John Howard. The following analysis contains of detailed data. 1. I am truly humbled by this extraordinary expression of confidence in the leadership of this great nation by the coalition.
That I Am truly humbled by this extraordinary expression of confidence in the leadership of this great nation by the coalition Circ : manner

Carrier

Pr : relational

Circ quality

:

attributive

2. This nation by reason of the circumstances of history and by reason of its great capacity and the great capacity and dedication of the Australian people, this nation stands on the threshold of a new era of great achievement.
This nation by reason of the stands circumstances of history and by reason of its great capacity and the great capacity and dedication of the Australian people, this nation Token Pr : relational This Carrier Is Pr : relational on the threshold of a new era of great achievement Value

3. This is a proud nation, a confident nation, a cohesive nation, a united nation
a proud nation, a confident nation, a cohesive nation, a united nation Attributive

4. Not only to be a partner with our friends in our own region Not only To be a partner with our friends in our own region

Pr : Attributive Circ : Circ loc : place relational accompaniment 5. But to be a beacon of democracy, of tolerance, of hope and of achievement all around the world. 29

But

To be

a beacon of democracy, of tolerance, of all around hope and of achievement the world Pr : Attributive Circ loc: relational place

6. We have in the world.
That we Carrier have Pr : relational in the world Circ loc: place

7. We have a strong economy,
We Carrier Have Pr : relational a strong economy Attributive

8. We are a nation
We Carrier Ours Carrier Are Pr : relational Is Relational a nation Attributive a great democracy Attributive

9. Ours is a great democracy

10. We are happy

We Carrier

Are Relational

Happy Attributive

11. We are joyful
We Carrier This Carrier Are Relational Is Pr : relational Joyful Attributive a truly historic achievement Attributive for our two parties Circ cause : purpose an occasion : Goal

12. This is a truly historic achievement for our two parties.

13. We have to reach back to the 1960s to find an occasion
We Carrier have to reach to the 1960s back Pr : relational Circ loc: time to find Pr material

30

14. When an incumbent government has increased its majority on two successive occasions.
When an incumbent has its majority on government increased successive occasions Carrier Pr : Attributive relational Is Pr : relational an extraordinary achievement Attributive a source inspiration Attributive since the end of World War II. Circ loc : time of continued two

15. That is an extraordinary achievement
That Carrier And

16. And the interests of country Australia is a source of continued inspiration
the interest of is country Australia Carrier Pr : relational this country Token arguably Circ quality

17. That this country arguably has experienced since the end of World War II.
That has experienced : Pr : relational

18. Those two men and all of my other cabinet colleagues have represented a united team
Those two men and all of my other cabinet colleagues Token have represented Pr : relational a united team Value

19. And we are here tonight
And we Carrier are Pr : relational Here Attributive Tonight Circ loc time

:

20. That we have been a united team.
That we Carrier have been Pr : relational a united team Attributive

21. We have been a team.
We Carrier We have been Pr : relational have not been a team Attributive an one man band

22. We have not been a one-man band

31

Carrier And

Pr : relational to all of my I colleagues Value Token theirs Carrier

Attributive owe Pr : relational so much Circ : quality

23. And to all of my colleagues I owe so much

24. Because theirs is the victory tonight
Because Is the victory Pr : Attributive relational Tonight Circ : time

25. As much as it is mine It is Mine Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 26. And to Brian Loughnane, the new Federal Director who has steered us at an organizational level to a wonderful victory on the first occasion
And to Brian has steered Loughnane, the new Federal Director who Token Pr : relational he Carrier Has been Pr : relational us at an organizational level to a wonderful victory on the first occasion Circ loc: place

As much as

Value

27. That he's been at the helm of the organization,
That at the helm of the organization Circ loc: place Possible Circ : quality

28. That is represented by tonight possible
That is represented Pr : relational by tonight Circ : time no easy task Attributive

29. Being the staff of a prime minister is no easy task
Being the staff of a Is prime minister Carrier Pr : relational

30. Being the staff of a prime minister during an election campaign is an almost impossible task
Being the staff of a prime minister is during an election campaign Carrier Pr : relational an almost impossible task Attributive

31. But they have carried it out with great dedication, great professionalism, and great goodwill
They Token have carried out Pr : relational it Value with great dedication, professionalism, and goodwill Circ : accompaniment great great

32

32. Probably one of the hardest jobs in an election campaign is to deal with the media of Australia
One of the hardest jobs in an is to deal election campaign Token Pr : relational with the Australia Value media of

33. And it is a wonderful thing to be able Is a wonderful thing Pr : Attributive relational 34. It's nerve-wracking and like many of you in this room,
It Carrier is nerve-wracking Pr : Attributive relational had butterflies Pr : Attributiv relational e it Carrier it Carrier it Carrier

It Carrier

to be able Circ cause purpose

:

and like many of you Circ : comparison

in this room Circ loc : place

35. I had butterflies in my stomach this morning.
I Carrier in my stomach this morning Circ loc : Circ loc: time place True Attributive perfectly Circ : quality perfectly Circ : quality Normal Attributive human Attributive

36. And it's true
And is Pr : relational is Pr : relational is Pr : relational

37. And it's perfectly normal
And

38. And it's perfectly human
And

39. But we are privileged to be able to be able Circ cause : purpose 40. The people of Afghanistan have had an election and for the first time in years.
The people Afghanistan Token That of have had Pr : relational Election Token an election Value possible Circ : quality for the first time in years Circ loc: time by reason of the fact Circ : manner

But

We Token

are privileged Pr : Relational

41. That election has been made possible by reason of the fact
has been made Pr : relational

42. We should be proud of the role

33

We Carrier That

should be Pr : relational we Token We Carrier

proud Attributive

of the role Circ : matter

43. That we have played in their liberating Afghanistan
have played Pr : relational should be Pr : relational in their liberating Afghanistan Value proud Attributive of the role Circ : matter

44. Just as we should be proud of the role
Just as

45. That Australia has played in many other areas in standing up for the values That Australia Token has played in many other areas in standing up for the values : Circ loc: place

Pr relational 46. And the things we hold dear.
And the things Value Rededicated Pr : relational Rededicate Pr : relational Rededicate Pr : relational we Token

hold Pr : relational

dear

47. We rededicated ourselves to the service of the Australian people
We Token We Token We Token ourselves Value ourselves Value ourselves Value to the service of the Australian people Circ cause: purpose to the great ideals of the Australian nation Circ cause : purpose to that passionate belief of mine Circ cause: purpose

48. We rededicate ourselves to the great ideals of the Australian nation

49. We rededicate ourselves to that passionate belief of mine

50. That the things that unite Australians are infinitely more important and more enduring than the things that divide us
That the things that are unite Australians Carrier Pr : relational more important and infinitely more enduring than the things that divide us Attributive

51. To be the prime minister of Australia is undoubtedly the greatest privilege
To be the prime minister Is of Australia Carrier Pr: relational undoubtedly Circ : quality the greatest privilege Attributive

52. That can come the way of any person 34

That

can come Pr : relational Never Circ : quality

the way of any person Value will loss Pr : relational contact with Value

53. I will never loss contact with
I Token

54. I serve the Australian people
I Token Serve Pr : relational the Australian people Value

55. That tonight is possible for me
That tonight Carrier Is Pr : relational possible Attributive for me Circ : accompaniment

56. As my eight-and-a-half years as prime minister have been possible for me, because of the tremendous support
As my eight- have been possible and-a-half years as prime minister Carrier Pr : Attributive relational for me because of the tremendous support

Circ : Circ cause : accompaniment reason

57. Who are on the stage with me tonight

Who

Are Pr : relational

on the stage Circ loc place

with me : Carrier

tonight Circ loc time

:

58. We are two more than last time
We Carrier Tim Carrier And Are Pr : relational Was Pr : relational Rowan Melanie and hadn't got two more than last time Attributive in England Attributive married hitched three years ago Circ loc: time or by then

59. Tim was over in England three years ago

60. And Rowan and Melanie hadn't got married or hitched by then

35

Token

Pr : relational

Value

Circ time

loc:

61. So it's great to have Rowan with us on the platform tonight
So it Carrier Is Pr relational great : Attributive to have Rowan with us on the platform tonight Circ cause: purpose

62. It's always been very much a family thing for us
It Carrier always has been Pr : relational very much a family thing for us Circ : Attributive quality

63. And to have you all here tonight To have You all here Pr : Attributive Circ relational loc: place 64. Is something Is Pr: relational 65. That's very special to me Is Pr : relational 66. That it was about trust
That it Carrier

And

Tonight Circ loc: time

Something Attributive very special Circ : quality
about trust Attributive

That

to me Attributive

was Pr : relational

67. It was who the Australian people
It Carrier Was Pr : relational who the Australian people Attributive

68. To keep the budget strong To keep the budget Pr : relational Carrier 69. We start work immediately
We Token start work Pr : relational Immediately Circ : quality

Strong Attributive

From the tables above, there can be found 69 process not only using participants as Token (20) and Value (16) but also participants Carrier (43) and

36

Attributive (44). Every clause has different types of circumstances that also have different meaning.

4.1.1.2 Material Process Material process is process that relates to real action done by participant, actor. The detailed data of material process are explained below. 1. A nation which can achieve anything it wants
A nation can achieve anything which Actor Pr : Goal material And no Australian Actor it Senser Wants Pr : mental

2. And no Australian should ever shrink from a passionate
should shrink Pr : material from a passionate Circ : accompaniment

3. Belief in the ability and the capacity of this nation not only to provide a wonderful homeland for our 20 million,
Belief in the to provide ability and the capacity of this nation Actor Pr : material a wonderful homeland for our 20 million,

Goal

Circ : time

4. And my task, my mission, my commitment to the Australian people is to lead them to the achievement of all of the opportunities
my task, my mission, is to lead my commitment to the Australian people Actor Pr : material them Recipient to the achievement of all of the opportunities Goal

37

5. Because we are prepared to stand up for what we believe in.

Because

we Actor

are prepared Pr : material

to stand up Pr : mental

for what we believe in Circ cause: purpose

6. He rang me before making his speech
He Actor rang Pr : material me Recipient before his speech making Pr : Goal material is held Pr : material that great moment of electoral judgment and electoral truth Goal by the Australian people Actor

7. When an election is held.
When an election Goal face Pr : material the verdict Goal government Actor

8. You face that great moment of electoral judgment and electoral truth
You Actor That

9. That the verdict has been given by the Australian people
has been given Pr : material

10. That government are elected
That are elected Pr : material

11. To govern not only for the people who voted for them, but also for the people who voted against them.
to govern Pr : material If I Actor not only for the people who voted for them, but also for the people who voted against them Circ cause: purpose can address Pr : material some remarks Goal Particularly Circ : quality

12. If I can address some remarks particularly

13. He's displayed towards me, the leadership of his own party, the way in which he represents
He Actor has towards me displayed Pr : Recipient the leadership of his own party, the way in which he represents Goal

38

material

14. We've won our fourth successive victory.
We Actor have won Pr : material our fourth successive victory Goal

15. And we've won it for many reasons but one of the reasons that we have won it is
And We Actor We Actor You Actor have won Pr : material have worked Pr : material cannot win Pr : material it Goal for many reasons but one of the reasons that we have won it is Circ cause: purpose

16. We have worked together,
Together Circ : accompaniment without the assistance of a party organization Circ : accompaniment

17. You cannot win elections without the assistance of a party organization.

18. I cannot win elections without the assistance of people like you who are gathered here tonight to share this victory,

And

I Actor

cannot win Pr material

elections : Goal

without the assistance of people like you who are gathered here tonight to share this victory Circ : accompaniment

19. And to all of the other directors of the party around Australia that have made tonight possible,
And to all of the other have made directors of the party around Australia that Goal Pr : material possible Tonight

Circ time

loc:

20. They have made the achievement

39

They Actor 21. They have done.
They Actor

have made Pr : material
have done Pr : material

the achievement Goal

22. To participate in a great democratic exercise like an election.
To in a great democratic exercises participate Pr : Goal material like an election Circ: comparison

23. To participate in the great exercise in democracy. To participate Pr : material 24. Let us in the great exercise Goal in democracy Circ loc: place

Let us Pr : material Goal 25. That a number of countries, including Australia, were prepared to take a stand for democracy and to take a stand against terrorism.
That a number of countries, were prepared including Australia Goal Pr : material to take a stand for democracy and to take a stand against terrorism Circ loc : purposes

26. As the people of Afghanistan vote today, and particularly the women of Afghanistan,
As the people Afghanistan Actor of vote today and particularly the women of Afghanistan

Pr : Circ material loc : time for so long Circ loc: time to the broader Australian community Circ cause: purpose

27. They have been so brutally suppressed for so long,
They Actor That you Actor That you Actor have been brutally suppressed Pr : material Circ : quality have given Pr : material me Recipient

28. That you've given me and to the broader Australian community

29. That you have again given me
have given Pr : material me Recipient

40

30. To lead this nation To lead Pr : material 31. That's been given to me
That has been given Pr : material have received Pr : material have given Pr : material

this nation Goal
to me Actor from those of my immediate family Goal me Recipient over the years Circ loc: time

32. I have received from those of my immediate family
I Actor They Actor

33. They have given me over the years

34. That you have placed in us you have placed Actor Pr : material 35. To lead this nation at a time of international peril To lead this nation That in us Circ loc : place

Pr : material Goal 36. Who did the Australian people better trust
Who did Pr material the Australian people : Goal

at a time of international peril Circ loc: place
better trust Pr : mental

37. Who did the people better trust
Who did Pr : material the people better trust to lead it Goal

38. To lead it

To lead Pr : material

it Goal

39. In the first part of the 21st century The Australian people have given their answer
In the first part of the the Australian have given their answer

41

21st century Circ loc: time To justify Fulfill Pr : material

people Actor the trust Goal

Pr : material

Goal

40. To justify and Fulfill the trust

41. That they have given to all of us tonight
That they Actor have given Pr : material to all of us Recipient Tonight Circ loc : time

From all of tables above, the writer found 41 clauses consisting 45 material process, and participants, they are actor (28), goal (28) and recipient (7). Every clause has different meaning and different types of circumstances. 4.1.1.3 Verbal Process Verbal process is the process that of saying whereby the speaker utters the statement consciousness. The detailed data will be explained below. 1. can I say first of all
I Sayer can say Pr : verbal first of all

2. The first thing I say is to rededicate myself and all of my colleagues to the service of the Australian people.
The first thing is to I say rededicate Verbiage Pr : verbal myself and all of my colleagues to the service of the Australian people Receiver

3. And tonight the Australian people by their decision have declared themselves confident and hopeful about their future
And tonight the Australian have people by their declared decision Sayer Pr: verbal themselves confident and hopeful about their future Verbiage

Circ : time

4. I do warmly thank him for the gracious things that he said.

42

I Sayer

do thank Pr verbal

warmly : Circ quality

him : Receiver

for the gracious things that he said Circ cause: purpose

5. But to all of my colleagues I express my thanks for their loyalty and their cooperation and their support, particularly during the weeks of this election campaign.
But to all of my I colleagues express my thanks for their loyalty and their cooperation and their support particularly during the weeks of this election campaign Circ loc: time

Sayer

Pr : Verbiage verbal

6. Can I say to John Anderson, the Deputy Prime Minister and the Leader of the National Party,
I Sayer can say Pr : verbal to John Anderson, the Deputy Prime Minister and the Leader of the National Party Receiver

7. Can I also say a very special word of thanks to the Liberal Party organization around Australia.
I Sayer can say Pr : verbal a very special word of to the Liberal Party thanks organisation around Australia Verbiage Receiver

8. To Shane Stone, the Federal President of the Liberal Party, Shane I thank you very much for your leadership of the party.
To Shane Stone, the I Federal President of the Liberal Party, Shane Receiver Sayer Thank you very much for your leadership of the party : Circ cause : purpose

Pr : Receiver Circ verbal quality

9. I express my tremendous gratitude and thanks.
I Sayer I Sayer express Pr : verbal might say Pr : verbal my tremendous gratitude and thanks Verbiage a very special word to my staff of gratitude Verbiage Receiver

10. Might I also say a very special word of gratitude to my staff.

43

11. Particularly can I express my thanks to Arthur Sinodinos and
I Sayer I Sayer I Sayer And so can express Pr : verbal should thank Pr : verbal confess Pr : verbal my friends Receiver I Sayer my thanks Verbiage Tony O’Leary Receiver to that Verbiage thank Pr verbal Again Quality : you to Arthur Sinodinos Circ : accompaniment for the tremendous work Verbiage Happily Circ : quality for the support Circ cause : purpose

12. I therefore should thank Tony O'Leary for the tremendous work

13. I happily confess to that

14. And so, my friends, I thank you for the support

15. Can I say again
I Sayer can say Pr : verbal

16. I cannot muster words adequate enough to express my sense of gratitude and humility at the great honour
I cannot muster words adequate enough to express my sense of gratitude and humility at the great honour Verbiage can say Pr : verbal on a personal note Verbiage

Sayer Pr : verbal And finally I Sayer I Sayer

17. And finally, can I say on a personal note

18. And I have to say to Richard,
And have to say to Richard Pr : Receiver verbal

19. Thank you very much for coming home briefly from the United States Thank You very much for coming home briefly from the United States Circ : cause
the family bit Verbiage

Pr : verbal Receiver Circ : quality 20. And if I could extend the family bit
And if I Sayer could extend Pr : verbal

21. could I also acknowledge the presence of two of my brothers here tonight and their families for the tremendous support

44

I Sayer So again

could acknowledge Pr : verbal I Sayer

the presence of two of my brothers here tonight and their families for the tremendous support Verbiage say Pr : verbal to my fellow Australians Receiver

22. So again I say to my fellow Australians

23. Thank you for the enormous trust Thank you Pr: verbal Receiver 24. I said at the beginning of this election campaign
I Sayer Said Pr : verbal

for the enormous trust Circ cause : reason

at the beginning of this election campaign Circ loc : time

25. And to John I say thank you for the friendship and the loyalty of these past years and the hope That it offers to the years ahead And the Deputy Leader of my own party, Peter Costello, the Treasurer, whose stewardship has given us one of the strongest economies in the Western World and also the strongest economic conditions
And To john I say thank you for the friendship and the loyalty of these past years and the hope That it offers to the years ahead And the Deputy Leader of my own party, Peter Costello, the Treasurer, whose stewardship has given us one of the strongest economies in the Western World and also the strongest economic conditions Receiver

Receiver

Sayer

Pr : Verbiage verbal them receiver

26. We thank them for that
We Sayer thank Pr : verbal For that Circ reason cause:

27. And Thank you very much
Thank Pr : verbal you Receiver very much Circ : quality

45

From all of the data above, the writer found 27 clauses consisting 28 verbal process, 23 sayer, 18 receiver and 14 verbiage. It is also found different circumstances in each clause and has different meaning. 4.1.1.4 Mental Process Mental process is a process relating to mental reaction. Process relate to feelings, thought, or perceptions. 1. If it sets its mind to it.
It Senser Sets Pr : mental its mind Phenomenon to it Circ cause : purpose

2. The rest of the world sees us as a strong, successful nation
The rest of the world Senser sees Pr : mental us as a strong, successful nation Phenomenon

3. That is respected around the world
That is respected Pr : mental around the world Senser

4. I want to thank the Leader of the Opposition Mark Latham for his gracious remarks tonight.
I Senser want to thank Pr : mental the leader of the opposition Mark for his gracious Latham remarks tonight Phenomenon Circ cause: purpose forget Pr : mental know Pr: mental the fact Phenomenon the rest of my fellow Australian Phenomenon

5. But never forget the fact
But Never Circ : time I Senser

6. And I know the rest of my fellow Australians
And

7. Will understand my doing this, Some remarks particularly to the two coalition parties

46

Will understand

my doing this Some remarks particularly to the two coalition parties

Pr : mental

Phenomenon

8. I guess the political steward of staff Tony Nutt.
I Senser Remember Pr :mental Guess Pr : mental the political steward of staff Tony Nutt Phenomenon that this very same day Phenomenon believe in Pr : mental Never Circ : quality never Circ quality I Senser will forget Pr : mental the nature of the honor and the privilege Phenomenon

9. Remember that this very same day

10. We believe in
We Senser

11. I will never forget
I Senser I Senser

12. I'll never misunderstand the nature of the honour and the privilege
will misunderstand : Pr : mental

13. And I commit myself to their service and their interest in the years ahead
And commit Pr mental : myself to their service and their interest in the years ahead Phenomenon

14. Had trusted to manage the economy, Had trusted Pr : mental to manage Pr: material the economy Goal

The writer found 14 clauses consisting 16 mental processes, 10 phenomena, and 11 sensers. From the data above, the writer found different types of circumstances and each clause has different meaning. 4.1.1.5 Existential Process

47

Existential Process relates to existent of experience signed by ‘there is/ there was’ something. 1. There can only be one winner
There can be Pr : existential only one winner Existent

2. There is a wonderful story to be told of achievement in each of the different states of our nation
There is a to be told of achievement in each of the wonderful different states of our nation story Pr : Existent Pr : Verbiage existential verbal

3. There is no finer human being in public life than John Anderson and the loyalty that
There is no finer human being in public life than John Anderson and the loyalty that Pr : Existent existential

From the data above, the writer found 3 existential processes and 3 existent from 3 clauses. 4.1.1.6 Behavioral Process Process relates to psychological done by conscious being. The detailed data will be explained as follows. 1. When I look around the nation
When I Behaver look around Pr : behavioral the nation Behavior

48

2. Help to me
Help Pr : behavioral to me Behaver

From the data above, the writer found 2 clauses consisting 2 behavioral process, 2 Behaver and 1 Behavior. 4.1. 1. 7 Summary In the Inauguration Speech of John Howard, 25th Prime Minister of Australia, the writer finds that there are transitivity verbs discovered on the text of his inauguration speech. From 162 clauses is in the text, they are that the Relational processes gained 69 processes, the Material processes gained 44 processes, the Verbal processes gained 28 processes , the Mental Processes gained 16 processes, the Existential Processes gained 3 processes, and the last, the Behavioral Processes gained 2 processes. It can be seen in the following table:

Table 1. Types of Transitivity processes found in Inauguration Speech of John Howard, 25th Prime Minister of Australia NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 PROCESSES TYPES Relational Material Verbal Mental Existential Behavioral TOTAL TOTAL 69 44 28 16 3 2 162 (%) 42,5 27,1 17,2 9,8 1,8 1,2 100%

From the findings above, it can be concluded that the most dominant processes found in this speech is relational processes and followed by Material 49

process and Verbal Processes, next Mental process followed by Existential processes and the least processes is behavioral process.

4.1.2 Inauguration Speech of 27th Australia Prime Minister Julia Gillard 4.1.2.1 Relational Process 50

Relational process is process relating to regard as clause uses to be, auxiliary or part of predicates that indicates being or having situation. The data is Inauguration speeches delivered by Julia Gillard. The following analysis contains of detailed data. 1. To be elected to this House as a Labor representative is a great honour. To be elected to this house as a labor is representative Carrier Pr : relational a great honour Attributive

2. To stand for an historically safe seat is more than a personal honour; To stand for an is historically safe seat Carrier Pr : relational 3. It is a Labor landmark, It is a labor landmark Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 4. As is the record number of Labor women sitting in this House. As is Pr relational the record number of sitting Labor women : Value in this house Circ place loc: more than a personal honour Attributive

5. It is a cause for celebration It is a cause for celebration Carrier Pr : Attributive Circ cause: purposes relational 6. Barry Jones has a unique place in Australian political life.

Barry Jones Carrier/

has Pr : relational 51

a unique place Attributive

in Australian political life / Circ loc: place

possessor

possessed

7. Barry is famed throughout Australia for his intellect Barry Token is famed Pr : relational throughout Australia Value for his intellect

Circ cause: reason 8. In an age of cynicism about politicians, Barry Jones is one of the few politicians of whom Australians are truly fond. one of the few politicians of whom Australian are truly fond Circ loc : time Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 9. Barry will continue to serve the Labor Party as its national president will to serve The labor party as its national continue president Token Pr : Pr : material Goal Circ : role relational 10. And will continue his passionate engagement with Australia in his writing and public speaking. And will continue his passionate with engagement Australia Value in his writing and public speaking Circ cause: purpose Barry In an age of Barry Jones cynicism about politicians is

Pr : Token relational 11. Young families flock to Lalor

Young families Token

flock Pr : relational

to lalor Circ cause: purpose

12. And Part of Melbourne's industrial heartland, Lalor contains the Altona petrochemical complex, the Laverton industrial estate and the Toyota manufacturing plant, as well as the Point Cook and Laverton air bases. And Part of Lalor Melbourne’s contains the Altona petrochemical complex, the Laverton

52

industrial estate and the Toyota manufacturing plant, as well as the Point Cook and Laverton air bases Circ loc: Token Pr : Value place relational 13. Lalor encompasses a significant agricultural precinct at Werribee South a significant agricultural precinct Token Pr : relational Value 14. Lalor also contains major tourist attractions, including the Mansion, the open range zoo and the State Rose Garden. Lalor Token also contains major tourist attractions, including the historic Werribee Mansion, the open range zoo and the State Rose Garden Value Lalor Encompasses at Werribee South Circ loc: place historic Werribee

industrial heartland

Pr: relational 15. As part of Melbourne's industrial west, the people of Lalor have always had to try harder. As part of The people have had to try harder Melbourne’s industrial of Lalor west Circ cause: reason Token Pr : Pr : Circ relational material quality 16. Werribee is no more than a dumping ground Werribee is no more than a dumping ground Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 17. Because Melbourne's sewage farm is located there Melbourne’s sewage farm Token 18. But Premier Kennett and CSR are wrong But 19. This is a fight This is a fight Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 20. Lalor has been represented in this place by only three members Because is located Pr : relational there Value

:

Premier Kennet are and CSR Carrier Pr : relational

wrong Attributive

53

Lalor

has been represented

in this place

by only three members Reg Pollard, Jim Cairns, the famous antiwar advocate, and Barry Jones

Token

Pr : relational

Circ loc : Value place

21. Whilst its parliamentary representation may have been stable, like all of Australia Whilst its may have been stable like all of Australia parliamentary representation Carrier Pr : relational Attributive Circ : comparison 22. The electorate of Lalor has undergone a radical transformation since World War II The has undergone electorate of Lalor Token a radical transformation since World War II Circ loc : time

Pr : relational Value

23. In Lalor, as in our nation generally, the twin forces of globalisation and rapidly changing technology, In Lalor, as in our the twin nation generally Token forces of globalisation and rapidly changing technology : Value

Pr relational 24. And will continue to remake our lives And

will continue to remake our lives Pr : relational Pr : material Goal 25. The prevailing mood of insecurity is an understandable community The prevailing insecurity Carrier mood of is an understable community

Pr : Attributive relational 26. Their teenagers are facing a tougher world

54

Their teenagers are facing Token Pr : relational 27. Than they themselves faced Than

a tougher world Value

they themselves faced Token Pr : relational 28. Endless remakes of the songs and movies of the 1960s and 1970s of the songs and movies of the 1960s and 1970s Token Pr : relational Value 29. And the rise of reactionary politics have something in common—both seek a return to a mythical, simpler time, a deep and dreamless sleep. And the rise of have reactionary politics Carrier something in common—both seek a return to a mythical, simpler time, a deep and dreamless sleep Endless remakes

Pr : Attributive relational 30. The end result of this political cycle is a weary people The end result of this political cycle Carrier 31. If the politics of values comes to the fore, If the politics of comes values Token Pr : relational 32. It is only the Labor Party to the fore Value is a weary people Pr : Attributive relational

It is only the Labor party Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 33. A value system that has endured since the Labor Party's formation, a value system has endured since the Labor Party's formation Token Pr : relational Circ loc : time 34. We stand for the right of ordinary Australians We stand for the right of ordinary Australians Token Pr :relational Circ cause : reason 35. Those who have neither wealth nor power—to a fair go, Those who Carrier have neither wealth nor power Pr : Attributive relational to a fair go Circ cause : purpose

55

36. And to have a say in their nation's future And to have a say in their nation’s future Circ : purpose and

Pr : relational Attributive 37. Our values are fundamentally democratic and collective. Our values Carrier fundamentally Circ : quality are Pr relational

democratic collective : Attributive

38. From which Individuals can excel. individuals can excel Token Pr : relational 39. These values—our core Labor values—are true signposts which take us beyond some of the sterile debates of the past. These are true which take values— signposts our core Labor values Carrier Pr : Attributive Pr : relational material 40. Our conservative opponents would have Australians believe us beyond some of the sterile debates of the past Goal From which

Our conservative opponents Carrier

would have Pr relational

Australians : Attributive

believe Pr : mental

41. Who are able to face the world are able to face Pr : Attributive Pr : material relational 42. And take the risks necessary to get ahead, And take the 56 risk to get ahead Who the world Goal

necessary Pr : relational Value Circ : cause purpose 43. Nurturing and caring society is the best foundation for the individuals Nurturing and is the best foundation for caring society individuals Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 44. A strong economy and a strong society are not contradictory goals. A strong economy and are not a strong society Carrier Pr : relational 45. But security alone is not enough. But contradictory goals Attributive the

security alone is not enough Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 46. a Labor vision, must also be a vision of opportunity, a vision whereby each and every Australian,

a Labor vision Carrier

must be Pr : relational

a vision of opportunity, a vision whereby each and every Australian Attributive

47. That the opportunities for the next generation will be better. The opportunities for the next will be better generation Carrier Pr : Attributive relational 48. My personal story shows the difference My personal story shows the difference Token Pr : relational Value 49. That the vast majority of migrants come here determined The vast majority come here Determined of migrants Token Pr : Circ loc : Pr : material relational place 50. Between them they have contributed more to this country as workers, as citizens Between they have more to this country as That That

57

contributed workers, as citizens, Token Pr : relational Value 51. While they still have their accents and their culture While They Carrier 52. They take nothing about it for granted still have Pr relational their accents and their culture : Attributive

them

They Token

take nothing Pr : Value relational

about it Circ : matter

for granted Circ cause: purpose

53. That is the truth of our history of migration, our history of multiculturalism. the truth of our history of migration, our history of multiculturalism Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 54. That would have been beyond my parents' understanding would have beyond been Pr : relational Attributive 55. It would have been inconceivable to them It would have been Carrier Pr : relational 56. I have only been able That my parents’ understanding Carrier to them That is

inconceivable Attributive

I have been able Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 57. Which flourished in South Australia under the Dunstan Labor government Flourished under the Dunstan Labor government Pr: relational Circ loc: place 58. It is fundamental to Labor's vision, to our compact with this and the next generation It Carrier is fundamental to Labor's vision, to our compact with this and the next generatio Circ : matter which

Pr : Attributive relational

58

59. That stress all the importance of raising the educational standards of citizens, not just a lucky few. the importance of raising the not just a educational standards of citizens lucky few Pr : relational Value 60. This is because not only economists This is because not only economists Carrier Pr : relational Circ cause: reason 61. That the future of Australia and the future of themselves and their children is tied to educational success. The future of Australia and is tied to educational the future of themselves success and their children Carrier Pr : Attributive relational 62. But, under this government, we are engaging in that shameful and cruel waste. But under this we government are engaging in that shameful and cruel waste That That Stress

Circ : place Token Pr : relational 63. We are denying Australians access to opportunity. to opportunity Circ cause: purpose 64. In its 1996 budget, this government took $1.8 billion of public support away from our university system. We Token are denying Pr : relational Australians access Value

In its this 1996 government budget Circ Token loc : time

Took

$1.8 billion of public support away from our university system

Pr : Value relational

65. The inevitable result has been a decline in the number of students starting courses at our universities.

59

a decline in the starting courses at our number of universities students Pr : Attributive Pr : Goal Circ loc : relational material place 66. When the cuts took effect, the cuts Took effect Token Pr : relational Value 67. Perhaps worst of all, under this government we have returned to a system of privilege Perhaps under this we have returned worst of government all Circ loc: Token Pr : relational place 68. Rather than merit in our universities, merit Pr : relational 69. When I was in primary school. When Rather than a system of privilege Value When

The inevitable result Carrier

has been

in our universities Circ loc: place

I Was in primary school Carrier Pr : relational Circ loc: place 70. Of course, inequality in our education system is not just confined to higher education. Of course inequality in Is not just confined to higher our education education system Carrier Pr : relational Attributive

71. Let me Let me Pr : relational Value 72. High achievers are those talented young people High achievers are those talented young people Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 73. Who come in the top 7.5 per cent of results in their year 12 marks. Who come Pr : relational in the top 7.5 per cent of results in their year 12 marks Circ loc : place

60

74. Last year, one very good but very exclusive ladies college in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne alone had 111 high achievers in the pivotal subject of English. one very good but very had 111 high exclusive ladies college in the achievers in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne pivotal subject of alone English Circ loc : Carrier Pr : Attributive time relational 75. The students from my electorate are not any less intelligent than those from Higgins or Kooyong Last year

The students are not from my electorate Carrier Pr : relational

any less from Higgins or intelligent than Kooyong those Attributive Circ loc: place

76. Their educational opportunities are not the same. Their educational are not the same opportunities Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 77. Certainly, this massive discrepancy would be lessened this massive discrepancy would be lessened Token Pr : relational 78. that exists in our education system and create a high-class state school system. in our education system and create a highclass state school system Pr : relational Value 79. That Unfortunately postcodes are probably the strongest factor in determining a person's expectations of success in life. That unfortunately postcodes are the strongest factor in determining a person's expectations of success in life That exists Certainly

Carrier

Pr : Attributive relational

61

80. It will be one of my priorities in politics to ensure one of my priorities to ensure in politics Carrier Pr : relational Attributive Pr : mental 81. That in the Australia of the future the famous quizmaster is, for once, wrong. in the Australia is wrong for once of the future the famous quizmaster Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 82. My passion for education is not only the product of my own personal experience; My passion for is education Carrier Pr : relational 83. It is the result of having campaigned student. the result of having campaigned on these very issues as a university student Carrier Pr : relational Attributibve 84. One of the features of this parliament is that every few elections One of the features of this parliament Carrier is that every elections : Attributive few It is not only the product of my own personal experience Attributive on these very issues as a university That It will be

Pr relational 85. I come from the generation of students who followed. I Token come

Pr relational 86. And pampered extremism. And

from the generation who of students : Value

followed Pr material :

pampered extremism Pr : relational Pr : value 87. Ours was a radicalism fashioned by a desire to be practical, Ours Carrier was Pr : relational a radicalism by a desire to be fashioned practical Attributive Circ : manner

62

88. Much like my Welsh forebear, Nye Bevan, who was just one of the people from whom we took inspiration. Much like who was my Welsh forebear Nye Bevan, Circ : Pr : comparison relational 89. That the antics of a bunch of working people, the antics of a bunch of had much relevance to university students real working people Carrier Pr : Attributive relational 90. But we were always conscious Were always conscious Pr : Attributive relational 91. That we were part of a wider movement to create a fairer society part of a wider to create a fairer movement society Carrier Pr : Attributive Pr : Goal relational material 92. We were fortunate enough to have. That we were But we Carrier That just one of from we the people whom attributive took inspiration

Token Pr : Value relational university students had much relevance to real

We Carrier

Were Pr : relational

fortunate enough Attributive

to have Pr : relational

93. In this place, I will remain fiercely committed to working with unions and to working for fair industrial laws. In this I place Circ loc place Carrier : will remain Pr: relational committed working to with unions and to working for fair industrial laws Pr: material Circ : accompaniment

63

94. Our youthful anger may now be tempered by experience but the same beliefs in fairness and the same fire remain. youthful may be by experience but the same now tempered beliefs in fairness and the same fire remain Carrier Pr : Circ : manner Circ loc : relational time 95. Those friends from university have remained my comrades since the early 1980s. Those friends have remained my comrades since the early from university 1980s Carrier Pr : relational Attributive Circ loc : time 96. They are people of intelligence, public spiritedness and integrity. people of intelligence, public spiritedness and integrity Carrier Pr : relational Attributive 97. Michael O'Connor, who has been my closest confidant since those heady days. They Are Our anger

Michael O'Connor Carrier

who

has been Pr relational

my closest since those heady days confidant : Attributive Circ loc: time

98. I would not have reached this place without his support and without the support of the friends without his support and without the support of the friends Token Pr : relational Value Circ : accompaniment 99. To Darrell Cochrane and Joan Kirner for never once wavering: my thanks. To Darrell Cochrane and Joan never once wavering my thanks Kirner Token Pr : relational Value 100. To John Brumby, who so richly deserves to be the next Premier of Victoria: thanks for the opportunity to work with you and 64 I would not reached have this place

To John who Brumby, Token

so richly

the next thanks Premier of Victoria Circ : Pr : Value Pr quality relational verbal

deserves to be

for the opportunity to work with you : Verbiage

From the tables above, the writer found 100 clauses consisting 103 Relational processes, with participants Token (34) and Value (30) while carrier (54) and Attributive (52) each clause has different circumstances and some of clauses does not apply circumstance.

4.1.2.2 Material Process Material process is the process that is related to the real action done by participant, actor. The detailed data of material process are explained below.

1. To be elected as the first woman ever chosen by the Victorian branch of the Labor Party To be elected as ever chosen the first woman Goal Pr : material by the Victorian branch of the labor party Actor

2. That many more women follow us into this parliament. That many women Actor more Follow us into this parliament

Pr : Goal Circ loc: place material 3. The electorate of Lalor, so ably served by Barry Jones, is situated in Melbourne's outer west.

65

The electorate of Lalor, so ably is situated served by Barry Jones Goal Pr : material

in Melbourne's outer west. Circ loc: place

4. Throughout the electorate you find internationally protected wetlands Throughout the you find electorate Circ : manner Actor Pr : material 5. New housing estates are constantly being built internationally protected wetlands

New housing estates are being built constantly Goal Pr : material Circ : quality 6. Throughout the electorate you find internationally protected wetlands Throughout the you find electorate Circ : manner Actor Pr : material 7. Given the standard imagery of Melbourne's west internationally protected wetlands

Given the standard imagery of Melbourne’s west Pr : material Goal 8. To stop CSR turning the local quarry at Werribee into a toxic dump. To stop CSR turning the local at Werribee into a toxic dump quarry Pr : material Goal Circ loc: place 9. Why Werribee has been selected as the site for this toxic dump Why werribee has been selected as the site For this toxic dump Actor Pr : material 10. When the Victorian Premier turns to the west When The Victorian Premier Actor 11. Who rallied to stop the dump turns Pr : material to the west Circ loc: place

Who

rallied to stop the dump Pr : material Goal 12. That Lalor named for that great fighter for that great fighter Circ cause: purpose

That Lalor named Actor Pr : material 13. against injustice,

66

Against Pr : material

injustice Goal

14. Peter Lalor will win. Peter Lalor will win Actor Pr : material 15. Since its creation in 1949, apart from the curious aberration of being represented by the Liberal Party for one parliamentary term Since its Apart from the curious by the Liberal Party for creation in aberration of being one parliamentary term 1949 represented Circ loc: Pr : Goal Actor time material 16. particularly information technology, have remade particularly information have remade technology Actor Pr : material 17. Response to the swirling winds of change Response to the swirling winds of change Pr : material Goal 18. Which threaten to blow us to unknowable destinations Which threaten to blow us to unknowable destination Pr : material Goal Circ cause: purpose 19. In Hugh Mackay's Mind and Mood study and in Clemenger's Silent Majority report, we find a society

In Hugh Mackay’s Mind and Mood we study and in Clemenger's Silent Majority report Circ loc: place Actor

find

a society

Pr : Goal material

67

20. As a community, in common with societies throughout the Western world, our response to insecurity has run from simple nostalgia to the spectacle of the frightened turning on the vulnerable. As a community, our has run simple nostalgia to the in common with response to spectacle of the societies insecurity frightened turning on the throughout the vulnerable Western world Actor Pr : material Goal 21. Various conservative politicians, some with subtlety, some nakedly, have encouraged this dangerous trend. Various conservative politicians, have encouraged this some with subtlety, some nakedly trend Actor Pr : material Goal 22. Sells the big lie dangerous

Sells the big lie Pr : material Goal 23. That the answer to insecurity is to tread on the weakest amongst us. That the answer insecurity Goal to is to tread Pr material on the weakest amongst us : Circ cause : purpose

24. And helped none. And Helped none Pr : material Goal 25. For far too long public debate in Australia has failed to nourish or inspire us. For far too public debate has failed to nourish or us long in Australia inspire Actor Pr : Pr : mental Senser material 26. For far too long it has been limited to the day-to-day monitoring of the health of our economy rather than the morals and goals of our society. For far It too long Goal has been to the day-to-day monitoring of the limited health of our economy rather than the morals and goals of our society Pr : material Circ loc: time

68

27. In my view, the electors of Lalor, and the Australian people, are looking for a return to passion and conviction in Australian politics and to the clear articulation of values. In my the electors of are view Lalor, and the for Australian people looking a return to passion and conviction in Australian politics and to the clear articulation of values Actor Pr : Goal material 28. By what measures we are prepared to be judged. what We Actor are prepared Pr : material To be judged Circ cause: purposes

By measures

29. Then the Labor Party will win that contest. Then the Labor will win that contest Party Actor Pr : material Goal 30. Even though the policies based upon those values are constantly revised in order to meet the needs of a changed and changing world. The policies are revised based upon those values Goal Pr : material 31. To be treated with dignity To be treated with dignity Pr : material Circ : accompaniment 32. That individuals are immeasurably strengthened by being members of a team, of a society, and That Individuals immeasurably are strengthened by being members of a team, of a society Actor constantly Circ quality in order to meet the needs of a changed and changing world : Circ cause: purposes

Goal Circ : quality Pr : material 33. That a strong community provides the best platform That A strong Provides community Actor Pr : material

the best platform Goal

69

34. Their daughters and sons, will lead a better life. Their daughters and will lead a better life sons Actor Pr : material Goal 35. That our nation will only find its place in an open and competitive global economy

That

our nation Actor

will find Pr : material

its place in an open and competitive global economy Goal

36. If we sign up to the cult of individualism, to the survival of the fittest. If to the cult of individualism, to the survival of the fittest Actor Pr : material Goal 37. By contrast, Labor—guided by our values—understands we sign up

By contrast Labor guided by our values— understands Circ : Actor Pr : material Goal Pr : manner mental 38. That Just like the most loving homes produce the confident kids That the most produce the confident kids loving homes Actor Pr : material Goal 39. Indeed, you can only achieve a sustainably strong economy by creating a strong society. Indeed a sustainably by creating a strong economy strong society Actor Pr : Goal Circ : material manner 40. A country is strengthened by individual security and national inclusiveness. A country Goal is strengthened Pr : material by individual security and national inclusiveness Actor you only can achieve just like

70

41. A vision to satisfy Australians A vision to satisfy Australians Actor Pr : material Goal 42. No matter what their personal circumstances, is given an opportunity to develop and to excel, No matter what is given an opportunity their personal circumstances Actor Pr : material Goal 43. That opportunity can make to a life. That to develop and to excel Pr : material

opportunity can make to a life Goal Pr : material Circ cause :purpose 44. What the last red-headed woman who made a first speech in this place Will never understand is in this place will understand never Is

What the made a first last redspeech headed woman Actor Pr : Goal material

Circ Pr : mental loc: place 45. To make a better life for themselves and their kids a better life

Circ : Pr : quality relational

To make

for themselves and their kids Pr : material Goal Circ cause : purpose 46. And they are prepared to work unbelievably hard to achieve that dream. And are unbelievably to achieve that dream prepared to hard work Actor Pr : Circ cause: Pr : material Goal material purposes 47. My father worked in a variety of blue-collar jobs before training as a psychiatric nurse. My father Actor worked in a variety before of bluecollar jobs : Goal training as a psychiatric nurse they

Pr Pr : Circ : material material accompaniment 48. My mother worked as a domestic in an aged care institution. 71

My mother

worked

as a domestic Circ : role

Actor Pr : material 49. Than they ever cost it Than

in an aged care institution Circ loc : place it Goal

they ever Actor Circ : quality 50. And because they chose this country they Actor 51. They have made within it because

cost Pr : material

And

choose this country Pr : material Goal within it Circ : accompaniment this country Goal

They have made Actor Pr : material 52. Because they choose this country Because they Actor 53. They celebrate

choose Pr : material

They celebrate Actor Pr : material 54. When they stepped off that boat in Adelaide in 1966. They Actor in Adelaide in 1966 Circ loc : Circ loc : place time 55. To obtain two degrees from a university and to serve in the nation's parliament. To obtain and to two degrees from a university in the nation's serve parliament Pr : material Goal Circ cause : purpose Circ loc :place 56. To take up those opportunities because of the excellent state education system to take up those because of the excellent state opportunities education system Pr : material Goal Circ cause : reason 57. And the access to universities made possible by the Whitlam government's abolition of up-front fees. And The access to Made universities possible by the Whitlam government's abolition of up-front fees stepped off Pr : material that boat Goal

72

Pr : Actor material 58. In coming to this House, I bring with me a passionately held view that In coming to I this House Circ loc place : Actor Bring Pr : material with me a passionately held view Goal

Goal

59. To train, to retrain, to excel, throughout life. To train, to retrain, to excel throughout life Pr : material Circ : accompaniment 60. Victoria tumbled from having the second highest growth rate in commencing enrolments to being the state with the biggest fall, Victoria from having the second highest growth rate in commencing enrolments to being the state with the biggest fall Actor Pr : material Circ loc : place 61. 4.7 per cent fall in commencing enrolments—a statistic which 47 per cent Fall in commencing statistic enrolments—a tumbled

Actor Pr : material 62. A system of allowing the rich to buy a place while those with better entrance marks but not enough money miss out—a system A system to buy a place while those with better entrance of allowing marks but not enough money miss the rich out—a system Actor Pr : Goal material 63. Which was eradicated by the Whitlam government Which was eradicated by the Whitlam government Pr : material Actor 64. Give you just one example involving my own electorate. you Recipient just one example involving my own electorate Goal

Give Pr : material

73

65. The 40 working-class secondary schools north and west of the Yarra, including the schools in my electorate, managed only 84 between them. The 40 working-class secondary managed only 84 between them schools north and west of the Yarra, including the schools in my electorate Actor Pr : material Goal 66. If we as a nation were prepared to seriously tackle the inequality of opportunity We as a nation Actor were prepared to seriously tackle Pr : material Circ : quality the inequality opportunity Goal of

67. People today make a lot of the new generation from the other side of this House People Actor today make a lot of the new generation from the other side of this House Goal

Circ loc: Pr : material time 68. Like them, we fought what we saw as self-indulgence we fought

Like them

Circ : Actor Pr : material comparison 69. And give others the opportunities And

what we saw as selfindulgence Goal

give Others opportunities Pr : material Actor Goal 70. To spend eight years as an industrial lawyer defending trade unions and working people.

To spend Pr material

eight years as an defending industrial lawyer : Goal Pr : material

trade unions and working people Goal

74

71. We stuck together We Actor stuck together Pr : Circ : accompaniment material 72. And we retained our common goals. we retained our common goals Actor Pr : material Goal 73. Today you can find them fighting in our great trade union movement you can find them fighting in our great trade union movement : Goal

And

Today

Circ loc : Actor Pr : Goal Pr time material material 74. To protect the jobs of timber workers, rubbish collectors, home care workers, nurses and Aussie post workers To protect the jobs of timber workers, rubbish collectors, home care workers, nurses and Aussie post workers Pr : material Goal 75. Defending injured workers in the courts Defending injured workers in the courts Pr : material Goal Circ loc: place 76. And helping prepare the ALP for the new millennium. And helping prepare the ALP for the new millennium Pr : material Goal 77. Today I pay tribute to them and especially to the most committed of them all Today I pay tribute

Circ Actor Pr : Goal loc : material time 78. And have turned up in remarkable force today. And have turned up

to them and especially to the most committed of them all Recipient

Pr : material 79. Learn from you. Learn Pr : material

in remarkable today force Goal Circ loc : time from you Goal

75

80. And to my wonderful supporters in Lalor, including Terry Bracks, Henry Barlow and Fiona Richardson watching from the gallery today: I will do everything in my power And to my watching from wonderful the supporters in Lalor, including gallery Terry Bracks, Henry Barlow and Fiona Richardson Recipient Pr : Circ material loc: place 81. To make you proud. To make Pr : material You Goal today I will do everything in power my

Circ loc: time

Actor Pr : Goal material

proud

The writer found 81 clauses consisting 100 Material Process and participants, they are Actor (54), Goal (75), and Recipient (3). Each clause has different circumstances and different meaning. 4.1.1.3 Verbal Process Verbal process is a process that relates to the saying and done by consciousness. The detailed data will be explained below. 1. Having reached this place, my first task as the new member for Lalor is to thank the outgoing member, Mr Barry Jones, for his service to the local community over the past 21 years, for his contribution to Australian political life and for his personal support and encouragement. Having reached this place my first task is to the outgoing as the new thank member, Mr. member for Barry Jones lalor for his service to the local community over the past 21 years, for his contribution to Australian political life and for his

76

Circ : Sayer comitation

Pr : Receiver verbal

personal support and encouragement Verbiage

2. That fighting spirit is now being called upon in a major community campaign That fighting is being now spirit called Verbiage Pr : verbal Circ time 3. So-called `wedge politics' So in a major campaign loc: Circ loc: place community

called ‘wedge politics’ Pr : verbal Verbiage 4. That can claim to be based clearly upon a value system, That can claim Pr : verbal to be based clearly : upon value system a

Circ Circ cause : quality purpose 5. In return, Australia has offered me opportunities In return

Australia has offered me opportunities Sayer Pr : verbal Receiver Verbiage 6. That their child, and a daughter at that, could be offered the opportunity Their child, and a could be offered daughter Sayer Pr : verbal 7. That Australia not only offers the opportunities Australia Sayer 8. But Offers the opportunity But That not only offers Pr : verbal That the opportunity Verbiage the opportunities Verbiage

offers Pr : verbal 9. Australia cannot afford to waste talent.

the opportunity verbiage

Australia cannot afford to waste talent Sayer Pr : verbal Pr : material Goal 10. My sincere thanks to: my mother, Moira; my father, John; my sister, Alison; her partner, Paul; and their children, Jenna and Tom. 77

to: my mother, Moira; my father, John; my sister, Alison; her partner, Paul; and their children, Jenna and Tom Sayer Pr : verbal Receiver 11. To Robyn McLeod: thanks for your friendship. To Robyn Thanks for your friendship McLeod Receiver Pr : verbal Verbiage 12. To the member for Batman, Martin Ferguson: thanks for your help and personal support. To the member Thanks for Batman, Martin Ferguson Receiver Pr : verbal for your help and personal support Verbiage

My sincere

thanks

From those tables, the writer found 12 clauses, consisting 11 Verbal process, 6 sayers, 9 Verbiage and 5 receiver, and different types circumstances and meaning. 4.1.1.4. Mental Process Mental process is a process relating to mental reaction. Process relate to feelings, thought, or perceptions. 1. And will inspire us to ensure will Inspire Us to ensure Pr : mental Phenomenn Pr : mental 2. And is respected throughout Australia for his genuineness and compassion. And is respected throughout for his genuineness and Australia compassion Pr : mental Phenomenon Circ cause : reason 3. In the electorate of Lalor he is loved. In the electorate he is loved of Lalor Circ loc: place Phenomenon Pr : mental 4. While he will be sorely missed from this House, While he Senser will be missed Pr : mental sorely circ : quality from this house Circ loc: place And

78

5. Far less well known and perhaps surprising to some less known and perhaps to some surprising Pr : mental Phenomenon 6. CSR wants to make money by filling its disused quarry with toxic waste and CSR Senser wants to make money by filling its disused quarry with toxic waste Circ : manner Far well

Pr : Pr : Goal mental material 7. The Kennett government thinks

The Kennett government Thinks Senser Pr : mental 8. He would have seen the 15,000 Werribee residents He would have seen the 15,000 Werribee residents Senser Pr : mental Phenomenon 9. And by now he should be smelling the scent of a political defeat And by he should be smelling the scent of a political now defeat Circ loc: Senser Pr : mental Phenomenon time 10. In which individuals increasingly feel insecure and powerless their lives in the face of rapid economic restructuring and social change.

In which

individuals

feel

Senser

insecure and to control their lives in the powerless face of rapid economic restructuring and social change Pr : phenomenon Circ cause : purposes mental

11. Most tellingly of all, parents believe Parents Senser 12. This shabby opportunism has hurt many Most tellingly of all Believe Pr : mental

79

This shabby has hurt Many opportunism Senser Pr : mental Phenomenon 13. who no longer believe what politicians say and who think the politicians saying Who no longer Believe what politicians say and who think the politicians saying Phenomenon

Senser Pr : mental 14. It do not even believe it themselves.

It do not believe it Themselves Senser Pr : mental Phenomenon 15. They rightly want to know what their politicians stand for, They rightly Senser Circ : quality 16. what we believe in and What want to know Pr : mental what their politicians stand for Phenomenon

We Senser 17. And respect in the workplace, respect Pr : mental 18. To be recognized and valued as citizens And

believe in Pr : mental in the workplace Circ loc : place

To be recognized and valued as citizens Pr : mental Phenomenon 19. We understand the great enduring truth We Understand Senser Pr : mental 20. And we understand And the great enduring truth Phenomenon

we Understand Senser Pr : mental 21. The key aspiration of each generation of Australians is to ensure that the generation to follow, The key aspiration of is to ensure that the to follow each generation of generation Australians Senser Pr : mental Phenomenon Pr : material 22. Who will ensure Australia competes in the global market. Who will ensure Australia in the global market

80

competes Pr : mental Senser 23. A vision whereby we can truly believe

Circ location: place Truly Circ : quality

A vision whereby We can believe Phenomenon Senser Pr : mental 24. Immigrants need courage and creativity

Immigrants need courage and creativity Senser Pr : mental Phenomenon 25. They need open minds and sturdy hearts. They Need Senser Pr : mental 26. They love this country and the lives They love Senser Pr : mental 27. And know its worth. And 28. I enjoyed I enjoyed Senser Pr : mental 29. But ordinary people understand ordinary people Senser 30. And lost opportunity And But understand Pr : mental know Pr : mental open minds and sturdy hearts Phenomenon this country and the lives Phenomenon its worth Phenomenon

lost opportunity Pr : mental Phenomenon 31. We always understood the value of working collectively, of unionism. the value of working collectively, of unionism Senser Pr : mental Phenomenon 32. While experience in the student movement inspired those on the other side of the House to dedicate themselves to the destruction of unionism, While experience inspired those on to themselves in the the other dedicate student side of movement the House Senser Pr : Phenome Pr : Goal 81 to the destructio n of unionism Circ We always understood

mental

non

material

cause : purpose with and for unions : Circ cause : purpose

33. It inspired us to work with and for unions. It inspired Us : Senser to work Pr material

Phenomenon Pr mental 34. It inspired me It Phenomenon

inspired Pr : mental

Me Senser

The writer found 34 clauses that consist 39 Mental process, 27 senser and 22 Phenomenon. Each clause has different circumstances and meaning. 4.1.2.5 Existential Process Process relates to existent of experience signed by ‘there is/ there was’ something. 1. There is a sense of community and a fighting spirit often missing from the sleeker suburbs.

There

is Pr existential

a sense of community and a from the sleeker fighting spirit suburbs : Existent Circ loc : place

2. There are only two reasons are only two reasons Pr : existential Existent 3. Around the world now there is a trend back to the Centre Left, to social democratic parties 82 There

Around world Circ loc place

the now

there

is

: Circ loc: time 4. There arrives a new generation of politicians distinctly different from the people who preceded them. There Arrives a new generation Who of politicians distinctly different from the people Pr : Existent existential Preceded Them

a trend back to the Centre Left, to social democratic parties Pr : Existent existential

Pr : Value relational

The writer found 4 clauses consisting 4 existential processes and 4 existent in those tables. They have different meaning and circumstances in each clause. 4.1.2.6 Behavioral Process Behavioral Process relates to psychological done by conscious being. The detailed data will be explained as follows. 1. He holds his nose He holds Behaver Pr : behavioral 2. And closes his eyes. closes Pr : behavioral 3. If he opened his eyes If And

his nose Behavior his eyes Behavior

he opened his eyes Behaver Pr : behavioral Behavior 4. The electoral division of Lalor has enjoyed great stability and quality in its parliamentary representatives. The electoral has enjoyed division of Lalor great stability in its and quality parliamentary representatives 83

Behaver Pr : behavioral Behavior Circ loc: place 5. My father John and my mother Moira, who is watching from the gallery today, Migrated to this country with my sister Alison and I as assisted passage migrants in 1966. My is father watching John and my mother Moira Behave r from the gallery today Migrated to this with my countr sister y Alison and I as assisted passage migrants Pr : Goal Circ : material accompani ment in 1966

Pr : Behavi behavior or al 6. Speaks of misery

Circ loc: time

Circ loc : time

Speaks of misery Pr : Behavioral Behaver 7. My predecessor, Barry Jones, used to say My predecessor, Barry Jones used to say Behaver Pr : behavioral 8. Who emerged from the battles with left-wing students on our campuses in the 1970s. Who emerged from the battles with left- in the 1970s wing students on our campuses : Circ loc : place Circ loc : time

Pr behavioral 9. I will not pretend

I will not pretend Behaver Pr : behavioral 10. And Family members who care about me And family members Behaver Who Care Me

Pr : Behavior behavioral

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From all tables above, the writer found 10 clauses consisting 10 Behavioral processes, 8 Behaver, and 5 Behavior. Each clause has different circumstance and meaning. 4.1.2.7 Summary In the Inauguration Speech of Julia Gillard, 27th Prime Minister of Australia, the writer finds that there are transitivity verbs discovered on the text of her inauguration speech. From 241 clauses is in the text, they are that the Relational processes gained 103 processes, the Material processes gained 100 processes, the Mental Processes gained 39 processes, next the Verbal Processes gained 11 processes, the Behavioral Processes gained 10 processes, and the last, the Existential processes gained 4 processes. It can be seen in the following table:

Table 2. Types of Transitivity processes found in Inauguration Speech of Julia Gillard, 27th Prime Minister of Australia NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 PROCESSES TYPES Relational Material Mental Verbal Behavioral Existential Total TOTAL 103 100 39 11 10 4 241 (%) 42,7 41,4 16,1 4,5 4,1 1,6 100%

From the findings above, it can be concluded that the most dominant processes found in this speech is Relational processes and followed by Material

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process and Mental Processes, next Behavioral process followed by Existential processes and the least processes is Verbal process.

4.2. Findings Having performed the analysis above, these findings answer the third problems of this thesis. It is found that there are 403 clauses consisting transitivity verbs, they are Material processes, Relational processes, Verbal processes, Mental processes, Behavioral process and Existential processes. The first Inauguration speech delivered by John Howard found there are 162 clauses , these are 69 Relational processes, 44 Material Processes, and followed by 28 Verbal processes, 16 Mental processes, 3 Existential processes, and last, 2 Behavioral processes. The second Inauguration speech delivered by Julia Gillard consists of 241 clauses, these are 103 Relational processes, 100 Material Processes, and followed by 39 Mental Process, 10 Behavioral Processes, 4 Existential processes, and last 11 Verbal processes. Based on the analyzed, the writer can find the percentage of transitivity verbs by using Bungin’s formula. Such as follows: Percentage of Relational Processes = 172/403 x 100% = 42, 6 % Percentage of Material Processes = 144/403 x 100% = 35, 7% Percentage of Mental Processes = 55/403 x 100% = 13, 6 % Percentage of Verbal Processes 86 = 39 / 403 x 100%

= 9, 6 % Percentage of Behavioral Processes = 12/ 403 x 100% = 2, 9% Percentage of Existential processes = 7/ 403 x 100% = 1, 7 % Those mentioned percentages show that the process of the being or having are predominated the texts which is realized by the Relational Processes (42, 6%), followed by the Material Processes (35, 7%) as the second position, the Mental Processes (13, 6%) and the Verbal Processes (9,6%) become the third and fourth, the Behavioral Processes (2,9%) is in the fifth position, and finally the Existential

Processes (1,7%) is in the sixth position.

For more detail explanation we can see in the following table below: NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 PROCESS TYPES Relational Process Material Process Mental Process Verbal Process Behavioral Process Existential Process TOTAL TOTAL 172 144 55 39 12 7 429 % 42, 6 35, 7 13, 6 9, 6 2, 9 1,7 100

Relational process is the most dominant process found in those selected speeches. Relational process is divided into two, they are Intensive Attributive Process and Intensive Identifying Process.

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It is found that there are 47 relational processes relating to Intensive Attributive process and 23 relational processes relating to Intensive Identifying Process in the first speech text. There are 58 relational processes relating to Intensive attributive Process and 44 relational processes relating to Intensive Identifying process in the second speech text. From those findings, it is concluded that Intensive Attributive Process is the most dominant found in both of speech texts. My interpretation to the result of the analysis in the 2 inauguration speeches of Australia Prime Ministers by John Howard and Julia Gillard contains about experiences described by transitivity processes. The most dominant gained by Relational process. It means that the meaning showed in those texts consist of Relational Verbs. It portrays showed about the Relationships between the texts of inauguration the speeches with the speaker or prime ministers, John Howard and Julia Gillard who dominate. In the case of Material Processes that dominated second position, it is interpreted that texts of Inauguration Speeches showed consists of action verbs realized through processes of doings and happenings. It is also the reason why the Material Processes is in the second position. The third position, the Mental and Verbal processes in inauguration speeches, the meaning of the 2 selected speech texts are delivered by unreported speeches is relatively small in frequency. Next, the total number of mental process implies about feelings and senses. The Behavioral process that found in those text contains of processes of behaving relates to physiological and psychological behaviors. 88

Finally, the Existential Process is rare to happen in those texts of inaugural speeches. It means that existential process of existent relates to something exist or happen. These findings are true with Halliday’s statement (1994: 165) that “In the attributive type, this is a distinct function analogous to the material initiator: the one that brings about the attribution.” From this quotation, it can be concluded that participants found in Intensive attributive carrier and attributive. Carrier is initiator while attributive is the explanation that belongs to carrier as the initiator in the clause.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Conclusions After describing the transitivity process and analyzing them, the writer comes into some conclusions, as follows: 1. Relational process (42,6%) is the most dominant found in the Inaugural speeches of Prime Ministers Australia, Julia Gillard and John Howard followed by Material process (35,7%), Mental process (13,6%), Verbal process (9,6%), Behavioral process (2,9%), and Existential process (1,7%). 2. As discussed in the previous chapter, the relational process become the most dominant due to the relationship of carrier and attributive participants that found through some verbs in the Inauguration Speech of Prime Ministers Australia, John Howard and Julia Gillard. 3. While the Material processes are predominated due to action verbs that found in some verbs in those texts of inauguration speeches. Mental and verbal processes portrays attitude relating to feeling and sense of two prime ministers of Australia, Julia Gillard and John Howard. 5.2 Suggestions 1. The writer suggests the readers especially learners concerning language to do deeper study and research about transitivity systems in order to get a better in understanding of transitivity. 2. The writer hopes the students can gain the knowledge from many sources whether they are text books or research articles. Finally, it is expected that the 90

future research can do the analysis other aspects of Lexicogrammar, for instance, theme/rheme, mood/residue that applied to other texts. . 3. The writer hopes that she should enrich her knowledge about syntax

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Bungin, Burhan. 2001. Metodologi Penelitian Sosial. Surabaya: Airlangga University Enggins, Suzanne. 2004. An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistic. New York: Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall Gerot, Linda and Peter Wignel. 1994. Making Sense of Functional. Sydney: Anti Podoan Educational Enterprises Halliday, M. A. K. 1994. An Introduction to Functional Grammar (2nd Ed.), London: Edward Arnold -----------------------. 1976. System and Function in Language. London: Oxford University Press ----------------------. (1978). Language as Social Semiotic: The Social Interpretation of Language and Meaning. London: Edward Arnold Halliday-Hasan. 1992. Bahasa, Konteks, dan Teks. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press Halliday, M.A.K and Matthiessen C. 2004. An Introduction to Functional Grammar (3rd ed.), London : Arnold Kress, B. 1985. Ideological Structures in Discourse. London: Academic Press McCharty, M. 1995. Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers. New York: Cambridge University Press Sapir, Edward. 1921. Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Sinar, Tengku Silvana. 2003. Teori & Analisis Wacana (Pendekatan Sistemik Fungsional). Medan: Pustaka Bangsa Press Stubbs, M. 1983. Discourse Analysis: The Socio Linguistic Analysis of Natural Language. London: Basil Blackwell Thompson, Geoff. 1996. Introducing Functional Grammar. Beijing: Edward Arnold Usman, Husaini. 2009. Metodologi Penelitian Sosial. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara 92

Speech, 2010. Available at: http:// www_smh_com_au.mht, Accessed on 20 October 2010 http://en.wikipedia.org/free encyclopedia.mht, Accessed on 1 November 2010

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Appendix 1: The Transcript of: John Howard October 10th 2004 Ladies and gentlemen and my fellow Australians, can I say first of all that I am truly humbled by this extraordinary expression of confidence in the leadership of this great nation by the coalition and the first thing I say to the Australian people in accepting their charge to lead the nation over the years ahead, the first thing I say is to rededicate myself and all of my colleagues to the service of the Australian people. This nation by reason of the circumstances of history and by reason of its great capacity and the great capacity and dedication of the Australian people, this nation stands on the threshold of a new era of great achievement. This is a proud nation, a confident nation, a cohesive nation, a united nation, a nation which can achieve anything it wants if it sets its mind to it. An no Australian should ever shrink from a passionate belief in the ability and the capacity of this nation not only to provide a wonderful homeland for our 20 million, not only to be a partner with our friends in our own region but to be a beacon of democracy, of tolerance, of hope and of achievement all around the world. The rest of the world sees us as a strong, successful nation and tonight the Australian people by their decision have declared themselves confident and hopeful about their future. And my task, my mission, my commitment to the Australian people is to lead them to the achievement of all of the opportunities that we have in the world. We have a strong economy, we are a nation that is respected around the world because we are prepared to stand up for what we believe in. I want to thank the Leader of the Opposition Mark Latham for his gracious remarks tonight. He rang me before making his speech and I do warmly thank him for the gracious things that he said. Ours is a great democracy, there can only be one winner when an election is held. You face that great moment of electoral judgment and electoral truth. We are happy, we are joyful that the verdict has been given by the Australian people but never forget the fact that governments are elected to govern not only for the people who voted for them, but also for the people who voted against them.

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If I can address some remarks particularly, and I know the rest of my fellow Australians will understand my doing this, some remarks particularly to the two coalition parties. This is a truly historic achievement for our two parties. We have to reach back to the 1960s to find an occasion when an incumbent government has increased its majority on two successive occasions. That is an extraordinary achievement and when I look around the nation there is a wonderful story to be told of achievement in each of the different states of our nation but to all of my colleagues I express my thanks for their loyalty and their cooperation and their support, particularly during the weeks of this election campaign. And may I especially say a few words about two very important colleagues of mine in the parliamentary party. Can I say to John Anderson, the Deputy Prime Minister and the Leader of the National Party, there is no finer human being in public life than John Anderson and the loyalty that he's displayed towards me, the leadership of his own party, the way in which he represents the interests of country Australia is a source of continued inspiration and help to me, and to John I say thank you for the friendship and the loyalty of these past years and the hope that it offers to the years ahead. And the Deputy Leader of my own party, Peter Costello, the Treasurer, whose stewardship has given us one of the strongest economies in the Western World and also the strongest economic conditions that this country arguably has experienced since the end of World War II. Those two men and all of my other cabinet colleagues have represented a united team and we are here tonight, we've won our fourth successive victory. And we've won it for many reasons but one of the reasons that we have won it is that we have been a united team. We have worked together, we have been a team. We have not been a one-man band and to all of my colleagues I owe so much because theirs is the victory tonight as much as it is mine. Can I also say a very special word of thanks to the Liberal Party organization around Australia. You cannot win elections without the assistance of a party organization. I cannot win elections without the assistance of people like you who are gathered here tonight to share this victory, and to Shane Stone, the Federal President of the Liberal Party, Shane I thank you very much for your leadership of the party. And to Brian Loughnane, the new Federal Director who has steered us at an organizational level to a wonderful victory on the first occasion that he's been at the helm of the organization, and to all of the other directors of the party around Australia that have made tonight possible, they have made the achievement that is represented by tonight possible, I express my tremendous gratitude and thanks. Might I also say a very special word of gratitude to my staff. Being the staff of a prime minister is no easy task. Being the staff of a prime minister during an election campaign is an almost impossible task but they have carried it out with great dedication, great professionalism, and great goodwill and particularly can I express my thanks to Arthur Sinodinos and I guess the political steward of staff Tony Nutt. 95

Probably one of the hardest jobs in an election campaign is to deal with the media of Australia and I therefore should thank Tony O'Leary for the tremendous work they have done. It is a wonderful thing to be able to participate in a great democratic exercise like an election. It's nerve-wracking and like many of you in this room, I had butterflies in my stomach this morning. I happily confess to that and it's true and it's perfectly normal and it's perfectly human but we are privileged to be able to participate in the great exercise in democracy. Let us remember that this very same day the people of Afghanistan have had an election and for the first time in years. That election has been made possible by reason of the fact that a number of countries, including Australia, were prepared to take a stand for democracy and to take a stand against terrorism. As the people of Afghanistan vote today, and particularly the women of Afghanistan, they have been so brutally suppressed for so long, we should be proud of the role that we have played in their liberating Afghanistan just as we should be proud of the role that Australia has played in many other areas in standing up for the values we believe in and the things we hold dear. We rededicated ourselves to the service of the Australian people. We rededicate ourselves to the great ideals of the Australian nation. We rededicate ourselves to that passionate belief of mine that the things that unite Australians are infinitely more important and more enduring than the things that divide us. And so, my friends, I thank you for the support that you've given me and to the broader Australian community, can I say again I cannot muster words adequate enough to express my sense of gratitude and humility at the great honour that you have again given me to lead this nation. To be the prime minister of Australia is undoubtedly the greatest privilege that can come the way of any person. I will never forget, I will never loss contact with, I'll never misunderstand the nature of the honour and the privilege that's been given to me. I serve the Australian people and I commit myself to their service and their interest in the years ahead. And finally, can I say on a personal note, that tonight is possible for me, as my eight-and-a-half years as prime minister have been possible for me, because of the tremendous support I have received from those of my immediate family who are on the stage with me tonight. We are two more than last time - Tim was over in England three years ago and Rowan and Melanie hadn't got married or hitched by then, so it's great to have Rowan with us on the platform tonight. And I have to say to Richard thank you very much for coming home briefly from the United States, and if I could extend the family bit could I also acknowledge the presence of two of my brothers

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here tonight and their families for the tremendous support they have given me over the years, it's always been very much a family thing for us, and to have you all here tonight is something that's very special to me. So again I say to my fellow Australians, thank you for the enormous trust that you have placed in us. I said at the beginning of this election campaign that it was about trust, it was who the Australian people had trusted to manage the economy, to lead this nation at a time of international peril, who did the Australian people better trust to keep the budget strong, who did the people better trust to lead it. In the first part of the 21st century... The Australian people have given their answer, we thank them for that, and we start work immediately to justify and fulfill the trust that they have given to all of us tonight. Thank you very much.

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Appendix 2 The Transcript of: Julia Gillard July 2010 To be elected to this House as a Labor representative is a great honour. To be elected as the first woman ever chosen by the Victorian branch of the Labor Party to stand for an historically safe seat is more than a personal honour; it is a Labor landmark, as is the record number of Labor women sitting in this House. It is a cause for celebration and will inspire us to ensure that many more women follow us into this parliament. Having reached this place, my first task as the new member for Lalor is to thank the outgoing member, Mr Barry Jones, for his service to the local community over the past 21 years, for his contribution to Australian political life and for his personal support and encouragement. Barry Jones has a unique place in Australian political life. Barry is famed throughout Australia for his intellect and is respected throughout Australia for his genuineness and compassion. In an age of cynicism about politicians, Barry Jones is one of the few politicians of whom Australians are truly fond. In the electorate of Lalor he is loved. While he will be sorely missed from this House, Barry will continue to serve the Labor Party as its national president and will continue his passionate engagement with Australia in his writing and public speaking. The electorate of Lalor, so ably served by Barry Jones, is situated in Melbourne's outer west. Young families flock to Lalor and new housing estates are constantly being built. Part of Melbourne's industrial heartland, Lalor contains the Altona petrochemical complex, the Laverton industrial estate and the Toyota manufacturing plant, as well as the Point Cook and Laverton air bases. Far less well known and perhaps surprising to some, given the standard imagery of Melbourne's west, Lalor encompasses a significant agricultural precinct at Werribee South and throughout the electorate you find internationally protected wetlands. Lalor also contains major tourist attractions, including the historic Werribee Mansion, the open range zoo and the State Rose Garden. As part of Melbourne's industrial west, the people of Lalor have always had to try harder. There is a sense of community and a fighting spirit often missing from the sleeker suburbs. That fighting spirit is now being called upon in a major community campaign to stop CSR turning the local quarry at Werribee into a toxic dump. There are only two reasons why Werribee has been selected as the site for this toxic dump: CSR wants to make money by filling its disused quarry with toxic waste and the Kennett government thinks Werribee is no more than a dumping ground because Melbourne's sewage farm is located there. But Premier Kennett and CSR are wrong. 98

When the Victorian Premier turns to the west, he holds his nose and closes his eyes. If he opened his eyes, he would have seen the 15,000 Werribee residents who rallied to stop the dump. And by now he should be smelling the scent of a political defeat because this is a fight that Lalor, named for that great fighter against injustice Peter Lalor, will win. The electoral division of Lalor has enjoyed great stability and quality in its parliamentary representatives. Since its creation in 1949, apart from the curious aberration of being represented by the Liberal Party for one parliamentary term, Lalor has been represented in this place by only three members: Reg Pollard, Jim Cairns, the famous antiwar advocate, and Barry Jones. Whilst its parliamentary representation may have been stable, like all of Australia, the electorate of Lalor has undergone a radical transformation since World War II. In Lalor, as in our nation generally, the twin forces of globalisation and rapidly changing technology, particularly information technology, have remade and will continue to remake our lives. The prevailing mood of insecurity is an understandable community response to the swirling winds of change which threaten to blow us to unknowable destinations. In Hugh Mackay's Mind and Mood study and in Clemenger's Silent Majority report, we find a society in which individuals increasingly feel insecure and powerless to control their lives in the face of rapid economic restructuring and social change. Most tellingly of all, parents believe their teenagers are facing a tougher world than they themselves faced. As a community, in common with societies throughout the Western world, our response to insecurity has run from simple nostalgia to the spectacle of the frightened turning on the vulnerable. Endless remakes of the songs and movies of the 1960s and 1970s and the rise of reactionary politics have something in common—both seek a return to a mythical, simpler time, a deep and dreamless sleep. Various conservative politicians, some with subtlety, some nakedly, have encouraged this dangerous trend. So-called `wedge politics' sells the big lie that the answer to insecurity is to tread on the weakest amongst us. This shabby opportunism has hurt many and helped none. For far too long public debate in Australia has failed to nourish or inspire us. For far too long it has been limited to the day-to-day monitoring of the health of our economy rather than the morals and goals of our society. The end result of this political cycle is a weary people who no longer believe what politicians say and who think the politicians saying it do not even believe it themselves. In my view, the electors of Lalor, and the Australian people, are looking for a return to passion and conviction in Australian politics and to the clear articulation of values. They rightly want to know what their politicians stand for, what we believe in

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and by what measures we are prepared to be judged. If the politics of values comes to the fore, then the Labor Party will win that contest. It is only the Labor Party that can claim to be based clearly upon a value system, a value system that has endured since the Labor Party's formation, even though the policies based upon those values are constantly revised in order to meet the needs of a changed and changing world. We stand for the right of ordinary Australians—those who have neither wealth nor power—to a fair go, to be treated with dignity and respect in the workplace, to be recognised and valued as citizens and to have a say in their nation's future. Our values are fundamentally democratic and collective. We understand the great enduring truth that individuals are immeasurably strengthened by being members of a team, of a society, and that a strong community provides the best platform from which individuals can excel. And we understand that the key aspiration of each generation of Australians is to ensure that the generation to follow, their daughters and sons, will lead a better life. These values—our core Labor values—are true signposts which take us beyond some of the sterile debates of the past. Our conservative opponents would have Australians believe that our nation will only find its place in an open and competitive global economy if we sign up to the cult of individualism, to the survival of the fittest. By contrast, Labor—guided by our values—understands that, just like the most loving homes produce the confident kids who are able to face the world and take the risks necessary to get ahead, a nurturing and caring society is the best foundation for the individuals who will ensure Australia competes in the global market. A strong economy and a strong society are not contradictory goals. Indeed, you can only achieve a sustainably strong economy by creating a strong society. A country is strengthened by individual security and national inclusiveness. But security alone is not enough. A vision to satisfy Australians, a Labor vision, must also be a vision of opportunity, a vision whereby each and every Australian, no matter what their personal circumstances, is given an opportunity to develop and to excel, a vision whereby we can truly believe that the opportunities for the next generation will be better. My personal story shows the difference that opportunity can make to a life. My father John and my mother Moira, who is watching from the gallery today, migrated to this country with my sister Alison and I as assisted passage migrants in 1966. Immigrants need courage and creativity; they need open minds and sturdy hearts. What the last red-headed woman who made a first speech in this place will never understand is that the vast majority of migrants come here determined to make a better life for themselves and their kids, and they are prepared to work unbelievably hard to achieve that dream.

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My father worked in a variety of blue-collar jobs before training as a psychiatric nurse. My mother worked as a domestic in an aged care institution. Between them they have contributed more to this country as workers, as citizens, than they ever cost it. And because they chose this country, while they still have their accents and their culture, they love this country and the lives they have made within it. Because they chose this country, they take nothing about it for granted: they celebrate and know its worth. And that is the truth of our history of migration, our history of multiculturalism. In return, Australia has offered me opportunities that would have been beyond my parents' understanding when they stepped off that boat in Adelaide in 1966. It would have been inconceivable to them that their child, and a daughter at that, could be offered the opportunity to obtain two degrees from a university and to serve in the nation's parliament. I have only been able to take up those opportunities because of the excellent state education system which flourished in South Australia under the Dunstan Labor government and the access to universities made possible by the Whitlam government's abolition of up-front fees. In coming to this House, I bring with me a passionately held view that it is fundamental to Labor's vision, to our compact with this and the next generation, that Australia not only offers the opportunities I enjoyed but offers the opportunity to train, to retrain, to excel, throughout life. Around the world now there is a trend back to the Centre Left, to social democratic parties that stress the importance of raising the educational standards of all citizens, not just a lucky few. This is because not only economists but ordinary people understand that the future of Australia and the future of themselves and their children is tied to educational success. Australia cannot afford to waste talent. But, under this government, we are engaging in that shameful and cruel waste. We are denying Australians access to opportunity. In its 1996 budget, this government took $1.8 billion of public support away from our university system. The inevitable result has been a decline in the number of students starting courses at our universities. When the cuts took effect, Victoria tumbled from having the second highest growth rate in commencing enrolments to being the state with the biggest fall, a 4.7 per cent fall in commencing enrolments—a statistic which speaks of misery and lost opportunity. Perhaps worst of all, under this government we have returned to a system of privilege rather than merit in our universities, a system of allowing the rich to buy a place while those with better entrance marks but not enough money miss out—a system which was eradicated by the Whitlam government when I was in primary school. Of course, inequality in our education system is not just confined to higher education. Let me give you just one example involving my own electorate. High

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achievers are those talented young people who come in the top 7.5 per cent of results in their year 12 marks. Last year, one very good but very exclusive ladies college in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne alone had 111 high achievers in the pivotal subject of English. The 40 working-class secondary schools north and west of the Yarra, including the schools in my electorate, managed only 84 between them. The students from my electorate are not any less intelligent than those from Higgins or Kooyong but their educational opportunities are not the same. Certainly, this massive discrepancy would be lessened if we as a nation were prepared to seriously tackle the inequality of opportunity that exists in our education system and create a high-class state school system. My predecessor, Barry Jones, used to say that unfortunately postcodes are probably the strongest factor in determining a person's expectations of success in life. It will be one of my priorities in politics to ensure that in the Australia of the future the famous quizmaster is, for once, wrong. My passion for education is not only the product of my own personal experience; it is the result of having campaigned on these very issues as a university student. One of the features of this parliament is that every few elections there arrives a new generation of politicians distinctly different from the people who preceded them. People today make a lot of the new generation from the other side of this House who emerged from the battles with left-wing students on our campuses in the 1970s. I come from the generation of students who followed. Like them, we fought what we saw as self-indulgence and pampered extremism. Ours was a radicalism fashioned by a desire to be practical, much like my Welsh forebear, Nye Bevan, who was just one of the people from whom we took inspiration. I will not pretend that the antics of a bunch of university students had much relevance to real working people, but we were always conscious that we were part of a wider movement to create a fairer society and give others the opportunities we were fortunate enough to have. We always understood the value of working collectively, of unionism. While experience in the student movement inspired those on the other side of the House to dedicate themselves to the destruction of unionism, it inspired us to work with and for unions. It inspired me to spend eight years as an industrial lawyer defending trade unions and working people. In this place, I will remain fiercely committed to working with unions and to working for fair industrial laws. Our youthful anger may now be tempered by experience but the same beliefs in fairness and the same fire remain. Those friends from university have remained my comrades since the early 1980s. They are people of intelligence, public spiritedness and integrity. We stuck together and we retained our common goals. Today you can find them fighting in our great trade union movement to protect the jobs of timber workers, rubbish collectors, home care workers, nurses and Aussie post workers, defending injured workers in the courts and helping prepare the ALP for the new millennium.

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Today I pay tribute to them and especially to the most committed of them all, Michael O'Connor, who has been my closest confidant since those heady days. I would not have reached this place without his support and without the support of the friends and family members who care about me and have turned up in remarkable force today. My sincere thanks to: my mother, Moira; my father, John; my sister, Alison; her partner, Paul; and their children, Jenna and Tom. To Darrell Cochrane and Joan Kirner for never once wavering: my thanks. To Robyn McLeod: thanks for your friendship. To John Brumby, who so richly deserves to be the next Premier of Victoria: thanks for the opportunity to work with you and learn from you. To the member for Batman, Martin Ferguson: thanks for your help and personal support. And to my wonderful supporters in Lalor, including Terry Bracks, Henry Barlow and Fiona Richardson watching from the gallery today: I will do everything in my power to make you proud.

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