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CHAPTER 6 BUCKLING

6.1 Long columns

The critical buckling load (Euler load) is defined as follows: 2 EI Pcr = 2 (1) Le Introduce the radius of gyration of the cross-sectional area, = (1):

I into equation A

cr =

2E

Le

2

(2)

This applies to ideal columns (columns with no residual stress or eccentricity). Le = effective length, depending on column end fixity. Le = L for pin-ended column Le = L /2 for fixed-ended column Le 0.7 L for one end fixed, one end hinged Le = 2L for one end fixed, one end free 6.2 Short columns Define a slenderness ratio :

=

where y = yield stress of the material.

Le

y

E

75

(3) (4)

Johnsons equation :

ult 2 =1 y 4

ult = cr

(since columns collapse when they reach their critical buckling load)

In practice, columns are seldom perfectly straight, nor is the loading perfectly axial. One of the simplest formulas that allows for eccentricity of loading is the PerryRobertson formula: L e (5) y = ult 1 + ult 1 E where = 0.003 and = Eulers buckling stress (equation (2)) The following figure gives the basic column curve to be used in determining ult .

76

We have shown that for simply supported rectangular plate under uniaxial compression:

( x )cr

2 2

( x )cr

=

=

2D a m2

t

a n2 2 Et 2 2 + 2 = m a m b 12 1 2

a m2 b a n 2 b 2 + 2 m a b m b b

2 Et 2 12 ( 2 )b2 1

2E t 12 (1 2 ) b where KC = fn ( , m)

2E t 2 m + = KC (6) 12 1 2 b 2 m and of the B.C.s. The following figure shows the factor KC for different edge boundary conditions. For simple support on all edges and 1, KC may be taken equal to 4.

( x )cr

77

Define a plate slenderness parameter, : b y = t E Plates may be divided into the following categories: Slender plates: > 2.4 Sturdy plates: < 1.0 Intermediate plates: 1.0 < < 2.4

(7)

The plate shown in the following figure is simply supported at all four edges. There is an applied uniform compressive stress a .

For a slender plate under the action of an applied stress a , the plate buckles. As a result, the central portion of the plating moves out of plane and a greater proportion of the load must be taken by the region of the plate near the sides. Nevertheless, the plate is still supporting the load and so although it has buckled, it has not yet collapsed. As the load is further increased, the effective stress at the sides increases even more rapidly, until finally this stress reaches the yield stress and collapse occurs. The peak value of the applied stress is referred to as the ultimate strength of the plate and is denoted as a,ult . The plate will not be fully effective over the width b. Instead, it is necessary to take some reduced effective width, be . Von Karman idealized the state of stress within the buckled plate by assuming that, due to buckling, the center portion has no compressive stress, while the edge portions of the plate remain fully effective and carry a uniform stress e .

e be = a b where be is called the effective width.

78

If buckling occurs:

e = KC

For the original plate:

2D

2 be t

( a )cr

If KC is the same in both cases:

= KC

2D

b2 t

be = b

( a )cr

e

Note: KC is not the same (B.Cs are regarded as similar in both cases but aspect ratios differ). The smallest possible value of be is reached when: e = y

In efficient structures, elastic buckling loads are usually higher than loads to first yield of the material and therefore collapse will involve a combination of buckling and yield failure known as elasto-plastic buckling. Most classification societies in marine industry use the Johnson-Ostenfeld equation to take into account the effect of plasticity. The resulting elastic-plastic buckling stress is the final critical buckling strength. It is given as follows:

cr = y

E

Y 1 4 E

(8)

where E = elastic buckling stress, cr = critical (elastic-plastic) buckling stress, Y = material yield stress. The above form assumes a structural proportional limit value P of 0.5Y. Some classification societies assume a P of 0.6Y. This equation is used for steel plates as well as columns.

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