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Amanda Muzzy and Zach Makuch Literacy Instruction in the Content Areas in Grades 7-12 EDR524A Due: November 12, 2012

Curriculum Map I. Overview This unit will deal with World War I. It will begin with the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and it will end with the cumulating defeat of the Central Powers and the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. Various aspects such as trench warfare, chemical warfare, causes of WWI, impacts of WWI, and an in depth look at the participants will also be examined in this unit. II. Essential Questions Essential questions examined in this unit are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) What were the causes of WWI? What nations participated in WWI? What were the major battles? Why is WWI considered the first modern war? What were the lasting impacts of WWI? What technologies came out of WWI?

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Focus Standards A. 3.0 literary response and analysis. 11 and 12 grade ELA standard. 3.8 Analyze the clarity and consistency of political assumptions in a selective of literary works or essays on a topic. 3.1 analyze characteristics of subgenres that are used in poetry prose and so forth. 3.3 analyze the ways in which irony, tone and mood achieve specific rhetorical and aesthetic purpose. Writing application. 11 and 12 grade ELA standard. 2.2 Write responses to literature. 2.3 Write reflective compositions. 2.4 Write historical investigation reports:

Analysis and evaluate of oral and media communications 1.12 Identify logical fallacies used in oral addresses. 1.14 Analyze the techniques used in media messages. Listening and speaking strategies. 11 and 12 grade ELA standard. Comprehension. 1.1 Recognize strategies used by the media to inform, persuade, entertain, and transmit culture , 1.2 Analyze the impact of the media on the democratic process, and 1.3 interpret and evaluate the various ways in which events are presented and information is communicated by visual image makers Speaking application standard. 11 and 12 grade ELA standard 2.0. 2.1 Deliver reflective presentations: Explore the significance of personal experiences, events, conditions, or concerns, using appropriate rhetorical strategies. Draw comparisons between the specific incident and broader themes that illustrate the speaker’s beliefs or generalizations about life. Maintain a balance between describing the incident and relating it to more general, abstract ideas. 2.2 deliver oral reports on historical investigations use exposition, narration, description, persuasion, or some combination of those to support the thesis. Analyze several historical records of a single event, examining critical relationships between elements of the research topic. Explain the perceived reason or reasons for the similarities and differences by using information derived from primary and secondary sources to support or enhance the presentation. Include information on all relevant perspectives and consider the validity and reliability of sources. Math standards eleventh- twelfth grade statisticsSummarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables. 1. Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related. 2. Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models.

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots).
2. Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets.
3. Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers).
4. Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies 3. Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each.
4. Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling. 5. Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant.
6. Evaluate reports based on data. Conditional probability and the rules of probability understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data. 1. Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events (“or,” “and,” “not”).
2. Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.

B. New York State Learning Standards The Arts-

Standard 2: Knowing and Using Arts Materials and Resources 
Students will be knowledgeable about and make use of the materials and resources available for participation in the arts in various roles.
 Standard 3: Responding to and Analyzing Works of Art
 Students will respond critically to a variety of works in the arts, connecting the individual work to other works and to other aspects of human endeavor and thought. 
 Standard 4: Understanding the Cultural Contributions of the Arts
Students will develop an understanding of the personal and cultural forces that shape artistic communication and how the arts in turn shape the diverse cultures of past and present society. Standard 5: Technology Students will apply technological knowledge and skills to design, construct, use, and evaluate products and systems to satisfy human and environmental needs. Standard 6: Interconnectedness: Common Themes Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning. Standard 7: Interdisciplinary Problem Solving Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address real-life problems and make informed decisions. HistoryStandard 1: History of the United States and New York
 Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in the history of the United States and New York.
 Standard 2: World History
Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate
their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in world history and examine the broad sweep of history from a variety of perspectives.
 Standard 3: Geography
Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the

geography of the interdependent world in which we live— local, national, and global—including the distribution of people, places, and environments over the Earth’s surface.
 Standard 4: Economics
Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of how the United States and other societies develop economic systems and associated institutions to allocate scarce resources, how major decision-making units function in the United States and other national economies, and how an economy solves the scarcity problem through market and nonmarket mechanisms.
 Standard 5: Civics, Citizenship, and Government
Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the necessity for establishing governments; the governmental system of the United States and other nations; the United States Constitution; the basic civic values of American constitutional
democracy; and the roles, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship, including avenues of participation.

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Suggested Student Objectives -Students will demonstrate their knowledge of key concepts and vocabulary through various quizzes that utilize multiple choice answers, true/false questions, and short answer responses. - Students will demonstrate their research skills through the research project, and through various activities, they will demonstrate various skills such as citing resources, finding credible sources, creating research questions, etc. to the teacher. - Students will demonstrate a variety of writing skills by applying these skills to the research paper, and thus demonstrate to the teacher that they can effectively support their papers with evidence in a clear and coherent fashion.

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Suggested materials (books & other printed texts) Textbook: Cayton, Andrew, Elisabeth Israels Perry, Linda Reed, Allan M. Winkler. America: Pathways to the Present. Needham, Massachusetts: Prentice Hall, 2002. Howard Zinn. A Young People’s History of the United States. Watts Street, NewYork: Seven Stories Press, 2009. Reference Guides for Chicago Style Referencing Poetry of Wilfred Owen (either from internet sources or book form depending on availability of resources)

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Art, Music, and Media, including Technology Smart Boards are not required, but will be useful. If a smart board is unavailable we would need a projector or an overhead to show the class photos or notes created using PowerPoint. A CD player or some sort of sound system needs to be available, in order to play the music from the World War One era. Also, resources from the library such as online journals, online encyclopedias, printed materials, etc. will be needed for the research project. Continued collaboration with a librarian is essential in order to bring various resources to students such as different media sources like various videos, online resources, as well as access to archives. Local historical societies can be valuable in providing the classroom with newspaper clippings, photographs, and other historical artifacts. As technology becomes a greater asset to education, its incorporation into the classroom would take on a greater importance as need and resources increase. Certainly smart phones, tablets, and other digital devices could serve a greater purpose in the classroom. However, for now basic technologies are the most viable and effective tools at the moment.

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Sample Activities 1) Students will have a chance to create a museum exhibit within the classroom, or in one of the halls that can be shown

to the rest of the school. Students will research various aspects of WWI, and create an exhibit utilizing various photos and descriptions of their topic, in order to give more information to peers. Topics such as chemical warfare, UBoats, trench warfare, Armenian genocide, assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, etc. can be exhibited. Students would be able to work in pairs or trios in order to give more depth to the exhibits. This collaborative activity will allow students to engage in their own learning, as well as teach other students. 2) Several stations within the classroom or in the library would be set up for students. Each station would focus around a minority and their contributions during WWI. Women, African Americans, Indians (British colony), various African colonies, etc. would each have their own station with various resources about that minority group. Students would go to each station and fill out a basic worksheet in order to encourage them to participate actively and look at the various resources. After the students have been allowed to look at each station, the students will have to pick out one minority group. The students will then write a journal entry through the perspective of the minority group they chose. This activity is meant to introduce students to different perspectives, as well as give them more experience with writing creatively.

3) The Alliance System- This activity is centered on the complexity of the alliance system existing prior to WWI, and how it was a cause of WWI. Students in pairs or trios will represent the initial countries that went to war in 1914. They will each be given a flag to represent their prospective country. Then the pairs or trios will be organized in an open area to resemble the placement of their countries. The activity will begin with the Austrian-Hungarian Empire declaring war on Serbia, which in turn brought in Russia and Germany, etc. Students will represent each country coming to the aid of another. This activity is meant to give a collaborative approach to understanding the complex concept of the domino effect that brought Europe into a large-scale war.

4) Research Activity- Chicago referencing style is a citation that is rarely taught in high schools, yet the earlier it is taught, the more prepared students will be for college. Thus it would be important for students to cite their papers in Chicago style referencing. The librarian would give a lesson to students on how to cite in Chicago style. Once the lesson is over, the students will be given a chance to demonstrate what they have learned in a fun activity while working in a collaborative fashion in pairs. The activity takes the form of a treasure hunt, where students will be required to cite different types of books, media, etc. With each correct citation, students will be given a different clue. Once the students have successfully cited every source, they will have all of the clues they need to answer the question in order to get the treasure. The first pair to answer the question correctly will win the grand prize while subsequent pairs will win a smaller prize. Hard work should be rewarded regardless of how long it takes to get to the desired outcome.

VIII. Sample Assessment & Evaluation A. Assessment & Evaluation of Students -Students will be given a quiz each week in order to assess whether or not they understand the material. This is meant to give the teacher an idea of how students are progressing so that the teacher can decide if some material needs to be taught further. - A unit test will assess the students’ collective knowledge, as well as present them an opportunity to demonstrate higher cognition skills through writing an argumentative essay supported by evidence. - Finally a research project will be incorporated to assess students on various skills such as research skills, writing skills, critical thinking skills, etc. However the research project will offer diverse methods for students to demonstrate their knowledge of their topics. Options include but are not limited to comic strips, traditional

research papers, a series of journals incorporating historical evidence, various pieces of art work, etc. This will allow students an opportunity to show their knowledge in a way that they are good at. B. Self-assessment (Teacher) It is important to ask students for feedback on the various activities, so that the teacher can quickly assess whether the activities they planned are effective or not. As a teacher it is important to be fully aware of how students are responding to the material. If they are clearly not engaged, then the teacher must change their methods in order to get students engaged so that they have a more equal and greater chance of learning.

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Reading & Language Arts Connection(s) A. Reading- Students will read poetry from Wilfred Owen. The students will read selections from a textbook either Howard Zinn or Pathways to the Present. Students will read articles, primary resources, and letters from soldiers for their research project. B. Writing- Students will write their research paper using Chicago formatting. Students will write portions of their museum exhibits and they will fill out worksheets during the minority group activity. C. Listening- Students will listen to songs produced about the war or songs sung by soldiers during World War One. There will be some direct instruction that students will listen to. . D. Speaking- During the museum activity and the students will talk to each other about the different stations. Furthermore, students will have a class discussion during the country activity. Students will talk about how “their” country aided other countries.

E. Viewing & Representing Visually (Media)- PowerPoints will be created to show the main ideas of some lessons. There will be photos the class will view so the students

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Additional Resources- Various trade books will be available for students to use for students while they are conducting their research. There will be a list of starter websites that students can view, so they can have an idea of where to start their research. The students will not be limited to the website list. Additional Websites: "BBC NEWS | UK | World War I battlegrounds." BBC News - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7712908.stm>. -Gives various information about WWI battlefields, and offers various videos students can watch about those battlefields. “Last survivor of 'Christmas truce' tells of his sorrow | UK news | The Observer ." Latest US news, world news, sport and comment from the Guardian | guardiannews.com | The Guardian . N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2004/dec/19/christmas.lornamartin>. -Article online that interviews the last survivor of the Christmas Truce of 1914, which will give students an account of that day from someone that was there. "Pathfinders." ipl2: Information You Can Trust. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ipl.org/div/pf/entry/48548>. -Website that offers links to various websites about WWI.

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Terminology/Vocabulary Transcribed from: Cayton, Andrew, Elisabeth Israels Perry, Linda Reed, Allan M. Winkler. America: Pathways to the Present. Needham, Massachusetts: Prentice Hall, 2002. Allies- In World War I, Russia, France, Great Britain, and later the United States. American Expeditionary Force- Name given to American troops in Europe in World War I.

Armistice- A cease-fire or truce. Autocrat- Ruler with unlimited power. Central powers- In World War I, Germany and Austria-Hungary. Convoy- Group of armed and unarmed ships deployed to protect merchant shipping from attack. Daylight saving time- Turning clocks ahead one hour for the summer. Filibuster- Tactic in which senators take the floor, begin talking, and refuse to stop talking to permit a vote on a measure. Fourteen points- President Wilson’s proposal in 1918 for a postwar European peace. Genocide- Deliberate murder of an entire people. League of Nations- International organization, formed after World War I, that aimed to promote security and peace for all members. Liberty bond- Special war bond sold to support the allied cause during World War I. Militarism- Policy of aggressively building up a nation’s armed forces in preparation for war. Mobilization- The readying of troops for war. Price controls- System of pricing determined by the government. Rationing- Distributing goods to consumers in a fixed amount. Reparations- Payment from an enemy for economic injury suffered during a war. Russian Revolution- Collapse of the czar’s government in Russia in 1917, leading ultimately to the Bolshevik takeover. Sedition- Speech or actions that encourage rebellion. Self determination- Having the necessary resources to get along without help. Selective Service Act- 1917 law authorizing a draft of young men service. Spoils- Rewards gained by military victory. Stalemate- Situation in which neither side in a conflict is able to gain the advantage. Sussex Pledge- Pledge by the German government in 1916 that its submarines would warn ships before attacking. U-boat- A German submarine. Versailles Treaty- 1919 treaty that ended World War I. Vigilante- Citizen who takes the law into his or her own hands. Zimmerman Note- 1917 note by a German diplomat proposing an alliance with Mexico.

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Interdisciplinary Connections English- There is a connection to English in that students will read the poetry of Wilfred Owen, who was a soldier during WWI. Students would analyze theme, motif, symbolism, etc. in these works in order to gain a better understanding of the poetry and its dark allusions to the harsh realities of war. Physics- Students could potentially learn about trajectories and angles when discussing shelling of enemy lines, especially in concerns with Big Bertha. Mock battles using catapults could simulate shelling of enemy trenches while using various equations to determine the proper angle, etc. to shell a trench. Art- For the research project, students who are good at art could study art from WWI or art that depicts WWI to look for common themes and methods. They could write a small paper on this subject, and then create their own art to resemble similar art from the period that utilizes similar methods and themes. Math- Students who are good with math can create graphs to keep track of casualties in major battles to offer a visual representation that can be given to other students. Pie charts tracking casualties from every participant nation in the war would give students a general idea which nation lost the most lives, and then could use critical thinking skills to determine who would have the hardest time recovering. Music- Students will listen to songs that were created by soldiers or were listened to during World War One. They will analyze the tempo, rhythm, meaning, who it was created by and who it was created by.

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Differentiation of Instruction and/or Activities A. Struggling Learners

B. Advanced Learners

C. Students with Exceptional Learning Needs (ELN) 1. Specific Learning Disabilities (such as dyslexia or dyscalculia) Hearing impairment 2. Other categories a. Deafness b. Hearing Impairment- A student that has a hearing impairment could have an earpiece that is connected to a microphone. The teacher would have the microphone attached to their shirt so the student would be able to control the volume of the teacher’s voice. The student would be allowed to sit in the middle of the classroom so they could hear the other students equally. The student would also have access to the music played in classroom, so they could listen to the song and be able to control the volume. c. Visual Impairment d. Deaf-Blindness e. Autism Spectrum Disorder f. Mental Retardation g. Multiple Disabilities h. Other Health Impairments i. Speech or Language Impairment j. Orthopedic Impairment k. Traumatic Brain Injury l. Emotional Disturbance

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Sample Lesson Plans

Lesson Plan #1 Boiling point. Students will learn about the events that led to World War One. The main idea of the lesson is for the students to understand why the war happened. Students will learn about the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and the previous factors that led to the

war. Students will learn about imperialism, militarism, nationalism, alliances, the central powers and the allies. Students will understand how all of the factors led to the First World War Lesson Plan #2 The American response. When the war was declared Americans were neutral and in this lesson students will learn how and why America got involved. Students will learn about the Zimmerman note, the Russian Revolution, U-boats, the Sussex pledge, Selective Service Act, American Expeditionary Force, and Convoys. Students will learn about the draft and the volunteers in order to become part of the “great war.” Students will learn about the arrival of American troops in Europe and the march out of Paris. Students will then learn about the casualties and the inclusion of multiple groups of people in the next lesson. Lesson Plan #3 War Spares No one Students will learn about how Total War has affected both civilians and soldiers. The central idea of this lesson is that no one was spared from the realities of World War I. Students will look in depth into the harsh realities of millions of people affected by the war from Germany to Armenia, and France to Africa. A war does not only affect the soldiers, but the people at home as well. Lesson Plan #4 A Quick Victory Turned into Stalemate Each nation believed in the beginning of WWI that the war would be quickly won. However the grim reality was that a stalemate had occurred, resulting in soldiers entrenching themselves, and leading to trench warfare. Students will learn about why a stalemate occurred, and they will see that soldiers realized this by Christmas of 1914. The lesson will end with the Christmas Truce of 1914.

Adapted by Snowden, P. L. (2012) from: Carmichael, S. B. (Project Coordinator). (2012). Common core curriculum maps: English language arts, grades 9-12. San Francisco. Jossey-Bass.