IRON – CARBON SYSTEM Alloys of the Iron-carbon system include steel and cast iron.

— Alloys with a carbon content up to 2% are known as Steels whereas those having carbon above 2% are called Cast-Irons. — Alloys of iron-carbon system are ofthe most vital importance to modern industry due to their extensive, versatile applications — The Iron-carbon system provides the most prominent example of heat treatment arid property alteration based on polymorphic transformation and eutectoid decomposition. Because of its outstanding commercial importance, the Iron-carbon system has been studied in more detail than most alloy systems. — The primary constituent of Iron-carbon system is the metal Iron. IRON, ALLOTROPY Iron is a relatively soft and ductile metal. — Iron has a melting point of 1539°C. — Iron is allotropic metal, which means that it exists in more than one type of lattice structure (e.g., B.C.C./F.C.C.) depending upon temperature. In its normal room temperature state, iron is B.C.C. in lattice arrangement, whereas at 908°C it changes to F.C.C. and then at 1403°C back to B.C.C. again and vice versa. One another change occurs at about 770°C (called the Curie point) at which the room temperature magnetic properties of iron disappear and it becomes non-magnetic. The iron remains non-magnetic until the temperature drops back below the Curie point upon which its magnetic properties reappear. — Fig. 40.1 shows a cooling curve for pure iron with allotropic forms of iron marked over it. — Iron is molten above 1539°C. It solidifies in the B.C.C. delta form.

On further cooling at 1400°C, a phase change occurs and the atoms rearrange themselves into the γ (Gamma) form which is F.C.C. and nonmagnetic. On still further cooling at 910°C, another phase change occurs from F.C.C. non-magnetic y iron to B.C.C. non-magnetic alpha iron. Finally at 768°C, the alpha-iron (B.C.C.) becomes magnetic without a change in lattice structure. MICRO – CONSTITUENTS OF IRON AND STEEL When steel is heated above the austenitic temperature (Refer Fig. 40.4) and is allowed to cool under different conditions (e.g., different rates of cooling), the austenite in steel transforms into a variety of microconstituents discussed below. — The study of these microconstituents is essential in order to understand Fe-C equilibrium diagram and T.T.T. diagrams. — Various micro-constituents are: (a) Austenite (b) Ferrite (c) Cementite (d) Ledeburite (e) Pearlite (f) Bainite

Cr. 40.4.(g) Martensite (h) Troostite (i) Sorbite (a) Austenite: Austenite is the solid solution of carbon and/or other alloying elements (e. the left-hand corner of Fig. Elongation 10% in 50 mm. — Austenite can dissolve maximum 2% carbon at 2066°F.. . Ni. are in substitutional solid solution with iron.. Under certain conditions. etc. 40. — Austenite is normally not stable at room temperature. etc. — Fig. it is possible to obtain austenite at room temperature (as in austenite stainless steels). Mn.g. Hardness Rockwell C 40 (Approx). — Austenite is non-magnetic and soft. Ni.) in gamma iron Carbon is in interstitial solid solution whereas Mn. however. — Austenite has: * * * Tensile strength 10500 kg/cm2.2 (a) shows microstructure of austenite at room temperature.

—Ferrite is the softest structure that appears on the Fe-C equilibrium diagram.2 (b)] — Ferrite is B. contains 6.025% carbon at 1333°F at extreme left hand corner of Fig. —Ferrite has: * * * (c) Tensile strength 2800 kg/cm2 (Approx.) Elongation 40% in 50 mm Hardness less than Rockwell C 0 or Rockwell B 90..e.C. The maximum solubility is 0. and it (i. 350 kg/cm2) but high compressive strength. 40.67% carbon by — weight. Cementite Cementite or iron carbide.008% carbon at room temperature. .C.(b) Ferrite [Fig.4. iron phase with very limited solubility for carbon. It is a typical hard and brittle interstitial compound of low tensile strength (approx. ferrite) dissolves only 0. 40. chemical formula Fe3C.

(d) Ledeburite. Bainite is produced byAustempering —Thus bainite is a decomposition product of austenite. point C in Fig. It is formed at about 1130°C (2065°F). the white ferrite back-ground or matrix which makes up most of the eutectoid mixture contains thin plates of cementite (black). 40. Its crystal structure is orthorhombic. it is known as Acicular Bainite [Fig. Hardness Rockwell C 2O. — If bainite is formed in the upper part of the temperature range.12 (b)] if it is formed in the lower part of the temperature range. Acicular bainite resembles tempered martensite because it has somewhat needle like structure.5) The_pearlite microconstituent consists of alternate lamellae of ferrite and cementite.10).3% carbon.12 (a)].4 Pearlite is shown in Fig. 40. its appearance is feathery and it is called Feathery Bainite [Fig. Thus. . (f) Bainite (Fig. 40.Cementite is the hardest structure that appears on the iron-carbon equilibrium diagram.12) — Bainite is the constituent produced in a steel when austenite transforms at a temperature below that at which pearlite is produced and above that at which martensite is formed. consisting of an aggregate of ferrite and carbide. Bainite forms on isothermal transformation at temperatures below the nose of TTT diagram (Refer Fig. 40. It contains 4. — * * Pearlite has Elongation 20% in 50 mm. (e) — Pearlite (Fig. Pearlite is the product of austenite decomposition by an eutectoid reaction.8% carbon and is formed at 13330F(7230C). — Ledeburite is the eutectic mixture of austenite and cementite. 40. 40.5. pearlite is an eutectoid mixture containing about 0. 40. Bainite is an isothermal transformation product and cannot be produced by continuous cooling.

the microstructure. — Martensite. — Martensite forms as a result of shear-type transformation with virtually no diffusion.3 (a)]. normally. — Martensite is considered to be highly stressed a-iron which is supersaturated with carbon. the troostite. — Martensite possesses an acicular or needle-like structure. 40. is a product of quenching.(g) Martensite (Fig. (h) Troostite — Troostite (Nodular) is a mixture of radial lamellae of ferrite and cementite and therefore differs from pearlite only in the degree of fineness and carbon content which is the same as that in the austenite from which it is formed [Fig. In steel heat treatment.13) — Martensite is a metastable phase of steel. i.e. Martensite is an interstitial supersaturated solid solution of carbon in alpha-iron and has a bodycentered-tetragonal lattice. 40. Fig. —The constituent also known as troostite pearlite is produced by the decomposition of austenite when cooled at a rate slower than that which will yield a martensitic structure and faster than that which will produce a sorbitic structure.13. formed by transformation of austenite below the Ms temperature (refer Fig. 40. consisting of ferrite and finely divided cementite is produced on tempering martensite below approximately 450°C. . 40.10)..

—An equilibrium diagram is constructed by plotting temperature along they-axis and percentage composition of the alloy along the x-axis.0% C). the more dispersed the ferrite-cementite mixture will be. troostite is difficult to differentiate. it establishes a correlation between the microstructure and properties of steel and cast irons and provides a basis for the understanding of the principles of heattreatment. Sorbite. hypoeutectoid steels (0. structure of troostite is sufficiently clearly revealed under an electron microscope. Under an optical microscope. The lower the decomposition temperature (higher degree of super cooling). However. an even more dispersed mixture.4) indicates the phase changes that occur during heating and cooling and the nature and amount of the structural components that exist at any temperature.3% carbon).008% C or less). Sorbite and Troostite. Difference between Pearlite. phase or constitutional diagram is a graphic representation of the effects of temperature and composition upon the phases present in an alloy. troostite. — The iron carbon equilibrium diagram has a peritectic (point J) an eutectic (point C) and an eutectoid (point S). is produced by the decomposition of austenite when cooled at a rate slower than that which will yield a troostitic structure and faster than that which will produce a pearlitic structure. sorbite and troostite are all ferritecementite mixtures having a lamellar structure and distinguishable from each other in eutectoid steel only by their degrees of dispersion. unlike pearlite.008 to 0. Thus. hypoeutectic cast irons (2 to 4.8%C).3 (b)] —Sorbite is the microstructure consisting of ferrite and finely divided cementite. IRON – CARBON EQUILIBRIUM DIAGRAM An equilibrium. hypereutectoid steels (0. This diagram shows ranges of temperatures and compositions within which the various phase changes are stable and also the boundaries at which the phase changes occur. . produced on tempering martensite/above approximately 450°C. is obtained. At subcritical temperatures in the region of 500 to 550°C. is obtained at higher degrees of supercooling.8 to 2. troostite is observed as a dark mass because the ferrite and cementite particles cannot be resolved.3% C) and hypereutectic cast irons (above 4. Pearlite. a finer mixture. An iron-carbon equilibrium diagram forms a basis for differentiating among iron (0.(i) Sorbite [Fig. 40. 40. Besides. Iron-carbon equilibrium diagram (refer Fig. —The constituent also known as Sorbitic Pearlite. Pearlite is obtained at low degrees of supercooling.

— liquid The eutectic reaction takes place at 2066°F and its equation may be written as cooling ↔ heating austenite +cementite(eutectic mixture{ledeburite}) .Peritectic reaction equation may be written as (δ)delta + liquid cooling ↔ heating Austenite The horizontal line at 2720°F shows the peritectic reaction.

e.4% carbon is a hypoeutectoid steel and is completely austenite above j43. The eutectoid equation may be written as solid cooling ↔ heating Ferrite + cementite(eutectoid mixture{pearlite}) Transformation which takes place in the structures of steels containing 0. i.C. because austenite is not stable at room temperature and must undergo another reaction during cooling.83% carbon in solid solution at 1333°F (or 723°C) thus as the temperature drops further.e.83% and 1. ferrite crystals grow in size at expense of austenite By the time the steel has reached Ax line. This cementite and still separating ferrite form alternate layers until all the remaining austenite is consumed. i. Eutectic mixture is not usually seen in the microstructure.. All hypoeutectoid steels when cooled from austenite state will transform into ferrite and pearlite in the same way as explained above . 1333°F (called lower critical temperature) it is composed of approximately half ferrite and half austenite. i. As the cooling proceeds. carbon begins to precipitate as cementite. small crystals of body centered cubic (B. 0.C. 40.) iron begin to separate out from the austenite (F..4%. The B.C). eutectoid of ferrite and cementite contains 0.C. The lamellae structure. to B.3% carbon.03%) and are referred as crystals of ferrite.5). reaction is represented by the horizontal line of 1333°F and (point) S marks the eutectoid point.2% carbon respectively (refer Fig. As a result.C. crystals retain a small amount of carbon (less than 0.C.C. (0 Steel containing 0.Eutectic point is at 4. upper critical temperature line. 40. As it is cooled below A3 line the iron begins to change from F. have been explained below.4) when heated to a temperature high enough to make them austenitic and then allowed to cool slowly (under equilibrium conditions).C.C.83% carbon and is known as Pearlite (refer Fig.e. — The eitlectaid. At this stage the austenite contains 0..C.83% carbon and since austenite can hold no more than 0.

4).. Thus above 1333°F. 1333°F (or 723°C).e. 40. Since eutectoid steel contains 0.83%) is precipitated as cementite primarily along the grain boundaries (Fig.5).2% carbon). In normal foundry practice. it follows that the final transformed structure will be completely pearlite (see Fig. It is a super-saturated solution of carbon in ferrite and the presence of excess carbon distorts the normally cubic ferrite to a body-centered tetragonal structure which is produced by a shear mechanism and is strained. So far the discussions were only with regard to structures produced in steels by slow cooling from austenite under equilibrium conditions. The transformation will begin and end at the same temperature. it contains only 0. upper critical temperature) line at point d and moves towards e.. i.7. 0. the austenite has become less rich in carbon (because of cementite precipitation). As the temperature drops and steel crossesv4cm (i. strong and brittle constituent. As the temperature drops below 1333°F. Transformations which take place in the structure of a cast iron containing 3% carbon is shown in Fig.83% carbon initially. 40. the rate of cooling is slightly faster and as a result more cementite plates are nucleated and individual lamellae of pearlite become thinner and the structure is called fine pearlite. the structure consists of austenite and cementite. martensite forms on further continuous cooling. The structure of a hypereutectoid steel at room temperature consists of cementite and pearlite (Fig. lower critical temperature line..e. the excess carbon above the amount required to saturate austenite (i.(ii) Consider the transformation of an eutectoid steel containing 0. i. (iii) Consider the transformation of a hypereutectoid steel (say containing 1.4 and explained as under: . For details refer section 40.e.e.83% carbon.4). 40. It will remain austenite up to the point S. 40.83% carbon and it transforms to pearlite as it does so in the cases of hypoeutectoid and eutectoid steels explained earlier. If castings are cooled at still faster rate to prevent transformation of austenite above (approximately) 600°F. Martensite is a hard.

e. (i. 0. This occurs between 2066 and 1333°F. Cast iron of any composition between 2. Although no new graphite flakes^form. 40. 2066°F.. At 1333°F.e.6 (b). pearlite and transformed ledeburite. as usual.e. 40.0 to 4. ledeburite).. This is between 2066 and 1333°F.. austenite will first form from the melt (i. Austenite continues to solidify until the cast iron reaches the temperature of 2066°F. As cooling continues. at the eutectoid.e.. Cooling of the alloy below 1333°F* involves the transformation of remaining austenite of eutectoid composition (i. i.e. Case (c): Phase changes in the same alloy when cooled at a very slow rate will be similar to case (b) above. grow in size. the one present. Case (b): If the above very cast iron is cooled at a slow rate. austenite gets depleted in carbon content and graphite flakes grow. the structure of alloy at room temperature consists of cementite. 1333°F) cooling will be sufficiently slow to permit graphite to precipitate rather than pearlite.3% carbon will solidify in exactly the same way as has been described above. it begins to solidify with the formation of grains of austenite. liquid) but eutectic freezing being slow. Instead of pearlite as in case (b). except that. from a temperature of about 2500?F. the matrix of the alloy solidified in this case is ferrite and graphite flakes are embedded in it . Thus. As the alloy cools below solidus. products of eutectic reaction will be austenite and graphite [Fig.83% C) to pearlite as explained earlier for steels. remaining austenite transforms to pearlite and the structure of the alloy at room temperature looks as shown in Fig.. It is pearlitic gray cast iron.6 (a)].Case (a): Cast iron containing 3% carbon is when cooled under rapid rate as a thin section of a sand casting. ledeburite (a form of eutectic consisting of spheres of austenite embedded in cementite) freezes and cementite precipitates from austenite because of the decreasing solubility of carbon in the austenite. At this stage the alloy consists of 50% austenite and 50% liquid of eutectic composition (austenite and cementite. i.

Bo. Mo. Al. Chromium: Chromium — Joins with carbon to form chromium carbide. etc. Molybdenum: Molybdenum — Promotes hardenability of steel — Makes steel fine grained . — Common alloying elements which are added to steel for the purpose are C.4) Nickel: Nickel — Increases toughness and resistance to impact — Lessens distortion in quenching — Lowers the critical temperatures of steel and widens the range of successful heat treatment — Strengthens steels — Renders high-chromium iron alloys austenitic — Does not unite with carbon.V W. Cr. Co. thus adds to depth hardenability with improved resistance to abrasion and wear — Helps preventing corrosion and oxidation — Adds some strength at high temperatures. Carbon: Carbon content in steel affects — Hardness — Tensile strength — Machinability — Melting point (refer Fig.EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS ON FOUNDING AND OTHER PROPERTIES OF STEELS — An alloying element is one which is added to a metal to effect changes in properties and which remains within the metal. Cu. 40. Mn. Ni. Si. Ti.

Vanadium: Vanadium — Promotes fine grains in steel — Increases hardenability (when dissolved) — Imparts strength and toughness to heat-treated steel.5%) added to steel — increases resistance to atmospheric corrosion — Acts as a strengthening agent. Copper: Copper (0. Boron: Boron — Increases hardenability or depth to which steel will harden when quenched.— Makes steel unusually tough at various hardness levels — Counteracts tendency towards temper brittleness — Raises tensile and creep strength at high temperatures — Enhances corrosion resistance in stainless steels — Forms abrasion resisting particles. Tungsten: Tungsten — Increases hardness (and also red-hardness) — Promotes fine grain — Resists heat Promotes strength at elevated temperatures. — Resists tempering and causes marked secondary hardening. Manganese: Manganese — Contributes markedly to strength and hardness (but to a lesser degree than carbon) — Counteracts brittleness from sulphur — Lowers both ductility and weldability if it is present in high percentage with high carbon content in steel.2 to 0. .

Cr.Aluminium: Aluminium — Acts as a deoxidizer — Produces fine austenite grain size — If present in an amount of about 1%. Silicon: Silicon — Improves oxidation resistance — Strengthens low alloy steels — Acts as a deoxidizer. depth of chill — Improvement of wear resistance — Strength . Mo. heat and wear and to improve mechanical properties. V. EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS ON FOUNDING AND OTHER PROPERTIES OF CAST-IRON — Alloying elements are added to cast iron for attaining special properties such as resistance to corrosion. i. Titanium: Titanium — Prevents localized depletion of chromium in stainless steels during long heating — Prevents formation of austenite in high chromium steels — Reduces martensitic hardness and hardenability in medium chromium steels.0%) is used for — Hardness — Chilling power.. — The most common alloying elements in cast iron are. Cobalt: Cobalt — Contributes to red-hardness by hardening ferrite.15 to 1. Mg. Ni. Mn and Zr. Cu. — Many alloying elements in cast iron will accelerate or retard graphitization and this is one of the important reasons for alloying. it helps promoting nitriding. Chromium: Chromium (0.e.

Molybdenum (0.5 to 2. Vanadium: Vanadium (0.1 to 3.0%) — Stabilizes austenite — Refines pearlite and graphite .— Resistance to heat.0%) — Improves mechanical properties such as tensile strength.15 to 0. chromium decreases machinability. Cu and Cr. — Refines the graphite and pearlite — Is a mild stabilizer of carbides — Improves heat resistance — Retards the transformation of austenite and thus increases hardenability and freedom from cracking and distortion. fatigue strength and hardness. Chromium reduces and refines the graphite.5%) — Is a powerful carbide former — Stabilizes cementite and improves the structure of the chill — Reduces graphitization — Improves tensile strength. Mo is used to produce high strength cast irons. transverse strength and hardness — Adds resistance to wear and heat. However. Copper: Copper (0. Nickel: Nickel (0.0%) — Toughens the matrix — Increases the fluidity — Tends to break up massive cementite and strengthens matrix Assists in control of chill depth — Tends to increase and refine the graphite. Molybdenum: — In conjunction with Ni.3 to 1.

TTT DIAGRAM 1.e. 40. T.T. Introduction — T. diagram shows the relationship between temperature and time (Fig. i. (Time-Temperature-Transformation) diagram is also known as S-Curve. Magnesium: Magnesium (0. Zirconium: Zirconium (0. 2 Difference from Fe-C Equilibrium Diagram (and Importance of TTT Diagram) .08%) — Produces graphite in spheroidal form in as cast alloys — Increases ductility. Manganese: Manganese (0.T. Bain’s Curve or Isothermal Transformation diagram..— Is a mild graphitizer — Improves toughness and density of castings — Minimizes extremes of hardness between light and heavy sections.T.25%) — Stabilizes austenite — Refines the graphite and pearlite — Acts as a deoxidizer — Refines grains — Increases fluidity and density in castings.04 to 0.3%) — Assists formation of graphite — Deoxidizes and improves the fluidity and density of castings — Reduces hardness. — A T. diagram is used more particularly in the assessment of decomposition of austenite in a heat treatable steel.3 to 1. transformation is allowed to occur at constant temperature.12) taken for a decomposition transformation to take place in a metal when the transformation is isothermal.T.10 to 0. C-Curve.T.T.

[refer Fig.Obtain a large number of relatively small specimens (cut from the same bar).11 (a)]. — Many metallurgists realized that time and temperature of austenite transformation had a profound influence on the transformation products and the subsequent properties of the steel.— Many heat treatments of steels involve reaction conditions so far removed from equilibrium that Fe-C equilibrium diagram is of only limited use in the study of steels cooled under nonequilibrium conditions.Place the samples in a molten salt bath held at the proper austenitiz-ng temperature. of course. at very high rates of cooling in the steel. 3 Steps to construct a T. has no place in the Fe-C equilibrium diagram. For a 1080 (eutectoid) steel. — The iron-carbon equilibrium diagram shows only the phases and the resulting microstructures corresponding to equilibrium conditions.T.’ — The principal source of information on the actual process of austenite decomposition under non-equilibrium conditions is the TTT Diagram. the experimentally observed transformation temperatures are lowered and metastable (non-equilibrium) phases may be formed. a metastable phase called martensite can develop which. The usefulness of Fe-C diagram is restricted to fixing the austenitiz-ing temperature and predicting the phases that are eventually obtained at a given composition (C%age) and temperature. For example. 40. As the cooling rate increases. 2. which relates the transformation of austenite to the time and temperature conditions to which it is subjected. .T diagram 1. For example. the microstructure and properties of a (quenched) steel are dependent upon the rate of cooling which prevails during quenching. this temperature is approximately 1425°F.

Transformations at temperatures between approximately 1300°F and 1020°F (550°C) result in the characteristics lamellar micro-structure of pearlite..11 (&)].. but diffusion and growth of nuclei will proceed at maximum speed. and below this line.11 (b). the result is the Reaction Curve as shown in Fig. 7. fourth for 15 sees. bainite or martensite. The first specimen may be allowed to react isothermally for 2 sees. this stops the isothermal reaction (or heat treatment) by causing the remaining (untransformed) austenite to change almost instantly to martensite. 4. 6. — Austenite is stable above Ax temperature line. 40. austenite is unstable. nucleation of cementite from austenite will be very slow. for example at 1300°F.When austenitized. the samples are quickly transferred to an other molten salt bath held at the desired reaction temperature below A1. it is quenched in cold water or iced brine. it can transform into pearlite.11). In microstructures shown in Fig. the result is TTT diagram for that steel. 40.8%) carbon steel. — In addition to the variations in the rate of transformation with temperature. The more the time is given to a specimen to react isothermally the more pearlite is formed [Fig..After a given specimen has been allowed to react isothermally for a certain time. 40.When a large number of specimens isothermally reacted for varying time periods are metallographically examined.. Pearlite is the result of isothermal heat treatment and its amount depends upon the time permitted for isothermal reaction to continue. Fig. 40. Martensite is the result of water quenching of the specimen after the isothermal heat treatment. 5.When the data obtained from a series of isothermal reaction curves over the whole temperature range of austenite instability for a given composition of steel is summarized.e.12 shows the TTT diagram for an eutectoid (about 0. i. so that there will be few large lamellae and the pearlite will be coarse.11 (b). and so on up to say 15 hours (Fig. both pearlite and martensite (white portion) can be seen. second specimen for 4 sees. 40.. At a temperature just belowAx line.Specimens are kept in the molten salt bath for long enough to form complete austenite. . third for 8 sees. there are variations in the structure of the transformation products also. 3. As the specimen is quenched in water.

40.mass [Fig.16 (d)] for bainite formed in the region of around 600°F. The appearance of bainite may vary between feathery.13 shows the effect of cooling rate on the formation of different reaction products e. . 40.. the pearlite becomes fine. The individual particles are much finer than in pearlite. the proportion of austenite transformed to martensite depends only on the temperature to which it is cooled. transforms to martensite are 330°F and 240°F respectively. although austenite becomes increasingly unstable. Mf k a fairly low temperature. — Martensite is formed by the diffusionless transformation of austenite on rapid cooling to a temperature below 465°F (approximately) designated as Ms temperature. and dark acicular (needle-shaped) crystals [Fig. transformation becomes more sluggish as the temperature falls. as the transformation temperature is lowered i.At the foot of the TTT diagram. there are two lines Ms (240°C or 465°F) andM/(-50°C). Ms represents the temperature at which the formation of martensite will start and Mf. In this temperature range the transformation product is bainite.e.g.16 (c)] of fine cementite and ferrite for bainite formed around 900°F. the slower rate of diffusion of carbon atoms in austenite at lower temperatures outstrips the increased urge of the austenite to transform. pearlite.However. The martensitic transformation differs from the other transformations in that it is not time dependent and occurs almost instantaneously. for. (like pearlite) of a ferrite matrix in which particles of cementite are embedded. — Fig. Ms temperature line). Bainite consists. it is just above the nose of the Ccurve. — At temperatures between 1020°F and 465°F (the approximate. bainite and martensite . the temperature at which the formation of martensite will finish during cooling of austenite through this range. For example the approximate temperatures at which 50% and 90% of the total austenite will.. 40. on quenching.

Since there is a greater temperature difference between point 3 and 4 than there is between 1 and 2. Transformation product is coarse pearlite with low hardness. Curve-b involves a faster cooling rate than curve a (annealing) and may be considered typical of normalizing. As Ms line is crossed.Cooling Curve-a: Very slow cooling rate. Cooling Curve-e: This curve is typical of a drastic quench. typical of conventional annealing. Cooling Curve-ef obtains a bainitic structure by cooling rapidly enough to miss the nose of curve and then holding in the temperature range at which bainite is formed until transformation is complete. Cooling Curve-c: This curve is typical of a slow oil quench and the microstructure will be a mixture of medium and fine pearlite. The final structure at room temperature will thus consist of martensite and fine pearlite. the remaining austenite will transform to martensite. but it is not possible to form 100% Bainite. the structure will show a greater variation in the fineness of pearlite and a smaller proportion of coarse pearlite as compared to that of curve-a. Cooling Curve-b: Transformation will start at 3 with the formation of coarse pearlite and finish at 4. . Cooling Curve-ef: It is possible to form 100% pearlite or 100% martensite by continuous cooling. with the formation of medium pearlite. the substance remains austenitic until the Ms line is reached. and changes to martensite between the Ms and My lines. Cooling Curves-d: This curve is typical of an intermediate cooling rate and austenite will start to transform (at point 5) to fine pearlite.

cooling rates a. cooling rate-e) will form only martensite and any cooling rate slower than CCR (e. The cooling rate associated with curve-g is approximate critical cooling rate (CCR) for this steel. ... Any cooling rate equal to or faster than CCR (e. b and c) will form some softer transformation products such as pearlite or bainite.Cooling Curve-g: This curve is tangent to the nose of TTT curve.g.g.