Ferns and their Relatives

The Seedless Vascular Plants

New Plant Tissues
• tracheids, vessel elements
– tubular, elongated cells – dead at functional maturity – differences in structure

• lignin
– hardens 2o walls – function

New Plant Organs

A

D
F

B
C E

Diversity of Pteridophytes
• Whisk ferns (Psilophyta)

Psilotum

Tmesipteris

Diversity of Pteridophytes
• Club mosses (Lycophyta)
strobili
(clusters of sporophylls)

Lycopodium
a.k.a. ground pine, creeping cedar

Diversity of Pteridophytes
• Horsetails (Sphenophyta/Arthrophyta)

Equisetum
a.k.a. scouring rush

Diversity of Pteridophytes
• Ferns (Pteridophyta/Pterophyta)

Cyathea Asplenium Polypodium

Life Cycle of a Fern

Life Cycle of a Fern
A. Fern sperm swim to the archegonium. B. Most ferns are homosporous. C. Underneath the fronds are sori, clusters of sporangia. D. Sporangia release spores, which give rise to gametophytes. E. Spore develops into heart-shaped, photosynthetic gametophyte. F. The zygote develops into a new sporophyte, which grows out of the archegonium of its parent. G.Each gametophyte has both archegonium and antheridium, which usually mature at different times to prevent self-fertilization.