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Marketing Research

SPSSManual

SPSS Manual to Accompany Marketing Research by Alvin Burns and Ronald Bush

Mark S. Rosenbaum Ph.D.

 Mark Rosenbaum University of Hawaii at Manoa Department of Marketing Honolulu, HI 96822

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Introduction to SPSS for Windows
The Basics of SPSS

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pss for Windows 10.0 is a statistical analysis package used for both data management and statistical analysis. In Windows, menus and simple dialog boxes are used to do most of the work. By merely positioning and clicking the mouse, you can accomplish most of your data and statistical analyses.

To access SPSS for Windows

click on the Start button on the taskbar. Then, select Programs from the Start menu and SPSS 10.0 from the Programs menu. When you load SPSS and the SPSS Student Assistant from the CD-ROM included with the textbook, you can create desktop icons.

SPSS for Windows Menu Bar
The menu bar contains the various menu options for SPSS for Windows (SPSS). Similar to other Windows-based software, the pull-down menus allow you to perform such tasks as opening and saving files, editing files and running statistics. To choose a menu in SPSS, all you have to do is place the mouse pointer on then name of the menu and single click (usually the left-sided button) your mouse. The File menu is important because it is where you will be able to open a new or existing file (including data and output files), read an ASCII data file, transport an Excel spreadsheet to SPSS, save a file, and print files. When you choose File on an SPSS data sheet, a drop down menu appears (see Figure 1.1). The choices in dark print are the options available to you at this given time; the ones in light gray are not available at the moment. However, these gray choices can become available to you under the right conditions.

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Opening a File

You can access saved SPSS data and output files by choosing the Open option from the File menu. This will bring up a dialog box from which you can choose the type of file to be opened. See the figure to the left. (1.2) Once you select Open, the Open File dialog box shown in Figure 1.3 appears. The Open File dialog box offers several options, such as file name, file type, drivers, and folders. These options are used to locate and to open the correct file. Be sure to confirm the correct drive and folder.
Figure 1.1 File Menu

Suppose you wanted to open a data file. You would select the drive and folder that contained your data. In Figure 1.3, the data file is named

Figure 1.2 Opening a File

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Figure 1.3 Open Output Dialog Box

Gss. The file exists in the hard drive once you load the CD-ROM that comes with the textbook. Notice the *.sav in the files of type area in Figure 1.3. All the data files in SPSS have *.sav file extensions; output files have .spo extensions. These are your guides to knowing which files contain your data and your output.

• You must create separate data and output files for your work. •
To find files with different extensions,

select the down arrow located next to files of type (see Figure 1.3). You will see an array of different options. A common file is the .xls option that represents an Excel spreadsheet data file. SPSS will open an Excel spreadsheet, allowing you to easily convert the data for statistical analysis using SPSS.

Cut, Copy & Paste
The Edit menu in SPSS provides you with several useful tools. The Cut, Copy and Paste options on the Edit menu are actually features of Windows and they work the same way as they do in other Windows applications. The Cut option on the Edit menu removes the selected text and places it in a temporary storage area called the Clipboard. The Copy option places a copy of the selected text in the Clipboard, while leaving the original text in the window or the document. Paste inserts a copy of whatever is in the Clipboard into the current document. See Figure 1.4.

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FIGURE 1.4. SPSS output can be copied to Microsoft Word and Powerpoint files.
Managers often want to output details, not the actual datasheet. To copy output,

first left click on the SPSS output to select it. Then, select either the cut (to move) or the copy (to copy) option. Place the cursor where the text is to be copied or moved to. Then, select the Paste option on the Edit menu (usually in Word or Powerpoint).

click on the SPSS output that you want to copy. SPSS will create a box around the output indicating the exact data that you selected. Next, select Copy from the Edit menu and then Paste when you want to place the table. See Figure 1.5 below. You may select Copy Objects to retain the table format.
To copy SPSS output tables,

FIGURE 1.5. In this figure, the labor force status table is selected to be copied to another document.

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Saving Data and Output files
When you have finished entering your data (or a portion of data entries), go to the File menu to save the file. When you are saving a file for the first time, use the Save As option. This option will allow you to name the file as well as to select the drive and folder where you want to save the SPSS data. Similarly, when you create SPSS output, after running a statistical test, go to the File menu and save the file. If you are actively entering in SPSS data and select save, then SPSS will save the data file. Also, if you are actively in the output screen, SPSS will save the output. You can only be in one screen at a time, and the screen in which you are active determines whether you are saving data or output. Thus, if you are in the output window and are planning to save your data file; it will not happen. All too many students have lost their data because they didn’t follow this rule. Also, you don’t need to remember to add the .sav or a .spo extension; SPSS automatically does this for you. See Figure 1.6 for an illustration.

Figure 1.6 Save As Dialog Box

Printing an Output File: To print the output file, first make sure the output window is active, then select the Print option from the File menu. The print dialog box (see Figure 1.7) allows you to print the entire file or a selected portion of the output. In order to select the portion of the output, simple left click on the output and SPSS will place the output in a box. This box represents the output that you have selected.

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Save paper by not printing output that you don’t need. By left clicking on SPSS output, you areable to delete unnecessary output that you don’t need!

Remember, there is no reason to always print all of the visible output

SPSS always generates an array output that you may not need. By left clicking with your mouse on SPSS Figure 1.7 The Print Dialog Box output, you are able to delete unnecessary output. Simply click the output that you do not want and select either the delete option from the Edit menu bar or hit the delete key on your keyboard.

Adding information to output

You will often be asked in either class assignments or in reports to modify SPSS by adding information such as your name or by boldfacing text in the output that you deem as important for the viewer.
A L T E R I N G D A T A W I T H I N A T A B L E

Suppose you wanted to bold face “strongly agree”. The first step is to double –click the table with your mouse. With the double click, SPSS places a jagged border around the table. This is your indication that you are free to change any of the data within the table. All you need to is to single click on the words “strongly agree,” or a number such as “44”, SPSS will then allow you to modify the information. Figure 1.8 illustrates the jagged border.

Figure 1.8 Table selected for data modification

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I N S E R T I N G

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Quite often, you may want to add a title or text to SPSS output to clarify a point, or to put your name on as assignment. The first step to do this is to place the cursor on the output where you want to add text. Then, select Insert from the Edit menu, you will see various Insert options, see Figure 1.9. In this example, I am adding new text to the output. You can also add a heading, a title, or a text file (such as a Word document).
U S I N G T H E T O O L B A R O U T P U T

You will notice that there is a guide to your SPSS output on the far left of the screen. You can use this guide to change the position of output as well as to delete unnecessary output. All you need to do is left click an option on the output guide. Your Figure 1.9 The Insert Options selection will become encased in a gray box when it is selected. By holding down your mouse, you can drag that box to various places along the guide, see Figure 1.10. For example, suppose you wanted the table “try to avoid” to come before “look for bargain”. Left click “try to avoid” and hold on to your mouse as you move the box upwards. When you have the output placed in the correct position, release your mouse.
To Exit SPSS

Open the File menu and click on the Exit option at the bottom. SPSS will prompt you sto save any files not already saved.

Figure 1. 10 The Output Guide

Objectives: After reading this chapter, you should be able to start SPSS for Windows, know to open and to save data and output files, and how to modify or to copy SPSS output. You will only gain an expertise by practicing all of these steps!
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Working with SPSS for Windows
You will learn more about SPSS basics and levels of measurement in marketing data.

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Menu Bar

he Application window is comprised of the SPSS title bar, menu bar, button bar, the SPSS desktop and the status bar (see Figure 2.1). Located within the SPSS desktop are the data and output windows. These are the windows that you will be using to display your data, statistical results, and specify commands to SPSS. The status bar, located at the bottom of the application window, is important because when SPSS executes a command, the status bar will indicate the process is running and when SPSS is finished. You will know when SPSS has completed a task when the status bar indicates, SPSS Processor is ready, as seen is Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1. SPSS Interface Top View of the Screen Title Bar

Data Window

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Status Bar Figure 2.1 continued, the bottom half of the screen The data window is displayed in columns and rows, similar to a spreadsheet. Each column in the spreadsheet represents a variable and each row represents a case. The intersection of a row (case) and a column (variable) is called a cell; a data point is located within each cell. Figure 2.2 illustrates a data window without any defined variables or data. At this point, a new data file can be created or an existing data file can be opened. By default, SPSS gives the name Untitled-SPSS for Windows Data Editor in the title bar until a file is saved with a file name.
The Data Window.

Opening a Data file
As you may recall from Chapter 1, we went through the steps of opening a Data file. We will now review those steps again. This time we will use the Open File incom located on the toolbar. The icons on the toolbar are called shortcust and they are used to shorten the steps frequently carriedFigure 2.2 Data Window out tasks. The Open File icon looks like an open yellow folder and it is located on the far left side of the toolbar. Selectthe Open File icon (see illustration on the left) and a drop down menu will appear see figure 2.3.

File Name Box

Figure 2.3 Open Dialog Box
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Before you can open a data file, you must:

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Specify the drives where the file is located, you can do this by selecting the arrow in the Look In box If your file is contained in a folder, select the proper folder in the Folders box

3. 4.

Remember, there are SPSS practice files in both the 9.0 Student version and the SPSS Student Assistant. After you have selected the proper file, you can open the file by double clicking on the file name located in the File Name box.

SPSS uses the GET command to load the data file into the data window. While SPSS is getting the data file you will notice that the Running GET message appears in the status bar in the bottom center of the application window.
S O M E S P S S S H O R T C U T S

The Go To Case and Insert Case Options

When your data file has been loaded into SPSS, navigation can go quickly when you use the Go to Case option from the data menu (see Figure 2.4). You can easily go to a specific case in the data set by entering the desired case number in the Go to Case dialog box (see Figure 2.5). Please note the case number can also be considered the respondent number.

Figure 2.5 Go To Case Dialog Box

You will also notice that you can insert cases or variables using the data pull-down menu.

Locating a variable
To locate a variable in the data file, use the Variables option in the Utilities menu (see Figure 2.6). This will bring up the Variables dialog box shown in Figure 2.7. All you need to Figure 2.4 Go To Case do now is to select the variable from the list on the left, make sure that it is highlighted, then click on the Go To button and then the Close button to jump to that variable in the data window.

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Figure 2.6 Utilities Menu

Figure 2.7 Variables Dialog Box

• You can select to have either the variable name or the variable label appear
in the dialog box. Remember, variable names are limited to 8 characters. I’

choose Edit, Options, General, then you will see various selections under Variable Lists.

To change variable labels and names,

The Output Window
The Output Window is where the results of your statistical procedure(s) are displayed. Figure 2.8 is a sample of what an output contains after a procedure is executed. Each time a task is completed, it is automatically added to the default output.

Figure 2.8 Output Data in the Output Window

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The default output,

The ! symbol in the status bar indicates the

Remember, someone once had to all of these statistics by hand!

default output window. This means that all statistical results will be placed in this window. It is possible to open more than one output window at a time. But only one of the open output windows will have the ! in the status bar, indicating it to be the default output window. To change the default:

1. Select the output window to be the default. 2. Go to the Utilities menu and select Designate Window 3. The ! will now appear in the status bar of the output.

remember, SPSS adds extensions to each file when you save it. A .spo indicates an SPSS output file and a .save represents an SPSS data file.
Filenames,

The SPSS Codebook An SPSS codebook displays the essential information for interpreting the data, such as the questions asked, the layout of the data file, variable names and codes assigned to the variables. SPSS creates a codebook for each data file as you create it (so you cannot see it being created). In order to access a file’s codebook, you need to have a blank data window. Then you follow the following steps: 1. Select File in the SPSS Toolbar 2. Select Display Data Info and doubleclick 3. Double-click the file of the codebook you desire. See Figure 2.9 4. The Codebook appears in Figure 2.10. You will note that the codebook appears in your output window. You can edit the codebook by double-clicking Figure 2.9 Opening a codebook anywhere in the output. Also, you will notice that the entire codebook doesn’t appear all at one. When you double-click, a box with squares appears around the codebook. Scroll to the bottom of the output and place your mouse on the middle box. You will

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The Codebook is essentially a “guide map” to the data file.

notice that you’re an up-and-down arrow appears on the middle box. Press down your mouse and drag downward, your entire codebook will begin to appear.

letter of the paragraph that you would like the frame to appear next to. Press Ctrl-V to paste the frame next to the paragraph.
How to Generate a Table of Contents

To create a Table of Contents, position your cursor before the word, “introduction.” Holding the Shift key down, drag and select both columns of text up to and including the paragraph mark attached to the “Index” entry (last line, second column). From the Insert menu, choose Index and Tables. Click on the Table of Contents tab. Select the Custom format, and click OK. The Table of Contents will be automatically updated with words contained in Headings 1-3.
Note
Figure 2.10 Sample Codebook

L E V E L S

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M E A S U R E M E N T

All marketing data is converted into numbers in order to be statistically tested.

Variables are measured at different levels of precision. These levels are called levels of measurement. There are four levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. The level of measurement of the data determines the appropriate statistical technique. These four levels can measure all marketing data.

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The Levels of Measurement
Nominal Measurement

This is the least precise level of measurement. The types of responses that make up nominal data have no numeric value and no specific order associated with the categories. For example, if asked the question, “What is your favorite color?” the responses “red,” “green,” and “blue” have no specific order or true numeric value associated with them. This example, favorite color, is a nominal level variable. Even though we may assign a numeric value to each color category, the assignment is arbitrary. In the example below, “male” is assigned the value of 1 and “female” is assigned the value of 2. It would have been acceptable to reverse the codes depicting “females” as value of 1 and “males” the value of 2. Variable Name Sex Variable Label Respondents Sex 1 2 Relig Respondent’s Religion 1 2 3 4 5 Value Value Label Male Female Protestant Catholic Jewish Muslim Other

Ordinal Measurement Data have a specific order, but no true numeric value

Ordinal level data are rank-ordered based on a hierarchical relationship. The difference between nominal and ordinal measurement is that ordinal categories have a specific order or rank associated with the categories. For example, if a respondent was asked to rate the job the president is doing overall, the categories might be “Excellent,” “Good,” “Fair,” and “Poor.” You will note that although there is a specific order to

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the categories (positive to negative) there is not a true numeric value associated with them. Variable Name Pres Variable Lable Respondent’s President attitude of Value the 1 2 3 4 Value Label Excellent Good Fair Poor

Coke

Respondent’s attitude of Coca- 1 Cola 2 3

Like it a lot Like it somewhat Don’t like it

Interval Level Measurement Data have a specific order with equal divisions between the values, but it is not a true numeric value with an absolute zero. The Likert-Scale is probably the most popular level of measurement in marketing today.

Interval level data have a true numeric value associated with each category and the interval between each possible category is equal and constant. The difference between interval level data and ordinal level data is that interval level data have equal intervals between responses and ordinal level data does not. For example, if you create a variable called “age” and establish equal categories such as 1-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40 and so on, you have an interval level measurement. The levels between the intervals must be equal. The Likert-scale is incredibly popular in marketing research and it is considered an interval level measurement. This is usually a five or seven-scaled question that has categories such as “Strongly agree,” “Agree,” “Neutral,” “Disagree,” and “Strongly Disagree.”

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Strongly Agree I believe that CocaCola is better than Pepsi. I believe that Mountain-Dew is a high caffeine drink 1

Agree 2

Neutral 3

Disagree 4

Strongly Disagree 5

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3

4

5

Ratio Level Measurement Data represent true numeric values, including negative values and a true zero.

Similar to interval level data, ratio level data have a true numeric value associated with each category and an equal interval (assumed to be a unit of one) between response categories. The differences between ratio level data and interval level data is that ratio level data have an absolute zero starting point. For example, if you asked a respondent their GPA or IQ that is an example of a ratio level measurement. Note, you code the actual number, not a category. The following questions represent ratio level measurement: • • • • What year were you born?_________ What was your GMAT score?_______ How much do you watch television on a Monday night?______ How many times do you go to the movies in a month?_______

Ratio data is the “highest level” of data possible and several important statistical measurements can be performed on such data. Interval data is the next highest level, and then ordinal and nominal. Higher-level data can always be condensed into lower-level data; lower-level data can never be altered into higher levels of data. As a result, you should design questionnaires with the levels of measurement as guidance rules. If a question is crucial to your objective, you should strive for ratio data or at least interval level data.

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Level of Measurement Nominal

Characteristic(s) Data have “names,” and no specific order associated with the response categories

Variable Example Respondent’s eye color Gender Religion Class Rank

Value Example 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4

Value Label Example Male Female Protestant Catholic Very Happy Happy Unhappy Very Unhappy

Ordinal

Data are “ordered” based on a hierarchical relationship and have a specific rank associated with the response categories Data have “equal intervals” and a true numeric value associated with each response category

Happiness with Life

Interval

Your Grade Point Average

1 2 3 4 999

-1.00 1.01-2.00 2.01-3.00 3.01-4.00 No Answer Exact number is coded

Ratio

Data have “an absolute zero starting point,” a true numeric value associated with each response category, and data may contain negative numbers and fractions

Weight Income Age Actual GPA IQ Actual Temperature

160 lbs. $35,000 32 3.45 108 98 degrees 999

No Answer
Table 2.1 Summaries of Levels of Measurement and Their Characteristics
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Chapter

SPSS Data Concepts
In this chapter, you will learn how to create a data file, to enter data into a file and how to create a data template.

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o create a new data file in SPSS, first click on the title bar under file, then data, this is where the new file data is created. There are a few steps to creating the data file: 1. Identify the variables and the types of data that will be stored 2. Define the variables in the data file 3. Enter the data 4. Check the data for accuracy 5. Make corrections, if needed

Identify the Variables: The first step in identifying the variables entails looking at the survey, identifying each question, and designating a Variable Name for each question. For example, if the topic of investigation is dog biscuits (see Milk Bone example in SPSS Student Assistant and Chapter 12), a variable may be called, “biscuit.” Variables names must consist of eight characters or less. Thus, “Milk Bone” could not be an SPSS variable name but “mbone” could be. SPSS allows you to expand on the variable name by creating a variable label. Variable labels can consist of 1-40 characters. Thus, a variable label could be “milk bone.”

A case could be a single person, a family unit, a city, or business from which data is collected. In surveys, each case is often referred to as a respondent. If each case is a person, some of the usual variables may be age, income, gender, education, and marital status. Some of the variables, like age, are numeric in nature; others, such as gender, are not. When a variable has non-numeric responses, it is common to assign a numeric value to each response. Thus, a numeric code such as 1 can be assigned to males and 2 can be assigned to females.
Cases:

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Types of Coding
Numeric codes make it possible for SPSS to perform statistical operations on the data. Therefore, all of the data on a survey is usually coded for SPSS input. Although codes for numeric data seem easy, people often have a difficult time coding nonnumeric data. Remember, a value of 1 can be assigned to a “yes” question and a value of 2 can be assigned to a “no” questions.
Define the variables

Before you can input the data collected from the survey, you must first define the variables in SPSS. This means assigning variable names and labels; values and value labels and determining the type can column format. To define variables in SPSS you can either: 1. Go to the data window and select Variable View (Figure 3.1)

Figure 3.1 Variable View

2. Double click on any one of the gray buttons located across the top of the data set that say VAR on them. 3. Both methods will open the Define Variables dialog box displayed in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2 Define Variable Dialog Box

Variable Name: Enter a variable name with an 8-digit limit; for example, name the variable: Internet. Tab over to Type. Type: A pull down option appears on the far right side of the cell after you tab into the cell. Select the pull down menu in order to obtain the define type dialog box, see Figure 3.3.

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Variable type, labels, column format, missing values
Variable Type: This dialog box (Figure 3.3) allows you to determine the type of data your variable will be entering, as well as to set both the width and the number of decimal places for each datum. By default, variable type is numeric but you have the option to select comma, dot, scientific notation, date dollar, custom currency, or string (non-numeric data). Width refers to how many digits each datum has. For example, the value of 2 has a one-digit width, while the number 345 has a three-digit width (the default in SPSS is 8). You can also specify how many decimal places your data will have. If you are working with whole numbers, then you should change the decimal places to 0. Or, if you are working with fractions such as .50 and .67, you may select 2 decimal places. As a rule, there is no reason to exceed 3 decimal places (two is quite common). See Figure 3.3. Tab over to the Label cell.

Figure 3.3 Variable Type Dialog Box

Label: In this cell, you can enter the entire question, remember, the variable name has an 8-digit limit. For example, you can enter the label, do you currently use the Internet? As you type the statement, the cell width automatically expands. Tab over to values. Values: When you tab into this cell a pull down square will appear on the far-right side of the cell. Once you select it, a Value Label Dialog box appears, see Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.4 Value Label Dialog Box
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Figure 3.5 Entering Values

Defining Value Labels: In this box, you basically transform statements into numeric choices. For example, suppose that a respondent is able to select two options when he/she is asked the question, do you currently use the Internet? The two options are yes and no. In market research, statements are transformed into numbers for later statistical computing. In this case, the option yes is assigned the value 1 and no is assigned the value 2. • Add the value, specify the value label and select Add. Figure 3.6 illustrates the values for a Likert scale. Notice that the value 999 is designated a missing value (which will be discussed later.) Every SPSS spreadsheet

Figure 3.6 Likert Scale Labels with missing value

must have a numerical value in it. Measure: If you tab over to cell that says “Measure” and select the pull down arrow, Figure 3.7 appears. SPSS has a Statistics Coach option in the help section (however, you will probably not need this). In any case, please note that SPSS considers both interval and ratio data as scale data.
Figure 3.7 Measure Options

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Missing Values: Quite often, respondents do not answer every question in a survey or they fill out the answer incorrectly. The purpose of declaring missing values is to tell SPSS not to use those values when calculating statistics. You do not want to have any blanks in you spreadsheet. Although blanks will not affect statistics, one can easily make a mistake and wonder whether the blank was intentional or an input error. You should assign missing values each time you create a variable. Usually, researchers select the same missing value such as 999 or 9999 for each variable. Figure 3.7 illustrates the missing value dialog box. The Discrete missing values option allows you to enter three values (e.g., 9,999,9999) as missing values. A range of missing values allows you declare all values such as 900-999 as missing values. Finally, range plus one discrete allows you to declare range of missing values, such as 900-999, and one discrete number, say 0, as missing. Missing Values In-Depth Students are often perplexed by the many variations of missing values. Consider the following example: What is your work status? 1=not applicable 2=part-time 3=full-time 4=unemployed 5=student 6=temporary employment 7=no answer In this example, you may only be interested in analyzing part-time and full-time respondents. Thus, you have one discrete value to declare missing (1=not applicable) as well as a range of values, 4-7, to declare missing. You would do this procedure by checking the third missing value option in Figure 3.8. Let’s say that you were interested in studying full-time, part-time, unemployed, and students. Thus, select the second section option and enter the values 1, 6, and 7. In this section, you are permitted to enter 3 discrete values.
Figure 3.8Missing Value Dialog Box

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S A V I N G

T I M E

Quite often, in Marketing Research, we ask respondents several questions using the same scale (usually a Likert-scale). Using the copy function can save you a great deal of time when you input data.

Figure 3.9. Copying Values

In Figure 3.9, questions 2-4 all share the same Likert-scale as question 1. Highlight the first cell that contains the values that several other variables will have by left clicking it. Then, select edit—copy. With your mouse, select the cells that you want to also have the scale and the select edit-paste.
E N T E R I N G D A T A

After defining your variables, the next step is to enter the data. There are two methods for entering data.
Method 1

The first (and the default) is to enter the data one variable at a time. This method entails typing in the value for the first variable, the first case, and then pressing <enter>. The cursor will automatically jump to the next case (same variable). Type in the value for the second case and press <enter>. Continue to do this until all the cases have been entered for the first variable. Enter the data for the rest of the variables in this mannerism.

Figure 3.10 Entering Data

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Method 2

The other way is to enter the data case by case (usually the most common way). It’s similar to entering one completed survey each time. To start this type of data entry, select the cells where the data is to be entered starting with the top, left hand cell of the block. Each cell typically refers to a corresponding respondent. For example, to enter the first three surveys of data collected for the Milk Bone survey (see your Student Assistant), place the mouse in the first cell (mbone, case 1). Enter in your first datum for respondent one and then hit either the <tab> key or the right arrow key. If you select <enter>, you will move down-wards to the second respondent.
Note

Be extremely careful when entering data. You can easily move downwards or hit the arrow key without entering data. Fatigue quickly sets in when you enter in an extensive number of questionnaires. Take frequent rest breaks. Remember, any mistakes you make in the spreadsheet will be reflected in the quality of the statistics. The SPSS Codebook Often you are not going to enter in all of the questionnaires; perhaps someone else in the office (or marketing team) will assist you. They will need to know how you coded the data. After you are done entering surveys, close the data window, and print out your codebook. Remember, your codebook is a map of your survey. Just because you decided to call a variable such as “male” 1 and “female” 2, doesn’t mean that your co-worker or teammate necessarily knows your numbering scheme! To display the codebook: 1. Go to the File menu and choose the Display Data Info Option (the data file must not be open). 2. In the Display Data Info dialog box, select the file desired and left click OK. 3. The results will be displayed in the output window (some of the initial information on the output can be deleted).

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A Review on Creating a Data Set
1. Create variables from your questionnaire 2. Determine the numeric pattern for all of your data. 3. Define the variables & missing values. 4. Enter data case by case; don’t forget missing
values.

5. Save your data file.

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Chapter

Univariate Statistics
In this chapter, you will learn how to obtain initial information on “one variable” at a time, hence the name, Univariate. The two most common methods which researchers initially collect are frequencies and descriptives.

U

Nivariate means “one variable” and Univariate statistics refers to statistics that describe a single variable rather than a statistical relationship involving two or more variables. When a marketing researcher first begins to analyze a set of data, he or she is interested in obtaining some initial information that can be used to summarize the data set. The two most common ways to summarize data is by performing frequency and descriptives.

Running Frequencies
First, select Analyze from the pull down menu, then Descriptive Statistics and then Frequencies, see Figure 4.1. A dialog box then appears, see Figure 4.2. To choose a variable, left click on the variable from the box on the left, and then on the right arrow. The variable that you select will move to the Variable(s) box to the right. It is important for you to realize that you can select more than one variable for analysis. A great deal of time can be saved by running many frequencies at one time.

Figure 4.1: Running Frequencies

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Figure 4.2 Frequency Dialog Box

Key Statistics in Frequencies
When you select the Statistics button at the button, a dialog box will appear. This box allows you to select many important statistics such as the mean, Frequencies are median, mode, and Kurtosis. Figure 4.3 illustrates the Statistics often performed Dialog Box. on each variable.

• SPSS will generate statistics whether they are appropriate or not •
Measures of Central Tendency,

differ for different levels of data. You only perform mean, standard deviation, and variance tests on interval or ratio level data.

Charts
If you select the Charts button from the Frequency Dialog Box, Figure 4.2, a Chart Dialog Box appears, Figure 4.4, Three types of charts are

Figure 4.3 Statistics Dialog Box
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available to you with this option.

Not every chart is bar appropriate,

charts are suitable for nominal and ordinal level data. Pie charts can be used for any type of data. Finally, histograms are generally used for either interval or ratio level data. After you select your chart type, choose whether you want value frequencies or percentages to be charted under the area marked Chart Values. When you are finished, select Continue.
Your frequency format,

Figure 4.4 Chart Dialog Box

can be easily altered when you select the Format button from the Frequency Dialog Box (Figure 4.2). Perhaps, you want to view your values by ascending rather than descending. The Format option, see Figure 4.5, allows you to easily change the format of your frequency tables.

Figure 4.5 The Format Dialog Box Custom format, and click OK. The Table of Contents will be automatically updated with words contained in Headings 1-3. The Frequency Table Figure 4.6 illustrates the frequency table for the variable “bargains” from the Lipton data set. The first column contains the labels for each value of the variable. The Frequency column displays the number of responses for that value. Percent is the percentage of the total number of respondents for that particular value. Valid Percent is the percentage of respondents after any cases with missing values have been

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excluded from the total number of respondents. The Cumulative Percent is based on the valid percent and it is an accumulation of the sum of the percentages up to 100%.
Note

The Valid Percent represents the corrected percentage after the number of missing values has been deducted from the total sample size. For example, if 100 respondents were initially asked the question, but 2 people left the question blank, valid percentage used a denominator of 98. The Frequency Table for Bargains

LOOK FOR BARGAINS Frequency STRONGLY AGREE 44 AGREE 40 NEUTRAL 7 DISAGREE 8 STRONGLY DISAGREE 1 Total 100 Percent 44.0 40.0 7.0 8.0 1.0 100.0 Valid Percent 44.0 40.0 7.0 8.0 1.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 44.0 84.0 91.0 99.0 100.0

Valid

Figure 4.6 Bargains Frequency Table As you can see, 44% of the respondents strongly agree that they look for bargains when purchasing Lipton Rice, see Figure 4.6.

Descriptives
How to Perform Descriptives

First,

Figure 4.7 Descriptives

select Analyze, Descriptive Statistics and then Descriptives. A Descriptive Dialog Box then appears, see Figure 4.8. Descriptives produces the same Univariate statistics as Frequencies but without the Frequency Table.

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Figure 4.8 Descriptive Dialog Box

How to Obtain Statistics
First, select the variable that you want to test from the left box. You need to bring it over to the right hand side by clicking the variable and then clicking the arrow in the middle. Next, select Options. An Options dialog box will then appear, see Figure 4.9. Select your statistics and click on Continue. You will return back to Figure 4.8. When you select OK, SPSS will produce your output, see Figure 4.10.
You may want to run these statistics when you perform frequencies.

Figure 4.9 Options Dialog Box

Descriptive Statistics N USE COUPONS REGULARLY Valid N (listwise) 100 100
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Figure 4.10 SPSS Output
Mean

Minimum 1

Maximum 5

Std. Deviation 1.40

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Changing Variable Names and Labels
In Figure 4.8, you will see that I have the SPSS variable labels on the left hand side rather than the 8 digit variable names. You can use either one. Many people prefer to list the variable names since you can view all 8 digits. If you want to change this, simply select Edit, Options, and the appropriate box under the Variable Lists section. I have labels checked and file. This means that I want variable labels shown in the order that they appear in the SPSS spreadsheet. Again, the format you choose is completely up to you.

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